Sample records for american crystal sugar

  1. american crystal sugar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2002 American Society of Plant Biologists Sugar Sensing and Signaling in Plants Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Biologists Sugar Sensing and Signaling in...

  2. Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols (Presentation) Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen...

  3. Partnership Sugar Beet Growers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    production areas this year. Some locations received torrential early season rainfall which induced a varietyPartnership of: Sugar Beet Growers Michigan Sugar Company Monitor Sugar Company Michigan State the negatives, the industry still harvested an average of approximately 18-tons per acre and 18% sugar. Improved

  4. Blood Sugar and Brothers' Voices: An Exploratory Study Of The Self-Care Management Experiences of African-American Men Living With Type 2 Diabetes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Ledric D

    2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    - dependent diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes (ADA, 2011). xi TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................. ii...-Americans, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders (ADA, 2011). Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes According the 2010 Center for Disease Control and Prevention estimated figures, 25.8 million people in the United States aged 20 years and older are affected...

  5. CSP Cream Sugar Copris CSP Cream Sugar Copris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    CSP Cream Sugar Copris : 2011 6 6 2011 8 22 2012 6 24 2014 5 19 : #12;CSP Cream Sugar Copris 1 2 3 Cream Java OpenOffice.org Calc 4 Sugar SAT Scala : #12;CSP Cream Sugar Copris : #12;CSP Cream Sugar Copris (CSP) (CSP; Constraint Satisfaction Problem) (X, D, C) X: (variable) D: x X (domain) ( : D

  6. Sugars tied to the spot 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flitsch, Sabine L; Ulijn, Rein V

    2003-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The interactions of sugars and proteins underlie many biological processes, and cataloguing them is a daunting task. A technique for attaching sugars to microarrays offers a promising, high-throughput solution.

  7. african american health: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    skin Pichon, Latrice Crystal 2008-01-01 15 of October 2002 African Americans Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Injustice Air Injustice of October 2002 African Americans & Power...

  8. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  9. Designing the Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang, Dexter W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder compresses carbonized sugar cane into charcoal briquettes. that are environmentally-friendly and comparable to wood charcoal in burn performance, cost, and durability. Originally developed ...

  10. SAT Sugar Scala SAT ( ) SAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    (Domain-Specific Language) Scala Sugar 1 (CSP; Constraint Satisfaction Prob- lem) (COP; Constraint Optmization Problem) [3][7] CSP (constraint programming) CSP CSP (constraint mod- eling language) CSP, Kobe University. Mutsunori Banbara, , In- formation Science and Technology Center, Kobe University. CSP

  11. Weed Control Research in Sugar Beets.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiese, A. F.; Scott, P. R.; Lavake, D. E.; Winter, S. R.; Owen, D. F.

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . F. Owen* Total sugar beet acreage in the Texas Panhandle Service, Bushland; Holly Sugar Corporation, has paried from 20,000 to 40,000 acres since Holly Hereford; Texas Tech Center, Pantex; and farmers in Sugar Corporation started operations... in 1964. the Panhandle. : Ineffective weed control methods and high hoeing ' costs, excessive nitrogen fertilization, and leaf spot Preplant Incorporation I disease have created problems for sugar beet The effectiveness of preplant herbicides...

  12. Sugar Competition Results Discussion Future Sugar: A SAT-based CSP Solver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Sugar Competition Results Discussion Future . . . .. . . Sugar: A SAT-based CSP Solver --Results summary of the 3rd intertional CSP solver competition-- Naoyuki Tamura, Tomoya Tanjo, Mutsunori Banbara-based CSP Solver --Results summary of #12;Sugar Competition Results Discussion Future Outline .. Sugar CSP

  13. Checking Your Blood Sugar The only way to be sure your blood sugar is "just right" is to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Checking Your Blood Sugar The only way to be sure your blood sugar is "just right" is to check it. Your blood sugar can be high and you may feel fine. If your blood sugar is high, it is damaging your blood vessels and hurting your body, even if you feel fine. #12; How can you check your blood sugar? One

  14. Increasing Sugar Yields with IL-final-sm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ionic Liquid Processing Increasing sugar yields from diverse biomass feedstock with ionic liquid processing and cultivation of renewable ionic liquids Liberating Sugars from...

  15. amino sugar fraction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Challenge It is necessary to overlap communications and computation to obtain strong performance Sugar, Robert 19 Sugars tied to the spot Edinburgh, University of - Research...

  16. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  17. Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    of sugars in high quantities at low costs from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks (4, 5

  18. Sugar Transport and Metabolism in Thermotoga

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noll, Kenneth M.; Romano, Antonio H.

    2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The work conducted under this grant demonstrated that the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana carries out glucose and lactose transport in a sodium-dependent manner and that energization of anaerobic cells is required to observe transport. We also demonstrated that Thermotoga maritima carries out maltose and glucose transport using periplasmic sugar binding proteins. We began defining patterns of expression of genes encoding sugar transport and catabolic functions in both T. maritima and T. neapolitana. We began a collaborative effort to identify all the genes regulated at the transcriptional level in response to sugars substrates. These funds also allowed us to begin an examination of the functions of several periplasmic substrate binding proteins encoded in the genome of T. maritima.

  19. Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    at Virent, Inc. in Madison developed new cost-effective methods to produce hydrogen from renewable resources like biomass-derived sugar and sugar alcohols. Hydrogen can be used...

  20. Analysis of Biomass Sugars Using a Novel HPLC Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agblevor, F. A.; Hames, B. R.; Schell, D.; Chum, H. L.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The precise quantitative analysis of biomass sugars is a very important step in the conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuels and chemicals. However, the most accurate method of biomass sugar analysis is based on the gas chromatography analysis of derivatized sugars either as alditol acetates or trimethylsilanes. The derivatization method is time consuming but the alternative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method cannot resolve most sugars found in biomass hydrolysates. We have demonstrated for the first time that by careful manipulation of the HPLC mobile phase, biomass monomeric sugars (arabinose, xylose, fructose, glucose, mannose, and galactose) can be analyzed quantitatively and there is excellent baseline resolution of all the sugars. This method was demonstrated for standard sugars, pretreated corn stover liquid and solid fractions. Our method can also be used to analyze dimeric sugars (cellobiose and sucrose).

  1. For the topping : 3 Tablespoons sugar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    together the egg, milk, yogurt, oil and lemon peel. 3. Sift the flour, sugar, baking powder and salt onto. 7. Allow the cake to cool in the baking pan on a wire rack for at least 10 minutes. 8. Serve warm

  2. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raines, Ronald T.

    Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass Joseph B. Binder and Ronald T. Raines1 19, 2009) Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels of biomass into monosaccharides. Add- ing water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic

  3. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and methods of making propylene glycol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  4. Hydrogenolysis Of 5-Carbon Sugars, Sugar Alcohols And Compositions For Reactions Involving Hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA); Miller, Dennis J. (Okemos, MI)

    2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  5. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and other methods and compositions for reactions involving hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2002-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  6. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Mc Cutchen, Carol M. (Wilmington, DE); Li; Xu (Newark, DE); Emptage, Mark (Wilmington, DE); Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO)

    2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  7. What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that causes you to have high blood sugar.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that causes you to have high blood sugar. DIABETES IS HIGH BLOOD SUGAR We all have sugar in our blood. When you have diabetes you have too much sugar in your blood muscles can then use sugar for fuel. Insulin keeps blood sugar in balance. #12; If you have diabetes

  8. Japanese Sugar Cane as a Forage Crop.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leidigh, A. H. (Arthur Henry); McNess, George Thomas; Laude, H. H. (Hilmer Henry)

    1916-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STAT10 N BULLETIN NO. 195 AUGUST, 1916 DIVISION OF AGRONOMY JAPANESE SUGAR CANE AS A FORAGE CROP BY A. H. LEIDIGH, B. S., Agronomist, IN CONSULTATION WITH G. T. McNESS, Superintendent, Substation No. 11, Nacogdoches, and H. H.... LAUDE, B. S., Superintendenr, Substation No. 4, Beaumont I POSTOFFICE: COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS AUSTIN, TEXAS VON BOECKMANN-JONES CO., PRINTERS 1916 AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, A. hq.. D. C. L...

  9. Steps taken at Malelane refinery to improve refined sugar quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Moodley; Pm Schorn

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The refinery at Malelane has in the past produced refined sugar for the consumer market. A decision was taken by the management of Transvaal Sugar (TSB) to produce a quality of refined sugar that would also be acceptable to the industrial and the export markets. The processes that were evaluated and implemented at the Malelane refinery during the past three seasons to achieve this objective, are described.

  10. Gayatri Sugars Ltd GSL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFifeGEXAGarnet VRX sro JumpGayatri Sugars Ltd GSL Jump

  11. Sugar and splice | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructure of All-Polymer. .Energy Conversion | ANSERNERSC TodaySugar

  12. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with...

  13. aluminium reduces sugar: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mutsunori Banbara, , In- formation Science and Technology Center, Kobe University. CSP Banbara, Mutsunori 36 Designing the Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder MIT - DSpace Summary:...

  14. Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing July 30, 2014 Bryna Berendzen Technology Manager BETO Conversion...

  15. acyl sugar production: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Association- JunelJuIy 1975 QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF SUGARS IN FACTORY PRODUCTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY USING CiteSeer Summary: Glucose, fructose, sucrose and kestose in a...

  16. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons...

  17. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  18. Original article Sugar profiles and conductivity of stingless bee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Sugar profiles and conductivity of stingless bee honeys from Venezuela S Bogdanov, Venezuela (Received 12 March 1996; accepted 27 July 1996) Summary — The HPLC sugar profiles and the conductivity of 42 stingless bee honey samples from Venezuela were determined. Three of the honey types were

  19. Liquid crystal variable retarders in atomic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furst, J.E.; Yu, D.H.; Hayes, P.A.; DSouza, C.M.; Williams, J.F. [Physics Department, Centre for Atomic, Molecular, and Surface Physics, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands. WA. 6907 (Australia)] [Physics Department, Centre for Atomic, Molecular, and Surface Physics, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands. WA. 6907 (Australia)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The applications of liquid crystal variable retarders in the production of spin-polarized electrons and in the determination of the polarization of optical radiation from atoms excited by polarized electrons are discussed. The advantages of using liquid crystal variable retarders in the measurement of Stokes parameters are insensitivity to the incident photon direction, large transmission diameter, variable retardation over large wavelength range without mechanical movement, and {ital in} {ital situ} calibration. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. 1 American Studies AMERICAN STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos

    1 American Studies AMERICAN STUDIES An innovative department with 15 core faculty and 12 affiliated of culture, ideas and religious beliefs; the development and transformation of public cultures and spaces. Topics include the civil rights movement, the student movement, the Vietnam War, and the counterculture

  1. Sugar Sensing and Signaling in Plants: Conserved and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheen, Jen

    ; email: filip.rolland@bio.kuleuven.be 2 Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114; email: baena. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 686 Cell Surface Receptors. . . . . . . . . . . . 688 MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF SUGAR REGULATION

  2. Gustatory Perception of Sugars in Drosophila melanogaster Larvae 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broussard, Alex 1991-

    2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Drosophila melanogaster larvae have historically been targeted as favorable models for the study of chemosensation and chemosensory learning due to the relative simplicity of their neuroanatomy. Sugars are traditionally used as a ‘reward...

  3. Sugar Nucleotide Regeneration Beads (Superbeads): A Versatile Tool for the Practical Synthesis of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xi

    Sugar Nucleotide Regeneration Beads (Superbeads): A Versatile Tool for the Practical Synthesis of a specific sugar from its sugar-nucleotide donor to an acceptor with high regio- and stereoselectivity of this methodology is the high cost of necessary sugar nucleotides. So far the best solution is either using multiple

  4. Hydrogenolysis of 6-carbon sugars and other organic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Miller, Dennis J.

    2005-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for hydrogenolysis are described which use a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst for hydrogenolysis of both C--O and C--C bonds. Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 6-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or glycerol are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol.

  5. High pressure water jet cutting of sugar cane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valco, Thomas Donald

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HIGH PRESSURE WATER JET CUTTING OF SUGAR CANE A Thesis by THOMAS DONALD VALCO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject...: Agricultural Engineering HIGH PRESSURE WATER JET CUTTING OF SUGAR CANE A Thesis by THOMAS DONALD VALCO Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Charlie G. Coble (Chairman of Committee) Dr. Edward A. Haler (Head of Department) Mr. William H. Aldred...

  6. Optomechanical Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eichenfield, Matt; Camacho, Ryan M; Vahala, Kerry J; Painter, Oskar

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structured, periodic optical materials can be used to form photonic crystals capable of dispersing, routing, and trapping light. A similar phenomena in periodic elastic structures can be used to manipulate mechanical vibrations. Here we present the design and experimental realization of strongly coupled optical and mechanical modes in a planar, periodic nanostructure on a silicon chip. 200-Terahertz photons are co-localized with mechanical modes of Gigahertz frequency and 100-femtogram mass. The effective coupling length, which describes the strength of the photon-phonon interaction, is as small as 2.9 microns, which, together with minute oscillator mass, allows all-optical actuation and transduction of nanomechanical motion with near quantum-limited sensitivity. Optomechanical crystals have many potential applications, from RF-over-optical communication to the study of quantum effects in mesoscopic mechanical systems.

  7. Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

  8. I. Chapter 5 Summary A. Simple Sugars (CH2O)n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Terry

    Condense r Cold water Cooled water containing organic molecules Sample for chemical analysis H2O "seaGlucose Glucose 1­4 glycosidic linkage Figure 5.5a: Disaccharides Table Sugar Glucose-Fructose Milk Sugar

  9. Metalloenzyme-like Catalyzed Isomerizations of Sugars by Lewis Acid Zeolites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermejo-Deval, Ricardo

    Isomerization of sugars is used in a variety of industrially relevant processes and in glycolysis. Here, we show that hydrophobic zeolite beta with framework tin or titanium Lewis acid centers isomerizes sugars, e.g., ...

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF SUGAR CONSUMPTION IN THE FERMENTATION OF TEMULOSE FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalka, Jacquelyn

    2007-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    . mobilis and C. shehatae were performed in triplicate for unamended, pH adjusted, and yeast extract amended Temulose at a sugar concentration of 20%. Fermentations with unamended Temulose showed little or no sugar consumption whatsoever, although the high...

  11. The Impact of the European Union Sugar Sector Policy on Brazilian Poverty 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avram, Bianca

    2011-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This study assesses the impact of the European Union (EU) common sugar policy on Brazilian poverty levels. First, using a simple linear regression, the Brazilian and EU sugar exports to common third countries were analysed, the results showing...

  12. Sugar, water and free volume networks in concentrated sucrose solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Sugar, water and free volume networks in concentrated sucrose solutions Valeria Molinero, Tahir the sucrose hydrogen bond network (HBN) in amorphous sucrose with 0­50% w/w water. We find that the onset) in these mixtures shows a non-monotonic behavior with water content which is consistent with experimental

  13. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Tan, E.; Tao, L.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  14. National Bioenergy Center Sugar Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #10, January-March 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 10 of a quarterly newsletter that describes the activities of the National Bioenergy Center's Sugar Platform Integration Project.

  15. National Bioenergy Center Sugar Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #9, October-December 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schell, D. J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 9 of a quarterly newsletter that describes the activities of the National Bioenergy Center's Sugar Platform Integration Project.

  16. National Bioenergy Center Sugar Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update #12, July-September 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schell, D.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Volume 12 of a quarterly newsletter that describes the activities of the National Bioenergy Center's Sugar Platform Integration Project.

  17. Sugar Monomer and Oligomer Solubility 179 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 105108, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    - ties of sugars common to many biomass feedstocks in the temperature range of 25­30°C. Then we reviewed

  18. 40 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN JULY 2002 SUGAR BIOTECH SUCCESS: Aranesp, an improved version of an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasisekharan, Ram

    in particular perform an as- tonishing range of jobs. Once regarded mainly as energy-yielding molecules (glu and disease, increasing numbers of researchers in academia and the bio- technology industry have recently database available to all. The grant, says James C. Paulson of the Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla

  19. Monochromator Crystal Glitch Library

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    SSRL's Monochromator Crystal Glitch Library allows users to view glitch spectra online, list specific crystal orientations, and download PDF files of the glitch spectra. (Specialized Interface)

  20. Effects of Sugars on Lipid Bilayers during Dehydration ? SAXS/WAXS Measurements and Quantitative Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenne, Thomas; Garvey, Christopher J.; Koster, Karen L.; Bryant, Gary; (ANSTO); (USD); (RMIT)

    2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an X-ray scattering study of the effects of dehydration on the bilayer and chain-chain repeat spacings of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers in the presence of sugars. The presence of sugars has no effect on the average spacing between the phospholipid chains in either the fluid or gel phase. Using this finding, we establish that for low sugar concentrations only a small amount of sugar exclusion occurs. Under these conditions, the effects of sugars on the membrane transition temperatures can be explained quantitatively by the reduction in hydration repulsion between bilayers due to the presence of the sugars. Specific bonding of sugars to lipid headgroups is not required to explain this effect.

  1. Isothermal dehydration of thin films of water and sugar solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyd, R. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France)] [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Rampino, A. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France) [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Bellich, B.; Elisei, E. [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy)] [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Cesàro, A. [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy) [Laboratory of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Area Science Park, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Saboungi, M.-L. [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France) [Centre de Recherche sur la Matière Divisée, University of Orleans and CNRS, rue de la Férollerie 1B, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux, et de Cosmochimie (IMPMC), Sorbonne Univ-UPMC, Univ Paris 06, UMR CNRS 7590, Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, IRD UMR 206, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The process of quasi-isothermal dehydration of thin films of pure water and aqueous sugar solutions is investigated with a dual experimental and theoretical approach. A nanoporous paper disk with a homogeneous internal structure was used as a substrate. This experimental set-up makes it possible to gather thermodynamic data under well-defined conditions, develop a numerical model, and extract needed information about the dehydration process, in particular the water activity. It is found that the temperature evolution of the pure water film is not strictly isothermal during the drying process, possibly due to the influence of water diffusion through the cellulose web of the substrate. The role of sugar is clearly detectable and its influence on the dehydration process can be identified. At the end of the drying process, trehalose molecules slow down the diffusion of water molecules through the substrate in a more pronounced way than do the glucose molecules.

  2. Haiti: energy efficiency in the sugar and manufacturing industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streicher, A.

    1985-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of energy use in Haiti, aimed at identifying possible projects to complement current A.I.D. support for institution building and energy planning within the Ministry of Mines and Energy Resources (MMRE), is presented. Key findings are that: (1) the sugar and manufacturing industries rely heavily on biomass fuels - wood, charcoal, and bagasse (sugar cane residue); and (2) demand for commercial energy and for electricity is growing rapidly despite supply constraints. The report calls for A.I.D. to: initiate a program to reduce biomass consumption (which is causing severe soil erosion and deforestation), especially in the small distilleries called guildives; collaborate with MMRE and the World Bank to develop a detailed workplan to promote energy efficiency in the guildives, focusing on technology development; help MMRE and the private sector to project Haiti's industrial energy and electricity needs through the year 2000; and sponsor a program of energy audits and efficiency improvements in the manufacturing sector.

  3. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  4. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  5. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Chae Un (Ithaca, NY); Gruner, Sol M. (Ithaca, NY)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  6. American Academy of Sleep Medicine American Academy of Sleep Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Steven A.

    © American Academy of Sleep Medicine American Academy of Sleep Medicine The following product has been developed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Copyright © 2003 American Academy of Sleep: (708) 492-0943 Visit Us at www.aasmnet.org #12;© American Academy of Sleep Medicine American Academy

  7. CRYSTALLIZATION IN MULTICOMPONENT GLASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; HRMA PR

    2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glass making are reviewed.

  8. Preparation of thio and seleno sugar esters of dimethylantimonous acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baimbridge, Charles Lynn

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    activity, specifically organo- metallic sugar derivatives. The syntheses of 1-S- and 1-Se-dimethylarsino derivatives of 1-deoxy-8-D-glucopyranose have been reported. Both 2, 3, 4, 6-tetra-O-acetyl-l-Se-dimethyl- arsino-1-seleno-8-D-glucopyranose and 1...-S-dimethyl- arsino-1-thio ? 8-D-glucopyranose have been reported to display anti ? tumor activity in vitro in the KB ? 9 tissue culture system. In addition, 1-S-dimethyl- 8 arsino-1-thio-8-D-glucopyranose has been found to be a potent...

  9. Bryant Sugar House Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomassSustainable and InnovativeBrookmont,Florida:Bryant Sugar House Biomass

  10. Recovery of Sugars by Solvent Extraction - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection RadiationRecord-Setting MicroscopyJune 2011RecoveryRecovery of Sugars

  11. Sugars Can Actually Be Good For Your Health (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Like peanut M&Ms, all cells are coated with sugars but the functions of these sugar coatings were a mystery until very recently. This presentation will highlight recent fascinating discoveries regarding why cells are coated with sugars, as well as new tools for cancer detection that take advantage of the cells sugar coating. Professor Bertozzis lab focuses on profiling changes in cell surface glycosylation associated with cancer, inflammation and bacterial infection, and exploiting this information for development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In addition, her group develops nanoscience-based technologies for probing cell function and for medical diagnostics.

  12. EVALUATION OF THE SACCHAROFLEX 2000 REFLECTANCE MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR REFINED SUGAR COLOUR ESTIMATION AT HULETTS REFINERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Moodley; N K Padayachee; V Govender

    Due to the successful use of the Saccharoflex 2000 reflectance measurement instrument on the estimation of refined sugar colour elsewhere in the world, it was decided by Tongaat-Hulett Sugar to evaluate the instrument at the refinery in Durban. Tests were carried out on first, second, third and fourth refined sugars, the results of which showed a good correlation between the ICUMSA colour measurement and the reflectance reading obtained from the Saccharoflex 2000. The instrument offers a number of advantages, the main one being that a refined sugar colour value can be obtained in less than a minute. The refinery has therefore purchased one for process control.

