National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for amine absorbent cxs

  1. amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Deog Ki

    IP [2012] 7 C O 2 (CO2) . CO2 amine methanol, ether . Amine amine CO2 CO2 .Amine CO2 (functional group) amine amine+ +promoter .Amine CO2 CO2 . . , methanol ether methanol, ether promoter CO2 CO2 H2S, COS CO2 . Methanol rectisol process, di-methylene ether polypropylene glycol selexol (-30oC) . CO2

  2. Treat LPGs with amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, R.B.; Rogers, J.; Bullin, J.A.; Duewall, K.J.

    1997-09-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in sweetening liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs) with amines. However, limited data and design information are available in the literature. This article reviews the fundamental aspects of LPG amine treaters and includes guidelines, design considerations and alternatives for static mixers, jet eductor mixers and columns with structured packing, random packing and sieve trays. All of these current design methods are compared based on plant operating data. Guidelines are given for sweetening LPGs with amines including amine type, concentration, filtration, temperature, loading, circulation rate and water-wash systems. Also covered is the contacting method used in the absorber. Any of the commonly available amines such as monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), diglycolamine (DGA), methyl diethanolamine (MDEA) and MDEA-based solvents usually perform satisfactorily. Design criteria for distributors and LPG disperser plates, amine filtration and LPG settlers and coalescers are important. The contacting method is also important and includes jet eductor mixers, static mixers, and columns with sieve trays, random packing and structured packing.

  3. Amine salts of nitroazoles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kienyin Lee; Stinecipher, M.M.

    1993-10-26

    Compositions of matter, a method of providing chemical energy by burning said compositions, and methods of making said compositions are described. These compositions are amine salts of nitroazoles. 1 figure.

  4. High capacity immobilized amine sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahan L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Fredericktown, PA); Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Filburn, Thomas (Granby, CT)

    2007-10-30

    A method is provided for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The improved method entails treating an amine to increase the number of secondary amine groups and impregnating the amine in a porous solid support. The method increases the CO.sub.2 capture capacity and decreases the cost of utilizing an amine-enriched solid sorbent in CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  5. Amine-Amine Exchange in Aminium-Methanesulfonate Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, Matthew L.; Varner, Mychel E.; Perraud, Veronique M.; Ezell, Michael J.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Gerber, Robert B.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2014-12-18

    Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have been shown to impact the Earth’s climate, reduce visibility, and adversely affect human health. Modeling the evolution of aerosol systems requires an understanding of the species and mechanisms involved in particle growth, including the complex interactions between particle- and gas-phase species. Here we report studies of displacement of amines (methylamine, dimethylamine or trimethylamine) in methanesulfonate salt particles by exposure to a different gas-phase amine, using a single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT II. The variation of the displacement with the nature of the amine suggests that behavior is dependent on water in or on the particles. Small clusters of methanesulfonic acid with amines are used as a model in quantum chemical calculations to identify key structural elements that are expected to influence water uptake, and hence the efficiency of displacement by gas-phase molecules in the aminium salts. Such molecular-level understanding of the processes affecting the ability of gas-phase amines to displace particle-phase aminium species is important for modeling the growth of particles and their impacts in the atmosphere.

  6. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  7. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishimoto, S.

    2010-01-01

    REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

  8. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guillen, Donna P. (Idaho Falls, ID); Longhurst, Glen R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Porter, Douglas L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parry, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  9. Externally tuned vibration absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vincent, Ronald J. (Latham, NY)

    1987-09-22

    A vibration absorber unit or units are mounted on the exterior housing of a hydraulic drive system of the type that is powered from a pressure wave generated, e.g., by a Stirling engine. The hydraulic drive system employs a piston which is hydraulically driven to oscillate in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the hydraulic drive system. The vibration absorbers each include a spring or other resilient member having one side affixed to the housing and another side to which an absorber mass is affixed. In a preferred embodiment, a pair of vibration absorbers is employed, each absorber being formed of a pair of leaf spring assemblies, between which the absorber mass is suspended.

  10. Advanced neutron absorber materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branagan, Daniel J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Smolik, Galen R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    A neutron absorbing material and method utilizing rare earth elements such as gadolinium, europium and samarium to form metallic glasses and/or noble base nano/microcrystalline materials, the neutron absorbing material having a combination of superior neutron capture cross sections coupled with enhanced resistance to corrosion, oxidation and leaching.

  11. Internal absorber solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sletten, Carlyle J. (106 Nagog Hill Rd., Acton, MA 01720); Herskovitz, Sheldon B. (88 Hammond St., Acton, MA 01720); Holt, F. S. (46 Emerson Rd., Winchester, MA 01890); Sletten, E. J. (Chestnut Hill Rd. R.F.D. Rte. #4, Amherst, NH 03031)

    1981-01-01

    Thin solar collecting panels are described made from arrays of small rod collectors consisting of a refracting dielectric rod lens with an absorber imbedded within it and a reflecting mirror coated on the back side of the dielectric rod. Non-tracking collector panels on vertical walls or roof tops receive approximately 90% of solar radiation within an acceptance zone 60.degree. in elevation angle by 120.degree. or more in the azimuth sectors with a collector concentration ratio of approximately 3.0. Miniaturized construction of the circular dielectric rods with internal absorbers reduces the weight per area of glass, plastic and metal used in the collector panels. No external parts or insulation are needed as heat losses are low due to partial vacuum or low conductivity gas surrounding heated portions of the collector. The miniature internal absorbers are generally made of solid copper with black selective surface and the collected solar heat is extracted at the collector ends by thermal conductivity along the absorber rods. Heat is removed from end fittings by use of liquid circulants. Several alternate constructions are provided for simplifying collector panel fabrication and for preventing the thermal expansion and contraction of the heated absorber or circulant tubes from damaging vacuum seals. In a modified version of the internal absorber collector, oil with temperature dependent viscosity is pumped through a segmented absorber which is now composed of closely spaced insulated metal tubes. In this way the circulant is automatically diverted through heated portions of the absorber giving higher collector concentration ratios than theoretically possible for an unsegmented absorber.

  12. PhD Studentship in Environmental Fate of Amine and Amine Degradation Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PhD Studentship in Environmental Fate of Amine and Amine Degradation Products Imperial College for a PhD studentship aimed at determining the environmental fate and behaviour in the atmosphere of amines disciplines with an interest or experience in atmospheric dispersion modelling. This is a 3-year PhD

  13. Iron Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Liping; Lany, Stephan; Kykyneshi, Robert; Jieratum, Vorranutch; Ravichandran, Ram; Pelatt, Brian; Altschul, Emmeline; Platt, Heather A. S.; Wager, John F.; Keszler, Douglas A.; Zunger, Alex

    2011-08-10

    An integrated computational and experimental study of FeS? pyrite reveals that phase coexistence is an important factor limiting performance as a thin-film solar absorber. This phase coexistence is suppressed with the ternary materials Fe?SiS? and Fe?GeS?, which also exhibit higher band gaps than FeS?. Thus, the ternaries provide a new entry point for development of thin-film absorbers and high-efficiency photovoltaics.

  14. Metasurface Broadband Solar Absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azad, A K; Sykora, M; Weisse-Bernstein, N R; Luk, T S; Taylor, A J; Dalvit, D A R; Chen, H -T

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a broadband, polarization independent, omnidirectional absorber based on a metallic metasurface architecture, which accomplishes greater than 90% absorptance in the visible and near-infrared range of the solar spectrum, and exhibits low emissivity at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. The complex unit cell of the metasurface solar absorber consists of eight pairs of gold nano-resonators that are separated from a gold ground plane by a thin silicon dioxide spacer. Our experimental measurements reveal high-performance absorption over a wide range of incidence angles for both s- and p-polarizations. We also investigate numerically the frequency-dependent field and current distributions to elucidate how the absorption occurs within the metasurface structure. Furthermore, we discuss the potential use of our metasurface absorber design in solar thermophotovoltaics by exploiting refractory plasmonic materials.

  15. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizia, Ronald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shaber, Eric L. (Idaho Falls, ID); DuPont, John N. (Whitehall, PA); Robino, Charles V. (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, David B. (Bethlehem, PA)

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  16. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2010-01-08

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  19. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan (El Cerrito, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Lee, Chuck K. (Hayward, CA); Walker, Jeffrey (Gaithersburg, MD); Russell, Paige (Las Vegas, NV); Kirkwood, Jon (Saint Leonard, MD); Yang, Nancy (Lafayette, CA); Champagne, Victor (Oxford, PA)

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  20. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  1. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    SCMAG-798 Comments on Liquid Hydrogen Absorbers for MICEshown in Figure 1. Three liquid hydrogen absorbers are shownthe RF Cavities, the Liquid Hydrogen Absorbers, the Central

  2. Base metal dehydrogenation of amine-boranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blacquiere, Johanna Marie (Ottawa, CA); Keaton, Richard Jeffrey (Pearland, TX); Baker, Ralph Thomas (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-06-09

    A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane having the formula R.sup.1H.sub.2N--BH.sub.2R.sup.2 using base metal catalyst. The method generates hydrogen and produces at least one of a [R.sup.1HN--BHR.sup.2].sub.m oligomer and a [R.sup.1N--BR.sup.2].sub.n oligomer. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources, such as, but not limited to, fuel cells.

  3. Broadband patterned magnetic microwave absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei; Wu, Tianlong; Wang, Wei; Guan, Jianguo, E-mail: guanjg@whut.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhai, Pengcheng [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2014-07-28

    It is a tough task to greatly improve the working bandwidth for the traditional flat microwave absorbers because of the restriction of available material parameters. In this work, a simple patterning method is proposed to drastically broaden the absorption bandwidth of a conventional magnetic absorber. As a demonstration, an ultra-broadband microwave absorber with more than 90% absorption in the frequency range of 4–40 GHz is designed and experimentally realized, which has a thin thickness of 3.7?mm and a light weight equivalent to a 2-mm-thick flat absorber. In such a patterned absorber, the broadband strong absorption is mainly originated from the simultaneous incorporation of multiple ?/4 resonances and edge diffraction effects. This work provides a facile route to greatly extend the microwave absorption bandwidth for the currently available absorbing materials.

  4. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  5. Electrochemically-Mediated Amine Regeneration for Carbon Dioxide Separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Electrochemically-Mediated Amine Regeneration for Carbon Dioxide Separations by Michael C Students #12;- 2 - Electrochemically-Mediated Amine Regeneration for Carbon Dioxide Separations by Michael This thesis describes a new strategy for carbon dioxide (CO2) separations based on amine sorbents, which

  6. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, William H. (Columbus, OH)

    1984-01-01

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system.

  7. Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, W.H.

    1984-10-16

    Countercurrent flow absorber and desorber devices are provided for use in absorption cycle refrigeration systems and thermal boosting systems. The devices have increased residence time and surface area resulting in improved heat and mass transfer characteristics. The apparatuses may be incorporated into open cycle thermal boosting systems in which steam serves both as the refrigerant vapor which is supplied to the absorber section and as the supply of heat to drive the desorber section of the system. 9 figs.

  8. Uranium diphosphonates templated by interlayer organic amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D.; Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Institut fuer Kristallographie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52066 Aachen ; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 ; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2013-02-15

    The hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide and methylenediphosphonic acid with a variety of amines (2,2-dipyridyl, triethylenediamine, ethylenediamine, and 1,10-phenanthroline) at 200 Degree-Sign C results in the crystallization of a series of layered uranium diphosphonate compounds, [C{sub 10}H{sub 9}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{r_brace} (Ubip2), [C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace} (UDAB), [C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}]{sub 2}{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O{r_brace} (Uethyl), and [C{sub 12}H{sub 9}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{r_brace} (Uphen). The crystal structures of the compounds are based on UO{sub 7} units linked by methylenediphosphonate molecules to form two-dimensional anionic sheets in Ubip2 and UDAB, and one-dimensional anionic chains in Uethyl and Uphen, which are charge balanced by protonated amine molecules. Interaction of the amine molecules with phosphonate oxygens and water molecules results in extensive hydrogen bonding in the interlayer. These amine molecules serve both as structure-directing agents and charge-balancing cations for the anionic uranium phosphonate sheets and chains in the formation of the different coordination geometries and topologies of each structure. Reported herein are the syntheses, structural and spectroscopic characterization of the synthesized compounds. - Graphical abstract: The Raman spectra of the synthesized compounds and an illustration of the stacking of the layers with the diprotonated triethylenediamine molecules in [C{sub 6}H{sub 14}N{sub 2}]{l_brace}(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3})(PO{sub 3}H)]{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O{r_brace} UDAB. Solvent water molecules are removed for clarity. The corresponding Raman spectra for the complexes synthesized is also shown. The structure is constructed from UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramids (yellow), oxygen=red, phosphorus=magenta, carbon=black, and nitrogen=blue. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic amines act both as charge-balancing and as structure-directing agents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extensive hydrogen bonding interactions with solvent water molecules and amines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Altering the organic amine (size or flexibility) affects structure formation.

  9. Parametric study for an immobilized amine sorbent in a regenerative...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    United States Language: English Subject: Carbon dioxide; Amine; Sorbent; Carbon capture; Post-combustion; Sequestration Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Journal...

  10. Method for Regeneration of Immobilized Amine Sorbents for Use...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    amine- based sorbents are scalable for use in industrial applications, including coal combustion and gasification power generating systems. The current advanced technology...

  11. adv-amine | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largestnamedGroup!management |Amine Solvent

  12. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Hamby, C. Jr.; Akerman, M.A.; Seals, R.D.

    1993-09-07

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, is prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000 C to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm[sup 3]. 9 figures.

  13. Damage tolerant light absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hamby, Jr., Clyde (Harriman, TN); Akerman, M. Alfred (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    A light absorbing article comprised of a composite of carbon-bonded carbon fibers, prepared by: blending carbon fibers with a carbonizable organic powder to form a mixture; dispersing the mixture into an aqueous slurry; vacuum molding the aqueous slurry to form a green article; drying and curing the green article to form a cured article; and, carbonizing the cured article at a temperature of at least about 1000.degree. C. to form a carbon-bonded carbon fiber light absorbing composite article having a bulk density less than 1 g/cm.sup.3.

  14. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  15. Amine Functionalized Nanoporous Materials for Carbon Dioxide Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Feng; Addleman, Raymond S.; Aardahl, Chris L.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Brown, Daryl R.; Zemanian, Thomas S.

    2007-04-04

    Increasing CO2 concentration level in the earth atmosphere and rising global average temperature have raised serious concerns about the effects of anthropogenic CO2 on global climate change. Meanwhile, most analyses project that fossil fuels will continue to be the dominant energy source world wide until at least the middle of the twenty first century. Significant reduction from the current level of CO2 emission due to the consumption of fossil fuels is necessary to stabilize atmospheric concentration of CO2. The focus of this chapter will be on the CO2 capture technologies related to energy production from fossil fuels, as over one third of the world’s CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel use are attributed to fossil-fuel electric power-generation plants. Solid amine sorbents have promise to overcome some of the shortcomings of liquid amines for CO2 capture in energy production. The dispersion, immobilization, and confinement of the amine functional groups into a porous solid support can result in a more stable, more mass transfer efficient, less toxic, and less corrosive material than the corresponding liquid amines. Solid amine sorbents allow a dry scrubbing process where the energy penalty associated with the evaporation of a large amount of water is avoided. Further, the amine functional groups can be tailored for lower regeneration energy requirement. The supports can be tailored independently for high stability and low mass transfer resistance. This book chapter deals with the topics of solid amine sorbents (both supported and tethered amines) as the functional materials for CO2 separation. The design rational and the performance of such materials are discussed in detail. The state of the art in the synthesis and the CO2 capture performance of solid amine sorbent is reviewed.

  16. Palladium-Catalyzed Amination of Unprotected Halo-7- azaindoles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Jaclyn L.

    Simple and efficient procedures for the Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of primary and secondary amines with halo-7-azaindoles(pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine) are presented. Previously, no general method was available to ensure the ...

  17. Dialkylbiaryl phosphines in Pd-catalyzed amination: a user's guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surry, David S.

    Dialkylbiaryl phosphines are a valuable class of ligand for Pd-catalyzed amination reactions and have been applied in a range of contexts. This perspective attempts to aid the reader in the selection of the best choice of ...

  18. Silver-catalyzed synthesis of amides from amines and aldehydes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madix, Robert J; Zhou, Ling; Xu, Bingjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Freyschlag, Cassandra G

    2014-11-18

    The invention provides a method for producing amides via the reaction of aldehydes and amines with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic silver or silver alloy catalyst. An exemplary reaction is shown in Scheme 1: (I), (II), (III). ##STR00001##

  19. Electrochemically-mediated amine regeneration for carbon dioxide separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, Michael C. (Michael Craig)

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes a new strategy for carbon dioxide (CO?) separations based on amine sorbents, which are electrochemically-mediated to facilitate the desorption and regeneration steps of the separation cycle. The ...

  20. Two Dimensional Polyamides Prepared From Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids And Amines.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Huang, Zhi Heng (East Lansing, MI); Wright, Stacy C. (Lansing, MI); Danzig, Morris (Northbrook, IL); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2002-07-17

    A polyamide and a process for preparing the polyamide are disclosed. The process comprises reacting in a reaction mixture a monomer selected from unsaturated carboxylic acids, esters of unsaturated carboxylic acids, anhydrides of unsaturated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof, and a first amine to form an intermediate reaction product in the reaction mixture, wherein the first amine is selected from RR.sub.1 NH, RNH.sub.2, RR.sub.1 NH.sub.2.sup.+, RNH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof, wherein R and R.sub.1 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, and reacting the intermediate reaction product and a second amine to form a polyamide, wherein the second amine is selected from R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH, R.sub.2 NH.sub.2, R.sub.2 R.sub.3 NH.sub.2.sup.+, R.sub.2 NH.sub.3.sup.+ and mixtures thereof wherein R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 can be the same or different and each contain between about 1 and 50 carbon atoms and are optionally substituted with heteroatoms oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof, wherein multiple of the R, R.sub.1, R.sub.2, and R.sub.3 are in vertically aligned spaced relationship along a backbone formed by the polyamide. In one version of the invention, the monomer is selected from maleic anhydride, maleic acid esters, and mixtures thereof. In another version of the invention, the first amine is an alkylamine, such as tetradecylamine, and the second amine is a polyalkylene polyamine, such as pentaethylenehexamine. In yet another version of the invention, the first amine and the second amine are olefinic or acetylenic amines, such as the reaction products of an alkyldiamine and an acetylenic carboxylic acid. The first amine and the second amine may be the same or different depending on the desired polyamide polymer structure.

  1. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iverson, D.C.

    1987-11-20

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compound of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved. 2 figs.

  2. Porcelain enamel neutron absorbing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iverson, Daniel C. (Aiken, SC)

    1990-01-01

    A porcelain enamel composition as a neutron absorbing material can be prepared of a major proportion by weight of a cadmium compound and a minor proportion of compounds of boron, lithium and silicon. These compounds in the form of a porcelain enamel coating or layer on several alloys has been found to be particularly effective in enhancing the nuclear safety of equipment for use in the processing and storage of fissile material. The composition of the porcelain enamel coating can be tailored to match the coefficient of thermal expansion of the equipment to be coated and excellent coating adhesion can be achieved.

  3. Numerical simulations of quasar absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Theuns

    2005-07-25

    The physical state of the intergalactic medium can be probed in great detail with the intervening absorption systems seen in quasar spectra. The properties of the Hydrogen absorbers depend on many cosmological parameters, such as the matter-power spectrum, reionisation history, ionising background and the nature of the dark matter. The spectra also contain metal lines, which can be used to constrain the star formation history and the feedback processes acting in large and small galaxies. Simulations have been instrumental in investigating to what extent these parameters can be unambiguously constrained with current and future data. This paper is meant as an introduction to this subject, and reviews techniques and methods for simulating the intergalactic medium.

  4. ProfessorMassoudAmin,D.Sc. Professor Massoud Amin (http://umn.edu/~amin) witnessed the 1977 NYC blackout, the 9/11 tragedies near DC, and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    blackout, the 9/11 tragedies near DC, and the collapse of the I-35W bridge. He works on enabling smart, secure and resilient infrastructures. He leads extensive projects in smart grids and is considered the father of smart grid. Since March 2003 Professor Amin has served as director of the Technological

  5. Notes 10. The dynamic vibration absorber 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    San Andres, Luis

    2008-01-01

    system should be such that: TUNED ABSORBER ? X ? np = also known as a For example, if zero amplitude vibration is desired for excitations at the natural frequency of the original system, the designer selects A vibration absorber is a mechanical device... stream_source_info Notes_Vibration_Absorber_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 10660 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Notes_Vibration_Absorber_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...

  6. Cerebral perfusion imaging with iodine 123-labeled amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holman, B.L.; Hill, T.C.; Polak, J.F.; Lee, R.G.; Royal, H.D.; O'Leary, D.H.

    1984-10-01

    Two amines, N-isopropyl p-iodoamphetamine and N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxyl-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-prop anediamine, have been labeled with iodine 123. The brain uptake of these radioactive tracers is proportional to cerebral blood flow. These tracers are retained in the brain for a sufficiently long time so that imaging can be performed with standard, readily available instrumentation. Transaxial tomography with amines is useful in acute cerebral infarction, in which the x-ray computed tomographic scan may be normal for several days after onset of symptoms while the uptake of radioisotope-labeled amines will be altered immediately after the onset of the stroke. It is also useful in examining patients with cerebral vascular disease and in the preoperative examination of patients with partial epilepsy.

  7. Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaskin, David J

    1997-01-01

    Lee (1993) has shown that tertiary amines are able to hics. extract water from low-concentration calcium acetate and sodium acetate solutions. This thesis extends the previous work to include calcium propionate and butyrate. Amine extraction may...

  8. Post-combustion carbon dioxide capture using electrochemically mediated amine regeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stern, Michael C.

    Electrochemically mediated amine regeneration is a new post-combustion capture technology with the potential to exploit the excellent removal efficiencies of thermal amine scrubbers while reducing parasitic energy losses ...

  9. DDQ as an electrocatalyst for amine dehydrogenation, a model system for virtual hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luca, Oana R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Wang, Ting [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Konezny, Steven J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Batista, Victor S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Crabtree, Robert H. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2011-01-01

    2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyanobenzoquinone (DDQ) is an electrochemical oxidation catalyst for a secondary amine, a model system for virtual hydrogen storage by removal of a hydrogen equivalent from an amine; a computational study provides mechanistic information.

  10. The bicyclic amine that is the precursor to ~ $4 billion pharmaceutical industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rzepa, Henry S.

    Tropane The bicyclic amine that is the precursor to ~ $4 billion pharmaceutical industries Quazi is a bicyclic amine that has a pyrrolidine and a piperidine ring sharing a common nitrogen atom and 2 carbon

  11. Proton Absorber Feasibility Study Chris Rogers,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Proton Absorber ­ Feasibility Study Chris Rogers, ASTeC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory 14 Sept 2010 #12;Overview We have a problem with secondary protons in the front end Deposit significant Need remote handling (ouch) One way to fix this is using a proton absorber Change in beam power

  12. The relative reactivity of formic esters with aromatic amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markley, Max C.

    1922-01-01

    at 100° are as follows- Ester used Percent yield Methyl formate ' 3% Ethyl M 81 Propyl " 92 Butyl " 80 Sec,octyl n 10 ( 15 ) PROPYL P OREATE W ITH SEVERAL A MINES The next move was to secure data on the relative reactivity of the amines... at 100° are as follows- Ester used Percent yield Methyl formate ' 3% Ethyl M 81 Propyl " 92 Butyl " 80 Sec,octyl n 10 ( 15 ) PROPYL P OREATE W ITH SEVERAL A MINES The next move was to secure data on the relative reactivity of the amines...

  13. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  14. Stealthy Deception Attacks on Water SCADA Systems Saurabh Amin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Fei

    Stealthy Deception Attacks on Water SCADA Systems Saurabh Amin Department of CEE UC Berkeley, CA the vulnerabilities of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems which mon- itor and control the modern systems are mon- itored and controlled by Supervisory Control and Data Ac- quisition (SCADA) systems

  15. The Emerging Optical Data Center Amin Vahdat1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomkins, Andrew

    The Emerging Optical Data Center Amin Vahdat1,2 , Hong Liu1 , Xiaoxue Zhao1 and Chris Johnson1 1 of warehouse-scale data centers [1]. While substantial traffic will continue to flow between users and these data centers across the Internet, an increasing fraction of overall data communication is taking place

  16. Stable, concentrated solutions of polyaniline using amines as gel inhibitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Hsing-Lin (Los Alamos, NM); Mattes, Benjamin R. (Tesuque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    Stable, concentrated solutions of high-molecular weight polyaniline using amines as gel inhibitors. Certain amine compounds (gel inhibitors) are used to form highly concentrated, stable solutions of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline in numerous organic solvents from which coatings, films and fibers are readily prepared without problems associated with rapid gelation which occurs when concentrated solutions are attempted without the use of the gel inhibitors of the present invention. Tertiary amines are used to solubilize low-molecular weight fractions (M.sub.w <120,000, M.sub.n <30,000) of the pernigraniline, emeraldine, and leucoemeraldine oxidation states of polyaniline as concentrated (>20 wt. %) polyaniline solutions, while primary and secondary amines are used to produce solutions having 15-40 wt % of high-molecular weight polyaniline [M.sub.w.gtoreq.120,000, M.sub.n.gtoreq.30,000]. Concentrated solutions of polyaniline co-polymers or ring and/or nitrogen-substituted polyanilines may also be prepared.

  17. Towards optimal database maintenance in wireless communication systems Amine Chohra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firenze, Università degli Studi di

    are then necessary; typically, audit operations are used, to perform periodic maintenance actions. Audits checkTowards optimal database maintenance in wireless communication systems Amine Chohra 1* , Stefano scheduled maintenance policies are necessary. However, the short-persistence of most of the data stored

  18. Contagious Sets in Expanders Amin Coja-Oghlan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivelevich, Michael

    Contagious Sets in Expanders Amin Coja-Oghlan1 , Uriel Feige2 , Michael Krivelevich3 , and Daniel, where r > 1 is the activation threshold. A contagious set is a set whose activation results with the entire graph being active. Given a graph G, let m(G, r) be the minimal size of a contagious set

  19. Contagious Sets in Expanders Amin Coja-Oghlan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivelevich, Michael

    Contagious Sets in Expanders Amin Coja-Oghlan Uriel Feige Michael Krivelevich Daniel Reichman§ June physics and viral marketing. A contagious set is a set whose activation results with the entire graph being active. Given a graph G, let m(G, r) be the minimal size of a contagious set. Computing m(G, r

  20. Novel amine-based presursor compounds and composite membranes thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Eric K. L. (Wilmington, DE); Tuttle, Mark E. (Bend, OR)

    1989-01-01

    Novel amine-based precursor compounds comprising the condensation products of dialkylenetriamine and alpha, beta-unsaturated acid halides are disclosed, as well as composite membranes containing such compounds, the membranes being useful in RO-type processes for desalination and the removal of low molecular weight organic compounds such as phenols and carboxylic acids.

  1. CONDUCTION HEAT TRANSFER Dr. Ruhul Amin Fall 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    ME 525 CONDUCTION HEAT TRANSFER Dr. Ruhul Amin Fall 2011 Office: 201C Roberts Hall Lecture Room of conduction heat transfer. Important results which are useful for engineering application will also: 121 Roberts Hall Phone: 994-6295 Lecture Periods: 12:45- 2:00, TR TEXT: Heat Conduction, M. N. Ozisik

  2. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. The objective of this task is to quantify lifetimes through measurement of the optical and mechanical stability of candidate polymeric glazing and absorber materials. Polycarbonate sheet glazings, as proposed by two industry partners, have been tested for resistance to UV radiation with three complementary methods. Incorporation of a specific 2-mil thick UV-absorbing screening layer results in glazing lifetimes of at least 15 years; improved screens promise even longer lifetimes. Proposed absorber materials were tested for creep and embrittlement under high temperature, and appear adequate for planned ICS absorbers.

  3. Attenuation of external Bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhaliwal, A.S.; Powar, M.S.; Singh, M. (Punjabi Univ., Physics Dept., Patiala 147002 (IN))

    1990-12-01

    In this paper attenuation of bremsstrahlung from {sup 147}Pm and {sup 170}Tm beta emitters has been studied in aluminum, copper, tin, and lead metallic absorbers. Bremsstrahlung spectra and mass attenuation coefficients for monoenergetic gamma rays are used to calculate theoretical attenuation curves. Magnetic deflection and beta stopping techniques are used to measure the integral bremsstrahlung intensities above 30 keV in different target thicknesses. Comparison of measured and calculated attenuation curves shows a good agreement for various absorbers, thus providing a test of this technique, which may be useful in understanding bremsstrahlung intensity buildup and in the design of optimum shielding for bremsstrahlung sources. It is found that the absorption of bremsstrahlung in metallic absorbers does not obey an exponential law and that absorbers act as energy filters.

  4. Neutron absorbing coating for nuclear criticality control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mizia, Ronald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wright, Richard N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Swank, William D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pinhero, Patrick J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-10-23

    A neutron absorbing coating for use on a substrate, and which provides nuclear criticality control is described and which includes a nickel, chromium, molybdenum, and gadolinium alloy having less than about 5% boron, by weight.

  5. Engineering, Modeling and Testing of Composite Absorbing Materials for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    13 Engineering, Modeling and Testing of Composite Absorbing Materials for EMC Applications Marina al., 2008). Application of absorbing materials for the design of shielding enclosures, coatings to electronic products, the engineered absorbing materials would allow for compliance with requirements

  6. Method of absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas Vyankatrao; Zelepouga, Sergeui; Pratapas, John

    2013-09-17

    A method and apparatus for absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor in which a reference light intensity measurement is made on a non-absorbing reference fluid, a light intensity measurement is made on a sample fluid, and a measured light absorbance of the sample fluid is determined. A corrective light intensity measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength of the sample fluid is made on the sample fluid from which an absorbance correction factor is determined. The absorbance correction factor is then applied to the measured light absorbance of the sample fluid to arrive at a true or accurate absorbance for the sample fluid.

  7. Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    urban smoke absorbs sunlight Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate warming Cloaking urban areas and wildfire zones, tiny smoke particles suspended in...

  8. Dielectric studies of water absorbed in epoxies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pham, Ha Quoc

    1987-01-01

    ) and the purified DER-332 resin used in this study (bottom). IF 2 62 3 61 T. &I e. sr 9. 64 18 68 6 T 28 65 22 76 23 59 24 99 26 68 21 67 16 92 17 9$ 18 s1 19 38 W6 28 $3 29 36 38. 28 32. 44 TABLE I Analysis of Purified DER-332 Epoxy Resin 1... films with uniform thickness: TABLE II Analysis of DEH-39 Curing Agent 1 Lot 8 TA-860819-T: Amino ethyl piperazine (AEP) Diethylene triamine (DETA) Triethylene tetramine (TETA) Amine value Mater 98. 1X 1. 7% 877 0. 25 1 All analyses were...

  9. Amination of electrophilic aromatic compounds by vicarious nucleophilic substitution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Alexander R. (Livermore, CA); Pagoria, Philip F. (Livermore, CA); Schmidt, Robert D. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process to aminate electrophilic aromatic compounds by vicarious nucleophilic substitution of hydrogen using quaternary hydrazinium salts. The use of trialkylhydrazinium halide, e.g., trimethylhydrazinium iodide, as well as hydroxylamine, alkoxylamines, and 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole to produce aminated aromatic structures, such as 1,3-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (DATB), 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 3,5-diamino-2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (DATNT), is described. DATB and TATB are useful insensitive high explosives. TATB is also used for the preparation of benzenehexamine, a starting material for the synthesis of novel materials (optical imaging devices, liquid crystals, ferromagnetic compounds).

  10. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

    1985-08-06

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  11. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benkeser, Robert A. (West Lafayette, IN); Laugal, James A. (Lostant, IL); Rappa, Angela (Baltimore, MD)

    1985-01-01

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about -10.degree. C. to about 30.degree. C. or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  12. Characterization of H, Na-Y using amine desorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biaglow, A.I.; Parrillo, D.J.; Gorte, R.J. )

    1993-11-01

    The authors have examined series of partially ion-exchanged H, Na-Y zeolites using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of isopropylamine and n-propylamine in order to examine the acid sites in H-Y zeolites as a function of Na poisoning. Both amines desorbed from Na-Y, unreacted, below 500 K; however, samples containing protonic sites exhibited two additional desorption features. First, unreacted amine molecules were observed leaving the samples between [approximately] 500 and 600 K. Second, reaction features appeared which were observed as the simultaneous desorption of propene and ammonia between 575 and 650 K for isopropylamine and between 625 and 700 K for n-propylamine. For a given sample, the number of both isopropylene and n-propylamine molecules which desorbed in both features was identical. Furthermore, the number of molecules desorbing from the two high-temperature features was found to be equal to the number of protonic sites for the entire series, which indicates that both desorption features are associated with protonic sites. This finding was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, which also demonstrated that the unreacting desorption feature was associated with the low-frequency, hydroxyl stretch at 3540 cm[sup [minus]1] and that the reacting amine molecules was adsorbed at the high-frequency, hydroxyl stretch near 3640 cm[sup [minus]1]. The implications of these results for understanding the use of TPD-TGA of amines for the characterization of acidity is discussed. 30 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Amine enriched solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahan L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Fredericktown, PA)

    2003-04-15

    A new method for making low-cost CO.sub.2 sorbents that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. The new method entails treating a solid substrate with acid or base and simultaneous or subsequent treatment with a substituted amine salt. The method eliminates the need for organic solvents and polymeric materials for the preparation of CO.sub.2 capture systems.

  14. Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

    2011-09-01

    We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

  15. Ferrite HOM Absorber for the RHIC ERL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn,H.; Choi, E.M.; Hammons, L.

    2008-10-01

    A superconducting Energy Recovery Linac is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory to serve as test bed for RHIC upgrades. The damping of higher-order modes in the superconducting five-cell cavity for the Energy-Recovery linac at RHIC is performed exclusively by two ferrite absorbers. The ferrite properties have been measured in ferrite-loaded pill box cavities resulting in the permeability values given by a first-order Debye model for the tiled absorber structure and an equivalent permeability value for computer simulations with solid ring dampers. Measured and simulated results for the higher-order modes in the prototype copper cavity are discussed. First room-temperature measurements of the finished niobium cavity are presented which confirm the effective damping of higher-order modes in the ERL. by the ferrite absorbers.

  16. Resetting Virtual Absorbers for Vibration Control ROBERT T. BUPP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Dennis S.

    of sensors and actuators as well as processors and power supplies. One advantage of virtual absorbers Journal the absorber into the plant. This behavior is also exhibited by a plant with an attached virtual absorberResetting Virtual Absorbers for Vibration Control ROBERT T. BUPP TRW S & EG Redondo Beach, CA 90278

  17. Durability of Polymeric Glazing and Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G.; Terwilliger, K.; Bingham, C.; Lindquist, C.; Milbourne, M.

    2005-11-01

    The Solar Heating and Lighting Program has set the goal of reducing the cost of solar water heating systems by at least 50%. An attractive approach to such large cost reduction is to replace glass and metal parts with less-expensive, lighter-weight, more-integrated polymeric components. The key challenge with polymers is to maintain performance and assure requisite durability for extended lifetimes. We have begun evaluation of several new UV-screened polycarbonate sheet glazing constructions. This has involved interactions with several major polymer industry companies to obtain improved candidate samples. Proposed absorber materials were tested for UV resistance, and appear adequate for unglazed ICS absorbers.

  18. pH-weighted molecular imaging of gliomas using amine chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    of gliomas using amine chemical exchange saturation transferenhancement mediated chemical exchange saturation transferZu Z, et al. On the origins of chemical exchange saturation

  19. Semiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    cost reductions in the manufacturing of solar mod- ules.1 Moreover, it is essential to identify newSemiconductor Nanowire Optical Antenna Solar Absorbers Linyou Cao, Pengyu Fan, Alok P. Vasudev the absorption for solar radiation by 25% while utilizing less than half of the semiconductor material (250

  20. Differential-Equation Based Absorbing Boundary Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, John B.

    Chapter 6 Differential-Equation Based Absorbing Boundary Conditions 6.1 Introduction A simple in the analysis of a wide range of FDTD-related topics. 6.2 The Advection Equation The wave equation that governs.2) The second form represents the equation in terms of an operator operating on Ez where the operator

  1. Development of a crash energy absorber 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullard, Delbert Lance

    1995-01-01

    A new energy absorbing cartridge, named the "Z-tube" was developed for use in a new conceptualized highway safety appurtenance. The Z-tube was developed to provide a low cost method of dissipating the kinetic energy of errant motor vehicles. The Z...

  2. Composition for absorbing hydrogen from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Lee, Myung W. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition is provided which defines a physical sol-gel matrix having an average pore size of less than 3.5 angstroms which effectively excludes gaseous metal hydride poisons while permitting hydrogen gas to enter. The composition is useful for separating hydrogen gas from diverse gas streams which may have contaminants that would otherwise render the hydrogen absorbing material inactive.

  3. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  4. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  5. Thio-,amine-,nitro-,and macrocyclic containing organic aerogels & xerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Glenn A.; Tillotson, Thomas M.

    2005-08-02

    An organic aerogel or xerogel formed by a sol-gel reaction using starting materials that exhibit similar reactivity to the most commonly used resorcinol starting material. The new starting materials, including thio-, amine- and nitro-containing molecules and functionalized macrocyclic molecules will produce organic xerogels and aerogels that have improved performance in the areas of detection and sensor technology, as well as water stream remediation. Also, further functionalization of these new organic aerogels or xerogels will yield material that can be extracted with greater facility than current organic aerogels.

  6. Approaches for regeneration of amine-carboxylic acid extracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Extraction processes based on reversible chemical complexation can be useful for separation of polar organics from dilute solution. Tertiary amines are effective extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from aqueous solution. The regeneration of aminecarboxylic acid extracts is an important step which strongly influences the economic viability of the separation process. Several regeneration methods are critically reviewed, and the factors that affect swing regeneration processes, including temperature-swing, diluent composition-swing and pH-swing with a volatile base are discussed. Interest in this area comes from interest in treatment of waste streams, particularly in petrochemical and fermentation manufacture.

  7. Wide band cryogenic ultra-high vacuum microwave absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campisi, Isidoro E. (Newport News, VA)

    1992-01-01

    An absorber wave guide assembly for absorbing higher order modes of microwave energy under cryogenic ultra-high vacuum conditions, that absorbs wide-band multi-mode energy. The absorber is of a special triangular shape, made from flat tiles of silicon carbide and aluminum nitride. The leading sharp end of the absorber is located in a corner of the wave guide and tapers to a larger cross-sectional area whose center is located approximately in the center of the wave guide. The absorber is relatively short, being of less height than the maximum width of the wave guide.

