National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for amine absorbent cxs

  1. Rupal Amin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rupal Amin, Ph.D. Title: Research Associate 4 Office Tel. : (225) 578-0097

  2. Treat LPGs with amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, R.B.; Rogers, J.; Bullin, J.A.; Duewall, K.J.

    1997-09-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in sweetening liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs) with amines. However, limited data and design information are available in the literature. This article reviews the fundamental aspects of LPG amine treaters and includes guidelines, design considerations and alternatives for static mixers, jet eductor mixers and columns with structured packing, random packing and sieve trays. All of these current design methods are compared based on plant operating data. Guidelines are given for sweetening LPGs with amines including amine type, concentration, filtration, temperature, loading, circulation rate and water-wash systems. Also covered is the contacting method used in the absorber. Any of the commonly available amines such as monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), diglycolamine (DGA), methyl diethanolamine (MDEA) and MDEA-based solvents usually perform satisfactorily. Design criteria for distributors and LPG disperser plates, amine filtration and LPG settlers and coalescers are important. The contacting method is also important and includes jet eductor mixers, static mixers, and columns with sieve trays, random packing and structured packing.

  3. Corrosive amine characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig, H.L. Jr.; McLaughlin, B.D.

    1996-08-01

    Amine solutions are used in the refinery to absorb sour gases from various refinery streams. Because of the variety of components in these streams, the solutions often become more corrosive than the amine solution by itself. A protocol has been developed to examine plant solutions for these corrosive materials. Both analytical and laboratory corrosion tests are used. Analyses are performed for light organic acids, such as formic, acetic, propionic and butyric. The amount of dissolved iron, in excess of about 50 ppm, indicates that the amine may contain chelating agents such as HEOZD, THEED, DEP. Once the causes of high corrosivity have been determined, recommendations are made to deal with the specific problem at each refinery system. An annual survey is useful in detecting problems which are not apparent in day-to-day operations.

  4. self-concentrating-amine | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Post-Combustion CO2 Capture for Existing PC Boilers by Self-concentrating Amine Absorbent Project No.: DE-FE0004274 3H Company will evaluate the feasibility of its "Self-Concentrating Absorbent CO2 Capture Process." The process is based on amines in a non-aqueous solvent which, upon reaction with CO2, separate into two distinct phases: a CO2-rich liquid phase and a dilute lean phase. The proposed process offers several potential advantages. Preliminary experimental data show that the

  5. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  6. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Soong, Yee; Filburn, Thomas

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  7. amine | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (1) the development of six to ten carbon-supported amine sorbents for CO2 adsorption testing; (2) the sorbents were to undergo CO2 adsorption and desorption tests to...

  8. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Enz, Glenn L.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  9. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  10. Amine-Amine Exchange in Aminium-Methanesulfonate Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, Matthew L.; Varner, Mychel E.; Perraud, Veronique M.; Ezell, Michael J.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Gerber, Robert B.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2014-12-18

    Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have been shown to impact the Earths climate, reduce visibility, and adversely affect human health. Modeling the evolution of aerosol systems requires an understanding of the species and mechanisms involved in particle growth, including the complex interactions between particle- and gas-phase species. Here we report studies of displacement of amines (methylamine, dimethylamine or trimethylamine) in methanesulfonate salt particles by exposure to a different gas-phase amine, using a single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT II. The variation of the displacement with the nature of the amine suggests that behavior is dependent on water in or on the particles. Small clusters of methanesulfonic acid with amines are used as a model in quantum chemical calculations to identify key structural elements that are expected to influence water uptake, and hence the efficiency of displacement by gas-phase molecules in the aminium salts. Such molecular-level understanding of the processes affecting the ability of gas-phase amines to displace particle-phase aminium species is important for modeling the growth of particles and their impacts in the atmosphere.

  11. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guillen, Donna P.; Longhurst, Glen R.; Porter, Douglas L.; Parry, James R.

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  12. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vincent, Ronald J.

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  13. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Smolik, Galen R.

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  14. adv-amine | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A plan for integrating these amine units in a full-scale, coal-fired power plant was also to be developed. Related Papers and Publications: Advanced Amine Solvent Formulations and ...

  15. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sletten, Carlyle J.; Herskovitz, Sheldon B.; Holt, F. S.; Sletten, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  16. Iron Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Liping; Lany, Stephan; Kykyneshi, Robert; Jieratum, Vorranutch; Ravichandran, Ram; Pelatt, Brian; Altschul, Emmeline; Platt, Heather A. S.; Wager, John F.; Keszler, Douglas A.; Zunger, Alex

    2011-08-10

    An integrated computational and experimental study of FeS? pyrite reveals that phase coexistence is an important factor limiting performance as a thin-film solar absorber. This phase coexistence is suppressed with the ternary materials Fe?SiS? and Fe?GeS?, which also exhibit higher band gaps than FeS?. Thus, the ternaries provide a new entry point for development of thin-film absorbers and high-efficiency photovoltaics.

  17. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  18. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Azad, Abul K.; Kort-Kamp, Wilton J. M.; Sykora, Milan; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.; Luk, Ting S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Chen, Hou-Tong

    2016-02-01

    Here, we demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, wide-angle absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low absorptivity (emissivity) at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Moreover, our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributionsmore » to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure.« less

  19. Acid-Catalyzed Dehydrogenation of Amine-Boranes - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    amine-boranes may be used to generate hydrogen for power generation sources such as fuel cells. Description The invention relates to amine-boranes. More particularly, the...

  20. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  1. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C.; Lee, Chuck K.; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  2. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  3. Solar radiation absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  4. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2010-01-08

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  7. Amine inhibiting; how good is it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sample, J.L.

    1985-05-01

    The Amine Guard ST corrosion inhibition system eliminates corrosion as a design and operating constraint, saving capital and operating costs and increasing acid gas removal capacity. The system involves two corrosion inhibitors that are initially added to the ciculating solution on parts per million to passivate the unit. Once inhibited, unit amine concentration can be increased to 30wt% MEA or 55wt%. DEA, along with higher acid gas loadings, without incurring corrosion. Continuous reclaiming is eliminated with MEA since absence of corrosion removes the need. Two limitations apply to Amine Guard ST inhibitors; hydrogen sulfide to carbon dioxide ratio in sour gas or liquid must be at least one part in 200, and the system must be free of aluminum, zinc and copper, including such alloys as ''Monel'', cupro-nickel and brass which destroy the inhibitor and are destroyed by it.

  8. Base metal dehydrogenation of amine-boranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blacquiere, Johanna Marie; Keaton, Richard Jeffrey; Baker, Ralph Thomas

    2009-06-09

    A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane having the formula R.sup.1H.sub.2N--BH.sub.2R.sup.2 using base metal catalyst. The method generates hydrogen and produces at least one of a [R.sup.1HN--BHR.sup.2].sub.m oligomer and a [R.sup.1N--BR.sup.2].sub.n oligomer. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources, such as, but not limited to, fuel cells.

  9. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, W.H.

    1984-10-16

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

  10. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system.

  11. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, Shinpei Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  12. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Eric

    2015-12-23

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO2 removal was achieved with greater than 95% CO2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.

  13. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C. Jr.; Akerman, M.A.; Seals, R.D.

    1993-09-07

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, is prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000 C to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm[sup 3]. 9 figures.

  14. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hamby, Jr., Clyde; Akerman, M. Alfred; Seals, Roland D.

    1993-01-01

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000.degree. C. to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm.sup.3.

  15. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  16. Uranium diphosphonates templated by interlayer organic amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2013-02-15

    The hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide and methylenediphosphonic acid with a variety of amines (2,2-dipyridyl, triethylenediamine, ethylenediamine, and 1,10-phenanthroline) at 200 Degree-Sign C results in the crystallization of a series of layered uranium diphosphonate compounds, [C{sub 10}H{sub 9}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{r_brace} (Ubip2), [C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace} (UDAB), [C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}]{sub 2}{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O{r_brace} (Uethyl), and [C{sub 12}H{sub 9}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{r_brace} (Uphen). The crystal structures of the compounds are based on UO{sub 7} units linked by methylenediphosphonate molecules to form two-dimensional anionic sheets in Ubip2 and UDAB, and one-dimensional anionic chains in Uethyl and Uphen, which are charge balanced by protonated amine molecules. Interaction of the amine molecules with phosphonate oxygens and water molecules results in extensive hydrogen bonding in the interlayer. These amine molecules serve both as structure-directing agents and charge-balancing cations for the anionic uranium phosphonate sheets and chains in the formation of the different coordination geometries and topologies of each structure. Reported herein are the syntheses, structural and spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized compounds. - Graphical abstract: The Raman spectra of the synthesized compounds and an illustration of the stacking of the layers with the diprotonated triethylenediamine molecules in [C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace} UDAB. Solvent water molecules are removed for clarity. The corresponding Raman spectra for the complexes synthesized is also

  17. A Process for the Conversion of Cyclic Amines Into Lactams -...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search A Process for the Conversion of Cyclic Amines Into Lactams Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About...

  18. SO2-Resistant Immobilized Amine Sorbents for CO2 Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    80-120 C. This effort will focus on increasing scientific understanding of the chemical and physical principles affecting amines deposited on a series of porous solids that...

  19. Casimir force in absorbing multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomas, M.S.

    2002-11-01

    The Casimir effect in a dispersive and absorbing multilayered system is considered adopting the (net) vacuum-field pressure point of view to the Casimir force. Using the properties of the macroscopic field operators appropriate for absorbing systems and a convenient compact form of the Green function for a multilayer, a straightforward and transparent derivation of the Casimir force in a lossless layer of an otherwise absorbing multilayer is presented. The resulting expression, in terms of the reflection coefficients of the surrounding stacks of layers, is of the same form as that obtained by Zhou and Spruch for a purely dispersive multilayer using the (surface) mode summation method [Phys. Rev. A 52, 297 (1995)]. Owing to the recursion relations that the generalized Fresnel coefficients satisfy, this result can be applied to more complex systems with planar symmetry. This is illustrated by calculating the Casimir force on a dielectric (metallic) slab in a planar cavity with realistic mirrors. Also, a relationship between the Casimir force and energy in two different layers is established.

  20. Acid-catalyzed dehydrogenation of amine-boranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stephens, Frances Helen; Baker, Ralph Thomas

    2010-01-12

    A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane using an acid-catalyzed reaction. The method generates hydrogen and produces a solid polymeric [R.sup.1R.sup.2B--NR.sup.3R.sup.4].sub.n product. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources.

  1. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iverson, D.C.

    1987-11-20

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

  2. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iverson, Daniel C.

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  3. Electrochemical characterization of aminated acrylic conducting polymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rashid, Norma Mohammad; Heng, Lee Yook; Ling, Tan Ling

    2015-09-25

    New attempt has been made to synthesize aminated acrylic conducting polymer (AACP) using precursor of phenylvinylsulfoxide (PVS). The process was conducted via the integration of microemulsion and photopolymerization techniques. It has been utilized for covalent immobilization of amino groups by the adding of N-achryiloxisuccinimide (NAS). Thermal eliminating of benzene sulfenic acids from PVS has been done at 250 °C to form electroactive polyacetylene (PA) segment. Characterization of AACP has been conducted using fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and linear sweep cyclic voltammetry (CV). A range of 0.3-1.25μm particle size obtained from SEM characterization. A quasi-reversible system performed as shown in electrochemical study.

  4. Amine Functionalized Nanoporous Materials for Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Feng; Addleman, Raymond S.; Aardahl, Chris L.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Brown, Daryl R.; Zemanian, Thomas S.

    2007-04-04

    Increasing CO2 concentration level in the earth atmosphere and rising global average temperature have raised serious concerns about the effects of anthropogenic CO2 on global climate change. Meanwhile, most analyses project that fossil fuels will continue to be the dominant energy source world wide until at least the middle of the twenty first century. Significant reduction from the current level of CO2 emission due to the consumption of fossil fuels is necessary to stabilize atmospheric concentration of CO2. The focus of this chapter will be on the CO2 capture technologies related to energy production from fossil fuels, as over one third of the worlds CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel use are attributed to fossil-fuel electric power-generation plants. Solid amine sorbents have promise to overcome some of the shortcomings of liquid amines for CO2 capture in energy production. The dispersion, immobilization, and confinement of the amine functional groups into a porous solid support can result in a more stable, more mass transfer efficient, less toxic, and less corrosive material than the corresponding liquid amines. Solid amine sorbents allow a dry scrubbing process where the energy penalty associated with the evaporation of a large amount of water is avoided. Further, the amine functional groups can be tailored for lower regeneration energy requirement. The supports can be tailored independently for high stability and low mass transfer resistance. This book chapter deals with the topics of solid amine sorbents (both supported and tethered amines) as the functional materials for CO2 separation. The design rational and the performance of such materials are discussed in detail. The state of the art in the synthesis and the CO2 capture performance of solid amine sorbent is reviewed.

  5. Energy Absorbing Material - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    products which could use the LLNL energy absorbing material may include footwear, sportsathletic gear, medical devices, helmets, safety equipment, equine equipment,...

  6. Enhancing Amine-Supported Materials for Ambient Air Capture ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhancing Amine-Supported Materials for Ambient Air Capture Previous Next List Julian P. Sculley, Hong-Cai Zhou, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 51, 12660-12661 (2012) DOI: 10.1002...

  7. Silver-catalyzed synthesis of amides from amines and aldehydes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madix, Robert J; Zhou, Ling; Xu, Bingjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Freyschlag, Cassandra G

    2014-11-18

    The invention provides a method for producing amides via the reaction of aldehydes and amines with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic silver or silver alloy catalyst. An exemplary reaction is shown in Scheme 1: (I), (II), (III). ##STR00001##

  8. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newlon, C.E.

    1979-08-29

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  9. Device for absorbing mechanical shock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Newlon, Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a comparatively inexpensive but efficient shock-absorbing device having special application to the protection of shipping and storage cylinders. In a typical application, two of the devices are strapped to a cylinder to serve as saddle-type supports for the cylinder during storage and to protect the cylinder in the event it is dropped during lifting or lowering operations. In its preferred form, the invention includes a hardwood plank whose grain runs in the longitudinal direction. The basal portion of the plank is of solid cross-section, whereas the upper face of the plank is cut away to form a concave surface fittable against the sidewall of a storage cylinder. The concave surface is divided into a series of segments by transversely extending, throughgoing relief slots. A layer of elastomeric material is positioned on the concave face, the elastomer being extrudable into slots when pressed against the segments by a preselected pressure characteristic of a high-energy impact. The compressive, tensile, and shear properties of the hardwood and the elastomer are utilized in combination to provide a surprisingly high energy-absorption capability.

  10. Two Dimensional Polyamides Prepared From Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids And Amines.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F.; Huang, Zhi Heng; Wright, Stacy C.; Danzig, Morris; Taylor, Andrew C.

    2002-07-17

    A polyamide and a process for preparing the polyamide are disclosed. The process comprises reacting in a reaction mixture a monomer selected from unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters of unsaturated carboxylic acids, anhydrides of unsaturated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof, and a first amine to form an intermediate reaction product in the reaction mixture, wherein the first amine is selected from RR.sub.1 NH, RNH.sub.2, RR.sub.1 NH.sub.2.sup.+, RNH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof, wherein R and R.sub.1 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, and reacting the intermediate reaction product and a second amine to form a polyamide, wherein the second amine is selected from R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH, R.sub.2 NH.sub.2, R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH.sub.2.sup.+, R.sub.2 NH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof wherein R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, wherein multiple of the R, R.sub.1, R.sub.2, and R.sub.3 are in vertically aligned spaced relationship along a backbone formed by the polyamide. In one version of the invention, the monomer is selected from maleic anhydride, maleic acid esters, and mixtures thereof. In another version of the invention, the first amine is an alkylamine, such as tetradecylamine, and the second amine is a polyalkylene polyamine, such as pentaethylenehexamine. In yet another version of the invention, the first amine and the second amine are olefinic or acetylenic amines, such as the reaction products of an alkyldiamine and an acetylenic carboxylic acid. The first amine and the second amine may be the same or different depending on the desired polyamide polymer structure.

  11. Regenerable Sorbent Technique for Capturing CO2 Using Immobilized Amine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorbents - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Regenerable Sorbent Technique for Capturing CO2 Using Immobilized Amine Sorbents The BIAS (Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent) Process National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary This technology allows for optimal CO2 removal capacity for a given absorption and regeneration reactor

  12. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  13. Neutron absorbing coating for nuclear criticality control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Wright, Richard N.; Swank, William D.; Lister, Tedd E.; Pinhero, Patrick J.

    2007-10-23

    A neutron absorbing coating for use on a substrate, and which provides nuclear criticality control is described and which includes a nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and gadolinium alloy having less than about 5% boron, by weight.

  14. Method of absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas Vyankatrao; Zelepouga, Sergeui; Pratapas, John

    2013-09-17

    A method and apparatus for absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor in which a reference light intensity measurement is made on a non-absorbing reference fluid, a light intensity measurement is made on a sample fluid, and a measured light absorbance of the sample fluid is determined. A corrective light intensity measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength of the sample fluid is made on the sample fluid from which an absorbance correction factor is determined. The absorbance correction factor is then applied to the measured light absorbance of the sample fluid to arrive at a true or accurate absorbance for the sample fluid.

  15. Hydroxide absorption heat pumps with spray absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summerer, F.; Alefeld, G.; Zeigler, F.; Riesch, P.

    1996-11-01

    The absorber is one of the most expensive components of an absorption heat pump or chiller, respectively. In order to reduce the cost of a heat exchanger, much effort is invested into searching for additives for heat transfer enhancement. Another way to reduce heat exchanger cost, especially for machines with low capacities, is to use an adiabatic spray absorber. The basic principles of the spray absorber is to perform heat and mass transfer separated from each other in two different components. In this way the heat can be rejected effectively in a liquid-liquid heat exchanger, whereas the mass transfer occurs subsequently in a simple vessel. The spray technique can not only save heat exchanger cost in conventional absorption systems working with water and lithium bromide, it also allows the use of quite different working fluids such as hydroxides, which have lower heat transfer coefficients in falling films. Moreover, the separated heat transfer can easily be performed in a liquid-to-air heat exchanger. Hence it is obvious to use hydroxides that allow for a high temperature lift for building an air-cooled chiller with spray absorber. In this presentation theoretical and experimental investigations of the spray absorber as well as the setup will be described. Finally, possible applications will be outlined.

  16. Design considerations for sweetening LPG`s with amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullin, J.A.; Polasek, J.; Rogers, J.

    1995-11-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in sweetening LPG with amines. However, limited data and design information are available in the literature. In the present paper, the design considerations and alternatives including static mixers, jet educator mixers and columns with structured packing, random packing and sieve trays are compared based on plant operating data.

  17. Novel amine-based presursor compounds and composite membranes thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Eric K. L.; Tuttle, Mark E.

    1989-01-01

    Novel amine-based precursor compounds comprising the condensation products of dialkylenetriamine and alpha, beta-unsaturated acid halides are disclosed, as well as composite membranes containing such compounds, the membranes being useful in RO-type processes for desalination and the removal of low molecular weight organic compounds such as phenols and carboxylic acids.

  18. Stable, concentrated solutions of polyaniline using amines as gel inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; Mattes, Benjamin R.

    2002-01-01

    Stable, concentrated solutions of high-molecular weight polyaniline using amines as gel inhibitors. Certain amine compounds (gel inhibitors) are used to form highly concentrated, stable solutions of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline in numerous organic solvents from which coatings, films and fibers are readily prepared without problems associated with rapid gelation which occurs when concentrated solutions are attempted without the use of the gel inhibitors of the present invention. Tertiary amines are used to solubilize low-molecular weight fractions (M.sub.w <120,000, M.sub.n <30,000) of the pernigraniline, emeraldine, and leucoemeraldine oxidation states of polyaniline as concentrated (>20 wt. %) polyaniline solutions, while primary and secondary amines are used to produce solutions having 15-40 wt % of high-molecular weight polyaniline [M.sub.w.gtoreq.120,000, M.sub.n.gtoreq.30,000]. Concentrated solutions of polyaniline co-polymers or ring and/or nitrogen-substituted polyanilines may also be prepared.