  13. Prolixibacter bellariivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a sugar-fermenting, psychrotolerant anaerobe of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    ferment sugars by using a mixed acid fermentation pathway and it can grow over a wide range with oxygen. Several organisms that are able to oxidize organic acids, such as acetate, to CO2 and utilizeProlixibacter bellariivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a sugar-fermenting, psychrotolerant anaerobe

  14. Tax and Evolution in SugarScape Thomas Back and Daniel Vermeulen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eiben, A.E. "Guszti"

    and redistribution scheme to the basic SugarScape model [2]. The second model ex- #3; Thomas Back is also aTax and Evolution in SugarScape Thomas Back #3; and Daniel Vermeulen Leiden Institute of Advanced on a population. This is done using two di#11;erent models. The #12;rst model adds a basic taxation

  15. Sugar++: A SAT-Based MAX-CSP/COP Solver Tomoya Tanjo1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Sugar++: A SAT-Based MAX-CSP/COP Solver Tomoya Tanjo1 , Naoyuki Tamura2 , and Mutsunori Banbara2 1 describes some features of Sugar++, a SAT-based MAX- CSP/COP solver entering the Third International CSP Solver Competition. In our approach, a MAX-CSP is translated into a Constraint Optimization Problem (COP

  16. Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomberlin, Jeff

    Bioconversion of dairy manure by black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) for biodiesel and sugar (BSFL) are consid- ered as a new biotechnology to convert dairy manure into biodiesel and sugar. BSFL from BSFL by petroleum ether, and then be treated with a two-step method to produce biodiesel

  17. Photonic crystal light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Bur, James A. (Corrales, NM)

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  18. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Tan, Eric; Tao, Ling; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  19. Catalysts and process for hydrogenolysis of sugar alcohols to polyols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chopade, Shubham P. (East Lansing, MI) [East Lansing, MI; Miller, Dennis J. (Okemos, MI) [Okemos, MI; Jackson, James E. (Haslett, MI) [Haslett, MI; Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Frye, Jr., John G [Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a process for preparation of low molecular weight polyols from high molecular weight polyols in a hydrogenolysis reaction under elevated temperature and hydrogen pressure. The process comprises providing in a reaction mixture the polyols, a base, and a metal catalyst prepared by depositing a transition metal salt on an inert support, reducing the metal salt to the metal with hydrogen, and passivating the metal with oxygen, and wherein the catalyst is reduced with hydrogen prior to the reaction. In particular, the process provides for the preparation of glycerol, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol from sugar alcohols such as sorbitol or xylitol. In a preferred process, the metal catalyst comprises ruthenium which is deposited on an alumina, titania, or carbon support, and the dispersion of the ruthenium on the support increases during the hydrogenolysis reaction.

  20. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  1. Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    of bioethanol as an automotive fuel. Conversion of sugar and starch to ethanol has been proven at an industrial

  2. american raptor american: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 163 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  3. AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST Public Anthropology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST Public Anthropology 2012 Public Anthropology Year in Review: Actually, Rick a torrent of criticism from anthropologists, including an online response by #12;Year in Review: Public

  4. Native American Heritage Month

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This month, we celebrate the rich heritage and myriad contributions of American Indians and Alaska Natives, and we rededicate ourselves to supporting tribal sovereignty, tribal self-determination,...

  5. Precedents in African American architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sass, Lawrence

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a sub-sets of American culture, African Americans have not been able to offer culturally specific architectural elements to the design process because the history of African American form and space has not been recognized ...

  6. Concentrating colloids with electric field gradients. I. Particle transport and growth mechanism of hard-sphere-like crystals in an electric bottle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leunissen, Mirjam

    on melting, homogeneous crystallization, or the glass transition. © 2008 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2909198 I. INTRODUCTION In almost all soft matter systems, such as foams, bio polymers

  7. Ion Coulomb Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard C. Thompson

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion Coulomb crystals (ICC), formed by atomic ions at low temperatures in radiofrequency and Penning ion traps, are structures that have remarkable properties and many applications. Images of Coulomb crystals are striking and reveal the crystal structure, which arises from a balance between the trapping forces acting on the ions and their mutual Coulomb repulsion. Applications of these structures range from frequency standards and quantum simulation through to measurement of the cross sections of chemical reactions of ions.

  8. Phononic crystal devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Kady, Ihab F. (Albuquerque, NM); Olsson, Roy H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.

  9. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  10. Kinetics of the lamellar gel?fluid transition in phosphatidylcholine membranes in the presence of sugars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenné, Thomas; Garvey, Christopher J.; Koster, Karen L.; Bryant, Gary (ANSTO); (USD); (RMIT)

    2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase diagrams are presented for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in the presence of sugars (sucrose) over a wide range of relative humidities (RHs). The phase information presented here, determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), is shown to be consistent with previous results achieved by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both techniques show a significant effect of sucrose concentration on the phase behaviour of this phospholipid bilayer. An experimental investigation into the effect of sugars on the kinetic behaviour of the gel to fluid transition is also presented showing that increasing the sugar content appears to slightly increase the rate at which the transition occurs.

  11. Channeling through Bent Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mack, Stephanie; /Ottawa U. /SLAC

    2012-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Bent crystals have demonstrated potential for use in beam collimation. A process called channeling is when accelerated particle beams are trapped by the nuclear potentials in the atomic planes within a crystal lattice. If the crystal is bent then the particles can follow the bending angle of the crystal. There are several different effects that are observed when particles travel through a bent crystal including dechanneling, volume capture, volume reflection and channeling. With a crystal placed at the edge of a particle beam, part of the fringe of the beam can be deflected away towards a detector or beam dump, thus helping collimate the beam. There is currently FORTRAN code by Igor Yazynin that has been used to model the passage of particles through a bent crystal. Using this code, the effects mentioned were explored for beam energy that would be seen at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at a range of crystal orientations with respect to the incoming beam. After propagating 5 meters in vacuum space past the crystal the channeled particles were observed to separate from most of the beam with some noise due to dechanneled particles. Progressively smaller bending radii, with corresponding shorter crystal lengths, were compared and it was seen that multiple scattering decreases with the length of the crystal therefore allowing for cleaner detection of the channeled particles. The input beam was then modified and only a portion of the beam sent through the crystal. With the majority of the beam not affected by the crystal, most particles were not deflected and after propagation the channeled particles were seen to be deflected approximately 5mm. After a portion of the beam travels through the crystal, the entire beam was then sent through a quadrupole magnet, which increased the separation of the channeled particles from the remainder of the beam to a distance of around 20mm. A different code, which was developed at SLAC, was used to create an angular profile plot which was compared to what was produced by Yazynin's code for a beam with no multiple scattering. The results were comparable, with volume reflection and channeling effects observed and the range of crystal orientations at which volume reflection is seen was about 1 mrad in both simulations.

  12. Smithsonian American Art Museum INVENTORIES OF AMERICAN PAINTING AND SCULPTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    Smithsonian American Art Museum INVENTORIES OF AMERICAN PAINTING AND SCULPTURE GUIDELINES FOR REPORTING WORKS The INVENTORIES OF AMERICAN PAINTING AND SCULPTURE were created by the Smithsonian American collections around the country. The database for the Inventories references over 360,000 works from two

  13. Zymomonas pentose-sugar fermenting strains and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Golden, CO); Howe, William (Golden, CO); Eddy, Christine (Golden, CO); Evans, Kent (Littleton, CO); Mohagheghi, Ali (Northglenn, CO)

    2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed in the present invention is a Zymomonas integrant and derivatives of these integrants that posses the ability to ferment pentose into ethanol. The genetic sequences encoding for the pentose-fermenting enzymes are integrated into the Zymomonas in a two-integration event of homologous recombination and transposition. Each operon includes more than one pentose-reducing enzyme encoding sequence. The integrant in some embodiments includes enzyme sequences encoding xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transketolase and transketolase. The Zymomonas integrants are highly stable, and retain activity for producing the pentose-fermenting enzyme for between 80 to 160 generations. The integrants are also resistant to acetate inhibition, as the integrants demonstrate efficient ethanol production even in the presence of 8 up to 16 grams acetate per liter media. These stably integrated sequences provide a unique Zymomonas that may then be used for the efficient conversion of pentose sugars (xylose, arabinose) to ethanol. Method of using the Zymomonas integrants and derivatives thereof in production of ethanol from cellulosic feedstock is also disclosed. The invention also provides a method for preparing a Zymomonas integrant as part of the present invention. The host Zymomonas strain found particularly useful in the creation of these compositions and methods is Zymomonas mobilis 31821.

  14. Digestibility evaluation of neutral sugars from hemicellulose of alfalfa hay by nylon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Digestibility evaluation of neutral sugars from hemicellulose of alfalfa hay by nylon capsule, Czech Republic Utilization of forages energy with cattle depends on the digestibility of cellulose and hemicellulose. At our trial we evaluated the digestibility structural polysaccharides which occurred

  15. FERMENTATION OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BY MICROORGANISMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, S.L.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Fermentation of Xylose to Ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum,OF PENTOSE SUGARS TO ETHANOL AND OTHER NEUTRAL PRODUCTS BYPYRUVATE V~ P a-ACETOLACTATE ETHANOL CoA AC ETA LDE HYDE V

  16. RAW MATERIALS EVALUATION AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES FOR CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL C. R. Wilke, R. D. Yang,of Cellulose Conversion on Ethanol Cost. References Wilke,of Hydrolyzate to Ethanol and Single Cell Protein,"

  17. Sugar Stability of Sweet Sorghum Exposed to Climate Controlled and Ambient Storage Conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herb, Dustin Walker

    2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    to U.S. production regions, Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has been identified as a potential alternative biofuel feedstock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of non-structural carbohydrates (sugar) present in sweet sorghum...

  18. Mixed methods evaluation of a randomized control pilot trial targeting sugar-sweetened beverage behaviors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zoellner, Jamie; Cook, Emily; Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes; You, Wen; Davy, Brenda; Estabrooks, Paul

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low health literacy skills have emerged as two public health concerns in the United States (US); however, there is limited research on how to effectively address ...

  19. Measurement of moisture and total reducing sugars using Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    industrial applications. In this project, the accuracy and feasibility of measuring moisture and total reducing sugar content in a vegetable medium using a Near Infrared Spectroscopy technique was investigated as an alternative to slow and tedious classical...

  20. Dissecting functional domains on nucleotide sugar transporters. Ignacio Moreno, Adrian Moreno, Maribel Donoso, Carol Moraga, Jean-Christophe Nebel*, Ariel Orellana.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    Dissecting functional domains on nucleotide sugar transporters. Ignacio Moreno, Adrian Moreno.moreno@uandresbello.edu Nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs) are membrane proteins involved in the translocation of nucleotide sugars involving structure prediction using ab initio software will be discussed. Nucleotide sugar transporters

  1. Moore honored with American Statistical Association award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    American Statistical Association Award Moore honored with American Statistical Association award Lisa Moore is the recipient of the 2013 Don Owen Award presented by the American...

  2. The great American garage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, B. Alex (Brian Alex), 1977-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    How does one explore the suburban home? Go in through the garage, of course. Sales, bands, suicides, and business startups: The suburban garage is the most culturally flexible space in the entire American domestic environment. ...

  3. Asian American women entrepreneurs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suh, Clara J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are an estimated 620,300 firms owned by Asian American women nationwide, and they contribute $105 billion to the U.S. economy. They are also active in Greater Boston's innovation and entrepreneurship communities. ...

  4. SINGLE CRYSTAL NEUTRON DIFFRACTION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KOETZLE,T.F.

    2001-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction measures the elastic Bragg reflection intensities from crystals of a material, the structure of which is the subject of investigation. A single crystal is placed in a beam of neutrons produced at a nuclear reactor or at a proton accelerator-based spallation source. Single-crystal diffraction measurements are commonly made at thermal neutron beam energies, which correspond to neutron wavelengths in the neighborhood of 1 Angstrom. For high-resolution studies requiring shorter wavelengths (ca. 0.3-0.8 Angstroms), a pulsed spallation source or a high-temperature moderator (a ''hot source'') at a reactor may be used. When complex structures with large unit-cell repeats are under investigation, as is the case in structural biology, a cryogenic-temperature moderator (a ''cold source'') may be employed to obtain longer neutron wavelengths (ca. 4-10 Angstroms). A single-crystal neutron diffraction analysis will determine the crystal structure of the material, typically including its unit cell and space group, the positions of the atomic nuclei and their mean-square displacements, and relevant site occupancies. Because the neutron possesses a magnetic moment, the magnetic structure of the material can be determined as well, from the magnetic contribution to the Bragg intensities. This latter aspect falls beyond the scope of the present unit; for information on magnetic scattering of neutrons see Unit 14.3. Instruments for single-crystal diffraction (single-crystal diffractometers or SCDs) are generally available at the major neutron scattering center facilities. Beam time on many of these instruments is available through a proposal mechanism. A listing of neutron SCD instruments and their corresponding facility contacts is included in an appendix accompanying this unit.

  5. Mathematical Modeling and Design of Layer Crystallization in a Concentric Annulus With and Without Recirculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braatz, Richard D.

    by adjusting cooling temperatures in the core and jacket. VC 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engi- neers been characterized as being a process in which coherent crystal layers grow on cooled surfaces melts has been widely applied for the purifi- cation of organics and inorganics such as sucrose and milk

  6. A VUV Photoionization and Ab Initio Determination of the Ionization Energy of a Gas Phase Sugar (Deoxyribose).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Debashree

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electronic structure calculations of vertical and adiabatic ionization energies. Ab initio molecular dynamics (dynamics snapshots along the reaction coordinate. Keywords: sugars, synchrotron radiation, electronic structure calculations,

  7. Parameterization of the scattering and absorption properties of individual ice crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ping [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Liou, K. N. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles (United States); Wyser, Klaus [Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Mitchell, David [Atmospheric Sciences Center, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada (United States)] [Atmospheric Sciences Center, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada (United States)

    2000-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We present parameterizations of the single-scattering properties for individual ice crystals of various habits based on the results computed from the accurate light scattering calculations. The projected area, volume, and single-scattering properties of ice crystals with various shapes and sizes are computed for 56 narrow spectral bands covering 0.2-5 {mu}m. The ice crystal habits considered in this study are hexagonal plates, solid and hollow columns, planar and spatial bullet rosette, and aggregates that are commonly observed in cirrus clouds. Using the observational relationships between the aspect ratios and the sizes of ice crystals, we can define the three-dimensional structure of these ice crystal habits with respect to their maximum dimensions for light scattering calculations. The volume and projected area of ice crystals, expressed in terms of the diameters of the corresponding equivalent spheres, are first parameterized by employing the ice crystal maximum dimensions. Further, various analytical expressions as functions of the effective dimensions of ice crystals have been developed to parameterize the extinction and absorption efficiencies, asymmetry factor, and the truncation of the forward peak energy in the phase function. The present parameterization scheme provides an efficient approach to obtain the basic scattering and absorption properties of nonspherical ice crystals. (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union.

  8. Andrew Case "American Environmental History"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Andrew Case History "American Environmental History" Spring 2008 Advisor: William Cronon Classics, Richard. "It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own": A New History of the American West. (Norman

  9. of October 2002 African Americans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    the impact of air pollution from coal-fired power plants upon the African American community. The Black

  10. Field identification of birdseye in sugar maple (acer saccharum marsh. ). Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bragg, D.C.; Stokke, D.D.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Birdseye grain distortions in sugar maple must be identified to capture the full value of a timber sale throughout the economic range of birdseye's occurrence. Even when relatively common, birdseye veneer typically makes up less than 1 percent of the harvested volume, but may account for one-half of the value of the sale. Field identification of birdseye sugar maple is critical for two principal reasons: (1) it allows for the enumeration of a valuable resource that may influence management decisions, and (2) it may prevent improper manufacturing of logs at the job site. Both factors should help increase overall timber sale return. The objective of the paper is to provide a background on birdseye sugar maples and a detailed sequential methodology for field identification of birdseye in standing trees.

  11. Latin American and Caribbean Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Latin American and Caribbean Studies Certificate About Us UWM graduates in the 21st century American and Caribbean Studies Certificate Program (LACS) will be especially well-prepared for careers academic focus in Latin American and Caribbean languages, histories, and cultures. However, the LACS

  12. Frequency doubling crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Francis (Danville, CA); Velsko, Stephan P. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic approach to the production of frequency conversion crystals is described in which a chiral molecule has attached to it a "harmonic generating unit" which contributes to the noncentrosymmetry of the molecule. Certain preferred embodiments of such harmonic generating units include carboxylate, guanadyly and imidazolyl units. Certain preferred crystals include L-arginine fluoride, deuterated L-arginine fluoride, L-arginine chloride monohydrate, L-arginine acetate, dithallium tartrate, ammonium N-acetyl valine, N-acetyl tyrosine and N-acetyl hydroxyproline. Chemical modifications of the chiral molecule, such as deuteration, halogenation and controlled counterion substitution are available to adapt the dispersive properties of a crystal in a particular wavelength region.

  13. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, S.K.; Hames, B.R.; Myers, M.D.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  14. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Myers, Michele D. (Dacono, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  15. Process for whole cell saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using a dual bioreactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Jue (Okemos, MI); Okeke, Benedict (Montgomery, AL)

    2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention describes a process for saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using whole microbial cells, which are enriched from cultures inoculated with paper mill waste water, wood processing waste and soil. A three-member bacterial consortium is selected as a potent microbial inocula and immobilized on inedible plant fibers for biomass saccharification. The present invention further relates the design of a dual bioreactor system, with various biocarriers for enzyme immobilization and repeated use. Sugars are continuously removed eliminating end-product inhibition and consumption by cell.

  16. Effect of electron beam irradiation and sugar content on kinetics of microbial survival

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez Gonzalez, Oscar

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    (Whiting, 1970). The level of ripening and fruit quality in fruits such as melons is assessed by their sugar content. Therefore the study of the accumulation of sugars during fruit development is important (Villanueva et al. 2004...). The Center for Disease Control (CDC, 2004) reported 66 outbreaks, 12,357 cases and 2 deaths due to food-borne pathogens present in fresh fruits in the U. S. from 1993 to 1997 (Olsen et al., 2000). Although the incidence of food-borne illnesses...

  17. A study of the balance sheet approach applied to the world sugar market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Pazos, Jorge Luis

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A STUDY OF THE BALANCE SHEET APPROACH APPLIED TO THE WORLD SUGAR MARKET A Thesis by JORGE LUIS GARCIA-PAZOS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A s M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree of MASTER... was individually considered if its raw value annual import or export level during 1974-75 was greater than 200, 000 M. T. As many countries as possible were included. Together they accounted for at least 70 percent of the total raw sugar value of world imports...

  18. Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition of the Wine and CO2 Bubbles of Sparkling Wines: Detecting C4 Sugar Additions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehleringer, Jim

    Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition of the Wine and CO2 Bubbles of Sparkling Wines: Detecting C4 carbon isotopic composition (expressed as 13C) of the wine and of the CO2 bubbles produced during. Carbon isotope ratio analyses were used to estimate the addition of sugar obtained from C4 plants (sugar

  19. Journal Titles American Orthoptic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    Search Journal Titles American Orthoptic Journal Arctic Anthropology Contemporary Literature Ecological Restoration Journal of Human Resources Land Economics Land Management Pkg Landscape Journal Luso-Brazilian Review Monatshefte Native Plants Journal SubStance Article Copies/Permissions Journal Ebooks Library

  20. Electron density analysis of the effects of sugars on the structure of lipid bilayers at low hydration - a preliminary study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenné, T.; Kent, B.; Koster, K.L.; Garvey, C.J.; Bryant, G. (ANSTO); (USD); (ANU); (RMIT)

    2012-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Small angle X-ray scattering is used to study the effects of sugars on membranes during dehydration. Previous work has shown that the bilayer and chain-chain repeat spacings of DPPC bilayers are relatively unaffected by the presence of sugars. In this work we present a preliminary analysis of the electron density profiles of DPPC in the presence of sugars at low hydration. The difficulties of determining the correct phasing are discussed. Sugars and other small solutes have been shown to have an important role in improving the tolerance of a range of species to desiccation and freezing. In particular it has been shown that sugars can stabilize membranes in the fluid membrane phase during dehydration, and in the fully dehydrated state. Equivalently, at a particular hydration, the presence of sugars lowers the transition temperature between the fluid and gel phases. There are two competing models for explaining the effects of sugars on membrane phase transition temperatures. One, designated the water replacement hypothesis (WRH) states that sugars hydrogen bond to phospholipid headgroups, thus hindering the fluid-gel phase transition. One version of this model suggests that certain sugars (such as trehalose) achieve the measured effects by inserting between the phospholipid head groups. An alternative model explains the observed effects of sugars in terms of the sugars effect on the hydration repulsion that develops between opposing membranes during dehydration. The hydration repulsion leads to a lateral compressive stress in the bilayer which squeezes adjacent lipids more closely together, resulting in a transition to the gel phase. When sugars are present, their osmotic and volumetric effects reduce the hydration repulsion, reduce the compressive stress in the membranes, and therefore tend to maintain the average lateral separation between lipids. This model is called the hydration forces explanation (HFE). We recently showed that neither mono- nor di-saccharides affect the average distance between lipid chains in the bilayer, supporting the predictions of the HFE. In this paper we further investigate the effects of sugars on membrane structure by conducting electron density analysis of recent data. This preliminary analysis sheds additional light onto the effects of sugars on membrane structure.

  1. Journal of Crystal Growth ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) at high pressure of CO2 (initial PCO2 ¼ 55 bar) and moderate to high temperature (30 and 90 1C) was used and the dissolved quantity of CO2 have a significant effect on the average particle size, specific surface areaJournal of Crystal Growth ] (

  2. Silicon crystal growing by oscillating crucible technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwuttke, G.H.; Kim, K.M.; Smetana, P.

    1983-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for growing silicon crystals from a molten melt comprising oscillating the container during crystal growth is disclosed.

  3. Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent enzymatic Dilute sulfuric acid Sulfur dioxide Biofuels Switchgrass a b s t r a c t Dacotah switchgrass was pretreated with sulfuric acid concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt.% at 140, 160, and 180 °C and with 1

  4. Solar Bioethanol from Biomass Sugar Fermentation Shu Tian,1,5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GP-B-21 Solar Bioethanol from Biomass Sugar Fermentation Shu Tian,1,5 Oara Neumann,1 University, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. Bioethanol is a prime alternative fuel candidate that has the potential to considerably reduce our need for petroleum-based fuels. The production of bioethanol from cellulosic feedstock

  5. Vulnerability of Xylem Vessels to Cavitation in Sugar Maple. Scaling from Individual Vessels to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melcher, Peter

    nega- tive pressures (Dixon and Joly, 1895; Briggs, 1950) allows plants to power the movement of water to withstand tension-induced cavitation is typ- ically inferred from "vulnerability curves" generatedVulnerability of Xylem Vessels to Cavitation in Sugar Maple. Scaling from Individual Vessels

  6. Comparative sugar recovery data from laboratory scale application of leading pretreatment technologies to corn stover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Comparative sugar recovery data from laboratory scale application of leading pretreatment societal benefits, but pretreatment operations essential to economically viable yields have a major impact on costs and per- formance of the entire system. However, little comparative data is available on promising

  7. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic sugar transporter genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Reed, David W; Lacey, Jeffrey A

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for transporting sugars across cell membranes using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  8. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic sugar transporter genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Reed, David W.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for transporting sugars across cell membranes using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  9. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic sugar transporter genes and enzymes from alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Apel, William A. (Jackson, WY); Thompson, Vicki S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Reed, David W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lacey, Jeffrey A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for transporting sugars across cell membranes using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  10. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic sugar transporter genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Reed, David W.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for transporting sugars across cell membranes using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  11. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic sugar transporter genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Apel, William A. (Jackson, WY); Thompson, Vicki S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Reed, David W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lacey, Jeffrey A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for transporting sugars across cell membranes using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  12. Sugar maple seed production in northern New Hampshire. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, P.W.; Graber, R.E.