  8. Investigations on Absorber Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Marhauser, Thomas Elliott, Robert Rimmer

    2009-05-01

    In the framework of the 12 GeV upgrade project for the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) improvements are being made to refurbish cryomodules housing Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility?s (JLab) original 5-cell cavities. Recently we have started to look into a possible simplification of the existing Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorber design combined with the aim to find alternative material candidates. The absorbers are implemented in two HOM-waveguides immersed in the helium bath and operate at 2 K temperature. We have built a cryogenic setup to perform measurements on sample load materials to investigate their lossy characteristics and variations from room temperature down to 2 K. Initial results are presented in this paper.

  9. Lithium Ion Solvation: Amine and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Solvates of Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Ion Solvation: Amine and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Solvates of Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide, and 13C NMR spectroscopic studies of 6Li-15N labeled lithium hexamethyldisilazide ([6Li,15N]- Li ligand structure and lithium amide aggregation state is a complex and sensitive function of amine alkyl

  10. Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-07-15

    A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  11. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-30

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  12. Design and Manufacture of Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-05-28

    Learn about an ordered cellular material that has been designed and manufactured using direct ink writing (DIW), a 3-D printing technology being developed at LLNL. The new material is a patterned cellular material that can absorb mechanical energy-a cushion-while also providing protection against sheering. This material is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  13. Tech Transfer Webinar: Energy Absorbing Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duoss, Eric

    2014-06-17

    A new material has been designed and manufactured at LLNL that can absorb mechanical energy--a cushion--while also providing protection against sheering. This ordered cellular material is 3D printed using direct ink writing techniques under development at LLNL. It is expected to find utility in application spaces that currently use unordered foams, such as sporting and consumer goods as well as defense and aerospace.

  14. Progress on solar absorber selective paint research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    A considerable amount of effort has been expended by the Department of Energy (DOE) and by commercial interests to develop solar absorber selective paints; the goal is to develop an inexpensive, durable selective coating that has moderately good optical properties. This report is intended to focus on those research programs monitored by Los Alamos, the research efforts in progress at Los Alamos, durability evaluations, and the progress that has been made toward commercialization.

  15. Shock wave absorber having a deformable liner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youngdahl, C.K.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Shin, Y.W.; Kot, C.A.; Ockert, C.E.

    1983-08-26

    This invention discloses a shock wave absorber for a piping system carrying liquid. The absorber has a plastically deformable liner defining the normal flow boundary for an axial segment of the piping system, and a nondeformable housing is spaced outwardly from the liner so as to define a gas-tight space therebetween. The flow capacity of the liner generally corresponds to the flow capacity of the piping system line, but the liner has a noncircular cross section and extends axially of the piping system line a distance between one and twenty times the diameter thereof. Gas pressurizes the gas-tight space equal to the normal liquid pressure in the piping system. The liner has sufficient structural capacity to withstand between one and one-half and two times this normal liquid pressures; but at greater pressures it begins to plastically deform initially with respect to shape to a more circular cross section, and then with respect to material extension by circumferentially stretching the wall of the liner. A high energy shock wave passing through the liner thus plastically deforms the liner radially into the gas space and progressively also as needed in the axial direction of the shock wave to minimize transmission of the shock wave beyond the absorber.

  16. Reactivity of amine antioxidants relative to OH and anti e

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minkhadzhidinova, D.R.; Nikiforov, G.A.; Khrapova, N.G.; Sharpatyi, V.A.

    1986-06-20

    An ESR study was carried out on the reactivity of various types of amines relative to OH/sup ./ and anti e. The selection of these compounds having anti-oxidant properties was also based on the circumstance that amine molecules contain a set of functional groups which may be potential sites for the attack of both OH and anti e radicals. A sample of 6 M H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ was used for the matrix solutions and forms a glass upon rapid insertion into liquid nitrogen. The phosphoric acid solutions of these compounds taken in concentrations from 0.025 to 0.05 M were flushed with argon to remove oxygen. Ampules containing the solutions were inserted into liquid nitrogen and irradiated from a cobalt source. The ESR spectra of the irradiated solutions clearly show the components of the atomic hydrogen doublet with a = 50 mT and of H/sub 2/PO/sub 4//sup ./ radicals in the central region of the spectrum.

  17. A review of cermet-based spectrally selective solar absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Feng

    Spectrally selective solar absorbers harvest solar energy in the form of heat. Solar absorbers using cermet-based coatings demonstrate a high absorptance of the solar spectrum and a low emittance in the infrared (IR) regime. ...

  18. Automated Synthesis of Mechanical Vibration Absorbers Using Genetic Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Jianjun

    Automated Synthesis of Mechanical Vibration Absorbers Using Genetic Programming Jianjun Hu Program an automated methodology for open-ended synthesis of mechanical vibration absorbers based on genetic, 48824 Ronald Rosenberg Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

  19. Observation of neutral sulfuric acid-amine containing clusters in laboratory and ambient measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuang C.; Zhao, J.; Smith, J. N.; Eisele, F. L.; Chen, M.; McMurry, P. H.

    2011-11-02

    Recent ab initio calculations showed that amines can enhance atmospheric sulfuric acid-water nucleation more effectively than ammonia, and this prediction has been substantiated in laboratory measurements. Laboratory studies have also shown that amines can effectively displace ammonia in several types of ammonium clusters. However, the roles of amines in cluster formation and growth at a microscopic molecular scale (from molecular sizes up to 2 nm) have not yet been well understood. Processes that must be understood include the incorporation of amines into sulfuric acid clusters and the formation of organic salts in freshly nucleated particles, which contributes significantly to particle growth rates. We report the first laboratory and ambient measurements of neutral sulfuric acid-amine clusters using the Cluster CIMS, a recently-developed mass spectrometer designed for measuring neutral clusters formed in the atmosphere during nucleation. An experimental technique, which we refer to as Semi-Ambient Signal Amplification (SASA), was employed. Sulfuric acid was added to ambient air, and the concentrations and composition of clusters in this mixture were analyzed by the Cluster CIMS. This experimental approach led to significantly higher cluster concentrations than are normally found in ambient air, thereby increasing signal-to-noise levels and allowing us to study reactions between gas phase species in ambient air and sulfuric acid containing clusters. Mass peaks corresponding to clusters containing four H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} molecules and one amine molecule were clearly observed, with the most abundant sulfuric acid-amine clusters being those containing a C2- or C4-amine (i.e. amines with masses of 45 and 73 amu). Evidence for C3- and C5-amines (i.e. amines with masses of 59 and 87 amu) was also found, but their correlation with sulfuric acid tetramer was not as strong as was observed for the C2- and C4-amines. The formation mechanisms for those sulfuric acid-amine clusters were investigated by varying the residence time in the inlet. It was concluded that the amines react directly with neutral clusters and that ion-induced clustering of sulfuric acid cluster ions with amines was not a dominant process. Results from ambient measurements using the Cluster CIMS without addition of sulfuric acid have shown that the sulfuric acid-amine clusters were reasonably well correlated with sulfuric acid tetramer and consistent with the SASA experiments at the same Boulder sampling site. Also, clusters that contain C2- or C4-amines were more abundant and better correlated with sulfuric acid tetramer than other types of amine containing clusters. However, ambient measurements of sulfuric acid-amine clusters remain difficult and highly uncertain because their concentrations are only slightly above background levels, even during nucleation events.

  20. Amine Scrubbing for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rochelle, G.T. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-09-15

    Amine scrubbing has been used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from natural gas and hydrogen since 1930. It is a robust technology and is ready to be tested and used on a larger scale for CO{sub 2} capture from coal-fired power plants. The minimum work requirement to separate CO{sub 2} from coal-fired flue gas and compress CO{sub 2} to 150 bar is 0.11 megawatt-hours per metric ton of CO{sub 2}. Process and solvent improvements should reduce the energy consumption to 0.2 megawatt-hour per ton of CO{sub 2}. Other advanced technologies will not provide energy-efficient or timely solutions to CO{sub 2} emission from conventional coal-fired power plants.

  1. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  2. Container and method for absorbing and reducing hydrogen concentration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Lee, Myung W. (North Augusta, SC); Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

    2001-01-01

    A method for absorbing hydrogen from an enclosed environment comprising providing a vessel; providing a hydrogen storage composition in communication with a vessel, the hydrogen storage composition further comprising a matrix defining a pore size which permits the passage of hydrogen gas while blocking the passage of gaseous poisons; placing a material within the vessel, the material evolving hydrogen gas; sealing the vessel; and absorbing the hydrogen gas released into the vessel by the hydrogen storage composition. A container for absorbing evolved hydrogen gas comprising: a vessel having an interior and adapted for receiving materials which release hydrogen gas; a hydrogen absorbing composition in communication with the interior, the composition defining a matrix surrounding a hydrogen absorber, the matrix permitting the passage of hydrogen gas while excluding gaseous poisons; wherein, when the vessel is sealed, hydrogen gas, which is released into the vessel interior, is absorbed by the hydrogen absorbing composition.

  3. Composite neutron absorbing coatings for nuclear criticality control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Richard N.; Swank, W. David; Mizia, Ronald E.

    2005-07-19

    Thermal neutron absorbing composite coating materials and methods of applying such coating materials to spent nuclear fuel storage systems are provided. A composite neutron absorbing coating applied to a substrate surface includes a neutron absorbing layer overlying at least a portion of the substrate surface, and a corrosion resistant top coat layer overlying at least a portion of the neutron absorbing layer. An optional bond coat layer can be formed on the substrate surface prior to forming the neutron absorbing layer. The neutron absorbing layer can include a neutron absorbing material, such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium phosphate, dispersed in a metal alloy matrix. The coating layers may be formed by a plasma spray process or a high velocity oxygen fuel process.

  4. Suzaku Observations of Four Heavily Absorbed HMXBs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. C. Morris; R. K. Smith; C. B. Markwardt; R. F. Mushotzky; J. Tueller; T. R. Kallman; K. S. Dhuga

    2008-08-22

    We report on Suzaku observations of four unidentified sources from the INTEGRAL and Swift BAT Galactic plane surveys. All the sources have a large neutral hydrogen column density and are likely members of an emerging class of heavily absorbed high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) first identified in INTEGRAL observations. Two of the sources in our sample are approximately constant flux sources, one source shows periodic variation and one source exhibited a short, bright X-ray outburst. The periodicity is transient, suggesting it is produced by a neutron star in an elliptical orbit around a stellar wind source. We analyze the flaring source in several segments to look for spectral variation and discuss the implications of the findings for the nature of the source. We conclude that all four sources in our sample can be identified with the emerging class of highly absorbed HMXBs, that one is a newly identified transient X-ray pulsar and that at least one is a newly identified supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT).

  5. Raman Scattering Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Amines and Acid Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uibel, Rory; Smith, Lee

    2010-05-20

    Sulfur and CO2 removal from hydrocarbon streams and power plant effluents are a major problem. The sulfur is normally in the form of H2S. These two acid gases are scrubbed using aqueous amine solutions that are difficult to control with conventional technology. Process Instruments Inc. developed Raman scattering technology for on-line, real-time monitoring of amine streams to improve their efficiency in scrubbing H2S and CO2 from hydrocarbon streams and power plant effluents. Improved control of amine and acid gas concentrations will allow refineries, natural gas processes and power plants to more efficiently scrub Sulfur and CO2, saving energy, time and financial resources.

  6. Amine functionalization by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for interfacial adhesion and film cohesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingjing, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Amine functional polymer thin films provide a versatile platform for subsequent functionalization because of their diverse reactivity. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a polymer chemical vapor deposition ...

  7. Palladium-Catalyzed Amination of Unprotected Five-Membered Heterocyclic Bromides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Mingjuan

    An efficient method for the palladium-catalyzed amination of unprotected bromoimidazoles and bromopyrazoles is presented. The transformation is facilitated by the use of our newly developed Pd precatalyst based on the bulky ...

  8. Palladium(0)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Amination of Unactivated C[3 over sp]-H Bonds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Jun

    Filling out the space: The title reaction of unactivated C[3 over sp]-H bonds using aryl amines as the nitrogen source is disclosed (see scheme; dba=dibenzylideneacetone, Tf=trifluoromethanesulfonyl). Either the C-N ...

  9. Flavin Amine Oxidases from the Monoamine Oxidase Structural Family Utilize a Hydride Transfer Mechanism 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson Pozzi, Michelle

    2011-08-08

    The amine oxidase family of enzymes has been the center of numerous mechanistic studies because of the medical relevance of the reactions they catalyze. This study describes transient and steady-state kinetic analyses of ...

  10. Effects of amines on formation of sub-3 nm particles and their subsequent growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu H.; McGraw R.; Lee S.-H.

    2012-01-28

    Field observations and quantum chemical calculations suggest that amines can be important for formation of nanometer size particles. Amines and ammonia often have common atmospheric emission sources and the similar chemical and physical properties. While the effects of ammonia on aerosol nucleation have been previously investigated, laboratory studies of homogeneous nucleation involving amines are lacking. We have made kinetics studies of multicomponent nucleation (MCN) with sulfuric acid, water, ammonia and amines under conditions relevant to the atmosphere. Low concentrations of aerosol precursors were measured with chemical ionization mass spectrometers (CIMS) to provide constrained precursor concentrations needed for nucleation. Particle sizes larger than {approx}2 nm were measured with a nano-differential mobility analyzer (nano-DMA), and number concentrations of particles larger than {approx}1 nm were measured with a particle size magnifier (PSM). Our observations provide the laboratory evidence that amines indeed can participate in aerosol nucleation and growth at the molecular cluster level. The enhancement of particle number concentrations due to several atmospherically relevant amine compounds and ammonia were related to the basicity of these compounds, indicating that acid-base reactions may contribute to the formation of sub-3 nm particles.

  11. Strongly Self-Absorbing C -algebras which contain a nontrivial ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-05-01

    particularly well for those (separable, nuclear) C?-algebras that tensorially ... separable, nuclear, stable C?-algebras that absorb the Cuntz algebra O? are ...

  12. Metal Monolithic Amine-grafted Zeolite for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Steven

    2011-03-31

    The solid amine sorbent for CO{sub 2} capture process has advantages of simplicity and low operating cost compared to the MEA (monoethanolamine) process. Solid amine sorbents reported so far suffered from either low CO{sub 2} capture capacity or low stability. The solid amine sorbent developed in this project exhibited more than 3.2 mmol/g and degraded less than 10% even after 500 cycles of heating and cooling in absence of steam. The presence of steam further enhanced CO{sub 2} capture capacity. The cost of the sorbent is estimated to be less than $7.00/lb. This sorbent was developed using the results of in situ infrared spectroscopic study. Infrared results showed that CO{sub 2} adsorbs on TEPA (tetraethylenepentamine)/PEG (polyethylene glycol) as carbamates and bicarbonates. The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity and oxidation resistance of the amine sorbent can be enhanced by the interactions between NH{sub 2} of TEPA molecules with the OH group of PEG molecules. PEG was also found to be effectively disperse and immobilize the aromatic amines for SO{sub 2} adsorption. The infrared study also showed that SiO{sub 2} is a significantly better support than zeolites due to its proper hydrophobicity. The results of this study led to the development of a high performance solid amine sorbent under simulated gas flow condition in a fixed bed, a fluidized bed, and a metal monolith unit. This study showed heat transfer could become a major technical issue in scaling up a fixed bed adsorber. The use of the fluidized bed and metal monoliths can alleviate the heat transfer issue. The metal monolith could be suitable for small scale applications due to the high cost of manufacturing; the fluidized bed mode would be most suitable for large scale applications. Preliminary economic analysis suggested that the Akron solid amine process would cost 45% less than that of MEA process.

  13. SCIAMACHY'S ABSORBING AEROSOL INDEX AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF INSTRUMENT DEGRADATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    SCIAMACHY'S ABSORBING AEROSOL INDEX AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF INSTRUMENT DEGRADATION L. G. Tilstra1- itoring the Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) [1] measured by the satellite instrument SCIAMACHY [2]. We find. This we conclude from straightforward calculation of the effect of instrument degradation based

  14. Thermally Induced Nonlinear Optical Absorption in Metamaterial Perfect Absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guddala, Sriram; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2015-01-01

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks is fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm2.

  15. Thin-film absorber for a solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-02-09

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  16. Microwave absorbance properties of zirconium–manganese substituted cobalt nanoferrite as electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Kishwar, E-mail: kknano@hotmail.com; Rehman, Sarish

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Good candidates for EM materials with low reflectivity. • Good candidates for broad bandwidth at microwave frequency. • Microwave absorbing bandwidth was modulated simply by manipulating the Zr–Mn. • Higher the Zr–Mn content, the higher absorption rates for the electromagnetic radiation. • The predicted reflection loss shows that this can be used for thin ferrite absorber. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline Zr–Mn (x) substituted Co ferrite having chemical formula CoFe{sub 2?2x}Zr{sub x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 4} (x = 0.1–0.4) was prepared by co-precipitation technique. Combining properties such as structural, electrical, magnetic and reflection loss characteristics. Crystal structure and surface morphology of the calcined samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By using two point probe homemade resistivity apparatus to find resistivity of the sample. Electromagnetic (EM) properties are measured through RF impedance/materials analyzer over 1 MHz–3 GHz. The room-temperature dielectric measurements show dispersion behavior with increasing frequency from 100 Hz to 3 MHz. Magnetic properties confirmed relatively strong dependence of saturation magnetization on Zr–Mn composition. Curie temperature is also found to decrease linearly with addition of Zr–Mn. Furthermore, comprehensive analysis of microwave reflection loss (RL) is carried out as a function of substitution, frequency, and thickness. Composition accompanying maximum microwave absorption is suggested.

  17. Regenerable sorbent technique for capturing CO.sub.2 using immobilized amine sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W; Hoffman, James S; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Resnik, Kevin P

    2013-08-06

    The disclosure provides a CO.sub.2 absorption method using an amine-based solid sorbent for the removal of carbon dioxide from a gas stream. The method disclosed mitigates the impact of water loading on regeneration by utilizing a conditioner following the steam regeneration process, providing for a water loading on the amine-based solid sorbent following CO.sub.2 absorption substantially equivalent to the moisture loading of the regeneration process. This assists in optimizing the CO.sub.2 removal capacity of the amine-based solid sorbent for a given absorption and regeneration reactor size. Management of the water loading in this manner allows regeneration reactor operation with significant mitigation of energy losses incurred by the necessary desorption of adsorbed water.

  18. Reversible Protection and Reactive Patterning of Amine-and Hydroxyl-Terminated Self-Assembled Monolayers on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reversible Protection and Reactive Patterning of Amine- and Hydroxyl-Terminated Self, Wisconsin 53706-1396 Received June 7, 1999 The reversible protection of amine- and hydroxyl MUAM surface. Fmoc is also utilized as a hydroxyl protecting group, as demonstrated by the reaction

  19. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Robert E. [557 Escondido Cir., Livermore, CA 94550; Dolbeare, Frank A. [5178 Diane La., Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-10-21

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes.

  20. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, R.E.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-10-21

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes. No Drawings

  1. New HI 21-cm absorbers at low and intermediate redshifts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zwaan, M A; Péroux, C; Murphy, M T; Bouché, N; Curran, S J; Biggs, A D

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a survey for intervening HI 21-cm absorbers at intermediate and low redshift (0180 K. A subset of our systems were also searched for OH absorption, but no detections were made.

  2. The variability of warm absorbers in Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Robert R. (Robert Ross)

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents three studies of warm (photoionized) absorber variability in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) using high-resolution X-ray spectra provided by the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). The first ...

  3. Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

  4. Overcoming the far-field diffraction limit via absorbance modulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Hsin-Yu Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Diffraction limits the resolution of far-field lithography and imaging to about half of the wavelength, which greatly limits the capability of optical techniques. The proposed technique with absorbance modulation aims to ...

  5. Energy deposition studies for the LBNE beam absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rakhno, Igor L; Tropin, Igor S

    2015-01-01

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition studies performed for the LBNE absorber core and the surrounding shielding with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system -- all with corresponding radiation shielding -- was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. This option provides substantial flexibility and automation when developing complex geometry models. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Various design options were considered, in particular the following: (i) filling the decay pipe with air or helium; (ii) the absorber mask material and shape; (iii) the beam spoiler material and size. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable absorber design options.

  6. Low Redshift Lyman Alpha absorbers and their Connection with Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon L. Morris; Buell Jannuzi; Ray Weymann

    2001-08-08

    We review the ongoing debate about the relationship between low redshift Lyman Alpha absorbers and luminous galaxies. In particular, we discuss the difficulty of `assigning' a particular absorber to a particular galaxy, and consider methods of circumventing this problem. We also provide a status report on an ongoing project collecting more data to address this issue, and show some results for a close together pair of QSOs providing two adjacent lines of sight through the inter-galactic medium.

  7. SO2-Resistant Immobilized Amine Sorbents for CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumuluri, Uma

    2014-01-01

    The solid amine sorbent for CO2 capture process has advantages of simplicity and low operating cost compared to the MEA (monoethanolamine) process. Solid amine sorbents reported so far suffered from either low CO2 capture capacity or low stability in the flue gas environment. This project is aimed at developing a SO2-resistant solid amine sorbent for capturing CO2 from coal–fired power plants with SCR/FGD which emits SO2ranging from 15 to 30 ppm and NO ranging from 5 to 10 ppm. The amine sorbent we developed in a previous project degraded rapidly with 65% decrease in the initial capture capacity in presence of 1% SO2. This amine sorbent was further modified by coating with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) to increase the SO2-resistance. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was found to decrease the SO2-amine interaction, resulting in the decrease in the maximum SO desorption temperature (Tmax ) of amine sorbent. The PEG-coated amine sorbent exhibited higher stability with only 40% decrease in the initial capture capacity compared to un-coated amine sorbents. The cost of the solid amine sorbent developed in this project is estimated to be less than $7.00/lb; the sorbent exhibited CO2 capture capacity more than 2.3 mmol/g. The results of this study provided the scientific basis for further development of SO2-resistant sorbents.

  8. Design Issues for the Superconducting Magnet that Goes Around the Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01

    THAT GOES AROUND THE LIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR THE MUONthat goes around a liquid hydrogen absorber for the Muonand magnet quench on the liquid hydrogen absorber is also

  9. Band Gap Energy of Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cell Absorbers Determined by Soft X-Ray Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar, M.

    2010-01-01

    OF CHALCOPYRITE THIN FILM SOLAR CELL ABSORBERS DETERMINED BYchalcopyrite thin film solar cell absorbers significantlyof chalcopyrite thin film solar cell absorbers. excitation

  10. Practical TDMA for Datacenter Ethernet Bhanu C. Vattikonda, George Porter, Amin Vahdat, Alex C. Snoeren

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snoeren, Alex

    Practical TDMA for Datacenter Ethernet Bhanu C. Vattikonda, George Porter, Amin Vahdat, Alex C on datacenter networks. Applications like MapReduce and Hadoop demand high bisection bandwidth to support to providing high-bandwidth and low- latency communication in the datacenter exhibit significant inefficiencies

  11. Palladium-Catalysed CH Activation of Aliphatic Amines! to give Strained Nitrogen Heterocycles !

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Sophie

    Palladium-Catalysed C­H Activation of Aliphatic Amines! to give Strained Nitrogen Heterocycles. The University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, CB2 1EW.! Palladium-Catalyzed C­H Activation Modes cyclopalladation complex N H palladium catalyst directed C­H activation oxidant C­Pd functionalization 4-membered

  12. Effects of amines on formation of sub-3 nm particles and their subsequent growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    measured with a particle size magnifier (PSM). Our observations provide the laboratory evidence that amines) in a fast flow nucleation reactor coupled with a particle sizing magnifier (PSM), a butanol-based ultrafine ionization mass spectrometers (CIMS). The PSM, coupled with a CPC, can count particles as small as $1 nm

  13. The Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Some Primary Amines of Pharmaceutical Importance by Correlation Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    The Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Some Primary Amines of Pharmaceutical Importance Information ABSTRACT: Vapor pressures, vaporization, and sublimation enthalpies of several pharmaceuticals.5 ± 2.1); p(cr)/Pa = 0.12 ± 0.04]. Vapor pressure equations also derived from vapor pressureretention

  14. The Fight and Flight Responses of Crickets Depleted of Biogenic Amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hofmann, Hans A.

    The Fight and Flight Responses of Crickets Depleted of Biogenic Amines Paul A. Stevenson, Hans A or submissive behaviors. AMT-treated crickets could normally only be brought to fight by coaxing. Though capable metabolic body functions for the prospective fight, whereas the central nervous noradrenergic sys- tem

  15. Solvent Effects on Methyl Transfer Reactions. 2. The Reaction of Amines with Trimethylsulfonium Salts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sklenak, Stepan

    Solvent Effects on Methyl Transfer Reactions. 2. The Reaction of Amines with Trimethylsulfonium the effect of cyclohexane and dimethyl sulfoxide as the solvent on the energy changes. The effect of water as the solvent was studied using the Monte Carlo free energy perturbation method. The reaction with both ammonia

  16. Automatic Volume Management for Programmable Microfluidics Ahmed M. Amin, Mithuna Thottethodi, T. N. Vijaykumar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijaykumar, T. N.

    Automatic Volume Management for Programmable Microfluidics Ahmed M. Amin, Mithuna Thottethodi, T. N {amamin, mithuna, vijay, wereley}@purdue.edu, jacobson@indiana.edu Abstract Microfluidics has enabled lab: Microfluidics, Programmable lab-on-a-chip, Fluid volume management 1 Introduction Microfluidics is the field

  17. AquaCore: A Programmable Architecture for Microfluidics Ahmed M. Amin, Mithuna Thottethodi, T. N. Vijaykumar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijaykumar, T. N.

    AquaCore: A Programmable Architecture for Microfluidics Ahmed M. Amin, Mithuna Thottethodi, T. N {amamin, mithuna, vijay, wereley}@purdue.edu, jacobson@indiana.edu ABSTRACT Advances in microfluidicC in a range of domains by hand-compiling real-world microfluidic assays in AIS, and show a detailed breakdown

  18. Room-temperature ionic liquid-amine solutions: tunable solvents for efficient and reversible capture of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean Camper; Jason E. Bara; Douglas L. Gin; Richard D. Noble

    2008-11-05

    Solutions of room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and commercially available amines were found to be effective for the capture of CO{sub 2} as carbamate salts. RTIL solutions containing 50 mol % (16% v/v) monoethanolamine (MEA) are capable of rapid and reversible capture of 1 mol of CO{sub 2} per 2 moles MEA to give an insoluble MEA-carbamate precipitate that helps to drive the capture reaction (as opposed to aqueous amine systems). Diethanolamine (DEA) can also be used in the same manner for CO{sub 2} capture in RTILs containing a pendant hydroxyl group. The captured CO{sub 2} in the resulting RTIL-carbamate salt mixtures can be readily released by either heating and/or subjecting them to reduced pressure. Using this unprecedented and industrially attractive mixing approach, the desirable properties of RTILs (i.e., nonvolatility, enhancedCO{sub 2} solubility, lower heat capacities) can be combined with the performance of amines for CO{sub 2} capture without the use of specially designed, functionalized 'task-specific' ionic liquids. By mixing RTILs with commercial amines, reactive solvents with a wide range of amine loading levels can be tailored to capture CO{sub 2} in a variety of conditions and processes. These RTIL-amine solutions behave similarly to their water-based counterparts but may offer many advantages, including increased energy efficiency, compared to current aqueous amine technologies.

  19. Photodetector with absorbing region having resonant periodic absorption between reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, R.P.; Olbright, G.R.; Brennan, T.M.; Tsao, J.Y.

    1995-02-14

    A photodetector is disclosed that is responsive to a wavelength or wavelengths of interest which have heretofore been unrealized. The photodetector includes a resonant cavity structure bounded by first and second reflectors, the resonant cavity structure being resonant at the wavelength or wavelengths of interest for containing a plurality of standing waves therein. The photodetector further includes a radiation absorbing region disposed within the resonant cavity structure, the radiation absorbing region including a plurality of radiation absorbing layers spaced apart from one another by a distance substantially equal to a distance between antinodes of adjacent ones of the standing waves. Each of radiation absorbing layers is spatially positioned at a location of one of the antinodes of one of the standing waves such that radiation absorption is enhanced. The radiation absorbing layers may be either bulk layers or quantum wells includes a plurality of layers, each of which is comprised of a strained layer of InGaAs. Individual ones of the InGaAs layers are spaced apart from one another by a GaAs barrier layer. 11 figs.

  20. Photodetector with absorbing region having resonant periodic absorption between reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bryan, Robert P. (Boulder, CO); Olbright, Gregory R. (Boulder, CO); Brennan, Thomas M. (Albuquerque, NM); Tsao, Jeffrey Y. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-02-14

    A photodetector that is responsive to a wavelength or wavelengths of interest which have heretofore been unrealized. The photodetector includes a resonant cavity structure bounded by first and second reflectors, the resonant cavity structure being resonant at the wavelength or wavelengths of interest for containing a plurality of standing waves therein. The photodetector further includes a radiation absorbing region disposed within the resonant cavity structure, the radiation absorbing region including a plurality of radiation absorbing layers spaced apart from one another by a distance substantially equal to a distance between antinodes of adjacent ones of the standing waves. Each of radiation absorbing layers is spatially positioned at a location of one of the antinodes of one of the standing waves such that radiation absorption is enhanced. The radiation absorbing layers may be either bulk layers or quantum wells includes a plurality of layers, each of which is comprised of a strained layer of InGaAs. Individual ones of the InGaAs layers are spaced apart from one another by a GaAs barrier layer.

  1. High-Efficiency Absorber for Damping the Transverse Wake Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Weathersby, S.; /SLAC

    2007-02-28

    Transverse wake fields generated by intense beams may propagate long distances in the vacuum chamber and dissipate power in different shielded elements such as bellows, vacuum valves or vacuum pumps. Induced heating in these elements may be high enough to deteriorate vacuum conditions. We have developed a broadband water-cooled bellows-absorber to capture and damp these harmful transverse fields without impacting the longitudinal beam impedance. Experimental results at the PEP-II SLAC B-factory demonstrate high efficiency of this device. This absorber may be useful in other machines like synchrotron light sources or International Linear Collider.

  2. Energy deposition and radiological studies for the LBNF Hadron Absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rakhno, I L; Tropin, I S; Eidelman, Y I

    2015-01-01

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition and radiological studies performed for the LBNF hadron absorber with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system - all with corresponding radiation shielding - was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable design options.

  3. R-SQUARE IMPEDANCES OF ERL FERRITE HOM ABSORBER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAHN, H.; BURRILL, A.; CALAGA,R.; KAYRAN, D.; ZHAO, Y.

    2005-07-10

    An R&D facility for an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) intended as part of an electron-cooling project for RHIC is, being constructed at this laboratory. The center piece of the facility is a 5-cell 703.75 MHz super-conducting RF linac. Successful operation will depend on effective HOM damping. It is planned to achieve HOM damping exclusively with ferrite absorbers. The performance of a prototype absorber was measured by transforming it into a resonant cavity and alternatively by a conventional wire method. The results expressed as a surface or R-square impedance are presented in this paper.

  4. Exchanging Ohmic Losses in Metamaterial Absorbers with Useful Optical Absorption for Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vora, Ankit; Pala, Nezih; Kulkarni, Anand; Pearce, Joshua M; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2014-01-01

    Using metamaterial absorbers, we have shown that metallic layers in the absorbers do not necessarily constitute undesired resistive heating problem for photovoltaics. Tailoring the geometric skin depth of metals and employing the natural bulk absorbance characteristics of the semiconductors in those absorbers can enable the exchange of undesired resistive losses with the useful optical absorbance in the active semiconductors. Thus, Ohmic loss dominated metamaterial absorbers can be converted into photovoltaic near-perfect absorbers with the advantage of harvesting the full potential of light management offered by the metamaterial absorbers. Based on experimental permittivity data for indium gallium nitride, we have shown that between 75%-95% absorbance can be achieved in the semiconductor layers of the converted metamaterial absorbers. Besides other metamaterial and plasmonic devices, our results may also apply to photodectors and other metal or semiconductor based optical devices where resistive losses and p...

  5. Methods for applying microchannels to separate methane using liquid absorbents, especially ionic liquid absorbents from a mixture comprising methane and nitrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Dublin, OH); Litt, Robert D. (Westerville, OH); Dongming, Qiu (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Plain City, OH); Lamont, Micheal Jay (Plain City, OH); Fanelli, Maddalena (Plain City, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Plain city, OH); Perry, Steven (Galloway, OH)

    2011-10-04

    Methods of using microchannel separation systems including absorbents to improve thermal efficiency and reduce parasitic power loss. Energy is typically added to desorb methane and then energy or heat is removed to absorb methane using a working solution. The working solution or absorbent may comprise an ionic liquid, or other fluids that demonstrate a difference in affinity between methane and nitrogen in a solution.

  6. Tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA) as a membrane-permeable chelator for interception of biological mobile zinc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Zhen

    We report the characterization of tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA) as a membrane-permeable zinc chelator for intercepting biological mobile zinc. Compared to N,N,N?,N?-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), TPA ...

  7. Photoredox Vinylation of Amino Acids and NAryl Amines Adam Noble and David W. C. MacMillan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMillan, David W. C.

    -tert- butoxycarbonyl (N-Boc) -amino acids,7,8 a CO2-extrusion mechanism that has implications for the use of biomass feedstocks in conjugate additions and organometallic couplings. Allylic amines have long been attractive

  8. A study of the response of various steels to the inhibiting action of an organic amine in acid solution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Robert Benjamin

    1957-01-01

    days, heated at 140 ?C to remove some of the amine. ............................. 70 25 PXRD spectrum of Zn(O3PC6H4CO2H) after exposure to heptylamine for 3 days...H) after 10 days. ............................................................................................ 73 29 PXRD spectrum of the octylamine intercalate of Zn(O3PC6H4CO2H) after heating to 140 ?C to remove the amines bound at the metal...

  9. Detection of UV-absorbing aerosols using GOME and SCIAMACHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    using GOME and SCIAMACHY · Conclusions and Outlook #12;Last step: Only positive residues are considered-Adding KNMI Radiative Transfer Model Solar zenith angle = 30° Viewing zenith angle = 0° Surface albedo = 5% #12; Reflectance at TOA with absorbing aerosols Doubling-Adding KNMI Radiative Transfer Model Solar

  10. Effects of Burnable Absorbers on PWR Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.M. O'Leary; Dr. M.L. Pitts

    2000-08-21

    Burnup credit is an ongoing issue in designing and licensing transportation and storage casks for spent nuclear fuel (SNF). To address this issue, in July 1999, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Spent Fuel Project Office, issued Interim Staff Guidance-8 (ISG-8), Revision 1 allowing limited burnup credit for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be used in transport and storage casks. However, one of the key limitations for a licensing basis analysis as stipulated in ISG-8, Revision 1 is that ''burnup credit is restricted to intact fuel assemblies that have not used burnable absorbers''. Because many PWR fuel designs have incorporated burnable-absorber rods for more than twenty years, this restriction places an unnecessary burden on the commercial nuclear power industry. This paper summarizes the effects of in-reactor irradiation on the isotopic inventory of PWR fuels containing different types of integral burnable absorbers (BAs). The work presented is illustrative and intended to represent typical magnitudes of the reactivity effects from depleting PWR fuel with different types of burnable absorbers.

  11. Source Attribution of Light Absorbing Aerosol in Arctic Snow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Source Attribution of Light Absorbing Aerosol in Arctic Snow (Preliminary analysis of 2008 Biomass/poll. Factor: all data Pollution factor: depth data #12;2009 Data set for receptor modeling with limited analytes Factor 1: biomass Factor 2: pollution Factor 3: marine Factor 4: biomass #12;Factor

  12. Fission life-time calculation using a complex absorbing potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillaume Scamps; Kouichi Hagino

    2015-12-28

    A comparison between the semi-classical approximation and the full quantum calculation with a complex absorbing potential is made with a model of the fission of 258Fm. The potential barrier is obtained with the constrained Skyrme HF+BCS theory. The life-time obtained by the two calculations agree with each other the difference being only by 25%.

  13. Design of Vibration Absorbers for Step Motions and Step Disturbances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singhose, William

    Design of Vibration Absorbers for Step Motions and Step Disturbances Joel Fortgang William Singhose Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 Mechanical or from external disturbances. The technique of adding a vibration ab- sorber has proven useful

  14. Status report on solar-absorber-paint coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, S.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Department of Energy has funded a number of programs that have investigated the stability and durability of solar absorber paint coatings. Some of the findings resulting from these programs are presented. Although the basic thrust of the programs has been to investigate changes in optical properties, other physical failures are described.

  15. Impact of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols on clouds and precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Impact of anthropogenic absorbing aerosols on clouds and precipitation: A review of recent and precipitation: A review of recent progresses Chien Wang Massachusetts Institute of Technology, E19-439K, 77 atmospheric circulation, and hence clouds and precipitation. Recent studies have suggested that the changes

  16. Studies on the impact of amine-containing compounds on lysosomes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Funk, Ryan Sol

    2011-12-31

    .6.1. Amine-containing drugs affect lysosomal structure and function……….…18 1.6.2. Lysosomal alkalinization………………………………………...……………..19 1.6.3. Cytoplasmic vacuolization…...………………………………….......…….…..31 1.6.4. Lysosomal lipid accumulation... of the change in apparent lysosomal volume………………...126 3.3.7. Dose dependent effect of CADs on LTR accumulation suggests lysosomal alkalinization with increased dose……………………………………...129 3.4. Conclusions……………………………………………………………………………... 132 3.5. References...

  17. Spontaneous and reversible interaction of vanadium(V) oxyanions with amine derivatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crans, D.C.; Shin, P.K.

    1988-05-18

    The interaction between vanadate and tri- or tetradentate ethanolamine derivatives has been studied by using /sup 51/V NMR spectroscopy. The reactions occur spontaneously in aqueous solutions, at ambient temperatures and in the physiological pH range. In addition to one amine group and one hydroxyl group, the ethanolamine derivative should contain a third and/or fourth functionality that is an alcohol, a carboxylic acid, a phosphonium acid, or an amine. The reactions are highly dependent on pH, concentrations of monomeric vanadate, amine. The stability constants for the complexes are minimum orders of magnitude greater than those found for vanadate derivatives of corresponding ether derivatives, and the high stability is associated with the central nitrogen. Only one vanadium complex is formed in substantial amounts in the reaction of ethanolamine derivatives with vanadate, and that complex is mononuclear in vanadium. Several of the ethanolamine derivatives that form complexes are commonly used buffers in biological and biomedical studies in vitro. 22 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Water-Soluble ROMP Polymers from Amine-Functionalized Norbornenes STERLING F. ALFRED, KAREN LIENKAMP, AHMAD E. MADKOUR, GREGORY N. TEW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tew, Gregory N.