  19. Ferrite HOM Absorber for the RHIC ERL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn,H.; Choi, E.M.; Hammons, L.

    2008-10-01

    A superconducting Energy Recovery Linac is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory to serve as test bed for RHIC upgrades. The damping of higher-order modes in the superconducting five-cell cavity for the Energy-Recovery linac at RHIC is performed exclusively by two ferrite absorbers. The ferrite properties have been measured in ferrite-loaded pill box cavities resulting in the permeability values given by a first-order Debye model for the tiled absorber structure and an equivalent permeability value for computer simulations with solid ring dampers. Measured and simulated results for the higher-order modes in the prototype copper cavity are discussed. First room-temperature measurements of the finished niobium cavity are presented which confirm the effective damping of higher-order modes in the ERL. by the ferrite absorbers.

  20. Composition for absorbing hydrogen from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Lee, Myung W.

    1999-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition is provided which defines a physical sol-gel matrix having an average pore size of less than 3.5 angstroms which effectively excludes gaseous metal hydride poisons while permitting hydrogen gas to enter. The composition is useful for separating hydrogen gas from diverse gas streams which may have contaminants that would otherwise render the hydrogen absorbing material inactive.

  1. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  2. Method of fabricating a solar absorber panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severson, A.M.

    1982-04-13

    A low-cost method of fabricating a solar absorber panel for use with a flat plate solar collector system is disclosed in which a plurality of formed elongated substantially u-shaped members are fixed in a predetermined configuration to the reverse side of a single sheet absorber member forming therewith hollow fluid passages or ducts. The fluid duct members are provided with a series of tabs which alternately protrude through spaced slits in the absorber panel such that when the tabs are folded over, a tight interlocking construction is produced. The ends of the single sheet absorber may then be folded to form inlet and outlet manifolds connecting the ends of the series of spaced ducts including closing end tabs or the manifolds may be fabricated of u-shaped tabbed members in the manner of the connecting passages. After the mechanical assembly, the entire unit is sealed as by pumping liquid solder under pressure through the unit. This not only seals the system but also provides a corrosion-resistant coating of solder over all internal parts.

  3. Method and apparatus for absorbing shock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, A.G.; Wesson, D.S.; Brieger, E.F.

    1987-09-15

    This patent describes a tubing conveyed perforating gun tool string assembly for use in an earth borehole, which consists of: a shock sensitive component coupled to the tool string which is to be isolated from a portion of the shock to the assembly; a tubing conveyed perforating gun coupled to the tool string; and means for damping a portion of the longitudinal and radial accelerators of the shock sensitive component due to the detonation of the tubing conveyed perforating gun. A method of minimizing the transfer of shock caused by the detonation of a tubing conveyed perforating gun to other components in a tool string, the tubing conveyed perforating gun being releasably connected to the tool string, the tool string extending through a portion of a well bore, the method comprising the steps of: mounting a longitudinal shock absorber in the tool string on a first side of the tubing conveyed perforating gun to absorb at least a portion of the longitudinal shock to the tool string when the tubing conveyed perforating gun is detonated; and mounting a radial shock absorber in the tool string to absorb at least a portion of the radial shock to the tool string when the tubing conveyed perforating gun is detonated.

  4. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  5. Amination of electrophilic aromatic compounds by vicarious nucleophilic substitution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Alexander R.; Pagoria, Philip F.; Schmidt, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process to aminate electrophilic aromatic compounds by vicarious nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen using quaternary hydrazinium salts. The use of trialkylhydrazinium halide, e.g., trimethylhydrazinium iodide, as well as hydroxylamine, alkoxylamines, and 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole to produce aminated aromatic structures, such as 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB), 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 3,5-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (DATNT), is described. DATB and TATB are useful insensitive high explosives. TATB is also used for the preparation of benzenehexamine, a starting material for the synthesis of novel materials (optical imaging devices, liquid crystals, ferromagnetic compounds).

  6. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

    1985-08-06

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  7. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benkeser, Robert A.; Laugal, James A.; Rappa, Angela

    1985-01-01

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about -10.degree. C. to about 30.degree. C. or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  8. Characterization of H, Na-Y using amine desorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biaglow, A.I.; Parrillo, D.J.; Gorte, R.J. )

    1993-11-01

    The authors have examined series of partially ion-exchanged H, Na-Y zeolites using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of isopropylamine and n-propylamine in order to examine the acid sites in H-Y zeolites as a function of Na poisoning. Both amines desorbed from Na-Y, unreacted, below 500 K; however, samples containing protonic sites exhibited two additional desorption features. First, unreacted amine molecules were observed leaving the samples between [approximately] 500 and 600 K. Second, reaction features appeared which were observed as the simultaneous desorption of propene and ammonia between 575 and 650 K for isopropylamine and between 625 and 700 K for n-propylamine. For a given sample, the number of both isopropylene and n-propylamine molecules which desorbed in both features was identical. Furthermore, the number of molecules desorbing from the two high-temperature features was found to be equal to the number of protonic sites for the entire series, which indicates that both desorption features are associated with protonic sites. This finding was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, which also demonstrated that the unreacting desorption feature was associated with the low-frequency, hydroxyl stretch at 3540 cm[sup [minus]1] and that the reacting amine molecules was adsorbed at the high-frequency, hydroxyl stretch near 3640 cm[sup [minus]1]. The implications of these results for understanding the use of TPD-TGA of amines for the characterization of acidity is discussed. 30 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Amine enriched solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahan L.; Soong, Yee; Champagne, Kenneth J.

    2003-04-15

    A new method for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The new method entails treating a solid substrate with acid or base and simultaneous or subsequent treatment with a substituted amine salt. The method eliminates the need for organic solvents and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  10. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shin, Yong W.; Wiedermann, Arne H.; Ockert, Carl E.

    1985-01-01

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  11. Shock wave absorber having apertured plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    The shock or energy absorber disclosed herein utilizes an apertured plate maintained under the normal level of liquid flowing in a piping system and disposed between the normal liquid flow path and a cavity pressurized with a compressible gas. The degree of openness (or porosity) of the plate is between 0.01 and 0.60. The energy level of a shock wave travelling down the piping system thus is dissipated by some of the liquid being jetted through the apertured plate toward the cavity. The cavity is large compared to the quantity of liquid jetted through the apertured plate, so there is little change in its volume. The porosity of the apertured plate influences the percentage of energy absorbed.

  12. Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-06-17

    A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  13. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-28

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  14. Progress on solar absorber selective paint research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    A considerable amount of effort has been expended by the Department of Energy (DOE) and by commercial interests to develop solar absorber selective paints; the goal is to develop an inexpensive, durable selective coating that has moderately good optical properties. This report is intended to focus on those research programs monitored by Los Alamos, the research efforts in progress at Los Alamos, durability evaluations, and the progress that has been made toward commercialization.

  15. Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-07-15

    A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  16. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-30

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  17. Shock wave absorber having a deformable liner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youngdahl, C.K.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Shin, Y.W.; Kot, C.A.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    This invention discloses a shock wave absorber for a piping system carrying liquid. The absorber has a plastically deformable liner defining the normal flow boundary for an axial segment of the piping system, and a nondeformable housing is spaced outwardly from the liner so as to define a gas-tight space therebetween. The flow capacity of the liner generally corresponds to the flow capacity of the piping system line, but the liner has a noncircular cross section and extends axially of the piping system line a distance between one and twenty times the diameter thereof. Gas pressurizes the gas-tight space equal to the normal liquid pressure in the piping system. The liner has sufficient structural capacity to withstand between one and one-half and two times this normal liquid pressures; but at greater pressures it begins to plastically deform initially with respect to shape to a more circular cross section, and then with respect to material extension by circumferentially stretching the wall of the liner. A high energy shock wave passing through the liner thus plastically deforms the liner radially into the gas space and progressively also as needed in the axial direction of the shock wave to minimize transmission of the shock wave beyond the absorber.

  18. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campisi, Isidoro E. (Newport News, VA)

    1992-01-01

    An absorber wave guide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the wave guide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the wave guide.

  19. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campisi, I.E.

    1992-05-12

    An absorber waveguide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the waveguide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the waveguide. 11 figs.

  20. Activation of water soluble amines by halogens for trapping methyl radioactive iodine from air streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deitz, Victor R.; Blachly, Charles H.

    1977-01-01

    Gas adsorbent charcoals impregnated with an aqueous solution of the reaction product of a tertiary amine and elemental iodine or bromine are better than 99 per cent efficient in trapping methyl iodine.sup.131. The chemical addition of iodine or bromine to the tertiary amine molecule increases the efficiency of the impregnated charcoal as a trapping agent, and in conjunction with the high flash point of the tertiary amine raises the ignition temperature of the impregnated charcoal.

  1. Method for absorbing an ion from a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Huizhen; Wang, Yifeng; Bryan, Charles R.

    2007-07-03

    A method for absorbing an ion from a fluid by using dispersing an organic acid into an anion surfactant solution, mixing in a divalent-metal containing compound and a trivalent-metal containing compound and calcining the resulting solid layered double hydroxide product to form an absorbent material and then contacting the absorbent material with an aqueous solution of cations or anions to be absorbed.

  2. Thio-,amine-,nitro-,and macrocyclic containing organic aerogels & xerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Glenn A.; Tillotson, Thomas M.

    2005-08-02

    An organic aerogel or xerogel formed by a sol-gel reaction using starting materials that exhibit similar reactivity to the most commonly used resorcinol starting material. The new starting materials, including thio-, amine- and nitro-containing molecules and functionalized macrocyclic molecules will produce organic xerogels and aerogels that have improved performance in the areas of detection and sensor technology, as well as water stream remediation. Also, further functionalization of these new organic aerogels or xerogels will yield material that can be extracted with greater facility than current organic aerogels.

  3. Approaches for regeneration of amine-carboxylic acid extracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Extraction processes based on reversible chemical complexation can be useful for separation of polar organics from dilute solution. Tertiary amines are effective extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from aqueous solution. The regeneration of aminecarboxylic acid extracts is an important step which strongly influences the economic viability of the separation process. Several regeneration methods are critically reviewed, and the factors that affect swing regeneration processes, including temperature-swing, diluent composition-swing and pH-swing with a volatile base are discussed. Interest in this area comes from interest in treatment of waste streams, particularly in petrochemical and fermentation manufacture.

  4. Container and method for absorbing and reducing hydrogen concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G.; Lee, Myung W.; Heung, Leung K.

    2001-01-01

    A method for absorbing hydrogen from an enclosed environment comprising providing a vessel; providing a hydrogen storage composition in communication with a vessel, the hydrogen storage composition further comprising a matrix defining a pore size which permits the passage of hydrogen gas while blocking the passage of gaseous poisons; placing a material within the vessel, the material evolving hydrogen gas; sealing the vessel; and absorbing the hydrogen gas released into the vessel by the hydrogen storage composition. A container for absorbing evolved hydrogen gas comprising: a vessel having an interior and adapted for receiving materials which release hydrogen gas; a hydrogen absorbing composition in communication with the interior, the composition defining a matrix surrounding a hydrogen absorber, the matrix permitting the passage of hydrogen gas while excluding gaseous poisons; wherein, when the vessel is sealed, hydrogen gas, which is released into the vessel interior, is absorbed by the hydrogen absorbing composition.

  5. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  6. Composite neutron absorbing coatings for nuclear criticality control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Richard N.; Swank, W. David; Mizia, Ronald E.

    2005-07-19

    Thermal neutron absorbing composite coating materials and methods of applying such coating materials to spent nuclear fuel storage systems are provided. A composite neutron absorbing coating applied to a substrate surface includes a neutron absorbing layer overlying at least a portion of the substrate surface, and a corrosion resistant top coat layer overlying at least a portion of the neutron absorbing layer. An optional bond coat layer can be formed on the substrate surface prior to forming the neutron absorbing layer. The neutron absorbing layer can include a neutron absorbing material, such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium phosphate, dispersed in a metal alloy matrix. The coating layers may be formed by a plasma spray process or a high velocity oxygen fuel process.

  7. Method of absorbing UF.sub.6 from gaseous mixtures in alkamine absorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lafferty, Robert H.; Smiley, Seymour H.; Radimer, Kenneth J.

    1976-04-06

    A method of recovering uranium hexafluoride from gaseous mixtures employing as an absorbent a liquid composition at least one of the components of which is chosen from the group consisting of ethanolamine, diethanolamine, and 3-methyl-3-amino-propane-diol-1,2.

  8. Reactivity of amine antioxidants relative to OH and anti e

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minkhadzhidinova, D.R.; Nikiforov, G.A.; Khrapova, N.G.; Sharpatyi, V.A.

    1986-06-20

    An ESR study was carried out on the reactivity of various types of amines relative to OH/sup ./ and anti e. The selection of these compounds having anti-oxidant properties was also based on the circumstance that amine molecules contain a set of functional groups which may be potential sites for the attack of both OH and anti e radicals. A sample of 6 M H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ was used for the matrix solutions and forms a glass upon rapid insertion into liquid nitrogen. The phosphoric acid solutions of these compounds taken in concentrations from 0.025 to 0.05 M were flushed with argon to remove oxygen. Ampules containing the solutions were inserted into liquid nitrogen and irradiated from a cobalt source. The ESR spectra of the irradiated solutions clearly show the components of the atomic hydrogen doublet with a = 50 mT and of H/sub 2/PO/sub 4//sup ./ radicals in the central region of the spectrum.

  9. Electromagnetic radiation absorbers and modulators comprising polyaniline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Arthur J.; Ginder, John M.; Roe, Mitchell G.; Hajiseyedjavadi, Hamid

    1992-01-01

    A composition for absorbing electromagnetic radiation, wherein said electromagnetic radiation possesses a wavelength generally in the range of from about 1000 Angstroms to about 50 meters, wherein said composition comprises a polyaniline composition of the formula ##STR1## where y can be equal to or greater than zero, and R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are independently selected from the group containing of H, --OCH.sub.3, --CH.sub.3, --F, --Cl, --Br, --I, NR.sup.3 .sub.2, --NHCOR.sup.3, --OH, --O.sup.-, SR.sup.3, --OCOR.sup.3, --NO.sub.2, --COOH, --COOR.sup.3, --COR.sup.3, --CHO, and --CN, where R.sup.3 is a C.sub.1 to C.sub.8 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl group.

  10. MHK Technologies/Floating absorber | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    database homepage Floating absorber.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Euro Wave Energy Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Description The main module consists...

  11. Solar absorber panel, collector assembly and installation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, D.L.

    1980-12-23

    A solar absorber panel assembly has a pair of substantially parallel plates sealed together at their perimeter. A raised integral header is formed in one of the plates. An external header is in fluid communication with the integral header and is spaced from and mechanically connected to the plates. A solar collector assembly includes hanger brackets mounted on an inclined support surface to engage and retain bodies of insulation material and solar absorber panels. The absorber panels are in side-by-side relation with relatively slidable slightly overlapping marginal portions. External headers on the absorber panels are connected together by slip-on resilient sleeves of silicone rubber. An enclosure having a transparent cover and a wall extending around a plurality of absorber panels and external headers is attached directly to the support surface independently of the hanger brackets and absorber panels. The cover is supported by cover support brackets mounted on the support surface and extending upwardly between panels, passing through openings formed by lateral recesses in the marginal portions of the absorber panels. A solar collector is installed by attaching hanger brackets to an inclined support surface, placing thermal insulation and absorber panels on the hanger brackets to prevent downward slipping movement, and enclosing the absorber panels with a cover which is transmissive of radiant solar energy.

  12. MHK Technologies/Trondheim Point Absorber | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Point Absorber.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Norwegian University of Science and Technology CONWEC AS Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Description...

  13. Raman Scattering Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Amines and Acid Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uibel, Rory; Smith, Lee

    2010-05-20

    Sulfur and CO2 removal from hydrocarbon streams and power plant effluents are a major problem. The sulfur is normally in the form of H2S. These two acid gases are scrubbed using aqueous amine solutions that are difficult to control with conventional technology. Process Instruments Inc. developed Raman scattering technology for on-line, real-time monitoring of amine streams to improve their efficiency in scrubbing H2S and CO2 from hydrocarbon streams and power plant effluents. Improved control of amine and acid gas concentrations will allow refineries, natural gas processes and power plants to more efficiently scrub Sulfur and CO2, saving energy, time and financial resources.

  14. Isomer-sensitive deboronation in reductive aminations of aryl boronic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Brad Howard; Wheeler, David R.; Wheeler, Jill S.; Miller, Lance Lee; Alam, Todd M.; Spoerke, Erik David

    2015-09-05

    Deboronation is observed during the reductive amination of formylphenylboronic acid (FPBA) to the amine termini and side chains of peptides. This deboronation is sensitive to the isomerism of the boronic acid (BA), with ortho-FPBA yielding complete deboronation in the preparation of an N-terminally-modified dipeptide. The observed behavior is also clearly mediated by the chemical identity of the amine substrate. These results reveal a previously undocumented subtlety of BA functionalization and highlight the importance of thorough spectroscopic characterization in the preparation of peptide and small molecule BAs.

  15. Isomer-sensitive deboronation in reductive aminations of aryl boronic acids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jones, Brad Howard; Wheeler, David R.; Wheeler, Jill S.; Miller, Lance Lee; Alam, Todd M.; Spoerke, Erik David

    2015-09-05

    Deboronation is observed during the reductive amination of formylphenylboronic acid (FPBA) to the amine termini and side chains of peptides. This deboronation is sensitive to the isomerism of the boronic acid (BA), with ortho-FPBA yielding complete deboronation in the preparation of an N-terminally-modified dipeptide. The observed behavior is also clearly mediated by the chemical identity of the amine substrate. These results reveal a previously undocumented subtlety of BA functionalization and highlight the importance of thorough spectroscopic characterization in the preparation of peptide and small molecule BAs.

  16. Thermally induced nonlinear optical absorption in metamaterial perfect absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guddala, Sriram Kumar, Raghwendra; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2015-03-16

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks was fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm{sup 2}.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Air Using Amine-Grafted Porous Polymer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Dioxide Capture from Air Using Amine-Grafted Porous Polymer Networks Previous Next List Weigang Lu, Julian P. Sculley, Daqiang Yuan, Rajamani Krishna, and Hong-Cai Zhou, J....

  18. Transition metal-catalyzed process for addition of amines to carbon-carbon double bonds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartwig, John F.; Kawatsura, Motoi; Loeber, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for addition of amines to carbon-carbon double bonds in a substrate, comprising: reacting an amine with a compound containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond in the presence a transition metal catalyst under reaction conditions effective to form a product having a covalent bond between the amine and a carbon atom of the former carbon-carbon double bond. The transition metal catalyst comprises a Group 8 metal and a ligand containing one or more 2-electron donor atoms. The present invention is also directed to enantioselective reactions of amine compounds with compounds containing carbon-carbon double bonds, and a calorimetric assay to evaluate potential catalysts in these reactions.

  19. Conversion of Cyclic Amines into Lactams for Synthesis of Nylons and Other

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polymers - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Conversion of Cyclic Amines into Lactams for Synthesis of Nylons and Other Polymers Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Technology Brief (78 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a process for the conversion of cyclic amines into lactams, which

  20. Effects of amines on formation of sub-3 nm particles and their subsequent growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu H.; McGraw R.; Lee S.-H.