    1995-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Large numbers of sugar maple seed are dispersed every second or third year. Very little seed was damaged by insects or mammals to dispersal. The trapping methods used prevented major losses following seed fall. Seed production was positively correlated with tree diameter but not with age of seed trees.

  13. DOI: 10.1002/chem.200901830 Hydration of Sugars in the Gas Phase: Regioselectivity and Conformational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Ben G.

    DOI: 10.1002/chem.200901830 Hydration of Sugars in the Gas Phase: Regioselectivity: The influence of an acetami- do group in directing the preferred choice of hydration sites in glucosa- mine and a consequent extension of the working rules governing regioselec- tive hydration and conformational choice

  14. 86 BYU 20072008 Undergraduate Catalog American Heritage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    86 BYU 2007­2008 Undergraduate Catalog American Heritage American Heritage 100. American Heritage, and patterns of historical development. American Studies American Studies Office 4095 JFSB Kerry Soper; literary criticism; historical research; and social, political, and economic analysis. The program provides

  15. Crystallizing Membrane Proteins in Lipidic Mesophases. A Host Lipid Screen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dianfan; Lee, Jean; Caffrey, Martin (Trinity); (Limerick)

    2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The default lipid for the bulk of the crystallogenesis studies performed to date using the cubic mesophase method is monoolein. There is no good reason, however, why this 18-carbon, cis-monounsaturated monoacylglycerol should be the preferred lipid for all target membrane proteins. The latter come from an array of biomembrane types with varying properties that include hydrophobic thickness, intrinsic curvature, lateral pressure profile, lipid and protein makeup, and compositional asymmetry. Thus, it seems reasonable that screening for crystallizability based on the identity of the lipid creating the hosting mesophase would be worthwhile. For this, monoacylglycerols with differing acyl chain characteristics, such as length and olefinic bond position, must be available. A lipid synthesis and purification program is in place in the author's laboratory to serve this need. In the current study with the outer membrane sugar transporter, OprB, we demonstrate the utility of host lipid screening as a means for generating diffraction-quality crystals. Host lipid screening is likely to prove a generally useful strategy for mesophase-based crystallization of membrane proteins.

  16. New American Home 2009 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brochure details the New American Home 2009, which demonstrates the use of innovative building materials, cutting-edge design, and the latest construction techniques.

  17. Leonard Wood and the American Empire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruitt, James Herman

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    During the ten years following the Spanish American War (1898 to 1908), Major General Leonard Wood served as the primary agent of American imperialism. Wood was not only a proconsul of the new American Empire; he was a ...

  18. 15 MARCH 1999 829J I A N D W A N G 1999 American Meteorological Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Pao K.

    to the flux on a stationary crystal gives the ventilation coefficient. The local flow velocity profiles around15 MARCH 1999 829J I A N D W A N G 1999 American Meteorological Society Ventilation Coefficients (Manuscript received 20 November 1997, in final form 8 May 1998) ABSTRACT The ventilation coefficients

  19. Weatherization Formula Grants - American Recovery and Reinvestment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Weatherization Formula Grants - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Weatherization Formula Grants - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) U.S. Department of...

  20. American Wind Energy Association Offshore WINDPOWER Conference...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American Wind Energy Association Offshore WINDPOWER Conference & Exhibition American Wind Energy Association Offshore WINDPOWER Conference & Exhibition October 7, 2014 9:00AM EDT...

  1. Energy Innovation: Green Button Initiative Empowering Americans...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Innovation: Green Button Initiative Empowering Americans to Save Energy and Money Energy Innovation: Green Button Initiative Empowering Americans to Save Energy and Money...

  2. A General Photonic Crystal Sensing Motif: Creatinine in Bodily Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asher, Sanford A.

    species present in the bodily fluid such as sugars, urea, uric acid, pyruvate, and dopamine can interfere

  3. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nason, D.O.; Burger, A.

    1994-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An optically transparent furnace having a detection apparatus with a pedestal enclosed in an evacuated ampule for growing a crystal thereon is disclosed. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater, a base heater and a cold finger such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material to grow the crystal. A quartz halogen lamp projects a collimated beam onto the crystal and a reflected beam is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer and the detected peak position in the reflected energy spectrum of the reflected beam is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal. 3 figs.

  4. Florida Nuclear Profile - Crystal River

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crystal River1" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date"...

  5. Expanding the Nucleotide and Sugar 1-Phosphate Promiscuity of Nucleotidyltransferase RmlA via Directed Evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moretti, Rocco; Chang, Aram; Peltier-Pain, Pauline; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Thorson, Jon S. (UW)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Directed evolution is a valuable technique to improve enzyme activity in the absence of a priori structural knowledge, which can be typically enhanced via structure-guided strategies. In this study, a combination of both whole-gene error-prone polymerase chain reaction and site-saturation mutagenesis enabled the rapid identification of mutations that improved RmlA activity toward non-native substrates. These mutations have been shown to improve activities over 10-fold for several targeted substrates, including non-native pyrimidine- and purine-based NTPs as well as non-native d- and l-sugars (both a- and b-isomers). This study highlights the first broadly applicable high throughput sugar-1-phosphate nucleotidyltransferase screen and the first proof of concept for the directed evolution of this enzyme class toward the identification of uniquely permissive RmlA variants.

  6. From Refining Sugar to Growing Tomatoes: Industrial Ecology and Business Model Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Samuel W.; Bocken, Nancy M.P.; Barlow, Claire Y.; Chertow, Marian R.

    2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    innovation – Important process improvements, but not proactive business model innovation. 1998: Combined heat and Power (CHP) New CHP installation – combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) CHP generating steam for on-site use, and electricity. Lower... and distillation BETAINE for cosmetics, 11kt CO2 liquefaction Feedback to assist growers Flue gas CO2 Steam In-situ composting Rain water harvesting Screen and pack Grade and pack Dry, screen, mix Screen, grade CO2 emissions Sugar extract Low temperature...

  7. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in mixed-sugars medium comprising xylose, and, in particular, in the presence of acetate.

  8. The American Recovery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssuesEnergy Solar Decathlon2001 Power PlantAPRIL 1, 2011TheAmerican

  9. American Physical Society awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta Fe MetroWeinbergAmerican Physical Society

  10. American Venture Acceleration Fund

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta Fe MetroWeinbergAmericanSix regional

  11. American Physical Society Fellows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumni Alumni PARC/I-CARES CERTIFICATE INofNuclear SocietyAmerican

  12. AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4Residential17.Keeping PaceAMERICAN

  13. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

  14. crystal nickel a hree dimension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Zhenting 1 Department 2 Departmen ABSTRACT This pape crystal nickel a hree dimension photonic cryst polystyrene op silicon chips, volume fraction can be controlle nickel structure hen sacrificed volume fraction reports microm crystal structur or alumina she nickel microca microstructure further electrop volume

  15. First Floor Smithsonian American Art Museum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    First Floor Smithsonian American Art Museum American Experience Folk Art Special ExhibitionsMillan Education Center Folk Art One Life Archives of American Art Gallery Recent AcquisitionsMuseum Store Museum Museum Graphic Arts American Art through 1940 America's Presidents The Struggle for Justice

  16. Professor, Communication Studies and African American Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Professor, Communication Studies and African American Studies Director of African American of Communication and Theatre Arts and Director of the African American Studies Program at the University of Puget Book Chapter Award from the African American Communication and Culture Division and the Black Caucus

  17. Lamella settler crystallizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maimoni, A.

    1990-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A crystallizer is described which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as well as in other electrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities. 3 figs.

  18. Lamella settler crystallizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maimoni, Arturo (Orinda, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as well as in other electrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

  19. Frequency mixing crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebbers, Christopher A. (Livermore, CA); Davis, Laura E. (Manteca, CA); Webb, Mark (Salida, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a laser system for converting infrared laser light waves to visible light comprising a source of infrared laser light waves and means of harmoic generation associated therewith for production of light waves at integral multiples of the frequency of the original wave, the improvement of said means of harmonic generation comprising a crystal having the chemical formula X.sub.2 Y(NO.sub.3).sub.5 .multidot.2 nZ.sub.2 o wherein X is selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl; Y is selected from the group consisting of Sc, Y, La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Al, Ga, and In; Z is selected from the group consisting of H and D; and n ranges from 0 to 4.

  20. American Association of Petroleum Geologists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Alan Jay

    Hyatt Regency, Crystal City Arlington, Virginia ON THE EDGE OF A NEW ENERGY FRONTIER #12;MEETING HOSTS Level of the Hyatt Regency -Crystal City (our host hotel). Sunday, September 25, 11:30 am ­ 7:30 pm in the Washington, DC, metro area, a rare opportunity to sample the latest tech- nology and make your voice heard

  1. North American SynchroPhasor Initiative (NASPI) Technical Report...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the North American SynchroPhasor Initiative, a collaboration between the North American electric industry (utilities, grid operators, vendors and consultants), the North American...

  2. Society of American Indian Government Employees Annual National Training Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Event includes plenary session, American Indian law classes, Native American youth workshops, cultural presentations, and a veterans program. Sponsored by the Society of American Indian Government...

  3. american subtropical area: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    English American Studies Sussex, University of 30 Grant Title: AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY WOMEN (AAUW) -AMERICAN FELLOWSHIPS Funding Opportunity Number: NA Engineering...

  4. american statistical association: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23 Grant Title: AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY WOMEN (AAUW) -AMERICAN FELLOWSHIPS Funding Opportunity Number: NA Engineering Websites Summary: Grant Title: AMERICAN...

  5. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  6. energy company opens American branch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    in clean-energy investment and delivering unique projects and innovative products and servicesenergy company opens American branch in West Sacramento Substainible energy for sustainable energy supply. Ecostream markets such things as solar roof panel installations and other long

  7. An Ionic Liquid Reaction and Separation Process for Production of Hydroxymethylfurfural from Sugars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Zheng, Feng; Li, Joanne; Cooper, Alan R.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been world-wide interest to making plastics out of renewable biomass feedstock for recent years. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is viewed as an attractive alternate to terephthalic acid (TPA) for production of polyesters (PET) and polyamides. Conversion of sugars into HMF has been studied in numerous publications. In this work, a complete ionic liquid reaction and separation process is presented for nearly stoichiometric conversion of fructose into HMF. Different adsorbent materials are evaluated and silicalite material is demonstrated effective for isolation of 99% pure HMF from actual ionic liquid reaction mixtures and for recovery of the un-converted sugars and reaction intermediate along with the ionic liquid. Membrane-coated silicalite particles are prepared and studied for a practical adsorption process operated at low pressure drops but with separation performances comparable or better than the powder material. Complete conversion of fresh fructose feed into HMF in the recycled ionic liquid is shown under suitable reaction conditions. Stability of HMF product is characterized. A simplified process flow diagram is proposed based on these research results, and the key equipment such as reactor and adsorbent bed is sized for a plant of 200,000 ton/year of fructose processing capacity. The proposed HMF production process is much simpler than the current paraxylene (PX) manufacturing process from petroleum oil, which suggests substantial reduction to the capital cost and energy consumption be possible. At the equivalent value to PX on the molar basis, there can be a large gross margin for HMF production from fructose and/or sugars.

  8. Crystal-Like geometric modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landreneau, Eric Benjamin

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    faces, symmetry, and fractal geometry. The techniques have also been implemented in software, as a proof of concept. They are used in an interactive geometric modeling system, in which users can use these techniques to create crystal-like shapes...

  9. Arnold Schwarzenegger SINGLE CRYSTAL SILICON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in this report. #12;ENERGY INNOVATIONS SMALL GRANT (EISG) PROGRAM INDEPENDENT ASSESSMENT REPORT (IAR) SINGLEArnold Schwarzenegger Governor SINGLE CRYSTAL SILICON SHEET GROWTH Prepared For: California Energy Commission Energy Innovations Small Grant Program Prepared By: Energy Materials Research

  10. Active materials in photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter (Peter A.)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I analyze new phenomena arising from embedding active materials inside of photonic crystal structures. These structures strongly modify the photonic local density of states (LDOS), leading to quantitative and qualitative ...

  11. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  12. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Cockroft, Nigel J. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.

  13. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal. 5 figs.

  14. Crystal Potential Formula for the Calculation of Crystal Lattice Sums1 Don Steiger and Calvin Ahlbrandt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaser, Rainer

    Crystal Potential Formula for the Calculation of Crystal Lattice Sums1 Don Steiger and Calvin; In Final Form: April 7, 1998 A new formula is derived for the determination of the potential energy of the central unit cell of a finite crystal; this formula is called the crystal potential formula. The crystal

  15. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yao; Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY-ESF; Winter, William T. [SUNY-ESF; Wilson, David B.; Kim, Young-Jun

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA "Roadmap" objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled "The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases" was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by "pure" enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH "pretreatment" provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  16. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA “Roadmap” objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled “The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases” was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by “pure” enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH “pretreatment” provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  17. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  18. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  19. Competition and Reliability in North American Electricity Markets...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Electricity Markets Technical Workshop Competition and Reliability in North American Electricity Markets Technical Workshop Competition and Reliability in North American...

  20. american students utilizing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PARTNERS American Institute of Chemical Engineers Alpha Omega Epsilon International Engineering & Technical Science Sorority American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and...

  1. Moral pressure : American democracy and Chinese human rights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Stephanie Tze-Hua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Sino-American agreement on nuclear cooperation, andof the Sino-American agreement on nuclear cooperation, and

  2. Fuel Cell Manufacturing: American Energy and Manufacturing Competitive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Manufacturing: American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit Fuel Cell Manufacturing: American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit Presentation on...

  3. Nucleation and Ordering of an Electrodeposited Two-Dimensional Crystal: Real-Time X-Ray Scattering and Electronic Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finnefrock, A.C.; Ringland, K.L.; Brock, J.D. [School of Applied Engineering Physics and Materials Science Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [School of Applied Engineering Physics and Materials Science Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Buller, L.J.; Abruna, H.D. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science Center, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied {ital in situ} the ordering of a two-dimensional Cu-Cl crystal electrodeposited on a Pt(111) surface. We simultaneously measured x-ray scattering and chronoamperometric transients during Cu desorption and subsequent ordering of the Cu-Cl crystal. In all cases, the current transient occurs on a shorter time scale than the development of crystalline order. The ordering time diverges with applied potential, consistent with the nucleation and growth of two-dimensional islands. We see a time-dependent narrowing of the x-ray peak, corresponding to the growing islands. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. American Statistical Association Names Fellows for 2010 ALEXANDRIA VA (PRWEB) MAY 20, 2010 The American Statistical Association (ASA), the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    American Statistical Association Names Fellows for 2010 ALEXANDRIA VA (PRWEB) MAY 20, 2010 ­ The American Statistical Association (ASA), the nation's preeminent professional statistical society, today the American Statistical Association The American Statistical Association (ASA), a scientific and educational

  5. The Puzzle of Hypertension in African-Americans56 Scientific American February 1999 The Puzzle of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraden, Seth

    The Puzzle of Hypertension in African-Americans56 Scientific American February 1999 The Puzzle of Hypertension in African-Americans by Richard S. Cooper, Charles N. Rotimi and Ryk Ward N early all Americans undergo a steady rise in blood pressure with age. Almost 25 percent cross the line into hypertension

  6. Information Technology: American National Standard for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format Publication 500-245 Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint, Facial, & Scar Mark & Tattoo (SMT) Information Sponsored by Information Technology

  7. American Range: Order (2014-CE-23006)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered American Range Corporation to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding American Range had failed to certify that certain models of cooking products comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  8. Heart Healthy Home Cooking African American Style

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Heart Healthy Home Cooking African American Style With Every Heartbeat Is Life #12;#12;Heart Recipe Substitutions for Heart Healthy Cooking at the heart of African American family life and special celebrations. This recipe book brings together many

  9. American Statistical Association National Science Foundation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermúdez, José Luis

    American Statistical Association National Science Foundation U.S. Census Bureau ASA American Statistical Association 732 North Washington Street Alexandria, VA 22314-1943 U.S. government and analysis, statistical methodology and computing, information and behavioral science, and geography

  10. American Valve: Order (2010-CW-1411)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered American Valve, Inc. to pay a $5,000 civil penalty after finding American Valve had failed to certify that certain showerhead models comply with the applicable water conservation standards.

  11. Information Technology: American National Standard for Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format-271 Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format for the Interchange Sponsored by Information Access Division Information Technology Laboratory National Institute of Standards

  12. Information Technology: American National Standard for Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format 500-275 Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format Coleman, and Patrice Yuh, Editors Sponsored by Information Access Division Information Technology

  13. Dissertations Recently Completed on Latin American Theatre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Dissertations Recently Completed on Latin American Theatre Ascarrunz-Gilman, Graciela. "El sentido religioso del teatro de Carlos Solór- zano." (California, Davis) Bixler, Jacqueline Eyring. "Theory and Technique...

  14. automated crystal screening: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high crystallization rates and the production of diffraction-quality crystals. microfluidics Quake, Stephen R. 5 Data Mining Crystallization Databases: Knowledge-Based...

  15. TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willenbring, Jeb F.

    fellowship. c 2002 American Mathematical Society 4393 #12;4394 JEB F. WILLENBRING on V , under the usual

  16. NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY Libby R. Tronnes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    , and Demography" CAIH (2002) Indians in the American South Post-Contact Gallay, Alan. The Indian Slave Trade

  17. Precision Crystal Calorimeters in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ren-Yuan Zhu

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Precision crystal calorimeters traditionally play an important role in high energy physics experiments. In the last two decades, it faces a challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper reviews the performance of crystal calorimeters constructed for high energy physics experiments and the progress achieved in understanding crystal?s radiation damage as well as in developing high quality scintillating crystals for particle physics. Potential applications of new generation scintillating crystals of high density and high light yield, such as LSO and LYSO, in particle physics experiments is also discussed.

  18. Crystallization during processing of nuclear waste glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In glass processing situations involving glass crystallization, various crystalline forms nucleate, grow, and dissolve, typically in a nonuniform temperature field of molten glass subjected to convection. Nuclear waste glasses are remarkable examples of multicomponent vitrified mixtures involving partial crystallization. In the glass melter, crystals form and dissolve during batch-to-glass conversion, melter processing, and product cooling. Crystals often agglomerate and sink, and they may settle at the melter bottom. Within the body of cooling glass, multiple phases crystallize in a non-uniform time-dependent temperature field. Self-organizing periodic distribution (the Liesegnang effect) is common. Various crystallization phenomena that occur in glassmaking are reviewed.

  19. Economic Impact of the American Clean Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Economic Impact of the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 on the West Virginia Economy ........................................................................................................................ 1 American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines the impact of the American Clean Energy

  20. Leonard Wood and the American Empire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruitt, James Herman

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    During the ten years following the Spanish American War (1898 to 1908), Major General Leonard Wood served as the primary agent of American imperialism. Wood was not only a proconsul of the new American Empire; he was a symbol of the empire...

  1. Crystal-field effects in fluoride crystals for optical refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hehlen, Markus P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of optical refrigeration of rare-earth-doped solids has recently seen an important breakthrough. The cooling of a YLiF{sub 4} (YLF) crystal doped with 5 mol% Yb3+ to 155 K by Seletskiy et al [NPhot] has surpassed the lowest temperatures ({approx}170 K for {approx}100 mW cooling capacity) that are practical with commercial multi-stage thermoelectric coolers (TEC) [Glaister]. This record performance has advanced laser cooling into an application relevant regime and has put first practical optical cryocoolers within reach. The result is also relevant from a material perspective since for the first time, an Yb3+-doped crystal has outperformed an Yb3+-doped glass. The record temperature of 208 K was held by the Yb3+-doped fluorozirconate glass ZBLAN. Advanced purification and glass fabrication methods currently under development are expected to also advance ZBLAN:Yb3+ to sub-TEC temperatures. However, recent achievements with YLF:Yb3+ illustrate that crystalline materials may have two potentially game-changing advantajes over glassy materials. First, the crystalline environment reduces the inhomogeneous broadening of the Yb3+ electronic transitions as compared to a glassy matrix. The respective sharpening of the crystal-field transitions increases the peak absorption cross section at the laser excitation wavelength and allows for more efficient pumping of the Yb3+ ions, particularly at low temperatures. Second, many detrimental impurities present in the starting materials tend to be excluded from the crystal during its slow growth process, in contrast to a glass where all impurities present in the starting materials are included in the glass when it is formed by temperature quenching a melt. The ultra high purity required for laser cooling materials [PRB] therefore may be easier to realize in crystals than in glasses. Laser cooling occurs by laser excitation of a rare-earth ion followed by anti-Stokes luminescence. Each such laser-cooling cycle extracts thermal energy from the solid and carries it away as high-entropy light, thereby cooling the material. In the ideal case, the respective laser-cooling power is given by the pump wavelength ({lambda}{sub p}), the mean fluorescence wavelength ({bar {lambda}}{sub L}), and the absorption coefficient (a{sub r}) of the pumped transition. These quantities are solely determined by crystal field interactions. On one hand, a large crystal-field splitting offers a favorably large difference of {lambda}{sub p} - {bar {lambda}}{sub L} and thus a high cooling efficiency {eta}{sub cool} = ({lambda}{sub p} - {bar {lambda}}{sub L})/{bar {lambda}}{sub L}. On the other hand, a small crystal-field splitting offers a high thermal population (n{sub i}) of the initial state of the pumped transition, giving a high pump absorption coefficient and thus high laser cooling power, particularly at low temperatures. A quantitative description of crystal-field interactions is therefore critical to the understanding and optimization of optical refrigeration. In the case of Yb3+ as the laser cooling ion, however, development of a crystal-field model is met with substantial difficulties. First, Yb3+ has only two 4/multiplets, {sup 2}F{sub 7/2} and {sup 2}F{sub 5/2}, which lead to at most 7 crystal-field levels. This makes it difficult, and in some cases impossible, to evaluate the crystal-field Hamiltonian, which has at least 4 parameters for any Yb3+ point symmety lower than cubic. Second, {sup 2}F{sub 7/2}{leftrightarrow}{sup 2}F{sub 5/2} transitions exhibit an exceptionally strong electron-phonon coupling compared to 4f transitions of other rare earths. This makes it difficult to distinguish electronic from vibronic transitions in the absorption and luminescence spectra and to reliably identify the crystal-field levels. Yb3+ crystal-field splittings reported in the literature should thus generally be viewed with caution. This paper explores the effects of crystal-field interactions on the laser cooling performance of Yb3+-doped fluoride crystals. It is shown that the total crystal-field splitting o

  2. Manufacturing method of photonic crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Tae Ho; Ahn, Jin Ho; Biswas, Rana; Constant, Kristen P.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Lee, Jae-Hwang

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A manufacturing method of a photonic crystal is provided. In the method, a high-refractive-index material is conformally deposited on an exposed portion of a periodic template composed of a low-refractive-index material by an atomic layer deposition process so that a difference in refractive indices or dielectric constants between the template and adjacent air becomes greater, which makes it possible to form a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a superior photonic bandgap. Herein, the three-dimensional structure may be prepared by a layer-by-layer method.