    NOTE Water-Soluble ROMP Polymers from Amine-Functionalized Norbornenes STERLING F. ALFRED, KAREN LIENKAMP, AHMAD E. MADKOUR, GREGORY N. TEW Department of Polymer Science & Engineering, University

  19. A novel self-locked energy absorbing system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuli Chen; Chuan Qiao; Shougen Zhao; Cairu Zhen; Bin Liu

    2015-06-29

    Metallic thin-walled round tubes are widely used as energy absorption elements. However, lateral splash of the round tubes under impact loadings reduces the energy absorption efficiency and may cause secondary damages. Therefore, it is necessary to assemble and fasten round tubes together by boundary constraints and/or fasteners between tubes, which increases the time and labor cost and affects the mechanical performance of round tubes. In an effort to break through this limitation, a novel self-locked energy-absorbing system has been proposed in this paper. The proposed system is made up of thin-walled tubes with dumbbell-shaped cross section, which are specially designed to interlock with each other and thus provide lateral constraint under impact loadings. Both finite element simulations and impact experiment demonstrated that without boundary constraints or fasteners between tubes, the proposed self-locked energy-absorbing system can still effectively attenuate impact loads while the round tube systems fail to carry load due to the lateral splashing of tubes. Furthermore, the optimal geometric design for a single dumbbell-shaped tube and the optimal stacking arrangement for the system are discussed, and a general guideline on the structural design of the proposed self-locked energy absorbing system is provided.

  20. CO2 Capture with Liquid-to-Solid Absorbents: CO2 Capture Process Using Phase-Changing Absorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    IMPACCT Project: GE and the University of Pittsburgh are developing a unique CO2 capture process in which a liquid absorbent, upon contact with CO2, changes into a solid phase. Once in solid form, the material can be separated and the CO2 can be released for storage by heating. Upon heating, the absorbent returns to its liquid form, where it can be reused to capture more CO2. The approach is more efficient than other solventbased processes because it avoids the heating of extraneous solvents such as water. This ultimately leads to a lower cost of CO2 capture and will lower the additional cost to produce electricity for coal-fired power plants that retrofit their facilities to include this technology.

  1. A multi-frequency induction heating system for a thermally triggered gel polymer dynamic vibration absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, John Israel, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    Since its invention in the early part of the twentieth century, the dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) has played an important role in vibration suppression. In its simplest form, a dynamic vibration absorber is a mechanical ...

  2. THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF TUNED IMPACT ABSORBERS FOR ROTATING FLEXIBLE STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Steven W.

    to predict absorber performance. The absorbers use centrifugally induced restoring forces so that their non as a method for handling vibrations in advanced- technology automotive engines [5]. In these applications

  3. Carbon dioxide postcombustion capture: a novel screening study of the carbon dioxide absorption performance of 76 amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graeme Puxty; Robert Rowland; Andrew Allport; Qi Yang; Mark Bown; Robert Burns; Marcel Maeder; Moetaz Attalla

    2009-08-15

    The significant and rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is recognized as necessary to mitigate the potential climate effects from global warming. The postcombustion capture (PCC) and storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) produced from the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a key technology needed to achieve these reductions. The most mature technology for CO{sub 2} capture is reversible chemical absorption into an aqueous amine solution. In this study the results from measurements of the CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of aqueous amine solutions for 76 different amines are presented. Measurements were made using both a novel isothermal gravimetric analysis (IGA) method and a traditional absorption apparatus. Seven amines, consisting of one primary, three secondary, and three tertiary amines, were identified as exhibiting outstanding absorption capacities. Most have a number of structural features in common including steric hindrance and hydroxyl functionality 2 or 3 carbons from the nitrogen. Initial CO{sub 2} absorption rate data from the IGA measurements was also used to indicate relative absorption rates. Most of the outstanding performers in terms of capacity also showed initial absorption rates comparable to the industry standard monoethanolamine (MEA). This indicates, in terms of both absorption capacity and kinetics, that they are promising candidates for further investigation. 30 refs., 8 figs.

  4. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the electroplating the finished absorber isa continuous foil the electroplating parameters have to be

  5. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, C.B.; Kutscher, C.F.; Gawlik, K.M.

    1997-12-02

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprises an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution. 3 figs.

  6. Unglazed transpired solar collector having a low thermal-conductance absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Craig B. (Boulder, CO); Kutscher, Charles F. (Golden, CO); Gawlik, Keith M. (Boulder, CO)

    1997-01-01

    An unglazed transpired solar collector using solar radiation to heat incoming air for distribution, comprising an unglazed absorber formed of low thermal-conductance material having a front surface for receiving the solar radiation and openings in the unglazed absorber for passage of the incoming air such that the incoming air is heated as it passes towards the front surface of the absorber and the heated air passes through the openings in the absorber for distribution.

  7. Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trenberth, Kevin Edward

    Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1 and John T. Fasullo1 greenhouse gases build up from 1950 to 2100. There is an increase in net radiation absorbed, but not in ways from an energy budget standpoint comes from increases in absorbed solar radiation that stem directly

  8. Measuring Bulk Properties of Sound-Absorbing Materials using the Two-Source Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seybert, Andrew F.

    03NVC-200 Measuring Bulk Properties of Sound-Absorbing Materials using the Two-Source Method Z. Tao thickness absorbing material or (2) layered material and (3) using bulk properties for a multi-absorbing materials and are sufficient for many applications. These properties can be measured using the two

  9. Global observations of UV-absorbing aerosols from ERS-2/GOME Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Absorbing Aerosol Index ­ Theory GOME AAI results Conclusions & Outlook #12; Absorbing Aerosol Index Solar zenith angle = 30° Viewing zenith angle = 0° Surface albedo = 5% #12; Reflectance at TOA with absorbing aerosols Doubling-Adding KNMI Radiative Transfer Model Solar zenith angle = 30° Viewing zenith

  10. Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny in the human Abstract To calculate the absorbed dose in the human lung due to inhaled radon progeny, ICRP focussed and secretory cells). The absorbed energy for alpha particles emitted by radon progeny in the human respiratory

  11. Wavelength monitor based on two single quantum well absorbers in a standing wave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    Wavelength monitor based on two single quantum well absorbers in a standing wave H.L. Kung, D-Perot resonator devices.[2] A class of devices based on thin absorbers in standing waves was proposed[1] and one. Here we demonstrate a novel standing wave device that contains two, thin-absorber photodetectors

  12. Wavelength monitor based on two single-quantum-well absorbers sampling a standing wave pattern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    Wavelength monitor based on two single-quantum-well absorbers sampling a standing wave pattern H. L-quantum-well absorbers that sample a standing wave created by a distributed Bragg reflector. As a wavelength monitor, our for wavelength demultiplexing.3 A class of devices based on thin absorbers in standing waves was proposed4

  13. Protonation Studies of a Tungsten Dinitrogen Complex Supported by a Diphosphine Ligand Containing a Pendant Amine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Egbert, Jonathan D.; Chen, Shentan; Helm, Monte L.; Bullock, R. Morris; Mock, Michael T.

    2014-05-12

    Treatment of trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)] (dppe = Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2; PEtNMePEt = Et2PCH2N(Me)CH2PEt2) with three equivalents of tetrafluoroboric acid (HBF4?Et2O) at -78 °C generated the seven-coordinate tungsten hydride trans-[W(N2)2(H)(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)][BF4]. Depending on the temperature of the reaction, protonation of a pendant amine is also observed, affording trans-[W(N2)2(H)(dppe)(PEtNMe(H)PEt)][BF4]2, with formation of the hydrazido complex, [W(NNH2)(dppe)(PEtNMe(H)PEt)][BF4]2, as a minor product. Similar product mixtures were obtained using triflic acid (HOTf). Upon acid addition to the carbonyl analogue, cis-[W(CO)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)], the seven-coordinate carbonyl-hydride complex, trans-[W(CO)2(H)(dppe)(PEtN(H)MePEt)][OTf]2 was generated. The mixed diphosphine complex without the pendant amine in the ligand backbone, trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(depp)] (depp = Et2P(CH2)3PEt2), was synthesized and treated with HBF4?Et2O, selectively generating a hydrazido complex, [W(NNH2)(F)(dppe)(depp)][BF4]. Computational analysis was used to probe proton affinity of three sites of protonation, the metal, pendant amine, and N2 ligand in these complexes. Room temperature reactions with 100 equivalents of HOTf produced NH4+ from reduction of the N2 ligand (electrons come from W). The addition of 100 equivalents HOTf to trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(PEtNMePEt)] afforded 0.88 ± 0.02 equivalents NH4+, while 0.36 ± 0.02 equivalents of NH4+was formed upon treatment of trans-[W(N2)2(dppe)(depp)], the complex without the pendant amine. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources were provided by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  14. Methods for attaching polymerizable ceragenins to water treatment membranes using amine and amide linkages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hibbs, Michael; Altman, Susan J.; Jones, Howland D.T.; Savage, Paul B.

    2013-10-15

    This invention relates to methods for chemically grafting and attaching ceragenin molecules to polymer substrates; methods for synthesizing ceragenin-containing copolymers; methods for making ceragenin-modified water treatment membranes and spacers; and methods of treating contaminated water using ceragenin-modified treatment membranes and spacers. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. Alkene-functionalized ceragenins (e.g., acrylamide-functionalized ceragenins) can be attached to polyamide reverse osmosis membranes using amine-linking, amide-linking, UV-grafting, or silane-coating methods. In addition, silane-functionalized ceragenins can be directly attached to polymer surfaces that have free hydroxyls.

  15. Graphene-based perfect optical absorbers harnessing guided mode resonances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grande, M; Stomeo, T; Bianco, G V; de Ceglia, D; Akozbek, N; Petruzzelli, V; Bruno, G; De Vittorio, M; Scalora, M; Orazio, A D

    2015-01-01

    We numerically and experimentally investigate graphene-based optical absorbers that exploit guided mode resonances (GMRs) achieving perfect absorption over a bandwidth of few nanometers (over the visible and near-infrared ranges) with a 40-fold increase of the monolayer graphene absorption. We analyze the influence of the geometrical parameters on the absorption rate and the angular response for oblique incidence. Finally, we experimentally verify the theoretical predictions in a one-dimensional, dielectric grating and placing it near either a metallic or a dielectric mirror.

  16. A nonplanar porphyrin-based receptor molecule for chiral amine ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MUZZI,CINZIA M.; MEDFORTH,CRAIG J.; SMITH,KEVIN M.; JIA,SONG-LING; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.

    2000-03-06

    A novel porphyrin-based receptor molecule for chiral amine ligands is described in which nonplanarity of the porphyrin macrocycle is used to orient the ligand and to enhance porphyrin-ligand interactions. The porphyrin macrocycle provides a versatile platform upon which to build elaborate superstructures, and this feature coupled with a rich and well-developed synthetic chemistry has led to the synthesis of many elegant models of heme protein active sites and numerous porphyrin-based receptor molecules. One design feature which is not usually considered in the design of porphyrin-based receptor molecules is nonplanarity of the porphyrin ring, although there are a few systems such as the pyridine sensitive Venus Flytrap and the chirality-memory molecule which illustrate that nonplanar porphyrin-based receptors can display unique and interesting behavior. Given the novel properties of these receptors and the continuing interest in the effects of nonplanarity on the properties of porphyrins the authors decided to investigate in more detail the potential applications of nonplanarity in the design of porphyrin-based receptors. Herein, they describe the design, synthesis, and characterization of a new kind of nonplanar porphyrin-based receptor molecule for chiral amines.

  17. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Molecular Response of Amine Bases in Organic Solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathmann, Shawn M.; Cho, Herman M.; Chang, Tsun-Mei; Schenter, Gregory K.; Parab, Kshitij K.; Autrey, Thomas

    2014-05-08

    Reorientational correlation times of various amine bases (viz., pyridine, 2,6-lutidene, 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine) and organic solvents (dichloromethane, toluene) were determined by solution-state NMR relaxation time measurements and compared with predictions from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The bases and solvents are reagents in complex reactions involving Frustrated Lewis Pairs (FLP), which display remarkable catalytic activity in metal-free H2 scission. The comparison of measured and simulated correlation times is a key test of the ability of recent MD and quantum electronic structure calculations to elucidate the mechanism of FLP activity. Correla- tion times were found to be in the range 1.4-3.4 ps (NMR) and 1.23-5.28 ps (MD) for the amines, and 0.9-2.3 ps (NMR) and 0.2-1.7 ps (MD) for the solvent molecules. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacic Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  18. Collaborative research on amine borane regeneration and market analysis of hydrogen storage materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Schubert

    2010-12-06

    Amine borane (AB) is a very high capacity hydrogen storage material that meets DOE gravimetric and volumetric targets for on-board delivery of hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs). This research helped make process toward the ultimate goal of practical generation of spent AB and added to the understanding of materials and processes required to utilize AB in practical applications. In addition, this work helped to enhance our fundamental understanding of the properties of boron materials now being pursued for new frustrated Lewis pair catalyst systems for activation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide, of interest for carbon capture and fuels production. This project included four primary areas of investigation: (1) synthesis of borate esters for use as amine borane regeneration intermediates, (2) spent ammonia borane fuel generation and analysis, (3) spent fuel digestion for production of borate esters, and (4) worldwide borate resource analysis. Significant progress was made in each of these areas during the two-year course of this project, which involved extensive collaborations with partners in the Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and particularly with partners at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Results of the boron resource analysis studies indicate that sufficient boron reserves exist within the United States to meet forecast requirements for a U.S. fleet of hydrogen FCVs and sufficient resources are available worldwide for a global fleet of FCVs.

  19. Beam Pipe HOM Absorber for 750 MHz RF Cavity Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Rolland; Neubauer, Michael

    2014-10-29

    This joint project of Muons, Inc., Cornell University and SLAC was supported by a Phase I and Phase II grant monitored by the SBIR Office of Science of the DOE. Beam line HOM absorbers are a critical part of future linear colliders. The use of lossy materials at cryogenic temperatures has been incorporated in several systems. The design in beam pipes requires cylinders of lossy material mechanically confined in such a way as to absorb the microwave energy from the higher-order modes and remove the heat generated in the lossy material. Furthermore, the potential for charge build-up on the surface of the lossy material requires the conductivity of the material to remain consistent from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. In this program a mechanical design was developed that solved several design constraints: a) fitting into the existing Cornell load vacuum component, b) allowing the use of different material compositions, c) a thermal design that relied upon the compression of the lossy ceramic material without adding stress. Coating experiments were performed that indicated the design constraints needed to fully implement this approach for solving the charge build-up problem inherent in using lossy ceramics. In addition, the ACE3P program, used to calculate the performance of lossy cylinders in beam pipes in general, was supported by this project. Code development and documentation to allow for the more wide spread use of the program was a direct result of this project was well.

  20. Rupal Amin

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumni > The Energy MaterialsRooftopRunningRunningRupal

  1. High-Capacity Sulfur Dioxide Absorbents for Diesel Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2005-01-05

    High capacity sulfur dioxide absorbents based on manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) have been identified. These materials are based on MnO6 octahedra sharing faces and edges to form various tunnel structures (2x2, 2x3, 2x4, 3x3) differentiated by the number of octahedra on a side. The SO2 capacities of these materials, measured at 325 C with a feed containing 250 ppmv SO2 in air, are as high as 70wt% (wt/wt), remarkably higher than conventional metal oxide-based SO2 absorbents. Among the OMS materials the 2x2 member, cryptomelane, exhibits the highest capacity and adsorption rate. Its SO2 absorption behavior has been further characterized as a function of temperature, space velocity, and feed composition. The dominant pathway for SO2 absorption is through the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 by Mn4+ followed by SO3 reaction with Mn2+ to form MnSO4. Absorption can occur in the absence of gas phase oxygen, with a moderate loss in overall capacity. The inclusion of reducible gases NO and CO in the feed does not reduce SO2 capacity. The absorption capacity decreases at high space velocity and lower absorption temperature, indicating the important role of diffusion of sulfate from the surface to the bulk of the material in order to reach full capacity. A color change of cryptomelane from black to yellow-brown after SO2 absorption can be used as an indicator of absorption progress. Cryptomelane can be synthesized using MnSO4 as a reagent. Therefore, after full SO2 absorption the product MnSO4 can be re-used as raw material for a subsequent cryptomelane synthesis. Cryptomelane has a similarly high capacity toward SO3, therefore it can be used for removal of all SOx species generated from a variety of combustion sources. Cryptomelane may find application as a replaceable absorbent for the removal of SOx from diesel truck exhaust, protecting downstream emissions control devices such as particulate filters and NOx traps.

  2. Ligand-Enabled Catalytic C–H Arylation of Aliphatic Amines via a Four Membered Ring Cyclopalladation Pathway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Chuan; Gaunt, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    A palladium-catalyzed C–H arylation of aliphatic amines with arylboronic esters is described via a four membered ring cyclopalladation pathway. Crucial to the successful outcome of this reaction is the action of an amino acid derived ligand. A range...

  3. Amperometric detection and electrochemical oxidation of aliphatic amines and ammonia on silver-lead oxide thin-film electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ge, Jisheng

    1996-01-08

    This thesis comprises three parts: Electrocatalysis of anodic oxygen-transfer reactions: aliphatic amines at mixed Ag-Pb oxide thin-film electrodes; oxidation of ammonia at anodized Ag-Pb eutectic alloy electrodes; and temperature effects on oxidation of ethylamine, alanine, and aquated ammonia.

  4. Iron Carbonyl Sulfides, Formaldehyde, and Amines Condense To Give the Proposed Azadithiolate Cofactor of the Fe-Only Hydrogenases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    Iron Carbonyl Sulfides, Formaldehyde, and Amines Condense To Give the Proposed Azadithiolate of this powerful approach. We found that Fe2(SH)2(CO)6 (1)9 efficiently condenses with formaldehyde in the presence and formaldehyde would condense to give imine derivatives, and this idea led to a revised synthetic protocol

  5. HPLC separation of amines with a zirconia-based column coupled to a gas- phase chemiluminescence nitrogen specific detector (CLND) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salinas, Silvia Adriana

    2004-09-30

    deprotonated. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary amines were separated using a pH=13.7 mobile phase that contained only TMSOH, methanol and water. Good peak shapes were observed for all, except n-alkylamines and samples that contained both amino groups...

  6. Boron-copper neutron absorbing material and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry (Palos Hts., IL)

    1991-01-01

    A composite, copper clad neutron absorbing material is comprised of copper powder and boron powder enriched with boron 10. The boron 10 content can reach over 30 percent by volume, permitting a very high level of neutron absorption. The copper clad product is also capable of being reduced to a thickness of 0.05 to 0.06 inches and curved to a radius of 2 to 3 inches, and can resist temperatures of 900.degree. C. A method of preparing the material includes the steps of compacting a boron-copper powder mixture and placing it in a copper cladding, restraining the clad assembly in a steel frame while it is hot rolled at 900.degree. C. with cross rolling, and removing the steel frame and further rolling the clad assembly at 650.degree. C. An additional sheet of copper can be soldered onto the clad assembly so that the finished sheet can be cold formed into curved shapes.

  7. Diffusion in the Presence of Scale-Free Absorbing Boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nir Alfasi; Yacov Kantor

    2015-04-26

    Scale-free surfaces, such as cones, remain unchanged under a simultaneous expansion of all coordinates by the same factor. Probability density of a particle diffusing near such absorbing surface at large time approaches a simple form that incorporates power-law dependencies on time and distance from a special point, such as apex of the cone, which are characterized by a single exponent $\\eta$. The same exponent is used to describe the number of spatial conformations of long ideal polymer attached to the special point of a repulsive surface of the same geometry and can be used in calculation of entropic forces between such polymers and surfaces. We use the solution of diffusion equation near such surfaces to find the numerical values of $\\eta$, as well as to provide some insight into the behavior of ideal polymers near such surfaces.

  8. Performance predictions of alternative, low cost absorbents for open-cycle absorption solar cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ameel, T.A.; Gee, K.G.; Wood, B.D.

    1995-02-01

    To achieve solar fractions greater than 0.90 using the open-cycle absorption refrigeration system, considerable sorbent solution storage is necessary. Having identified the absorber as the system component whose performance is affected the most by a change in absorbent, an absorber model was selected from available literature pertaining to simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Low-cost absorbent candidates were selected and their physical properties were either located in the literature, measured, or estimated. The most promising of the absorbents considered was a mixture of two parts lithium chloride and one part zinc chloride. Both the lithium-zinc chloride mixture and lithium bromide solutions had estimated pumping powers of less than 0.1 kW. The solubility of the lithium-zinc chloride mixture at absorber conditions was improved over that of lithium bromide, reducing the risk of solidification of the solution. 16 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. A Simple Multi-Directional Absorbing Layer Method to Simulate Elastic Wave Propagation in Unbounded Domains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Semblat, Jean-François; Gandomzadeh, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The numerical analysis of elastic wave propagation in unbounded media may be difficult due to spurious waves reflected at the model artificial boundaries. This point is critical for the analysis of wave propagation in heterogeneous or layered solids. Various techniques such as Absorbing Boundary Conditions, infinite elements or Absorbing Boundary Layers (e.g. Perfectly Matched Layers) lead to an important reduction of such spurious reflections. In this paper, a simple absorbing layer method is proposed: it is based on a Rayleigh/Caughey damping formulation which is often already available in existing Finite Element softwares. The principle of the Caughey Absorbing Layer Method is first presented (including a rheological interpretation). The efficiency of the method is then shown through 1D Finite Element simulations considering homogeneous and heterogeneous damping in the absorbing layer. 2D models are considered afterwards to assess the efficiency of the absorbing layer method for various wave types and inci...

  10. Hindered amine development and operating experience at Quirk Creek Gas Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, P.; Devenny, I. [Imperial Oil Resources Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Rendall, A. [Nalco/Exxon Energy Chemicals, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The Imperial Oil Resources Limited Quirk Creek gas plant has a significant natural gas treating challenge. The natural gas feed contains H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, carbonyl sulfide, mercaptans and elemental sulfur. The trace sulfur components are difficult to remove with conventional solvents. Over its 26 year history, three different solvents have been used. The latest solvent, a hybrid of a hindered amine and a physical solvent, has been operating for over two years, with better than expected performance. This high capacity solvent has lowered operating costs by over $500,000/yr by reducing solids formation. The development work, including pilot testing at Quirk Creek, and the operating history will be reviewed.

  11. Nickel Phosphine Catalysts with Pendant Amines for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Wiedner, Eric S.; Roberts, John A.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel phosphine complexes with pendant amines have been found to be electrocatalysts for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols, with turnover frequencies as high as 3.3 s-1. These complexes are the first electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation based on non-precious metals, which will be critical for use in fuel cells. The research by CJW, ESW, and AMA was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. The research by JASR was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  12. Report on the evaluation of the tritium producing burnable absorber rod lead test assembly. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the design and fabrication requirements for a tritium-producing burnable absorber rod lead test assembly and evaluates the safety issues associated with tritium-producing burnable absorber rod irradiation on the operation of a commercial light water reactor. The report provides an evaluation of the tritium-producing burnable absorber rod design and concludes that irradiation can be performed within U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations applicable to a commercial pressurized light water reactor.

  13. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings". Proceedings of theSymposium on Coatings for Solar Collectors, . Louis,'MO,OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS Carl M. Lampert

  14. A robust absorbing layer method for anisotropic seismic wave modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.; Labbé, S.; Operto, S.; Virieux, J.

    2014-12-15

    When applied to wave propagation modeling in anisotropic media, Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) exhibit instabilities. Incoming waves are amplified instead of being absorbed. Overcoming this difficulty is crucial as in many seismic imaging applications, accounting accurately for the subsurface anisotropy is mandatory. In this study, we present the SMART layer method as an alternative to PML approach. This method is based on the decomposition of the wavefield into components propagating inward and outward the domain of interest. Only outgoing components are damped. We show that for elastic and acoustic wave propagation in Transverse Isotropic media, the SMART layer is unconditionally dissipative: no amplification of the wavefield is possible. The SMART layers are not perfectly matched, therefore less accurate than conventional PML. However, a reasonable increase of the layer size yields an accuracy similar to PML. Finally, we illustrate that the selective damping strategy on which is based the SMART method can prevent the generation of spurious S-waves by embedding the source in a small zone where only S-waves are damped.

  15. Levelized cost of coating (LCOC) for selective absorber materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Pacheco, James Edward

    2013-09-01

    A new metric has been developed to evaluate and compare selective absorber coatings for concentrating solar power applications. Previous metrics have typically considered the performance of the selective coating (i.e., solar absorptance and thermal emittance), but cost and durability were not considered. This report describes the development of the levelized cost of coating (LCOC), which is similar to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) commonly used to evaluate alternative energy technologies. The LCOC is defined as the ratio of the annualized cost of the coating (and associated costs such as labor and number of heliostats required) to the average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. The baseline LCOC using Pyromark 2500 paint was found to be %240.055/MWht, and the distribution of LCOC values relative to this baseline were determined in a probabilistic analysis to range from -%241.6/MWht to %247.3/MWht, accounting for the cost of additional (or fewer) heliostats required to yield the same baseline average annual thermal energy produced by the receiver. A stepwise multiple rank regression analysis showed that the initial solar absorptance was the most significant parameter impacting the LCOC, followed by thermal emittance, degradation rate, reapplication interval, and downtime during reapplication.

  16. Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong-Nian Jow; R.C. Moore; K.B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A.R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

    2005-01-14

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit above the local water table. The focus of the work described in this paper is the development of radionuclide absorbers or ''getter'' materials for neptunium (Np), iodine (I), and technetium (Tc) for potential deployment in the repository. ''Getter'' materials retard the migration of radionuclides through sorption, reduction, or other chemical and physical processes, thereby slowing or preventing the release and transport of radionuclides. An overview of the objectives and approaches utilized in this work with respect to materials selection and modeling of ion ''getters'' is presented. The benefits of the ''getter'' development program to the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) are outlined.

  17. Broadening of QSO Lyman-alpha forest absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tom Theuns; Joop Schaye; Martin Haehnelt

    2000-06-13

    We investigate the dependence of QSO Lyman-alpha absorption features on the temperature of the absorbing gas and on the amplitude of the underlying dark matter fluctuations. We use high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations in cold dark matter dominated cosmological models. In models with a hotter intergalactic medium (IGM), the increased temperature enhances the pressure gradients between low and high density regions and this changes the spatial distribution and the velocity field of the gas. Combined with more thermal broadening, this leads to significantly wider absorption features in hotter models. Cosmological models with little small scale power also have broader absorption features, because fluctuations on the scale of the Jeans length are still in the linear regime . Consequently, both the amplitude of dark matter fluctuations on small scales and thermal smoothing affect the flux decrement distribution in a similar way. However, the b-parameter distribution of Voigt profile fits, obtained by deblending the absorption features into a sum of thermally broadened lines, is largely independent of the amount of small scale power, but does depend strongly on the IGM temperature. The same is true for the two-point function of the flux and for the flux power spectrum on small scales. These three flux statistics are thus sensitive probes of the temperature of the IGM. We compare them computed for our models and obtained from a HIRES spectrum of the quasar Q1422+231 and conclude that the IGM temperature at z=3.25 is fairly high, T_0>= 15000K.

  18. The chemical mechanisms of flavin-dependent amine oxidases and the plasticity of the two-his one-carboxylate facial triad in tyrosine hydroxylase 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralph, Erik C.

    2009-05-15

    Despite a number of kinetic and spectroscopic studies, the chemical mechanisms of amine oxidation by flavoenzymes remain widely debated. The mechanisms of by Nmethyltryptophan oxidase (MTOX) and tryptophan 2-monooxygenase (TMO) were probed using a...

  19. Design of Cruzain Inhibitors for the Treatment of Chagas Disease AND Development and Application of Methods for the Asymmetric Synthesis of ?-Branched Amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brak, Katrien

    2010-01-01

    by AllyChem Co. Ltd (Dalian, China). Propargyl amine 1.16provided by AllyChem Co. Ltd (Dalian, China). Inhibitor 2.2by AllyChem Co. Ltd (Dalian, China). 4 M HCl (solution in

  20. Minimax design of vibration absorbers for linear damped systems Brandon Brown, Tarunraj Singh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Tarunraj

    Minimax design of vibration absorbers for linear damped systems Brandon Brown, Tarunraj Singh à Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY addresses the issue of design of a passive vibration absorber in the presence of uncertainties

  1. Analysis of reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol scenes measured by SCIAMACHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Analysis of reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol scenes measured by SCIAMACHY M. de Graaf,1 of reflectance spectra of UV-absorbing aerosol scenes measured by SCIAMACHY, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D02206, doi aerosol (DDA) and biomass burning aerosol (BBA) scenes over oceans are presented, measured by the space

  2. Satellite observations of the seasonal cycles of absorbing aerosols in Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Satellite observations of the seasonal cycles of absorbing aerosols in Africa related to monsoon of aerosol emissions from the wet surface. 1. Introduction The main aerosol types occurring over Africa Africa can be characterized using Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) data from Global Ozone Monitoring

  3. Wave Energy Converter Design Tool for Point Absorbers with Arbitrary Device Geometry Kelley Ruehl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    Wave Energy Converter Design Tool for Point Absorbers with Arbitrary Device Geometry Kelley Ruehl University Corvallis, OR, USA ABSTRACT In order to promote and support the wave energy industry, a Wave strategies. KEY WORDS: wave energy; point absorber; time-domain; design tool. INTRODUCTION Wave Energy

  4. Side branch absorber for exhaust manifold of two-stroke internal combustion engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Ralph E. (San Antonio, TX); Broerman, III, Eugene L. (San Antonio, TX); Bourn, Gary D. (Laramie, WY)

    2011-01-11

    A method of improving scavenging operation of a two-stroke internal combustion engine. The exhaust pressure of the engine is analyzed to determine if there is a pulsation frequency. Acoustic modeling is used to design an absorber. An appropriately designed side branch absorber may be attached to the exhaust manifold.

  5. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  6. Americium Transmutation Feasibility When Used as Burnable Absorbers - 12392

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbaras, Sean A. [United States Military Academy, West Point, New York 10996 (United States); Knight, Travis W. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The use of plutonium in Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel in traditional Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies leads to greater americium production which is not addressed in MOX recycling. The transuranic nuclides (TRU) contribute the most to the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and a reduction of the TRU stockpile would greatly reduce the overall radiotoxicity of what must be managed. Am-241 is a TRU of particular concern because it is the dominant contributor of total radiotoxicity for the first 1000 years in a repository. This research explored the feasibility of transmuting Am-241 by using varying amounts in MOX rods being used in place of burnable absorbers and evaluated with respect to the impact on incineration and transmutation of transuranics in MOX fuel as well as the impact on safety. This research concludes that the addition of americium to a non-uniform fuel assembly is a viable method of transmuting Am-241, holding down excess reactivity in the core while serving as a burnable poison, as well as reducing the radiotoxicity of high level waste that must be managed. The use of Am/MOX hybrid fuel assemblies to transmute americium was researched using multiple computer codes. Am-241 was shown in this study to be able to hold down excess reactivity at the beginning of cycle and shape the power distribution in the core with assemblies of varying americium content loaded in a pattern similar to the traditional use of assemblies with varying amounts of burnable absorbers. The feasibility, safety, and utility of using americium to create an Am/MOX hybrid non-uniform core were also evaluated. The core remained critical to a burnup of 22,000 MWD/MTM. The power coefficient of reactivity as well as the temperature and power defects were sufficiently negative to provide a prompt feedback mechanism in case of a transient and prevent a power excursion, thus ensuring inherent safety and protection of the core. As shown here as well as many other studies, this non-uniform assembly type successfully addresses the concerns of reduced control rod worth within advanced MOX assemblies because the Am/MOX hybrid fuel rods are on the periphery of the assembly. The radiotoxicity of the high level waste that must be managed from a single use of an Am/MOX hybrid batch is reduced for the first 1000 years in comparison to a regular UO{sub 2} batch. However, there is no heat-load advantage without multi-recycling the Am/MOX hybrid assemblies. As shown through numerous studies, the heterogeneous assembly model used as the basis for this research is capable of multiple recycles while still maintaining negative temperature and power coefficients of reactivity. Multi-recycling would provide an even greater reduction to the radiotoxicity of the high level waste as well as provide a heat-load advantage compared to a once through UO{sub 2} fuel cycle. (authors)

  7. Thermoelectricity without absorbing energy from the heat sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert. S. Whitney; Rafael Sánchez; Federica Haupt; Janine Splettstoesser

    2015-09-28

    We analyze the power output of a quantum dot machine coupled to two electronic reservoirs via thermoelectric contacts, and to two thermal reservoirs - one hot and one cold. This machine is a nanoscale analogue of a conventional thermocouple heat-engine, in which the active region being heated is unavoidably also exchanging heat with its cold environment. Heat exchange between the dot and the thermal reservoirs is treated as a capacitive coupling to electronic fluctuations in localized levels, modeled as two additional quantum dots. The resulting multiple-dot setup is described using a master equation approach. We observe an "exotic" power generation, which remains finite even when the heat absorbed from the thermal reservoirs is zero (in other words the heat coming from the hot reservoir all escapes into the cold environment). This effect can be understood in terms of a non-local effect in which the heat flow from heat source to the cold environment generates power via a mechanism which we refer to as Coulomb heat drag. It relies on the fact that there is no relaxation in the quantum dot system, so electrons within it have a non-thermal energy distribution. More poetically, one can say that we find a spatial separation of the first-law of thermodynamics (heat to work conversion) from the second-law of thermodynamics (generation of entropy). We present circumstances in which this non-thermal system can generate more power than any conventional macroscopic thermocouple (with local thermalization), even when the latter works with Carnot efficiency.

  8. Thermoelectricity without absorbing energy from the heat sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert. S. Whitney; Rafael Sánchez; Federica Haupt; Janine Splettstoesser

    2015-08-18

    We analyze the power output of a quantum dot machine coupled to two electronic reservoirs via thermoelectric contacts, and to two thermal reservoirs - one hot and one cold. This machine is a nanoscale analogue of a conventional thermocouple heat-engine, in which the active region being heated is unavoidably also exchanging heat with its cold environment. Heat exchange between the dot and the thermal reservoirs is treated as a capacitive coupling to electronic fluctuations in localized levels, modeled as two additional quantum dots. The resulting multiple-dot setup is described using a master equation approach. We observe an "exotic" power generation, which remains finite even when the heat absorbed from the thermal reservoirs is zero (in other words the heat coming from the hot reservoir all escapes into the cold environment). This effect can be understood in terms of a non-local effect in which the heat flow from heat source to the cold environment generates power via a mechanism which we refer to as Coulomb heat drag. It relies on the fact that there is no relaxation in the quantum dot system, so electrons within it have a non-thermal energy distribution. More poetically, one can say that we find a spatial separation of the first-law of thermodynamics (heat to work conversion) from the second-law of thermodynamics (generation of entropy). We present circumstances in which this non-thermal system can generate more power than any conventional macroscopic thermocouple (with local thermalization), even when the latter works with Carnot efficiency.

  9. Alternative materials to cadmium for neutron absorbers in safeguards applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Corey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geist, William H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; West, James D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium is increasingly difficult to use in safeguards applications because of rising cost and increased safety regulations. This work examines the properties of two materials produced by Ceradyne, inc. that present alternatives to cadmium for neutron shielding. The first is an aluminum metal doped with boron and the second is a boron carbide powder, compressed into a ceramic. Both are enriched in the {sup 10}B isotope. Two sheets of boron doped aluminum (1.1 mm and 5.2mm thick) and one sheet of boron carbide (8.5mm thick) were provided by Ceradyne for testing. An experiment was designed to test the neutron absorption capabilities of these three sheets against two different thicknesses of cadmium (0.6mm and 1.6mm thick). The thinner piece of aluminum boron alloy (1.1mm) performed as well as the cadmium pieces at absorbing neutrons. The thicker aluminum-boron plate provided more shielding than the cadmium sheets and the boron carbide performed best by a relatively large margin. Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) transport code modeling of the experiment was performed to provide validaLed computational tools for predicting the behavior of systems in which these materials may be incorporated as alternatives to cadmium. MCNPX calculations predict that approximately 0.17mm of the boron carbide is equivalent to 0.6mm of cadmium. There are drawbacks to these materials that need to be noted when considering using them as replacements for cadmium. Notably, they may need to be thicker than cadmium, and are not malleable, requiring machining to fit any curved forms.

  10. Final Report for the DOE-BES Program Mechanistic Studies of Activated Hydrogen Release from Amine-Boranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry G. Sneddon; R. Thomas Baker

    2013-01-13

    Effective storage of hydrogen presents one of the most significant technical gaps to successful implementation of the hydrogen economy, particularly for transportation applications. Amine boranes, such as ammonia borane H3NBH3 and ammonia triborane H3NB3H7, have been identified as promising, high-capacity chemical hydrogen storage media containing potentially readily released protic (N-H) and hydridic (B-H) hydrogens. At the outset of our studies, dehydrogenation of ammonia borane had been studied primarily in the solid state, but our DOE sponsored work clearly demonstrated that ionic liquids, base-initiators and/or metal-catalysts can each significantly increase both the rate and extent of hydrogen release from amine boranes under moderate conditions. Our studies also showed that depending upon the activation method, hydrogen release from amine boranes can occur by very different mechanistic steps and yield different types of spent-fuel materials. The fundamental understanding that was developed during this grant of the pathways and controlling factors for each of these hydrogen-release mechanisms is now enabling continuing discovery and optimization of new chemical-hydride based hydrogen storage systems.

  11. The transformation of organic amines by transition metal cluster compounds: Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, R.D.

    1994-11-01

    Research during the current award period has covered several related topics which have emerged and grown as a consequence of the various discoveries that have been made during this award period. They have been divided into the following subsections for clarity and emphasis: The activation of tertiary amines by osmium cluster complexes; CH bond activation and ring opening of a nitrogen containing strained ring heterocycle by an osmium cluster complex; Ring opening of cyclic thioethers; cyclooligomerization of Thietanes; Studies of the cyclobutyne ligand; Insertion of an alkynes into metal-metal bonds; and Energy storage in metal clusters. A summary of the results of these studies is given in the following sections of this report. These studies have resulted in 50 scientific publications over the last three years and details of their studies beyond that given in the following sections can be found in those reports. All of these reports are listed in the final section of this report by the author`s names, title and journal citation.

  12. Diesel NO{sub x} reduction by plasma-regenerated absorbent beds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallman, P.H.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1998-02-10

    Reduction of NO{sub x} from diesel engine exhaust by use of plasma-regenerated absorbent beds is described. This involves a process for the reduction of NO{sub x} and particulates from diesel engines by first absorbing NO{sub x} onto a solid absorbent bed that simultaneously acts as a physical trap for the particulate matter, and second regenerating said solid absorbent by pulsed plasma decomposition of absorbed NO{sub x} followed by air oxidation of trapped particulate matter. The absorbent bed may utilize all metal oxides, but the capacity and the kinetics of absorption and desorption vary between different materials, and thus the composition of the absorbent bed is preferably a material which enables the combination of NO{sub x} absorption capability with catalytic activity for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Thus, naturally occurring or synthetically prepared materials may be utilized, particularly those having NO{sub x} absorption properties up to temperatures around 400 C which is in the area of diesel engine exhaust temperatures. 1 fig.