    2012-01-28

    Field observations and quantum chemical calculations suggest that amines can be important for formation of nanometer size particles. Amines and ammonia often have common atmospheric emission sources and the similar chemical and physical properties. While the effects of ammonia on aerosol nucleation have been previously investigated, laboratory studies of homogeneous nucleation involving amines are lacking. We have made kinetics studies of multicomponent nucleation (MCN) with sulfuric acid, water, ammonia and amines under conditions relevant to the atmosphere. Low concentrations of aerosol precursors were measured with chemical ionization mass spectrometers (CIMS) to provide constrained precursor concentrations needed for nucleation. Particle sizes larger than {approx}2 nm were measured with a nano-differential mobility analyzer (nano-DMA), and number concentrations of particles larger than {approx}1 nm were measured with a particle size magnifier (PSM). Our observations provide the laboratory evidence that amines indeed can participate in aerosol nucleation and growth at the molecular cluster level. The enhancement of particle number concentrations due to several atmospherically relevant amine compounds and ammonia were related to the basicity of these compounds, indicating that acid-base reactions may contribute to the formation of sub-3 nm particles.

  1. Molybdenum Hydride and Dihydride Complexes Bearing Diphosphine Ligands with a Pendant Amine: Formation of Complexes With Bound Amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shaoguang; Bullock, R. Morris

    2015-07-06

    CpMo(CO)(PNP)H complexes (PNP = (R2PCH2)2NMe, R = Et or Ph) were synthesized by displacement of two CO ligands of CpMo(CO)3H by the PNP ligand; these complexes were characterized by IR and variable temperature 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy. CpMo(CO)(PNP)H complexes are formed as mixture of cis and trans-isomers. Both cis-CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H and trans-CpMo(CO)(PPhNMePPh)H were analyzed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical oxidation of CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H and CpMo(CO)(PPhNMePPh)H in CH3CN are both irreversible at slow scan rates and quasi-reversible at higher scan rates, with E1/2 = -0.36 V (vs. Cp2Fe+/0) for CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H and E1/2 = -0.18 V for CpMo(CO)(PPhNMePPh)H. Hydride abstraction from CpMo(CO)(PNP)H with [Ph3C]+[A]- (A = B(C6F5)4 or BArF4; [ArF = 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]) afforded “tuck-in” [CpMo(CO)(κ3-PNP)]+ complexes that feature the amine bound to the metal. Displacement of the κ3 Mo-N bond by CD3CN gives [CpMo(CO)(PNP)(CD3CN)]+. The kinetics of this reaction were studied by NMR spectroscopy, providing the activation parameters ΔH‡ = 22.1 kcal/mol, ΔS‡ = 1.89 cal/(mol·K), Ea = 22.7 kcal/mol. Protonation of CpMo(CO)(PEtNMePEt)H affords [CpMo(CO)(κ2-PEtNMePEt)(H)2]+ as a Mo dihydride complex, which loses H2 to generate [CpMo(CO)(κ3-PEtNMePEt)]+ at room temperature. CpMo(CO)(dppp)H (dppp = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) was studied as a Mo diphosphine analogue without a pendant amine, and the product of protonation of this complex gives [CpMo(CO)(dppp)(H)2]+. Our results show that the pendant amine has a strong driving force to form stable “tuck-in” [CpMo(CO)(κ3-PNP)]+ complexes, and also promotes hydrogen elimination from [CpMo(CO)(PNP)(H)2]+ complexes by formation of Mo-N dative bond. We thank the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences for support. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by

  2. Thin-film absorber for a solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-02-09

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  3. Neutron Detection Using an Embedded Sol-Gel Neutron Absorber...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Date Patent 5,973,328 Patent 5,973,328 Neutron detector using sol-gel absorber An neutron detector composed of fissionable material having ions of lithium, uranium, thorium, ...

  4. Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T.; Babcock, Walter C.; Edlund, David J.; Lyon, David K.; Miller, Warren K.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  5. Energy deposition studies for the LBNE beam absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakhno, Igor L.; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Tropin, Igor S.

    2015-01-29

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition studies performed for the LBNE absorber core and the surrounding shielding with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system – all with corresponding radiation shielding – was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. This option provides substantial flexibility and automation when developing complex geometry models. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Various design options were considered, in particular the following: (i) filling the decay pipe with air or helium; (ii) the absorber mask material and shape; (iii) the beam spoiler material and size. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable absorber design options.

  6. Tunable enhanced optical absorption of graphene using plasmonic perfect absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Yijun; Zhu, Jinfeng; Liu, Qing Huo

    2015-01-26

    Enhancement and manipulation of light absorption in graphene is a significant issue for applications of graphene-based optoelectronic devices. In order to achieve this purpose in the visible region, we demonstrate a design of a graphene optical absorber inspired by metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial for perfect absorption of electromagnetic waves. The optical absorbance ratios of single and three atomic layer graphene are enhanced up to 37.5% and 64.8%, respectively. The graphene absorber shows polarization-dependence and tolerates a wide range of incident angles. Furthermore, the peak position and bandwidth of graphene absorption spectra are tunable in a wide wavelength range through a specific structural configuration. These results imply that graphene in combination with plasmonic perfect absorbers have a promising potential for developing advanced nanophotonic devices.

  7. Center for Inverse Design Highlight: Iron Chalcogenide PV Absorbers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and experimental study of FeS 2 reveals that coexistence of off-stoichiometric secondary phases is an important factor limiting performance as a thin-film solar absorber. ...

  8. Neutron absorbing room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zoch, Harold L.

    1979-11-27

    A neutron absorbing composition comprising a one-component room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber composition or a two-component room temperature vulcanizable silicone rubber composition in which the composition contains from 25 to 300 parts by weight based on the base silanol or vinyl containing diorganopolysiloxane polymer of a boron compound or boron powder as the neutron absorbing ingredient. An especially useful boron compound in this application is boron carbide.

  9. Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate warming Cloaking urban areas and wildfire zones, tiny smoke particles suspended in the atmosphere have a sizeable effect on our climate. September 30, 2015 A new study by a science team led by Los Alamos National Laboratory stresses the importance of understanding mixed black and brown carbon in smoke emissions for climate models. The particulates found in urban smoke are especially prone

  10. Design of integration-ready metasurface-based infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogando, Karim Pastoriza, Hernán

    2015-07-28

    We introduce an integration ready design of metamaterial infrared absorber, highly compatible with many kinds of fabrication processes. We present the results of an exhaustive experimental characterization, including an analysis of the effects of single meta-atom geometrical parameters and collective arrangement. We confront the results with the theoretical interpretations proposed in the literature. Based on the results, we develop a set of practical design rules for metamaterial absorbers in the infrared region.

  11. Metal Monolithic Amine-grafted Zeolite for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Steven

    2011-03-31

    The solid amine sorbent for CO{sub 2} capture process has advantages of simplicity and low operating cost compared to the MEA (monoethanolamine) process. Solid amine sorbents reported so far suffered from either low CO{sub 2} capture capacity or low stability. The solid amine sorbent developed in this project exhibited more than 3.2 mmol/g and degraded less than 10% even after 500 cycles of heating and cooling in absence of steam. The presence of steam further enhanced CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The cost of the sorbent is estimated to be less than $7.00/lb. This sorbent was developed using the results of in situ infrared spectroscopic study. Infrared results showed that CO{sub 2} adsorbs on TEPA (tetraethylenepentamine)/PEG (polyethylene glycol) as carbamates and bicarbonates. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity and oxidation resistance of the amine sorbent can be enhanced by the interactions between NH{sub 2} of TEPA molecules with the OH group of PEG molecules. PEG was also found to be effectively disperse and immobilize the aromatic amines for SO{sub 2} adsorption. The infrared study also showed that SiO{sub 2} is a significantly better support than zeolites due to its proper hydrophobicity. The results of this study led to the development of a high performance solid amine sorbent under simulated gas flow condition in a fixed bed, a fluidized bed, and a metal monolith unit. This study showed heat transfer could become a major technical issue in scaling up a fixed bed adsorber. The use of the fluidized bed and metal monoliths can alleviate the heat transfer issue. The metal monolith could be suitable for small scale applications due to the high cost of manufacturing; the fluidized bed mode would be most suitable for large scale applications. Preliminary economic analysis suggested that the Akron solid amine process would cost 45% less than that of MEA process.

  12. Effects of Amines on the Surface Charge Poperties of Iron Oxides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benezeth, Pascale; Wesolowski, David J; Palmer, Donald; Machesky, Michael L.

    2009-07-01

    Specific studies detailing the effects of amines, used as pH control agents for corrosion inhibition in power plants, on the surface charge of iron oxides provide data to assess the mechanism of how these amines impact deposition rate. The current study was undertaken in order to determine accurately the dissociation constants of the relevant amines at Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) operating conditions and to investigate the effect of sorption of two of these amines (morpholine and dimethylamine) by magnetite. The acid-dissociation equilibria of morpholine (MOR), dimethylamine (DMA) and ethanolamine (ETA) were measured potentiometrically with a hydrogen-electrode concentration cell (HECC) from 0 to 290 C in sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate (NaTr) solutions at ionic strengths up to 1 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}. Magnetite surface titrations were performed at an ionic strength of 0.03 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} (NaTr medium) in the presence or absence of morpholine and dimethylamine buffers over a wide range of pH and total amine concentrations at 150-250 C.

  13. Photodetector with absorbing region having resonant periodic absorption between reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, R.P.; Olbright, G.R.; Brennan, T.M.; Tsao, J.Y.

    1995-02-14

    A photodetector is disclosed that is responsive to a wavelength or wavelengths of interest which have heretofore been unrealized. The photodetector includes a resonant cavity structure bounded by first and second reflectors, the resonant cavity structure being resonant at the wavelength or wavelengths of interest for containing a plurality of standing waves therein. The photodetector further includes a radiation absorbing region disposed within the resonant cavity structure, the radiation absorbing region including a plurality of radiation absorbing layers spaced apart from one another by a distance substantially equal to a distance between antinodes of adjacent ones of the standing waves. Each of radiation absorbing layers is spatially positioned at a location of one of the antinodes of one of the standing waves such that radiation absorption is enhanced. The radiation absorbing layers may be either bulk layers or quantum wells includes a plurality of layers, each of which is comprised of a strained layer of InGaAs. Individual ones of the InGaAs layers are spaced apart from one another by a GaAs barrier layer. 11 figs.

  14. Photodetector with absorbing region having resonant periodic absorption between reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, Robert P.; Olbright, Gregory R.; Brennan, Thomas M.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.

    1995-02-14

    A photodetector that is responsive to a wavelength or wavelengths of interest which have heretofore been unrealized. The photodetector includes a resonant cavity structure bounded by first and second reflectors, the resonant cavity structure being resonant at the wavelength or wavelengths of interest for containing a plurality of standing waves therein. The photodetector further includes a radiation absorbing region disposed within the resonant cavity structure, the radiation absorbing region including a plurality of radiation absorbing layers spaced apart from one another by a distance substantially equal to a distance between antinodes of adjacent ones of the standing waves. Each of radiation absorbing layers is spatially positioned at a location of one of the antinodes of one of the standing waves such that radiation absorption is enhanced. The radiation absorbing layers may be either bulk layers or quantum wells includes a plurality of layers, each of which is comprised of a strained layer of InGaAs. Individual ones of the InGaAs layers are spaced apart from one another by a GaAs barrier layer.

  15. Regenerable sorbent technique for capturing CO.sub.2 using immobilized amine sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W; Hoffman, James S; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Resnik, Kevin P

    2013-08-06

    The disclosure provides a CO.sub.2 absorption method using an amine-based solid sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from a gas stream. The method disclosed mitigates the impact of water loading on regeneration by utilizing a conditioner following the steam regeneration process, providing for a water loading on the amine-based solid sorbent following CO.sub.2 absorption substantially equivalent to the moisture loading of the regeneration process. This assists in optimizing the CO.sub.2 removal capacity of the amine-based solid sorbent for a given absorption and regeneration reactor size. Management of the water loading in this manner allows regeneration reactor operation with significant mitigation of energy losses incurred by the necessary desorption of adsorbed water.

  16. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Robert E. [557 Escondido Cir., Livermore, CA 94550; Dolbeare, Frank A. [5178 Diane La., Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-10-21

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes.

  17. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Robert E.; Dolbeare, Frank A.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 5-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes.

  18. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, R.E.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-10-21

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes. No Drawings

  19. High-Efficiency Absorber for Damping the Transverse Wake Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Weathersby, S.; /SLAC

    2007-02-28

    Transverse wake fields generated by intense beams may propagate long distances in the vacuum chamber and dissipate power in different shielded elements such as bellows, vacuum valves or vacuum pumps. Induced heating in these elements may be high enough to deteriorate vacuum conditions. We have developed a broadband water-cooled bellows-absorber to capture and damp these harmful transverse fields without impacting the longitudinal beam impedance. Experimental results at the PEP-II SLAC B-factory demonstrate high efficiency of this device. This absorber may be useful in other machines like synchrotron light sources or International Linear Collider.

  20. Energy Deposition and Radiological Studies for the LBNF Hadron Absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakhno, I. L.; Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.; Eidelman, Y. I.

    2015-06-25

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition and radiological studies performed for the LBNF hadron absorber with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system – all with corresponding radiation shielding – was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable design options.

  1. R-SQUARE IMPEDANCES OF ERL FERRITE HOM ABSORBER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAHN, H.; BURRILL, A.; CALAGA,R.; KAYRAN, D.; ZHAO, Y.

    2005-07-10

    An R&D facility for an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) intended as part of an electron-cooling project for RHIC is, being constructed at this laboratory. The center piece of the facility is a 5-cell 703.75 MHz super-conducting RF linac. Successful operation will depend on effective HOM damping. It is planned to achieve HOM damping exclusively with ferrite absorbers. The performance of a prototype absorber was measured by transforming it into a resonant cavity and alternatively by a conventional wire method. The results expressed as a surface or R-square impedance are presented in this paper.

  2. Energy absorber for sodium-heated heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Essebaggers, J.

    1975-12-01

    A heat exchanger is described in which water-carrying tubes are heated by liquid sodium and in which the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes is minimized. An energy absorbing chamber contains a compressible gas and is connected to the body of flowing sodium by a channel so that, in the event of a sodium-water reaction, products of the reaction will partially fill the energy absorbing chamber to attenuate the rise in pressure within the heat exchanger.

  3. SO2-Resistant Immobilized Amine Sorbents for CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumuluri, Uma

    2014-01-01

    The solid amine sorbent for CO2 capture process has advantages of simplicity and low operating cost compared to the MEA (monoethanolamine) process. Solid amine sorbents reported so far suffered from either low CO2 capture capacity or low stability in the flue gas environment. This project is aimed at developing a SO2-resistant solid amine sorbent for capturing CO2 from coal–fired power plants with SCR/FGD which emits SO2ranging from 15 to 30 ppm and NO ranging from 5 to 10 ppm. The amine sorbent we developed in a previous project degraded rapidly with 65% decrease in the initial capture capacity in presence of 1% SO2. This amine sorbent was further modified by coating with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) to increase the SO2-resistance. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was found to decrease the SO2-amine interaction, resulting in the decrease in the maximum SO desorption temperature (Tmax ) of amine sorbent. The PEG-coated amine sorbent exhibited higher stability with only 40% decrease in the initial capture capacity compared to un-coated amine sorbents. The cost of the solid amine sorbent developed in this project is estimated to be less than $7.00/lb; the sorbent exhibited CO2 capture capacity more than 2.3 mmol/g. The results of this study provided the scientific basis for further development of SO2-resistant sorbents.

  4. Status report on solar-absorber-paint coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, S.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Department of Energy has funded a number of programs that have investigated the stability and durability of solar absorber paint coatings. Some of the findings resulting from these programs are presented. Although the basic thrust of the programs has been to investigate changes in optical properties, other physical failures are described.

  5. Gas compressor with side branch absorber for pulsation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Ralph E.; Scrivner, Christine M.; Broerman, III, Eugene L.

    2011-05-24

    A method and system for reducing pulsation in lateral piping associated with a gas compressor system. A tunable side branch absorber (TSBA) is installed on the lateral piping. A pulsation sensor is placed in the lateral piping, to measure pulsation within the piping. The sensor output signals are delivered to a controller, which controls actuators that change the acoustic dimensions of the SBA.

  6. Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y.; Litt, Robert D.; Dongming, Qiu; Silva, Laura J.; Lamont, Micheal Jay; Fanelli, Maddalena; Simmons, Wayne W.; Perry, Steven

    2011-10-04

    Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

  7. Room-temperature ionic liquid-amine solutions: tunable solvents for efficient and reversible capture of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean Camper; Jason E. Bara; Douglas L. Gin; Richard D. Noble

    2008-11-05

    Solutions of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and commercially available amines were found to be effective for the capture of CO{sub 2} as carbamate salts. RTIL solutions containing 50 mol % (16% v/v) monoethanolamine (MEA) are capable of rapid and reversible capture of 1 mol of CO{sub 2} per 2 moles MEA to give an insoluble MEA-carbamate precipitate that helps to drive the capture reaction (as opposed to aqueous amine systems). Diethanolamine (DEA) can also be used in the same manner for CO{sub 2} capture in RTILs containing a pendant hydroxyl group. The captured CO{sub 2} in the resulting RTIL-carbamate salt mixtures can be readily released by either heating and/or subjecting them to reduced pressure. Using this unprecedented and industrially attractive mixing approach, the desirable properties of RTILs (i.e., nonvolatility, enhancedCO{sub 2} solubility, lower heat capacities) can be combined with the performance of amines for CO{sub 2} capture without the use of specially designed, functionalized 'task-specific' ionic liquids. By mixing RTILs with commercial amines, reactive solvents with a wide range of amine loading levels can be tailored to capture CO{sub 2} in a variety of conditions and processes. These RTIL-amine solutions behave similarly to their water-based counterparts but may offer many advantages, including increased energy efficiency, compared to current aqueous amine technologies.

  8. Wave energy absorber mountable on wave-facing structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kondo, H.

    1983-09-13

    A wave energy absorber comprising a caisson mountable on the seaside surface of an existing breakwater or coastal embankment, which caisson has a water chamber with an open side and a rear wall facing the open side. The distance from the open side to the rear wall is longer than one quarter of a wavelength L /SUB c/ in the water chamber so as to generate a standing wave in the water chamber with a node of the standing wave at a distance L /SUB c/ /4 from the rear wall toward the open side. A wave power turbine impeller is pivotally supported in the caisson at the node position, the impeller rotating in only one direction, whereby wave energy is absorbed by the impeller for further conversion into electric or thermal energy. The caisson itself can also be utilized as a breakwater or an embankment.

  9. Absorbent Protein Meal Based Hydrogels - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Absorbent Protein Meal Based Hydrogels Battelle Memorial Institute Contact BMI About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Non-purified soymeal is used as an inexpensive and biobased reactive filler in preparing high capacity hydrogels. Preparation of these hydrogels involves partial neutralization of acrylic acid, which is subjected to free-radical initiated polymerization

  10. Absorbing boundary conditions for relativistic quantum mechanics equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antoine, X.; Sater, J.; Fillion-Gourdeau, F.; Bandrauk, A.D.

    2014-11-15

    This paper is devoted to the derivation of absorbing boundary conditions for the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations modeling quantum and relativistic particles subject to classical electromagnetic fields. Microlocal analysis is the main ingredient in the derivation of these boundary conditions, which are obtained in the form of pseudo-differential equations. Basic numerical schemes are derived and analyzed to illustrate the accuracy of the derived boundary conditions.

  11. MAGIICAT I. THE Mg II ABSORBER-GALAXY CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, Nikole M.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Murphy, Michael T.