  3. Comparative data on effects of leading pretreatments and enzyme loadings and formulations on sugar yields from different switchgrass sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Comparative data on effects of leading pretreatments and enzyme loadings and formulations on sugar Pretreatment Switchgrass Yields a b s t r a c t Dilute sulfuric acid (DA), sulfur dioxide (SO2), liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), and lime pretreatments

  4. Nutrient Sensing through the Plasma Membrane of Eukaryotic Cells 269 Sugar sensing and signalling networks in plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheen, Jen

    as an evolutionarily conserved glucose sensor that integrates light, hormone and nutrient signalling to control plant, repress photo- synthetic gene expression in source leaves. This feedback mechanism overrides other levels clear that sugar signalling not only controls photo- synthetic gene expression but also affects numerous

  5. Soil erosion from sugar beet in Central Europe in response to climate change induced seasonal precipitation variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quinton, John

    of adaptive land-use management for climate change response strategies in the agricultural sector. © 2007; Conservation agriculture; Erosion modelling 1. Introduction Climate change of anthropogenic origin is widelySoil erosion from sugar beet in Central Europe in response to climate change induced seasonal

  6. Crystallization in High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Dane R Spearing, Gary L Smith, SK Sundaram

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review outlines important aspects of crystallization in HLW glasses, such as equilibrium, nucleation, growth, and dissolution. The impact of crystallization on continuous melters and the chemical durability of high-level waste glass are briefly discussed.

  7. September 2010 American Recovery and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    September 2010 i American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance U.S. Naval by applying GSHP systems. The current HVAC system for the building is a conventional Air Handling Unit (AHU) system with chiller. The heating and the DHW are provided by district steam. The building is close

  8. North American Cross-Border

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sourced steam coal burnt in power plants in the northeastern portion of the United States. As coal mining of electrical power from Canada appears to have little impact on the production of steam coal in VirginiaNorth American Cross-Border Electricity Trade Ian M. Loomis Virginia Center for Coal and Energy

  9. QER- Comment of American Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dear QER Team; Thank you for the opportunity to provide comments to the Quadrennial Energy Review Task Force to discuss the water and energy nexus, advances in water innovative technologies, and the impact of climate change on water issues. On behalf of American Water, I wish to submit the following White Papers which we have prepared on these critical issues: Innovations in Energy Use Sustainability and Resiliency Planning for Water Utilities One Water Water/Energy Correlation The Value of Water Challenges in the Water Industry: Climate Change Challenges in the Water Industry: Meeting Demand in the West Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Desalination Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Going Green Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Water Reuse Bridging the Water Innovation Gap. Founded in 1886, American Water is the largest publicly traded U.S. water and wastewater utility company. With headquarters in Voorhees, NJ, the company employs approximately 6,600 dedicated professionals who provide drinking water, wastewater and other related services to an estimated 14 million people in more than 40 states. Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions or if there is any way American Water can be helpful to your mission. Respectfully Yours, Martin (See attached file: White Papers.pdf) Martin D. Kerckhoff Vice President and Divisional General Counsel Central Division American Water CONFIDENTIAL & PRIVILEGED COMMUNICATION This email and any attachments hereto constitute a legally confidential communication from the Legal Department of American Water. The information contained herein is subject to attorney-client privilege and is for the sole use of the intended original addressee. If you are not the intended original addressee, you are hereby notified that any reading, disclosure, copying, distribution, use, or taking of any action in reliance on the contents contained herein is strictly prohibited. If you have received this message in error, please immediately notify us at 314.966.2241 and delete this message from your system. WARNING: Although American Water has taken reasonable precautions to ensure that no viruses are present in this email, it is the responsibility of the recipient to ensure that it is virus free. No responsibility is accepted by American Water for any loss or damage arising in any way from the receipt and/or use of this email.

  10. Potash Crystallization Lynn Batten1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsatsomeros, Michael

    fertilizer and industrial chemical, from saturated brines. Typically, hot brine at about 100 C is cooled, knowledge of the spatial distribution of the chemical supersaturation state of the brine would help to improve the process control objectives: · Define conditions for crystal growth · Minimize occluded brine

  11. Robotic CCD microscope for enhanced crystal recognition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Segelke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA); Toppani, Dominique (Livermore, CA)

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A robotic CCD microscope and procedures to automate crystal recognition. The robotic CCD microscope and procedures enables more accurate crystal recognition, leading to fewer false negative and fewer false positives, and enable detection of smaller crystals compared to other methods available today.

  12. The early American motion picture industry: promoting American cultural hegemony

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wier, Theresa Joanne

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : CULTURAL IMPERIALISM? Introduction Film as imperialism? Technology Cultural Imperialism Economic Trends Conclusion 67 67 69 72 74 79 81 Vl THE ADVENT OF SOUND 85 Introduction Europe Conclusion 85 95 99 VII CONCLUDING COMMENTS 100... classical imperialism to a new category of international exportation founded on the products of the second industrial revolution: steel, the internal combusion [sic] engine and electricity ? including motion pictures" (1980, 81). However, American...

  13. Dye-Induced Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearity in Liquids and Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muenster, R.; Jarasch, M.; Zhuang, X.; Shen, Y. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals (LC) in the isotropic phase can be enhanced by 1 order of magnitude by dissolving 0.1{percent} of anthraquinone dye in the LC. The enhancement decreases by {approximately}30{percent} when the LC transforms into the nematic phase. The same guest-host effect also exists in non-LC liquids. It can be explained by a model based on the change of guest-host interaction induced by optical excitations of the dye. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, Göttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  15. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Tan, E. C. D.; Biddy, M. J.; Beckham, G. T.; Scarlata, C.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of biological conversion of lingnocellulosic-dervied sugars. The process design converts biomass to a hydrocarbon intermediate, a free fatty acid, using dilute-acid pretreatement, enzymatic saccharification, and bioconversion. Ancillary areas--feed handling, hydrolysate conditioning, product recovery and upgrading (hydrotreating) to a final blendstock material, wastewater treatment, lignin combusion, and utilities--are also included in the design.

  16. The African-American house as a vehicle of discovery for an African-American architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Charles E. (Charles Edward)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research is three-fold: (1) This thesis seeks to uncover evidence of a distinctly African-American architectural form. The primary building type observed will be the house, or the housing of African-Americans ...

  17. Cold War love : producing American liberalism in interracial marriages between American soldiers and Japanese women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsuchiya, Tomoko

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Justice: Americanization of Japanese War Crimes at the Endof the Post-Cold War. ” Journal of Asian American Studies256. Berry, Nicholas O. War and the Red Cross: The Unspoken

  18. Design and manipulation of 1-D rugate photonic crystals of porous silicon for chemical sensing applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Brian Henry

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Respirators. American Industrial Hygiene AssociationAIHAJ - American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2001. 62(

  19. Commercial Application of Freeze Crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorgol, R. G.

    COMMERCIAL APPLICATION OF FREEZE CRYSTALLIZATION ROBERT G. GORGOL, MARKETING MANAGER, HPD INCORPORATED, NAPERVILLE, ILLINOIS ABSTRACT Industrial usc of frcezing for componcnt purification and separation is well understood, but commercial... of purification, but they did understand the water they obtained from ice was potable. RECENT APPLICATIONS Scientists have understood the basic mechanism of the freezing phase change for many years. ID an effort to harness the power of this phenomena...

  20. Abstract crystals Department of Mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ram, Arun

    is a normal crystal define a bijection si : B B by sib = ~f wti(b) i b, if wti(b) 0, ~e -wti(b) i b, if wti, b2 B2} with wti(b1 b2) = wti(b1) + wti(b2), i(b1 b2) = max{i(b1), i(b2) - wt(b1), i }, i(b1 b2

  1. Bent core liquid crystal elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verduzco, R.; DiMasi, E.; Luchette, P.; Ho Hong, S.; Harden, J.; Palffy-Muhoray, P.; Kilbey II, S.M.; Sprunt, S.; Gleeson, G.T. Jakli, A.

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid crystal (LC) elastomers with bent-core side-groups incorporate the properties of bent-core liquid crystals in a flexible and self-supporting polymer network. Bent-core liquid crystal elastomers (BCEs) with uniform alignment were prepared by attaching a reactive bent-core LC to poly(hydrogenmethylsiloxane) and crosslinking with a divinyl crosslinker. Phase behavior studies indicate a nematic phase over a wide temperature range that approaches room temperature, and thermoelastic measurements show that these BCEs can reversibly change their length by more than a factor of two upon heating and cooling. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies reveal multiple, broad low-angle peaks consistent with short-range smectic C order of the bent-core side groups. A comparison of these patterns with predictions of a Landau model for short-range smectic C order shows that the length scale for smectic ordering in BCEs is similar to that seen in pure bent-core LCs. The combination of rubber elasticity and smectic ordering of the bent-core side groups suggests that BCEs may be promising materials for sensing, actuating, and other advanced applications.

  2. Top Value Added Chemicals From Biomass: I. Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werpy, Todd A.; Holladay, John E.; White, James F.

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies twelve building block chemicals that can be produced from sugars via biological or chemical conversions. The twelve building blocks can be subsequently converted to a number of high-value bio-based chemicals or materials. Building block chemicals, as considered for this analysis, are molecules with multiple functional groups that possess the potential to be transformed into new families of useful molecules. The twelve sugar-based building blocks are 1,4-diacids (succinic, fumaric and malic), 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, 3-hydroxy propionic acid, aspartic acid, glucaric acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, glycerol, sorbitol, and xylitol/arabinitol. In addition to building blocks, the report outlines the central technical barriers that are preventing the widespread use of biomass for products and chemicals.

  3. Copyright American Museum of Natural History 2012 ISSN 0003-0082 AMERICAN MUSEUM NOVITATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Copyright © American Museum of Natural History 2012 ISSN 0003-0082 AMERICAN MUSEUM NOVITATES NumberDivision of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History; 2Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém University, Washington, DC; 5Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Australia; 6Koninklijk Belgisch Insti- tuut voor

  4. Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Center for Latin American,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Jay

    CLACLS Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Center for Latin American, Caribbean Psychology Ph.D. Program Quantitative Research Associate Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino, Caribbean and Latino Studies is a research institute that works for the advancement of the study of Latin

  5. Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Center for Latin American,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Jay

    CLACLS Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Center for Latin American, Caribbean - Report 56 - January 2014 #12;The Center for Latin American, Caribbean and Latino Studies is a research institute that works for the advancement of the study of Latin America, the Caribbean, and Latinos

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: American Institute of Aeronautics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Two Sandia Leaders Elected American Association for the Advancement of Science Fellows On December 15, 2014, in Climate, Energy,...

  7. 2005 American Conference on Theoretical Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, Emily A

    2006-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The materials uploaded are meant to serve as final report on the funds provided by DOE-BES to help sponsor the 2005 American Conference on Theoretical Chemistry.

  8. The Smithsonian American Art Museum GATEWAY Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about using LEDs in a GATEWAY demonstration at the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, DC, including an interview with lighting designer Scott Rosenfeld.

  9. North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC): Reliability...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (NERC): Reliability Considerations from the Integration of Smart Grid North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC): Reliability Considerations from the Integration of...

  10. American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit will bring together leaders and perspectives from industry, government, academia, national laboratories, labor, and policy organizations...

  11. Building America Research for the American Home

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program is helping to engineer American homes for better energy performance, durability, quality, affordability, and comfort.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: American Society of Mechanical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paper Presented at American Society of Mechanical Engineers' (ASME) 2012 Internal Combustion Engine Division (ICED) Conference On August 28, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Energy...

  13. Asian American Pacific Islander Heritage Month

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Generations of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have helped make America what it is today. Their histories recall bitter hardships and proud accomplishments -- from the laborers who...

  14. American Valve: Proposed Penalty (2010-CW-1411)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that American Valve, Inc. failed to certify a variety of showerheads as compliant with the applicable water conservation standards.

  15. North American Renewables Registry (Multiple States)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North American Renewables Registry (NAR) provides a Web-based platform trusted to create, track, and manage renewable energy certificate (REC) origination for clean generation facilities and...

  16. Comments of North American Electric Reliability Corporation ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    currently developing a report, entitled "Reliability Consideration from Integration of Smart Grid" that will address many of the issues raised in the DOE RFI. North American...

  17. New American Home 2011, Orlando, Florida (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brochure details the New American Home 2011, which demonstrates the use of innovative building materials, cutting-edge design, and the latest construction techniques.

  18. Americans with Disabilities Act Signed (1990) | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Americans with Disabilities Act Signed (1990) Americans with Disabilities Act Signed (1990) July 26, 2013 7:30PM EDT The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) prohibits...

  19. Determinants of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in young children: a systematic review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paes, Veena Mazarello; Hesketh, Kathryn; O’Malley, Claire; Moore, Helen; Summerbell, Carolyn; Griffin, Simon; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Ong, Ken K.; Lakshman, Rajalakshmi

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    review A running title: Determinants of SSB consumption in young children Address of corresponding author and email address: Rajalakshmi Lakshman PhD, MRCP, FFPH, MPH Box 285 MRC Epidemiology Unit and CEDAR University of Cambridge Hills Road... infancy and toddlerhood is associated with child blood pressure at age 7.5 y. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2013;97(6):1375-86. 23. Lakshman R, Elks CE, Ong KK. Childhood Obesity. Circulation. 2012;126(14):1770- 9. 24. Malik VS, Schulze...

  20. The Acculturation of Chinese-American Adolescents in Negotiating Autonomy and Connectedness: Comparison between Chinese- and European-Americans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Tzu-Fen

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    with the dominant culture to show similar desires of being autonomous as European-American adolescents. However, Chinese-American mothers adopted more authoritarian, conservative, and inflexible parenting styles than European-American mothers. With regard...

  1. Proceedings of the 2004 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, Copyright 2004, American Society for Engineering Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roylance, David

    Proceedings of the 2004 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition between the two institutions. #12;Proceedings of the 2004 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, Copyright © 2004, American Society for Engineering Education

  2. Native American Barbie: The Marketing of Euro-American Desires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwarz, Maureen Trudelle

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    have a story to tell. Nineteenth-century American notions of play were not intimately bound up with toys. The limited playthings that children did have were made in small local craft industries or constructed by either children themselves... or their fam ily members out of paper, wood, fabric, wrought iron, or tin. In these circum stances, activities for boys and girls mimicked the gender-specific behaviors of parents. Girls played at domestic and child-care tasks with dolls made to look like...

  3. adult south american: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    while the African American lawyer arguedAfrican American community of Tulsa, Oklahoma, came under attack following newspaper Pye, David Kenneth 2010-01-01 23 Molecular...

  4. american mink neovison: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 203 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  5. american roentgen ray: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 199 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  6. asccp kongress american: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 166 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  7. american agalinis orobanchaceae: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Topic Index 161 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  8. american erionite-associated mesothelioma: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 160 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  9. american beaver castor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 244 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  10. american samoa: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 202 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  11. american pika ochotona: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 165 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  12. american sycamore platanus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 172 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  13. american opossum didelphis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 179 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  14. american solanum subgen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 187 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  15. american hydrovatus coleoptera: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 211 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  16. american kestrel falco: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 226 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  17. american bullfrogs rana: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 230 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  18. american catfish histopathology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 268 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  19. american toads bufo: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 275 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  20. american chestnut castanea: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 210 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  1. american bullfrog rana: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 230 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  2. american polyspecific antivenoms: Topics by E-print Network

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    K 1998-01-01 162 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  3. american mink mustela: Topics by E-print Network

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    K 1998-01-01 217 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  4. american visceral leishmaniasis: Topics by E-print Network

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    K 1998-01-01 196 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  5. american tegumentary leishmaniasis: Topics by E-print Network

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    K 1998-01-01 174 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

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    K 1998-01-01 173 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  7. american cycliophoran symbion: Topics by E-print Network

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    K 1998-01-01 157 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: AIAA SciTech/American Society of...

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    AIAA SciTechAmerican Society of Mechanical Engineers Wind Energy Symposium National Rotor Testbed Functional Scaling Presented at American Institute of Aeronautics and...

  9. American Recovery & Reinvestment Act, ARRA, clean energy projects...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    American Recovery & Reinvestment Act, ARRA, clean energy projects, energy efficiency, smart grid, alternative fuels, geothermal energy American Recovery & Reinvestment Act, ARRA,...

  10. american resource history: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Century World (2000). Nash, Roderick Wisconsin at Madison, University of 5 National Museum of American History Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: National Museum of American...

  11. american science policy: Topics by E-print Network

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    Australia. January 2001. 12.American Society of Agronomy - Fellow Award. 2002 Jawitz, James W. 174 Roadmap: Political Science American Politics Bachelor of Arts AS-BA-POL-APOL...

  12. American Indian Policy and Relevant DOE and Executive Orders...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Services Communication & Engagement Tribal Programs American Indian Policy and Relevant DOE and Executive Orders American Indian Policy and Relevant DOE and Executive...

  13. American Energy Data Challenge Hackathons - "Apps For Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    American Energy Data Challenge Hackathons - "Apps For Energy": Turning Energy Data into Working Apps in 24 Hours American Energy Data Challenge Hackathons - "Apps For Energy":...

  14. Breakthrough in Bioenergy: American Process Sells First RIN-qualified...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Breakthrough in Bioenergy: American Process Sells First RIN-qualified Cellulosic Ethanol Shipment Breakthrough in Bioenergy: American Process Sells First RIN-qualified Cellulosic...

  15. EPA Tribal Training and Outreach Support for the American Indian...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tribal Training and Outreach Support for the American Indian Air Quality Training Program EPA Tribal Training and Outreach Support for the American Indian Air Quality Training...

  16. american indian women: Topics by E-print Network

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    communities Duarte, Meredith Laura 2012-01-01 24 Grant Title: AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY WOMEN (AAUW) -AMERICAN FELLOWSHIPS Funding Opportunity Number: NA Engineering...

  17. Diesel Engine Strategy & North American Market Challenges, Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategy & North American Market Challenges, Technology and Growth Diesel Engine Strategy & North American Market Challenges, Technology and Growth Presentation given at the 2007...

  18. annual meeting american: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    about the Latin AmericanCaribbean region. When Professor Daniel2008-09 Annual Report Center for Latin American Studies University Center for International Studies 2009,...

  19. american mink populations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the American mink and a distinct biogeographic radiation of American weasels Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , M. nigripes), Mustela migrant to North...

  20. american history cluster: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abolmaesumi, Purang 2 History of Science North American Environmental History Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: History of Science North American...

  1. american study results: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Planning Worksheet for American Indian Studies Admission Requirements: 1. Minimum 2.0 cumulative GPA 2. 10 credits of American Indian Studies courses 3) College Example:...

  2. Bootstrapping a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell Industry...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Bootstrapping a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell Industry: Could a Federal Acquisition Program Make a Difference? Bootstrapping a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell...

  3. American Wind Energy Association Wind Energy Finance and Investment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American Wind Energy Association Wind Energy Finance and Investment Seminar American Wind Energy Association Wind Energy Finance and Investment Seminar October 20, 2014 8:00AM EDT...

  4. african american family: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Williams II, Ronald Cartell 2011-01-01 17 of October 2002 African Americans Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Injustice Air Injustice of October 2002 African Americans & Power...

  5. african american children: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Williams II, Ronald Cartell 2011-01-01 15 of October 2002 African Americans Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Injustice Air Injustice of October 2002 African Americans & Power...

  6. african american adults: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Williams II, Ronald Cartell 2011-01-01 10 of October 2002 African Americans Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Injustice Air Injustice of October 2002 African Americans & Power...

  7. african american families: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Williams II, Ronald Cartell 2011-01-01 17 of October 2002 African Americans Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Injustice Air Injustice of October 2002 African Americans & Power...

  8. Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine Laboratory Demonstration of a New...

  9. Taking the cure: Control and compliance in American medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gosland, Melissa S

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and compliance in American medicine by Melissa Susan Goslandand compliance in American medicine ©1993 by Melissa Susancentury, however, that medicine began to consolidate its

  10. Audit Report: The Department of Energy's American Recovery and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - California State Energy Program Audit Report: The Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act - California...

  11. Crystallization and functionality of inorganic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dongfeng@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Keyan [School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Jun [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Ministry of Education, Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, Xiangtan University, 411105 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Ministry of Education, Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, Xiangtan University, 411105 (China); Sun, Congting; Chen, Kunfeng [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, we briefly summarized our recent work on the studies of crystallization and functionality of inorganic materials. On the basis of the chemical bonding theory of single crystal growth, we can quantitatively simulate Cu{sub 2}O crystallization processes in solution system. We also kinetically controlled Cu{sub 2}O crystallization process in the reduction solution route. Lithium ion battery and supercapacitor performances of some oxides such as Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and MnO{sub 2} were shown to elucidate the important effect of crystallization on functionality of inorganic materials. This work encourages us to create novel functionalities through the study of crystallization of inorganic materials, which warrants more chances in the field of functional materials.

  12. Phonon manipulation with phononic crystals.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim Bongsang; Hopkins, Patrick Edward; Leseman, Zayd C.; Goettler, Drew F.; Su, Mehmet F. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Reinke, Charles M.; Olsson, Roy H., III

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we demonstrated engineered modification of propagation of thermal phonons, i.e. at THz frequencies, using phononic crystals. This work combined theoretical work at Sandia National Laboratories, the University of New Mexico, the University of Colorado Boulder, and Carnegie Mellon University; the MESA fabrication facilities at Sandia; and the microfabrication facilities at UNM to produce world-leading control of phonon propagation in silicon at frequencies up to 3 THz. These efforts culminated in a dramatic reduction in the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystals by a factor of almost 30 as compared with the bulk value, and about 6 as compared with an unpatterned slab of the same thickness. This work represents a revolutionary advance in the engineering of thermoelectric materials for optimal, high-ZT performance. We have demonstrated the significant reduction of the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystal structuring using MEMS-compatible fabrication techniques and in a planar platform that is amenable to integration with typical microelectronic systems. The measured reduction in thermal conductivity as compared to bulk silicon was about a factor of 20 in the cross-plane direction [26], and a factor of 6 in the in-plane direction. Since the electrical conductivity was only reduced by a corresponding factor of about 3 due to the removal of conductive material (i.e., porosity), and the Seebeck coefficient should remain constant as an intrinsic material property, this corresponds to an effective enhancement in ZT by a factor of 2. Given the number of papers in literature devoted to only a small, incremental change in ZT, the ability to boost the ZT of a material by a factor of 2 simply by reducing thermal conductivity is groundbreaking. The results in this work were obtained using silicon, a material that has benefitted from enormous interest in the microelectronics industry and that has a fairly large thermoelectric power factor. In addition, the techniques and scientific understanding developed in the research can be applied to a wide range of materials, with the caveat that the thermal conductivity of such a material be dominated by phonon, rather than electron, transport. In particular, this includes several thermoelectric materials with attractive properties at elevated temperatures (i.e., greater than room temperature), such as silicon germanium and silicon carbide. It is reasonable that phononic crystal patterning could be used for high-temperature thermoelectric devices using such materials, with applications in energy scavenging via waste-heat recovery and thermoelectric cooling for high-performance microelectronic circuits. The only part of the ZT picture missing in this work was the experimental measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of our phononic crystal devices. While a first-order approximation indicates that the Seebeck coefficient should not change significantly from that of bulk silicon, we were not able to actually verify this assumption within the timeframe of the project. Additionally, with regards to future high-temperature applications of this technology, we plan to measure the thermal conductivity reduction factor of our phononic crystals as elevated temperatures to confirm that it does not diminish, given that the nominal thermal conductivity of most semiconductors, including silicon, decreases with temperature above room temperature. We hope to have the opportunity to address these concerns and further advance the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric materials in future projects.