  13. Treatability study of absorbent polymer waste form for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Lehto, M. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Croft, A. D.; Kern, P. W.

    2000-02-10

    A treatability study was performed to develop and characterize an absorbent polymer waste form for application to low level (LLW) and mixed low level (MLLW) aqueous wastes at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). In this study absorbent polymers proved effective at immobilizing aqueous liquid wastes in order to meet Land Disposal Restrictions for subsurface waste disposal. Treatment of aqueous waste with absorbent polymers provides an alternative to liquid waste solidification via high-shear mixing with clays and cements. Significant advantages of absorbent polymer use over clays and cements include ease of operations and waste volume minimization. Absorbent polymers do not require high-shear mixing as do clays and cements. Granulated absorbent polymer is poured into aqueous solutions and forms a gel which passes the paint filter test as a non-liquid. Pouring versus mixing of a solidification agent not only eliminates the need for a mixing station, but also lessens exposure to personnel and the potential for spread of contamination from treatment of radioactive wastes. Waste minimization is achieved as significantly less mass addition and volume increase is required of and results from absorbent polymer use than that of clays and cements. Operational ease and waste minimization translate into overall cost savings for LLW and MLLW treatment.

  14. An investigation of the effect of ammonia and amines on the recovery of oil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, James Malone

    1958-01-01

    , diethylamine, or normal butylamine in an air drive prior to waterflooding re- duces the amount of oil recovered by the waterflood. 5. although more than 95 percent of the ammonia is absorbed on the sand or in the fluids, this process does not prevent dis...AE INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF AMMONIA A?D ANIEES OE THE RECOVERT OF OIL A Thesis EF~ %0 JAMES MP RICHARDSON Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  15. Relationships between daytime carbon dioxide uptake and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation for three different mountain/plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt Jr., E. Raymond

    Relationships between daytime carbon dioxide uptake and absorbed photosynthetically active and Atmospheric Dynamics: Boundary layer processes; KEYWORDS: CO2 flux, absorbed PAR, carbon cycle, remote sensing Change: Biogeochemical processes (4805); 1640 Global Change: Remote sensing; 3307 Meteorology

  16. PRESS RELEASE May 15, 2013, 10:12 a.m. ET Raw Cotton Absorbs Crude Oil Spills; Repels Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    PRESS RELEASE May 15, 2013, 10:12 a.m. ET Raw Cotton Absorbs Crude Oil Spills; Repels Water NEW is highly effective at absorbing crude oil spills. The study, published in the most recent issue of low-micronaire cotton can absorb more than 30 pounds of dense crude oil. In addition, the natural

  17. 1998 SPIE Smart Structures and Materials Conf. Paper #332919/332742 High bandwidth tunability in a smart vibration absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatau, Alison B.

    in a smart vibration absorber Alison B. Flatau, + Marcelo J. Dapino ++ and Frederick T. Calkins Terfenol­D vibration absorber is developed in this paper. An overview of magnetostriction including to achieve high bandwidth tunability in the performance of a Terfenol­D vibration absorber. Keywords

  18. Low-cost solar collectors using thin-film plastics absorbers and glazings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, performance, cost, and marketing of flat plate solar collectors using plastic absorbers and glazings are described. Manufacturing cost breakdowns are given for single-glazed and double-glazed collectors. (WHK)

  19. Measurements of photon absorbed fractions and dose profiles using a gelatin-based volumetric dosimeter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Scottie Wayne

    1995-01-01

    suffer from inherent statistical errors. Therefore, Monte Carlo estimates of absorbed dose should always, whenever possible, be compared to actual measurements to verify their accuracy. This study concentrated on the use of a gelatin-based volumetric...

  20. Photoacoustic contrast imaging of biological tissues with nanodiamonds fabricated for high near-infrared absorbance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Su, Long-Jyun; Ren, Shengqiang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Yang, Xinmai; Forrest, M. Laird

    2013-02-12

    Radiation-damaged nanodiamonds (DNDs) are potentially ideal optical contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging in biological tissues due to their low toxicity and high optical absorbance. PA imaging contrast agents have been limited to quantum...

  1. Photoacoustic contrast imaging of biological tissues with nanodiamonds fabricated for high near-infrared absorbance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Su, Long-Jyun; Ren, Shenqiang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Yang, Xinmai; Forrest, Marcus Laird

    2013-02-01

    Radiation-damaged nanodiamonds (DNDs) are potentially ideal optical contrast agents for photoacoustic (PA) imaging in biological tissues due to their low toxicity and high optical absorbance. PA imaging contrast agents have been limited to quantum...

  2. Development and application of saturable absorbers to femtosecond solid-state laser mode-locking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasankumar, Rohit Prativadi, 1975-

    2003-01-01

    Semiconductor saturable absorbers have had a major impact on the field of ultrashort pulse generation by increasing the stability and reliability of ultrashort pulse lasers, making them more useful in many applications. ...

  3. Intermixing at the absorber-buffer layer interface in thin-film...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intermixing at the absorber-buffer layer interface in thin-film solar cells: The electronic effects of point defects in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)sub 2 and Cusub 2ZnSn(Se,S)sub 4...

  4. Stabilization techniques and silicon-germanium saturable absorbers for high repetition rate mode-locked lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grawert, Felix Jan

    2005-01-01

    The monolithic integration of passively mode-locked solid-state lasers at highest repetition rates has been prevented by Q-switching instabilities and the lack of integrable saturable absorbers to date. In this thesis we ...

  5. A SOLAR TEST COLLECTOR FOR EVALUATION OF BOTH SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE ABSORBERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    Coating Applied to Collector Design, Proceedings North American Solarsolar test collector was designed for the testing of thermally absorbing coatingssolar test collector was designed so that certain collector parameters could be held constant or controlled and yet different coatings

  6. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    for Depositing Solar Collector Coatings i i • Proceedings ofSymposium on Coatings for Solar Collectors, St. Louis, MO,OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS Carl M. Lampert

  7. A SOLAR TEST COLLECTOR FOR EVALUATION OF BOTH SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE ABSORBERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    solar best collector was designed for the testing of thermally absorbing coatingssolar test collector was designed so that certain collector parameters could be held constant or controlled and yet different coatings

  8. METAL FOILS FOR DIRECT APPLICATION OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01

    of the AES Coatings for Solar Collectors Symposium. Atlanta.Symposium on Coatings for Solar Collectors, St. Louis, MO,OF ABSORBER COATINGS ON SOLAR COLLECTORS Carl M. Lampert

  9. Enhanced drug delivery capabilities from stents coated with absorbable polymer and crystalline drug

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlyle, Wenda C.

    Current drug eluting stent (DES) technology is not optimized with regard to the pharmacokinetics of drug delivery. A novel, absorbable-coating sirolimus-eluting stent (AC-SES) was evaluated for its capacity to deliver drug ...

  10. Ultraviolet light absorbers having two different chromophors in the same molecule

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogl, O.; Li, S.

    1983-10-06

    This invention relates to novel ultraviolet light absorbers having two chromophors in the same molecule, and more particularly to benzotriazole substituted dihydroxybenzophenones and acetophenones. More particularly, this invention relates to 3,5-(di(2H-benzotriazole-2-yl))-2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone and 3,5-(di(2H-benzotriazole-2-yl))-2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone which are particularly useful as an ultraviolet light absorbers.

  11. Boron cage compound materials and composites for shielding and absorbing neutrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

    2014-03-04

    Boron cage compound-containing materials for shielding and absorbing neutrons. The materials include BCC-containing composites and compounds. BCC-containing compounds comprise a host polymer and a BCC attached thereto. BCC-containing composites comprise a mixture of a polymer matrix and a BCC filler. The BCC-containing materials can be used to form numerous articles of manufacture for shielding and absorbing neutrons.

  12. Advanced Amine Solvent Formulations and Process Integration for Near-Term CO2 Capture Success

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Kevin S.; Searcy, Katherine; Rochelle, Gary T.; Ziaii, Sepideh; Schubert, Craig

    2007-06-28

    This Phase I SBIR project investigated the economic and technical feasibility of advanced amine scrubbing systems for post-combustion CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Numerous combinations of advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were screened for energy requirements, and three cases were selected for detailed analysis: a monoethanolamine (MEA) base case and two “advanced” cases: an MEA/Piperazine (PZ) case, and a methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) / PZ case. The MEA/PZ and MDEA/PZ cases employed an advanced “double matrix” stripper configuration. The basis for calculations was a model plant with a gross capacity of 500 MWe. Results indicated that CO2 capture increased the base cost of electricity from 5 cents/kWh to 10.7 c/kWh for the MEA base case, 10.1 c/kWh for the MEA / PZ double matrix, and 9.7 c/kWh for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. The corresponding cost per metric tonne CO2 avoided was 67.20 $/tonne CO2, 60.19 $/tonne CO2, and 55.05 $/tonne CO2, respectively. Derated capacities, including base plant auxiliary load of 29 MWe, were 339 MWe for the base case, 356 MWe for the MEA/PZ double matrix, and 378 MWe for the MDEA / PZ double matrix. When compared to the base case, systems employing advanced solvent formulations and process configurations were estimated to reduce reboiler steam requirements by 20 to 44%, to reduce derating due to CO2 capture by 13 to 30%, and to reduce the cost of CO2 avoided by 10 to 18%. These results demonstrate the potential for significant improvements in the overall economics of CO2 capture via advanced solvent formulations and process configurations.

  13. Reaction of Tris(cyclopentadienyl)uranium compounds with amines, azides, and related ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosen, R.K.

    1989-12-01

    The trivalent uranium compound, (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(thf), serves as a one- or two-electron reducing agent towards azides, RN{sub 3}. These reactions produce either the uranium(IV) azide, (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}UN{sub 3}, or uranium(V) imides, (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}UNR. The role of steric and electronic effects upon this reaction has been investigated using several series of azides. For Me{sub 3}XN{sub 3}, the imides are produced when X = C or Si, both products are formed when X = Ge, and the azide is produced when X = Sn. For Ph{sub 3}XN{sub 3}, the azide is produced when X = C or Sn. For Ph{sub 3-x}CH{sub 3}N{sub 3}, the imide is produced when x = 2 and both compounds are produced when x = 1. For substituted phenylazides, RC{sub 6}H{sub 4}N{sub 3}, only the imides are produced. The magnetic properties of uranium diimides, ((MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U){sub 2}({mu}-NRN), were investigated. Several uranium(III) amines, (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(NH{sub 2}R), were produced from (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(thf) and RNH{sub 2}, and NH{sub 3} was found to be a better ligand towards (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U than is PMe{sub 3}.

  14. Differential toxicity of heterocyclic aromatic amines and their mixture in metabolically competent HepaRG cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumont, Julie, E-mail: Julie.Dumont@pasteur-lille.f [Inserm U991, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, F-35043 Rennes cedex (France); Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, F-35043 Rennes cedex (France); Josse, Rozenn, E-mail: Rozenn.Josse@univ-rennes1.f [Inserm U991, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, F-35043 Rennes cedex (France); Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, F-35043 Rennes cedex (France); Lambert, Carine, E-mail: Carine.Lambert45@gmail.co [Inserm U991, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, F-35043 Rennes cedex (France); Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, F-35043 Rennes cedex (France); Antherieu, Sebastien, E-mail: Sebastien.Antherieu@univ-rennes1.f [Inserm U991, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, F-35043 Rennes cedex (France); Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, F-35043 Rennes cedex (France); Le Hegarat, Ludovic, E-mail: l.lehegarat@afssa.f [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Aliments, F-35300 Fougeres (France); Aninat, Caroline, E-mail: Caroline.Aninat@univ-rennes1.f [Inserm U991, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, F-35043 Rennes cedex (France); Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, F-35043 Rennes cedex (France); Robin, Marie-Anne, E-mail: Marie-Anne.Robin@inserm.f [Inserm U991, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, F-35043 Rennes cedex (France); Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, F-35043 Rennes cedex (France); Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane, E-mail: Christiane.Guillouzo@univ-rennes1.f [Inserm U991, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, F-35043 Rennes cedex (France); Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, F-35043 Rennes cedex (France)

    2010-06-01

    Human exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) usually occurs through mixtures rather than individual compounds. However, the toxic effects and related mechanisms of co-exposure to HAA in humans remain unknown. We compared the effects of two of the most common HAA, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), individually or in combination, in the metabolically competent human hepatoma HepaRG cells. Various endpoints were measured including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, oxidative stress and DNA damage by the comet assay. Moreover, the effects of PhIP and/or MeIQx on mRNA expression and activities of enzymes involved in their activation and detoxification pathways were evaluated. After a 24 h treatment, PhIP and MeIQx, individually and in combination, exerted differential effects on apoptosis, oxidative stress, DNA damage and cytochrome P450 (CYP) activities. Only PhIP induced DNA damage. It was also a stronger inducer of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression and activity than MeIQx. In contrast, only MeIQx exposure resulted in a significant induction of CYP1A2 activity. The combination of PhIP with MeIQx induced an oxidative stress and showed synergistic effects on apoptosis. However, PhIP-induced genotoxicity was abolished by a co-exposure with MeIQx. Such an inhibitory effect could be explained by a significant decrease in CYP1A2 activity which is responsible for PhIP genotoxicity. Our findings highlight the need to investigate interactions between HAA when assessing risks for human health and provide new insights in the mechanisms of interaction between PhIP and MeIQx.

  15. Enhanced Thermal Stability of W-Ni-Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] Cermet-Based Spectrally Selective Solar Absorbers with W Infrared Reflectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Feng

    Solar thermal technologies such as solar hot water and concentrated solar power trough systems rely on spectrally selective solar absorbers. These solar absorbers are designed to efficiently absorb the sunlight while ...

  16. The Environment of Lyman a Absorbers in the Sightline toward 3C273

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. L. Morris; R. J. Weymann; Alan Dressler; P. J. McCarthy; B. A. Smith; R. J. Terrile; R. Gionvanelli; M. Irwin

    1993-07-05

    We present new ground-based data following up on the HST discovery of low-redshift Lya absorption in the sight-line to the quasar 3C273. Narrow-band filter observations show that there are no H II regions within a 12 kpc radius of the line-of-sight to the quasar, at the velocities of three of the absorbers. Broad-band imaging shows that there are no dwarf galaxies at Virgo distances with absolute magnitude above MB~-13.5 and within a radius of 40 kpc. We present fiber spectroscopy of galaxies within a radius of 1 deg, down to an apparent magnitude of B~19. We show that the absorbers are definitely not distributed at random with respect to the galaxies, but also that the absorber-galaxy correlation function is not as strong as the galaxy-galaxy correlation function on large scales. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that all galaxies more luminous than 1/10 L* have effective cross-sections (for association with absorbers with Log(NH)>13.0), of between 0.5 and 1 Mpc. We also show a clear case of a Lya absorber which has no galaxy brighter than MB=-18 within a projected distance of 4.8 Mpc, and discuss the possibility that Lya absorbers are destroyed in a rich galaxy environment.

  17. Thermal tuning of infrared resonant absorbers based on hybrid gold-VO{sub 2} nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocer, Hasan; Butun, Serkan; Aydin, Koray; Banar, Berker; Wang, Kevin; Wu, Junqiao; Tongay, Sefaatttin

    2015-04-20

    Resonant absorbers based on plasmonic materials, metamaterials, and thin films enable spectrally selective absorption filters, where absorption is maximized at the resonance wavelength. By controlling the geometrical parameters of nano/microstructures and materials' refractive indices, resonant absorbers are designed to operate at wide range of wavelengths for applications including absorption filters, thermal emitters, thermophotovoltaic devices, and sensors. However, once resonant absorbers are fabricated, it is rather challenging to control and tune the spectral absorption response. Here, we propose and demonstrate thermally tunable infrared resonant absorbers using hybrid gold-vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) nanostructure arrays. Absorption intensity is tuned from 90% to 20% and 96% to 32% using hybrid gold-VO{sub 2} nanowire and nanodisc arrays, respectively, by heating up the absorbers above the phase transition temperature of VO{sub 2} (68?°C). Phase change materials such as VO{sub 2} deliver useful means of altering optical properties as a function of temperature. Absorbers with tunable spectral response can find applications in sensor and detector applications, in which external stimulus such as heat, electrical signal, or light results in a change in the absorption spectrum and intensity.

  18. Expansion of Michigan EOR Operations Using Advanced Amine Technology at a 600 MW Project Wolverine Carbon Capture and Storage Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H Hoffman; Y kishinevsky; S. Wu; R. Pardini; E. Tripp; D. Barnes

    2010-06-16

    Wolverine Power Supply Cooperative Inc, a member owned cooperative utility based in Cadillac Michigan, proposes to demonstrate the capture, beneficial utilization and storage of CO{sub 2} in the expansion of existing Enhanced Oil Recovery operations. This project is being proposed in response to the US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000015 Section III D, 'Large Scale Industrial CCS projects from Industrial Sources' Technology Area 1. The project will remove 1,000 metric tons per day of CO{sub 2} from the Wolverine Clean Energy Venture 600 MW CFB power plant owned and operated by WPC. CO{sub 2} from the flue gas will be captured using Hitachi's CO{sub 2} capture system and advanced amine technology. The capture system with the advanced amine-based solvent supplied by Hitachi is expected to significantly reduce the cost and energy requirements of CO{sub 2} capture compared to current technologies. The captured CO{sub 2} will be compressed and transported for Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO{sub 2} storage purposes. Enhanced Oil Recovery is a proven concept, widely used to recover otherwise inaccessible petroleum reserves. While post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technologies have been tested at the pilot scale on coal power plant flue gas, they have not yet been demonstrated at a commercial scale and integrated with EOR and storage operations. Amine-based CO{sub 2} capture is the leading technology expected to be available commercially within this decade to enable CCS for utility and industrial facilities firing coal and waste fuels such as petroleum coke. However, traditional CO{sub 2} capture process utilizing commercial amine solvents is very energy intensive for regeneration and is also susceptible to solvent degradation by oxygen as well as SOx and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas, resulting in large operating costs. The large volume of combustion flue gas with its low CO{sub 2} concentration requires large equipment sizes, which together with the highly corrosive nature of the typical amine-based separation process leads to high plant capital investment. According to recent DOE-NETL studies, MEA-based CCS will increase the cost of electricity of a new pulverized coal plant by 80-85% and reduce the net plant efficiency by about 30%. Non-power industrial facilities will incur similar production output and efficiency penalties when implementing conventional carbon capture systems. The proposed large scale demonstration project combining advanced amine CO{sub 2} capture integrated with commercial EOR operations significantly advances post-combustion technology development toward the DOE objectives of reducing the cost of energy production and improving the efficiency of CO{sub 2} Capture technologies. WPC has assembled a strong multidisciplinary team to meet the objectives of this project. WPC will provide the host site and Hitachi will provide the carbon capture technology and advanced solvent. Burns and Roe bring expertise in overall engineering integration and plant design to the team. Core Energy, an active EOR producer/operator in the State of Michigan, is committed to support the detailed design, construction and operation of the CO{sub 2} pipeline and storage component of the project. This team has developed a Front End Engineering Design and Cost Estimate as part of Phase 1 of DOE Award DE-FE0002477.

  19. Fast-regenerable sulfur dioxide absorbents for lean-burn diesel engine emission control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2010-01-23

    It is known that sulfur oxides contribute significantly and deleteriously to the overall performance of lean-burn diesel engine aftertreatment systems, especially in the case of NOx traps. A Ag-based, fast regenerable SO2 absorbent has been developed and will be described. Over a temperature range of 300oC to 550oC, it absorbs almost all of the SO2 in the simulated exhaust gases during the lean cycles and can be fully regenerated by the short rich cycles at the same temperature. Its composition has been optimized as 1 wt% Pt-5wt%Ag-SiO2, and the preferred silica source for the supporting material has been identified as inert Cabosil fumed silica. The thermal instability of Ag2O under fuel-lean conditions at 230oC and above makes it possible to fast regenerate the sulfur-loaded absorbent during the following fuel-rich cycles. Pt catalyst helps reducing Ag2SO4 during rich cycles at low temperatures. And the chemically inert fumed SiO2 support gives the absorbent long term stability. This absorbent shows great potential to work under the same lean-rich cycling conditions as those imposed on the NOx traps, and thus, can protect the downstream particulate filter and the NOx trap from sulfur poisoning.

  20. Extraction of Cesium by a Calix[4]arene-Crown-6 Ether Bearing a Pendant amine Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmon, Ben; Ensor, Dale; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Moyer, Bruce A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the role of the amino group of 5-aminomethylcalix[4]arene-[bis-4-(2-ethylhexyl)benzo-crown-6] (AMBEHB) in the extraction of cesium from acidic and basic mixtures of sodium nitrate and other concentrated salts. The extraction of cesium from nitrate media was measured as a function of extractant concentration, nitrate concentration, cesium concentration, and pH over the range 1-13. The initial studies showed a moderate decrease in the extraction of cesium in acidic media, which indicated the binding of cesium by the calixarene-crown was weakened by the protonation of the amine group. The results also indicated that a 1:1:1 Cs-ligand-nitrate complex is formed in the organic phase. To further evaluate AMBEHB, the empirical data were mathematically modeled to determine the formation constants of the complexes formed in the organic phase. The resulting formation constants showed that the attachment of the amine group to the calixarene-crown molecule reduced the binding stability for the cesium ion upon contact with an acidic solution. This supports the hypothesis of charge repulsion as the basis for more efficient stripping of cesium via pH-switching.

  1. Comparisons of amine solvents for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture: A multi-objective analysis approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Anita S.; Eslick, John C.; Miller, David C.; Kitchin, John R.

    2013-10-01

    Amine solvents are of great interest for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture applications. Although the development of new solvents is predominantly conducted at the laboratory scale, the ability to assess the performance of newly developed solvents at the process scale is crucial to identifying the best solvents for CO{sub 2} capture. In this work we present a methodology to evaluate and objectively compare the process performance of different solvents. We use Aspen Plus, with the electrolyte-NRTL thermodynamic model for the solvent CO{sub 2} interactions, coupled with a multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization to determine the best process design and operating conditions for each solvent. This ensures that the processes utilized for the comparison are those which are best suited for the specific solvent. We evaluate and compare the process performance of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) in a 90% CO{sub 2} capture process from a 550 MW coal fired power plant. From our analysis the best process specifications are amine specific and with those specific, optimized specifications DEA has the potential to be a better performing solvent than MEA, with a lower energy penalty and lower capital cost investment.

  2. A TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AMINE-BASED CO2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY FOR POWER PLANT GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward S. Rubin; Anand B. Rao

    2002-10-01

    Capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel power plants is gaining widespread interest as a potential method of controlling greenhouse gas emissions. Performance and cost models of an amine (MEA)-based CO{sub 2} absorption system for post-combustion flue gas applications have been developed, and integrated with an existing power plant modeling framework that includes multi-pollutant control technologies for other regulated emissions. The integrated model has been applied to study the feasibility and cost of carbon capture and sequestration at both new and existing coal-burning power plants. The cost of carbon avoidance was shown to depend strongly on assumptions about the reference plant design, details of the CO{sub 2} capture system design, interactions with other pollution control systems, and method of CO{sub 2} storage. The CO{sub 2} avoidance cost for retrofit systems was found to be generally higher than for new plants, mainly because of the higher energy penalty resulting from less efficient heat integration, as well as site-specific difficulties typically encountered in retrofit applications. For all cases, a small reduction in CO{sub 2} capture cost was afforded by the SO{sub 2} emission trading credits generated by amine-based capture systems. Efforts are underway to model a broader suite of carbon capture and sequestration technologies for more comprehensive assessments in the context of multi-pollutant environmental management.

  3. Synthesis of Numerical Methods for Modeling Wave Energy Converter-Point Absorbers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.; Yu, Y. H.

    2012-05-01

    During the past few decades, wave energy has received significant attention among all ocean energy formats. Industry has proposed hundreds of prototypes such as an oscillating water column, a point absorber, an overtopping system, and a bottom-hinged system. In particular, many researchers have focused on modeling the floating-point absorber as the technology to extract wave energy. Several modeling methods have been used such as the analytical method, the boundary-integral equation method, the Navier-Stokes equations method, and the empirical method. However, no standardized method has been decided. To assist the development of wave energy conversion technologies, this report reviews the methods for modeling the floating-point absorber.

  4. Critical experiments on an enriched uranium solution system containing periodically distributed strong thermal neutron absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothe, R.E.

    1996-09-30

    A series of 62 critical and critical approach experiments were performed to evaluate a possible novel means of storing large volumes of fissile solution in a critically safe configuration. This study is intended to increase safety and economy through use of such a system in commercial plants which handle fissionable materials in liquid form. The fissile solution`s concentration may equal or slightly exceed the minimum-critical-volume concentration; and experiments were performed for high-enriched uranium solution. Results should be generally applicable in a wide variety of plant situations. The method is called the `Poisoned Tube Tank` because strong neutron absorbers (neutron poisons) are placed inside periodically spaced stainless steel tubes which separate absorber material from solution, keeping the former free of contamination. Eight absorbers are investigated. Both square and triangular pitched lattice patterns are studied. Ancillary topics which closely model typical plant situations are also reported. They include the effect of removing small bundles of absorbers as might occur during inspections in a production plant. Not taking the tank out of service for these inspections would be an economic advantage. Another ancillary topic studies the effect of the presence of a significant volume of unpoisoned solution close to the Poisoned Tube Tank on the critical height. A summary of the experimental findings is that boron compounds were excellent absorbers, as expected. This was true for granular materials such as Gerstley Borate and Borax; but it was also true for the flexible solid composed of boron carbide and rubber, even though only thin sheets were used. Experiments with small bundles of absorbers intentionally removed reveal that quite reasonable tanks could be constructed that would allow a few tubes at a time to be removed from the tank for inspection without removing the tank from production service.

  5. Photocurable acrylic composition, and U.V. curing with development of U.V. absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKoy, Vincent B. (Flintridge, CA); Gupta, Amitava (Pasadena, CA)

    1992-01-01

    In-situ development of an ultraviolet absorber is provided by a compound such as a hydroxy-phenyl-triazole containing a group which protects the absorber during actinically activated polymerization by light at first frequency. After polymerization the protective group is removed by actinic reaction at a second frequency lower than the first frequency. The protective group is formed by replacing the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group with an acyl group containing 1 to 3 carbon atoms or an acryloxy group of the formula: ##STR1## where R.sup.1 is either an alkyl containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms or --CH.dbd.CH.sub.2.

  6. Cyber Security Analysis of State Estimators in Electric Power Systems Andre Teixeira, Saurabh Amin, Henrik Sandberg, Karl H. Johansson, and Shankar S. Sastry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Cyber Security Analysis of State Estimators in Electric Power Systems Andr´e Teixeira, Saurabh Amin, Henrik Sandberg, Karl H. Johansson, and Shankar S. Sastry Abstract-- In this paper, we analyze the cyber security of state estimators in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems operating in power

  7. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Some Inorganic Substances, Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Amines, N-Nitroso Compounds,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Inorganic Substances, Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Amines, N-Nitroso Compounds, and Natural Products 1973; 181 pages ISBN 92 832 1202 9 (out of print) Volume 3 Certain Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and Acrolein 1979; 513 pages ISBN 92 832 1219 3 (out of print) Volume 20 Some Halogenated Hydrocarbons 1979

  8. Effects of O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} on the Capture Capacity of a Primary-Amine Based Polymeric CO{sub 2} Sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallenbeck, Alexander P.; Kitchin, John R.

    2013-08-01

    Post combustion CO{sub 2} capture is most commonly carried out using an amine solution that results in a high parasitic energy cost in the stripper unit due to the need to heat the water which comprises a majority of the amine solution. It is also well known that amine solvents suffer from stability issues due to amine leaching and poisoning by flue gas impurities. Solid sorbents provide an alternative to solvent systems that would potentially reduce the energy penalty of carbon capture. However, the cost of using a particular sorbent is greatly affected by the usable lifetime of the sorbent. This work investigated the stability of a primary amine-functionalized ion exchange resin in the presence of O{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}, both of which are constituents of flue gas that have been shown to cause degradation of various amines in solvent processes. The CO{sub 2} capture capacity was measured over multiple capture cycles under continuous exposure to two simulated flue gas streams, one containing 12 vol% CO{sub 2}, 4% O{sub 2}, 84% N{sub 2}, and the other containing 12.5 vol% CO{sub 2}, 4% O{sub 2}, 431 ppm SO{sub 2}, balance N{sub 2} using a custom-built packed bed reactor. The resin maintained its CO{sub 2} capture capacity of 1.31 mol/kg over 17 capture cycles in the presence of O{sub 2} without SO{sub 2}. However, the CO{sub 2} capture capacity of the resin decreased rapidly under exposure to SO{sub 2} by an amount of 1.3 mol/kg over 9 capture cycles. Elemental analysis revealed the resin adsorbed 1.0 mol/kg of SO{sub 2}. Thermal regeneration was determined to not be possible. The poisoned resin was, however, partially regenerated with exposure to 1.5M NaOH for 3 days resulting in a 43% removal of sulfur, determined through elemental analysis, and a 35% recovery of CO{sub 2} capture capacity. Evidence was also found for amine loss upon prolonged (7 days) continuous exposure to high temperatures (120 #14;C) in air. It is concluded that desulfurization of the flue gas stream prior to CO{sub 2} capture will greatly improve the economic viability of using this solid sorbent in a post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture process.

  9. Development of an optimal impact energy absorber for highway crash cushions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalec, Christopher Ryan

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a new and efficient method of absorbing a vehicle??s kinetic energy for highway safety crash cushions. A vehicle that makes a direct impact with a rigid highway structure traveling at highway speeds can...

  10. ExperimentalVerification of Vibration Absorbers Combinedwith Input Shaping for Oscillatory Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singhose, William

    ExperimentalVerification of Vibration Absorbers Combinedwith Input Shaping for Oscillatory Systems of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332 ABSTRACT Systems that exhibit flexible dynamics are susceptible to vibration choice to deal with these vibrations, but in many cases, it is insufficient or difficult to implement

  11. Roof Integrated Solar Absorbers: The Measured Performance of ''Invisible'' Solar Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colon, C. J. (Florida Solar Energy Center); Merrigan, T. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    2001-10-19

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), with the support of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has investigated the thermal performance of solar absorbers that are an integral, yet indistinguishable, part of a building's roof. The first roof-integrated solar absorber (RISA) system was retrofitted into FSEC's Flexible Roof Facility in Cocoa, Florida, in September 1998. This ''proof-of-concept'' system uses the asphalt shingle roof surface and the plywood decking under the shingles as an unglazed solar absorber. Data was gathered for a one-year period on the system performance. In Phase 2, two more RISA prototypes were constructed and submitted for testing. The first used the asphalt shingles on the roof surface with the tubing mounted on the underside of the plywood decking. The second prototype used metal roofing panels over a plywood substrate and placed the polymer tubing between the plywood decking and the metal roofing. This paper takes a first look at the thermal performance results for the ''invisible'' solar absorbers that use the actual roof surface of a building for solar heat collection.

  12. Batteries put to test in PV plan The technology could help utilities absorb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batteries put to test in PV plan The technology could help utilities absorb more power and assist to see whether battery technology can be effectively used to open the utility's grid to greater amounts statewide, investigating how battery technology can be used to overcome limits on the amount of intermittent

  13. Whole-Body Biodistribution and Estimation of Radiation-Absorbed Doses of the Dopamine D1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jun

    Whole-Body Biodistribution and Estimation of Radiation-Absorbed Doses of the Dopamine D1 Receptor and Behaviour, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia The present study estimated radiation of interest were drawn on compressed planar images of source organs that could be iden- tified. Radiation dose

  14. Identification and localization of absorbers of variable strength in nuclear reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    Identification and localization of absorbers of variable strength in nuclear reactors C. Demazie evenly distrib- uted throughout the core of a commercial nuclear reactor. The novelty and ergodic in time, can be used for many diagnostic purposes in nuclear reactors. Many examples can be found

  15. Absorbed dose rates in tissue from prompt gamma emissions from near-thermal neutron absorption

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwahn, Scott O.

    2015-10-01

    Prompt gamma emission data from the International Atomic Energy Agency s Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis database are analyzed to determine the absorbed dose rates in tissue to be expected when natural elements are exposed in a near-thermal neutron environment.

  16. Design of wide-angle selective absorbers/emitters with dielectric filled metallic photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soljaèiæ, Marin

    . Nakagawa, and H. Ohtsubo, "Solar thermophotovoltaic using Al2O3/Er3 Al5O12 eutectic composite selective. Sadchikov, and M. Z. Shvarts, "Concentrator PV modules and solar cells for TPV systems," Sol. Energy Mater. Hane, "Solar selective absorbers based on two-dimensional W surface gratings with submicron periods

  17. The Effects of Ionizing Irradiation on Liquid, Dried, and Absorbed DNA Extracts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Effects of Ionizing Irradiation on Liquid, Dried, and Absorbed DNA Extracts With and Without from FBI and national public health experts, began irradiating mail to kill potentially present anthrax Formation in Irradiated Tubes High dose X ray Low dose X ray pH indicator wet dry D-BM wet dry D-BM wet dry

  18. Time-independent one-speed neutron transport equation with anisotropic scattering in absorbing media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hangelbroek, R. J.

    1980-06-01

    This report treats the time-independent, one-speed neutron transport equation with anisotropic scattering in absorbing media. For nuclear gain operators existence and uniqueness of solutions to the half-space and finite-slab problems are proved in L/sub 2/-space. The formulas needed for explicit calculations are derived by the use of perturbation theory techniques.

  19. Graphene based tunable fractal Hilbert curve array broadband radar absorbing screen for radar cross section reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xianjun, E-mail: xianjun.huang@manchester.ac.uk [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Hu, Zhirun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Liu, Peiguo [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-11-15

    This paper proposes a new type of graphene based tunable radar absorbing screen. The absorbing screen consists of Hilbert curve metal strip array and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene sheet. The graphene based screen is not only tunable when the chemical potential of the graphene changes, but also has broadband effective absorption. The absorption bandwidth is from 8.9GHz to 18.1GHz, ie., relative bandwidth of more than 68%, at chemical potential of 0eV, which is significantly wider than that if the graphene sheet had not been employed. As the chemical potential varies from 0 to 0.4eV, the central frequency of the screen can be tuned from 13.5GHz to 19.0GHz. In the proposed structure, Hilbert curve metal strip array was designed to provide multiple narrow band resonances, whereas the graphene sheet directly underneath the metal strip array provides tunability and averagely required surface resistance so to significantly extend the screen operation bandwidth by providing broadband impedance matching and absorption. In addition, the thickness of the screen has been optimized to achieve nearly the minimum thickness limitation for a nonmagnetic absorber. The working principle of this absorbing screen is studied in details, and performance under various incident angles is presented. This work extends applications of graphene into tunable microwave radar cross section (RCS) reduction applications.

  20. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ABSORBER ETCHING ON THE BACK CONTACT PERFORMANCE OF CDTE SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ABSORBER ETCHING ON THE BACK CONTACT PERFORMANCE OF CDTE SOLAR CELLS Ivan that has shown a remarkable market success in thin film solar cells. It is well known that deposition and defects are addressed. 2 EXPERIMENTAL CdTe solar cells, in our laboratory, are usually prepared as follows

  1. Experimental study of a fiber absorber-suppressor modified Trombe wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, D; Birkebak, R C

    1982-12-01

    An experimental study has been conducted to ascertain the effects of introducing fiber bed absorbers on Trombe wall passive solar collectors. Two identical, Trombe wall passive solar units were constructed that incorporate the basic components of masonry collector-storage walls: glazings, masonry and thermal insulation. Both units were extensively instrumented with thermocouples and heat flux transducers. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and insolation are also measured. In the first part of the study the two Trombe wall units were tested with a single glass cover. The thermal performance of both units was found to be virtually identical. In the second part of the study a single cover Trombe wall unit was compared with a double cover unit and the latter was found to have higher air gap and masonry wall temperatures and heat fluxes. In the final phase of the experiment, an absorbing, scattering and emitting fiberglass-like material was placed in the air gap of the single gazed wall. Tests were conducted to compare the solar-thermal performance, heat loss and gain characteristics between the units with and without the fiber absorber-suppressor. This experiment showed that the fiber bed served to decouple the wall at night from its exterior environment and to reduce the heat losses. The modified Trombe wall with the fiber absorber-suppressor out-performed the double glazed Trombe wall system by approximately ten percent gain in useable thermal energy. Also, the fiber bed eliminates one glazing thereby reducing system cost as well.

  2. LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12622 Perovskite oxides for visible-light-absorbing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rappe, Andrew M.

    LETTER doi:10.1038/nature12622 Perovskite oxides for visible-light-absorbing ferroelectric perovskites (with ABO3 composition) is due to the fundamental characteristics of the metal­ oxygen A­O and B cations enable the perovskite oxide to exhibitferroelectricity12 . Owing to a large difference

  3. Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1996-11-05

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

  4. Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2012-11-06

    Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

  5. Metamaterial Perfect Absorber Based Hot Electron Photodetection Wei Li and Jason Valentine*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simaan, Nabil

    be harnessed in the form of hot electrons for use in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photodetectors, and photocatalysis systems. KEYWORDS: Plasmonics, metamaterial perfect absorber, hot electrons, infrared including photo- detection,11-20 photovoltaic devices,21,22 photocatalysis,23-26 and surface imaging.27

  6. Exploring Light's Interactions with Bubbles and Light Absorbers in Photoelectrochemical Devices using Ray Tracing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, John

    2013-12-31

    Ray tracing was used to perform optical optimization of arrays of photovoltaic microrods and explore the interaction between light and bubbles of oxygen gas on the surface of the microrods. The incident angle of light was varied over a wide range. The percent of incident light absorbed by the microrods and reflected by the bubbles was computed over this range. It was found that, for the 10 ?m diameter, 100 ?m tall SrTiO{sub 3} microrods simulated in the model, the optimal center-­?to-­?center spacing was 14 ?m for a square grid. This geometry produced 75% average and 90% maximum absorbance. For a triangular grid using the same microrods, the optimal center-­?to-­?center spacing was 14 ?m. This geometry produced 67% average and 85% maximum absorbance. For a randomly laid out grid of 5 ?m diameter, 100 ?m tall SrTiO! microrods with an average center-­?to-­?center spacing of 20 ?m, the average absorption was 23% and the maximum absorption was 43%. For a 50% areal coverage fraction of bubbles on the absorber surface, between 2%-­?20% of the incident light energy was reflected away from the rods by the bubbles, depending upon incident angle and bubble morphology.