    2013-10-20

    We describe the Mg II Absorber-Galaxy Catalog, MAGIICAT, a compilation of 182 spectroscopically identified intermediate redshift (0.07 ? z ? 1.1) galaxies with measurements of Mg II ??2796, 2803 absorption from their circumgalactic medium within projected distances of 200 kpc from background quasars. In this work, we present 'isolated' galaxies, which are defined as having no spectroscopically identified galaxy within a projected distance of 100 kpc and a line of sight velocity separation of 500 km s{sup 1}. We standardized all galaxy properties to the ?CDM cosmology and galaxy luminosities, absolute magnitudes, and rest-frame colors to the B- and K-band on the AB system. We present galaxy properties and rest-frame Mg II equivalent width, W{sub r} (2796), versus galaxy redshift. The well-known anti-correlation between W{sub r} (2796) and quasar-galaxy impact parameter, D, is significant to the 8? level. The mean color of MAGIICAT galaxies is consistent with an Sbc galaxy for all redshifts. We also present B- and K-band luminosity functions for different W{sub r} (2796) and redshift subsamples: 'weak absorbing' [W{sub r} (2796) < 0.3 ], 'strong absorbing' [W{sub r} (2796) ? 0.3 ], low redshift (z < (z)), and high redshift (z ? (z)), where (z) = 0.359 is the median galaxy redshift. Rest-frame color B K correlates with M{sub K} at the 8? level for the whole sample but is driven by the strong absorbing, high-redshift subsample (6?). Using M{sub K} as a proxy for stellar mass and examining the luminosity functions, we infer that in lower stellar mass galaxies, Mg II absorption is preferentially detected in blue galaxies and the absorption is more likely to be weak.

  12. A new neutron absorber material for criticality control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, Alan H.

    2007-07-01

    A new neutron absorber material based on a nickel metal matrix composite has been developed for applications such as the Transport, Aging, and Disposal (TAD) canister for the Yucca Mountain Project. This new material offers superior corrosion resistance to withstand the more demanding geochemical environments found in a 300,000 year to a million year repository. The lifetime of the TAD canister is currently limited to 10,000 years, reflecting the focus of current regulations embodied in 10 CFR 63. The use of DOE-owned nickel stocks from decommissioned enrichment facilities could reduce the cost compared to stainless steel/boron alloy. The metal matrix composite allows the inclusion of more than one neutron absorber compound, so that the exact composition may be adjusted as needed. The new neutron absorber material may also be used for supplementary criticality control of stored or transported PWR spent fuel by forming it into cylindrical pellets that can be inserted into a surrogate control rod. (authors)

  13. CO2 Capture with Liquid-to-Solid Absorbents: CO2 Capture Process Using Phase-Changing Absorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    IMPACCT Project: GE and the University of Pittsburgh are developing a unique CO2 capture process in which a liquid absorbent, upon contact with CO2, changes into a solid phase. Once in solid form, the material can be separated and the CO2 can be released for storage by heating. Upon heating, the absorbent returns to its liquid form, where it can be reused to capture more CO2. The approach is more efficient than other solventbased processes because it avoids the heating of extraneous solvents such as water. This ultimately leads to a lower cost of CO2 capture and will lower the additional cost to produce electricity for coal-fired power plants that retrofit their facilities to include this technology.

  14. Preparation of bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naud, Darren L.; Hiskey, Michael A.

    2003-05-27

    A process of preparing bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate is provided including combining a dicyanamide salt, an azide salt and water to form a first reaction mixture, adding a solution of a first strong acid characterized as having a pKa of less than about 1 to said first reaction mixture over a period of time characterized as providing a controlled reaction rate so as to gradually form hydrazoic acid without loss of significant quantities of hydrazoic acid from the solution while heating the first reaction mixture at temperatures greater than about 65.degree. C., heating the resultant reaction mixture at temperatures greater than about 65.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to substantially completely form a reaction product, treating the reaction product with a solution of a second strong acid to form a product of bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate, and, recovering the bis-(1(2)H-tetrazol-5-yl)-amine monohydrate product.

  15. Catalytic Oxidation of Alcohol via Nickel Phosphine Complexes with Pendant Amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Das, Partha Pratim; Higgins, Deanna LM; Helm, Monte L.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-09-05

    Nickel complexes were prepared with diphosphine ligands that contain pendant amines, and these complexes catalytically oxidize primary and secondary alcohols to their respective aldehydes and ketones. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of these prospective electrocatalysts were performed to understand what influences the catalytic activity. For the oxidation of diphenylmethanol, the catalytic rates were determined to be dependent on the concentration of both the catalyst and the alcohol. The catalytic rates were found to be independent of the concentration of base and oxidant. The incorporation of pendant amines to the phosphine ligand results in substantial increases in the rate of alcohol oxidation with more electron-donating substituents on the pendant amine exhibiting the fastest rates. We thank Dr. John C. Linehan, Dr. Elliott B. Hulley, Dr. Jonathan M. Darmon, and Dr. Elizabeth L. Tyson for helpful discussions. Research by CJW, PD, DLM, and AMA was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Research by MLH was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  16. Spontaneous and reversible interaction of vanadium(V) oxyanions with amine derivatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crans, D.C.; Shin, P.K.

    1988-05-18

    The interaction between vanadate and tri- or tetradentate ethanolamine derivatives has been studied by using /sup 51/V NMR spectroscopy. The reactions occur spontaneously in aqueous solutions, at ambient temperatures and in the physiological pH range. In addition to one amine group and one hydroxyl group, the ethanolamine derivative should contain a third and/or fourth functionality that is an alcohol, a carboxylic acid, a phosphonium acid, or an amine. The reactions are highly dependent on pH, concentrations of monomeric vanadate, amine. The stability constants for the complexes are minimum orders of magnitude greater than those found for vanadate derivatives of corresponding ether derivatives, and the high stability is associated with the central nitrogen. Only one vanadium complex is formed in substantial amounts in the reaction of ethanolamine derivatives with vanadate, and that complex is mononuclear in vanadium. Several of the ethanolamine derivatives that form complexes are commonly used buffers in biological and biomedical studies in vitro. 22 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Theoretical Design of Molecular Electrocatalysts with Flexible Pendant Amines for Hydrogen Production and Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Laura; Horvath, Samantha; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2013-02-07

    The design of hydrogen oxidation and production catalysts is important for the development of alternative renewable energy sources. The overall objective is to maximize the turnover frequency and minimize the overpotential. In an effort to assist in the design of such catalysts, we use computational methods to examine a variety of nickel-based molecular electrocatalysts with pendant amines. Our studies focus on the proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) process involving electron transfer between the complex and the electrode and intramolecular proton transfer between the nickel center and the nitrogen of the pendant amine. The concerted PCET mechanism, which tends to require a lower overpotential, is favored by a smaller equilibrium Ni-N distance and a more flexible pendant amine ligand, thereby decreasing the energetic penalty for the nitrogen to approach the nickel center for proton transfer. These calculations provide design principles that will be useful for developing the next generation of hydrogen catalysts. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  18. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, C.B.; Kutscher, C.F.; Gawlik, K.M.

    1997-12-02

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprises an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution. 3 figs.

  19. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Craig B.; Kutscher, Charles F.; Gawlik, Keith M.

    1997-01-01

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.

  20. Boron-copper neutron absorbing material and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C.; Domagala, Robert F.; Thresh, Henry

    1991-01-01

    A composite, copper clad neutron absorbing material is comprised of copper powder and boron powder enriched with boron 10. The boron 10 content can reach over 30 percent by volume, permitting a very high level of neutron absorption. The copper clad product is also capable of being reduced to a thickness of 0.05 to 0.06 inches and curved to a radius of 2 to 3 inches, and can resist temperatures of 900.degree. C. A method of preparing the material includes the steps of compacting a boron-copper powder mixture and placing it in a copper cladding, restraining the clad assembly in a steel frame while it is hot rolled at 900.degree. C. with cross rolling, and removing the steel frame and further rolling the clad assembly at 650.degree. C. An additional sheet of copper can be soldered onto the clad assembly so that the finished sheet can be cold formed into curved shapes.

  1. Absorbance and fluorometric sensing with capillary wells microplates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Han Yen; Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Neild, Adrian; Wah Ng, Tuck; Liew, Oi Wah

    2010-12-15

    Detection and readout from small volume assays in microplates are a challenge. The capillary wells microplate approach [Ng et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 174105 (2008)] offers strong advantages in small liquid volume management. An adapted design is described and shown here to be able to detect, in a nonimaging manner, fluorescence and absorbance assays minus the error often associated with meniscus forming at the air-liquid interface. The presence of bubbles in liquid samples residing in microplate wells can cause inaccuracies. Pipetting errors, if not adequately managed, can result in misleading data and wrong interpretations of assay results; particularly in the context of high throughput screening. We show that the adapted design is also able to detect for bubbles and pipetting errors during actual assay runs to ensure accuracy in screening.

  2. Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graeme Puxty; Robert Rowland; Andrew Allport; Qi Yang; Mark Bown; Robert Burns; Marcel Maeder; Moetaz Attalla

    2009-08-15

    The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO{sub 2} capture is reversible chemical absorption into an aqueous amine solution. In this study the results from measurements of the CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of aqueous amine solutions for 76 different amines are presented. Measurements were made using both a novel isothermal gravimetric analysis (IGA) method and a traditional absorption apparatus. Seven amines, consisting of one primary, three secondary, and three tertiary amines, were identified as exhibiting outstanding absorption capacities. Most have a number of structural features in common including steric hindrance and hydroxyl functionality 2 or 3 carbons from the nitrogen. Initial CO{sub 2} absorption rate data from the IGA measurements was also used to indicate relative absorption rates. Most of the outstanding performers in terms of capacity also showed initial absorption rates comparable to the industry standard monoethanolamine (MEA). This indicates, in terms of both absorption capacity and kinetics, that they are promising candidates for further investigation. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Protonation Studies of a Tungsten Dinitrogen Complex Supported by a Diphosphine Ligand Containing a Pendant Amine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Egbert, Jonathan D.; Chen, Shentan; Helm, Monte L.; Bullock, R. Morris; Mock, Michael T.

    2014-04-28

    Treatment of trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)] (dppe = Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2; PEtNMePEt = Et2PCH2N(Me)CH2PEt2) with three equivalents of tetrafluoroboric acid (HBF4∙Et2O) at -78 °C generated the seven-coordinate tungsten hydride trans-[W(N2)2(H)(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)][BF4]. Depending on the temperature of the reaction, protonation of a pendant amine is also observed, affording trans-[W(N2)2(H)(dppe)(PEtNMe(H)PEt)][BF4]2, with formation of the hydrazido complex, [W(NNH2)(dppe)(PEtNMe(H)PEt)][BF4]2, as a minor product. Similar product mixtures were obtained using triflic acid (HOTf). Upon acid addition to the carbonyl analogue, cis-[W(CO)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)], the seven-coordinate carbonyl-hydride complex, trans-[W(CO)2(H)(dppe)(PEtN(H)MePEt)][OTf]2 was generated. The mixed diphosphine complex without the pendant amine in the ligand backbone, trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(depp)] (depp = Et2P(CH2)3PEt2), was synthesized and treated with HBF4∙Et2O, selectively generating a hydrazido complex, [W(NNH2)(F)(dppe)(depp)][BF4]. Computational analysis was used to probe proton affinity of three sites of protonation, the metal, pendant amine, and N2 ligand in these complexes. Room temperature reactions with 100 equivalents of HOTf produced NH4+ from reduction of the N2 ligand (electrons come from W). The addition of 100 equivalents HOTf to trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)] afforded 0.88 ± 0.02 equivalents NH4+, while 0.36 ± 0.02 equivalents of NH4+was formed upon treatment of trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(depp)], the complex without the pendant amine. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources were provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  4. Methods for attaching polymerizable ceragenins to water treatment membranes using amine and amide linkages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hibbs, Michael; Altman, Susan J.; Jones, Howland D.T.; Savage, Paul B.

    2013-10-15

    This invention relates to methods for chemically grafting and attaching ceragenin molecules to polymer substrates; methods for synthesizing ceragenin-containing copolymers; methods for making ceragenin-modified water treatment membranes and spacers; and methods of treating contaminated water using ceragenin-modified treatment membranes and spacers. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. Alkene-functionalized ceragenins (e.g., acrylamide-functionalized ceragenins) can be attached to polyamide reverse osmosis membranes using amine-linking, amide-linking, UV-grafting, or silane-coating methods. In addition, silane-functionalized ceragenins can be directly attached to polymer surfaces that have free hydroxyls.

  5. Rapid Temperature Swing Adsorption using Polymeric/Supported Amine Hollow Fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chance, Ronald; Chen, Grace; Dai, Ying; Fan, Yanfang; Jones, Christopher; Kalyanaraman, Jayashree; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki; Koros, William; Lively, Ryan; McCool, Benjamin; Pang, Simon; Realff, Matthew; Rezaei, Fateme; Searcy, Katherine; Sholl, David; Subramanian, Swernath; Pang, Simon

    2015-03-31

    This project is a bench-scale, post-combustion capture project carried out at Georgia Tech (GT) with support and collaboration with GE, Algenol Biofuels, Southern Company and subcontract to Trimeric Corporation. The focus of the project is to develop a process based on composite amine-functionalized oxide / polymer hollow fibers for use as contactors in a rapid temperature swing adsorption post-combustion carbon dioxide capture process. The hollow fiber morphology allows coupling of efficient heat transfer with effective gas contacting, potentially giving lower parasitic loads on the power plant compared to traditional contacting strategies using solid sorbents.

  6. Performance predictions of alternative, low cost absorbents for open-cycle absorption solar cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ameel, T.A.; Gee, K.G.; Wood, B.D.

    1995-02-01

    To achieve solar fractions greater than 0.90 using the open-cycle absorption refrigeration system, considerable sorbent solution storage is necessary. Having identified the absorber as the system component whose performance is affected the most by a change in absorbent, an absorber model was selected from available literature pertaining to simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Low-cost absorbent candidates were selected and their physical properties were either located in the literature, measured, or estimated. The most promising of the absorbents considered was a mixture of two parts lithium chloride and one part zinc chloride. Both the lithium-zinc chloride mixture and lithium bromide solutions had estimated pumping powers of less than 0.1 kW. The solubility of the lithium-zinc chloride mixture at absorber conditions was improved over that of lithium bromide, reducing the risk of solidification of the solution. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Molecular Response of Amine Bases in Organic Solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathmann, Shawn M.; Cho, Herman M.; Chang, Tsun-Mei; Schenter, Gregory K.; Parab, Kshitij K.; Autrey, Thomas

    2014-05-08

    Reorientational correlation times of various amine bases (viz., pyridine, 2,6-lutidene, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine) and organic solvents (dichloromethane, toluene) were determined by solution-state NMR relaxation time measurements and compared with predictions from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The bases and solvents are reagents in complex reactions involving Frustrated Lewis Pairs (FLP), which display remarkable catalytic activity in metal-free H2 scission. The comparison of measured and simulated correlation times is a key test of the ability of recent MD and quantum electronic structure calculations to elucidate the mechanism of FLP activity. Correla- tion times were found to be in the range 1.4-3.4 ps (NMR) and 1.23-5.28 ps (MD) for the amines, and 0.9-2.3 ps (NMR) and 0.2-1.7 ps (MD) for the solvent molecules. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacic Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  8. A nonplanar porphyrin-based receptor molecule for chiral amine ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MUZZI,CINZIA M.; MEDFORTH,CRAIG J.; SMITH,KEVIN M.; JIA,SONG-LING; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.

    2000-03-06

    A novel porphyrin-based receptor molecule for chiral amine ligands is described in which nonplanarity of the porphyrin macrocycle is used to orient the ligand and to enhance porphyrin-ligand interactions. The porphyrin macrocycle provides a versatile platform upon which to build elaborate superstructures, and this feature coupled with a rich and well-developed synthetic chemistry has led to the synthesis of many elegant models of heme protein active sites and numerous porphyrin-based receptor molecules. One design feature which is not usually considered in the design of porphyrin-based receptor molecules is nonplanarity of the porphyrin ring, although there are a few systems such as the pyridine sensitive Venus Flytrap and the chirality-memory molecule which illustrate that nonplanar porphyrin-based receptors can display unique and interesting behavior. Given the novel properties of these receptors and the continuing interest in the effects of nonplanarity on the properties of porphyrins the authors decided to investigate in more detail the potential applications of nonplanarity in the design of porphyrin-based receptors. Herein, they describe the design, synthesis, and characterization of a new kind of nonplanar porphyrin-based receptor molecule for chiral amines.

  9. Interfacial Modification of Silica Surfaces Through gamma-Isocyanatopropyl Triethoxy Silane-Amine Coupling Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel,B.; DeLongchamp, D.; Mahoney, C.; Lucas, L.; Fischer, D.; Lin, E.

    2008-01-01

    The development of robust, cost-effective methods to modify surfaces and interfaces without the specialized synthesis of unique coupling agents could provide readily accessible routes to optimize and tailor interfacial properties. We demonstrate that -isocyanatopropyl triethoxysilane (ISO) provides a convenient route to functionalize silica surfaces through coupling reactions with readily available reagents. ISO coupling agents layers (CALs) can be prepared from toluene with triethylamine (TEA), but the coupling reaction of an amine to the ISO CAL does not proceed. We use near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and sessile drop contact angle to demonstrate the isocyanate layer is not degraded under coupling conditions. Access to silanes with chemical functionality is possible with ISO by performing the coupling reaction in solution and then depositing the product onto the surface. Two model CAL surfaces are prepared to demonstrate the ease and robust nature of this procedure. The surfaces prepared using this method are the ISO reacted with octadecylamine to produce a hydrocarbon surface of similar quality to octadecyl trichlorosilane (OTS) CALs and with 9-aminofluorene (AFL), an aromatic amine functionality whose silane is otherwise unavailable commercially.

  10. Report on the evaluation of the tritium producing burnable absorber rod lead test assembly. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the design and fabrication requirements for a tritium-producing burnable absorber rod lead test assembly and evaluates the safety issues associated with tritium-producing burnable absorber rod irradiation on the operation of a commercial light water reactor. The report provides an evaluation of the tritium-producing burnable absorber rod design and concludes that irradiation can be performed within U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations applicable to a commercial pressurized light water reactor.

  11. Development of a Weldable Corrosion Resistant, Neutron Absorbing Structural Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurt, W. L.; Mizia, R. E.; Lister, T.E.; Pinhero, P. J.; Robino, C. V.; Dupont, J. N.

    2004-07-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program, located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), coordinates and integrates national efforts in management and disposal of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel. These management functions include development of standardized systems for packaging, storage, treatment, transport, and long-term disposal in the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository. Nuclear criticality control measures are needed in these systems to avoid restrictive fissile loading limits because of the enrichment and total quantity of fissile material in some types of the DOE spent nuclear fuel. This need is being addressed by development of a corrosion resistant, neutron absorbing structural material for nuclear criticality control. These materials offer distinct advantages over existing neutron absorbing materials available to the commercial nuclear industry for use in spent nuclear fuel pools, transportation systems and storage casks. This paper will outline the results of a metallurgical development program that is investigating the alloying of gadolinium into a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy matrix. Gadolinium has been chosen as the neutron absorption alloying element due to its high thermal neutron absorption cross section and low solubility in the expected repository environment. The nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy family was chosen for its known corrosion performance, mechanical properties and weldability. The work-flow of this program includes chemical composition definition, primary and secondary melting studies, ingot conversion processes, properties testing, and national consensus codes and standards work. The microstructural investigation of these alloys shows that the gadolinium addition is not soluble in the primary austenite metallurgical phase and is present in the alloy as gadolinium-rich second phase. This is similar to what is observed in a stainless steel alloyed with boron. The mechanical

  12. New Selection Metric for Design of Thin-Film Solar Cell Absorber...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maximum Efficiency (SLME) is a new and calculable selection metric to identify new andor improved photovoltaic (PV) absorber candidate materials for thin- film solar cells. ...