  13. Singular Limits in Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1910-31-00T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate equilibrium configurations for a polymer stabilized liquid crys- tal material ... eling the cross section of the liquid crystal-polymer fiber composite.

  14. Photonic crystals for high temperature applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeng, Yi Xiang

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on the design, optimization, fabrication, and experimental realization of metallic photonic crystals (MPhCs) for high temperature applications, for instance thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion ...

  15. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  16. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  17. Proceedings of the 2005 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition Copyright 2005, American Society for Engineering Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Juhani, Abdulhadi A.

    Proceedings of the 2005 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition on paper #12;Proceedings of the 2005 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference

  18. Crystal Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergy Offshore Place:WindOilCowal Wind Energy LtdCrystal

  19. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  20. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report sunnnarizes the research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  1. The Automobile in American History History 392

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    1 The Automobile in American History History 392 Consider Resources Primary Resources: letters. popular), theses, the Web Check subject guide: How-to & Help Research by Subject History American History Find Background Information The following titles are shelved in the Stauffer Library Reference

  2. David Rettner, PE American Engineering Testing, Inc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    management ­! Long range planning/budgeting ­! Asset management ­! Huge research potential! #12;Tools within. American Engineering Testing, Inc April 27, 2010 #12;Project Overview !! Funded and Managed by State Aid !! Project Advisors: MCEA 10-ton Committee !! Consultant: ·! Braun Intertec ·! American Engineering Testing

  3. Latin american and caribbean StudieS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dresden, Gregory

    209 Latin american and caribbean StudieS (LacS) cOre FacuLtY: Professor barnett AssociAte Professor MAyock AssistAnt Professors BottA, cArey, Dickovick, eAstwooD the Program in Latin american and caribbean, culture, and society as applied to the region of Latin America and the caribbean. the program's curriculum

  4. American Cooler Technologies: Order (2013-CE-5305)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered American Cooler Technologies to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding American Cooler Technologies had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in coolers or freezers (WICF) components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  5. North American Society for Trenchless Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Paul A.

    North American Society for Trenchless Technology (NASTT) Bowling Green State University (BGSU Technology Seminar North American Society for Trenchless Technology (NASTT) & Bowling Green State University-Thompson Student Union Bowling Green State University (BGSU) Bowling Green, Ohio February 23-24, 2012 #12;Second

  6. Journal of Crystal Growth 250 (2003) 499515 Induction time in crystallization of gas hydrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Crystal Growth 250 (2003) 499­515 Induction time in crystallization of gas hydrates Dimo. Kern Abstract The kinetics of the initial stage of crystallization of one-component gas hydrates of gas consumed are determined. Expressions are derived for the supersaturation dependence of the hydrate

  7. American Mineralogist, Volume 78, pages 1320-1323, 1993 Crystal chemistry of ferromagnesian silicate spinels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downs, Robert T.

    of ferromagnesian silicate spinels: Evidence for Mg-Si disorder ROBERT M. HAZEN, ROBERT T. DOWNS, LARRY W. FINGER have been obtained for synthetic Fe-Mg silicate spinels, -y-(MgxFel-x)2Si04 (x = 1.00, 0.40, and 0 thus far are inconclusive regarding the question of disorder in magnesium-silicate spinel." They also

  8. A Complete Microfluidic Screening Platform for Rational Protein Crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Carl L.

    A Complete Microfluidic Screening Platform for Rational Protein Crystallization Billy T. C. Lau integration, and low reagent consumption, microfluidic devices have emerged as viable technologies for protein crystallization. Current microfluidic crystallization technologies have focused on two separate strategies: one

  9. Transverse acoustic actuation of Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, Jesse Matthew

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two methods for the transverse acoustic actuation of {110}-cut Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals are discussed. In this actuation mode, crystals are used that have the {110}- type twinning planes parallel to the base of the crystal. ...

  10. Coherent multilayer crystals and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuller, I.K.; Falco, C.M.

    1980-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A new material is described consisting of a coherent multilayer crystal of two or more elements where each layer is composed of a single element. Each layer may vary in thickness from about 2 A to 2500 A. The multilayer crystals are prepared by sputter deposition under conditions which slow the sputtered atoms to near substrate temperatures before they contact the substrate.

  11. Growth Of Oriented Crystals At Polymerized Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah H. (Albany, CA), Berman, Amir (Ben-Shiva, IL)

    2000-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the growth and alignment of crystals at biopolymeric films. The methods and compositions of the present invention provide means to generate a variety of dense crystalline ceramic films, with totally aligned crystals, at low temperatures and pressures, suitable for use with polymer and plastic substrates.

  12. General recipe for designing photonic crystal cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuckovic, Jelena

    . Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley and Sons, 2003). 13. A. Badolato, K. Hennessy, M and links 1. S. Johnson, S. Fan, A. Mekis, and J. Joannopoulos, "Multipole-cancellation mechanism for high. Vuckovi´c, M. Loncar, H. Mabuchi, and A. Scherer, "Design of photonic crystal microcavities for cavity QED

  13. Ames Lab 101: Single Crystal Growth

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Schlagel, Deborah

    2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Ames Laboratory scientist Deborah Schlagel talks about the Lab's research in growing single crystals of various metals and alloys. The single crystal samples are vital to researchers' understanding of the characteristics of a materials and what gives these materials their particular properties.

  14. A Gradual Reawakening: Broadacre City and a New American Agrarianism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wise, Ella

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Green Development, and Renewable Energy. 2nd ed. AmericanCritical Agrarianism. ” Renewable Agriculture and Food

  15. Join us for the Third North American Congress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Oncology (ASPO) American Statistical Association-Epidemiology (ASA-EPI) Council of State and Territorial Society (AES) American Heart Association -Epidemiology Section(AHA-EPI) American Society for Preventive) International Society for Pharmacoepidemiology (ISPE) Mol Epi Group/American Association of Cancer Research (MEG

  16. Liquid crystal device and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shiyanovskii, Sergij V; Gu, Mingxia; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a liquid crystal device and method thereof. Subsequent to applying a first electrical voltage on a liquid crystal to induce a reorientation of the liquid crystal, a second electrical voltage with proper polarity is applied on the liquid crystal to assist the relaxation of the reorientation that was induced by the first electrical voltage. The "switch-off" phase of the liquid crystal can therefore be accelerated or temporally shortened, and the device can exhibit better performance such as fast response to on/off signals. The invention can be widely used LCD, LC shutter, LC lens, spatial light modulator, telecommunication device, tunable filter, beam steering device, and electrically driven LC device, among others.

  17. 2010 American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS 2010)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billinge, Simon

    2011-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The ACNS provides a focal point for the national neutron user community to strengthen ties within this diverse group, while at the same time promoting neutron research among colleagues in related disciplines identified as “would-be” neutron users. The American Conference on Neutron Scattering thus serves a dual role as a national user meeting and a scientific meeting. As a venue for scientific exchange, the ACNS showcases recent results and provides forums for scientific discussion of neutron research in diverse fields such as hard and soft condensed matter, liquids, biology, magnetism, engineering materials, chemical spectroscopy, crystal structure, and elementary excitations, fundamental physics and development of neutron instrumentation through a combination of invited talks, contributed talks and poster sessions. As a “super-user” meeting, the ACNS fulfills the main objectives of users' meetings previously held periodically at individual national neutron facilities, with the advantage of a larger and more diverse audience. To this end, each of the major national neutron facilities (NIST, LANSCE, HFIR and SNS) have an opportunity to exchange information and update users, and potential users, of their facility. This is also an appropriate forum for users to raise issues that relate to the facilities. For many of the national facilities, this super-user meeting should obviate the need for separate user meetings that tax the time, energy and budgets of facility staff and the users alike, at least in years when the ACNS is held. We rely upon strong participation from the national facilities. The NSSA intends that the American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) will occur approximately every two years, but not in years that coincide with the International or European Conferences on Neutron Scattering. The ACNS is to be held in association with one of the national neutron centers in a rotating sequence, with the host facility providing local organization and planning assistance. Additional logistical support is being provided this year through a partnership with the conferencing office of the Materials Research Society (MRS). The ACNS, targeting the entire potential neutron North American user community, complements the annual NIST, ANL and LANSCE neutron and scattering schools which give hands-on experience primarily to graduate students who anticipate using neutron scattering in their thesis research. The summer schools are promoted at the ACNS and represent a natural path for students to take after being inspired by the activities of the ACNS.

  18. Analysis of Crystal Lattice Deformation by Ion Channeling. |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Crystal Lattice Deformation by Ion Channeling. Analysis of Crystal Lattice Deformation by Ion Channeling. Abstract: A model of dislocations has been developed for the use in Monte...

  19. Microfluidic systems for continuous crystallization of small organic molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sultana, Mahmooda

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents one of the first demonstrations of continuous crystallization in microfluidic devices, and illustrates their use for various applications related to crystallization of small organic molecules. ...

  20. antiferroelectric liquid crystals: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of phases in antiferroelectric liquid crystals Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: The free energy of antiferroelectric liquid crystal which takes into account polar order...

  1. antiferroelectric liquid crystal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of phases in antiferroelectric liquid crystals Condensed Matter (arXiv) Summary: The free energy of antiferroelectric liquid crystal which takes into account polar order...

  2. Corrosion of Partially Crystallized Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.

    2002-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Using existing data on corrosion of partially crystallized, simulated, high-level waste glasses, coefficients were introduced to evaluate the cumulative influence of secondary effects, such as residual stresses or concentration gradients on product consistency test response. As compared to predictions based solely on residual glass composition effects, the results showed that cristobalite, eucryptite, and nepheline had a higher-than-predicted impact on glass corrosion, while the effects of baddeleyite, hematite, calcium-zirconium silicate, and zircon were close to those predicted. The effects of acmite and lithium silicate were opposite to those expected based on their compositions. The analysis revealed important limitations of the databases currently available. Better understanding of corrosion phenomena will require quantitative composition data, microscopic characterization of pristine and corroded surfaces, and long-term tests with glass coupons or monoliths.

  3. Copyright American Museum of Natural History 2001 ISSN 0003-0082 PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, James M.

    Copyright American Museum of Natural History 2001 ISSN 0003-0082 PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN MUSEUM Associate Curator and Chairman, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles, American Museum of Natural History. 2 Chairman, Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural

  4. Copyright American Museum of Natural History 2002 ISSN 0003-0082 PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, James M.

    Copyright American Museum of Natural History 2002 ISSN 0003-0082 PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN MUSEUM Washington University, Washington, DC 20052. Research Associate, Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History. e-mail: jclark@gwu.edu 2 Chairman, Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural

  5. Mexican American city officials in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arriaga, Adrian Aron

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Science MEXICAN AMERICAN CITY OFFICIALS IN TEXAS A Thesis by ADRIAN ARON ARRIAGA Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Mem r Member August 1973 ABSTRACT Nex1can Amer1can City Offic1als 1n Texas. (August 1973) Adrian Aron.... 35 As Nex1can American veterans returned home, new ambitions started to form. The G. I. Bill provided needed educa- tion for Mexican Amer1cans who took the opportunity. 36 New self- confidence led Mexican Americans to establish a number of impor...

  6. Continuous countercurrent chromatographic separator for the purification of sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Final project report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooley, R.J.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Production of pure sugars is required to enable production of fuels and chemicals from biomass feedstocks. Hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose (principal constituents of biomass) produces sugars that can be utilized in various fermentation process to produce valuable chemicals. Unfortunately, the hydrolysis process also liberates chemicals from the biomass that can be toxic to the fermenting organisms. The two primary toxic components of biomass hydrolyzate are sulfuric acid (catalyst used in the hydrolysis) and acetic acid (a component of the feed biomass). In the standard batch chromatographic separation of these three components, sugar elutes in the middle. Batch chromatographic separations are not practical on a commercial scale, because of excess dilution and high capital costs. Because sugar is the {open_quotes}center product,{close_quotes} a continuous separation would require two costly binary separators. However, a single, slightly larger separator, configured to produce three products, would be more economical. This FIRST project develops a cost-effective method for purifying biomass hydrolyzate into fermentable sugars using a single continuous countercurrent separator to separate this ternary mixture.

  7. Native American Studies in the Program in American Culture, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dowd, Gegory Evans

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Native American Studies in the Program in American Culture, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor1 Gregory Evans Dowd Background and Goals The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, has a long, uneven history with American Indians. Today... the university publicly avows that its veiy origins lie in a land grant obtained in Article 16 of the Treaty of Fort Meigs (1817). Yet in the last quarter of the twentieth century, even as Michigan emerged as a leading national proponent of diversity...

  8. Differences in Mexican-American and Anglo-American Women's Response to a Modified Clothing TAT.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bathke, Carol Sander

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the United States (1 1). It was theorized that be- cause the Anglo-American level of education generally was higher than that of the Mexican-Americans, the former would tend to take education for granted and thus would be less c~~gnizant of education...B-1076 September 1968 Differences in Mexican-American And Anglo-American Women's Responses To a Modified Clothing TAT TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION H. 0. Kunkel, Acting Director, College Station, Texas CONTENTS...

  9. American Academy of Pediatrics 2014 Bronchiolitis Guidelines: Bonfire of the Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Paul; Rothenberg, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E ditorial American Academy of Pediatrics 2014 BronchiolitisTHE EVIDENCE The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2014Emergency Medicine The American Academy of Pediatrics 2014

  10. American Power: Proposed Penalty (2010-CE-0911)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that American Power Solutions, Inc. failed to certify a general service fluorescent lamp as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  11. The Ecohydrology of South American Rivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClain, Michael

    The Ecohydrology of South American Rivers and Wetlands edited by Michael E. McClain Department research integrating the physical processes of hydrology with the biological processes of ecology. Together

  12. ORISE: College of American Pathologists renews accreditation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    College of American Pathologists renews accreditation of ORISE beryllium laboratory Lab is one of only four in U.S. certified to test for sensitization to beryllium FOR IMMEDIATE...

  13. Sentimental Poetry of the American Civil War

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trapp, Marjorie Jane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Company, 1866. Devon, W. A. War Lyrics. New York: SinclairHickey, ed. Ballads of the War. New York: J. Robins, 1862.Eggleston, G. C, ed. American War Ballads and Lyrics. New

  14. American Process—Alpena Biorefinery Lessons

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding I: Integrated Biorefinery (Lessons Learned and Best Practices) American Process—Alpena Biorefinery Lessons Theodora Retsina, Chief Executive Officer, America Process Inc.

  15. Latin American & Caribbean Studies Seminar Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Taosheng

    S Latin American & Caribbean Studies Seminar Series Learn more: www.LatinAmerica.isp.msu.edu All presentations take place in room 201 International Center at 3:00-4:30 pm unless noted. September 14 Caribbean

  16. Transforming the American Economy Through Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Secretary Chu joins Vice President Joe Biden as he details the role the Recovery Act has played in funding innovation that will help build a foundation for a more robust and competitive American...

  17. High Impact Technologies Forum: Harnessing American Ingenuity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Efficiency High Impact Technologies Forum: Harnessing American Ingenuity and Innovation to Catalyze Building Efficiency May 29, 2015 9:00AM to 2:00PM EDT Better...

  18. EIS-0468: American Centrifuge Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of construction, operation, and decommissioning of the American Centrifuge Plant (ACP), located on DOE reservation in Piketon, Ohio. (DOE adopted this EIS issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on 02/16/2011.)

  19. TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edgar, Gerald

    )0000-0 FRACTIONAL ITERATION OF SERIES AND TRANSSERIES G. A. EDGAR Abstract. We investigate; Secondary 41A60, 39B12, 30B10. c XXXX American Mathematical Society 1 #12;2 G. A. EDGAR Review

  20. Novel photonic crystal cavities and related structures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luk, Ting Shan

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The key accomplishment of this project is to achieve a much more in-depth understanding of the thermal emission physics of metallic photonic crystal through theoretical modeling and experimental measurements. An improved transfer matrix technique was developed to enable incorporation of complex dielectric function. Together with microscopic theory describing emitter radiative and non-radiative relaxation dynamics, a non-equilibrium thermal emission model is developed. Finally, experimental methodology was developed to measure absolute emissivity of photonic crystal at high temperatures with accuracy of +/-2%. Accurate emissivity measurements allow us to validate the procedure to treat the effect of the photonic crystal substrate.

  1. Cold neutron scattering in imperfect deuterium crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrzej Adamczak

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The differential cross sections for cold neutron scattering in mosaic deuterium crystals have been calculated for various target temperatures. The theoretical results are compared with the recent experimental data for the neutron wavelengths $\\lambda\\approx$~1--9~\\AA. It is shown that the structures of observed Bragg peaks can be explained by the mosaic spread of about $3^{\\circ}$ and contributions from a~limited number of crystal orientations. Such a~crystal structure should be also taken into account in ultracold neutron upscattering due to the coherent phonon annihilation in solid deuterium.

  2. Shearing Flows in Liquid Crystal Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorn, Timothy

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    . The director field is the realization of local averaging to de- scribe the natural state in a nematic liquid crystal, Figure 1.1. For any natural alignment of the liquid crystal, n?, one prescribes that W (n?,?n?) = 0. Since the director field is used... derivative of h by the formula D Dt h(t,x) = ?h? t +(u · ~?)h. The acceleration is of the liquid crystal material through the point x is given by a(t,x) = Du Dt . Following the classical approach one assumes that for every open subset Wt ??, trav- eling along...

  3. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal.

  4. NMR and NQR parameters of ethanol crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milinkovic, M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric field gradients and chemical shielding tensors of the stable monoclinic crystal phase of ethanol are computed. The projector-augmented wave (PAW) and gauge-including projector-augmented wave (GIPAW) models in the periodic plane-wave density functional theory are used. The crystal data from X-ray measurements, as well as the structures where either all atomic, or only hydrogen atom positions are optimized in the density functional theory are analyzed. These structural models are also studied by including the semi-empirical Van der Waals correction to the density functional theory. Infrared spectra of these five crystal models are calculated.

  5. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  6. Changes in mobility of plastic crystal ethanol during its transformation into the monoclinic crystal state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanz, Alejandro, E-mail: alejandro.sanz@csic.es; Nogales, Aurora; Ezquerra, Tiberio A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)] [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Puente-Orench, Inés [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France) [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, ICMA-CSIC, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Jiménez-Ruiz, Mónica [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Transformation of deuterated ethanol from the plastic crystal phase into the monoclinic one is investigated by means of a singular setup combining simultaneously dielectric spectroscopy with neutron diffraction. We postulate that a dynamic transition from plastic crystal to supercooled liquid-like configuration through a deep reorganization of the hydrogen-bonding network must take place as a previous step of the crystallization process. Once these precursor regions are formed, subsequent crystalline nucleation and growth develop with time.

  7. Semiconductor liquid crystal composition and methods for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Li, Liang-shi

    2005-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor liquid crystal compositions and methods for making such compositions are disclosed. One embodiment of the invention is directed to a liquid crystal composition including a solvent and semiconductor particles in the solvent. The solvent and the semiconductor particles are in an effective amount in the liquid crystal composition to form a liquid crystal phase.

  8. Styrene Purification and Recovery Using Freeze Crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heist, J. A.; Wrobel, P. J.

    Lab tests have demonstrated the ability to separate styrene from ABS and SAN plastics wastes by cooling the waste until the styrene begins to crystallize. The same process that recovers styrene from these wastes can be used to purify styrene...

  9. Nanoparticle-chiral nematic liquid crystal composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payne, Jeffrey C. (Jeffrey Christopher), 1981-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The advancement of the fabrication of a one-dimensional photonic crystal without time-reversal and space-inversion symmetries was pursued. Theoretical studies predict that such a system would exhibit unusual optical ...

  10. Thermophysical parameters of the LBO crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grechin, Sergei G [Scientific-Research Institute of Radioelectronics and Laser Technology at the N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zuev, A V; Fokin, A S [All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materials, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kokh, Aleksandr E [V.S.Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Moiseev, N V; Popov, Petr A; Sidorov, Aleksei A [Acad. I. G. Petrovskii Bryansk State University, Bryansk (Russian Federation)

    2010-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermophysical parameters (linear thermal expansion coefficients, thermal conductivities, and heat capacity) of the lithium triborate (LBO) crystal are measured and compared with previously published data. (nonlinear-optics phenomena)

  11. Crystallization of carbon tetrachloride in confined geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Crystallization of carbon tetrachloride in confined geometries Adil Meziane1 , Jean-Pierre E 40 71 08 #12;2 Abstract The thermal behaviour of carbon tetrachloride confined in silica gels

  12. Electrically driven photonic crystal nanocavity devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shambat, Gary; Petykiewicz, Jan; Mayer, Marie A; Majumdar, Arka; Sarmiento, Tomas; Harris, James; Haller, Eugene E; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in photonic crystal nanocavities is fueled by advances in device performance, particularly in the development of low-threshold laser sources. Effective electrical control of high performance photonic crystal lasers has thus far remained elusive due to the complexities associated with current injection into cavities. A fabrication procedure for electrically pumping photonic crystal membrane devices using a lateral p-i-n junction has been developed and is described in this work. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasing in our junctions with a threshold of 181 nA at 50K - the lowest threshold ever demonstrated in an electrically pumped laser. At room temperature we find that our devices behave as single-mode light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which when directly modulated, have an ultrafast electrical response up to 10 GHz corresponding to less than 1 fJ/bit energy operation - the lowest for any optical transmitter. In addition, we have demonstrated electrical pumping of photonic crystal nanobeam LEDs...