  7. Temporal shaping of nanosecond CO/sub 2/ laser pulses in multiphoton saturable absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haglund, R.F. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    It was shown that substantial temporal distortion of nanosecond 10.6 ..mu..m laser pulses occurs in traversing multiphoton saturable absorbers. The risetime and pulse delay effects appear to depend both on fluence and wavelength, and to be qualitatively consistent with predictions of a simple two-level absorption model.

  8. the carbon dioxide balance than can change. First the oceans absorb more carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    today's concerns about human-driven climate change and the need to cut carbon emissions, itthe carbon dioxide balance than can change. First the oceans absorb more carbon dioxide to come for this process to come to equilibrium. Whenever the carbon dioxide amount is increasing an upper limit

  9. Black oxide nanoparticles as durable solar absorbing material for high-temperature concentrating solar power system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Available online 8 January 2015 Keywords: Concentrating solar power Solar absorber Cobalt oxide Light trapping High temperature a b s t r a c t Concentrating solar power is becoming an increasingly important an increasingly urgent need for human society [1,2]. Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems (or solar thermal sys

  10. Abstract Polymer beads have been used to absorb high concentrations of phenol from soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    and placed in a bioreactor, which was then inoculated with a phenol-degrading microbial consortium. All of the phenol contained within the polymer beads was shown to desorb from the polymer matrix and was degradedAbstract Polymer beads have been used to absorb high concentrations of phenol from soil decreasing

  11. A Study of Heat Transfer in a Composite Wall Collector System with Porous Absorber 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, W.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, heat transfer and flow in a composite solar wall with porous absorber has been studied. The unsteady numerical simulation is employed to analyze the performance of the flow and temperature field in the composite solar wall. The excess...

  12. HIGH EFFICIENCY Cu(ln,Ga)SepBASED SOLAR CELLS: PROCESSING OF NOVEL ABSORBER STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    HIGH EFFICIENCY Cu(ln,Ga)SepBASED SOLAR CELLS: PROCESSING OF NOVEL ABSORBER STRUCTURES Miguel A conditions (ASTM E892-87, Global 1000 W/m'). The first attempts to translate this development to larger areas a device performance point of view. In terms of lightweight flexible substrate-for potential space

  13. Realizing thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles from commercially available planar circuit materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, Brian B; Whites, Kieth W; Radway, Matthew J

    2009-01-01

    In this study, recent work on engineering R-card surface resistivity with printed metallic patterns is extended to the design of thin electromagnetic absorbers. Thin electromagnetic absorbers for wide incidence angles and both polarizations have recently been computationally verified by Luukkonen et al.. These absorbers are analytically modeled high-impedance surfaces with capacitive arrays of square patches implemented with relatively high dielectric constant and high loss substrate. However, the advantages provided by the accurate analytical model are largely negated by the need to obtain high dielectric constant material with accurately engineered loss. Fig. I(c) illustrates full-wave computational results for an absorber without vias engineered as proposed by Luukkonen et al.. Unique values for the dielectric loss are required for different center frequencies. Parameters for the capacitive grid are D=5.0 mm and w=O.l mm for a center frequency of 3.36 GHz. The relative permittivity and thickness is 9.20(1-j0.234) and 1=3.048 mm. Consider a center frequency of5.81 GHz and again 1=3.048 mm, the required parameters for the capacitive grid are D=2.0 mm and w=0.2 mm where the required relative permittivity is now 9.20(1-j0.371) Admittedly, engineered dielectrics are themselves a historically interesting and fruitful research area which benefits today from advances in monolithic fabrication using direct-write of dielectrics with nanometer scale inclusions. However, our objective in the present study is to realize the advantages of the absorber proposed by Luukkonen et al. without resort to engineered lossy dielectrics. Specifically we are restricted to commercially available planer circuit materials without use of in-house direct-write technology or materials engineering capability. The materials considered here are TMM 10 laminate with (35 {mu}lm copper cladding with a complex permittivity 9.20-j0.0022) and Ohmegaply resistor conductor material (maximum 250 {Omega}/sq.). A thin electromagnetic absorber for incidence angles greater than 30deg. but less than 60deg. and both polarizations is computationally demonstrated. This absorber utilizes high-permittivity, low-loss microwave substrate in conjunction with an engineered lossy sheet impedance. The lossy sheet impedance is easily engineered with simple analytical approximations and can be manufactured from commercially available laminate materials on microwave substrate.

  14. Coupling reactions of phenylacetylene with water, hydrogen sulfide and primary amines mediated by a Ru(II) phenylvinylidene complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchini, C.; Peruzzini, M.; Zanobini, F. [Istituto per lo Studio della Stereochimica ed Energetica dei Composti di Coordinazione, Florence (Italy)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The Ru(II) fragment [(PNP)RuCl{sub 2}] assists the reaction of phenylacetylene with water, hydrogen sulfide and primary amines to give carbonyl, {eta}{sup 1}-benzylthioaldehyde, and isonitrile complexes, respectively [PNP = CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PPh{sub 2}){sub 2}]. In all of these processes, the reaction is initiated by the 1-alkyne to vinylidene tautomerization at the Ru(II) center, followed by attack of the H{sub 2}Z molecule (Z = O, S, NR) on the vinylidene ligand. The mechanisms which account for these transformations have been completely elucidated and several of the intermediates in these reactions have been isolated and fully characterized. The scope of these reactions in view of their potential applications in organic syntheses involving thioaldehydes and optically pure isonitriles will be briefly presented.

  15. We present HI observations of the environment of three nearby (~ 2000-2500 km s-1 ) Ly-absorbers. The absorbers are located along the sight lines towards Markarian 817, Markarian 509 and VII Zwicky 118. The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hibbard, John

    ABSTRACT We present HI observations of the environment of three nearby (~ 2000-2500 km s-1 ) Ly. We thus find, by comparing to the HI mass function, that there is 4 to 5 times more HI around Ly- absorbers than on average in the sky. The HI Environment of Nearby Ly-alpha Absorbers INTRODUCTION Numerical

  16. Evaluation of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binding polymer for absorbers used to treat liquid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.; Stamberg, K.

    1995-11-01

    The chemical and radiation stability of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) in the form of beads (B-PAN), similar to the beads of composite absorbers, and one selected composite absorber (ammonium molybdophosphate, the active component in PAN binder [AMP-PAN], a prospective candidate for the treatment of acidic wastes) were studied. Aqueous 1M HNO{sub 3} + 1M NaNO{sub 3}, 1M NaOH + 1M NaNO{sub 3}, and 1M NaOH were chosen as simulants of DOE acidic and alkaline wastes. In addition,radiation stability was determined indistilled water. The chemical stability of B-PAN and AMP-PAN beads was tested for a period up to one month of contact with the solution at ambient temperature. The radiation stability of the beads was checked in a radiation dose range 10{sup 3}--10{sup 6} Gy (10{sup 5}--10{sup 8} rads). In acidic solutions the stability of PAN binder was proved not to be limited by either chemical or radiation decomposition. PAN binder may thus be used for preparing composite absorbers for treatment of acid wastes from DOE facilities. The same conclusion is valid for alkaline solutions with pH up to 13. In highly alkaline solutions (concentration of NAOH higher than I M) and in the presence of NaNO{sub 3}, the stability of the tested polyacrylonitrile polymer was sufficient for applications not extending over 10 days. Cross-linking of the polymer caused by ionizing radiation was found to have a positive influence on chemical stability. This effect enables a longer period of applicability of PAN-based composite absorbers. Because of the high sorption rate achievable with PAN-based absorbers, the stability achieved is sufficient for most applications in the DOE complex. The chemical stability of binding polymer may also be further improved by testing another, more suitable type of polymer from the broad family of polyacrylonitrile polymers.

  17. A Deep Search For Faint Galaxies Associated With Very Low-redshift C IV Absorbers: II. Program Design, Absorption-line Measurements, and Absorber Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burchett, Joseph N; Prochaska, J Xavier; Werk, Jessica K; Tumlinson, Jason; O'Meara, John M; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Katz, Neal; Willmer, C N A

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the evolution of metal-enriched gas over recent cosmic epochs as well as to characterize the diffuse, ionized, metal-enriched circumgalactic medium (CGM), we have conducted a blind survey for C IV absorption systems in 89 QSO sightlines observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). We have identified 42 absorbers at z < 0.16, comprising the largest uniform blind sample size to date in this redshift range. Our measurements indicate an increasing C IV absorber number density per comoving path length (dN/dX = 7.5 +/- 1.1) and modestly increasing mass density relative to the critical density of the Universe (Omega(C IV) = 10.0 +/- 1.5 x 10^-8 ) from z ~ 1.5 to the present epoch, consistent with predictions from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Furthermore, the data support a functional form for the column density distribution function that deviates from a single power-law, also consistent with independent theoretical predictions. As the data also probe...

  18. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  19. Photocurable acrylic composition, and U. V. curing with development of U. V. absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKoy, V.B.; Gupta, A.

    1992-08-25

    In-situ development of an ultraviolet absorber is provided by a compound such as a hydroxy-phenyl-triazole containing a group which protects the absorber during actinically activated polymerization by light at first frequency. After polymerization the protective group is removed by actinic reaction at a second frequency lower than the first frequency. The protective group is formed by replacing the hydrogen of the hydroxyl group with an acyl group containing 1 to 3 carbon atoms or an acryloxy group of the formula shown in a figure where R[sup 1] is either an alkyl containing 1 to 6 carbon atoms or --CH[double bond]CH[sub 2]. 2 figs.

  20. EUV lithography reticles fabricated without the use of a patterned absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stearns, Daniel G.; Sweeney, Donald W.; Mirkarimi, Paul B.

    2006-05-23

    Absorber material used in conventional EUVL reticles is eliminated by introducing a direct modulation in the complex-valued reflectance of the multilayer. A spatially localized energy source such as a focused electron or ion beam directly writes a reticle pattern onto the reflective multilayer coating. Interdiffusion is activated within the film by an energy source that causes the multilayer period to contract in the exposed regions. The contraction is accurately determined by the energy dose. A controllable variation in the phase and amplitude of the reflected field in the reticle plane is produced by the spatial modulation of the multilayer period. This method for patterning an EUVL reticle has the advantages (1) avoiding the process steps associated with depositing and patterning an absorber layer and (2) providing control of the phase and amplitude of the reflected field with high spatial resolution.

  1. A Preliminary Study of Energy Recovery in Vehicles by Using Regenerative Magnetic Shock Absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. B. Goldner; P. Zerigian; J. R. Hull

    2001-05-14

    Road vehicles can expend a significant amount of energy in undesirable vertical motions that are induced by road bumps, and much of that is dissipated in conventional shock absorbers as they dampen the vertical motions. Presented in this paper are some of the results of a study aimed at determining the effectiveness of efficiently transforming that energy into electrical power by using optimally designed regenerative electromagnetic shock absorbers. In turn, the electrical power can be used to recharge batteries or other efficient energy storage devices (e.g., flywheels) rather than be dissipated. The results of the study are encouraging - they suggest that a significant amount of the vertical motion energy can be recovered and stored.

  2. Real-time determination of free energy and losses in optical absorbing media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Broadbent; G. Hovhannisyan; J. Peatross; M. Clayton; S. Glasgow

    2002-07-30

    We introduce notions of free energy and loss in linear, absorbing dielectric media which are relevant to the regime in which the macroscopic Maxwell equations are themselves relevant. As such we solve a problem eluded to by Landau and Lifshitz in 1958, and later considered explicitly by Barash and Ginzburg, and Oughtsun and Sherman. As such we provide physically-relevant real-time notions of "energy" and "loss" in all analogous linear dissipative systems.

  3. A super-compact metamaterial absorber cell in L-band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Z. X. [State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia 23666 (United States); Yuan, F. G. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); National Institute of Aerospace, Hampton, Virginia 23666 (United States); Li, L. H. [State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-05-14

    A super-compact metamaterial absorber (SMA) unit cell in L band (1–2?GHz) is proposed, which is composed of a pair of electric ring resonator (ERR) and its complementary ERR (CERR) with a high dielectric substrate sandwiched in between. The CERR has a cross sectional area where approximately the etched copper foil in ERR is now retained, and the remaining region is now etched. In contract with quarter-wavelength (?/4) thickness which is required for conventional absorbers, the largest in-plane dimension and thickness of the SMA cell are only ?/33 and ?/250, respectively, leading to a super compact cell volume. While traditionally the long straight wire is introduced in electric-LC resonators for increasing inductance, the CERR achieves similar inductance with much shorter lengths. Thus, its cell dimensions can be drastically reduced without compromising its performance. In addition, simulations together with an automated phase correction algorithm show that the SMA is a type of metamaterial possessing simultaneous negative electric permittivity (NEP) and negative magnetic permeability (NMP). Further the SMA has a very large imaginary part of the NEP and NMP, resulting in significantly large imaginary part of the refractive index at resonant frequency. These properties are well suited to design excellent absorbers. In addition, numerical results demonstrate that the maximum absorption coefficient of the SMA can reach greater than 99% at resonant frequency, and the full-width half-maximum is roughly 1% of the operating frequency, and a wide incident angle of ±49° over 90% absorption. Meanwhile, it is pointed out that this type of absorber is rather sensitive to polarization characteristic of the incident electromagnetic wave.

  4. Cyanine dyes with high-absorbance cross section as donor chromophores in energy transfer labels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glazer, A.N.; Mathies, R.A.; Hung, S.C.; Ju, J.

    1998-12-29

    Cyanine dyes are used as the donor fluorophore in energy transfer labels in which light energy is absorbed by a donor fluorophore and transferred to an acceptor fluorophore which responds to the transfer by emitting fluorescent light for detection. The cyanine dyes impart an unusually high sensitivity to the labels thereby improving their usefulness in a wide variety of biochemical procedures, particularly nucleic acid sequencing, nucleic acid fragment sizing, and related procedures. 22 figs.

  5. Improved high temperature solar absorbers for use in Concentrating Solar Power central receiver applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Lambert, Timothy L.; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Bencomo, Marlene

    2010-09-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar absorbers to convert the heat from sunlight to electric power. Increased operating temperatures are necessary to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity by improving efficiencies and reducing thermal energy storage costs. Durable new materials are needed to cope with operating temperatures >600 C. The current coating technology (Pyromark High Temperature paint) has a solar absorptance in excess of 0.95 but a thermal emittance greater than 0.8, which results in large thermal losses at high temperatures. In addition, because solar receivers operate in air, these coatings have long term stability issues that add to the operating costs of CSP facilities. Ideal absorbers must have high solar absorptance (>0.95) and low thermal emittance (<0.05) in the IR region, be stable in air, and be low-cost and readily manufacturable. We propose to utilize solution-based synthesis techniques to prepare intrinsic absorbers for use in central receiver applications.

  6. X-Ray Wind Tomography of the highly absorbed HMXB IGR J17252-3616

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manousakis, A

    2010-01-01

    Our goal is to understand the specificities of highly absorbed sgHMXB and in particular of the companion stellar wind, thought to be responsible for the strong absorption. We have monitored IGR J17252-3616, a highly absorbed system featuring eclipses, with XMM-Newton to study the vari- ability of the column density and of the Fe K{\\alpha} emission line along the orbit and during the eclipses. We also built a 3D model of the structure of the stellar wind to reproduce the observed variability. We first derived a refined orbital solution built from INTEGRAL, RXTE and XMM data. The XMM monitoring campaign revealed significant variation of intrinsic absorbing column density along the orbit and of the Fe K{\\alpha} line equivalent width around the eclipses. The origin of the soft X-ray absorption is modeled with an dense and extended hydrodynamical tail, trailing the neutron star. This structure extends along most of the orbit, indicating that the stellar wind is strongly disrupted by the neutron star. The variabili...

  7. Benchmark Evaluation of the HTR-PROTEUS Absorber Rod Worths (Core 4)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; Leland M. Montierth

    2014-06-01

    PROTEUS was a zero-power research reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. The critical assembly was constructed from a large graphite annulus surrounding a central cylindrical cavity. Various experimental programs were investigated in PROTEUS; during the years 1992 through 1996, it was configured as a pebble-bed reactor and designated HTR-PROTEUS. Various critical configurations were assembled with each accompanied by an assortment of reactor physics experiments including differential and integral absorber rod measurements, kinetics, reaction rate distributions, water ingress effects, and small sample reactivity effects [1]. Four benchmark reports were previously prepared and included in the March 2013 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhEP Handbook) [2] evaluating eleven critical configurations. A summary of that effort was previously provided [3] and an analysis of absorber rod worth measurements for Cores 9 and 10 have been performed prior to this analysis and included in PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-004 [4]. In the current benchmark effort, absorber rod worths measured for Core Configuration 4, which was the only core with a randomly-packed pebble loading, have been evaluated for inclusion as a revision to the HTR-PROTEUS benchmark report PROTEUS-GCR-EXP-002.

  8. PEDOT:PSS emitters on multicrystalline silicon thin-film absorbers for hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junghanns, Marcus; Plentz, Jonathan Andrä, Gudrun; Gawlik, Annett; Höger, Ingmar; Falk, Fritz

    2015-02-23

    We fabricated an efficient hybrid solar cell by spin coating poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on planar multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) thin films. The only 5??m thin Si absorber layers were prepared by diode laser crystallization of amorphous Si deposited by electron beam evaporation on glass. On these absorber layers, we studied the effect of SiO{sub x} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} terminated Si surfaces. The short circuit density and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the mc-Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PEDOT:PSS solar cell increase from 20.6 to 25.4?mA/cm{sup 2} and from 7.3% to 10.3%, respectively, as compared to the mc-Si/SiO{sub x}/PEDOT:PSS cell. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} lowers the interface recombination and improves the adhesion of the polymer film on the hydrophobic mc-Si thin film. Open circuit voltages up to 604?mV were reached. This study demonstrates the highest PCE so far of a hybrid solar cell with a planar thin film Si absorber.

  9. Electrochemical Oxidation of H? Catalyzed by Ruthenium Hydride Complexes Bearing P?N? Ligands With Pendant Amines as Proton Relays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Tianbiao L.; Rakowski DuBois, Mary; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2014-01-01

    Two Ru hydride complexes (Cp*Ru(PPh?NBn?)H, (1-H) and Cp*Ru(PtBu?NBn?)H, (2-H) supported by cyclic PR?NR'? ligands (Cp* = n?-C?Me?; 1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane, where R = Ph or tBu and R' = Bn) have been synthesized and fully characterized. Both complexes are demonstrated to be electrocatalysts for oxidation of H? (1 atm, 22 °C) in the presence of external base, DBU (1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene). The turnover frequency of 2-H is 1.2 s-1, with an overpotential at Ecat/2 of 0.45 V, while catalysis by 1-H has a turnover frequency of 0.6 s-1 and an overpotential of 0.6 V at Ecat/2. Addition of H?O facilitates oxidation of H? by 2-H and increases its turnover frequency to 1.9 s-1 while , H?O slows down the catalysis by 1-H. The different effects of H?O for 1-H and 2-H are ascribed to different binding affinities of H?O to the Ru center of the corresponding unsaturated species, [Cp*Ru(PPh?NBn?)]+ and [Cp*Ru(PPh?NBn?)]+. In addition, studies of Cp*Ru(dmpm)H (where dmpm = bis(dimethylphosphino)methane), a control complex lacking pendent amines in its diphosphine ligand, confirms the critical roles of the pendent amines of P?N? ligands for oxidation of H?. We thank the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, for supporting initial parts of the work. Current work is supported by the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. NAME COURSE Amin, Khalid kba561@mail.usask.ca (306) 262-4489 All Statistics Courses, Math 104/110

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peak, Derek

    NAME COURSE Amin, Khalid kba561@mail.usask.ca (306) 262-4489 All Statistics Courses, Math 104/110 Anez, Federico fea379@mail.usask.ca (306) 262-2730 ALL Statistic level classes Anvari, Vahid anvari@math.usask.ca ALL Math courses and any 1st or 2nd yr. Statistics classes Assaf, Samer Ska680@mail.usask.ca (306

  11. Prediction of proton and neutron absorbed-dose distributions in proton beam radiation therapy using Monte Carlo n-particle transport code (MCNPX) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massingill, Brian Edward

    2009-05-15

    The objective of this research was to develop a complex MCNPX model of the human head to predict absorbed dose distributions during proton therapy of ocular tumors. Absorbed dose distributions using the complex geometry ...

  12. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crane, T.W.

    1983-12-21

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  13. Method and apparatus for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material in an object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crane, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.

  14. 1998 SPIE Smart Structures and Materials Conf. Paper #3329-19/3327-42 High bandwidth tunability in a smart vibration absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flatau, Alison B.

    in a smart vibration absorber Alison B. Flatau, Marcelo J. Dapino and Frederick T. Calkinsà , Aerospace Engr, Phantom Works, Seattle WA 98124-2499 ABSTRACT The theory of an electrically tunable Terfenol-D vibration bandwidth tunability in the performance of a Terfenol-D vibration absorber. Keywords: vibration absorber

  15. Dense nitrogen-rich energetic materials: A study of 5,5{sup ?}-(1H-tetrazolyl)amine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laniel, Dominique; Desgreniers, Serge; Sebastiao, Elena; Cook, Cyril; Murugesu, Muralee; Hu, Anguang; Zhang, Fan

    2014-05-14

    5,5{sup ?}-(1H-tetrazolyl)amine (BTA), a nitrogen rich molecular solid has been investigated under compression at room temperature. Powder x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation and micro-Raman spectroscopy were carried out to pressures up to 12.9 GPa. BTA conserves the crystalline structure of its room condition phase up to the highest pressure, i.e., an orthorhombic unit cell (Pbca). A fit of the isothermal compression data to the Birch-Murnaghan equation of state reveals the high compressibility of BTA. An analysis of the volume change with pressure yields a bulk modulus and its derivative similar to that of high-nitrogen content molecular crystals. Upon laser heating to approximately 1100 K, the sample decomposed while pressurized at 2.1 GPa, resulting in a graphitic compound. Finally, numerical simulations demonstrate that the minimum energy conformation is not experimentally observed since a higher energy conformation allows for a more stable dense packing of the BTA molecules.

  16. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI); Marsala, Joseph (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1994-11-29

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium.

  17. Nonlinear Effects of Coexisting Surface and Atmospheric Forcing of Anthropogenic Absorbing Aerosols: Impact on the South Asian Monsoon Onset

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Shao-Yi

    The direct radiative effect of absorbing aerosols consists of absorption-induced atmospheric heating together with scattering- and absorption-induced surface cooling. It is thus important to understand whether some of the ...

  18. Flowing plasmas and absorbing objects: analytic and numerical solutions culminating 80 years of ion-collection theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Ian H.

    Recent computational and theoretical progress in understanding and calculating ion collection by negatively charged absorbing objects in a flowing plasma is outlined. The results are placed in the context of key theoretical ...

  19. Complex absorbing potential based Lorentzian fitting scheme and time dependent quantum transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Hang Kwok, Yanho; Chen, GuanHua; Jiang, Feng; Zheng, Xiao

    2014-10-28

    Based on the complex absorbing potential (CAP) method, a Lorentzian expansion scheme is developed to express the self-energy. The CAP-based Lorentzian expansion of self-energy is employed to solve efficiently the Liouville-von Neumann equation of one-electron density matrix. The resulting method is applicable for both tight-binding and first-principles models and is used to simulate the transient currents through graphene nanoribbons and a benzene molecule sandwiched between two carbon-atom chains.

  20. Optical trapping and rotation of airborne absorbing particles with a single focused laser beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jinda; Li, Yong-qing, E-mail: liy@ecu.edu [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)] [Department of Physics, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27858-4353 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We measure the periodic circular motion of single absorbing aerosol particles that are optically trapped with a single focused Gaussian beam and rotate around the laser propagation direction. The scattered light from the trapped particle is observed to be directional and change periodically at 0.4–20?kHz. The instantaneous positions of the moving particle within a rotation period are measured by a high-speed imaging technique using a charge coupled device camera and a repetitively pulsed light-emitting diode illumination. The centripetal acceleration of the trapped particle as high as ?20 times the gravitational acceleration is observed and is attributed to the photophoretic forces.

  1. Calculation of the lesion radiation absorbed dose in canines treated with samarium-153 EDTMP 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poston, John W

    1989-01-01

    . Schla p r Chair of Committee Dan ightower Member Jo n W. Poston, Sr. Mem er Milton E. McLain Member John W. Posto, Sr. Head of Department May 1989 ABSTRACT Calculation of the Lesion Radiation Absorbed Dose in Canines Treated With Samarium... the members of my graduate committee, Dr. Dan Hightower, who is always approachable and ready to help, and Dr. Milton E. McLain for their support during my graduate study. Special thanks to my friends, especially Dr. Tsz-yik Edmond Hui, for the help...

  2. Laser-generated cavitation in absorbing liquid induced by acoustic diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenz, M.; Paltauf, G.; Schmidt-Kloiber, H.

    1996-05-01

    Conversion of energy from a heat pulse to acoustic stress is theoretically and experimentally studied in detail. The heat pulse was generated by laser radiation delivered via an optical fiber into an absorbing liquid. The experimental results indicate that tensile stress and cavitation are induced in front of the fiber tip at a distance far below the optical penetration depth of the laser radiation. The occurrence of tensile stress in the acoustic near fieldof a submerged fiber is explained by acoustic diffraction of the thermoelastic expansion wave. Good agreement between experimental results and theoretical calculations based on a three-dimensional model was found. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  3. MHK Technologies/Multi Absorbing Wave Energy Converter MAWEC | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050Enermar < MHKHydroInformation Multi Absorbing

  4. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Munley, John T.; Nelson, Danny A.; Qiao, Hong; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-17

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids, producing a small atomic uranium vapor plume. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. LAARS has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for U-235. The sample is scanned and assayed point-by-point at rates reaching 1 million measurements/hour, enabling LAARS to detect and analyze uranium in trace samples. The spectrometer is assembled using primarily commercially available components and features a compact design and automated analysis.Two specific gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) applications of the spectrometer are currently under development: 1) LAARS-Environmental Sampling (ES), which collects and analyzes aerosol particles for GCEP misuse detection and 2) LAARS-Destructive Assay (DA), which enables onsite enrichment DA sample collection and analysis for protracted diversion detection. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in GCEP safeguards verification.

  5. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubey, P. K. Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-05-15

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  6. ATR LEU Monolithic Foil-Type Fuel with Integral Cladding Burnable Absorber – Neutronics Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray Chang

    2012-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), currently operating in the United States, is used for material testing at very high neutron fluxes. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting HEU driven reactor cores to low-enriched uranium (LEU) cores. The burnable absorber - 10B, was added in the inner and outer plates to reduce the initial excess reactivity, and to improve the peak ratio of the inner/outer heat flux. The present work investigates the LEU Monolithic foil-type fuel with 10B Integral Cladding Burnable Absorber (ICBA) design and evaluates the subsequent neutronics operating effects of this proposed fuel designs. The proposed LEU fuel specification in this work is directly related to both the RERTR LEU Development Program and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) LEU Conversion Project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  7. SU-D-19A-02: Electron and Photon Absorbed Fractions for Tumors of Varying Sizes and Compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olguin, E; Bolch, W [UniversityFlorida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To calculate absorbed fractions for mono-energetic photons and electrons in tumors of varying compositions using Monte Carlo simulations in MCNPX. Although tumor dosimetry has been previously investigated, these studies are very limited as they only consider absorbed fractions for soft-tissue tumors. Methods: The tumors were modeled as spheres with radii ranging from 0.10 cm to 6.0 cm and with compositions varying from 100% soft tissue to 100% bone. The energies of both the photons and electrons were varied from 10 keV to 10 MeV and were homogenously distributed throughout the tumor volume. Furthermore, this investigation addresses the issue of spherical versus elliptical tumors. Both prolate and oblate spheroid tumors of different compositions were modeled, and absorbed fractions were calculated for various electron and photon energies. Results: The data clearly shows an absorbed fraction dependence on tumor composition. For example, a soft-tissue model for a 3 MeV electron emitted in a 1 cm diameter bone tumor would have an 83% error, and this same assumption for a 500 keV photon would yield a 74% error. Ultimately, empirical fits were created for each of the five material compositions in order to facilitate the absorbed fraction calculation, requiring only the tumor size and particle energy. Furthermore, the data shows that absorbed fractions for moderate spheroids can be well approximated by spherical tumors of equal mass to within 8%, but in the extreme cases where the spheroid resembles more of a disk, the errors can be as high as 30%. Conclusion: This comprehensive data set is most valuable for nuclear medicine dosimetry because it incorporates particle type, particle energy, tumor size, and tumor composition. Although mono-energetic particles were modeled, absorbed fractions and S-values may be calculated for any radionuclide via linear interpolation, as long as the particle energies or spectra are known.

  8. Cotton absorbent non-woven mat that collects 50 times its own weight in Oil | www.commodityonline.com | 3 http://www.commodityonline.com/news/cotton-absorbent-non-woven-mat-that-collects-50-times-its-own-weight-in-oil-59474-3-59475.html[8/27/2014 4:56:54

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Cotton absorbent non-woven mat that collects 50 times its own weight in Oil | www.commodityonline.com | 3 http://www.commodityonline.com/news/cotton-absorbent-non-woven-mat-that-collects-50-times-its-own-weight-in-oil the new picker-upper for oil spills. 0 1 Cotton absorbent non-woven mat that collects 50 times its own

  9. Bifacial solar cell with SnS absorber by vapor transport deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wangperawong, Artit; Hsu, Po-Chun; Yee, Yesheng; Herron, Steven M.; Clemens, Bruce M.; Cui, Yi; Bent, Stacey F.

    2014-10-27

    The SnS absorber layer in solar cell devices was produced by vapor transport deposition (VTD), which is a low-cost manufacturing method for solar modules. The performance of solar cells consisting of Si/Mo/SnS/ZnO/indium tin oxide (ITO) was limited by the SnS layer's surface texture and field-dependent carrier collection. For improved performance, a fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate was used in place of the Mo to smooth the topography of the VTD SnS and to make bifacial solar cells, which are potentially useful for multijunction applications. A bifacial SnS solar cell consisting of glass/FTO/SnS/CdS/ZnO/ITO demonstrated front- and back-side power conversion efficiencies of 1.2% and 0.2%, respectively.

  10. Method for absorbing hydrogen using an oxidation resisant organic hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Buffleben, George M. (Tracy, CA)

    2009-02-03

    A composition for removing hydrogen from an atmosphere, comprising a mixture of a polyphenyl ether and a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably a precious metal catalyst, and most preferably platinum, is disclosed. This composition is stable in the presence of oxygen, will not polymerize or degrade upon exposure to temperatures in excess of 200.degree. C., or prolonged exposure to temperatures in the range of 100-300.degree. C. Moreover, these novel hydrogen getter materials can be used to efficiently remove hydrogen from mixtures of hydrogen/inert gas (e.g., He, Ar, N.sub.2), hydrogen/ammonia atmospheres, such as may be encountered in heat exchangers, and hydrogen/carbon dioxide atmospheres. Water vapor and common atmospheric gases have no adverse effect on the ability of these getter materials to absorb hydrogen.

  11. Microfiber-based gold nanorods as saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xu-De [Laboratory of Nanophotonic Functional Materials and Devices, School of Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Information, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei, Anhui 235000 (China); Luo, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Hao; Liu, Meng; Luo, Ai-Ping, E-mail: luoaiping@scnu.edu.cn; Xu, Wen-Cheng, E-mail: xuwch@scnu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Nanophotonic Functional Materials and Devices, School of Information and Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006 (China)

    2014-10-20

    We reported on the femtosecond pulse generation from an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser by using microfiber-based gold nanorods (GNRs) as saturable absorber (SA). By virtue of the geometric characteristic of microfiber-based GNRs, the optical damage threshold of GNRs-SA could be greatly enhanced. The microfiber-based GNRs-SA shows a modulation depth of 4.9% and a nonsaturable loss of 21.1%. With the proposed GNRs-SA, the fiber laser emitted a mode-locked pulse train with duration of ?887 fs. The obtained results demonstrated that the GNRs deposited microfiber could indeed serve as a high-performance SA towards the practical applications in the field of ultrafast photonics.

  12. Influence of the radiation absorbed by micro particles on the flame propagation and combustion regimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivanov, M F; Liberman, M A

    2015-01-01

    Thermal radiation of the hot combustion products usually does not influence noticeably the flame propagating through gaseous mixture. the situation is changed drastically in the presence even small concentration of particles, which absorb radiation, transfer the heat to the surrounding unburned gaseous mixture by means of heat conduction, so that the gas phase temperature in front of the advancing flame lags that of the particles. It is shown that radiative preheating of unreacted mixture ahead of the flame results in a modest increase of the advancing flame velocity for a highly reactive gaseous fuel, or to considerable increase of the flame velocity in the case of a slow reactive mixture. The effects of radiation preheating as stronger as smaller the normal flame velocity. The radiation heat transfer can become a dominant mechanism compared with molecular heat conduction, determining the structure and the speed of combustion wave in the case of a small enough velocity of the advancing flame. It is shown tha...

  13. Size-dependent fluorescence of bioaerosols: Mathematical model using fluorescing and absorbing molecules in bacteria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hill, Steven C.; Williamson, Chatt C.; Doughty, David C.; Pan, Yong-Le; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Hill, Hanna H.

    2015-02-02

    This paper uses a mathematical model of fluorescent biological particles composed of bacteria and/or proteins (mostly as in Hill et al., 2013 [23]) to investigate the size-dependence of the total fluorescence emitted in all directions. The model applies to particles which have negligible reabsorption of fluorescence within the particle. The specific particles modeled here are composed of ovalbumin and of a generic Bacillus. The particles need not be spherical, and in some cases need not be homogeneous. However, the results calculated in this paper are for spherical homogeneous particles. Light absorbing and fluorescing molecules included in the model are aminomore »acids, nucleic acids, and several coenzymes. Here the excitation wavelength is 266 nm. The emission range, 300 to 370 nm, encompasses the fluorescence of tryptophan. The fluorescence cross section (CF) is calculated and compared with one set of published measured values. We investigate power law (Ady) approximations to CF, where d is diameter, and A and y are parameters adjusted to fit the data, and examine how y varies with d and composition, including the fraction as water. The particle's fluorescence efficiency (QF=CF/geometric-cross-section) can be written for homogeneous particles as QabsRF, where Qabs is the absorption efficiency, and RF, the fraction of the absorbed light emitted as fluorescence, is independent of size and shape. When QF is plotted vs. mid or mi(mr-1)d, where m=mr+imi is the complex refractive index, the plots for different fractions of water in the particle tend to overlap.« less

  14. Scientists Identify New Quaternary Materials for Solar Cell Absorbers (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights, Science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    Research provides insight for exploring use of earth-abundant quaternary semiconductors for large-scale solar cell applications. For large-scale solar electricity generation, it is critical to find new material that is Earth abundant and easily manufactured. Previous experimental studies suggest that Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} could be a strong candidate absorber materials for large-scale thin-film solar cells due to its optimal bandgap, high adsorption coefficient, and ease of synthesis. However, due to the complicated nature of the quaternary compound, it is unclear whether other quaternary compounds have physical properties suitable for solar cell application. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Fudan University, and University College London have performed systematic searches of quaternary semiconductors using a sequential cation mutation method in which the material properties of the quaternary compounds can be derived and understood through the evolution from the binary, to ternary, and to quaternary compounds. The searches revealed that in addition to Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4}, Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} are also suitable quaternary materials for solar cell absorbers. Through the extensive study of defect and alloy properties of these materials, the researchers propose that to maximize solar cell performance, growth of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} under Cu-poor/Zn-rich conditions will be optimal and the formation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} alloy will be beneficial in improving solar cell performance.

  15. Size-dependent fluorescence of bioaerosols: Mathematical model using fluorescing and absorbing molecules in bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, Steven C.; Williamson, Chatt C.; Doughty, David C.; Pan, Yong-Le; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Hill, Hanna H.

    2015-02-02

    This paper uses a mathematical model of fluorescent biological particles composed of bacteria and/or proteins (mostly as in Hill et al., 2013 [23]) to investigate the size-dependence of the total fluorescence emitted in all directions. The model applies to particles which have negligible reabsorption of fluorescence within the particle. The specific particles modeled here are composed of ovalbumin and of a generic Bacillus. The particles need not be spherical, and in some cases need not be homogeneous. However, the results calculated in this paper are for spherical homogeneous particles. Light absorbing and fluorescing molecules included in the model are amino acids, nucleic acids, and several coenzymes. Here the excitation wavelength is 266 nm. The emission range, 300 to 370 nm, encompasses the fluorescence of tryptophan. The fluorescence cross section (CF) is calculated and compared with one set of published measured values. We investigate power law (Ady) approximations to CF, where d is diameter, and A and y are parameters adjusted to fit the data, and examine how y varies with d and composition, including the fraction as water. The particle's fluorescence efficiency (QF=CF/geometric-cross-section) can be written for homogeneous particles as QabsRF, where Qabs is the absorption efficiency, and RF, the fraction of the absorbed light emitted as fluorescence, is independent of size and shape. When QF is plotted vs. mid or mi(mr-1)d, where m=mr+imi is the complex refractive index, the plots for different fractions of water in the particle tend to overlap.

  16. Method of treating emissions of a hybrid vehicle with a hydrocarbon absorber and a catalyst bypass system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Gonze, Eugene V; Santoso, Halim G; Spohn, Brian L

    2014-01-14

    A method of treating emissions from an internal combustion engine of a hybrid vehicle includes directing a flow of air created by the internal combustion engine when the internal combustion engine is spinning but not being fueled through a hydrocarbon absorber to collect hydrocarbons within the flow of air. When the hydrocarbon absorber is full and unable to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through an electrically heated catalyst to treat the flow of air and remove the hydrocarbons. When the hydrocarbon absorber is not full and able to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through a bypass path that bypasses the electrically heated catalyst to conserve the thermal energy stored within the electrically heated catalyst.

  17. Correlation of radiation absorbed dose to the human thyroid using the FBX dosimeter and external probe techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Sarah Caroline Louisa

    1986-01-01

    calculational dose response. 25 9 Counts per minute of "'I as obtained using a 1" x 1" Nal external probe bioassay system as a function of '"I activity present. 26 INTRODUCTION The objective of this research is to measure the radiation absorbed dose from... dosimeter system, the energy imparted by radiation causes the ferrous ions present in the solution to be converted to ferric ions, so that the number of iona converted is proportional to the radiation absorbed dose (Gu78a). However in the FBX dosimeter...

  18. An investigation of the effects of progressive waves on an oil slick retained by an absorber beach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yau-Ming Kennith

    1973-01-01

    AN INVESTIGAT10N OF THE EFFECTS OF PROGRESSIVE HAVES ON AN OIL SI. ICE RETAINED BY AN ABSORBER BEACH A Thesis by t)'l l' YAU-MING HUANG Submitted to the Graduate Colleg of Texas A&M Uniuersity in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: C''oil Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF PROGRESSIVE WAVES ON AN OIL SLICK RETAINED BY AN ABSORBER BEACH A Thesis by YAU-MING HUANG Approved as to style and content by...