  13. Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong-Nian Jow; R.C. Moore; K.B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A.R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

    2005-01-14

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit above the local water table. The focus of the work described in this paper is the development of radionuclide absorbers or ''getter'' materials for neptunium (Np), iodine (I), and technetium (Tc) for potential deployment in the repository. ''Getter'' materials retard the migration of radionuclides through sorption, reduction, or other chemical and physical processes, thereby slowing or preventing the release and transport of radionuclides. An overview of the objectives and approaches utilized in this work with respect to materials selection and modeling of ion ''getters'' is presented. The benefits of the ''getter'' development program to the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) are outlined.

  14. Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ho, Clifford K.; Pacheco, James E.

    2014-08-08

    A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annualmore » thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.« less

  15. Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Clifford K.; Pacheco, James E.

    2014-08-08

    A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.

  16. Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sotor, J. Sobon, G.; Abramski, K. M.; Macherzynski, W.; Paletko, P.

    2015-08-03

    Low-dimensional materials, due to their unique and versatile properties, are very interesting for numerous applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Recently rediscovered black phosphorus, with a graphite-like layered structure, can be effectively exfoliated up to the single atomic layer called phosphorene. Contrary to graphene, it possesses a direct band gap controllable by the number of stacked atomic layers. For those reasons, black phosphorus is now intensively investigated and can complement or replace graphene in various photonics and electronics applications. Here, we demonstrate that black phosphorus can serve as a broadband saturable absorber and can be used for ultrashort optical pulse generation. The mechanically exfoliated ∼300 nm thick layers of black phosphorus were transferred onto the fiber core, and under pulsed excitation at 1560 nm wavelength, its transmission increases by 4.6%. We have demonstrated that the saturable absorption of black phosphorus is polarization sensitive. The fabricated device was used to mode-lock an Er-doped fiber laser. The generated optical solitons with the 10.2 nm bandwidth and 272 fs duration were centered at 1550 nm. The obtained results unambiguously show that black phosphorus can be effectively used for ultrashort pulse generation with performances similar or even better than currently used graphene or carbon nanotubes. This application of black phosphorus proves its great potential to future practical use in photonics.

  17. A robust absorbing layer method for anisotropic seismic wave modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mtivier, L.; Brossier, R.; Labb, S.; Operto, S.; Virieux, J.

    2014-12-15

    When applied to wave propagation modeling in anisotropic media, Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) exhibit instabilities. Incoming waves are amplified instead of being absorbed. Overcoming this difficulty is crucial as in many seismic imaging applications, accounting accurately for the subsurface anisotropy is mandatory. In this study, we present the SMART layer method as an alternative to PML approach. This method is based on the decomposition of the wavefield into components propagating inward and outward the domain of interest. Only outgoing components are damped. We show that for elastic and acoustic wave propagation in Transverse Isotropic media, the SMART layer is unconditionally dissipative: no amplification of the wavefield is possible. The SMART layers are not perfectly matched, therefore less accurate than conventional PML. However, a reasonable increase of the layer size yields an accuracy similar to PML. Finally, we illustrate that the selective damping strategy on which is based the SMART method can prevent the generation of spurious S-waves by embedding the source in a small zone where only S-waves are damped.

  18. Anti-terrorist vehicle crash impact energy absorbing barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swahlan, David J.

    1989-01-01

    An anti-terrorist vehicle crash barrier includes side support structures, crushable energy absorbing aluminum honeycomb modules, and an elongated impact-resistant beam extending between, and at its opposite ends through vertical guideways defined by, the side support structures. An actuating mechanism supports the beam at its opposite ends for movement between a lowered barrier-withdrawn position in which a traffic-supporting side of the beam is aligned with a traffic-bearing surface permitting vehicular traffic between the side support structures and over the beam, and a raised barrier-imposed position in which the beam is aligned with horizontal guideways defined in the side support structures above the traffic-bearing surface, providing an obstruction to vehicular traffic between the side support structures. The beam is movable rearwardly in the horizontal guideways with its opposite ends disposed transversely therethrough upon being impacted at its forward side by an incoming vehicle. The crushable modules are replaceably disposed in the horizontal guideways between aft ends thereof and the beam. The beam, replaceable modules, side support structures and actuating mechanism are separate and detached from one another such that the beam and replaceable modules are capable of coacting to disable and stop an incoming vehicle without causing structural damage to the side support structures and actuating mechanism.

  19. Silanol-assisted carbinolamine formation in an amine-functionalized mesoporous silica surface: Theoretical investigation by fragmentation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Lima Batista, Ana P.; Zahariev, Federico; Slowing, Igor I.; Braga, Ataualpa A. C.; Ornellas, Fernando R.; Gordon, Mark S.

    2015-12-15

    The aldol reaction catalyzed by an amine-substituted mesoporous silica nanoparticle (amine-MSN) surface was investigated using a large molecular cluster model (Si392O958C6NH361) combined with the surface integrated molecular orbital/molecular mechanics (SIMOMM) and fragment molecular orbital (FMO) methods. Three distinct pathways for the carbinolamine formation, the first step of the amine-catalyzed aldol reaction, are proposed and investigated in order to elucidate the role of the silanol environment on the catalytic capability of the amine-MSN material. The computational study reveals that the most likely mechanism involves the silanol groups actively participating in the reaction, forming and breaking covalent bonds in the carbinolamine step. Furthermore, the active participation of MSN silanol groups in the reaction mechanism leads to a significant reduction in the overall energy barrier for the carbinolamine formation. In addition, a comparison between the findings using a minimal cluster model and the Si392O958C6NH361 cluster suggests that the use of larger models is important when heterogeneous catalysis problems are the target.

  20. Amperometric detection and electrochemical oxidation of aliphatic amines and ammonia on silver-lead oxide thin-film electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge, Jisheng

    1996-01-08

    This thesis comprises three parts: Electrocatalysis of anodic oxygen-transfer reactions: aliphatic amines at mixed Ag-Pb oxide thin-film electrodes; oxidation of ammonia at anodized Ag-Pb eutectic alloy electrodes; and temperature effects on oxidation of ethylamine, alanine, and aquated ammonia.

  1. Silanol-assisted carbinolamine formation in an amine-functionalized mesoporous silica surface: Theoretical investigation by fragmentation methods

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    de Lima Batista, Ana P.; Zahariev, Federico; Slowing, Igor I.; Braga, Ataualpa A. C.; Ornellas, Fernando R.; Gordon, Mark S.

    2015-12-15

    The aldol reaction catalyzed by an amine-substituted mesoporous silica nanoparticle (amine-MSN) surface was investigated using a large molecular cluster model (Si392O958C6NH361) combined with the surface integrated molecular orbital/molecular mechanics (SIMOMM) and fragment molecular orbital (FMO) methods. Three distinct pathways for the carbinolamine formation, the first step of the amine-catalyzed aldol reaction, are proposed and investigated in order to elucidate the role of the silanol environment on the catalytic capability of the amine-MSN material. The computational study reveals that the most likely mechanism involves the silanol groups actively participating in the reaction, forming and breaking covalent bonds in the carbinolamine step.more » Furthermore, the active participation of MSN silanol groups in the reaction mechanism leads to a significant reduction in the overall energy barrier for the carbinolamine formation. In addition, a comparison between the findings using a minimal cluster model and the Si392O958C6NH361 cluster suggests that the use of larger models is important when heterogeneous catalysis problems are the target.« less

  2. Side branch absorber for exhaust manifold of two-stroke internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Ralph E.; Broerman, III, Eugene L.; Bourn, Gary D.

    2011-01-11

    A method of improving scavenging operation of a two-stroke internal combustion engine. The exhaust pressure of the engine is analyzed to determine if there is a pulsation frequency. Acoustic modeling is used to design an absorber. An appropriately designed side branch absorber may be attached to the exhaust manifold.

  3. Alternative materials to cadmium for neutron absorbers in safeguards applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; West, James D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is increasingly difficult to use in safeguards applications because of rising cost and increased safety regulations. This work examines the properties of two materials produced by Ceradyne, inc. that present alternatives to cadmium for neutron shielding. The first is an aluminum metal doped with boron and the second is a boron carbide powder, compressed into a ceramic. Both are enriched in the {sup 10}B isotope. Two sheets of boron doped aluminum (1.1 mm and 5.2mm thick) and one sheet of boron carbide (8.5mm thick) were provided by Ceradyne for testing. An experiment was designed to test the neutron absorption capabilities of these three sheets against two different thicknesses of cadmium (0.6mm and 1.6mm thick). The thinner piece of aluminum boron alloy (1.1mm) performed as well as the cadmium pieces at absorbing neutrons. The thicker aluminum-boron plate provided more shielding than the cadmium sheets and the boron carbide performed best by a relatively large margin. Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code modeling of the experiment was performed to provide validaLed computational tools for predicting the behavior of systems in which these materials may be incorporated as alternatives to cadmium. MCNPX calculations predict that approximately 0.17mm of the boron carbide is equivalent to 0.6mm of cadmium. There are drawbacks to these materials that need to be noted when considering using them as replacements for cadmium. Notably, they may need to be thicker than cadmium, and are not malleable, requiring machining to fit any curved forms.

  4. 21-PWR WASTE PACKAGE WITH ABSORBER PLATES LOADING CURVE EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.M. Scaglione

    2004-12-17

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the required minimum burnup as a function of initial pressurized water reactor (PWR) assembly enrichment that would permit loading of spent nuclear fuel into the 21 PWR waste package with absorber plates design as provided in Attachment IV. This calculation is an example of the application of the methodology presented in the ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003). The scope of this calculation covers a range of enrichments from 0 through 5.0 weight percent U-235, and a burnup range of 0 through 45 GWd/MTU. Higher burnups were not necessary because 45 GWd/MTU was high enough for the loading curve determination. This activity supports the validation of the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel applications. The intended use of these results will be in establishing PWR waste package configuration loading specifications. Limitations of this evaluation are as follows: (1) The results are based on burnup credit for actinides and selected fission products as proposed in YMP (2003, Table 3-1) and referred to as the ''Principal Isotopes''. Any change to the isotope listing will have a direct impact on the results of this report. (2) The results are based on 1.5 wt% Gd in the Ni-Gd Alloy material and having no tuff inside the waste package. If the Gd loading is reduced or a process to introduce tuff inside the waste package is defined, then this report would need to be reevaluated based on the alternative materials. This calculation is subject to the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2004) because it concerns engineered barriers that are included in the ''Q-List'' (BSC 2004k, Appendix A) as items important to safety and waste isolation.

  5. Vadose Zone Soil Moisture Wicking Using Super Absorbent Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Smoot, Katherine V.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.; Benecke, Mark W.; Chronister, Glen B.

    2012-11-19

    Super-absorbent polymers (SAPs) have the potential to remove water and associated contaminants from unsaturated sediments in the field. Column and flow cell experiment were conducted to test the ability of four types of SAPs to remove water from unsaturated porous media. Column experiments, with emplacement of a layer of polymer on top of unsaturated porous media, showed the ability of the SAPs to extract up to 80% of the initially emplaced water against gravity into the sorbent over periods up to four weeks. In column experiments where the sorbent was emplaced between layers of unsaturated porous media, gel formation was observed at both the sorbent-porous medium interfaces. The extraction percentages over four weeks of contact time were similar for both column configurations and no obvious differences were observed for the four tested SAPs. Two different flow cells were used to test the wicking behavior of SAPs in two dimensions using three configurations. The largest removal percentages occurred for the horizontal sorbent layer configuration which has the largest sorbent-porous medium interfacial area. In a larger flow cell, a woven nylon sock was packed with sorbent and subsequently placed between perforated metal plates, mimicking a well configuration. After one week of contact time the sock was removed and replaced by a fresh sock. The results of this experiment showed that the sorbent was able to continuously extract water from the porous media, although the rate decreased over time. The declining yield during both periods is associated with the sharp reduction in water saturation and relative permeability near the sorbent. It was also observed that the capillary pressure continued to increase over the total contact time of 14 days, indicating that the sorbent remained active over that period. This work has demonstrated the potential of soil moisture wicking using SAPs at the proof-of-principle level.

  6. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  7. Nickel Phosphine Catalysts with Pendant Amines for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Wiedner, Eric S.; Roberts, John A.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel phosphine complexes with pendant amines have been found to be electrocatalysts for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols, with turnover frequencies as high as 3.3 s-1. These complexes are the first electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation based on non-precious metals, which will be critical for use in fuel cells. The research by CJW, ESW, and AMA was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. The research by JASR was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  8. Hindered amine development and operating experience at Quirk Creek Gas Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, P.; Devenny, I. [Imperial Oil Resources Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Rendall, A. [Nalco/Exxon Energy Chemicals, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The Imperial Oil Resources Limited Quirk Creek gas plant has a significant natural gas treating challenge. The natural gas feed contains H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, carbonyl sulfide, mercaptans and elemental sulfur. The trace sulfur components are difficult to remove with conventional solvents. Over its 26 year history, three different solvents have been used. The latest solvent, a hybrid of a hindered amine and a physical solvent, has been operating for over two years, with better than expected performance. This high capacity solvent has lowered operating costs by over $500,000/yr by reducing solids formation. The development work, including pilot testing at Quirk Creek, and the operating history will be reviewed.

  9. Diesel NO{sub x} reduction by plasma-regenerated absorbent beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallman, P.H.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1998-02-10

    Reduction of NO{sub x} from diesel engine exhaust by use of plasma-regenerated absorbent beds is described. This involves a process for the reduction of NO{sub x} and particulates from diesel engines by first absorbing NO{sub x} onto a solid absorbent bed that simultaneously acts as a physical trap for the particulate matter, and second regenerating said solid absorbent by pulsed plasma decomposition of absorbed NO{sub x} followed by air oxidation of trapped particulate matter. The absorbent bed may utilize all metal oxides, but the capacity and the kinetics of absorption and desorption vary between different materials, and thus the composition of the absorbent bed is preferably a material which enables the combination of NO{sub x} absorption capability with catalytic activity for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Thus, naturally occurring or synthetically prepared materials may be utilized, particularly those having NO{sub x} absorption properties up to temperatures around 400 C which is in the area of diesel engine exhaust temperatures. 1 fig.

  10. Treatability study of absorbent polymer waste form for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Lehto, M. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Croft, A. D.; Kern, P. W.

    2000-02-10

    A treatability study was performed to develop and characterize an absorbent polymer waste form for application to low level (LLW) and mixed low level (MLLW) aqueous wastes at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). In this study absorbent polymers proved effective at immobilizing aqueous liquid wastes in order to meet Land Disposal Restrictions for subsurface waste disposal. Treatment of aqueous waste with absorbent polymers provides an alternative to liquid waste solidification via high-shear mixing with clays and cements. Significant advantages of absorbent polymer use over clays and cements include ease of operations and waste volume minimization. Absorbent polymers do not require high-shear mixing as do clays and cements. Granulated absorbent polymer is poured into aqueous solutions and forms a gel which passes the paint filter test as a non-liquid. Pouring versus mixing of a solidification agent not only eliminates the need for a mixing station, but also lessens exposure to personnel and the potential for spread of contamination from treatment of radioactive wastes. Waste minimization is achieved as significantly less mass addition and volume increase is required of and results from absorbent polymer use than that of clays and cements. Operational ease and waste minimization translate into overall cost savings for LLW and MLLW treatment.

  11. Reducing heat loss from the energy absorber of a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, Bei Tse; Rabl, Ari

    1976-01-01

    A device is provided for reducing convective heat loss in a cylindrical radiant energy collector. It includes a curved reflective wall in the shape of the arc of a circle positioned on the opposite side of the exit aperture from the reflective side walls of the collector. Radiant energy exiting the exit aperture is directed by the curved wall onto an energy absorber such that the portion of the absorber upon which the energy is directed faces downward to reduce convective heat loss from the absorber.

  12. Parasitic oscillation suppression in solid state lasers using absorbing thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E.

    1994-01-01

    A thin absorbing film is bonded onto at least certain surfaces of a solid state laser gain medium. An absorbing metal-dielectric multilayer film is optimized for a broad range of incidence angles, and is resistant to the corrosive/erosive effects of a coolant such as water, used in the forced convection cooling of the film. Parasitic oscillations hamper the operation of solid state lasers by causing the decay of stored energy to amplified rays trapped within the gain medium by total and partial internal reflections off the gain medium facets. Zigzag lasers intended for high average power operation require the ASE absorber.

  13. Parasitic oscillation suppression in solid state lasers using absorbing thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, L.E.

    1994-08-02

    A thin absorbing film is bonded onto at least certain surfaces of a solid state laser gain medium. An absorbing metal-dielectric multilayer film is optimized for a broad range of incidence angles, and is resistant to the corrosive/erosive effects of a coolant such as water, used in the forced convection cooling of the film. Parasitic oscillations hamper the operation of solid state lasers by causing the decay of stored energy to amplified rays trapped within the gain medium by total and partial internal reflections off the gain medium facets. Zigzag lasers intended for high average power operation require the ASE absorber. 16 figs.

  14. Study on the Humidity Susceptibility of Thin-Film CIGS Absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F. J.; Egaas, B.; To, B.; Jiang, C. S.; Li, J. V.; Glynn, S.; DeHart, C.

    2010-01-01

    The report summarizes the research on the susceptibility of a thermally co-evaporated CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) thin-film absorber to humidity and its consequence on composition, morphology, electrical and electronic properties, and device efficiency.

  15. Mode trap for absorbing transverse modes of an accelerated electron beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chojnacki, Eric P.

    1994-01-01

    A mode trap to trap and absorb transverse modes formed by a beam in a linear accelerator includes a waveguide having a multiplicity of electrically conductive (preferably copper) irises and rings, each iris and ring including an aperture, and the irises and rings being stacked in a side-by-side, alternating fashion such that the apertures of the irises and rings are concentrically aligned. An absorbing material layer such as a dielectric is embedded in each iris and ring, and this absorbing material layer encircles, but is circumferentially spaced from its respective aperture. Each iris and ring includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced slots around its aperture and extending radially out toward its absorbing material layer.

  16. Mode trap for absorbing transverse modes of an accelerated electron beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chojnacki, E.P.

    1994-05-31

    A mode trap to trap and absorb transverse modes formed by a beam in a linear accelerator includes a waveguide having a multiplicity of electrically conductive (preferably copper) irises and rings, each iris and ring including an aperture, and the irises and rings being stacked in a side-by-side, alternating fashion such that the apertures of the irises and rings are concentrically aligned. An absorbing material layer such as a dielectric is embedded in each iris and ring, and this absorbing material layer encircles, but is circumferentially spaced from its respective aperture. Each iris and ring includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced slots around its aperture and extending radially out toward its absorbing material layer. 9 figs.

  17. Low-cost solar collectors using thin-film plastics absorbers and glazings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, performance, cost, and marketing of flat plate solar collectors using plastic absorbers and glazings are described. Manufacturing cost breakdowns are given for single-glazed and double-glazed collectors. (WHK)

  18. Boron cage compound materials and composites for shielding and absorbing neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-03-04

    Boron cage compound-containing materials for shielding and absorbing neutrons. The materials include BCC-containing composites and compounds. BCC-containing compounds comprise a host polymer and a BCC attached thereto. BCC-containing composites comprise a mixture of a polymer matrix and a BCC filler. The BCC-containing materials can be used to form numerous articles of manufacture for shielding and absorbing neutrons.

  19. Ultraviolet light absorbers having two different chromophors in the same molecule

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogl, O.; Li, S.

    1983-10-06

    This invention relates to novel ultraviolet light absorbers having two chromophors in the same molecule, and more particularly to benzotriazole substituted dihydroxybenzophenones and acetophenones. More particularly, this invention relates to 3,5-(di(2H-benzotriazole-2-yl))-2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone and 3,5-(di(2H-benzotriazole-2-yl))-2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone which are particularly useful as an ultraviolet light absorbers.