  13. Method for solid state crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolas, George S.; Beekman, Matthew K.

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method for high quality crystal growth of intermetallic clathrates is presented. The synthesis of high quality pure phase crystals has been complicated by the simultaneous formation of both clathrate type-I and clathrate type-II structures. It was found that selective, phase pure, single-crystal growth of type-I and type-II clathrates can be achieved by maintaining sufficient partial pressure of a chemical constituent during slow, controlled deprivation of the chemical constituent from the primary reactant. The chemical constituent is slowly removed from the primary reactant by the reaction of the chemical constituent vapor with a secondary reactant, spatially separated from the primary reactant, in a closed volume under uniaxial pressure and heat to form the single phase pure crystals.

  14. The Crystal Method: Asteroseismology of BPM 37093

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. S. Metcalfe; M. H. Montgomery; A. Kanaan

    2004-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 40 years have passed since Ed Salpeter and others predicted that the carbon/oxygen cores of the coolest white dwarf stars in our Galaxy will theoretically crystallize. This effect has a dramatic impact on the calculated ages of cool white dwarfs, but until recently we have had no way of testing the theory. In 1992, pulsations were discovered in the massive potentially crystallized white dwarf BPM 37093, and in 1999 the theoretical effects of crystallization on the pulsation modes were determined. Observations from two Whole Earth Telescope campaigns in 1998 and 1999, combined with a new model-fitting method using a genetic algorithm, are now giving us the first glimpse inside of a crystallized star.

  15. Neutron detection with single crystal organic scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hamel, S; Carman, L; Faust, M; Lordi, V; Cherepy, N; Stoeffl, W; Payne, S

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Detection of high-energy neutrons in the presence of gamma radiation background utilizes pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) phenomena in organics studied previously only with limited number of materials, mostly liquid scintillators and single crystal stilbene. The current paper presents the results obtained with broader varieties of luminescent organic single crystals. The studies involve experimental tools of crystal growth and material characterization in combination with the advanced computer modeling, with the final goal of better understanding the relevance between the nature of the organic materials and their PSD properties. Special consideration is given to the factors that may diminish or even completely obscure the PSD properties in scintillating crystals. Among such factors are molecular and crystallographic structures that determine exchange coupling and exciton mobility in organic materials and the impurity effect discussed on the examples of trans-stilbene, bibenzyl, 9,10-diphenylanthracene and diphenylacetylene.

  16. Imaging with Spherically Bent Crystals or Reflectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Scott, S; Ince-Cushman, A; Reinke, M; Podpaly, Y; Rice, J E; Beiersdorfer, P

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper consists of two parts: Part I describes the working principle of a recently developed x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, where the astigmatism of spherically bent crystals is being used with advantage to record spatially resolved spectra of highly charged ions for Doppler measurements of the ion-temperature and toroidal plasmarotation- velocity profiles in tokamak plasmas. This type of spectrometer was thoroughly tested on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod, and its concept was recently adopted for the design of the ITER crystal spectrometers. Part II describes imaging schemes, where the astigmatism has been eliminated by the use of matched pairs of spherically bent crystals or reflectors. These imaging schemes are applicable over a wide range of the electromagnetic radiation, which includes microwaves, visible light, EUV radiation, and x-rays. Potential applications with EUV radiation and x-rays are the diagnosis of laserproduced plasmas, imaging of biological samples with synchrotron radiation, and lithography.

  17. Enhancement of crystal homogeneity of protein crystals under application of an external alternating current electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koizumi, H.; Uda, S.; Fujiwara, K.; Nozawa, J. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Tachibana, M. [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 22-2 Seto, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0027 (Japan); Kojima, K. [Department of Education, Yokohama Soei University, 1 Miho-tyou, Midori-ku, Yokohama, 226-0015 (Japan)

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray diffraction rocking-curve measurements were performed on tetragonal hen egg white (HEW) lysozyme crystals grown with and without the application of an external alternating current (AC) electric field. The crystal quality was assessed by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for each rocking curve. For two-dimensional maps of the FWHMs measured on the 440 and the 12 12 0 reflection, the crystal homogeneity was improved under application of an external electric field at 1 MHz, compared with that without. In particular, the significant improvement of the crystal homogeneity was observed for the 12 12 0 reflection.

  18. Method for reducing energy losses in laser crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atherton, L.J.; DeYoreo, J.J.; Roberts, D.H.

    1992-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for reducing energy losses in crystals is disclosed which comprises: a. heating a crystal to a temperature sufficiently high as to cause dissolution of microscopic inclusions into the crystal, thereby converting said inclusions into point-defects, and b. maintaining said crystal at a given temperature for a period of time sufficient to cause said point-defects to diffuse out of said crystal. Also disclosed are crystals treated by the process, and lasers utilizing the crystals as a source of light. 12 figs.

  19. Demixing cascades in cluster crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nigel B. Wilding; Peter Sollich

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In a cluster crystal, each lattice site is occupied by multiple soft-core particles. As the number density is increased at zero temperature, a `cascade' of isostructural phase transitions can occur between states whose site occupancy differs by unity. For low but finite temperature, each of these transitions terminates in a critical point. Using tailored Monte Carlo simulation techniques we have studied such demixing cascades in systems of soft particles interacting via potentials of the generalized exponential form $u(r)=\\epsilon\\exp[-(r/\\sigma)^n]$. We have estimated the critical parameters of the first few transitions in the cascade as a function of the softness parameter $n$. The critical temperature and pressure exhibit non-monotonic behaviour as $n$ is varied, although the critical chemical potential remains monotonic. The trends for the pressure and chemical potential are confirmed by cell model calculations at zero temperature. As $n\\to 2^+$, all the transitions that we have observed are preempted by melting although we cannot rule out that clustering transitions survive at high density.

  20. Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, B.; /SLAC

    2005-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss simulated photonic crystal structure designs for laser-driven particle acceleration, focusing on three-dimensional planar structures based on the so-called ''woodpile'' lattice. We demonstrate guiding of a speed-of-light accelerating mode by a defect in the photonic crystal lattice and discuss the properties of this mode. We also discuss particle beam dynamics in the structure, presenting a novel method for focusing the beam. In addition we describe some potential coupling methods for the structure.

  1. www.cambridge.org/us/american-history American Labor and Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    www.cambridge.org/us/american-history American Labor and Economic Citizenship New Capitalism from as a time when Herbert Hoover and his allies worked to significantly reform economic policy. In Ameri- can Labor and Economic Citizenship, Mark Hendrickson both augments and amends this view by studying

  2. Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Center for Latin American,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Jay

    com CLACLS Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Graduate Center City University of New York 365 Fifth Avenue Room 5419 New York, Caribbean & Latino Studies Graduate Center, CUNY Latino Data Project - Report 55 - November 2013 #12;The

  3. Women weaving the dream of the revolution in the American continent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angeleri, Sandra

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Americanism. South American integration is the BolivarianChávez’s South American project of integration. A fewintegration. President Chávez, paralleling Garcia Canclini’s ideas extends the South American

  4. VOL. 55, NO. 22 15 NOVEMBER 1998J O U R N A L O F T H E A T M O S P H E R I C S C I E N C E S 1998 American Meteorological Society 3313

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takano, Yoshihide

    in the phase functions. The errors are reduced to 2% for ice when the assessment is constrained to only those American Meteorological Society 3313 Parameterizations of Reflectance and Effective Emittance for Satellite hexagonal ice crystals with effective diameters varying from 6 to 135 m. Cloud reflectance lookup tables

  5. New Directions in Technical Services For Latin American collections: Building unique collections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvell, Tony

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical Services For Latin American collections: Buildingunique collections Tony Harvell Latin American Studiestransformation • Diminished collections budgets • Increased

  6. Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramaniam, Anandh

    Surface Energy,Surface Energy, Surface Tension & Shape of CrystalsSurface Tension & Shape of shapes of crystals are important: (i) growth shape and (ii) equilibrium shape Surface/interface energy surfaces. The joining of two phases creates an interface. (Two orientations of the same crystalline phase

  7. Development of single crystal filaments. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque-McConnell, M.M.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The program just completed addresses a route to a more efficient longer-lasting electric light bulb filament. All current filaments for light bulbs are metallic in nature. They are subject to embrittlement with age (large grain growth) and relatively high vapor pressures which limits their operating temperature. There is evidence which suggests advantages to using high temperature refractory single crystal fibers as a filament for a light bulb. These refractory materials may include materials such as hafnium or tantalum carbide which have melting points about 500{degrees}C higher than tungsten. Another advantage is that single crystal fibers have a very high degree of crystalline perfection with very few voids and dislocations. Without these imperfections, the atomic mobility at high temperatures is highly restricted. Thus single crystal fibers are very stable at high temperature and will last longer. The efficiencies result from running these single crystal ceramic fiber filaments at higher temperatures and the higher emissivity of the carbide filaments compared to tungsten. The amount of visible light is proportional to the 4the power of the temperature thus a 500{degrees}C higher operating give about a 3-fold increase in radiation in the visible range. The program accomplishments can be summarized as follows: (1) Single crystal fibers of JfC sufficient crystal quality for light bulb filament applications were made. (2) The HfC fiber furnace growth chamber, power control and data collection system was developed for the laboratory scale plant. (3) method for mounting and apparatuses for testing the single crystal fiber filaments were developed and built.

  8. Technical Report for DE-FG02-03ER46029 Sugar-Coated PPEs, Novel Nanomaterials and Sensing Modules for Disease and Bioterrorism Related Threats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uwe Bunz

    2003-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The detection and sensing of biological warfare agents (Ricin, Anthrax toxin), of disease agents (cholera, botulinum and tetanus toxins, influenza virus etc) and of biologically active species is important for national security and disease control. A premiere goal would be the simple colorimetric or fluorimetric detection of such toxins by a dipstick test. It would be desirable to sense 5,000-10,000 toxin molecules, i.e. 10-100 fg of a toxin contained 1-5 mL of sample. Fluorescent conjugated polymers should be particularly interesting in this regard, because they can carry multiple identical and/or different recognition units. Such an approach is particularly valuable for the detection of lectin toxins, because these bind to oligomeric carbohydrate displays. Lectins bind multivalently to sugars, i.e. several covalently connected sugar moieties have to be exposed to the lectin at the same time to obtain binding. The requirement of multivalency of the lectin-sugar interactions should allow a very sensitive detection of lectins with sugar coated conjugated polymers in an agglutination type assay, where the fluorescence of the PPEs disappears upon binding to the lectins. High molecular weights of the used PPEs would mean high sensitivity. Herein we present our progress towards that goal up to date.

  9. Sugar-Induced Molten-Globule Model Paula R. Davis-Searles, Artemiza S. Morar, Aleister J. Saunders, Dorothy A. Erie, and Gary J. Pielak*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erie, Dorothy A.

    Sugar-Induced Molten-Globule Model Paula R. Davis-Searles, Artemiza S. Morar, Aleister J. Saunders. The addition of salt partially overcomes this repulsion for some proteins, yielding a collapsed conformation called the A-state. A-states have characteristics expected for the molten globule, a notional kinetic

  10. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into the Technology Behind the Manufacturing of Sugar Cane and Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . To compensate for the increasing demand in paper and wood fibre pulp, sugar cane paper, which uses bagasse, has been introduced to the market. Bagasse is a by-product that remains after sugarcane and sorghum stalks worldwide has come from agricultural crops, such as bagasse. Currently, an increasing number of companies

  11. american cutaneous leishmaniasis: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a newspaper while the African American lawyer arguedAfrican American community of Tulsa, Oklahoma, came under attack following newspaper Pye, David Kenneth 2010-01-01 240 An...

  12. american apiaries implications: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a newspaper while the African American lawyer arguedAfrican American community of Tulsa, Oklahoma, came under attack following newspaper Pye, David Kenneth 2010-01-01 209 An...

  13. american phonixin fauna: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a newspaper while the African American lawyer arguedAfrican American community of Tulsa, Oklahoma, came under attack following newspaper Pye, David Kenneth 2010-01-01 First Page...

  14. american cancer ulaac: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a newspaper while the African American lawyer arguedAfrican American community of Tulsa, Oklahoma, came under attack following newspaper Pye, David Kenneth 2010-01-01 215 An...

  15. Occult Americans: Invisible Culture and the Literary Imagination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finley, Lana Louise

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The World of the American Porno-Gothic. ” Studies in theThe World of the American Porno-Gothic,” Studies in thepages to delineating its “porno-gothic” plots. 205 While

  16. Agricultural Development in theAmerican Pacific (ADAP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agricultural Development in theAmerican Pacific (ADAP) Project ImpactReport 1988-2004 #12;VISION Agricultural Development in the American Pacific (ADAP) project enables sustainable environments, diverse agriculture and communities through collaborative programs that are culturally appropriate, socially

  17. Home Front as Warfront: African American World War I Drama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egging, Anna Katherine

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation recovers little-known African American World War I plays that blur the boundary between the home front and warfront. I argue that with this focus, the plays wage their own war for African American citizenship ...

  18. Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Asian Pacific American Heritage Month is a celebration of the culture, traditions, and history of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in the United States. Join the Energy Department for the...

  19. A Qualitative Description of African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, Becky

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The low rates of breastfeeding among African American women in the U.S. is a poorly understood, persistent disparity that contributes to higher incidences of morbidity and mortality for African Americans across the lifespan. ...

  20. Job Opening at American Android Corp. Position: Software Engineer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    Job Opening at American Android Corp. Position: Software Engineer Location: Princeton, New Jersey Job Description: American Android Corp. (www.americanandroid.com) develops humanoid robots modeling, and robot behavior development. Job Requirements: BS in computer science, robotics or related

  1. american paragonimiasis caused: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    S. Ramachandran and Lindsay M Ramachandran, Vilayanur S. 17 American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine, and Massachusetts...

  2. ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to 823 Million in the Next Five Years ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to 823 Million in the...

  3. Picosecond Z-scan measurements on bulk GaN crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacebutas, V.; Stalnionis, A.; Krotkus, A.; Suski, T.; Perlin, P.; Leszczynski, M.

    2001-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk GaN crystals were characterized by using picosecond laser pulses at {lambda}=0.527{mu}m and Z-scan techniques. The role of the free-carrier absorption was evaluated by a dynamical, pump-and-probe-type transmitivity measurement. The values of two-photon absorption coefficient (17{endash}20 cm/GW) and refractive index changes at high optical irradiances due to bound (n{sub 2}={minus}4{times}10{sup {minus}12}esu) and free ({sigma}{sub r}={minus}1.0{times}10{sup {minus}20}cm{sup 3}) electrons in that material were determined. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  4. american higher education: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Education Annual Conference & Exposition Copyright ? 2001, American Society for Engineering Education" Session 2655 Training Future Professors with other near- by...

  5. North American SynchroPhasor Initiative (NASPI) Technical Report...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Synchrophasor Technology and Renewables Integration North American SynchroPhasor Initiative (NASPI) Technical Report - Synchrophasor Technology and Renewables Integration This...

  6. Imagined Islands: American Empire and Identity in the Postcolonial Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar, Valerie Chihiro

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    American Cinema. Ed. Manthia Diawara. New York: Routledge,as an interrogating tool. Manthia Diawara claims that “every

  7. EIS-0468: American Centrifuge Plant in Piketon, OH | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    May 20, 2011 EIS-0468: Final Environmental Impact Statement Proposed American Centrifuge Plant in Piketon, Ohio Pike County, Ohio...

  8. Crystal Chemistry of Th in Fluorapatite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y Luo; J Rakovan; Y Tang; M Lupulescu; J Hughes; Y Pan

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the complementary use of single-crystal X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we present in this paper the first direct results on the site occupancy of thorium in the fluorapatite structure and the structural distortion created by its substitution. Structure refinements based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data from synthetic Th-doped fluorapatite indicates that Th substitutes almost exclusively in the M2 site. A single-crystal X-ray study of natural fluorapatite from Mineville, New York, also indicated that substituting heavy scatterers (including Th) are concentrated in the apatite M2 site, but definitive site assignments of specific elements were not possible. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) was used to probe the local structure of Th in the synthetic fluorapatite (single-crystal form) with a Th concentration of roughly 20000 ppm, as well as Th in the natural Mineville fluorapatite (powder form) with a Th concentration of {approx}2000 ppm. The EXAFS fitting results also indicate that Th partitions into the M2 site and yield a {approx}0.05-0.08 {angstrom} decrease of average M2-O bond distances associated with local structure distortions that are not obtainable from single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  9. Charge transfer reactions in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiederrecht, G.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Wasielewski, M.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Galili, T.; Levanon, H. [Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast transient absorption studies of intramolecular photoinduced charge separation and thermal charge recombination were carried out on a molecule consisting of a 4-(N-pyrrolidino)naphthalene-1,8-imide donor (PNI) covalently attached to a pyromellitimide acceptor (PI) dissolved in the liquid crystal 4{prime}-(n-pentyl)-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB). The temperature dependencies of the charge separation and recombination rates were obtained at temperatures above the nematic-isotropic phase transition of 5CB, where ordered microdomains exist and scattering of visible light by these domains is absent. The authors show that excited state charge separation is dominated by molecular reorientation of 5CB perpendicular to the director within the liquid crystal microdomains. They also show that charge recombination is adiabatic and is controlled by the comparatively slow collective reorientation of the liquid crystal microdomains relative to the orientation of PNI{sup +}-PI{sup {minus}}. They also report the results of time resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) studies of photoinduced charge separation in a series of supramolecular compounds dissolved in oriented liquid crystal solvents. These studies permit the determination of the radical pair energy levels as the solvent reorganization energy increases from the low temperature crystalline phase, through the soft glass phase, to the nematic phase of the liquid crystal.

  10. Nano-crystal growth in cordierite glass ceramics studied with X-ray scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bras, Wim

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nano-crystal growth in cordierite glass ceramics studiedmatrix in which crystalline nano-crystals are embedded. Bysample the Cr containing spinel nano crystals. In these SEM

  11. Copyright American Museum of Natural History 2003 ISSN 0003-0082 PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert P.

    Copyright American Museum of Natural History 2003 ISSN 0003-0082 PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN MUSEUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Museum Specimens Museum of Natural History. e-mail: rpa@amnh.org 2 Natural History Museum and Department of Ecology

  12. AGEING NORTH AMERICAN LANDBIRDS BY MOLT LIMITS AND PLUMAGE CRITERIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeSante, David F.

    TO THE IDENTIFICATION GUIDE TO NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS, PART I Dan Froehlich Slate Creek Press #12;AGEING NORTH AMERICAN TO NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS, PART I Dan Froehlich Slate Creek Press Bolinas, California #12;Ageing North by David F. DeSante, Peter Pyle, and Nicole Michel for Slate Creek Press, P.O. Box 219, Bolinas, California

  13. TruLifesaver American Heart Association Basic Life Support Course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gering, Jon C.

    TruLifesaver American Heart Association Basic Life Support Course The Truman Institute P: 660 concepts of high-quality CPR · The American Heart Association Chain of Survival · Differences between Cost includes all instruction, materials and two year certification with the American Heart Association

  14. Solar storm Risk to the north American electric grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrijver, Karel

    Solar storm Risk to the north American electric grid #12;Key Contacts Trevor Maynard Exposure reserved #12;Solar storm risk to the north American electric grid 3 Contents 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 4 2 REFERENCES 19 #12;Solar storm risk to the north American electric grid 4 1 Executive Summary A Carrington

  15. American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busche, S.; Conrad, M.; Funk, K.; Kandt, A.; McNutt, P.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is an initial energy assessment for American Samoa, the first of many steps in developing a comprehensive energy strategy. On March 1, 2010, Assistant Secretary of the Interior Tony Babauta invited governors and their staff from the Interior Insular Areas to meet with senior principals at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Meeting discussions focused on ways to improve energy efficiency and increase the deployment of renewable energy technologies in the U.S. Pacific Territories. In attendance were Governors Felix Camacho (Guam), Benigno Fitial (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), and Togiola Tulafono, (American Samoa). This meeting brought together major stakeholders to learn and understand the importance of developing a comprehensive strategic plan for implementing energy efficiency measures and renewable energy technologies. For several decades, dependence on fossil fuels and the burden of high oil prices have been a major concern but never more at the forefront as today. With unstable oil prices, the volatility of fuel supply and the economic instability in American Samoa, energy issues are a high priority. In short, energy security is critical to American Samoa's future economic development and sustainability. Under an interagency agreement, funded by the Department of Interior's Office of Insular Affairs, NREL was tasked to deliver technical assistance to the islands of American Samoa. Technical assistance included conducting an initial technical assessment to define energy consumption and production data, establish an energy consumption baseline, and assist with the development of a strategic plan. The assessment and strategic plan will be used to assist with the transition to a cleaner energy economy. NREL provided an interdisciplinary team to cover each relevant technical area for the initial energy assessments. Experts in the following disciplines traveled to American Samoa for on-island site assessments: (1) Energy Efficiency and Building Technologies; (2) Integrated Wind-Diesel Generation; (3) Transmission and Distribution; (4) Solar Technologies; and (5) Biomass and Waste-to-Energy. In addition to these core disciplines, team capabilities also included expertise in program analysis, project financing, energy policy and energy planning. The intent of the technical assessment was to provide American Samoa with a baseline energy assessment. From the baseline, various scenarios and approaches for deploying cost effective energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies could be created to meet American Samoa's objectives. The information provided in this energy assessment will be used as input in the development of a draft strategic plan and the development of scenarios and strategies for deploying cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable products.

  16. The New American Home 2007, Orlando, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Each year, The New American Home (R) demonstrates use of innovative building materials, cutting-edge design, and the latest construction techniques, providing production homebuilders with a model for producing more energy efficient, durable homes without sacrificing style. Cosponsored by The National Council of the Housing Industry and BUILDER Magazine, The New American Home (R) is not only the official showcase house of the annual International Builders' Show, but is also a for-sale product. The majority of features and innovations in the home are accessible to both builders and consumers for integration into their own homes.

  17. Statistical Coupling Analysis of Aspartic Proteinases Based on Crystal Structures of the Trichoderma reesei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as sugars and bioethanol.1,2 Fungal APs have been shown to participate in the processing of secreted enzymes

  18. Educational status orientations of Mexican American and Anglo American youth in selected low-income counties of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juarez, Rumaldo Zapata

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EDUCATIONAL STATUS ORIENTATIONS OF MEXICAN AMERICAN AND ANGLO AMERICAN YOUTH IN SELECTED LOW-INCOME COUNTIES OF TEXAS A Thesis by RUMALDO Z, JUAREZ Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1968 Maj or Sub) ect: Sociology EDUCATIONAL STATUS ORIENTATIONS OF MEXICAN AMERICAN AND ANGLO AMERICAN YOUTH IN SELECTED LON-INCOME COUNTIES OF TEXAS A Thesis by RUMALDO Z. JUAREZ Approved...