  19. Bulk gold catalyzed oxidation reactions of amines and isocyanides and iron porphyrin catalyzed N-H and O-H bond insertion/cyclization reactions of diamines and aminoalcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klobukowski, Erik

    2011-12-29

    This work involves two projects. The first project entails the study of bulk gold as a catalyst in oxidation reactions of isocyanides and amines. The main goal of this project was to study the activation and reactions of molecules at metal surfaces in order to assess how organometallic principles for homogeneous processes apply to heterogeneous catalysis. Since previous work had used oxygen as an oxidant in bulk gold catalyzed reactions, the generality of gold catalysis with other oxidants was examined. Amine N-oxides were chosen for study, due to their properties and use in the oxidation of carbonyl ligands in organometallic complexes. When amine N-oxides were used as an oxidant in the reaction of isocyanides with amines, the system was able to produce ureas from a variety of isocyanides, amines, and amine N-oxides. In addition, the rate was found to generally increase as the amine N-oxide concentration increased, and decrease with increased concentrations of the amine. Mechanistic studies revealed that the reaction likely involves transfer of an oxygen atom from the amine N-oxide to the adsorbed isocyanide to generate an isocyanate intermediate. Subsequent nucleophilic attack by the amine yields the urea. This is in contrast to the bulk gold-catalyzed reaction mechanism of isocyanides with amines and oxygen. Formation of urea in this case was proposed to proceed through a diaminocarbene intermediate. Moreover, formation of the proposed isocyanate intermediate is consistent with the reactions of metal carbonyl ligands, which are isoelectronic to isocyanides. Nucleophilic attack at coordinated CO by amine N-oxides produces CO{sub 2} and is analogous to the production of an isocyanate in this gold system. When the bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of amines was examined with amine N-oxides, the same products were afforded as when O{sub 2} was used as the oxidant. When the two types of oxidants were directly compared using the same reaction system and conditions, it was found that the oxidative dehydrogenation of dibenzylamine to Nbenzylidenebenzylamine, with N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO), was nearly quantitative (96%) within 24 h. However, the reaction with oxygen was much slower, with only a 52% yield of imine product over the same time period. Moreover, the rate of reaction was found to be influenced by the nature of the amine N-oxide. For example, the use of the weakly basic pyridine N-oxide (PyNO) led to an imine yield of only 6% after 24 h. A comparison of amine N-oxide and O2 was also examined in the oxidation of PhCH{sub 2}OH to PhCHO catalyzed by bulk gold. In this reaction, a 52% yield of the aldehyde was achieved when NMMO was used, while only a 7% product yield was afforded when O{sub 2} was the oxidant after 48 h. The bulk gold-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenation of cyclic amines generates amidines, which upon treatment with Aerosil and water were found to undergo hydrolysis to produce lactams. Moreover, 5-, 6-, and 7-membered lactams could be prepared through a one-pot reaction of cyclic amines by treatment with oxygen, water, bulk gold, and Aerosil. This method is much more atom economical than industrial processes, does not require corrosive acids, and does not generate undesired byproducts. Additionally, the gold and Aerosil catalysts can be readily separated from the reaction mixture. The second project involved studying iron(III) tetraphenylporphyrin chloride, Fe(TPP)Cl, as a homogeneous catalyst for the generation of carbenes from diazo reagents and their reaction with heteroatom compounds. Fe(TPP)Cl, efficiently catalyzed the insertion of carbenes derived from methyl 2-phenyldiazoacetates into O-H bonds of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. Fe(TPP)Cl was also found to be an effective catalyst for tandem N-H and O-H insertion/cyclization reactions when 1,2-diamines and 1,2-alcoholamines were treated with diazo reagents. This approach provides a one-pot process for synthesizing piperazinones and morpholinones and related analogues such as quinoxalinones and benzoxazin-2-ones.

  20. Numerical simulation of deuterium loading profile in palladium and palladium alloy plates from experimental data of absorbed mole rate obtained using $\\mu$s pulsed electrolysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Celani, F; Tripodi, P; Petrocchi, A; Nakamura, M; Di Gioacchino, D; Marini, P; Di Stefano, V; Preparata, Giuliano; Verpelli, M

    1995-01-01

    Numerical simulation of deuterium loading profile in palladium and palladium alloy plates from experimental data of absorbed mole rate obtained using $\\mu$s pulsed electrolysis

  1. Si3AlP: A New Promising Material for Solar Cell Absorber Ji-Hui Yang,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xingao

    the existing solar cell technologies, first-generation crystalline silicon-based solar cells are still one such as tandem solar cells. However, only a few of these alloys have been studied and applied in practice. OneSi3AlP: A New Promising Material for Solar Cell Absorber Ji-Hui Yang, Yingteng Zhai, Hengrui Liu

  2. Moving beyond the limits of mass transport in liquid absorbent microfilms through the implementation of surface-induced vortices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigham, S; Yu, DZ; Chugh, D; Moghaddam, S

    2014-02-01

    The slow diffusion of an absorbate molecule into an absorbent often makes the absorption process a rate-limiting step in many applications. In cases involving an absorbate with a high heat of phase change, such as water absorption into a LiBr (lithium bromide) solution, the absorption rate is further slowed due to significant heating of the absorbent. Recently, it has been demonstrated that constraining a LiBr solution film by a hydrophobic porous structure enables manipulation of the solution flow thermohydraulic characteristics. Here, it is shown that mass transport mode in a constrained laminar solution flow can be changed from diffusive to advective. This change in mode is accomplished through stretching and folding the laminar streamlines within the solution film via the implementation of micro-scale features on the flow channel surface. The process induces vortices within the solution film, which continuously bring concentrated solution from the bottom and middle of the solution channel to its interface with the vapor phase, thus leading to a significant enhancement in the absorption rate. The detailed physics of the involved transport processes is elucidated using the LBM (Lattice Boltzmann Method). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Energy-Harvesting Shock Absorber with a Mechanical Motion Zhongjie Li, Lei Zuo*, Jian Kuang, and George Luhrs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Lei

    ]. Vehicles exhaust causes more air pollution than anything else [2]. Considering only 10-16% of fuel energy and Zhang [5] estimated that 100-400 Watts of energy harvesting potential exist in the suspension1 Energy-Harvesting Shock Absorber with a Mechanical Motion Rectifier Zhongjie Li, Lei Zuo*, Jian

  4. Energy absorbent natural materials and bioinspired design strategies: A review J. McKittrick a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyers, Marc A.

    Review Energy absorbent natural materials and bioinspired design strategies: A review J. Mc Keywords: Structural biological materials Energy absorption Bioinspired design Some of the most remarkable materials in terms of energy absorption and impact resistance are not found through human processing

  5. PHYSICAL REVIEW B 92, 045207 (2015) Wurtzite silicon as a potential absorber in photovoltaics: Tailoring the optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botti, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW B 92, 045207 (2015) Wurtzite silicon as a potential absorber in photovoltaics European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF) 4 Institute for Research and Development of Photovoltaic range which is relevant for photovoltaic applications. High biaxial tensile strains (>4%) even transform

  6. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 47, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2011 317 Systematic Analysis and Engineering of Absorbing Materials Containing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    A methodology to efficiently design novel products based on magneto-dielectric materials containing ferrite and Engineering of Absorbing Materials Containing Magnetic Inclusions for EMC Applications Marina Y. Koledintseva1 for solving numerous problems of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and improving immunity of electronic

  7. Application of burnable absorbers in an accelerator driven system Jan Wallenius, Kamil Tucek, Johan Carlsson, Waclaw Gudowski

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Application of burnable absorbers in an accelerator driven system Jan Wallenius, Kamil Tucek, Johan with the minor actinides in accelerator driven systems (ADS) has also been proposed [8, 9, 10]. Since) for minimization of power peaking, reactivity loss and capture to fission probabilities in an accelerator driven

  8. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1998-07-21

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration.

  9. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, B.A.; Zawacki, T.S.

    1998-07-21

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration. 5 figs.

  10. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Benjamin A. (Benton Harbor, MI); Zawacki, Thomas S. (St. Joseph, MI)

    1996-12-03

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium. A combination of weak and rich liquor working solution is used as the heat transfer medium.

  11. Detection of smoke and ash from forest fires and volcanic eruptions using the GOME-2 Absorbing Aerosol Index

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilstra, Gijsbert

    Detection of smoke and ash from forest fires and volcanic eruptions using the GOME-2 Absorbing. Colours represent the smoke plume on the indicated days. 3. Detection of volcanic ash In April 2010, the GOME-2 AAI was able to follow the transport of volcanic ash from the Eyjafjalljokull volcano

  12. ON THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EXCESS NUMBER OF STRONG Mg II ABSORBERS OBSERVED TOWARD GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapoport, Sharon; Onken, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Brian P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra 2611 (Australia)] [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra 2611 (Australia); Wyithe, J. Stuart B. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Thygesen, Anders O. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)] [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-03-20

    The number of strong (equivalent width >1 A) Mg II absorbers observed toward gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been found to be statistically larger than the number of strong absorbers toward quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). We formalize this 'Mg II problem' and present a detailed explanation of the statistical tools required to assess the significance of the discrepancy. We find that the problem exists at the 4{sigma} level for GRBs with high-resolution spectra. It has been suggested that the discrepancy can be resolved by the combination of a dust obscuration bias toward QSOs, and a strong gravitational lensing bias toward GRBs. We investigate one of the two most probable lensed GRBs that we presented in our previous work (GRB020405) and find that it is not strongly gravitationally lensed, constraining the percentage of lensed GRBs to be <35% (2{sigma}). Dust obscuration of QSOs has been estimated to be a significant effect with dusty Mg II systems removing {approx}20% of absorbed objects from flux-limited QSO samples. We find that if {approx}30% of the strong Mg II systems toward QSOs are missing from the observed samples, then GRBs and QSOs would have comparable numbers of absorbers per unit redshift. Thus, strong gravitational lensing bias is likely to make only a modest contribution to solving the Mg II problem. However, if the dust obscuration bias has been slightly underestimated, the Mg II problem would no longer persist.

  13. Analysis of a Novel Proton Absorber Geometry for the Mu2e Experiment Daniel Persheya,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gollin, George

    Alsterdaa , Grace Bluhma,c , George Gollina, , Tim Hea , Guangyong Koha , Matthew McHugha a Department is based on two Contact person: George Gollin, g-gollin@illinois.edu, +1 (217) 333-4451 #12;asymmetries looking upstream (bottom middle), and the absorber with the detector (bottom). Calculations2 show

  14. Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilstra, Gijsbert

    Studying trends in biomass burning aerosol using the Absorbing Aerosol Index derived from GOME the resulting time series, we use tropospheric NO2 data as a reference in the regions dominated by biomass sensitive to desert dust aerosols (DDA) and biomass burning aerosols (BBA). See Figure 1. The AAI

  15. Safeguards Verification Measurements using Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry in Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Phillips, Jon R.

    2012-07-01

    Laser Ablation Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) is a new verification measurement technology under development at the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). LAARS uses three lasers to ablate and then measure the relative isotopic abundance of uranium compounds. An ablation laser is tightly focused on uranium-bearing solids producing a small plume containing uranium atoms. Two collinear wavelength-tuned spectrometry lasers transit through the plume and the absorbance of U-235 and U-238 isotopes are measured to determine U-235 enrichment. The measurement has high relative precision and detection limits approaching the femtogram range for uranium. It is independent of chemical form and degree of dilution with nuisance dust and other materials. High speed sample scanning and pinpoint characterization allow measurements on millions of particles/hour to detect and analyze the enrichment of trace uranium in samples. The spectrometer is assembled using commercially available components at comparatively low cost, and features a compact and low power design. Future designs can be engineered for reliable, autonomous deployment within an industrial plant environment. Two specific applications of the spectrometer are under development: 1) automated unattended aerosol sampling and analysis and 2) on-site small sample destructive assay measurement. The two applications propose game-changing technological advances in gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) safeguards verification. The aerosol measurement instrument, LAARS-environmental sampling (ES), collects aerosol particles from the plant environment in a purpose-built rotating drum impactor and then uses LAARS-ES to quickly scan the surface of the impactor to measure the enrichments of the captured particles. The current approach to plant misuse detection involves swipe sampling and offsite analysis. Though this approach is very robust it generally requires several months to obtain results from a given sample collection. The destructive assay instrument, LAARS-destructive assay (DA), uses a simple purpose-built fixture with a sampling planchet to collect adsorbed UF6 gas from a cylinder valve or from a process line tap or pigtail. A portable LAARS-DA instrument scans the microgram quantity of uranium collected on the planchet and the assay of the uranium is measured to ~0.15% relative precision. Currently, destructive assay samples for bias defect measurements are collected in small sample cylinders for offsite mass spectrometry measurement.

  16. Updated models for the creation of a low-Z QSO absorber by a dwarf galaxy wind

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeney, Brian A.; Joeris, Peter; Stocke, John T.; Danforth, Charles W.; Levesque, Emily M.

    2014-11-01

    We present new GALEX images and optical spectroscopy of J1229+02, a dwarf post-starburst galaxy located 81 kpc from the 1585 km s{sup ?1} absorber in the 3C 273 sight line. The absence of H? emission and the faint GALEX UV fluxes confirm that the galaxy's recent star formation rate is <10{sup ?3} M{sub ?} yr{sup ?1}. Absorption-line strengths and the UV?optical SED give similar estimates of the acceptable model parameters for its youngest stellar population where f{sub m}<60% of its total stars (by mass) formed in a burst t{sub sb}=0.7–3.4 Gyr ago with a stellar metallicity of ?1.7<[Fe/H]<+0.2; we also estimate the stellar mass of J1229+02 to be 7.3absorber. But, using new data, we find a significantly higher galaxy/absorber velocity difference, a younger starburst age, and a smaller starburst mass than previously reported. Simple energy-conserving wind models for J1229+02 using fiducial values of f{sub m}?0.1, t{sub sb}?2 Gyr, and log(M{sub ?}/M{sub ?})?7.5 allow us to conclude that the galaxy alone cannot produce the observed QSO absorber; i.e., any putative ejecta must interact with ambient gas from outside J1229+02. Because J1229+02 is located in the southern extension of the Virgo cluster ample potential sources of this ambient gas exist. Based on the two nearest examples of strong metal-line absorbers discovered serendipitously (the current one and the 1700 km s{sup ?1} metal-line absorber in the nearby Q1230 + 0115 sight line), we conclude that absorbers with 10{sup 14}

  17. OBSERVATIONS OF OUTFLOWING ULTRAVIOLET ABSORBERS IN NGC 4051 WITH THE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraemer, S. B. [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Crenshaw, D. M.; Fischer, T. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Dunn, J. P. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Augusta State University, 2500 Walton Way, Augusta, GA 30904 (United States); Turner, T. J. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Lobban, A. P.; Reeves, J. N. [Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Miller, L. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Braito, V., E-mail: steven.b.kraemer@nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) observations of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051. These data were obtained as part of a coordinated observing program including X-ray observations with the Chandra/High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG) spectrometer and Suzaku. We detected nine kinematic components of UV absorption, which were previously identified using the HST/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). None of the absorption components showed evidence for changes in column density or profile within the {approx}10 yr between the STIS and COS observations, which we interpret as evidence of (1) saturation, for the stronger components, or (2) very low densities, i.e., n{sub H} < 1 cm{sup -3}, for the weaker components. After applying a +200 km s{sup -1} offset to the HETG spectrum, we found that the radial velocities of the UV absorbers lay within the O VII profile. Based on photoionization models, we suggest that, while UV components 2, 5, and 7 produce significant O VII absorption, the bulk of the X-ray absorption detected in the HETG analysis occurs in more highly ionized gas. Moreover, the mass-loss rate is dominated by high-ionization gas which lacks a significant UV footprint.

  18. Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Zhi-Chao; Guo, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Xiao-Fang; Luo, Ai-Ping; Zhao, Chu-Jun; Yu, Xue-Feng; Xu, Wen-Cheng; Zhang, Han

    2015-01-01

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP), as the most alluring graphene analogue owing to its similar structure as graphene and thickness dependent direct band-gap, has now triggered a new wave of research on two-dimensional (2D) materials based photonics and optoelectronics. However, a major obstacle of practical applications for few-layer BPs comes from their instabilities of laser-induced optical damage. Herein, we demonstrate that, few-layer BPs, fabricated through the liquid exfoliation approach, can be developed as a new and practical saturable absorber (SA) by depositing few-layer BPs with microfiber. The saturable absorption property of few-layer BPs had been verified through an open-aperture z-scan measurement at the telecommunication band and the microfiber-based BP device had been found to show a saturable average power of ~4.5 mW and a modulation depth of 10.9%, which is further confirmed through a balanced twin detection measurement. By further integrating this optical SA device into an erbium-doped fiber...

  19. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the costmore »of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.« less

  20. An X-ray variable absorber within the Broad Line Region in Fairall 51

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svoboda, Jiri; Guainazzi, Matteo; Longinotti, Anna Lia; Piconcelli, Enrico; Wilms, Joern

    2015-01-01

    Fairall 51 is a polar-scattered Seyfert 1 galaxy, a type of active galaxies believed to represent a bridge between unobscured type-1 and obscured type-2 objects. Fairall 51 has shown complex and variable X-ray absorption but only little is known about its origin. In our research, we observed Fairall 51 with the X-ray satellite Suzaku in order to constrain a characteristic time-scale of its variability. We performed timing and spectral analysis of four observations separated by 1.5, 2 and 5.5 day intervals. We found that the 0.5-50 keV broadband X-ray spectra are dominated by a primary power-law emission (with the photon index ~ 2). This emission is affected by at least three absorbers with different ionisations (log(xi) ~ 1-4). The spectrum is further shaped by a reprocessed emission, possibly coming from two regions -- the accretion disc and a more distant scattering region. The accretion disc emission is smeared by the relativistic effects, from which we measured the spin of the black hole as a ~ 0.8 (+-0.2...

  1. Light-absorbing Particles in Snow and Ice: Measurement and Modeling of Climatic and Hydrological Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Yun; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Doherty, Sarah J.; Flanner, M. G.; Lau, William K.; Ming, J.; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Mo; Warren, Stephen G.; Zhang, Rudong

    2015-01-01

    Light absorbing particles (LAP, e.g., black carbon, brown carbon, and dust) influence water and energy budgets of the atmosphere and snowpack in multiple ways. In addition to their effects associated with atmospheric heating by absorption of solar radiation and interactions with clouds, LAP in snow on land and ice can reduce the surface reflectance (a.k.a., surface darkening), which is likely to accelerate the snow aging process and further reduces snow albedo and increases the speed of snowpack melt. LAP in snow and ice (LAPSI) has been identified as one of major forcings affecting climate change, e.g. in the fourth and fifth assessment reports of IPCC. However, the uncertainty level in quantifying this effect remains very high. In this review paper, we document various technical methods of measuring LAPSI and review the progress made in measuring the LAPSI in Arctic, Tibetan Plateau and other mid-latitude regions. We also report the progress in modeling the mass concentrations, albedo reduction, radiative forcing, andclimatic and hydrological impact of LAPSI at global and regional scales. Finally we identify some research needs for reducing the uncertainties in the impact of LAPSI on global and regional climate and the hydrological cycle.

  2. Derivation of a Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC) metric for evaluation of solar selective absorber materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, C. K.; Pacheco, J. E.

    2015-06-05

    A new metric, the Levelized Cost of Coating (LCOC), is derived in this paper to evaluate and compare alternative solar selective absorber coatings against a baseline coating (Pyromark 2500). In contrast to previous metrics that focused only on the optical performance of the coating, the LCOC includes costs, durability, and optical performance for more comprehensive comparisons among candidate materials. The LCOC is defined as the annualized marginal cost of the coating to produce a baseline annual thermal energy production. Costs include the cost of materials and labor for initial application and reapplication of the coating, as well as the cost of additional or fewer heliostats to yield the same annual thermal energy production as the baseline coating. Results show that important factors impacting the LCOC include the initial solar absorptance, thermal emittance, reapplication interval, degradation rate, reapplication cost, and downtime during reapplication. The LCOC can also be used to determine the optimal reapplication interval to minimize the levelized cost of energy production. As a result, similar methods can be applied more generally to determine the levelized cost of component for other applications and systems.

  3. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration-based distribution ratios increase from 0.11 to 0.46 as the aqueous phase pH increases from 7.18 to 8.15. Regeneration of the organic extractant solution was carried out by stripping at elevated temperatures to remove the ammonia, with 99% recovery of the ammonia being obtained at 125 C.

  4. Crystal and electronic band structure of Cu2ZnSnX4 ,,X=S and Se... photovoltaic absorbers: First-principles insights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xingao

    components, and the band gap is usually not optimal for high efficiency CIGS solar cells. Currently, designing and synthesizing novel, high-efficiency, and low cost solar cell absorbers to replace CIGS has.1063/1.3074499 An ideal thin-film solar cell absorber material should have a direct band gap around 1.3­1.5 e

  5. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1988-04-04

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  6. Extraction and separation of thorium(IV) from lanthanides(III) with room-temperature ionic liquids containing primary amine N{sub 1923}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Y.; Chen, J.; Bai, Y.; Li, D.Q.

    2008-07-01

    The extraction behavior of Th(IV) by primary amine N{sub 1923} in imidazolium-based ionic liquid namely 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (N{sub 1923}/IL) was studied in this paper. Results showed that N{sub 1923}/IL had poorer extraction ability for Th(IV) than N{sub 1923} in n-heptane (N{sub 1923}/HEP). The separation coefficients between Th(IV) and lanthanides(III) ({beta}{sub Th/Ln}) were obtained and compared with those in the N{sub 1923}/HEP system. On this basis, we made a preliminary assessment for the possibility of using ionic liquids as solvents for the separation of Th(IV) from lanthanides(III) sulfate in a clean process. (authors)

  7. Damped Lyman alpha Absorbing Galaxies At Low Redshifts z<1 From Hierarchical Galaxy Formation Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsuya Okoshi; Masahiro Nagashima

    2004-12-21

    We investigate Damped Ly-alpha absorbing galaxies (DLA galaxies) at low redshifts z<1 in the hierarchical structure formation scenario to clarify the nature of DLA galaxies because observational data of such galaxies mainly at low redshifts are currently available. We find that our model well reproduces distributions of fundamental properties of DLA galaxies such as luminosities, column densities, impact parameters obtained by optical and near-infrared imagings. Our results suggest that DLA systems primarily consist of low luminosity galaxies with small impact parameters (typical radius about 3 kpc, surface brightness from 22 to 27 mag arcsec^{-2}) similar to low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. In addition, we investigate selection biases arising from the faintness and from the masking effect which prevents us from identifying a DLA galaxy hidden or contaminated by a point spread function of a background quasar. We find that the latter affects the distributions of DLA properties more seriously rather than the former, and that the observational data are well reproduced only when taking into account the masking effect. The missing rate of DLA galaxies by the masking effect attains 60-90 % in the sample at redshift 0

  8. Absorbing Phase Transitions and Dynamic Freezing in Running Active Matter Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Reichhardt; C. J. Olson Reichhardt

    2014-06-12

    We examine a two-dimensional system of sterically repulsive interacting disks where each particle runs in a random direction. This system is equivalent to a run-and-tumble dynamics system in the limit where the run time is infinite. At low densities, we find a strongly fluctuating state composed of transient clusters. Above a critical density that is well below the density at which non-active particles would crystallize, the system can organize into a drifting quiescent or frozen state where the fluctuations are lost and large crystallites form surrounded by a small density of individual particles. Although all the particles are still moving, their paths form closed orbits. The average transient time to organize into the quiescent state diverges as a power law upon approaching the critical density from above. We compare our results to the random organization observed for periodically sheared systems that can undergo an absorbing transition from a fluctuating state to a dynamical non-fluctuating state. In the random organization studies, the system organizes to a state in which the particles no longer interact; in contrast, we find that the randomly running active matter organizes to a strongly interacting dynamically jammed state. We show that the transition to the frozen state is robust against a certain range of stochastic fluctuations. We also examine the effects of adding a small number of pinned particles to the system and find that the transition to the frozen state shifts to significantly lower densities and arises via the nucleation of faceted crystals centered at the obstacles.

  9. Experimental Studies on Dynamic Vibration Absorber using Shape Memory Alloy (NiTi) Springs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, V. Raj; Kumar, M. B. Bharathi Raj; Kumar, M. Senthil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore (India)

    2011-10-20

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) springs have been used as actuators in many applications although their use in the vibration control area is very recent. Since shape memory alloys differ from conventional alloy materials in many ways, the traditional design approach for springs is not completely suitable for designing SMA springs. Some vibration control concepts utilizing unique characteristics of SMA's will be presented in this paper.A dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator is developed for attenuation of vibration in a cantilever beam. The design procedure of the DVA is presented. The system consists of a cantilever beam which is considered to generate the real-time vibration using shaker. A SMA spring is used with a mass attached to its end. The stiffness of the SMA spring is dynamically varied in such a way to attenuate the vibration. Both simulation and experimentation are carried out using PID controller. The experiments were carried out by interfacing the experimental setup with a computer using LabVIEW software, Data acquisition and control are implemented using a PCI data acquisition card. Standard PID controllers have been used to control the vibration of the beam. Experimental results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers designed and the usefulness of the proposed test platform by exciting the structure at resonance. In experimental setup, an accelerometer is used to measure the vibration which is fed to computer and correspondingly the SMA spring is actuated to change its stiffness to control the vibration. The results obtained illustrate that the developed DVA using SMA actuator is very effective in reducing structural response and have great potential to be an active vibration control medium.

  10. First principle analyses of direct bandgap solar cells with absorbing substrates versus mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirk, Alexander P. [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Kirk, Wiley P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    Direct bandgap InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P solar cells containing backside mirrors as well as parasitically absorbing substrates are analyzed for their limiting open circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency with comparison to record solar cells. From the principle of detailed balance, it is shown quantitatively that mirror solar cells have greater voltage and power conversion efficiency than their substrate counterparts. Next, the radiative recombination coefficient and maximum radiative lifetime of GaAs mirror and substrate solar cells are calculated and compared to the nonradiative Auger and Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) lifetimes. Mirror solar cells have greater radiative lifetime than their substrate variants. Auger lifetime exceeds radiative lifetime for both substrate and mirror cells while SRH lifetime may be less or greater than radiative lifetime depending on trap concentration and capture cross section. Finally, the change in free energy of the photogenerated carriers is analyzed in a comparison between InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P mirror and substrate solar cells in order to characterize the relationship between solar photon quality and free energy management in solar cells with differing bandgaps. Wider bandgap visible threshold Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P solar cells make better use of the available change in free energy of the photogenerated charge carriers, even when normalized to the bandgap energy, than narrower bandgap near-IR threshold InP, GaAs, and CdTe solar cells.

  11. The flat synchrotron spectra of partially self-absorbed jets revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian R. Kaiser

    2006-01-05

    Flat radio spectra with large brightness temperatures at the core of AGN and X-ray binaries are usually interpreted as the partially self-absorbed bases of jet flows emitting synchrotron radiation. Here we extend previous models of jets propagating at large angles to our line of sight to self-consistently include the effects of energy losses of the relativistic electrons due to the synchrotron process itself and the adiabatic expansion of the jet flow. We also take into account energy gains through self-absorption. Two model classes are presented. The ballistic jet flows, with the jet material travelling along straight trajectories, and adiabatic jets. Despite the energy losses, both scenarios can result in flat emission spectra, however, the adiabatic jets require a specific geometry. No re-acceleration process along the jet is needed for the electrons. We apply the models to observational data of the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1. Both models can be made consistent with the observations. The resulting ballistic jet is extremely narrow with a jet opening angle of only 5". Its energy transport rate is small compared to the time-averaged jet power and therefore suggests the presence of non-radiating protons in the jet flow. The adiabatic jets require a strong departure from energy equipartition between the magnetic field and the relativistic electrons. These models also imply a jet power two orders of magnitude higher than the Eddington limiting luminosity of a 10 solar mass black hole. The models put strong constraints on the physical conditions in the jet flows on scales well below achievable resolution limits.

  12. Joint Reconstruction of Absorbed Optical Energy Density and Sound Speed Distribution in Photoacoustic Computed Tomography: A numerical Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Chao; Schoonover, Robert W; Wang, Lihong V; Anastasio, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is a rapidly emerging bioimaging modality that seeks to reconstruct an estimate of the absorbed optical energy density within an object. Conventional PACT image reconstruction methods assume a constant speed-of-sound (SOS), which can result in image artifacts when acoustic aberrations are significant. It has been demonstrated that incorporating knowledge of an object's SOS distribution into a PACT image reconstruction method can improve image quality. However, in many cases, the SOS distribution cannot be accurately and/or conveniently estimated prior to the PACT experiment. Because variations in the SOS distribution induce aberrations in the measured photoacoustic wavefields, certain information regarding an object's SOS distribution is encoded in the PACT measurement data. Based on this observation, a joint reconstruction (JR) problem has been proposed in which the SOS distribution is concurrently estimated along with the sought-after absorbed optical energy density ...

  13. Oxidation-resistant, solution-processed plasmonic Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x} (x?absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiaobai; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Juchuan

    2014-08-21

    Metal oxidation at high temperatures has long been a challenge in cermet solar thermal absorbers, which impedes the development of atmospherically stable, high-temperature, high-performance concentrated solar power (CSP) systems. In this work, we demonstrate solution-processed Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x} (x?absorbers that exhibit a strong anti-oxidation behavior up to 600?°C in air. The thermal stability is far superior to previously reported Ni nanoparticle-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} selective solar thermal absorbers, which readily oxidize at 450?°C. The SiO{sub x} (x?absorber coatings processed by low-cost solution-chemical methods for future generations of CSP systems.

  14. Low temperature SO{sub 2} removal with solid sorbents in a circulating fluidized bed absorber. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.K.; Keener, T.C.

    1994-10-10

    A novel flue gas desulfurization technology has been developed at the University of Cincinnati incorporating a circulating fluidized bed absorber (CFBA) reactor with dry sorbent. The main features of CFBA are high sorbent/gas mixing ratios, excellent heat and mass transfer characteristics, and the ability to recycle partially utilized sorbent. Subsequently, higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies with higher overall sorbent utilization can be realized compared with other dry sorbent injection scrubber systems.

  15. THE PROPERTIES OF TWO LOW-REDSHIFT O VI ABSORBERS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED GALAXIES TOWARD 3C 263 ,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savage, B. D.; Kim, T.-S.; Wakker, B. P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Keeney, B.; Stocke, J.; Syphers, D. [CASA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Narayanan, A. [Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India)

    2012-07-01

    Ultraviolet observations of the QSO 3C 263 (z{sub em} = 0.652) with Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and FUSE reveal O VI absorption systems at z = 0.06342 and 0.14072. WIYN multi-object spectrograph observations provide information about the galaxies associated with the absorbers. The multi-phase system at z = 0.06342 traces cool photoionized gas and warm collisionally ionized gas associated with an L {approx} 0.31 L* compact spiral emission line galaxy with an impact parameter of 63 kpc. The cool photoionized gas in the absorber is well modeled, with log U {approx} -2.6, log N(H) {approx} 17.8, log n(H) {approx} -3.3 and [Si/H] = -0.14 {+-} 0.23. The collisionally ionized gas containing C IV and O VI probably arises in cooling shock-heated transition temperature gas with log T {approx} 5.5. The absorber is likely tracing circumgalactic gas enriched by gas ejected from the spiral emission line galaxy. The simple system at z = 0.14072 only contains O VI and broad and narrow H I. The O VI with b = 33.4 {+-} 11.9 km s{sup -1} is likely associated with the broad H I {lambda}1215 absorption, with b = 86.7 {+-} 15.4 km s{sup -1}. The difference in Doppler parameters implies the detection of a very large column of warm gas with log T = 5.61(+0.16, -0.25), log N(H) = 19.54(+0.26, -0.44), and [O/H] = -1.48 (+0.46, -0.26). This absorber is possibly associated with a 1.6 L* absorption line galaxy with an impact parameter of 617 kpc, although an origin in warm filament gas or in the halo of a fainter galaxy is more likely.

  16. Phase Transfer-Catalyzed Fast CO{sub 2} Absorption by MgO-Based Absorbents with High Cycling Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Li, Wei-Zhen; Rohatgi, Aashish; Duan, Yuhua; Singh, Prabhakar; Li, Liyu; King, David L

    2014-01-01

    Molten salts facilitate the reaction of CO{sub 2} with MgO by providing an alternate pathway to traditional gas-solid reactions. Molten salts partially dissolve bulk MgO and provide activated species accessible to CO{sub 2} at gas-solid-liquid triple phase boundaries. This methodology is also applicable to other basic metal oxides and molten salts, inspiring the design of new absorbent systems.

  17. Multilayer black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1 to 2.7 {\\mu}m wavelength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kong, Lingchen; Xie, Guoqiang; Guo, Zhinan; Zhang, Han; Yuan, Peng; Qian, Liejia

    2015-01-01

    It attracts wide interest to seek universe saturable absorber covering wavelengths from near infrared to mid-infrared band. Multilayer black phosphorus, with variable direct bandgap (0.3-2 eV) depending on the layer number, becomes a good alternative as a universe saturable absorber for pulsed lasers. In this contribution, we first experimentally demonstrated broadband saturable absorption of multilayer black phosphorus from 1 {\\mu}m to 2.7 {\\mu}m wavelength. With the as-fabricated black phosphorus nanoflakes as saturable absorber, stable Q-switching operation of bulk lasers at 1.03 {\\mu}m, 1.93 {\\mu}m, 2.72 {\\mu}m were realized, respectively. In contrast with large-bandgap semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, such as MoS2, MoSe2, multilayer black phosphorus shows particular advantage at the long wavelength regime thanks to its narrow direct bandgap. This work will open promising optoelectronic applications of black phosphorus in mid-infrared spectral region and further demonstrate that BP may fil...

  18. Standard specification for boron-Based neutron absorbing material systems for use in nuclear spent fuel storage racks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This specification defines criteria for boron-based neutron absorbing material systems used in racks in a pool environment for storage of nuclear light water reactor (LWR) spent-fuel assemblies or disassembled components to maintain sub-criticality in the storage rack system. 1.2 Boron-based neutron absorbing material systems normally consist of metallic boron or a chemical compound containing boron (for example, boron carbide, B4C) supported by a matrix of aluminum, steel, or other materials. 1.3 In a boron-based absorber, neutron absorption occurs primarily by the boron-10 isotope that is present in natural boron to the extent of 18.3 ± 0.2 % by weight (depending upon the geological origin of the boron). Boron, enriched in boron-10 could also be used. 1.4 The materials systems described herein shall be functional – that is always be capable to maintain a B10 areal density such that subcriticality Keff design specification for the service...

  19. Nonwoven cotton could become the new oil spill absorbent -Specialty Fabrics Review http://specialtyfabricsreview.com/articles/081214_nonwoven_oilspill.html[8/13/2014 8:27:58 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Nonwoven cotton could become the new oil spill absorbent - Specialty Fabrics Review http News Industry news Nonwoven cotton, new absorbent Nonwoven cotton could become the new oil spill absorbent Texas Tech researchers discover it picks up 50 times its weight in oil. Specialty

  20. Textile World -TTU Researchers Develop Super-absorbent Nonwoven Cotton Mat For Oil Spills http://www.textileworld.com/Articles/2014/August/TTU_Researchers_Develop_Super-absorbent_Nonwoven_Cotton_Mat_For_Oil_Spills[8/6/2014 8:57:10 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Textile World - TTU Researchers Develop Super-absorbent Nonwoven Cotton Mat For Oil Spills http://www.textileworld.com/Articles/2014/August/TTU_Researchers_Develop_Super-absorbent_Nonwoven_Cotton_Mat_For_Oil_Spills[8/6/2014 8 August 5, 2014 Medical Grade Innovations Announces New, High-Performance Scrub Line August 5, 2014

  1. The effect of absorbent grid preparation method on precision and accuracy of ambient nitrogen dioxide measurements using Palmes passive diffusion tubes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heal, Mathew R

    2008-01-01

    A few studies have suggested that the precision and accuracy of measurement of NO2 by Palmes-type passive diffusion tube (PDT) are affected by the method of preparation of the triethanolamine (TEA) absorbent coating on the ...

  2. The O VI Absorbers Toward PG0953+415: High Metallicity, Cosmic-Web Gas Far From Luminous Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd M. Tripp; Bastien Aracil; David V. Bowen; Edward B. Jenkins

    2006-04-19

    The spectrum of the low-redshift QSO PG0953+415 shows two strong, intervening O VI absorption systems. To study the nature of these absorbers, we have used the Gemini Multiobject Spectrograph to conduct a deep spectroscopic galaxy redshift survey in the 5' x 5' field centered on the QSO. This survey is fully complete for r' web. Evidently, some regions of the web filaments are highly metal enriched. We discuss the origin of the high-metallicity gas and suggest that the enrichment might have occurred long ago (at high z).

  3. Influence of transient absorber gratings on the pulse parameters of passively mode-locked cw dye ring lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuehlke, D.; Rudolph, W.; Wilhelmi, B.

    1983-02-15

    A theoretical explanation of the experimental results obtained by the method of colliding pulse mode locking (CPM) is given. It is shown that, compared to other passive methods, the coherent interaction of the counter-running pulses in the thin absorber yields considerably shorter pulses with a more favorable stability region. Deviations from an amplifier position being symmetric with respect to the amplification of the counter-running pulses lead to different energies of the pulses and to a strong decrease of the stability range of the CPM.

  4. Warm absorbers in X-rays (WAX), a comprehensive high resolution grating spectral study of a sample of Seyfert galaxies: I. A global view and frequency of occurrence of warm absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laha, Sibasish; Dewangan, Gulab C; Chakravorty, Susmita; Kembhavi, Ajit K

    2014-01-01

    We present results from a homogeneous analysis of the broadband 0.3-10 keV CCD resolution as well as of soft X-ray high-resolution grating spectra of a hard X-ray flux-limited sample of 26 Seyfert galaxies observed with XMM-Newton. Our goal is to characterise the warm absorber (WA) properties along the line-of-sight to the active nucleus. We significantly detect WAs in $65\\%$ of the sample sources. Our results are consistent with WAs being present in at least half of the Seyfert galaxies in the nearby Universe, in agreement with previous estimates . We find a gap in the distribution of the ionisation parameter in the range $0.5warm absorber flow is probably constituted by a clumpy distribution of discrete clouds rather than a continuous medium. The distribution of the WA column densities for the sources with broad Fe K$\\alpha$ lines are similar to those sources which do not have broadened emission l...