  20. Material Activation Benchmark Experiments at the NuMI Hadron Absorber Hall in Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsumura, H.; Matsuda, N.; Kasugai, Y.; Toyoda, A.; Yashima, H.; Sekimoto, S.; Iwase, H.; Oishi, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Leveling, A.; Boehnlein, D.; Lauten, G.; Mokhov, N.; Vaziri, K.

    2014-06-15

    In our previous study, double and mirror symmetric activation peaks found for Al and Au arranged spatially on the back of the Hadron absorber of the NuMI beamline in Fermilab were considerably higher than those expected purely from muon-induced reactions. From material activation bench-mark experiments, we conclude that this activation is due to hadrons with energy greater than 3 GeV that had passed downstream through small gaps in the hadron absorber.

  1. RANS Simulation of the Heave Response of a Two-Body Floating Point Wave Absorber: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Y.; Li, Y.

    2011-03-01

    A preliminary study on a two-body floating wave absorbers is presented in this paper. A Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes computational method is applied for analyzing the hydrodynamic heave response of the absorber in operational wave conditions. The two-body floating wave absorber contains a float section and a submerged reaction section. For validation purposes, our model is first assumed to be locked. The two sections are forced to move together with each other. The locked single body model is used in a heave decay test, where the RANS result is validated with the experimental measurement. For the two-body floating point absorber simulation, the two sections are connected through a mass-spring-damper system, which is applied to simulate the power take-off mechanism under design wave conditions. Overall, the details of the flow around the absorber and its nonlinear interaction with waves are investigated, and the power absorption efficiency of the two-body floating wave absorber in waves with a constant value spring-damper system is examined.

  2. Enhanced heat transfer tubes for film absorbers of absorption chiller/heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasaki, Naoe; Nosetani, Tadashi; Furukawa, Masahiro; Kaneko, Toshiyuki

    1995-12-31

    Absorption chiller/heaters using non-CFC refrigerants are attracting attention as environmentally friendly energy systems. As the refrigerant/absorbent pair, the water/lithium bromide aqueous solution pair is preferably used for most absorption chiller/heaters in Japan. Absorption chiller/heaters, mainly used as water chillers and air-conditioners, are commercially available at least for unit cooling capacities above 60 kW. In absorption chiller/heaters, the absorber must be made compact, because the absorber has the largest heat transfer area of the four primary heat exchangers in the system: the evaporator, absorber, regenerator and condenser. Although a great amount of information is available on the evaporator and condenser, the same type of information concerning the absorber is lacking. This paper introduces two kinds of double fluted tubes called Arm tubs and Floral tubes for film absorbers. Arm tubes are manufactured using a two-pass drawbench process, while Floral tubes are made using a single pass drawbench process. The experiments using a lithium bromide aqueous solution with the addition of 250 ppm n-octyl alcohol as the surfactant showed that Arm tubes and Floral tubes had about 40% higher heat transfer performance than plain tubes. Therefore, Floral tubes are expected to realize a high performance at low cost. Furthermore, the optimization of the number of grooves on the outside of the tubes is also described here.

  3. Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO{sub 2} nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocer, Hasan; Butun, Serkan; Aydin, Koray; Banar, Berker; Wang, Kevin; Wu, Junqiao; Tongay, Sefaatttin

    2015-04-20

    Resonant absorbers based on plasmonic materials, metamaterials, and thin films enable spectrally selective absorption filters, where absorption is maximized at the resonance wavelength. By controlling the geometrical parameters of nano/microstructures and materials' refractive indices, resonant absorbers are designed to operate at wide range of wavelengths for applications including absorption filters, thermal emitters, thermophotovoltaic devices, and sensors. However, once resonant absorbers are fabricated, it is rather challenging to control and tune the spectral absorption response. Here, we propose and demonstrate thermally tunable infrared resonant absorbers using hybrid gold-vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) nanostructure arrays. Absorption intensity is tuned from 90% to 20% and 96% to 32% using hybrid gold-VO{sub 2} nanowire and nanodisc arrays, respectively, by heating up the absorbers above the phase transition temperature of VO{sub 2} (68 °C). Phase change materials such as VO{sub 2} deliver useful means of altering optical properties as a function of temperature. Absorbers with tunable spectral response can find applications in sensor and detector applications, in which external stimulus such as heat, electrical signal, or light results in a change in the absorption spectrum and intensity.

  4. Removal of phenols and aromatic amines from wastewater by a combination treatment with tyrosinase and a coagulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wada, Shinji; Ichikawa, Hiroyasu; Tatsumi, Kenji )

    1995-02-20

    Removal of phenols and aromatic amines from industrial wastewater by tyrosinase was investigated. A color change from colorless to dark brown was observed, but no precipitate was formed. Colored products were found to be easily removed by a combination treatment with tyrosinase and a cationic polymer coagulant containing amino group, such as hexamethylenediamine-epichlorohidrin polycondensate, polyethleneimine, or chitosan. The first two coagulants, synthetic polymers, were more effective than chitosan, a polymer produced in crustacean shells. Phenols and aromatic amines are not precipitated by any kind of coagulants, but their enzymatic reaction products are easily precipitated by a cationic polymer coagulant. These results indicate that the combination of tyrosinase and a cationic polymer coagulant is effective in removing carcinogenic phenols and aromatic amines from an aqueous solution. Immobilization of tyrosinase on magnetite gave a good retention of activity (80%) and storage stability i.e., only 5% loss after 15 days of storage at ambient temperature. In the treatment of immobilized tyrosinase, colored enzymatic reaction products were removed by less coagulant compared with soluble tyrosinase.

  5. Final Report for the DOE-BES Program Mechanistic Studies of Activated Hydrogen Release from Amine-Boranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry G. Sneddon; R. Thomas Baker

    2013-01-13

    Effective storage of hydrogen presents one of the most significant technical gaps to successful implementation of the hydrogen economy, particularly for transportation applications. Amine boranes, such as ammonia borane H3NBH3 and ammonia triborane H3NB3H7, have been identified as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage media containing potentially readily released protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens. At the outset of our studies, dehydrogenation of ammonia borane had been studied primarily in the solid state, but our DOE sponsored work clearly demonstrated that ionic liquids, base-initiators and/or metal-catalysts can each significantly increase both the rate and extent of hydrogen release from amine boranes under moderate conditions. Our studies also showed that depending upon the activation method, hydrogen release from amine boranes can occur by very different mechanistic steps and yield different types of spent-fuel materials. The fundamental understanding that was developed during this grant of the pathways and controlling factors for each of these hydrogen-release mechanisms is now enabling continuing discovery and optimization of new chemical-hydride based hydrogen storage systems.

  6. Laboratory Studies of the Role of Amines in Particle Formation, Growth and Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2015-02-07

    Organosulfur compounds have a variety of sources, particularly biological processes in the oceans. Their oxidation in air forms sulfur dioxide, which is further oxidized to sulfuric acid, as well as methanesulfonic acid (MSA). While sulfuric acid is a well known precursor to particles in air, MSA had not been regarded as a source of new particle formation. Laboratory studies were carried out under this project that showed MSA forms new particles quite efficiently in the presence of amines and water vapor. The data could be reproduced with a relatively simple kinetics model representing cluster formation and growth, which is promising for representing this chemistry in global climate models. The initial steps in the kinetics scheme are based on quantum chemical calculations of likely clusters. The organosulfur chemistry was introduced into an atmospheric model for southern California and used to predict the impact of going to a fossil-fuel free world in which anthropogenic emissions of SO2 are removed, but the natural processes remain.

  7. The transformation of organic amines by transition metal cluster compounds: Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, R.D.

    1994-11-01

    Research during the current award period has covered several related topics which have emerged and grown as a consequence of the various discoveries that have been made during this award period. They have been divided into the following subsections for clarity and emphasis: The activation of tertiary amines by osmium cluster complexes; CH bond activation and ring opening of a nitrogen containing strained ring heterocycle by an osmium cluster complex; Ring opening of cyclic thioethers; cyclooligomerization of Thietanes; Studies of the cyclobutyne ligand; Insertion of an alkynes into metal-metal bonds; and Energy storage in metal clusters. A summary of the results of these studies is given in the following sections of this report. These studies have resulted in 50 scientific publications over the last three years and details of their studies beyond that given in the following sections can be found in those reports. All of these reports are listed in the final section of this report by the author`s names, title and journal citation.

  8. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide absorbents for lean-burn diesel engine emission control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2010-01-23

    It is known that sulfur oxides contribute significantly and deleteriously to the overall performance of lean-burn diesel engine aftertreatment systems, especially in the case of NOx traps. A Ag-based, fast regenerable SO2 absorbent has been developed and will be described. Over a temperature range of 300oC to 550oC, it absorbs almost all of the SO2 in the simulated exhaust gases during the lean cycles and can be fully regenerated by the short rich cycles at the same temperature. Its composition has been optimized as 1 wt% Pt-5wt%Ag-SiO2, and the preferred silica source for the supporting material has been identified as inert Cabosil fumed silica. The thermal instability of Ag2O under fuel-lean conditions at 230oC and above makes it possible to fast regenerate the sulfur-loaded absorbent during the following fuel-rich cycles. Pt catalyst helps reducing Ag2SO4 during rich cycles at low temperatures. And the chemically inert fumed SiO2 support gives the absorbent long term stability. This absorbent shows great potential to work under the same lean-rich cycling conditions as those imposed on the NOx traps, and thus, can protect the downstream particulate filter and the NOx trap from sulfur poisoning.

  9. Suppression of autophagy enhances the cytotoxicity of the DNA-damaging aromatic amine p-anilinoaniline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Althea; Reiners, John J.

    2008-10-15

    p-Anilinoaniline (pAA) is an aromatic amine that is widely used in hair dying applications. It is also a metabolite of metanil yellow, an azo dye that is commonly used as a food coloring agent. Concentrations of pAA between 10 and 25 {mu}M were cytostatic to cultures of the normal human mammary epithelia cell line MCF10A. Concentrations {>=} 50 {mu}M were cytotoxic. Cytostatic concentrations induced transient G{sub 1} and S cell cycle phase arrests; whereas cytotoxic concentrations induced protracted arrests. Cytotoxic concentrations of pAA caused DNA damage, as monitored by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay, and morphological changes consistent with cells undergoing apoptosis and/or autophagy. Enzymatic and western blot analyses, and binding analyses of fluorescent labeled VAD-FMK, suggested that caspase family members were activated by pAA. Western blot analyses documented the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, a post-translational modification involved in the development of the autophagosome. Suppression of autophagosome formation, via knockdown of ATG7 with shRNA, prevented pAA-induced vacuolization, enhanced the activation of pro-caspase-3, and increased susceptibility of ATG7-deficient cells to the cytostatic and cytotoxic activities of markedly lower concentrations of pAA. Cells stably transfected with a nonsense shRNA behaved like parental MCF10A cells. Collectively, these data suggest that MCF10A cultures undergo autophagy as a pro-survival response to concentrations of pAA sufficient to induce DNA damage.

  10. Advanced Amine Solvent Formulations and Process Integration for Near-Term CO2 Capture Success

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Kevin S.; Searcy, Katherine; Rochelle, Gary T.; Ziaii, Sepideh; Schubert, Craig

    2007-06-28

    This Phase I SBIR project investigated the economic and technical feasibility of advanced amine scrubbing systems for post-combustion CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Numerous combinations of advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were screened for energy requirements, and three cases were selected for detailed analysis: a monoethanolamine (MEA) base case and two advanced cases: an MEA/Piperazine (PZ) case, and a methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) / PZ case. The MEA/PZ and MDEA/PZ cases employed an advanced double matrix stripper configuration. The basis for calculations was a model plant with a gross capacity of 500 MWe. Results indicated that CO2 capture increased the base cost of electricity from 5 cents/kWh to 10.7 c/kWh for the MEA base case, 10.1 c/kWh for the MEA / PZ double matrix, and 9.7 c/kWh for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. The corresponding cost per metric tonne CO2 avoided was 67.20 $/tonne CO2, 60.19 $/tonne CO2, and 55.05 $/tonne CO2, respectively. Derated capacities, including base plant auxiliary load of 29 MWe, were 339 MWe for the base case, 356 MWe for the MEA/PZ double matrix, and 378 MWe for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. When compared to the base case, systems employing advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were estimated to reduce reboiler steam requirements by 20 to 44%, to reduce derating due to CO2 capture by 13 to 30%, and to reduce the cost of CO2 avoided by 10 to 18%. These results demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in the overall economics of CO2 capture via advanced solvent formulations and process configurations.

  11. Force reconstruction for impact tests of an energy-absorbing nose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bateman, V.I.; Garne, T.G.; McCall, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Delivery of a bomb into hard targets at speeds of up to 120 fps required the design of an energy-absorbing nose. The purpose of the nose is to decelerate the projectile and, by absorbing the kinetic energy with deformation, protect the projectile's internal components from high-level (shock) decelerations. A structural simulation of the projectile was designed to test the dynamic deformation characteristics of the energy-absorbing nose. The simulated projectile was instrumented with eight accelerometers mounted with a shock isolation technique. The dynamic force as a function of nose deformation was the desired result from the impact tests because it provides the designer with a performance criterion for the nose design. The dynamic force was obtained by combining the accelerations using the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). Results from two field tests are presented. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Synthesis of Numerical Methods for Modeling Wave Energy Converter-Point Absorbers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.; Yu, Y. H.

    2012-05-01

    During the past few decades, wave energy has received significant attention among all ocean energy formats. Industry has proposed hundreds of prototypes such as an oscillating water column, a point absorber, an overtopping system, and a bottom-hinged system. In particular, many researchers have focused on modeling the floating-point absorber as the technology to extract wave energy. Several modeling methods have been used such as the analytical method, the boundary-integral equation method, the Navier-Stokes equations method, and the empirical method. However, no standardized method has been decided. To assist the development of wave energy conversion technologies, this report reviews the methods for modeling the floating-point absorber.

  13. Remote disassembly of the absorber open-test assembly at the FFTF/IEM cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsey, E.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) interim examination and maintenance (IEM) cell is used for the remote disassembly of irradiated fuel and material experiments. The absorber open-test assembly (AOTA) is a 12-m (40-ft)-long instrumented absorber (control-rod-material) test assembly. Its primary purpose is to characterize the FFTF control-rod-material reaction rate during reactor operation. Instrumentation allowed temperature and pressure measurements at various locations in several absorber pins during reactor operation. After residing several months in the reactor, the assembly was transferred to the IEM cell by the closed-loop ex-vessel machine (CLEM) for separation of the irradiated portion of the experiment from the instrument stalk. After separation, the 3.6-m (12-ft)-long assembly was processed through the sodium removal system and shipped off-site for examination. This success allowed the timely completion of a major task on the FFTF operations schedule.

  14. Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yuping; Li, Tongtong; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Huiyun; O’Hara, John F.; Abele, Ethan; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Chen, Hou-Tong; Azad, Abul K.

    2015-12-22

    We design a dual-band absorber formed by combining two cross-shaped metallic resonators of different sizes within a super-unit-cell arranged in mirror symmetry. Simulations indicate that absorption efficiencies greater than 99% can be achieved at two different frequencies under normal incidence. We also employ a design scheme with graphene integration, which allows independent tuning of individual absorption frequencies by electrostatically changing the Fermi energy of the graphene layer. High absorbance is maintained over a wide incident angle range up to 50 degrees for both TE and TM polarizations. Thus, it enables a promising way to design electrically tunable absorbers, which may contribute toward the realization of frequency selective detectors for sensing applications.

  15. Independently tunable dual-band perfect absorber based on graphene at mid-infrared frequencies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Yuping; Li, Tongtong; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Huiyun; O’Hara, John F.; Abele, Ethan; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Chen, Hou-Tong; Azad, Abul K.

    2015-12-22

    We design a dual-band absorber formed by combining two cross-shaped metallic resonators of different sizes within a super-unit-cell arranged in mirror symmetry. Simulations indicate that absorption efficiencies greater than 99% can be achieved at two different frequencies under normal incidence. We also employ a design scheme with graphene integration, which allows independent tuning of individual absorption frequencies by electrostatically changing the Fermi energy of the graphene layer. High absorbance is maintained over a wide incident angle range up to 50 degrees for both TE and TM polarizations. Thus, it enables a promising way to design electrically tunable absorbers, which maymore » contribute toward the realization of frequency selective detectors for sensing applications.« less

  16. Simulation of spray drying absorber for removal of HC1 in flue gas from incinerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uchida, S.; Tsuchiga, K.

    1984-04-01

    A theoretical study on the spray drying absorber in an HC1 removal process by lime slurries has been performed with a mathematical model which describes heat and mass transfer and fluid flows in the absorber. From heat and mass balances and a force balance for a moving droplet in the absorber, a set of first-order, nonlinear differential equations relating the amount of water, the gas and droplet temperatures, the drop velocity, the HC1 partial pressure, etc., along the axial direction of the tower was formulated. These relationships were numerically solved to give characteristic profiles in the tower. The results of the simulation based on this model were compared with experimental data and showed satisfactory agreement.

  17. Experimental demonstration of ultrasensitive sensing with terahertz metamaterial absorbers: A comparison with the metasurfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cong, Longqing; Singh, Ranjan; Tan, Siyu; Yahiaoui, Riad; Yan, Fengping; Zhang, Weili

    2015-01-19

    Planar metasurfaces and plasmonic resonators have shown great promise for sensing applications across the electromagnetic domain ranging from the microwaves to the optical frequencies. However, these sensors suffer from lower figure of merit and sensitivity due to the radiative and the non-radiative loss channels in the plasmonic metamaterial systems. We demonstrate a metamaterial absorber based ultrasensitive sensing scheme at the terahertz frequencies with significantly enhanced sensitivity and an order of magnitude higher figure of merit compared to planar metasurfaces. Magnetic and electric resonant field enhancement in the impedance matched absorber cavity enables stronger interaction with the dielectric analyte. This finding opens up opportunities for perfect metamaterial absorbers to be applied as efficient sensors in the finger print region of the electromagnetic spectrum with several organic, explosive, and bio-molecules that have unique spectral signature at the terahertz frequencies.

  18. Critical experiments on an enriched uranium solution system containing periodically distributed strong thermal neutron absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1996-09-30

    A series of 62 critical and critical approach experiments were performed to evaluate a possible novel means of storing large volumes of fissile solution in a critically safe configuration. This study is intended to increase safety and economy through use of such a system in commercial plants which handle fissionable materials in liquid form. The fissile solution`s concentration may equal or slightly exceed the minimum-critical-volume concentration; and experiments were performed for high-enriched uranium solution. Results should be generally applicable in a wide variety of plant situations. The method is called the `Poisoned Tube Tank` because strong neutron absorbers (neutron poisons) are placed inside periodically spaced stainless steel tubes which separate absorber material from solution, keeping the former free of contamination. Eight absorbers are investigated. Both square and triangular pitched lattice patterns are studied. Ancillary topics which closely model typical plant situations are also reported. They include the effect of removing small bundles of absorbers as might occur during inspections in a production plant. Not taking the tank out of service for these inspections would be an economic advantage. Another ancillary topic studies the effect of the presence of a significant volume of unpoisoned solution close to the Poisoned Tube Tank on the critical height. A summary of the experimental findings is that boron compounds were excellent absorbers, as expected. This was true for granular materials such as Gerstley Borate and Borax; but it was also true for the flexible solid composed of boron carbide and rubber, even though only thin sheets were used. Experiments with small bundles of absorbers intentionally removed reveal that quite reasonable tanks could be constructed that would allow a few tubes at a time to be removed from the tank for inspection without removing the tank from production service.