  19. The Central American cold surge: an observational analysis of the deep southward penetration of North American cold fronts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reding, Philip John

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE CENTRAL AMERICAN COLD SURGE: AN OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE DEEP SOUTHWARD PENETRATION OF NORTH AMERICAN COLD FRONTS A Thesis by PHILIP JOHN REDING Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A &M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Meteorology THE CENTRAL AMERICAN COLD SURGE: AN OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE DEEP SOUTHWARD PENETRATION OF NORTH AMERICAN COLD FRONTS A Thesis by PHILIP...

  20. Quantum Calabi-Yau and Classical Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei Okounkov; Nikolai Reshetikhin; Cumrun Vafa

    2003-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new duality involving topological strings in the limit of large string coupling constant. The dual is described in terms of a classical statistical mechanical model of crystal melting, where the temperature is inverse of the string coupling constant. The crystal is a discretization of the toric base of the Calabi-Yau with lattice length $g_s$. As a strong evidence for this duality we recover the topological vertex in terms of the statistical mechanical probability distribution for crystal melting. We also propose a more general duality involving the dimer problem on periodic lattices and topological A-model string on arbitrary local toric threefolds. The $(p,q)$ 5-brane web, dual to Calabi-Yau, gets identified with the transition regions of rigid dimer configurations.

  1. Ultrasonically assisted deposition of colloidal crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wollmann, Sabine, E-mail: sabine.wollmann@griffithuni.edu.au [Lehrstuhl für Experimentalphysik 1 and Augsburg Centre for Innovative Technologies (ACIT), Universität Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane 4111 (Australia); Patel, Raj B. [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane 4111 (Australia); Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J. [Lehrstuhl für Experimentalphysik 1 and Augsburg Centre for Innovative Technologies (ACIT), Universität Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstr. 4, 80779 München (Germany)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Colloidal particles are a versatile physical system which have found uses across a range of applications such as the simulation of crystal kinetics, etch masks for fabrication, and the formation of photonic band-gap structures. Utilization of colloidal particles often requires a means to produce highly ordered, periodic structures. One approach is the use of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to direct the self-assembly of colloidal particles. Previous demonstrations using standing SAWs were shown to be limited in terms of crystal size and dimensionality. Here, we report a technique to improve the spatial alignment of colloidal particles using traveling SAWs. Through control of the radio frequency power, which drives the SAW, we demonstrate enhanced quality and dimensionality of the crystal growth. We show that this technique can be applied to a range of particle sizes in the ?m-regime and may hold potential for particles in the sub-?m-regime.

  2. Density functional theory for carbon dioxide crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Yiwen; Mi, Jianguo, E-mail: mijg@mail.buct.edu.cn; Zhong, Chongli [State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a density functional approach to describe the solid?liquid phase transition, interfacial and crystal structure, and properties of polyatomic CO{sub 2}. Unlike previous phase field crystal model or density functional theory, which are derived from the second order direct correlation function, the present density functional approach is based on the fundamental measure theory for hard-sphere repulsion in solid. More importantly, the contributions of enthalpic interactions due to the dispersive attractions and of entropic interactions arising from the molecular architecture are integrated in the density functional model. Using the theoretical model, the predicted liquid and solid densities of CO{sub 2} at equilibrium triple point are in good agreement with the experimental values. Based on the structure of crystal-liquid interfaces in different planes, the corresponding interfacial tensions are predicted. Their respective accuracies need to be tested.

  3. NEXT-GENERATION Copyright 2001 Scientific American, Inc.Copyright 2001 Scientific American, Inc.Copyright 2001 Scientific American, Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    gases to avoid the potential onset of global warming, more people are recognizing that nuclear reactors satisfy many of our future energy needs but could combat global warming as well R Copyright 2001.Copyright 2001 Scientific American, Inc. #12;ising electricity prices and last summer's rolling blackouts

  4. Proceedings of the 2001 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition Copyright 2001, American Society for Engineering Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roylance, David

    Proceedings of the 2001 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition," with structural engineering students wondering why they had to take it. #12;Proceedings of the 2001 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition Copyright 2001, American Society for Eng

  5. American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine, and Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    1 American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine warming has been happening · What might have caused global warming · Whether global warming

  6. Anisotropic wave propagation in nematic liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Biscari; Antonio DiCarlo; Stefano S. Turzi

    2014-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite the fact that quantitative experimental data have been available for more than forty years now, nematoacoustics still poses intriguing theoretical and experimental problems. In this paper, we prove that the main observed features of acoustic wave propagation through a nematic liquid crystal cell -- namely, the anisotropy of sound velocity and its frequency dependence -- may be plausibly explained by a first-gradient continuum theory characterized by a hyperelastic anisotropic response from an evolving relaxed configuration. We compare and contrast our proposal with a competing theory where the liquid crystal is modeled as an isotropically compressible, anisotropic second-gradient fluid.

  7. Interface control and snow crystal growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jessica Li; Laura P. Schaposnik

    2015-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The growth of snow crystals is dependent on the temperature and saturation of the environment. In the case of dendrites, Reiter's local two-dimensional model provides a realistic approach to the study of dendrite growth. In this paper we obtain a new geometric rule that incorporates interface control, a basic mechanism of crystallization that is not taken into account in the original Reiter's model. By defining two new variables, growth latency and growth direction, our improved model gives a realistic model not only for dendrite but also for plate forms.

  8. Seismic Crystals And Earthquake Shield Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Baykant Alagoz; Serkan Alagoz

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We theoretically demonstrate that earthquake shield made of seismic crystal can damp down surface waves, which are the most destructive type for constructions. In the paper, seismic crystal is introduced in aspect of band gaps (Stop band) and some design concepts for earthquake and tsunami shielding were discussed in theoretical manner. We observed in our FDTD based 2D elastic wave simulations that proposed earthquake shield could provide about 0.5 reductions in magnitude of surface wave on the Richter scale. This reduction rate in magnitude can considerably reduce destructions in the case of earthquake.

  9. A Benchmark Construction of Positron Crystal Undulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tikhomirov, Victor V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimization of a positron crystal undulator (CU) is addressed. The ways to assure both the maximum intensity and minimum spectral width of positron CU radiation are outlined. We claim that the minimum CU spectrum width of 3 -- 4% is reached at the positron energies of a few GeV and that the optimal bending radius of crystals planes in CU ranges from 3 to 5 critical bending radii for channeled particles. Following suggested approach a benchmark positron CU construction is devised and its functioning is illustrated using the simulation method widely tested by experimental data.

  10. Era Bell Thompson: Observations of an American Daughter on the American South and the African Congo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zacharias, Karenbeth Garvin

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation asks how author and journalist Era Bell Thompson understood and constructed her racial identity against the historical context of the connections between the American South and the Congo. Thompson's unique childhood on the Great...

  11. Cold War love : producing American liberalism in interracial marriages between American soldiers and Japanese women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsuchiya, Tomoko

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    they gave him the American name, Jimmy and took him to hisThe attached picture of Jimmy, held between Mr. and Mrs.giving their foster son, Jimmy, 3, his first Thanksgiving in

  12. CROSS-CULTURAL EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS OF OCCUPATIONAL ENGAGEMENT BETWEEN ASIAN AMERICAN AND CAUCASIAN AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le, Quoc (Thai) My

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    values and no significant relationship with level of acculturation. Results from the study yielded two newly developed measures of occupational engagement, the Occupational Engagement Scale-Asian American (OES-AA) and Occupational Engagement...

  13. Chasing the illusive American dream: an historical analysis of Mexican-American education, employment, and culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ham, Arwen Eugene

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    production factories. Few Mexican-Americans held occupations in the United States defense industries, and those who managed to reach managerial positions were not given equal pay for equal work, ' The 1940s were also a time of economic boom in Mexico... century Europeans and Asians had filled the ranks of immigrants. Escaping economic and political turmoil in Mexico, Mexican immigrants have moved north in search of the "American Dream. " They have been met by prejudice and discrimination, hatred...

  14. PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimmett, Geoffrey

    )0000-0 EXPECTED DISCREPANCY FOR ZEROS OF RANDOM ALGEBRAIC POLYNOMIALS IGOR E. PRITSKER AND ALAN A. SOLA support from NSA under grant H98230-12-1-0227; Sola acknowl- edges support from the EPSRC under grant EP/103372X/1. c XXXX American Mathematical Society 1 #12;2 PRITSKER AND SOLA coefficients of Pn

  15. PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pritsker, Igor

    )0000-0 EXPECTED DISCREPANCY FOR ZEROS OF RANDOM ALGEBRAIC POLYNOMIALS IGOR E. PRITSKER AND ALAN A. SOLA support from NSA under grant H98230-12-1-0227; Sola acknowl- edges support from the EPSRC under grant EP/103372X/1. cXXXX American Mathematical Society 1 #12;2 PRITSKER AND SOLA coefficients of Pn

  16. American Journal of Hypertension 1 Original article

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabulis, Xenophon

    American Journal of Hypertension 1 Original article Divergent Retinal Vascular Abnormalities in Normotensive Persons and Patients With Never-Treated, Masked, White Coat Hypertension Areti Triantafyllou,1 Haidich,4 Chrysanthos Zamboulis1 and Stella Douma1 Background Hypertensive patients with retinal

  17. American Journal of Hypertension 1 Original article

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabulis, Xenophon

    American Journal of Hypertension 1 Original article Assessment of microcirculation in the arterial disease. The predictive value of mild hypertensive retinopathy in terms of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity has not only been demonstrated in a recent multitudinal study among hypertensive and normotensive

  18. RESEARCHARTICLE Copyright 2007 American Scientific Publishers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    , branched motifs of DNA that provide components for the self-assembly of 2D and 3D arrays at the nanoscaleRESEARCHARTICLE Copyright © 2007 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved Printed structural parameters close to the values for normal B-DNA of similar length and sequence. Our strain energy

  19. Annual Report Center for Latin American Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Huiqiang

    University of Pittsburgh Year in Review 2012-13 #12;Message from the Director OnDecember31,2013,my12 and Public Health 2012-13 Year in Review2 Cover photograph from the 2013 Latin American and Caribbean

  20. Vol . 129, No . I The American Naturalist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jumars, Pete

    ) suggested that principles of chemical-reactor theory (from which the idea of operating policies comes) canVol . 129, No . I The American Naturalist January 1987 MODELING ANIMAL GUTS AS CHEMICAL REACTORS those principles to develop explicit models of digestion . To design a process of chemical conversion

  1. The Population Status The American Alligator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgia, University of

    Carolina by Thomas M. Murphy A Publication of the Savannah River Plant National Environmental Research Park'S SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH PARK Copies may be obtained from Savannah River Ecology Laboratory #12;- The Population Status of the American Alligator on the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

  2. American Heart Month National High Blood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FEBRUARY American Heart Month MAY National High Blood Pressure Education Month SEPTEMBER National Cholesterol Education Month Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas A&M University System Eat Smart for Heart-1 Eat Smart for Heart Health - Cholesterol/Saturated Fat # P3-2 Cardiovascular Disease Statistics # P3

  3. American Heart Month National High Blood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FEBRUARY American Heart Month MAY National High Blood Pressure Education Month SEPTEMBER National Cholesterol Education Month Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas A&M University System Eat Smart for Heart Health Heart Health - Lesson 1 Contents: Lesson - Heart Health Power Point # P1-1 Eat Smart for Heart

  4. American Heart Month National High Blood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FEBRUARY American Heart Month MAY National High Blood Pressure Education Month SEPTEMBER National Cholesterol Education Month Texas AgriLife Extension Service Texas A&M University System Eat Smart for Heart for Heart Health # P2-2 Risk Factors - High Blood Pressure # P2-3 Sodium is needed to. . . # P2-4 Sources

  5. Electricity Today30 American Electric Power, working

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Electricity Today30 American Electric Power, working at the request of, and in partnership with by building transmis- sion infrastructure that will enable wind power to become a larger part of the nation that could provide a basis for discussion to expand industry infrastructure needs in the future. AEP believes

  6. Developments in South American Squid Fisheries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as "insignificant amount" in statistics. The commercially exploited species is Dosidicus gigas ("jibia," "calamar Table I shows total yields of each South American coastal country, as well as principal species. COLOMBIA Total 54,500 37,700 110,700 105,300 62,418 66,575 75,107 75,107 F Characins (freshwater) 57,400 52

  7. METEOROLOGICAL Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Science Foundation.36 37 #12;2 Capsule Summary1 The Community Earth System Model provides the research for earth system15 studies, making it a true community tool. Here we describe this earth system model, its16 at the above DOI once it is available. © 2013 American Meteorological Society #12;1 The Community Earth System

  8. Jump to first page American Planning Association

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to first page How Smart is your Community? Small group exercise 5. CENTRAL CITY VITALITY Examples: GradeJump to first page American Planning Association Core Smart Growth Principles 1) INCREASED CITIZEN, adaptive re-use) 5) CENTRAL CITY VITALITY 6) GREATER MIX OF USES AND HOUSING CHOICES FOCUSED AROUND HUMAN

  9. ACCEPTABLE HUMANITIES (HU) COURSES * African American Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AR 251 Ancient Maya Civilization Art History Any 100-, 200- or 300-level CAS AH course Cinema Studies CAS CI 101 History of Global Cinema 1: Origins through 1950s CAS CI 102 History of Global Cinema 2 in American Literature CAS EN 128 Representing Boston CAS EN 130 Literature and Science CAS EN 141 Literary

  10. Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China A Selected, Partially-Annotated Bibliography literature of the United States Navy in China. mvh #12;"Like Chimneys in Summer" The thousands of men who served on the China Station before World War II have been all but forgotten, except in the mythology

  11. QER- Comment of American Hydrogen Northeast, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dear Sir or Madam, Attached please find the Hydrogen Association and the American Hydrogen Northeast,inc's Comments on the first round of QER review. I wish to thank Secretary Moniz and Senator Reed for attending the Providence hearing and providing this opportunity to submit these comments.

  12. ELECTROPHORETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF NORTH AMERICAN POTATO CULTIVARSl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    1991) 767 ELECTROPHORETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF NORTH AMERICAN POTATO CULTIVARSl D. S. Douches identify potato cultivars. Both leafand tuber tissue were sampled in thirteen enzyme systems. Two buffer means to discriminate sexually-derived potato cultivars. Compendio Se analizaron un total de 112

  13. INVESTIGATION Retrospective View of North American Potato

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douches, David S.

    INVESTIGATION Retrospective View of North American Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Breeding in the 20, Madison, Wisconsin, 53706 ABSTRACT Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a vegetatively propagated explore the effects of potato breeding at the genome level, we used 8303 single-nucleotide polymorphism

  14. Simulation of the hard-sphere crystal–melt interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidchack, Ruslan L.; Laird, Brian Bostian

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of coexisting crystal- and fluidlike domains that are quite mobile on the time scale of the simulation. We also observe the creation and propagation of vacancies into the bulk crystal....

  15. New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding New Crystal Structures Lift Fog around Protein Folding Print Wednesday, 25 July 2012 00:00 Nature's proteins set a high bar...

  16. Two-dimensional Photonic Crystals Fabricated by Nanoimprint Lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, A.

    We report on the process parameters of nanoimprint lithography (NIL) for the fabrication of two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals. The nickel mould with 2-D photonic crystal patterns covering the area up to 20mm² is ...

  17. Thin magnetic crystals are path to ferromagnetic graphene | ornl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin magnetic crystals are path to ferromagnetic graphene January 23, 2015 The crystal structure of CrI3 includes hexagonal nets formed by Cr atoms (blue) with magnetic moments...

  18. Engineering light using large area photonic crystal devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tandon, Sheila (Sheila N.), 1978-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photonic crystals are fabricated structures composed of a periodic arrangement of materials with differing indices of refraction. This research has focused on the realization of two distinct photonic crystal structures in ...

  19. Experimental studies of melting and crystallization processes in planetary interiors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krawczynski, Michael James

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Melting and crystallization processes on the Earth and Moon are explored in this thesis, and the topics of melt generation, transport, and crystallization are discussed in three distinct geologic environments: the Moon's ...

  20. Coupled mode theory for photonic crystal cavity-waveguide interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuckovic, Jelena

    nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944­947 (2003) 16. A. Yariv. Optical in a two- dimensional photonic-crystal slab," App. Phys. Lett. 83, 407­409 (2003) 5. T. Asano et al. "A

  1. A World's Top-10 X-ray Crystal Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A World's Top-10 X-ray Crystal Structure October 7, 2014 Bookmark and Share Philip Coppens An x-ray crystal structure solved by Philip Coppens has been chosen as one of the world's...

  2. Nepheline crystallization in boron-rich alumino-silicate glasses...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nepheline crystallization in boron-rich alumino-silicate glasses as investigated by multi-nuclear NMR, Raman, & Mö Nepheline crystallization in boron-rich alumino-silicate...

  3. Computer-aided rational solvent selection for pharmaceutical crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvents play an important role in crystallization, a commonly used separation and purification technique in the pharmaceutical, chemical and food industries. They affect crystal properties such as particle size distribution, ...

  4. Morphological control of silicalite-1 crystals using microemulsion mediated growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seung Ju

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mediated synthesis, it is concluded that the surfactant??silicate interactions are primarily responsible for the modulation of crystal morphology observed. The results indicate that surfactant adsorption on the growing crystal surface, not the confined...

  5. 5.841 Crystal Structure Refinement, Fall 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Peter

    This course in crystal structure refinement examines the practical aspects of crystal structure determination from data collection strategies to data reduction and basic and advanced refinement problems of organic and ...

  6. 5.067 Crystal Structure Refinement, Fall 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Peter

    This course in crystal structure refinement examines the practical aspects of crystal structure determination from data collection strategies to data reduction and basic and advanced refinement problems of organic and ...

  7. Anomalous phenomena and spectral tailoring in photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghebrebrhan, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photonic crystals are recently discovered meta-materials whose optical properties arise from periodic refractive index variations. In this thesis I examine various aspects of photonic crystals including a self-assembled ...

  8. Designing the properties of dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández de Córdoba, Pedro

    crystal fibers," Electron. Lett. 35, 63-64 (1999). 4. P. J. Bennet, T. M. Monro, and D. J. Richardson

  9. Crystal Engineering Morphosynthesis of Rhombododecahedral Silver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Limin

    of metal nanoparticles; examples include silver nanorods,[17] nanoprisms,[18] and nano- cubes.[19] Hollow of primary building blocks into hollow spheres or cages,[9­14] as these hollow structures with nanometer, and as photonic crystals.[15] In most cases, however, only spherical hollow structures have been obtained either

  10. Crystal fields in UO2 - revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakotte, Heinz [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rajatram, R [NMSU/UNIV OF N.C.; Kern, S [COLORADO STATE UNIV; Mcqueeney, R J [AMES LAB; Lander, G H [EUROPEAN COMMISIONS, JRC; Robinson, R A [BRAGG INSTITUTE

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed inelastic neutron scattering (INS) in order to re-investigate the crystal-field ground state and the level splitting in UO{sub 2}. Previous INS studies on UO{sub 2} by Amorelli et al. [Physical Review B 15, 1989, 1856] uncovered four excitations at low temperatures in the 150-180 meV range. Considering the dipole-allowed transitions, only three of these transitions could be explained by the published crystal-field model. Our INS results on a different UO{sub 2} sample revealed that the unaccounted peak at about 180 meV is a spurious one, and thus not intrinsic to UO{sub 2}. In good agreement with Amoretti's results, we corroborated that the ground-state of UO{sub 2} is the {Lambda}{sub 5} triplet, and we computed that the fourth- and six-order crystal field parameters are V{sub 4} = -116 meV and V{sub 6} = 26 meV, respectively. We also studied the INS response of the non-magnetic U{sub 0.4}Th{sub 0.6}O{sub 2}. The splitting for this thorium-doped compound is similar to the one of UO{sub 2}, which orders antiferromagnetically at low temperatures. Therefore, we can conclude that magnetic interactions only weakly perturb the energy level splitting, which is dominated by strong crystal fields.

  11. Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.

  12. Nanobeam photonic crystal cavity quantum dot laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuckovic, Jelena

    1. O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I. Kim, "Two, J. Vuckovi´c, and A. Scherer, "Planar photonic crystal nanolasers (I): Porous cavity lasers," IEICE coupling factor," Phys. Rev. B 75, 195313 (2007). 9. S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A

  13. Nanostructured Calcite Single Crystals with Gyroid Morphologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Ullrich

    , the unconstrained crystallization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) leads to the precipitation of brittle rhombohedral of these factors on CaCO3 nucleation and growth, which can also lead to control over polymorph and orientation. It is becoming increas- ingly apparent that the formation of crystalline CaCO3 is often preceded by an amorphous

  14. Discotic Liquid Crystals and Polymersomes: Molecule Goniometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ya-Wen

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................ 6 1.2.4 Discotic Liquid Crystals ................................................... 9 1.2.5 Microfluidics .................................................................... 11 1.3. Dissertation Outline... ........................................................... 15 2.1.2 Di-block Copolymers, Lipids, and Particles .................... 15 2.1.3 Reactive Fluorophores ...................................................... 16 2.1.4 Surface Functionalization Chemicals...

  15. Ytterbium- and neodymium-doped vanadate laser hose crystals having the apatite crystal structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kway, Wayne L. (Fremont, CA); DeLoach, Laura D. (Manteca, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Chai, Bruce H. T. (Oviedo, FL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Yb.sup.3+ and Nd.sup.3+ doped Sr.sub.5 (VO.sub.4).sub.3 F crystals serve as useful infrared laser media that exhibit low thresholds of oscillation and high slope efficiencies, and can be grown with high optical quality. These laser media possess unusually high absorption and emission cross sections, which provide the crystals with the ability to generate greater gain for a given amount of pump power. Many related crystals such as Sr.sub.5 (VO.sub.4).sub.3 F crystals doped with other rare earths, transition metals, or actinides, as well as the many structural analogs of Sr.sub.5 (VO.sub.4).sub.3 F, where the Sr.sup.2+ and F.sup.- ions are replaced by related chemical species, have similar properties.

  16. Ytterbium- and neodymium-doped vanadate laser hose crystals having the apatite crystal structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, S.A.; Kway, W.L.; DeLoach, L.D.; Krupke, W.F.; Chai, B.H.T.

    1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Yb[sup 3+] and Nd[sup 3+] doped Sr[sub 5](VO[sub 4])[sub 3]F crystals serve as useful infrared laser media that exhibit low thresholds of oscillation and high slope efficiencies, and can be grown with high optical quality. These laser media possess unusually high absorption and emission cross sections, which provide the crystals with the ability to generate greater gain for a given amount of pump power. Many related crystals such as Sr[sub 5](VO[sub 4])[sub 3]F crystals doped with other rare earths, transition metals, or actinides, as well as the many structural analogs of Sr[sub 5](VO[sub 4])[sub 3]F, where the Sr[sup 2+] and F[sup [minus

  17. Statistical Analysis of Crystallization Database Links Protein Physico-Chemical Features with Crystallization Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusco, Diana

    X-ray crystallography is the predominant method for obtaining atomic-scale information about biological macromolecules. Despite the success of the technique, obtaining well diffracting crystals still critically limits going ...