  5. Preferential induction of the AhR gene battery in HepaRG cells after a single or repeated exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumont, Julie, E-mail: Julie.Dumont@pasteur-lille.fr; Josse, Rozenn, E-mail: Rozenn.Josse@univ-rennes1.fr; Lambert, Carine, E-mail: Carine.Lambert45@gmail.com; Antherieu, Sebastien, E-mail: Sebastien.Antherieu@univ-rennes1.fr; Laurent, Veronique, E-mail: Veronique.Laurent@univ-rennes1.fr; Loyer, Pascal, E-mail: Pascal.Loyer@univ-rennes1.fr; Robin, Marie-Anne, E-mail: Marie-Anne.Robin@inserm.fr; Guillouzo, Andre, E-mail: Andre.Guillouzo@univ-rennes1.f

    2010-11-15

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) are two of the most common heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) produced during cooking of meat, fish and poultry. Both HAA produce different tumor profiles in rodents and are suspected to be carcinogenic in humans. In order to better understand the molecular basis of HAA toxicity, we have analyzed gene expression profiles in the metabolically competent human HepaRG cells using pangenomic oligonucleotide microarrays, after either a single (24-h) or a repeated (28-day) exposure to 10 {mu}M PhIP or MeIQx. The most responsive genes to both HAA were downstream targets of the arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR): CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 after both time points and CYP1B1 and ALDH3A1 after 28 days. Accordingly, CYP1A1/1A2 induction in HAA-treated HepaRG cells was prevented by chemical inhibition or small interference RNA-mediated down-regulation of the AhR. Consistently, HAA induced activity of the CYP1A1 promoter, which contains a consensus AhR-related xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE). In addition, several other genes exhibited both time-dependent and compound-specific expression changes with, however, a smaller magnitude than previously reported for the prototypical AhR target genes. These changes concerned genes mainly related to cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer. In conclusion, these results identify the AhR gene battery as the preferential target of PhIP and MeIQx in HepaRG cells and further support the hypothesis that intake of HAA in diet might increase human cancer risk.

  6. Plasmonic materials based on ZnO films and their potential for developing broadband middle-infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesim, Yunus E. Battal, Enes; Okyay, Ali K.

    2014-07-15

    Noble metals such as gold and silver have been extensively used for plasmonic applications due to their ability to support plasmons, yet they suffer from high intrinsic losses. Alternative plasmonic materials that offer low loss and tunability are desired for a new generation of efficient and agile devices. In this paper, atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown ZnO is investigated as a candidate material for plasmonic applications. Optical constants of ZnO are investigated along with figures of merit pertaining to plasmonic waveguides. We show that ZnO can alleviate the trade-off between propagation length and mode confinement width owing to tunable dielectric properties. In order to demonstrate plasmonic resonances, we simulate a grating structure and computationally demonstrate an ultra-wide-band (4–15 ?m) infrared absorber.

  7. Optical Properties of Moderately-Absorbing Organic and Mixed Organic/Inorganic Particles at Very High Humidities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Tami C; Rood, Mark J; Brem, Benjamin T; Mena-Gonzalez, Francisco C; Chen, Yanju

    2012-04-16

    Relative humidity (RH) affects the water content of an aerosol, altering its ability to scatter and absorb light, which is important for aerosol effects on climate and visibility. This project involves in situ measurement and modeling of aerosol optical properties including absorption, scattering and extinction at three visible wavelengths (467, 530, 660 nm), for organic carbon (OC) generated by pyrolysis of biomass, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and their mixtures at controlled RH conditions. Novel components of this project include investigation of: (1) Changes in all three of these optical properties at scanned RH conditions; (2) Optical properties at RH values up to 95%, which are usually extrapolated instead of measured; and (3) Examination of aerosols generated by the pyrolysis of wood, which is representative of primary atmospheric organic carbon, and its mixture with inorganic aerosol. Scattering and extinction values were used to determine light absorption by difference and single scattering albedo values. Extensive instrumentation development and benchmarking with independently measured and modeled values were used to obtain and evaluate these new results. The single scattering albedo value for a dry absorbing polystyrene microsphere benchmark agreed within 0.02 (absolute value) with independently published results at 530 nm. Light absorption by a nigrosin (sample light-absorbing) benchmark increased by a factor of 1.24 +/-0.06 at all wavelengths as RH increased from 38 to 95%. Closure modeling with Mie theory was able to reproduce this increase with the linear volume average (LVA) refractive index mixing rule for this water soluble compound. Absorption by biomass OC aerosol increased by a factor of 2.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.3 +/- 1.2 between 32 and 95% RH at 467 nm and 530 nm, but there was no detectable absorption at 660 nm. Additionally, the spectral dependence of absorption by OC that was observed with filter measurements was confirmed qualitatively in situ at 467 and 530 nm. Closure modeling with the dynamic effective medium approximation (DEMA) refractive index model was able to capture the increasing absorption trend with RH indicating that the droplets were heterogeneously mixed while containing dispersed insoluble absorbing material within those droplets. Seven other refractive index mixing models including LVA did not adequately describe the measurements for OC. Mixing the biomass OC aerosol with select mass fractions of ammonium sulfate ranging from 25 to 36% and sodium chloride ranging from 21 to 30% resulted in an increase in light scattering and extinction with RH and inorganic mass fraction. However, no detectable difference in light absorption behavior in comparison to pure biomass OC was observed. The main finding of this research is a measured increase in absorption with increasing RH, which is currently not represented in radiative transfer models even though biomass burning produces most of the primary OC aerosol in the atmosphere.

  8. Phase Transfer-Catalyzed Fast CO2 Absorption by MgO-Based Absorbents with High Cycling Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Keling; Li, Xiaohong S.; Li, Weizhen; Rohatgi, Aashish; Duan, Yuhua; Singh, Prabhakar; Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2014-06-01

    CO2 capture from pre-combustion syngas in the temperature range of 250-400°C is highly desirable from an energy efficiency perspective. Thermodynamically, MgO is a promising material for CO2 capture, but the gas-solid reaction to produce MgCO3 is kinetically slow due to high lattice energy. We report here fast CO2 absorption over a solid MgO-molten nitrate/nitrite aggregate through phase transfer catalysis, in which the molten phase serves as both a catalyst and reaction medium. Reaction with CO2 at the gas-solid-liquid triple phase boundary results in formation of MgCO3 with significant reaction rate and a high conversion of MgO. This methodology is also applicable to other alkaline earth oxides, inspiring the design of absorbents which require activation of the bulk material.

  9. Design Considerations for an MEBT Chopper Absorber of 2.1 MeV H- at the Project X Injector Experiment at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baffes, C.; Awida, M.; Chen, A.; Eidelman, Y.; Lebedev, V.; Prost, L.; Shemyakin, A.; Solyak, N.; Yakovlev, V.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-14

    The Project X Injector Experiment (PIXIE) will be a prototype of the Project X front end that will be used to validate the design concept and decrease technical risks. One of the most challenging components of PIXIE is the wide-band chopping system of the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) section, which will form an arbitrary bunch pattern from the initially CW 162.5 MHz 5mA beam. The present scenario assumes diverting 80% of the beam to an absorber to provide a beam with the average current of 1mA to SRF linac. This absorber must withstand a high level of energy deposition and high ion fluence, while being positioned in proximity of the superconductive cavities. This paper discusses design considerations for the absorber. Thermal and mechanical analyses of a conceptual design are presented, and future plans for the fabrication and testing of a prototype are described.

  10. Composition, sources, and formation of secondary organic aerosols from urban emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Shang; Liu, Shang

    2012-01-01

    2.4.5 Sources and characteristics of hydroxyl functionalblue), carboxylic acid (green), hydroxyl (hot pink), amine (group absorbance ranges: hydroxyl (pink), carboxylic acid (

  11. A FOURTH H I 21 cm ABSORPTION SYSTEM IN THE SIGHT LINE OF MG J0414+0534: A RECORD FOR INTERVENING ABSORBERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanna, A.; Webb, J. K.; Curran, S. J.; Whiting, M. T.; Bignell, C.

    2013-08-01

    We report the detection of a strong H I 21 cm absorption system at z = 0.5344, as well as a candidate system at z = 0.3389, in the sight line toward the z = 2.64 quasar MG J0414+0534. This, in addition to the absorption at the host redshift and the other two intervening absorbers, takes the total to four (possibly five). The previous maximum number of 21 cm absorbers detected along a single sight line is two and so we suspect that this number of gas-rich absorbers is in some way related to the very red color of the background source. Despite this, no molecular gas (through OH absorption) has yet been detected at any of the 21 cm redshifts, although, from the population of 21 cm absorbers as a whole, there is evidence for a weak correlation between the atomic line strength and the optical-near-infrared color. In either case, the fact that so many gas-rich galaxies (likely to be damped Ly{alpha} absorption systems) have been found along a single sight line toward a highly obscured source may have far-reaching implications for the population of faint galaxies not detected in optical surveys, a possibility which could be addressed through future wide-field absorption line surveys with the Square Kilometer Array.

  12. Energy Harvesting Shock Absorbers Lei Zuo, State University of New York at Stony Brook (lei.zuo@stonybrook.edu, 631-632-9327)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Lei

    Energy Harvesting Shock Absorbers Lei Zuo, State University of New York at Stony Brook (lei support from New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). We expect 1-2 years, which is comparable with the car alternators (500-600W). And the energy potential for trucks, rail cars

  13. Keck and VLT Observations of Super-damped Lyman-alpha Absorbers at z=2=2.5: Constraints on Chemical Compositions and Physical Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Varsha P; Morrison, Sean; Peroux, Celine; Quiret, Samuel; York, Donald G

    2015-01-01

    We report Keck/ESI and VLT/UVES observations of three super-damped Lyman-alpha quasar absorbers with H I column densities log N(HI) >= 21.7 at redshifts z=2-2.5. All three absorbers show similar metallicities (-1.3 to -1.5 dex), and dust depletion of Fe, Ni, and Mn. Two of the absorbers show supersolar [S/Zn] and [Si/Zn]. We combine our results with those for other DLAs to examine trends between N(HI), metallicity, dust depletion. A larger fraction of the super-DLAs lie close to or above the line [X/H]=20.59-log N(HI) in the metallicity vs. N(HI) plot, compared to the less gas-rich DLAs, suggesting that super-DLAs are more likely to be rich in molecules. Unfortunately, our data for Q0230-0334 and Q0743+1421 do not cover H2 absorption lines. For Q1418+0718, some H2 lines are covered, but not detected. CO is not detected in any of our absorbers. For DLAs with log N(HI) 21.7 may have somewhat narrower velocity dispersions delta v_90 than the less gas-rich DLAs, and may arise in cooler and/or less turbulent gas.

  14. Relative Importance of Hip and Sacral Pain Among Long-Term Gynecological Cancer Survivors Treated With Pelvic Radiotherapy and Their Relationships to Mean Absorbed Doses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waldenstroem, Ann-Charlotte; Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg ; Olsson, Caroline; Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg ; Wilderaeng, Ulrica; Dunberger, Gail; Lind, Helena; Alevronta, Eleftheria; Al-Abany, Massoud; Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm ; Tucker, Susan; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Steineck, Gunnar; Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relative importance of patient-reported hip and sacral pain after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) for gynecological cancer and its relationship to the absorbed doses in these organs. Methods and Materials: We used data from a population-based study that included 650 long-term gynecological cancer survivors treated with pelvic RT in the Gothenburg and Stockholm areas in Sweden with a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 2-15) and 344 population controls. Symptoms were assessed through a study-specific postal questionnaire. We also analyzed the hip and sacral dose-volume histogram data for 358 of the survivors. Results: Of the survivors, one in three reported having or having had hip pain after completing RT. Daily pain when walking was four times as common among the survivors compared to controls. Symptoms increased in frequency with a mean absorbed dose >37.5 Gy. Also, two in five survivors reported pain in the sacrum. Sacral pain also affected their walking ability and tended to increase with a mean absorbed dose >42.5 Gy. Conclusions: Long-term survivors of gynecological cancer treated with pelvic RT experience hip and sacral pain when walking. The mean absorbed dose was significantly related to hip pain and was borderline significantly related to sacral pain. Keeping the total mean absorbed hip dose below 37.5 Gy during treatment might lower the occurrence of long-lasting pain. In relation to the controls, the survivors had a lower occurrence of pain and pain-related symptoms from the hips and sacrum compared with what has previously been reported for the pubic bone.

  15. Degradation and decoloration of textiles wastewater by electron beam irradiation: Effect of energy, current and absorbed dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Zulkafli,; Hashim, Siti A'aisah [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi 43000 Kajang Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Pauzi [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    In this study, electron beam accelerator (EB) was used to treat textiles wastewater from Rawang Industrial Park, Selangor. The objectives were to determine effective energy, beam current and absorbed dose required for decoloration and degradation of the textiles effluent. The textiles effluent was irradiated in a batch with various energy of 1MeV to 3MeV at constant beam current of 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with higher beam energy. The EB energy of 1MeV effectively to removed 58% color and 19% COD. For textile effluent sample irradiated at fix energy of 1MeV and 3Mev but at different beam current 10mA, 20mA and 30mA. It was observed that removal of color and COD increases with the increased of beam current at each energy. However removal of color was significantly better at 1Mev as compared to 3Mev. In the case of textiles effluent, irradiated at doses of 17, 20,25,30, 35, 100 and 200kGy using 30 kW power of EB (1Mev, 30mA), results shows removal of BOD{sub 5}, COD and color were in the range 9%-33%, 14%-38% and 43%-78% respectively.

  16. Bench-Scale Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Caraher, Joel; Chen, Wei; Farnum, Rachael; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. In the first budget period of this project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance.

  17. Lyman-Alpha Emitting Galaxies as a Probe of Reionization: Large-Scale Bubble Morphology and Small-Scale Absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kakiichi, Koki; Ciardi, Benedetta; Graziani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The visibility of LyA emitting galaxies during the Epoch of Reionization is controlled by both diffuse HI patches in large-scale bubble morphology and small-scale absorbers. To investigate the impact on LyA photons, we apply a novel combination of analytic and numerical calculations to three scenarios: (i) the `bubble' model, where only diffuse HI outside ionized bubbles is present; (ii) the `web' model, where HI exists only in overdense self-shielded gas; and (iii) the more realistic 'web-bubble' model, which contains both. Our analysis confirms that there is a degeneracy between the ionization structure of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the HI fraction inferred from LyA surveys, as the three models suppress LyA flux equally with very different HI fractions. We argue that a joint analysis of the LyA luminosity function and the rest-frame equivalent width distribution/LyA fraction can break this degeneracy and provide constraints on the reionization history and its topology. We further show that constrain...

  18. On the equivalent width of the Fe K$\\alpha$ line produced by a dusty absorber in active galactic nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gohil, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Obscured AGNs provide an opportunity to study the material surrounding the central engine. Geometric and physical constraints on the absorber can be deduced from the reprocessed AGN emission. In particular, the obscuring gas may reprocess the nuclear X-ray emission producing a narrow Fe K$\\alpha$ line and a Compton reflection hump. In recent years, models of the X-ray reflection from an obscuring torus have been computed; however, although the reflecting gas may be dusty, the models do not yet take into account the effects of dust on the predicted spectrum. We study this problem by analyzing two sets of models, with and without the presence of dust, using the one dimensional photo-ionization code Cloudy. The calculations are performed for a range of column densities ($22 <{\\rm log}[N_H(\\rm cm^{-2})]< 24.5$ ) and hydrogen densities ( $6 <{\\rm log}[n_H(\\rm cm^{-3})]< 8$). The calculations show the presence of dust can enhance the Fe K$\\alpha$ equivalent width (EW) in the reflected spectrum by factor...

  19. Production of crystalline refractory metal oxides containing colloidal metal precipitates and useful as solar-effective absorbers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narayan, Jagdish (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Yok (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1983-01-01

    This invention is a new process for producing refractory crystalline oxides having improved or unusual properties. The process comprises the steps of forming a doped-metal crystal of the oxide; exposing the doped crystal in a bomb to a reducing atmosphere at superatmospheric pressure and a temperature effecting precipitation of the dopant metal in the crystal lattice of the oxide but insufficient to effect net diffusion of the metal out of the lattice; and then cooling the crystal. Preferably, the cooling step is effected by quenching. The process forms colloidal precipitates of the metal in the oxide lattice. The process may be used, for example, to produce thermally stable black MgO crystalline bodies containing magnetic colloidal precipitates consisting of about 99% Ni. The Ni-containing bodies are solar-selective absorbers, having a room-temperature absorptivity of about 0.96 over virtually all of the solar-energy spectrum and exhibiting an absorption edge in the region of 2 .mu.m. The process parameters can be varied to control the average size of the precipitates. The process can produce a black MgO crystalline body containing colloidal Ni precipitates, some of which have the face-centered-cubic structure and others of which have the body-centered cubic structure. The products of the process are metal-precipitate-containing refractory crystalline oxides which have improved or unique optical, mechanical, magnetic, and/or electronic properties.

  20. amine | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifiesValidation of MFRSR Data Analysis:Automatic

  1. Texas Tech develops mat that could absorb oil spills -San Antonio Express-News http://www.mysanantonio.com/news/local/article/Texas-Tech-develops-possible-solution-for-oil-5662954.php[8/4/2014 1:54:01 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    Texas Tech develops mat that could absorb oil spills - San Antonio Express-News http://www.mysanantonio.com/news/local/article/Texas-Tech-develops-possible-solution-for-oil-5662954.php[8/4/2014 1:54:01 PM] NEWS Texas Tech develops mat that could absorb oil spills EDWIN DELGADO, SAN ANTONIO EXPRESS

  2. Ultraviolet absorbing copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, Amitava (Pasadena, CA); Yavrouian, Andre H. (La Crescenta, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Photostable and weather stable absorping copolymers have been prepared from acrylic esters such as methyl methacrylate containing 0.1 to 5% of an 2-hydroxy-allyl benzophenone, preferably the 4,4' dimethoxy derivative thereof. The pendant benzophenone chromophores protect the acrylic backbone and when photoexcited do not degrade the ester side chain, nor abstract hydrogen from the backbone.

  3. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhong, Yuanzhen (Wayne, NJ), Parikh, Hemant (Harriman, NY); Smith, Terry E. (Murray, KY)

    2002-05-28

    A process for making homogeneous copolymers of vinylpyrrolidone (VP) and vinyl acetate (VA) which form clear aqueous solutions and have high cloud points. The process involves precharging VP and VA monomers in a predetermined ratio, and then feeding VP and VA at a predetermined rate, the ratio of the components in the initial charge and the feeding rates for the monomer being selected in accordance with the reactivity rates of the monomers towards copolymerization as opposed to homopolymerization.

  4. Physical features of accumulation and distribution processes of small disperse coal dust precipitations and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledenyov, Oleg P; Poltinin, P Ya; Fedorova, L I

    2012-01-01

    The physical features of absorption process of radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filters of the type of AU-1500 at the nuclear power plants are researched. It is shown that the non-homogenous spatial distribution of absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter, probed by the gamma-activation analysis method, is well correlated with the spatial distribution of small disperse coal dust precipitations in the iodine air filter. This circumstance points out to an important role by the small disperse coal dust fractions of absorber in the absorption process of radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter. The physical origins of characteristic interaction between the radioactive chemical elements and the accumulated small disperse coal dust precipitations in an iodine air filter are considered. The analysis of influence by the researched physical processes on the technical characteristics and functionality of iodine ...

  5. Attenuation and Emittance Growth of 450 GeV and 7 TeV Proton Beams in Low-Z Absorber Elements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kadi, Y; Goddard, B; Schmidt, R

    2004-01-01

    The intensity of the LHC beams will be several orders of magnitude above the damage thresholds for equipment. Passive protection of accelerator equipment against failures during beam transfer, injection and dumping of the beam with diluters and collimators is foreseen. These protection devices must be robust in case of beam impact, and low-Z materials such as carbon are favored. In these diluters, the reduction of the energy density is determined both by the attenuation due to inelastic nuclear collisions and by the emittance growth of the surviving protons due to elastic scattering processes. The physics principles leading to attenuation and emittance growth for a hadron beam traversing matter are summarised, and FLUKA simulation results for 450 GeV and 7 TeV proton beams on low-Z absorbers are compared with these predictions. Design criteria for the LHC absorbers are derived from these results.

  6. Thermal neutron steady-state spectra in light water reactor fuel assemblies poisoned with various non-1/v absorbers of different concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swaminathan, K.; Chandra, S.; Jha, R.C.; Tewari, S.P. )

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports on the thermal neutron scattering kernel that explicitly incorporates the presence of chemical binding energy and the collective oscillations in the dynamics of water, the steady-state thermal neutron spectra in light water reactor fuel assemblies poisoned with non-1/v absorbers, such as cadmium, samarium, erbium, and gadolinium, in various concentrations have been computed at 298 K. The calculated spectra are in reasonable agreement with the corresponding experimental spectra for realistic source terms.

  7. 22 GHz Water Maser Search in 37 Nearby Galaxies - Four New Water Megamasers in Seyfert 2 and OH Maser/Absorber Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, J

    2013-01-01

    We report four new 22 GHz water masers found in a Green Bank Telescope search toward 37 nearby objects. Our goal was to find new maser galaxies, AGN disk-masers, and objects where both hydroxyl and water maser species coexist. We observed 37 sources within 250 Mpc that were selected by high X-ray luminosity (L_X > 10^40 W) and high absorbing column density (N_H ~ 10^22 cm^-2). Sources also included dual or triple AGN and interacting systems. We further included objects detected in hydroxyl (OH). The selection consisted of 16 new sources, 13 previous non-detections to follow up with a factor ten higher sensitivity, 10 OH masers and one deep OH absorber, of which 37 were observed. Water megamasers were detected towards the Sy 2 galaxy 2MFGC 13581 (a disk-maser), towards the 6 GHz OH absorber NGC 4261 (3C 270 with a twin-jet and dusty torus; broad water maser emission), and towards the two 1.6 GHz OH maser sources IRAS 17526+3253 and IRAS 20550+1656 (possible star formation water masers). We set upper limits on ...

  8. Theoretical Analysis of Effects of Deep Level, Back Contact, and Absorber Thickness on Capacitance-Voltage Profiling of CdTe Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J. V.; Halverson, A. F.; Sulima, O. V.; Bansal, S.; Burst, J. M.; Barnes, T. M.; Gessert, T. A.; Levi, D. H.

    2012-05-01

    The apparent carrier density profile measured by the capacitance-voltage technique in CdTe thin-film solar cells frequently displays a distinctive U-shape. We show that, even assuming a uniform carrier density, such a U-shape may arise from deep levels, a non-ohmic back-contact, and a thin absorber, which are commonly present in practical CdTe thin-film solar cells. A thin CdTe absorber contributes to the right branch of the U-shape due to a punch-through effect at reverse or zero biases, when the CdTe absorber is nearly fully depleted. A rectifying back-contact contributes to both branches of the U-shape due to voltage sharing with the front junction under a forward bias and early punch-through under a reverse bias. Deep levels contribute to the right branch, but also raise the bottom of the U-shape, leading to an overestimate of carrier density.

  9. Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 {\\mu}m

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Zhipeng; Zhang, Han; Zhao, Chujun; Yuan, Peng; Wen, Shuangchun; Qian, Liejia

    2015-01-01

    Black phosphorus, a newly emerged two-dimensional material, has attracted wide attention as novel photonic material. Here, multi-layer black phosphorus is successfully fabricated by liquid phase exfoliation method. By employing black phosphorus as saturable absorber, we demonstrate a passively Q-switched Er-doped ZBLAN fiber laser at the wavelength of 2.8 {\\mu}m. The modulation depth and saturation fluence of the black phosphorus saturable absorber are measured to be 15% and 9 {\\mu}J/cm2, respectively. The Q-switched fiber laser delivers a maximum average power of 485 mW with corresponding pulse energy of 7.7 {\\mu}J and pulse width of 1.18 {\\mu}s at repetition rate of 63 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to demonstrate that black phosphorus can realize Q-switching of 2.8-{\\mu}m fiber laser. Our research results show that black phosphorus is a promising saturable absorber for mid-infrared pulsed lasers.

  10. Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg P. Ledenyov; Ivan M. Neklyudov

    2013-06-14

    The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antinodes of the acoustic waves are positioned. Finally, we completed the comparative analysis of the theoretical calculations with the experimental results, obtained for the cases of: 1) the experimental aerodynamic modeling of physical processes of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF; and 2) the gamma-activation spectroscopy analysis of the absorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in the IAF. We made the innovative propositions on the necessary technical modifications with the purpose to improve the IAF technical characteristics and increase its operational time at the nuclear power plant (NPP), going from the completed precise characterization of the IAF parameters at the long term operation.

  11. The UV-absorber benzophenone-4 alters transcripts of genes involved in hormonal pathways in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleuthero-embryos and adult males

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zucchi, Sara [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Bluethgen, Nancy [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); University of Basel, Division of Molecular and Systems Toxicology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Klingelbergstrasse 50, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Ieronimo, Andrea [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ), Department of Environmental Sciences, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    Benzophenone-4 (BP-4) is frequently used as UV-absorber in cosmetics and materials protection. Despite its frequent detection in the aquatic environment potential effects on aquatic life are unknown. In this study, we evaluate the effects of BP-4 in eleuthero-embryos and in the liver, testis and brain of adult male fish on the transcriptional level by focusing on target genes involved in hormonal pathways to provide a more complete toxicological profile of this important UV-absorber. Eleuthero-embryos and males of zebrafish were exposed up to 3 days after hatching and for 14 days, respectively, to BP-4 concentrations between 30 and 3000 {mu}g/L. In eleuthero-embryos transcripts of vtg1, vtg3, esr1, esr2b, hsd17ss3, cyp19b cyp19a, hhex and pax8 were induced at 3000 {mu}g/L BP-4, which points to a low estrogenic activity and interference with early thyroid development, respectively. In adult males BP-4 displayed multiple effects on gene expression in different tissues. In the liver vtg1, vtg3, esr1 and esr2b were down-regulated, while in the brain, vtg1, vtg3 and cyp19b transcripts were up-regulated. In conclusion, the transcription profile revealed that BP-4 interferes with the expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways and steroidogenesis. The effects of BP-4 differ in life stages and adult tissues and point to an estrogenic activity in eleuthero-embryos and adult brain, and an antiestrogenic activity in the liver. The results indicate that BP-4 interferes with the sex hormone system of fish, which is important for the risk assessment of this UV-absorber.

  12. Distribution of small dispersive coal dust particles and absorbed radioactive chemical elements in conditions of forced acoustic resonance in iodine air filter at nuclear power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledenyov, Oleg P

    2013-01-01

    The physical features of distribution of the small dispersive coal dust particles and the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber with the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules were researched in the case of the intensive air dust aerosol stream flow through the iodine air filter (IAF). It was shown that, at the certain aerodynamic conditions in the IAF, the generation of the acoustic oscillations is possible. It was found that the acoustic oscillations generation results in an appearance of the standing acoustic waves of the air pressure (density) in the IAF. In the case of the intensive blow of the air dust aerosol, it was demonstrated that the standing acoustic waves have some strong influences on both: 1) the dynamics of small dispersive coal dust particles movement and their accumulation in the IAF; 2) the oversaturation of the cylindrical coal granules by the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the regions, where the antin...

  13. Unusual defect physics in CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite solar cell absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Wan-Jian Shi, Tingting; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-02-10

    Thin-film solar cells based on Methylammonium triiodideplumbate (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) halide perovskites have recently shown remarkable performance. First-principle calculations show that CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} has unusual defect physics: (i) Different from common p-type thin-film solar cell absorbers, it exhibits flexible conductivity from good p-type, intrinsic to good n-type depending on the growth conditions; (ii) Dominant intrinsic defects create only shallow levels, which partially explain the long electron-hole diffusion length and high open-circuit voltage in solar cell. The unusual defect properties can be attributed to the strong Pb lone-pair s orbital and I p orbital antibonding coupling and the high ionicity of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}.

  14. Linear response theory in the continuum for deformed nuclei: Green's function vs. time-dependent Hartree-Fock with the absorbing-boundary condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Nakatsukasa; Kazuhiro Yabana

    2004-12-05

    The continuum random-phase approximation is extended to the one applicable to deformed nuclei. We propose two different approaches. One is based on the use of the three dimensional (3D) Green's function and the other is the small-amplitude TDHF with the absorbing-boundary condition. Both methods are based on the 3D Cartesian grid representation and applicable to systems without any symmetry on nuclear shape. The accuracy and identity of these two methods are examined with the BKN interaction. Using the full Skyrme energy functional in the small-amplitude TDHF approach, we study the isovector giant dipole states in the continuum for O-16 and for even-even Be isotopes.

  15. LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF GAMMA-RAY BURST OPTICAL AFTERGLOWS: BIASES IN THE SWIFT SAMPLE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ABSORBERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fynbo, J. P. U.; Malesani, D.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Hjorth, J.; Sollerman, J.; Thoene, C. C.; Jakobsson, P.; Bjoernsson, G.; De Cia, A.; Prochaska, J. X.; Nardini, M.; Chen, H.-W.; Bloom, J. S.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Christensen, L.; Fruchter, A. S.

    2009-12-01

    We present a sample of 77 optical afterglows (OAs) of Swift detected gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) for which spectroscopic follow-up observations have been secured. Our first objective is to measure the redshifts of the bursts. For the majority (90%) of the afterglows, the redshifts have been determined from the spectra. We provide line lists and equivalent widths (EWs) for all detected lines redward of Ly{alpha} covered by the spectra. In addition to the GRB absorption systems, these lists include line strengths for a total of 33 intervening absorption systems. We discuss to what extent the current sample of Swift bursts with OA spectroscopy is a biased subsample of all Swift detected GRBs. For that purpose we define an X-ray-selected statistical sample of Swift bursts with optimal conditions for ground-based follow-up from the period 2005 March to 2008 September; 146 bursts fulfill our sample criteria. We derive the redshift distribution for the statistical (X-ray selected) sample and conclude that less than 18% of Swift bursts can be at z > 7. We compare the high-energy properties (e.g., {gamma}-ray (15-350 keV) fluence and duration, X-ray flux, and excess absorption) for three subsamples of bursts in the statistical sample: (1) bursts with redshifts measured from OA spectroscopy; (2) bursts with detected optical and/or near-IR afterglow, but no afterglow-based redshift; and (3) bursts with no detection of the OA. The bursts in group (1) have slightly higher {gamma}-ray fluences and higher X-ray fluxes and significantly less excess X-ray absorption than bursts in the other two groups. In addition, the fractions of dark bursts, defined as bursts with an optical to X-ray slope {beta}{sub OX} < 0.5, is 14% in group (1), 38% in group (2), and >39% in group (3). For the full sample, the dark burst fraction is constrained to be in the range 25%-42%. From this we conclude that the sample of GRBs with OA spectroscopy is not representative for all Swift bursts, most likely due to a bias against the most dusty sight lines. This should be taken into account when determining, e.g., the redshift or metallicity distribution of GRBs and when using GRBs as a probe of star formation. Finally, we characterize GRB absorption systems as a class and compare them to QSO absorption systems, in particular the damped Ly{alpha} absorbers (DLAs). On average GRB absorbers are characterized by significantly stronger EWs for H I as well as for both low and high ionization metal lines than what is seen in intervening QSO absorbers. However, the distribution of line strengths is very broad and several GRB absorbers have lines with EWs well within the range spanned by QSO-DLAs. Based on the 33 z > 2 bursts in the sample, we place a 95% confidence upper limit of 7.5% on the mean escape fraction of ionizing photons from star-forming galaxies.

  16. Structural dynamics of phenylisothiocyanate in the light-absorbing excited states: Resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouyang, Bing, E-mail: ouyangbing.zj@foxmail.com; Xue, Jia-Dan, E-mail: jenniexue@126.com; Zheng, Xuming, E-mail: zhengxuming126@126.com, E-mail: zxm@zstu.edu.cn, E-mail: fangwh@dnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Fang, Wei-Hai, E-mail: zxm@zstu.edu.cn, E-mail: fangwh@dnu.edu.cn, E-mail: fangwh@dnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-05-21

    The excited state structural dynamics of phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) after excitation to the light absorbing S{sub 2}(A?), S{sub 6}(A?), and S{sub 7}(A?) excited states were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field method calculations. The UV absorption bands of PITC were assigned. The vibrational assignments were done on the basis of the Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and FT-infrared measurements, the density-functional theory computations, and the normal mode analysis. The A-, B-, and C-bands resonance Raman spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol solvents were, respectively, obtained at 299.1, 282.4, 266.0, 252.7, 228.7, 217.8, and 208.8 nm excitation wavelengths to probe the corresponding structural dynamics of PITC. The results indicated that the structural dynamics in the S{sub 2}(A?), S{sub 6}(A?), and S{sub 7}(A?) excited states were very different. The conical intersection point CI(S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}) were predicted to play important role in the low-lying excited state decay dynamics. Two major decay channels were predicted for PITC upon excitation to the S{sub 2}(A?) state: the radiative S{sub 2,min} ? S{sub 0} transition and the nonradiative S{sub 2} ? S{sub 1} internal conversion via CI(S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}). The differences in the decay dynamics between methyl isothiocyanate and PITC in the first light absorbing excited state were discussed. The role of the intersystem crossing point ISC(S{sub 1}/T{sub 1}) in the excited state decay dynamics of PITC is evaluated.

  17. MODERATE C IV ABSORBER SYSTEMS REQUIRE 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} DARK MATTER HALOS AT z {approx} 2.3: A CROSS-CORRELATION STUDY OF C IV ABSORBER SYSTEMS AND QUASARS IN SDSS-III BOSS DR9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vikas, Shailendra; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Lundgren, Britt; Ross, Nicholas P.; Myers, Adam D.; AlSayyad, Yusra; York, Donald G.; Schneider, Donald P.; Brinkmann, J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Snedden, Stephanie; Ge, Jian; Muna, Demitri; Paris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; and others

    2013-05-01

    We measure the two-point cross-correlation function of C IV absorber systems and quasars, using spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS; Data Release 9). The 19,701 quasars and 6149 C IV ''moderate'' absorbers, 0.28 A < rest-frame equivalent width (EW) < 5 A, in our study cover a redshift range of 2.1 < z < 2.5 over 3300 deg{sup 2} and represent a factor of two increase in sample size over previous investigations. We find a correlation scale length and slope of the redshift-space cross-correlation function of s{sub 0} = 8.46 {+-} 1.24 Mpc, {gamma} = 1.68 {+-} 0.19, in the redshift-space range 10 < s < 100 Mpc. We find a projected cross-correlation function of C IV absorption systems and quasars of r{sub 0} = 7.76 {+-} 2.80 Mpc, {gamma} = 1.74 {+-} 0.21. We measure the combined quasar and C IV bias to be b{sub QSO} b{sub C{sub IV}} = 8.81 {+-} 2.28. Using an estimate of b{sub QSO} from the quasar auto-correlation function we find b{sub CIV} = 2.38 {+-} 0.62. This b{sub CIV} implies that EW > 0.28 A C IV absorbers at z {approx} 2.3 are typically found in dark matter halos that have masses {>=}10{sup 11.3}-10{sup 13.4} M{sub Sun} at that redshift. The complete BOSS sample will triple the number of both quasars and absorption systems and increase the power of this cross-correlation measurement by a factor of two.

  18. CX-011421: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bench-Scale Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent CX(s) Applied: A9 Date: 12/12/2013 Location(s): New Jersey Offices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  19. 7-122 A solar pond power plant operates by absorbing heat from the hot region near the bottom, and rejecting waste heat to the cold region near the top. The maximum thermal efficiency that the power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-49 7-122 A solar pond power plant operates by absorbing heat from the hot region near the bottom, and rejecting waste heat to the cold region near the top. The maximum thermal efficiency that the power plant can have is to be determined. Analysis The highest thermal efficiency a heat engine operating between

  20. Implications of a non-universal IMF from C, N, and O abundances in very metal-poor Galactic stars and damped Lyman-alpha absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsujimoto, T

    2011-01-01

    Recently revealed C, N, and O abundances in the most metal-poor damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) absorbers are compared with those of extremely metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo, as well as extragalactic H II regions, to decipher nucleosynthesis and chemical enrichment in the early Universe. These comparisons surprisingly identify a relatively high C/O ratio and a low N/O ratio in DLA systems, which is hard to explain theoretically. We propose that if these features are confirmed by future studies, this effect occurs because the initial mass function in metal-poor DLA systems has a cut-off at the upper mass end at around 20-25 Msun, thus lacks the massive stars that provide the nucleosynthesis products leading to the low C/O and high N/O ratios. This finding is a reasonable explanation of the nature of DLA systems in which a sufficient amount of cold H I gas remains intact because of the suppression of ionization by massive stars. In addition, our claim strongly supports a high production rate of N in very massiv...

  1. Mid-infrared ultra-short mode-locked fiber laser utilizing topological insulator Bi2Te3 nano-sheets as the saturable absorber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Ke; Zheng, Xin; Yu, Hao; Cheng, Xiangai; Hou, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The newly-emergent two-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) have shown their unique electronic and optical properties, such as good thermal management, high nonlinear refraction index and ultrafast relaxation time. Their narrow energy band gaps predict their optical absorption ability further into the mid-infrared region and their possibility to be very broadband light modulators ranging from the visible to the mid-infrared region. In this paper, a mid-infrared mode-locked fluoride fiber laser with TI Bi2Te3 nano-sheets as the saturable absorber is presented. Continuous wave lasing, Q-switched and continuous-wave mode-locking (CW-ML) operations of the laser are observed sequentially by increasing the pump power. The observed CW-ML pulse train has a pulse repetition rate of 10.4 MHz, a pulse width of ~6 ps, and a center wavelength of 2830 nm. The maximum achievable pulse energy is 8.6 nJ with average power up to 90 mW. This work forcefully demonstrates the promising applications of two-dimensional TIs for ...

  2. Effects of diethanolamine on sol–gel–processed Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} photovoltaic absorber thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kahraman, S. Çetinkaya, S.; Çetinkara, H.A.; Güder, H.S.

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • DEA content significantly affected the crystal structure and the phase purity. • The films’ crystallite sizes increased with increasing DEA content. • Two different impurity levels were found for each film via R-T characteristics. • Under different illuminations, the n-Si/CZTS exhibited good photo-response. • The light on/off current ratios confirmed the photo-sensitivity of the junction. - Abstract: As a promising solar absorber, the Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} compound has been popular recently for the production of green and economical thin-film solar cells owing to the abundancy and non-toxicity of all the constituents. In this study, we have produced Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} films via the sol–gel technique. As a stabilizer, the effects of the diethanolamine on the properties of the films were investigated. The amount of diethanolamine significantly affected the crystal structure, crystallite sizes and phase purity of the films. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy analyses confirmed the formation of phase-pure CZTS films. It was found that the film produced by using 2 ml of diethanolamine in sol exhibited pure CZTS phase, compact and dense morphology and enhanced photo-sensitivity. Light on/off current ratio of the n-Si/Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} junction was found to be 47 under 100 mW/cm{sup 2} of illumination. Electrical activation energies of the films were investigated and the variations were attributed to delocalized phonon states generating from the presence of other phases and lattice defects.

  3. Review of the Development and Testing of a New Family of Boron and Gadolinium-Bearing Dual Thermal Neutron Absorbing Alloys - 13026

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, M.L.; Del Corso, G.J.; Klankowski, K.A. [Carpenter Tech., Corp., P.O. Box 14662, Reading PA 19612-4662 (United States)] [Carpenter Tech., Corp., P.O. Box 14662, Reading PA 19612-4662 (United States); Lherbier, L.W.; Novotnak, D.J. [Carpenter Powder Products, 600 Mayer St., Bridgeville, PA 15017 (United States)] [Carpenter Powder Products, 600 Mayer St., Bridgeville, PA 15017 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The development of a new class of Fe-based thermal neutron absorbing alloys (patent pending) containing both natural boron (B) and gadolinium (Gd) is reviewed. Testing has shown that Ar and N inert gas atomized powder metallurgy (PM) variants offer superior processability coupled with improved mechanical properties that exhibit reduced anisotropy and reduced corrosion rates compared to conventional cast/wrought processed material. PM processing results in a microstructure containing a uniform distribution of second phase borides and gadolinides, and the morphology of the gadolinides prevents the formation low melting point Gd-bearing phases at solidifying austenite boundaries. The new T316-based materials containing both B and Gd exhibit superior corrosion resistance compared to straight B-bearing T304 materials. By keeping the B content < 1 weight percent (%) and using Gd to attain an equivalent B (B{sub Eq}) content higher than that achievable through the use of B only, the new materials exhibit superior ductility, toughness and bendability as a result of significantly reduced area fraction of Cr-rich M{sub 2}B borides. Limiting the total area fraction of second phase particles to < 22% insures a product with superior bendability. By restricting B to < 1% and using Gd up to 2.5%, B{sub Eq} levels approaching 12% can be attained that provide a cost effective improvement in thermal neutron absorption capability compared to using B-10 enriched boron. The new materials can be easily bent during fabrication compared to existing metal matrix composite materials while offering similar thermal neutron absorption capability. Production lots containing B{sub Eq} levels of 4.0 and 7.5% (Micro-Melt{sup R} DuoSorb{sup TM} 316NU-40 and 75, respectively) are in the process of being fabricated for customer trial material. (authors)

  4. By Massoud Amin and Phillip F. Schewe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    , the northeastern U.S. and Ontario, Canada, were oblivious, too. Transmission lines surrounding the failure spot will get worse until the entire transmission system that moves power from generating plants to neighborhood to reduce power losses. As power moves through a wire, some of it is wasted in the form of heat. The loss

  5. Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Champion

    1993-01-01

    was originally applied to water desalination in which water was extracted from aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Here, we explore its potential to recover acetate produced via fermentation. At 40C 55C, which corresponds to typical fen-fermentation temperatures...

  6. A Generalized Coloring of Graphs Ashok Amin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McSorley, John

    * * c of the vertices of G where for adjacent vertices u,v we have c(NG[u])6=c(NG[v]) when N* *G[u]6=NG[v] and c(u)6=c(v) when NG[u]=NG[v]. We show that the problem of deciding whether O*(G)* * n, where n 3 uv of G, c(u) 6= c(v) when NG [u] = * *NG [v] and c(NG [u]) 6= c(NG [v]) when NG [u] 6= NG [v

  7. ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    solar energy supply systems were ex- amined, including thermal collectorscollectors employing thermal receivers (which use black sur- faces to absorb the solarsolar collector was simulated using a collector energy balance equation which accounts for collector thermal

  8. (2R)-4-Oxo-4[3-(Trifluoromethyl)-5,6-diihydro:1,2,4}triazolo[4,3-a}pyrazin-7(8H)-y1]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine: A Potent, Orally Active Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitor for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, D.; Wang, L.; Beconi, M.; Eiermann, G.; Fisher, M.; He, H.; Hickey, G.; Kowalchick, Jennifer; Leiting, Barbara; Lyons, K.; Marsilio, F.; McCann, F.; Patel, R.; Petrov, A.; Scapin, G.; Patel, S.; Roy, R.; Wu, J.; Wyvratt, M.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, L.; Thornberry, N.; Weber, A.

    2010-11-10

    A novel series of {beta}-amino amides incorporating fused heterocycles, i.e., triazolopiperazines, were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (2R)-4-Oxo-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine (1) is a potent, orally active DPP-IV inhibitor (IC{sub 50} = 18 nM) with excellent selectivity over other proline-selective peptidases, oral bioavailability in preclinical species, and in vivo efficacy in animal models. MK-0431, the phosphate salt of compound 1, was selected for development as a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes.

  9. Enantioselective Direct Amination of Aldehydes via a Photoredox Mechanism: A Strategy for Asymmetric Amine Fragment Coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMillan, David W. C.

    triggered using a simple household lightbulb). From the outset, it seemed plausible that an electrophilic

  10. Safety evaluation report related to the Department of Energy`s proposal for the irradiation of lead test assemblies containing tritium-producing burnable absorber rods in commercial light-water reactors. Project Number 697

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The NRC staff has reviewed a report, submitted by DOE to determine whether the use of a commercial light-water reactor (CLWR) to irradiate a limited number of tritium-producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) in lead test assemblies (LTAs) raises generic issues involving an unreviewed safety question. The staff has prepared this safety evaluation to address the acceptability of these LTAs in accordance with the provision of 10 CFR 50.59 without NRC licensing action. As summarized in Section 10 of this safety evaluation, the staff has identified issues that require NRC review. The staff has also identified a number of areas in which an individual licensee undertaking irradiation of TPBAR LTAs will have to supplement the information in the DOE report before the staff can determine whether the proposed irradiation is acceptable at a particular facility. The staff concludes that a licensee undertaking irradiation of TPBAR LTAs in a CLWR will have to submit an application for amendment to its facility operating license before inserting the LTAs into the reactor.

  11. Casimir interaction between absorbing and meta Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Intravaia; C. Henkel

    2007-11-05

    We investigate the Casimir energy between two dissipative mirrors in term of a sum over mode formula which can be interpreted by analogy to a quantum dissipative oscillator. We also show that metamaterials engineered at scales between the nanometer and the micron seem a promising way to achieve a repulsive force.

  12. Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Aihua

    2010-01-01

    Operational Vertical Sounder UAV unmanned aerial vehicle UVunmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Campaign (MAC) directlyUnmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Campaign (MAC) employed

  13. SCIAMACHY Absorbing Aerosol Index Martin de Graaf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    : Indonesian forest fires GOME AAI De Graaf et al., 2005, JGR-D 110 ATSR fires counts #12;! ! ! ! GOME residue : Wildfires in Alaska and Canada GOES-10 Imager Channel 1 ( Visible ) 20 June 2004 0400 UTC #12;Forest fires

  14. Neutron detector using sol-gel absorber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hiller, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Wallace, Steven A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    An neutron detector composed of fissionable material having ions of lithium, uranium, thorium, plutonium, or neptunium, contained within a glass film fabricated using a sol-gel method combined with a particle detector is disclosed. When the glass film is bombarded with neutrons, the fissionable material emits fission particles and electrons. Prompt emitting activated elements yielding a high energy electron contained within a sol-gel glass film in combination with a particle detector is also disclosed. The emissions resulting from neutron bombardment can then be detected using standard UV and particle detection methods well known in the art, such as microchannel plates, channeltrons, and silicon avalanche photodiodes.

  15. Cool Outflows and HI absorbers with SKA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morganti, Raffaella; Curran, Stephen J; Members, the SKA HI SWG

    2015-01-01

    HI 21-cm absorption spectroscopy provides a unique probe of the cold neutral gas in normal and active galaxies from redshift z > 6 to the present day. We describe the status of HI absorption studies, the plans for pathfinders/precursors, the expected breakthroughs that will be possible with SKA1, and some limitations set by the current design.

  16. Approximating Resonances with the Complex Absorbing Potential ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-10-25

    Communications in Partial Differential Equations, 30: 1843–1862, 2005. Copyright ... We refer to Zworski (1999) for a general introduction ...... trapping systems.

  17. Electrochemical Corrosion Testing of Neutron Absorber Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tedd Lister; Ron Mizia; Arnold Erickson; Tammy Trowbridge

    2007-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of crevice-corrosion tests for six alloys in solutions representative of ionic compositions inside the Yucca Mountain waste package should a breech occur. The alloys in these tests are Neutronit A978a (ingot metallurgy, hot rolled), Neutrosorb Plus 304B4 Grade Ab (powder metallurgy, hot rolled), Neutrosorb Plus 304B5 Grade Ab (powder metallurgy, hot rolled), Neutrosorb Plus 304B6 Grade Ab (powder metallurgy, hot rolled), Ni-Cr-Mo-Gd alloy2 (ingot metallurgy, hot rolled), and Alloy 22 (ingot metallurgy, hot rolled).

  18. Possible demonstration of ionization cooling using absorbers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cooling may play an important role in reducing the phase space volume of muons for a future muon-muon collider. We describe a possible experiment to demonstrate transverse...

  19. SELECTIVE ABSORBER COATED FOILS FOR SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2013-01-01

    fabrication of solar collector panels. adhesives and bondingdirectly to solar collector panels. the solar selectivefabrication of solar collector panels. However, the finish

  20. Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Aihua

    2010-01-01

    dust, volcanic pumice and fly ash, Appl. Opt . , 12, 564–DU is the sum of dust and fly ash, and Nabs is the sum ofwith sulfate (EC-SU), fly ash, potassium-biomass, organic

  1. SELECTIVE ABSORBER COATED FOILS FOR SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2013-01-01

    p. 1080. AES Second Coatings for Solar Collectors Symp. , 11solar collector panels. Here the major consideration is whether the coatingcoating concept is to use heavy starting stock which might be suitable for direct fabrication of solar collector

  2. SELECTIVE ABSORBER COATED FOILS FOR SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2013-01-01

    p. 1080. AES Second Coatings for Solar Collectors Symp. , 11coating concept is to use heavy starting stock which might be suitable for direct fabrication of solar collectorsolar collector panels. Here the major consideration is whether the coating

  3. Solar-absorber-selective paint research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, S.W.

    1982-01-01

    Research and development on thickness-sensitive and thickness-insensitive solar paints are discussed. The thickness-sensitive paints include reverse roll coated, gravure printed, and spray coated paints. The coating methods and optical properties of the thickness-sensitive paints are discussed. The thickness-insensitive solar paints include a low emittance flake such as aluminium-flake, and pigment. Durability tests are discussed, including accelerated weathering and humidity durability tests, for the thickness-sensitive coatings. (LEW)

  4. Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Aihua

    2010-01-01

    using autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles, Atmos Chem Phys,Maldives Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle Campaign MACRVertical Sounder UAV unmanned aerial vehicle UV ultraviolet

  5. SELECTIVE ABSORBER COATED FOILS FOR SOLAR COLLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2013-01-01

    Proc. of 1977 Flat Plate Solar Collector Conference- USDOE,"Second Coatings for Solar Collectors Symp. , 11 Winter Park,COATED FOILS FOR SOLAR COLLECTORS Carl M. Lampert TWO-WEEK

  6. Energy Absorbing Material - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas NuclearElectronic StructureElyElectroEnergyAdvanced Materials Advanced

  7. Nanostructured light-absorbing crystalline CuIn{sub (1–x)}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} thin films grown through high flux, low energy ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Allen J.; Hebert, Damon; Rockett, Angus A.; Shah, Amish B.; Bettge, Martin

    2013-10-21

    A hybrid effusion/sputtering vacuum system was modified with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) coil enabling ion assisted physical vapor deposition of CuIn{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} thin films on GaAs single crystals and stainless steel foils. With <80 W rf power to the ICP coil at 620–740 °C, film morphologies were unchanged compared to those grown without the ICP. At low temperature (600–670 °C) and high rf power (80–400 W), a light absorbing nanostructured highly anisotropic platelet morphology was produced with surface planes dominated by (112){sub T} facets. At 80–400 W rf power and 640–740 °C, both interconnected void and small platelet morphologies were observed while at >270 W and above >715 °C nanostructured pillars with large inter-pillar voids were produced. The latter appeared black and exhibited a strong (112){sub T} texture with interpillar twist angles of ±8°. Application of a negative dc bias of 0–50 V to the film during growth was not found to alter the film morphology or stoichiometry. The results are interpreted as resulting from the plasma causing strong etching favoring formation of (112){sub T} planes and preferential nucleation of new grains, balanced against conventional thermal diffusion and normal growth mechanisms at higher temperatures. The absence of effects due to applied substrate bias suggests that physical sputtering or ion bombardment effects were minimal. The nanostructured platelet and pillar films were found to exhibit less than one percent reflectivity at angles up to 75° from the surface normal.

  8. The palladium-catalyzed synthesis of organic amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Michele C., 1975-

    2002-01-01

    Chapter 1. The chelating ligand bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl] ether (DPEphos), in combination with palladium acetate, forms a highly active catalyst system for the coupling of anilines with aryl bromides. The bisphosphine ...

  9. Capturing fleeting intermediates in a catalytic CH amination reaction cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    for the mechanistic study of catalytic processes. mass spectrometry | transient intermediates | C­H oxidation | catalysis Catalytic methods for selective C­H oxidation rely on the exquisite choreography of a series oxidant (4, 5, 11). The fast rates of the on- and off-path steps in this catalytic process

  10. Future of the Grid Massoud Amin*, D.Sc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    Distributions: Frequency & impacts of major disasters Hurricane and Earthquake Losses 1900­1989 Flood Losses Hurricanes D = ­0.98 Earthquakes D = ­0.41 Floods D = ­0.74 Model Data Outages Once per century 1 10 100 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 MW Lost NumberofOccurrences 1991 ­ 1995 Outages · 66 Occurrences over 100 MW

  11. On Cyber Security for Networked Control Systems Saurabh Amin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    random failures and secu- rity attacks. Cyber-security of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA, cyber-security assessment for SCADA systems is performed based on well-defined attacker and defender objectives. The mathematical model of SCADA systems considered in this work has two control levels

  12. High frequency titration of amines in nonaqueous solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witmer, William Byron

    1958-01-01

    Frequency ? 0. 01870 0. ?i0 0. 5 1. 0 1. 5 2. 0 Titrant Volume (ln mllliliters) 2. 5' 5. 0 27 TABLE VIII Summary of Hesults Base Normality by Normality by Deviation in Methyl Violet High Frequency Parts per End Point End Point Thousand n-Pr opy1...

  13. Inhibition of Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolases by Ureas, Amides, and Amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    and University of California Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, California 95616 Received August 11 pregnancies (13). Over the past decade, mEH was also described as mediating the transport of bile acid

  14. Catalytic Modification of Polymers: Hydrogenation Routes to Amine Functional Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    including ion exchange resin, waste water treatment, paper sizing cosmetic products, pharmaceutical of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 Department of Chemistry North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695 Waste water treatment Hair care products Ion exchange resin Paper sizing Motor oil additives Applications

  15. SO2-Resistant Immobilized Amine Sorbents for CO2 Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein1-0845*RV 14800Small AngleSNL&BAMn n u a l r

  16. Regenerable Sorbent Technique for Capturing CO2 Using Immobilized Amine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * ImpactsandRegarding Confinement Resonances Print When an

  17. Simple benign aqueous-based amination of polycarbonate surfaces. (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference) |Janka,FerraraTechnologiesShining Light

  18. self-concentrating-amine | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLosThe 26thI D- 6 0 4 2 r m m m mrofoxschoolEPAct2005 Section

  19. Furanic Modified Amine-based Curatives - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journal Article)Forthcoming UpgradesArea: PADDProfessionalsFundingIndustrial

  20. Selective removal of carbonyl sulfide from a hydrogen sulfide containing gas mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souby, M.C.

    1990-12-25

    This patent describes a process for the selective removal of carbonyl sulfide from a gas mixture also comprising hydrogen sulfide. It comprises contacting the gas mixture with an absorbent comprising from about 35% w to about 55% w of a tertiary amine; from about 5% w to about 15% w of water, and the balance being a physical co-solvent; regenerating the loaded absorbent to remove substantially all of the carbonyl sulfide and most of the hydrogen sulfide to provide a lean absorbent containing hydrogen sulfide in an amount of 0.2% w to 2% w; and recycling the lean absorbent to the contacting step.

  1. Removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Torsten; Riemann, Christian; Bartling, Karsten; Rigby, Sean Taylor; Coleman, Luke James Ivor; Lail, Marty Alan

    2014-04-08

    A process for removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream, such as flue gas, comprising: providing a non-aqueous absorption liquid containing at least one hydrophobic amine, the liquid being incompletely miscible with water; treating the fluid stream in an absorption zone with the non-aqueous absorption liquid to transfer at least part of the sulphur oxides into the non-aqueous absorption liquid and to form a sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex; causing the non-aqueous absorption liquid to be in liquid-liquid contact with an aqueous liquid whereby at least part of the sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex is hydrolyzed to release the hydrophobic amine and sulphurous hydrolysis products, and at least part of the sulphurous hydrolysis products is transferred into the aqueous liquid; separating the aqueous liquid from the non-aqueous absorption liquid. The process mitigates absorbent degradation problems caused by sulphur dioxide and oxygen in flue gas.

  2. Chemical vapor deposition of fluorine-doped zinc oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G. (Cambridge, MA); Kramer, Keith (Avon Lake, OH); Liang, Haifan (Santa Clara, CA)

    2000-06-06

    Fims of fluorine-doped zinc oxide are deposited from vaporized precursor compounds comprising a chelate of a dialkylzinc, such as an amine chelate, an oxygen source, and a fluorine source. The coatings are highly electrically conductive, transparent to visible light, reflective to infrared radiation, absorbing to ultraviolet light, and free of carbon impurity.

  3. CX-003442: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture for Existing Post-Combustion Boilers by Self-Concentrating Amine AbsorbentCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 08/16/2010Location(s): Lexington, KentuckyOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  4. CX-003443: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture for Existing Post-Combustion Boilers by Self-Concentrating Amine AbsorbentCX(s) Applied: A9, A11, A14Date: 08/16/2010Location(s): San Francisco, CaliforniaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  5. MassverfringochSeparationsteknik Mass transfer and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    stripping Picture: SA05 Natural gas + CO2 Liquid solvent for example alkanol amine Natural gas Liquid): contacting a gas mixture with a liquid (the "absorbent" or "solvent") in order to selectively dissolve one (or more) components from the gas in the liquid Stripping (or: desorption) is the opposite process

  6. Method and system for capturing carbon dioxide and/or sulfur dioxide from gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xinglei

    2014-07-08

    The present invention provides a system for capturing CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 absorber comprising an amine and/or amino acid salt capable of absorbing the CO.sub.2 and/or SO.sub.2 to produce a CO.sub.2- and/or SO.sub.2-containing solution; (b) an amine regenerator to regenerate the amine and/or amino acid salt; and, when the system captures CO.sub.2, (c) an alkali metal carbonate regenerator comprising an ammonium catalyst capable catalyzing the aqueous alkali metal bicarbonate into the alkali metal carbonate and CO.sub.2 gas. The present invention also provides for a system for capturing SO.sub.2, comprising: (a) a SO.sub.2 absorber comprising aqueous alkali metal carbonate, wherein the alkali metal carbonate is capable of absorbing the SO.sub.2 to produce an alkali metal sulfite/sulfate precipitate and CO.sub.2.

  7. Acoustic wave propagation and stochastic effects in metamaterial absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, J. Willatzen, M.

    2014-07-28

    We show how stochastic variations of the effective parameters of anisotropic structured metamaterials can lead to increased absorption of sound. For this, we derive an analytical model based on the Bourret approximation and illustrate the immediate connection between material disorder and attenuation of the averaged field. We demonstrate numerically that broadband absorption persists at oblique irradiation and that the influence of red noise comprising short spatial correlation lengths increases the absorption beyond what can be archived with a structured but ordered system.

  8. Exotensioned structural members with energy-absorbing effects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brockwell, Michael Ian

    2014-01-07

    Structural members having enhanced load bearing capacity per unit mass include a skeleton structure formed from strips of material. Notches may be placed on the strips and a weave of tensile material placed in the notches and woven around the skeleton structure. At least one pair of structural members can be jointed together to provide very strong joints due to a weave patterns of tensile material, such as Kevlar, that distributes stress throughout the structure, preventing stress from concentrating in one area. Methods of manufacturing such structural members include molding material into skeletons of desired cross section using a matrix of molding segments. Total catastrophic failures in composite materials are substantially avoided and the strength to weight ratio of structures can be increased.

  9. MHK Technologies/Oxygen Releasing and Carbon Absorbing Ocean...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of environmental destruction and visual impairment with minimal impact on commercial fishing and recreation uses 5 fostering the development of a new maritime and energy industry...

  10. Broadband perfect absorber based on one ultrathin layer of refractory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Contract Number: AC02-06CH11357 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Optics Letters Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 40; Journal Issue: 11; Journal...

  11. Avalanche behavior absorbing state Oslo model Kim Christensen* Nicholas Moloney

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christensen, Kim

    , Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 United Kingdom Gunnar Pruessner § Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, Queen's Gate, London SW7 United Kingdom (Received 2004; published the activity, presence avalanches, transports slope particles through system to boundaries where eventually dis

  12. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2014-06-10

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  13. Understanding How Semiconductors Absorb Light | U.S. DOE Office...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    & Resources Contact Information Advanced Scientific Computing Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-21Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301)...

  14. Effective Optical Properties of Non-Absorbing Nanoporous Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Matthew M.; Pilon, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    C. J. Brinker, Self- assembled aerogel-like low dielectricCharacterization of thin-?lm aerogel porosity and sti?nessDielectric properties of aerogels, J. Mater. Res. 8 (7) (

  15. BACKSCATTER GUAGE DESCRIPTION FOR INSPECTION OF NEUTRON ABSORBER AND UNIFORMITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewberry, R.; Gibbs, K.; Couture, A.

    2012-05-23

    This paper describes design, calibration, and testing of a dual He-3 detector neutron backscatter gauge for use in the Savannah River Site Mixed Oxide Fuel project. The gauge is demonstrated to measure boron content and uniformity in concrete slabs used in the facility construction.

  16. STRONGLY SELF-ABSORBING C -ALGEBRAS 0. Introduction ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-04-06

    Mar 20, 2007 ... Nuclear C?-algebras, K-theory, classification. The first author was supported by an NSERC Postdoctoral Fellowship, and the second author.

  17. Absorbent products for urinary/faecal incontinence: a comparative evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    volume. Payment methods Paying by cheque If you pay by cheque, the cheque must be in pounds sterling, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK 5 Department

  18. PICOSECOND PULSE SHORTENING USING DYE #5 AS A SATURABLE ABSORBER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    G.H.C. New, "Ultrashort pulse measure- ments", Proc. IEEE,of single picosecond pulses", Opt~ Commun. , vol. Z, pp.h)Lpicosecond light pulses'], Appl. Pbys. Lett. , vol;~ll,-

  19. The Static Absorbing Model for Hyperlink Analysis on the Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plachouras, V.; Ounis, I.

    Plachouras,V. Ounis,I. Amati,G. Journal of Web Engineering, In press, To appear in 2005, Rinton Press (Princeton, New Jersey); ISSN: 1540-9589

  20. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert James; O'Brien, Michael Joseph

    2015-12-29

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides a composition which contains the amino-siloxane structures I, or III, as described herein. The composition is useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from process streams. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane composition. Another aspect of the present invention provides methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention, as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide.

  1. Carbon dioxide absorbent and method of using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Robert James (Niskayuna, NY); Lewis, Larry Neil (Scotia, NY); O'Brien, Michael Joseph (Clifton Park, NY); Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev (Latham, NY); Kniajanski, Sergei (Clifton Park, NY); Lam, Tunchiao Hubert (Clifton Park, NY); Lee, Julia Lam (Niskayuna, NY); Rubinsztajn, Malgorzata Iwona (Ballston Spa, NY)

    2011-10-04

    In accordance with one aspect, the present invention provides an amino-siloxane composition comprising at least one of structures I, II, III, IV or V said compositions being useful for the capture of carbon dioxide from gas streams such as power plant flue gases. In addition, the present invention provides methods of preparing the amino-siloxane compositions are provided. Also provided are methods for reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in a process stream employing the amino-siloxane compositions of the invention as species which react with carbon dioxide to form an adduct with carbon dioxide. The reaction of the amino-siloxane compositions provided by the present invention with carbon dioxide is reversible and thus, the method provides for multicycle use of said compositions.

  2. Zones, Contracts and Absorbing Change: An Approach to Software Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, J.H.

    Evans,J.H. Dickman,P.W. Proceedings of OOPSLA'99 (ACM Conference on Object Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages and Applications). Published as ACM SigPlan Notices. Volume 34 No. 10 pp 415-433 ACM Press

  3. Fiber optic moisture sensor with moisture-absorbing reflective target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirkham, Randy R. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

  4. Absorbent Protein Meal Based Hydrogels - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsicloudden Documentation DataStreamsTotalproposalsAbout SAGEAbout theAboutN ERSC

  5. Center for Inverse Design Highlight: Iron Chalcogenide PV Absorbers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMay 1,Center OrganizationInfrared

  6. Study reveals urban smoke absorbs sunlight, exacerbating climate warming

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopment TopMetathesis and Oxidation ofSpotlight

  7. Ultraviolet Absorber UV-770 Market Analysis | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (Utility Company) JumpGTZ Climate Oriented Mobility JumpAnalysis Home

  8. Ultraviolet Absorber UV-770 Market Research | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (Utility Company) JumpGTZ Climate Oriented Mobility JumpAnalysis

  9. Ultraviolet Absorber UV-770 Market Size | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (Utility Company) JumpGTZ Climate Oriented Mobility JumpAnalysis

  10. Ultraviolet Absorber UV-770 Market | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (Utility Company) JumpGTZ Climate Oriented Mobility JumpAnalysisMarket

  11. MHK Technologies/Floating absorber | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050Enermar < MHK Technologies JumpDuck Type

  12. MHK Technologies/Oxygen Releasing and Carbon Absorbing Ocean Based

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050Enermar <OMI CombinedOsprey < MHK

  13. MHK Technologies/Trondheim Point Absorber | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050Enermar <OMIS DTocardo < MHK

  14. MHK Technologies/WEGA wave energy gravitational absorber | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource HistoryScenarios Towards 2050Enermar <OMIS DTocardo <Cross

  15. Possible demonstration of ionization cooling using absorbers in a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding accessusers' guide.representationComplexsamearrayssolenoidal field

  16. OpenEI Community - Ultraviolet Absorber UV-770 Market

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly Smart Grid Data available for download onst, 2012

  17. OpenEI Community - Ultraviolet Absorber UV-770 Market Analysis

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly Smart Grid Data available for download onst, 2012

  18. OpenEI Community - Ultraviolet Absorber UV-770 Market Research

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly Smart Grid Data available for download onst, 2012

  19. OpenEI Community - Ultraviolet Absorber UV-770 Market Size

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII JumpQuarterly Smart Grid Data available for download onst, 2012

  20. Reactions of the tridentate and tetradentate amine ligands di-(2-picolyl)(N-ethyl)amine and 2,5-bis-(2-pyridylmethyl)-2,5 diazohexane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Peter

    in Real Time ­ made by IonSense) ion source. ESI condition: Drying gas (N2) at 30 psi, heated to 230 °C(NO)Cl(py-N(Et)-py)]. The reaction of the Tc(I) nitrosyl complex [Tc(NO)Cl2(HOMe)(PPh3)2] with this tridentate ligand yields cationic. The reaction of [Tc(NO)Cl2(HOMe)(PPh3)2] with the tetradentate ligand 1,4-bis-(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4-diazobutane

  1. Process for the selective removal of hydrogen sulphide and carbonyl sulfide from light hydrocarbon gases containing carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, W.V.

    1988-06-07

    A process for the selective removal of H/sub 2/S and COS from a gas containing light hydrocarbons, H/sub 2/S, COS and CO/sub 2/, is described which comprises in a one step absorption, at treatment conditions, contacting the gas stream with a solvent stream consisting essentially of: (i) water, (ii) a bridgehead amine comprising a bicyclo tertiary amine or a bicyclo amidine to selectively hydrolyze the COS to H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, (iii) a tertiary amine to selectively absorb the H/sub 2/S and to selectively exclude from absorption the CO/sub 2/ in the gas stream and the CO/sub 2/ produced by the hydrolysis of the COS, and (iv) a physical solvent acceptable for COS absorption wherein two streams are formed comprising: (1) a light hydrocarbon and CO/sub 2/-containing stream having 1 ppm to about 200 ppm H/sub 2/S and having 1 ppm COS to about 10 ppm COS and (2) a solvent stream rich in H/sub 2/S, water, tertiary amine and the bridgehead amine.

  2. Palladium/kieselguhr composition and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosley, W.C. Jr.

    1993-09-28

    A hydrogen-absorbing composition and method for making such a composition are described. The composition comprises a metal hydride, preferably palladium, deposited onto a porous substrate such as kieselguhr, for use in hydrogen-absorbing processes. The composition is made by immersing a substrate in a concentrated solution containing palladium, such as tetra-amine palladium nitrate. Palladium from the solution is deposited onto the porous substrate, which is preferably in the form of kieselguhr particles. The substrate is then removed from the solution, calcined, and heat treated. This process is repeated until the desired amount of palladium has been deposited onto the substrate.

  3. Palladium/kieselguhr composition and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosley, Jr., Wilbur C. (202 Fairway Dr., New Ellenton, SC 29809)

    1993-01-01

    A hydrogen-absorbing composition and method for making such a composition. The composition comprises a metal hydride, preferably palladium, deposited onto a porous substrate such as kieselguhr, for use in hydrogen-absorbing processes. The composition is made by immersing a substrate in a concentrated solution containing palladium, such as tetra-amine palladium nitrate. Palladium from the solution is deposited onto the porous substrate, which is preferably in the form of kieselguhr particles. The substrate is then removed from the solution, calcined, and heat treated. This process is repeated until the desired amount of palladium has been deposited onto the substrate.

  4. BIOCHEMISTRY OF SNAKE VENOM NEUROTOXINS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO THE STUDY OF THE SYNAPSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanley, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    arg modification by hydroxyl- amine restoration of lysrestoration of lys by hydroxyl- amine treatment (45). When

  5. NMR chemical shifts in amino acids: Effects of environments, electric field, and amine group rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Young-Gui; Pfrommer, Bernd G.; Louie, Steven G.; Canning, Andrew

    2002-03-03

    The authors present calculations of NMR chemical shifts in crystalline phases of some representative amino acids such as glycine, alanine, and alanyl-alanine. To get an insight on how different environments affect the chemical shifts, they study the transition from the crystalline phase to completely isolated molecules of glycine. In the crystalline limit, the shifts are dominated by intermolecular hydrogen-bonds. In the molecular limit, however, dipole electric field effects dominate the behavior of the chemical shifts. They show that it is necessary to average the chemical shifts in glycine over geometries. Tensor components are analyzed to get the angle dependent proton chemical shifts, which is a more refined characterization method.

  6. Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation from Primary Aliphatic Amines with Nitrate Radical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malloy, Q G J; Qi, L; Warren, B; Cocker III, D R; Erupe, M E; Silva, P J

    2009-01-01

    Manahan, S. E. : Environmental Chemistry, 4th Ed. , Lewis,Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT), Riverside, CA, USA 3 Department of Chemistry

  7. Automatic Arabic Document Categorization Based on the Nave Bayes Algorithm Mohamed EL KOURDI Amine BENSAID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachidi, Tajje-eddine

    This paper deals with automatic classification of Arabic web documents. Such a classification is very useful that the overall classification accuracy achieved over all categories is 62%, and that the best result by category a crucial task to satisfy the needs of different end users. To this end, automatic text categorization has

  8. 182 28th ANNUAL eMS Sorption and Desorption of Quaternary Amine Cations on Clays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    . L. Sparks Dent of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19717 The1ldsorption. (1970). Clays Clay Miner., 18,203-212. 3. Greenland, D.J. and J.P. Quirk. (1964) J. Soil ScL, 15, 178.A., P.R. Jaffe, and C.T. Chiou. (1990). Environ. Sci. Techno!., 24, 1167-1172. 6. Cadena, F. and R

  9. Review of Technologies for Low-Cost Integrated Amin Rida, Vasileios Lakafosis, Rushi Vyas, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    the usability of such method: UHF RFID-enabled temperature sensor, Zigbee wireless module for location finding as zigbee), which allows that. A wireless sensor is a device that combines the capabilities of a sensor

  10. The effects of lime and amines on the aging of asphalts and recycling agents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisneski, Mary Luvola

    1995-01-01

    , and AAF-F3. The experiments were designed and performed to study the oxidation rates, the hardening rates, the hardening susceptibilities, and if possible, the prediction of the critical times for pavement failure due to the hardening of the asphalt...

  11. Hunting Mice with Microsecond Circuit Switches Nathan Farrington, George Porter, Yeshaiahu Fainman, George Papen, Amin Vahdat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahdat, Amin

    . While this hybrid approach does reduce CAPEX and OPEX, it still relies on having a well of such hybrid networks is that they provide increased amounts of bisection bandwidth with lower CAPEX and OPEX

  12. Monocyclic aromatic amines as potential human carcinogens: old is new again

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skipper, Paul L.

    Alkylanilines are a group of chemicals whose ubiquitous presence in the environment is a result of the multitude of sources from which they originate. Exposure assessments indicate that most individuals experience lifelong ...

  13. Environmental Analysis of the Coal-based Power Production with Amine-based Carbon Capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Energy Research, Fuel Cells (IEF-3) 2) Institute of Energy Research, Systems Analysis and Technology in the year of installation and in the ability and efficiency to capture CO2. The plants are characterized by the expected efficiency parameters for the year 2020: (1) Coal plant2005: pulverized coal power plant already

  14. Use of Atomic Force Microscopy Force Measurements To Monitor Citrate Displacement by Amines on Gold in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    Special Research Centre, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia, and CSIRO Division of Chemicals and Polymers, Private Bag 10, Rosebank MDC, Clayton, Victoria 3169, Australia Received January 9 in clean, covered petri dishes in a laminar flow hood and rinsed with AR grade ethanol and blown dry

  15. 30 IEEE power & energy magazine july/august 2004 by Massoud Amin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    /august 2004 IEEE power & energy magazine 31 O OUR NATIONAL SECURITY AND DIGITAL ECONOMY PLACE INCREASED DEMAND dramatic transformation as its key participants--the traditional electric utilities

  16. Mechanistic studies of hydrogen evolution in aqueous solution catalyzed by a tertpyridine-amine cobalt complex

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lewandowska-Andralojc, Anna; Baine, Teera; Zhao, Xuan; Muckerman, James T.; Fujita, Etsuko; Poyansky, Dmitry E.

    2015-04-22

    The ability of cobalt-based transition metal complexes to catalyze electrochemical proton reduction to produce molecular hydrogen has resulted in a large number of mechanistic studies involving various cobalt complexes. In addition, while the basic mechanism of proton reduction promoted by cobalt species is well understood, the reactivity of certain reaction intermediates, such as CoI and CoIII–H, is still relatively unknown owing to their transient nature, especially in aqueous media. In this work we investigate the properties of intermediates produced during catalytic proton reduction in aqueous solutions promoted by the [(DPA-Bpy)Co(OH?)]n+ (DPA-Bpy = N,N-bis(2-pyridinylmethyl)-2,20-bipyridine-6-methanamine) complex ([Co(L)(OH?)]n+ where L is the pentadentatemore »DPA-Bpy ligand or [Co(OH?)]n+ as a shorthand). Experimental results based on transient pulse radiolysis and laser flash photolysis methods, together with electrochemical studies and supported by DFT calculations indicate that, while the water ligand is strongly coordinated to the metal center in the oxidation state 3+, one-electron reduction of the complex to form a CoII species results in weakening the Co–O bond. The further reduction to a CoI species leads to the loss of the aqua ligand and the formation of [CoI–VS)]? (VS = vacant site). Interestingly, DFT calculations also predict the existence of a [CoI(??-L)(OH?)]? species at least transiently, and its formation is consistent with the experimental Pourbaix diagram. Both electrochemical and kinetics results indicate that the CoI species must undergo some structural change prior to accepting the proton, and this transformation represents the rate-determining step (RDS) in the overall formation of [CoIII–H]?. We propose that this RDS may originate from the slow removal of a solvent ligand in the intermediate [CoI(??-L)(OH?)]? in addition to the significant structural reorganization of the metal complex and surrounding solvent resulting in a high free energy of activation.« less

  17. Secure Control: Towards Survivable Cyber-Physical Systems Alvaro A. Cardenas Saurabh Amin Shankar Sastry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Fei

    the role of existing ones ­such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. s1 s3 s2 s4 irreparable harm to the physical system being controlled and to people who depend on it. SCADA systems of the effort for protecting CPS systems (and SCADA in particular) has been done in reliability (the protection

  18. Bounded Model Checking and Feature Omission Amin Alipour and Alex Groce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groce, Alex David

    counterexample to the system, in which case BMC verification implies system correctness. of model checking runs model checking, based on parallel runs over versions of a system in which features have been randomly. INTRODUCTION Model checking [5] is a technique for formal verification, which inspects all reachable states

  19. The Role of Biogenic Amines and Dopamine Receptors in Envenomation by the Parasitoid Wasp Ampulex compressa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banks, Christopher Neil

    2010-01-01

    Rev Entomol 49: 299-330. Beggs, K. T. , I. S. Hamilton, etNature 377(6548): 424-8. Beggs, K. T. , I. S. Hamilton, et1998; Mustard et al. 2003; Beggs et al. 2005), Bombyx mori (

  20. Frequency and patterns of abnormality detected by iodine-123 amine emission CT after cerebral infarction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brott, T.G.; Gelfand, M.J.; Williams, C.C.; Spilker, J.A.; Hertzberg, V.S.

    1986-03-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed in 31 patients with cerebral infarction and 13 who had had transient ischemic attacks, using iodine-123-labeled N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-(2-hydroxyl-3-methyl-5-iodobenzyl)-1,3-propanediamin e (I-123-HIPDM) as the radiopharmaceutical. SPECT scans were compared with computed tomographic (CT) scans. SPECT was as sensitive as CT in detecting cerebral infarction (94% vs. 84%). The abnormalities were larger on the SPECT scans than on the CT scans in 19 cases, equal in seven, and smaller in five (SPECT abnormalities greater than or equal to CT abnormalities in 86% of cases). Fifteen of 30 patients with hemispheric infarction had decreased perfusion (decreased uptake of I-123-HIPDM) to the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to the cerebral hemisphere involved by the infarction (crossed cerebellar diaschisis). Nine of these 15 patients had major motor deficits, while only one of the 15 without crossed cerebellar diaschisis had a major motor deficit.