  19. Expansion of Michigan EOR Operations Using Advanced Amine Technology at a 600 MW Project Wolverine Carbon Capture and Storage Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H Hoffman; Y kishinevsky; S. Wu; R. Pardini; E. Tripp; D. Barnes

    2010-06-16

    Wolverine Power Supply Cooperative Inc, a member owned cooperative utility based in Cadillac Michigan, proposes to demonstrate the capture, beneficial utilization and storage of CO{sub 2} in the expansion of existing Enhanced Oil Recovery operations. This project is being proposed in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000015 Section III D, 'Large Scale Industrial CCS projects from Industrial Sources' Technology Area 1. The project will remove 1,000 metric tons per day of CO{sub 2} from the Wolverine Clean Energy Venture 600 MW CFB power plant owned and operated by WPC. CO{sub 2} from the flue gas will be captured using Hitachi's CO{sub 2} capture system and advanced amine technology. The capture system with the advanced amine-based solvent supplied by Hitachi is expected to significantly reduce the cost and energy requirements of CO{sub 2} capture compared to current technologies. The captured CO{sub 2} will be compressed and transported for Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO{sub 2} storage purposes. Enhanced Oil Recovery is a proven concept, widely used to recover otherwise inaccessible petroleum reserves. While post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technologies have been tested at the pilot scale on coal power plant flue gas, they have not yet been demonstrated at a commercial scale and integrated with EOR and storage operations. Amine-based CO{sub 2} capture is the leading technology expected to be available commercially within this decade to enable CCS for utility and industrial facilities firing coal and waste fuels such as petroleum coke. However, traditional CO{sub 2} capture process utilizing commercial amine solvents is very energy intensive for regeneration and is also susceptible to solvent degradation by oxygen as well as SOx and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas, resulting in large operating costs. The large volume of combustion flue gas with its low CO{sub 2} concentration requires large equipment sizes, which together with the highly

  20. Photocurable acrylic composition, and U.V. curing with development of U.V. absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKoy, Vincent B.; Gupta, Amitava

    1992-01-01

    In-situ development of an ultraviolet absorber is provided by a compound such as a hydroxy-phenyl-triazole containing a group which protects the absorber during actinically activated polymerization by light at first frequency. After polymerization the protective group is removed by actinic reaction at a second frequency lower than the first frequency. The protective group is formed by replacing the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group with an acyl group containing 1 to 3 carbon atoms or an acryloxy group of the formula: ##STR1## where R.sup.1 is either an alkyl containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms or --CH.dbd.CH.sub.2.

  1. APPLICATION OF THE FIXED NEUTRON ABSORBER STANDARD ANSI/ANS-8.21

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TOFFER, H.

    2004-07-26

    The specific applications standard, ANSI/ANS-8.21, provides guidance and insight in the use of fixed neutron absorbers. Organizations involved with handling and processing fissionable material will benefit from the systematic guidance provided by the standard in implementing engineered criticality safety controls. Numerous applications have demonstrated the successful implementation of fixed neutron absorbers as engineered safety features replacing administrative controls and substantial increases in mass loading. Upgrading the scope and usefulness of the standard by expanding the appendices is in progress.

  2. On The short-term uncertainty in performance of a point absorber wave energy converter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ON THE SHORT-TERM UNCERTAINTY IN PERFORMANCE OF A POINT ABSORBER WAVE ENERGY CONVERTER Lance Manuel 1 and Jarred Canning University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX, USA Ryan G. Coe and Carlos Michelen Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM, USA 1 Corresponding author: lmanuel@mail.utexas.edu INTRODUCTION Of interest, in this study, is the quantification of uncertainty in the performance of a two-body wave point absorber (Reference Model 3 or RM3), which serves as a wave energy converter

  3. Preliminary Results of a RANS Simulation for a Floating Point Absorber Wave Energy System Under Extreme Wave Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Y.; Li, Y.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary study on the hydrodynamics of a moored floating-point absorber (FPA) wave energy system under extreme wave conditions.

  4. Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.

    1996-11-05

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

  5. Experimental study of a fiber absorber-suppressor modified Trombe wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, D; Birkebak, R C

    1982-12-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to ascertain the effects of introducing fiber bed absorbers on Trombe wall passive solar collectors. Two identical, Trombe wall passive solar units were constructed that incorporate the basic components of masonry collector-storage walls: glazings, masonry and thermal insulation. Both units were extensively instrumented with thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and insolation are also measured. In the first part of the study the two Trombe wall units were tested with a single glass cover. The thermal performance of both units was found to be virtually identical. In the second part of the study a single cover Trombe wall unit was compared with a double cover unit and the latter was found to have higher air gap and masonry wall temperatures and heat fluxes. In the final phase of the experiment, an absorbing, scattering and emitting fiberglass-like material was placed in the air gap of the single gazed wall. Tests were conducted to compare the solar-thermal performance, heat loss and gain characteristics between the units with and without the fiber absorber-suppressor. This experiment showed that the fiber bed served to decouple the wall at night from its exterior environment and to reduce the heat losses. The modified Trombe wall with the fiber absorber-suppressor out-performed the double glazed Trombe wall system by approximately ten percent gain in useable thermal energy. Also, the fiber bed eliminates one glazing thereby reducing system cost as well.

  6. Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2012-11-06

    Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

  7. Exploring Light's Interactions with Bubbles and Light Absorbers in Photoelectrochemical Devices using Ray Tracing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, John

    2013-12-31

    Ray tracing was used to perform optical optimization of arrays of photovoltaic microrods and explore the interaction between light and bubbles of oxygen gas on the surface of the microrods. The incident angle of light was varied over a wide range. The percent of incident light absorbed by the microrods and reflected by the bubbles was computed over this range. It was found that, for the 10 μm diameter, 100 μm tall SrTiO{sub 3} microrods simulated in the model, the optimal center-­‐to-­‐center spacing was 14 μm for a square grid. This geometry produced 75% average and 90% maximum absorbance. For a triangular grid using the same microrods, the optimal center-­‐to-­‐center spacing was 14 μm. This geometry produced 67% average and 85% maximum absorbance. For a randomly laid out grid of 5 μm diameter, 100 μm tall SrTiO! microrods with an average center-­‐to-­‐center spacing of 20 μm, the average absorption was 23% and the maximum absorption was 43%. For a 50% areal coverage fraction of bubbles on the absorber surface, between 2%-­‐20% of the incident light energy was reflected away from the rods by the bubbles, depending upon incident angle and bubble morphology.

  8. Absorbed dose rates in tissue from prompt gamma emissions from near-thermal neutron absorption

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwahn, Scott O.

    2015-10-01

    Prompt gamma emission data from the International Atomic Energy Agency s Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis database are analyzed to determine the absorbed dose rates in tissue to be expected when natural elements are exposed in a near-thermal neutron environment.

  9. Graphene based tunable fractal Hilbert curve array broadband radar absorbing screen for radar cross section reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xianjun; Hu, Zhirun; Liu, Peiguo

    2014-11-15

    This paper proposes a new type of graphene based tunable radar absorbing screen. The absorbing screen consists of Hilbert curve metal strip array and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene sheet. The graphene based screen is not only tunable when the chemical potential of the graphene changes, but also has broadband effective absorption. The absorption bandwidth is from 8.9GHz to 18.1GHz, ie., relative bandwidth of more than 68%, at chemical potential of 0eV, which is significantly wider than that if the graphene sheet had not been employed. As the chemical potential varies from 0 to 0.4eV, the central frequency of the screen can be tuned from 13.5GHz to 19.0GHz. In the proposed structure, Hilbert curve metal strip array was designed to provide multiple narrow band resonances, whereas the graphene sheet directly underneath the metal strip array provides tunability and averagely required surface resistance so to significantly extend the screen operation bandwidth by providing broadband impedance matching and absorption. In addition, the thickness of the screen has been optimized to achieve nearly the minimum thickness limitation for a nonmagnetic absorber. The working principle of this absorbing screen is studied in details, and performance under various incident angles is presented. This work extends applications of graphene into tunable microwave radar cross section (RCS) reduction applications.

  10. High Conduction Neutron Absorber to Simulate Fast Reactor Environment in an Existing Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guillen, Donna; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Parry, James

    2014-06-22

    A need was determined for a thermal neutron absorbing material that could be cooled in a gas reactor environment without using large amounts of a coolant that would thermalize the neutron flux. A new neutron absorbing material was developed that provided high conduction so a small amount of water would be sufficient for cooling thereby thermalizing the flux as little as possible. An irradiation experiment was performed to assess the effects of radiation and the performance of a new neutron absorbing material. Neutron fluence monitors were placed inside specially fabricated holders within a set of drop-in capsules and irradiated for up to four cycles in the Advanced Test Reactor. Following irradiation, the neutron fluence monitor wires were analyzed by gamma and x-ray spectrometry to determine the activities of the activation products. The adjusted neutron fluences were calculated and grouped into three bins – thermal, epithermal and fast to evaluate the spectral shift created by the new material. Fluence monitors were evaluated after four different irradiation periods to evaluate the effects of burn-up in the absorbing material. Additionally, activities of the three highest activity isotopes present in the specimens are given.

  11. Ultraviolet light absorbers having two different chromophors in the same molecule

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogl, Otto; Li, Shanjun

    1988-05-17

    Ultraviolet light absorbing compounds having two different chromophors in the same molecule, particularly the benzotriazole chromophor and either the dihydroxybenzophenone or dihydroxyacetophenone chromophor; specifically, the two compounds 3,5-[di(2H-benzotriazole-2-yl)]-2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone and 3,5-[di(2H-benzotriazole-2-yl)]2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone.

  12. Realizing thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles from commercially available planar circuit materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, Brian B; Whites, Kieth W; Radway, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    In this study, recent work on engineering R-card surface resistivity with printed metallic patterns is extended to the design of thin electromagnetic absorbers. Thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles and both polarizations have recently been computationally verified by Luukkonen et al.. These absorbers are analytically modeled high-impedance surfaces with capacitive arrays of square patches implemented with relatively high dielectric constant and high loss substrate. However, the advantages provided by the accurate analytical model are largely negated by the need to obtain high dielectric constant material with accurately engineered loss. Fig. I(c) illustrates full-wave computational results for an absorber without vias engineered as proposed by Luukkonen et al.. Unique values for the dielectric loss are required for different center frequencies. Parameters for the capacitive grid are D=5.0 mm and w=O.l mm for a center frequency of 3.36 GHz. The relative permittivity and thickness is 9.20(1-j0.234) and 1=3.048 mm. Consider a center frequency of5.81 GHz and again 1=3.048 mm, the required parameters for the capacitive grid are D=2.0 mm and w=0.2 mm where the required relative permittivity is now 9.20(1-j0.371) Admittedly, engineered dielectrics are themselves a historically interesting and fruitful research area which benefits today from advances in monolithic fabrication using direct-write of dielectrics with nanometer scale inclusions. However, our objective in the present study is to realize the advantages of the absorber proposed by Luukkonen et al. without resort to engineered lossy dielectrics. Specifically we are restricted to commercially available planer circuit materials without use of in-house direct-write technology or materials engineering capability. The materials considered here are TMM 10 laminate with (35 {mu}lm copper cladding with a complex permittivity 9.20-j0.0022) and Ohmegaply resistor conductor material (maximum 250 {Omega

  13. Extraction of Cesium by a Calix[4]arene-Crown-6 Ether Bearing a Pendant amine Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, Ben; Ensor, Dale; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Moyer, Bruce A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the role of the amino group of 5-aminomethylcalix[4]arene-[bis-4-(2-ethylhexyl)benzo-crown-6] (AMBEHB) in the extraction of cesium from acidic and basic mixtures of sodium nitrate and other concentrated salts. The extraction of cesium from nitrate media was measured as a function of extractant concentration, nitrate concentration, cesium concentration, and pH over the range 1-13. The initial studies showed a moderate decrease in the extraction of cesium in acidic media, which indicated the binding of cesium by the calixarene-crown was weakened by the protonation of the amine group. The results also indicated that a 1:1:1 Cs-ligand-nitrate complex is formed in the organic phase. To further evaluate AMBEHB, the empirical data were mathematically modeled to determine the formation constants of the complexes formed in the organic phase. The resulting formation constants showed that the attachment of the amine group to the calixarene-crown molecule reduced the binding stability for the cesium ion upon contact with an acidic solution. This supports the hypothesis of charge repulsion as the basis for more efficient stripping of cesium via pH-switching.

  14. Encapsulation and Characterization of Proton-Bound Amine Homodimers in a Water Soluble, Self-Assembled Supramolecular Host

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pluth, Michael; Fiedler, Dorothea; Mugridge, Jeffrey; Bergman, Robert; Raymond, Kenneth

    2008-10-01

    Cyclic amines can be encapsulated in a water-soluble self-assembled supramolecular host upon protonation. The hydrogen bonding ability of the cyclic amines, as well as the reduced degrees of rotational freedom, allows for the formation of proton-bound homodimers inside of the assembly which are otherwise not observable in aqueous solution. The generality of homodimer formation was explored with small N-alkyl aziridines, azetidines, pyrrolidines and piperidines. Proton-bound homodimer formation is observed for N-alkylaziridines (R = methyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl), N-alkylazetidines (R = isopropyl, tertbutyl), and N-methylpyrrolidine. At high concentration, formation of a proton-bound homotrimer is observed in the case of N-methylaziridine. The homodimers stay intact inside the assembly over a large concentration range, thereby suggesting cooperative encapsulation. Both G3(MP2)B3 and G3B3 calculations of the proton-bound homodimers were used to investigate the enthalpy of the hydrogen bond in the proton-bound homodimers and suggest that the enthalpic gain upon formation of the proton-bound homodimers may drive guest encapsulation.

  15. A TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AMINE-BASED CO2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY FOR POWER PLANT GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward S. Rubin; Anand B. Rao

    2002-10-01

    Capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel power plants is gaining widespread interest as a potential method of controlling greenhouse gas emissions. Performance and cost models of an amine (MEA)-based CO{sub 2} absorption system for post-combustion flue gas applications have been developed, and integrated with an existing power plant modeling framework that includes multi-pollutant control technologies for other regulated emissions. The integrated model has been applied to study the feasibility and cost of carbon capture and sequestration at both new and existing coal-burning power plants. The cost of carbon avoidance was shown to depend strongly on assumptions about the reference plant design, details of the CO{sub 2} capture system design, interactions with other pollution control systems, and method of CO{sub 2} storage. The CO{sub 2} avoidance cost for retrofit systems was found to be generally higher than for new plants, mainly because of the higher energy penalty resulting from less efficient heat integration, as well as site-specific difficulties typically encountered in retrofit applications. For all cases, a small reduction in CO{sub 2} capture cost was afforded by the SO{sub 2} emission trading credits generated by amine-based capture systems. Efforts are underway to model a broader suite of carbon capture and sequestration technologies for more comprehensive assessments in the context of multi-pollutant environmental management.

  16. Comparisons of amine solvents for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture: A multi-objective analysis approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Anita S; Eslick, John C; Miller, David C; Kitchin, John R

    2013-10-01

    Amine solvents are of great interest for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture applications. Although the development of new solvents is predominantly conducted at the laboratory scale, the ability to assess the performance of newly developed solvents at the process scale is crucial to identifying the best solvents for CO{sub 2} capture. In this work we present a methodology to evaluate and objectively compare the process performance of different solvents. We use Aspen Plus, with the electrolyte-NRTL thermodynamic model for the solvent CO{sub 2} interactions, coupled with a multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization to determine the best process design and operating conditions for each solvent. This ensures that the processes utilized for the comparison are those which are best suited for the specific solvent. We evaluate and compare the process performance of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) in a 90% CO{sub 2} capture process from a 550 MW coal fired power plant. From our analysis the best process specifications are amine specific and with those specific, optimized specifications DEA has the potential to be a better performing solvent than MEA, with a lower energy penalty and lower capital cost investment.

  17. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  18. Photocurable acrylic composition, and U. V. curing with development of U. V. absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKoy, V.B.; Gupta, A.

    1992-08-25

    In-situ development of an ultraviolet absorber is provided by a compound such as a hydroxy-phenyl-triazole containing a group which protects the absorber during actinically activated polymerization by light at first frequency. After polymerization the protective group is removed by actinic reaction at a second frequency lower than the first frequency. The protective group is formed by replacing the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group with an acyl group containing 1 to 3 carbon atoms or an acryloxy group of the formula shown in a figure where R[sup 1] is either an alkyl containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms or --CH[double bond]CH[sub 2]. 2 figs.

  19. Method for fabricating reticles for EUV lithography without the use of a patterned absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stearns, Daniel G.; Sweeney, Donald W.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.

    2003-10-21

    Absorber material used in conventional EUVL reticles is eliminated by introducing a direct modulation in the complex-valued reflectance of the multilayer. A spatially localized energy source such as a focused electron or ion beam directly writes a reticle pattern onto the reflective multilayer coating. Interdiffusion is activated within the film by an energy source that causes the multilayer period to contract in the exposed regions. The contraction is accurately determined by the energy dose. A controllable variation in the phase and amplitude of the reflected field in the reticle plane is produced by the spatial modulation of the multilayer period. This method for patterning an EUVL reticle has the advantages of (1) avoiding the process steps associated with depositing and patterning an absorber layer and (2) providing control of the phase and amplitude of the reflected field with high spatial resolution.

  20. EUV lithography reticles fabricated without the use of a patterned absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stearns, Daniel G.; Sweeney, Donald W.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.

    2006-05-23

    Absorber material used in conventional EUVL reticles is eliminated by introducing a direct modulation in the complex-valued reflectance of the multilayer. A spatially localized energy source such as a focused electron or ion beam directly writes a reticle pattern onto the reflective multilayer coating. Interdiffusion is activated within the film by an energy source that causes the multilayer period to contract in the exposed regions. The contraction is accurately determined by the energy dose. A controllable variation in the phase and amplitude of the reflected field in the reticle plane is produced by the spatial modulation of the multilayer period. This method for patterning an EUVL reticle has the advantages (1) avoiding the process steps associated with depositing and patterning an absorber layer and (2) providing control of the phase and amplitude of the reflected field with high spatial resolution.

  1. FERRITE-LINED HOM ABSORBER FOR THE E-COOL ERL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAHN,H.

    2007-06-25

    An R&D Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) intended as step towards electron-cooling of RHIC-II is being constructed at this laboratory. The center piece of the project is the experimental 5-cell 703.75 MHz superconducting ECX cavity. Successful operation will depend on effective NOM suppression, and it is planned to achieve NOM damping exclusively with room temperature ferrite absorbers. A ferrite-lined pillbox test model with dimensions reflecting the operational unit was assembled and attached to the 5-cell copper cavity. The cavity resonances of the lowest dipole and monopole modes and their damping due to the ferrite were determined. The effective ferrite properties in a form portable to other structures were obtained from network analyzer measurements of the ferrite absorber models and their interpretation with the simulation code Microwave Studio.

  2. Incident angle insensitive tunable multichannel perfect absorber consisting of nonlinear plasma and matching metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, Xiang-kun; Liu, Shao-Bin Bian, Bo-rui; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Hai-feng

    2014-12-15

    A novel, compact, and multichannel nonreciprocal absorber through a wave tunneling mechanism in epsilon-negative and matching metamaterials is theoretically proposed. Nonreciprocal absorption properties are acquired via the coupling together of evanescent and propagating waves in an asymmetric configuration, constituted of nonlinear plasma alternated with matching metamaterial. The absorption channel number can be adjusted by changing the periodic number. Due to the positive feedback between nonlinear permittivity of plasma and the inner electric field, bistable absorption and reflection are achieved. Moreover, compared with some truncated photonic crystal or multilayered designs proposed before, our design is more compact and independent of incident angle or polarization. This kind of multilayer structure offers additional opportunities to design novel omnidirectional electromagnetic wave absorbers.

  3. Cyanine dyes with high-absorbance cross section as donor chromophores in energy transfer labels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glazer, A.N.; Mathies, R.A.; Hung, S.C.; Ju, J.

    1998-12-29

    Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures. 22 figs.