  18. Liquid crystals and Q-tensors The free energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segatti, Antonio

    Liquid crystals and Q-tensors The free energy A temperature-dependent model Mathematical results #12;Liquid crystals and Q-tensors The free energy A temperature-dependent model Mathematical results, Non-isothermal nematic liquid crystals flows with the Ball-Majumdar free energy, Ann. Mat. Pura Appl

  19. Giant Plasticity of a Quantum Crystal Ariel Haziot,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balibar, Sébastien

    Giant Plasticity of a Quantum Crystal Ariel Haziot,1 Xavier Rojas,1 Andrew D. Fefferman,1 John R crystals may irreversibly deform. This phenomenon is known as plasticity and it is due to the motion and in the zero temperature limit, helium 4 crystals present a giant plasticity that is anisotropic and reversible

  20. A multi-scale analysis of the crystallization of amorphous germanium telluride using ab initio simulations and classical crystallization theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anantram, M. P.

    simulations and classical crystallization theory Jie Liu, Xu Xu, Lucien Brush, and M. P. Anantram Citation telluride using ab initio simulations and classical crystallization theory Jie Liu,1 Xu Xu,1 Lucien Brush,2

  1. Crystal structure and interaction dependence of the crystal-melt interfacial free energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidchack, Ruslan L.; Laird, Brian Bostian

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    we examine, via molecular simulation, the interfacial free energies for a large number of systems interacting with inverse-power potentials of varying range, crystal orientation, and crystal structure (fcc or bcc). By focusing on a general class... of model interaction potentials 0031-9007= understanding of the dependence of .0013 on is largely empirical. In 1950, Turnbull values of .0013 for a variety of materials, ob- from nucleation rate experiments. ed a strong correlation between the en- per...

  2. Growth and characterization of diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siva Sankari, R. [Department of Physics, Agni College of Technology, Thalambur, Chennai 603103 (India); Perumal, Rajesh Narayana, E-mail: r.shankarisai@gmail.com [Department of Physics, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, Chennai 603110 (India)

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate (DACS) is one of the most promising inorganic dielectric crystals with exceptional mechanical properties. Good quality crystals of DACS were grown by using solution method in a period of 30 days. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis in order to establish their crystalline nature. Thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis were performed for the crystal. Several solid state physical parameters have been determined for the grown crystals. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss and AC conductivity of the grown crystal were studied as a function of frequency and temperature has been calculated and plotted. - Highlights: • Diammonium copper disulphate is grown for the first time and CCDC number obtained. • Thermal analysis is done to see the stability range of the crystals. • Band gap and UV cut off wavelength of the crystal are determined to be 2.4 eV and 472.86 nm, respectively. • Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity are plotted as a function of applied field. - Abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate is one of the most promising inorganic crystals with exceptional dielectric properties. A good quality crystal was harvested in a 30-day period using solution growth method. The grown crystal was subjected to various characterization techniques like single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis. Unit cell dimensions of the grown crystal have been identified from XRD studies. Functional groups of the title compounds have been identified from FTIR studies. Thermal stability of the samples was checked by TG/DTA studies. Band gap of the crystal was calculated. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied as a function of frequency of the applied field. AC conductivity was plotted as a function of temperature.

  3. Winter sowings produce 1-0 sugar pine planting stock in the Sierra Nevada. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkinson, J.L.; McCain, A.H.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Seed source and sowing date effects on first-year seedling growth and Fusarium root and collar rot of sugar pine were analyzed in two consecutive nursery tests at the Pacific Southwest Research Station's Institute of Forest Genetics, near Placerville in the western Sierra Nevada. The experimental design in both tests consisted of four replications of a randomized complete block of split-split plots, with sowing date split for disease treatment and seed source. Seed sources were natural stands at low, middle, and high elevations on the western slope of the northern Sierra Nevada. Seeds were soaked 36 hours in aerated water at 25 deg (77 deg F), chilled 90 days at 1 deg C (34 deg F), and sown in fumigated soil in February, March, April, and May. Treatment plots were drenched with fungicides just before sowing in the first test, and were inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum at time of sowing in the second test. Seedling emergence averaged 96 to 99 percent, regardless of sowing date.

  4. Kinetics of growth of spinel crystals in a borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alton, Jesse; Plaisted, Trevor J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three aspects of the kinetics of spinel crystallization in a high-level waste (HLW) glass were studied: (1) the effect of nucleation agents on the number density (ns) of spinel crystals, (2) crystallization kinetics in a crushed glass, and (3) crystallization kinetics in a glass preheated at T > TL (liquidus temperature). In glass lacking in nucleation agents, ns was a strong function of temperature. In glasses with noble metals (Rh, Ru, Pd, and Pt), ns increased by up to four orders of magnitude and was nearly independent of temperature. The kinetics of spinel crystallization in crushed glass lacking nucleation agents was dominated by surface crystallization and was described by the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) equation with the Avrami exponent n {at} 0.5. For application to HLW glass melter processing, it was necessary to preheat glass at T > TL to eliminate the impact of temperature history and surface crystallization on crystal nucleation and growth. In the temperature range of glass processing, crystals descend under gravity when they reach a critical size. Below this critical size, crystallization kinetics is described by the KJMA equation and above the critical size by the Hixson-Crowell equation. At low temperatures, at which glass viscosity is high and diffusion is slow, the KJMA equation represents crystal growth from nucleation to equilibrium. As ns increases, the temperature interval of the transition from the KJMA to Hixson-Crowell regime shifts to a higher temperature.

  5. Kinetics of growth of spinel crystals in a borosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alton, Jesse; Plaisted, Trevor J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2002-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Three aspects of the kinetics of spinel crystallization in a high-level waste (HLW) glass were studied: (1) the effect of nucleation agents on the number density (ns) of spinel crystals, (2) crystallization kinetics in a crushed glass, and (3) crystallization kinetics in a glass preheated at T>TL (liquidus temperature). In glass lacking in nucleation agens, ns was a strong function of temperature. In glasses with noble metals (Rh, Ru, Pd, and Pt), ns increased by up to four orders of magnitude and was nearly independent of temperature. The kinetics of spinel crystallization in crushed glass lacking nucleation agents was dominated by surface crystallization and was described by the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) equation with the Avrami exponent n~0.5. For application to HLW glass melter processing, it was necessary to preheat glass at T>TL to eliminate the impact of temperature history and surface crystallization on crystal nucleation and growth. In the temperature range of glass processing, crystals descend under gravity when they reach a critical size. Below this critical size, crystallization kinetics is described by the KJMA equation and above the critical size by the Hixson-Crowell equation. At low temperatures, at which glass viscosity is high and diffusion is slow, the KJMA equation represents crystal growth from nucleation to equilibrium. As ns increases, the temperature interval of the transition from the KJMA to Hisxon-Crowell regime shifts to a higher temperature.

  6. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, Ercan E. (Bolingbrook, IL); Mooney, Timothy M. (Westmont, IL); Toellner, Thomas (Green Bay, WI)

    1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.

  7. High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.

    1996-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut ({alpha}=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5--30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the {micro}eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator. 7 figs.

  8. Low Radioactivity Crystals for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dafinei, Ioan [Sezione INFN di Roma, P-le Aldo Moro 2, Roma I-00185 (Italy)

    2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of crystals needed for rare events physics represent a relatively new, exciting challenge in the field of materials science and engineering. Extremely low concentration of radioactive impurities and very high crystal perfection is required for the crystals to be used in experiments in which the main concerns are the reduction of the background and the use of high sensitivity detectors. A further complication is the fact that for an experiment with a significant discovery potential, relatively large quantities of crystals are needed. The present work makes a review of the general problems related to the production of crystals for rare events physics and gives details related to the production of the TeO{sub 2} crystals needed for the major experiment in this field using bolometric technique, namely the CUORE experiment. The potential use of crystals for future double beta decay experiments is also discussed.

  9. Influence of Substrate on Crystallization in Polythiophene/fullerene Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C He; D Germack; J Kline; D Delongchamp; D Fischer; C Snyder; M Toney; J Kushmerick; L Richter

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The nanoscale morphology of the active layer in organic, bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is crucial to device performance. Often a combination of casting conditions and post deposition thermal treatment is used to optimize the morphology. In general, the development of microscopic crystals is deleterious, as the exciton diffusion length is {approx}10 nm. We find that the microscopic crystallization behavior in polythiophene/fullerene blends is strongly influenced by the substrate on which the BHJ is cast. With a silicon oxide substrate, the crystal nucleation density is high and significant crystallization occurs at a temperature of 140 C. On more hydrophobic substrates, significantly higher temperatures are required for observable crystallization. This difference is attributed to the interfacial segregation of the PCBM, controlled by the substrate surface energy. The substrate dependence of crystallization has significant implications on the fullerene crystal growth mechanisms and practical implications for device studies.

  10. The Cold War and American Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marden, David L.

    1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Historical Society curator Richard Morgan lost his post be­ cause of his presumed associations with Communists. A bela­ ted American Anthropology Association investigation deter­ mined that the dismissal in no way reflected upon Morgan's professional... competence. The Society's president explained: There are no charges on file against Mr. Morgan affecting his personal or professional, status.... He was not re-elected because his wife and stepson and their Communist associations were involved...

  11. Partial rotational lattice order–disorder in stefin B crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renko, Miha [Josef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Taler-Ver?i?, Ajda [Josef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Miheli?, Marko [Josef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Žerovnik, Eva [Josef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Turk, Dušan, E-mail: dusan.turk@ijs.si [Josef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crystal lattice disorders are a phenomenon which may hamper the determination of macromolecular crystal structures. Using the case of the crystal structure of stefin B, identification of rotational order–disorder and structure determination are described. At present, the determination of crystal structures from data that have been acquired from twinned crystals is routine; however, with the increasing number of crystal structures additional crystal lattice disorders are being discovered. Here, a previously undescribed partial rotational order–disorder that has been observed in crystals of stefin B is described. The diffraction images revealed normal diffraction patterns that result from a regular crystal lattice. The data could be processed in space groups I4 and I422, yet one crystal exhibited a notable rejection rate in the higher symmetry space group. An explanation for this behaviour was found once the crystal structures had been solved and refined and the electron-density maps had been inspected. The lattice of stefin B crystals is composed of five tetramer layers: four well ordered layers which are followed by an additional layer of alternatively placed tetramers. The presence of alternative positions was revealed by the inspection of electron-density score maps. The well ordered layers correspond to the crystal symmetry of space group I422. In addition, the positions of the molecules in the additional layer are related by twofold rotational axes which correspond to space group I422; however, these molecules lie on the twofold axis and can only be related in a statistical manner. When the occupancies of alternate positions and overlapping are equal, the crystal lattice indeed fulfills the criteria of space group I422; when these occupancies are not equal, the lattice only fulfills the criteria of space group I4.

  12. Subscriber access provided by UNIV OF WISCONSIN -MADISON Journal of the American Chemical Society is published by the American Chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raines, Ronald T.

    Throughout most of human history, renewable biomass resources have been the primary industrial and consumer and chemicals are now produced from edible resources, such as starch, sugars, and oils; the challenges imposed needs of humanity and natural gas resources will be increasingly inaccessible.2 Moreover, consumers

  13. Symmetric Satellite Swarms and Choreographic Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latham Boyle; Jun Yong Khoo; Kendrick Smith

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we introduce a natural dynamical analogue of crystalline order, which we call choreographic order. In an ordinary (static) crystal, a high degree of symmetry may be achieved through a careful arrangement of the fundamental repeated elements. In the dynamical analogue, a high degree of symmetry may be achieved by having the fundamental elements perform a carefully choreographed dance. For starters, we show how to construct and classify all symmetric satellite constellations. Then we explain how to generalize these ideas to construct and classify choreographic crystals more broadly. We introduce a quantity, called the "choreography" of a given configuration. We discuss the possibility that some (naturally occurring or artificial) many-body or condensed-matter systems may exhibit choreographic order, and suggest natural experimental signatures that could be used to identify and characterize such systems.

  14. Crystallizing Transmembrane Peptides in Lipidic Mesophases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Höfer, Nicole; Aragão, David; Caffrey, Martin (Trinity)

    2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Structure determination of membrane proteins by crystallographic means has been facilitated by crystallization in lipidic mesophases. It has been suggested, however, that this so-called in meso method, as originally implemented, would not apply to small protein targets having {le}4 transmembrane crossings. In our study, the hypothesis that the inherent flexibility of the mesophase would enable crystallogenesis of small proteins was tested using a transmembrane pentadecapeptide, linear gramicidin, which produced structure-grade crystals. This result suggests that the in meso method should be considered as a viable means for high-resolution structure determination of integral membrane peptides, many of which are predicted to be coded for in the human genome.

  15. DHS Internship Summary-Crystal Assembly at Different Length Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishchenko, L

    2009-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    I was part of a project in which in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to monitor growth and dissolution of atomic and colloidal crystals. At both length scales, the chemical environment of the system greatly altered crystal growth and dissolution. Calcium phosphate was used as a model system for atomic crystals. A dissolution-reprecipitation reaction was observed in this first system, involving the conversion of brushite (DCPD) to octacalcium phosphate (OCP). In the second system, polymeric colloidal crystals were dissolved in an ionic solvent, revealing the underlying structure of the crystal. The dissolved crystal was then regrown through an evaporative step method. Recently, we have also found that colloids can be reversibly deposited in situ onto an ITO (indium tin oxide) substrate via an electrochemistry setup. The overall goal of this project was to develop an understanding of the mechanisms that control crystallization and order, so that these might be controlled during material synthesis. Controlled assembly of materials over a range of length scales from molecules to nanoparticles to colloids is critical for designing new materials. In particular, developing materials for sensor applications with tailorable properties and long range order is important. In this work, we examine two of these length scales: small molecule crystallization of calcium phosphate (whose crystal phases include DCPD, OCP, and HAP) and colloidal crystallization of Poly(methyl methacrylate) beads. Atomic Force Microscopy is ideal for this line of work because it allows for the possibility of observing non-conducting samples in fluid during growth with high resolution ({approx} 10 nm). In fact, during atomic crystal growth one can observe changes in atomic steps, and with colloidal crystals, one can monitor the individual building blocks of the crystal. Colloids and atoms crystallize under the influence of different forces acting at different length scales as seen in Table 1. In particular, molecular crystals, which are typically dominated by ionic and covalent bonding, are an order of magnitude more strongly bonded than colloidal crystals. In molecular crystals, ordering is driven by the interaction potentials between molecules. By contrast, colloidal assembly is a competition between the repulsive electrostatic forces that prevent aggregation in solution (due to surface charge), and short-range van der Waals and entropic forces that leads to ordering. Understanding atomic crystallization is fundamentally important for fabrication of tailorable crystalline materials, for example for biological or chemical sensors. The transformation of brushite to OCP not only serves as a model system for atomic crystal growth (applicable to many other crystal growth processes), but is also important in bone cements. Colloidal crystals have unique optical properties which respond to chemical and mechanical stimuli, making them very important for sensing applications. The mechanism of colloidal crystal assembly is thus fundamentally important. Our in situ dissolution and regrowth experiments are one good method of analyzing how these crystals pack under different conditions and how defect sites are formed and filled. In these experiments, a silica additive was used to strengthen the colloidal crystal during initial assembly (ex situ) and to increase domain size and long range order. Reversible electrodeposition of colloids onto a conductive substrate (ITO in our case) is another system which can further our knowledge of colloidal assembly. This experiment holds promise of allowing in situ observation of colloidal crystal growth and the influence of certain additives on crystal order. The ultimate goal would be to achieve long range order in these crystals by changing the surface charge or the growth environment.

  16. UCN transport simulation in solid deuterium crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. N. Pokotilovski

    2012-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The extraction efficiency of ultracold neutrons from cryogenic moderators depends critically on the neutron transparency of the moderator material. The Monte Carlo simulation of the probability of the UCN going out from non-ideal (disordered) solid deuterium crystals has been performed. It was based on the use of the correlation function describing the density fluctuations in a disordered material, the latter being inferred from the measured very low neutron energy total cross sections for this material.

  17. Dynamics of Quantum Dot Photonic Crystal Lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan Ellis; Ilya Fushman; Dirk Englund; Bingyang Zhang; Yoshihisa Yamamoto; Jelena Vuckovic

    2007-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum dot photonic crystal membrane lasers were fabricated and the large signal modulation characteristics were studied. We find that the modulation characteristics of quantum dot lasers can be significantly improved using cavities with large spontaneous emission coupling factor. Our experiments show, and simulations confirm, that the modulation rate is limited by the rate of carrier capture into the dots to around 30GHz in our present system.

  18. Method for fabricating apatite crystals and ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soules, Thomas F.; Schaffers, Kathleen I.; Tassano, Jr., John B.; Hollingsworth, Joel P.

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method of crystallizing Yb:C-FAP [Yb.sup.3+:Ca.sub.5(PO.sub.4).sub.3F], by dissolving the Yb:C-FAP in an acidic solution, following by neutralizing the solution. The present invention also provides a method of forming crystalline Yb:C-FAP by dissolving the component ingredients in an acidic solution, followed by forming a supersaturated solution.

  19. Wind Power on Native American Lands: Process and Progress (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimenez, A.; Flowers, L.; Gough, R.; Taylor, R.

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development. This poster describes the process and progress of Wind Powering America's involvement with Native American wind energy projects.

  20. Predicting Polymeric Crystal Structures by Evolutionary Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiang Zhu; Vinit Sharma; Artem R Oganov; Rampi Ramprasad

    2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The recently developed evolutionary algorithm USPEX proved to be a tool that enables accurate and reliable prediction of structures for a given chemical composition. Here we extend this method to predict the crystal structure of polymers by performing constrained evolutionary search, where each monomeric unit is treated as one or several building blocks with fixed connectivity. This greatly reduces the search space and allows the initial structure generation with different sequences and packings using these blocks. The new constrained evolutionary algorithm is successfully tested and validated on a diverse range of experimentally known polymers, namely polyethylene (PE), polyacetylene (PA), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), poly(oxymethylene) (POM), poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO), and poly (p-phenylene sulfide) (PPS). By fixing the orientation of polymeric chains, this method can be further extended to predict all polymorphs of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and the complex linear polymer crystals, such as nylon-6 and cellulose. The excellent agreement between predicted crystal structures and experimentally known structures assures a major role of this approach in the efficient design of the future polymeric materials.

  1. New organic crystals for pulse shape discrimination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, G; Zaitseva, N; Cherepy, N; Newby, J; Stoeffl, W; Payne, S

    2008-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient, readily-available, low-cost, high-energy neutron detectors can play a central role in detecting illicit nuclear weapons since neutrons are a strong indication for the presence of fissile material such as Plutonium and Highly-Enriched Uranium. The main challenge in detecting fast neutrons consists in the discrimination of the signal from the gamma radiation background. At present, the only well-investigated organic crystal scintillator for fast neutron detection, in a n/{gamma} mixed field, is stilbene, which while offering good pulse shape discrimination, is not widely used because of its limited availability and high cost. In this work we report the results of our studies made with a number of new organic crystals, which exhibit pulse shape discrimination for detection of fast neutrons. In particular 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene features a light yield higher than anthracene and a Figure of Merit (FOM) for the pulse shape discrimination better than stilbene. New crystals are good candidates for the low-cost solution growth method, thus representing promising organic scintillators for widespread deployment for high-energy neutron detection.

  2. american monsoon system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    model (MRCM) in simulating the West African monsoon. The MRCM is built on the Regional Climate Model, ... Im, Eun-Soon 157 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics...

  3. Math and Science Academy helps Native American schools empower...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    years through individual and peer coaching, content discussions and professional learning communities." Patrick Lewis, a Native American sixth-grade teacher at Jemez Day...

  4. Rebuilding the American Auto Industry | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    was the right choice -- and the future is bright. Addthis Related Articles Fisker, Tesla, and American Auto Innovation Moniz: Tesla Repayment Shows the Strength of Energy...

  5. State Energy Efficient Appliance Rebate Program (SEEARP) American...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Energy Efficient Appliance Rebate Program (SEEARP) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Funding Opportunity Number: DE-FOA-0000119 State Energy Efficient Appliance...

  6. african american girls: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    underperformed relative to boys in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Brown, Christia Spears; Leaper, Campbell 2010-01-01 171 Rodney K Odom African American...

  7. american underground science: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    girls have underperformed relative to boys in science, technology, engineering, Brown, Christia Spears; Leaper, Campbell 2010-01-01 156 STUDENT SOCIETY American Institute...

  8. FCTO Announces Plenary Talk at American Society of Mechanical...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuel Cell Technologies Office announces a plenary talk by Dr. Sunita Satyapal, Director, Fuel Cell Technologies Office at the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Energy...

  9. Sandia Energy - American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Astronautics Elects Sandian as Associate Fellow Home Renewable Energy Energy News Wind Energy News & Events American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Elects Sandian as...

  10. american great lakes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    polynorphismsobserved among the North American Great Lakes ciscoes suggest that this fish group has Bernatchez, Louis 2 Great Lakes CiteSeer Summary: Grant realized an...

  11. Grant Guidance to Administer the American Recovery and Reinvestment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PROGRAM NOTICE 10-10: REPROGRAMMING TRAINING AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FUNDS TO PROGRAM OPERATIONS Weatherization Formula Grants - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)...

  12. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative: Increasing American Competitiveness Through Innovation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Find out how the Energy Department's Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative is helping to boost American competitiveness, grow the economy and protect the environment.

  13. Idaho Operations Office: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Update

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Provencher, Rick

    2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An update from Idaho National Laboratory, Rick Provencher addresses the progress that has been made due to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  14. North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Search Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the standard used by Federal statistical agencies in classifying business establishments for the purpose of collecting, analyzing, and...

  15. MidAmerican Energy (Gas)- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    MidAmerican Energy offers basic energy efficiency incentives for residential customers in Nebraska to improve the comfort and savings in participating homes. These incentives include gas heating...

  16. african american students: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Place Papautsky, Ian 239 Snow snakes and science agency: empowering American Indian students through a culturally-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics...

  17. aisc american institute: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004 American Institute of Physics 0-7354-0186-10422.00 Cryogenic Engineering Conference - CEC http:proceedings.aip.orgproceedingscpcr.jsp 12;1730 Downloaded 16...

  18. american meat institute: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2004 American Institute of Physics 0-7354-0186-10422.00 Cryogenic Engineering Conference - CEC http:proceedings.aip.orgproceedingscpcr.jsp 12;1730 Downloaded 16...

  19. american paleontological convention: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 2008 Paleontology Summer Internships The Division of Paleontology at the American Museum of Natural History is offering a Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: 2008...

  20. Integrating Two Worlds: a Supportive Pathway for Native American...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    students. The NNSA program also includes funding for NAU to put on a "Summer High School Youth Symposium." This summer, the Native American student researchers had an...