  4. Cyanine dyes with high-absorbance cross section as donor chromophores in energy transfer labels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Mathies, Richard A.; Hung, Su-Chun; Ju, Jingyue

    1998-01-01

    Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures.

  5. LBNF Hadron Absorber: Mechanical Design and Analysis for 2.4MW Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartsell, B.; Anderson, K.; Hylen, J.; Sidorov, V.; Tariq, S.

    2015-06-01

    Fermilab’s Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) requires an absorber, essentially a large beam dump consisting of actively cooled aluminum and steel blocks, at the end of the decay pipe to stop leftover beam particles and provide radiation protection to people and groundwater. At LBNF’s final beam power of 2.4 MW and assuming the worst case condition of a 204 m long helium filled decay pipe, the absorber is required to handle a heat load of about 750 kW. This results in significant thermal management challenges which have been mitigated by the addition of an aluminum ‘spoiler’ and ‘sculpting’ the central portion of the aluminum core blocks. These thermal effects induce structural stresses which can lead to fatigue and creep considerations. Various accident conditions are considered and safety systems are planned to monitor operation and any accident pulses. Results from these thermal and structural analyses will be presented as well as the mechanical design of the absorber. The design allows each of the core blocks to be remotely removed and replaced if necessary. A shielded remote handling structure is incorporated to hold the hadron monitor when it is removed from the beam.

  6. THE NATURE OF DAMPED LYMAN-α AND Mg II ABSORBERS EXPLORED THROUGH THEIR DUST CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukugita, Masataka; Ménard, Brice

    2015-02-01

    We estimate the abundance of dust in damped Lyman-α absorbers (DLAs) by statistically measuring the excess reddening they induce on their background quasars. We detect systematic reddening behind DLAs consistent with the SMC-type reddening curve and inconsistent with the Milky Way type. We find that the derived dust-to-gas ratio is, on average, inversely proportional to the column density of neutral hydrogen, implying that the amount of dust is constant, regardless of the column density of hydrogen. It means that the average metallicity is inversely proportional to the column density of hydrogen, unless the average dust-to-metal ratio varies with the hydrogen column density. This indicates that the prime origin of metals seen in DLAs is not by in situ star formation, with which Z∼N{sub H} {sub I}{sup +0.4} is expected from the empirical star formation law, contrary to our observation. We interpret the metals observed in absorbers to be deposited dominantly from nearby galaxies by galactic winds ubiquitous in intergalactic space. When extrapolating the relation between dust-to-gas ratio and H I column density to lower column density, we find a value that is consistent with what is observed for Mg II absorbers.

  7. IRRADIATION TESTING OF THE RERTR FUEL MINIPLATES WITH BURNABLE ABSORBERS IN THE ADVANCED TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. Glagolenko; D. Wachs; N. Woolstenhulme; G. Chang; B. Rabin; C. Clark; T. Wiencek

    2010-10-01

    Based on the results of the reactor physics assessment, conversion of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) can be potentially accomplished in two ways, by either using U-10Mo monolithic or U-7Mo dispersion type plates in the ATR fuel element. Both designs, however, would require incorporation of the burnable absorber in several plates of the fuel element to compensate for the excess reactivity and to flatten the radial power profile. Several different types of burnable absorbers were considered initially, but only borated compounds, such as B4C, ZrB2 and Al-B alloys, were selected for testing primarily due to the length of the ATR fuel cycle and fuel manufacturing constraints. To assess and compare irradiation performance of the U-Mo fuels with different burnable absorbers we have designed and manufactured 28 RERTR miniplates (20 fueled and 8 non-fueled) containing fore-mentioned borated compounds. These miniplates will be tested in the ATR as part of the RERTR-13 experiment, which is described in this paper. Detailed plate design, compositions and irradiations conditions are discussed.

  8. Benchmark Evaluation of the HTR-PROTEUS Absorber Rod Worths (Core 4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

    2014-06-01

    PROTEUS was a zero-power research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. The critical assembly was constructed from a large graphite annulus surrounding a central cylindrical cavity. Various experimental programs were investigated in PROTEUS; during the years 1992 through 1996, it was configured as a pebble-bed reactor and designated HTR-PROTEUS. Various critical configurations were assembled with each accompanied by an assortment of reactor physics experiments including differential and integral absorber rod measurements, kinetics, reaction rate distributions, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects [1]. Four benchmark reports were previously prepared and included in the March 2013 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook) [2] evaluating eleven critical configurations. A summary of that effort was previously provided [3] and an analysis of absorber rod worth measurements for Cores 9 and 10 have been performed prior to this analysis and included in PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-004 [4]. In the current benchmark effort, absorber rod worths measured for Core Configuration 4, which was the only core with a randomly-packed pebble loading, have been evaluated for inclusion as a revision to the HTR-PROTEUS benchmark report PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-002.

  9. Improved high temperature solar absorbers for use in Concentrating Solar Power central receiver applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Lambert, Timothy L.; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Bencomo, Marlene

    2010-09-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar absorbers to convert the heat from sunlight to electric power. Increased operating temperatures are necessary to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity by improving efficiencies and reducing thermal energy storage costs. Durable new materials are needed to cope with operating temperatures >600 C. The current coating technology (Pyromark High Temperature paint) has a solar absorptance in excess of 0.95 but a thermal emittance greater than 0.8, which results in large thermal losses at high temperatures. In addition, because solar receivers operate in air, these coatings have long term stability issues that add to the operating costs of CSP facilities. Ideal absorbers must have high solar absorptance (>0.95) and low thermal emittance (<0.05) in the IR region, be stable in air, and be low-cost and readily manufacturable. We propose to utilize solution-based synthesis techniques to prepare intrinsic absorbers for use in central receiver applications.

  10. PEDOT:PSS emitters on multicrystalline silicon thin-film absorbers for hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junghanns, Marcus; Plentz, Jonathan Andrä, Gudrun; Gawlik, Annett; Höger, Ingmar; Falk, Fritz

    2015-02-23

    We fabricated an efficient hybrid solar cell by spin coating poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on planar multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) thin films. The only 5 μm thin Si absorber layers were prepared by diode laser crystallization of amorphous Si deposited by electron beam evaporation on glass. On these absorber layers, we studied the effect of SiO{sub x} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} terminated Si surfaces. The short circuit density and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the mc-Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PEDOT:PSS solar cell increase from 20.6 to 25.4 mA/cm{sup 2} and from 7.3% to 10.3%, respectively, as compared to the mc-Si/SiO{sub x}/PEDOT:PSS cell. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} lowers the interface recombination and improves the adhesion of the polymer film on the hydrophobic mc-Si thin film. Open circuit voltages up to 604 mV were reached. This study demonstrates the highest PCE so far of a hybrid solar cell with a planar thin film Si absorber.

  11. Characterization and device performance of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanket, Gregory; Boyle, Jonathan H.; Shafarman, William N.

    2009-06-08

    The study of (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layers is of interest in that Ag-chalcopyrites exhibit both wider bandgaps and lower melting points than their Cu counterparts. (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 absorber layers were deposited over the composition range 0 < Ag/(Ag+Cu) < 1 and 0.3 < Ga/(In+Ga) < 1.0 using a variety of elemental co-evaporation processes. Films were found to be singlephase over the entire composition range, in contrast to prior studies. Devices with Ga content 0.3 < Ga/(In+Ga) <0.5 tolerated Ag incorporation up to Ag/(Ag+Cu) = 0.5 without appreciable performance loss. Ag-containing films with Ga/(In+Ga) = 0.8 showed improved device characteristics over Cu-only control samples, in particular a 30-40% increase in short-circuit current. An absorber layer with composition Ag/(Ag+Cu) = 0.75 and Ga/(In+Ga) = 0.8 yielded a device with VOC = 890 mV, JSC = 20.5mA/cm2, fill factor = 71.3%, and ? = 13.0%.

  12. Effects of O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} on the Capture Capacity of a Primary-Amine Based Polymeric CO{sub 2} Sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallenbeck, Alexander P; Kitchin, John R

    2013-08-01

    Post combustion CO{sub 2} capture is most commonly carried out using an amine solution that results in a high parasitic energy cost in the stripper unit due to the need to heat the water which comprises a majority of the amine solution. It is also well known that amine solvents suffer from stability issues due to amine leaching and poisoning by flue gas impurities. Solid sorbents provide an alternative to solvent systems that would potentially reduce the energy penalty of carbon capture. However, the cost of using a particular sorbent is greatly affected by the usable lifetime of the sorbent. This work investigated the stability of a primary amine-functionalized ion exchange resin in the presence of O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, both of which are constituents of flue gas that have been shown to cause degradation of various amines in solvent processes. The CO{sub 2} capture capacity was measured over multiple capture cycles under continuous exposure to two simulated flue gas streams, one containing 12 vol% CO{sub 2}, 4% O{sub 2}, 84% N{sub 2}, and the other containing 12.5 vol% CO{sub 2}, 4% O{sub 2}, 431 ppm SO{sub 2}, balance N{sub 2} using a custom-built packed bed reactor. The resin maintained its CO{sub 2} capture capacity of 1.31 mol/kg over 17 capture cycles in the presence of O{sub 2} without SO{sub 2}. However, the CO{sub 2} capture capacity of the resin decreased rapidly under exposure to SO{sub 2} by an amount of 1.3 mol/kg over 9 capture cycles. Elemental analysis revealed the resin adsorbed 1.0 mol/kg of SO{sub 2}. Thermal regeneration was determined to not be possible. The poisoned resin was, however, partially regenerated with exposure to 1.5M NaOH for 3 days resulting in a 43% removal of sulfur, determined through elemental analysis, and a 35% recovery of CO{sub 2} capture capacity. Evidence was also found for amine loss upon prolonged (7 days) continuous exposure to high temperatures (120 C) in air. It is concluded that desulfurization of the flue gas

  13. Coupling reactions of phenylacetylene with water, hydrogen sulfide and primary amines mediated by a Ru(II) phenylvinylidene complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchini, C.; Peruzzini, M.; Zanobini, F. [Istituto per lo Studio della Stereochimica ed Energetica dei Composti di Coordinazione, Florence (Italy)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The Ru(II) fragment [(PNP)RuCl{sub 2}] assists the reaction of phenylacetylene with water, hydrogen sulfide and primary amines to give carbonyl, {eta}{sup 1}-benzylthioaldehyde, and isonitrile complexes, respectively [PNP = CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PPh{sub 2}){sub 2}]. In all of these processes, the reaction is initiated by the 1-alkyne to vinylidene tautomerization at the Ru(II) center, followed by attack of the H{sub 2}Z molecule (Z = O, S, NR) on the vinylidene ligand. The mechanisms which account for these transformations have been completely elucidated and several of the intermediates in these reactions have been isolated and fully characterized. The scope of these reactions in view of their potential applications in organic syntheses involving thioaldehydes and optically pure isonitriles will be briefly presented.

  14. Protonation Studies of a Mono-Dinitrogen Complex of Chromium Supported by a 12-Membered Phosphorus Macrocycle Containing Pendant Amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mock, Michael T.; Pierpont, Aaron W.; Egbert, Jonathan D.; O'Hagan, Molly J.; Chen, Shentan; Bullock, R. Morris; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; Rousseau, Roger J.

    2015-05-18

    The first example of a mono-dinitrogen Cr0 complex, Cr(N2)(dmpe)(PPh3NBn3), 2(N2), (PPh3NBn3 = 1,5,9-tribenzyl-3,7,11-triphenyl-1,5,9-triaza-3,7,11-triphosphacyclododecane; dmpe = 1,2-bis(dimethylphosphino)ethane) containing a pentaphosphine coordination environment is described. 2(N2) is supported by a unique facially coordinating 12-membered phosphorus macrocycle containing pendant amine groups in the second coordination sphere. Treatment of 2(N2) at -78 C with 1 equiv of [H(OEt2)2][B(C6F5)4] results in protonation of the metal center, generating the 7-coordinate Cr(II)-N2 hydride complex, [Cr(H)(N2)(dmpe)(PPh3NBn3)][B(C6F5)4], [2(H)(N2)]+. Treatment of 2(15N2) with excess triflic acid at -50 C afforded a trace amount of 15NH4+ from the reduction of the coordinated 15N2 ligand (electrons originate from Cr). Augmenting the acid reactivity studies, electronic structure calculations evaluated the pKa values of three sites of 2(N2) (metal center, pendant amine, and N2 ligand) to elucidate possible Cr-NxHy intermediates involved in the N2 reduction pathways from the protonation of 2(N2). This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crane, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  16. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crane, T.W.

    1983-12-21

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  17. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.; Marsala, Joseph

    1994-11-29

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium.

  18. Effects Influencing Plutonium-Absorber Interactions and Distributions in Routine and Upset Waste Treatment Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Fiskum, Sandra K.

    2015-05-01

    This report is the third in a series of analyses written in support of a plan to revise the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) that is being implemented at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Criticality Safety Group. A report on the chemical disposition of plutonium in Hanford tank wastes was prepared as Phase 1 of this plan (Delegard and Jones 2015). Phase 2 is the provision of a chemistry report to describe the potential impacts on criticality safety of waste processing operations within the WTP (Freer 2014). In accordance with the request from the Environmental and Nuclear Safety Department of the WTP (Miles and Losey 2012), the Phase 2 report assessed the potential for WTP process conditions within and outside the range of normal control parameters to change the ratio of fissile material to neutron-absorbing material in the waste as it is processed with an eye towards potential implications for criticality safety. The Phase 2 study also considered the implications should WTP processes take place within the credible range of chemistry upset conditions. In the present Phase 3 report, the 28 phenomena described in the Phase 2 report were considered with respect to the disposition of plutonium and various absorber elements. The phenomena identified in the Phase 2 report are evaluated in light of the Phase 1 report and other resources to determine the impacts these phenomena might have to alter the plutonium/absorber dispositions and ratios. The outcomes of the Phase 3 evaluations then can be used to inform subsequent engineering decisions and provide reasonable paths forward to mitigate or overcome real or potential criticality concern in plant operations.

  19. TABLES OF RADIATION ABSORBED DOSE TO THE EMBRYO/FETUS FROM RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TABLES OF RADIATION ABSORBED DOSE TO THE EMBRYO/FETUS FROM RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS LATEST REVISION DATE: 1/21/98 The material in this document is taken from the Master's thesis of Ms. Joy Russell (University of Tennessee, Master's Degree conferred August 1995). The data below, and the methods and assumptions used to derive them, are published in two documents in the Health Physics Journal (73(5):747-755, 1997 and 73(5):756-769, 1997) and also in the Proceedings of the Sixth International

  20. Cooling systems and hybrid A/C systems using an electromagnetic radiation-absorbing complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2015-05-19

    A method for powering a cooling unit. The method including applying electromagnetic (EM) radiation to a complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, transforming, using the heat generated by the complex, a fluid to vapor, and sending the vapor from the vessel to a turbine coupled to a generator by a shaft, where the vapor causes the turbine to rotate, which turns the shaft and causes the generator to generate the electric power, wherein the electric powers supplements the power needed to power the cooling unit

  1. Complex absorbing potential based Lorentzian fitting scheme and time dependent quantum transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Hang Kwok, Yanho; Chen, GuanHua; Jiang, Feng; Zheng, Xiao

    2014-10-28

    Based on the complex absorbing potential (CAP) method, a Lorentzian expansion scheme is developed to express the self-energy. The CAP-based Lorentzian expansion of self-energy is employed to solve efficiently the Liouville-von Neumann equation of one-electron density matrix. The resulting method is applicable for both tight-binding and first-principles models and is used to simulate the transient currents through graphene nanoribbons and a benzene molecule sandwiched between two carbon-atom chains.

  2. Laser-generated cavitation in absorbing liquid induced by acoustic diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenz, M.; Paltauf, G.; Schmidt-Kloiber, H.

    1996-05-01

    Conversion of energy from a heat pulse to acoustic stress is theoretically and experimentally studied in detail. The heat pulse was generated by laser radiation delivered via an optical fiber into an absorbing liquid. The experimental results indicate that tensile stress and cavitation are induced in front of the fiber tip at a distance far below the optical penetration depth of the laser radiation. The occurrence of tensile stress in the acoustic near fieldof a submerged fiber is explained by acoustic diffraction of the thermoelastic expansion wave. Good agreement between experimental results and theoretical calculations based on a three-dimensional model was found. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. Deterministic absorbed dose estimation in computed tomography using a discrete ordinates method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Edward T.; Liu, Xin; Hsieh, Jiang

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Organ dose estimation for a patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scanning is very important. Although Monte Carlo methods are considered gold-standard in patient dose estimation, the computation time required is formidable for routine clinical calculations. Here, the authors instigate a deterministic method for estimating an absorbed dose more efficiently. Methods: Compared with current Monte Carlo methods, a more efficient approach to estimating the absorbed dose is to solve the linear Boltzmann equation numerically. In this study, an axial CT scan was modeled with a software package, Denovo, which solved the linear Boltzmann equation using the discrete ordinates method. The CT scanning configuration included 16 x-ray source positions, beam collimators, flat filters, and bowtie filters. The phantom was the standard 32 cm CT dose index (CTDI) phantom. Four different Denovo simulations were performed with different simulation parameters, including the number of quadrature sets and the order of Legendre polynomial expansions. A Monte Carlo simulation was also performed for benchmarking the Denovo simulations. A quantitative comparison was made of the simulation results obtained by the Denovo and the Monte Carlo methods. Results: The difference in the simulation results of the discrete ordinates method and those of the Monte Carlo methods was found to be small, with a root-mean-square difference of around 2.4%. It was found that the discrete ordinates method, with a higher order of Legendre polynomial expansions, underestimated the absorbed dose near the center of the phantom (i.e., low dose region). Simulations of the quadrature set 8 and the first order of the Legendre polynomial expansions proved to be the most efficient computation method in the authors’ study. The single-thread computation time of the deterministic simulation of the quadrature set 8 and the first order of the Legendre polynomial expansions was 21 min on a personal computer

  4. Experimental Wave Tank Test for Reference Model 3 Floating-Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experimental Wave Tank Test for Reference Model 3 Floating- Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter Project Y.-H. Yu, M. Lawson, and Y. Li National Renewable Energy Laboratory M. Previsic and J. Epler Re Vision Consulting J. Lou Oregon State University Technical Report NREL/TP-5000-62951 January 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no

  5. Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing, E-mail: liy@ecu.edu [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)] [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.420?kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ?20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

  6. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigated for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOEup to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.

  7. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigated for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.

  8. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Munley, John T.; Nelson, Danny A.; Qiao, Hong; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-17

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids, producing a small atomic uranium vapor plume. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. LAARS has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for U-235. The sample is scanned and assayed point-by-point at rates reaching 1 million measurements/hour, enabling LAARS to detect and analyze uranium in trace samples. The spectrometer is assembled using primarily commercially available components and features a compact design and automated analysis.Two specific gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) applications of the spectrometer are currently under development: 1) LAARS-Environmental Sampling (ES), which collects and analyzes aerosol particles for GCEP misuse detection and 2) LAARS-Destructive Assay (DA), which enables onsite enrichment DA sample collection and analysis for protracted diversion detection. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in GCEP safeguards verification.

  9. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigatedmore » for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.« less

  10. ATR LEU Monolithic Foil-Type Fuel with Integral Cladding Burnable Absorber Neutronics Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray Chang

    2012-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), currently operating in the United States, is used for material testing at very high neutron fluxes. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting HEU driven reactor cores to low-enriched uranium (LEU) cores. The burnable absorber - 10B, was added in the inner and outer plates to reduce the initial excess reactivity, and to improve the peak ratio of the inner/outer heat flux. The present work investigates the LEU Monolithic foil-type fuel with 10B Integral Cladding Burnable Absorber (ICBA) design and evaluates the subsequent neutronics operating effects of this proposed fuel designs. The proposed LEU fuel specification in this work is directly related to both the RERTR LEU Development Program and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) LEU Conversion Project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL).