National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for american crystal sugar

  1. RECOVERY OF LACTIC ACID FROM AMERICAN CRYSTAL SUGAR COMPANY WASTEWATER...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    project was to recover lactic acid. However, the presence of a variety of indigenous bacteria in the wastewater stream and technical issues related to recovery and purification...

  2. RECOVERY OF LACTIC ACID FROM AMERICAN CRYSTAL SUGAR COMPANY WASTEWATER...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is also available for sale to the public from the National...

  3. American Mineralogist, Volume 79, pages 581-584, 1994 Crystal chemistry of Ca-bearing majorite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downs, Robert T.

    American Mineralogist, Volume 79, pages 581-584, 1994 LETTERS Crystal chemistry of Ca-bearing of New York, Stony Brook, New York 11794, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Single crystals of Ca-bearing majorite Study Project, 1981). The role of calci- microwave communications, low-conductivity magnetic urn oxide

  4. Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols (Presentation) Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen...

  5. CSP Cream Sugar Copris CSP Cream Sugar Copris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    CSP Cream Sugar Copris : 2011 6 6 2011 8 22 2012 6 24 2014 5 19 : #12;CSP Cream Sugar Copris 1 2 3 Cream Java OpenOffice.org Calc 4 Sugar SAT Scala : #12;CSP Cream Sugar Copris : #12;CSP Cream Sugar Copris (CSP) (CSP; Constraint Satisfaction Problem) (X, D, C) X: (variable) D: x X (domain) ( : D

  6. Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons PDF explaining the biological process of bioenergy Biological Conversion of Sugars...

  7. Sugars tied to the spot 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flitsch, Sabine L; Ulijn, Rein V

    2003-01-16

    The interactions of sugars and proteins underlie many biological processes, and cataloguing them is a daunting task. A technique for attaching sugars to microarrays offers a promising, high-throughput solution.

  8. Department of Chemistry "Self-Assembled Soft Materials from Sugar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark, James E.

    new structures and multifunctional nanocomposites. Prof. John's research on biobased materials has resources to generate soft materials such as new surfactants, liquid crystals, lipid nanotubes and molecularDepartment of Chemistry "Self-Assembled Soft Materials from Sugar Amphiphiles, and the In Situ

  9. Karanjkar, J. L., J. Morris (2012). "Surfactant Effects on Hydrate Crystallization at the Water-Oil Interface: Hollow-Conical Crystals." American Chemical Society 12: 3817-3824.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    of hydrogen bonded water molecules. Typically, clathrate hydrates form under high pressure and low temperatureKaranjkar, J. L., J. Morris (2012). "Surfactant Effects on Hydrate Crystallization at the Water-Oil in environments containing both oil and water. After initial formation, the hydrate structures bond to each other

  10. Subscriber access provided by NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIV Crystal Growth and Design is published by the American Chemical Society. 1155

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Subscriber access provided by NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIV Crystal Growth and Design is published and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan UniVersity, Taipei, 106 Taiwan, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua UniVersity, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan, and School of Materials

  11. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  12. Designing the Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang, Dexter W

    2005-01-01

    The Sugar Cane Charcoal Extruder compresses carbonized sugar cane into charcoal briquettes. that are environmentally-friendly and comparable to wood charcoal in burn performance, cost, and durability. Originally developed ...

  13. SAT Sugar Scala SAT ( ) SAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    (Domain-Specific Language) Scala Sugar 1 (CSP; Constraint Satisfaction Prob- lem) (COP; Constraint Optmization Problem) [3][7] CSP (constraint programming) CSP CSP (constraint mod- eling language) CSP, Kobe University. Mutsunori Banbara, , In- formation Science and Technology Center, Kobe University. CSP

  14. Sugar Competition Results Discussion Future Sugar: A SAT-based CSP Solver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Sugar Competition Results Discussion Future . . . .. . . Sugar: A SAT-based CSP Solver --Results summary of the 3rd intertional CSP solver competition-- Naoyuki Tamura, Tomoya Tanjo, Mutsunori Banbara-based CSP Solver --Results summary of #12;Sugar Competition Results Discussion Future Outline .. Sugar CSP

  15. Exploring Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Sugar and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    at Virent, Inc. in Madison developed new cost-effective methods to produce hydrogen from renewable resources like biomass-derived sugar and sugar alcohols. Hydrogen can...

  16. Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent extraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by...

  17. Increasing Sugar Yields with IL-final-sm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ionic Liquid Processing Increasing sugar yields from diverse biomass feedstock with ionic liquid processing and cultivation of renewable ionic liquids Liberating Sugars from...

  18. Apostles and brigadistas : industrial transformation with social gains in two Central American agro-industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuentes, Alberto (Alberto Jose)

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation offers an ideational account of the industrial transformation with social gains of two Central American agro-industries during the 1980s and 1990s, the Guatemalan sugar and Nicaraguan cheese industries. ...

  19. Treatment of biomass to obtain fermentable sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunson, Jr., James B. (Newark, DE); Tucker, Melvin (Lakewood, CO); Elander, Richard (Evergreen, CO); Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA)

    2011-04-26

    Biomass is pretreated using a low concentration of aqueous ammonia at high biomass concentration. Pretreated biomass is further hydrolyzed with a saccharification enzyme consortium. Fermentable sugars released by saccharification may be utilized for the production of target chemicals by fermentation.

  20. Analysis of Biomass Sugars Using a Novel HPLC Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agblevor, F. A.; Hames, B. R.; Schell, D.; Chum, H. L.

    2007-01-01

    The precise quantitative analysis of biomass sugars is a very important step in the conversion of biomass feedstocks to fuels and chemicals. However, the most accurate method of biomass sugar analysis is based on the gas chromatography analysis of derivatized sugars either as alditol acetates or trimethylsilanes. The derivatization method is time consuming but the alternative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method cannot resolve most sugars found in biomass hydrolysates. We have demonstrated for the first time that by careful manipulation of the HPLC mobile phase, biomass monomeric sugars (arabinose, xylose, fructose, glucose, mannose, and galactose) can be analyzed quantitatively and there is excellent baseline resolution of all the sugars. This method was demonstrated for standard sugars, pretreated corn stover liquid and solid fractions. Our method can also be used to analyze dimeric sugars (cellobiose and sucrose).

  1. Gustatory Perception of Sugars in Drosophila melanogaster Larvae 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broussard, Alex 1991-

    2012-04-26

    ’ in learning assays, though the neurons and genes involved in larval sugar sensation are not fully known. Analysis of transgenic D. melanogaster larvae coexpressing GAL4 promoter constructs with UAS-GFP confirmed the expression of one putative sugar gustatory...

  2. Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raines, Ronald T.

    Fermentable sugars by chemical hydrolysis of biomass Joseph B. Binder and Ronald T. Raines1 19, 2009) Abundant plant biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of fuels of biomass into monosaccharides. Add- ing water gradually to a chloride ionic liquid-containing catalytic

  3. Ethanol production in fermentation of mixed sugars containing xylose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Mc Cutchen, Carol M. (Wilmington, DE); Li; Xu (Newark, DE); Emptage, Mark (Wilmington, DE); Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO)

    2009-12-08

    Xylose-utilizing Z. mobilis strains were found to have improved ethanol production when grown in medium containing mixed sugars including xylose if sorbitol or mannitol was included in the medium. The effect was seen in concentrations of mixed sugars where no growth lag period occurs, as well as in higher sugars concentrations.

  4. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation. Characterization of mutant and wild-type plants has revealed that sugars inhibit breakdown of seed storage lipids. In addition, high concentrations of exogenous sugars largely eliminate the development of mature chloroplasts by developing seedlings. Affymetrix GeneChip experiments have revealed that expression of many plant genes is partially regulated by sugar levels, with approximately two percent of genes exhibiting alterations in steady-state mRNA levels in response to changing sugar concentrations. Ultimately, a better understanding of plant sugar responses may allow improvements in rates of carbon fixation and manipulation of carbon partitioning. These improvements will be needed to help make production of energy from biomass more economically attractive.

  5. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified....

  6. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and...

  7. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  8. Sugar Beets in Southwest Texas: Production Potentials. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whiteley, E. L.; Cowley, W. R.

    1969-01-01

    . Zavala County: The trial in Zavala County n.. conducted on the Joe Byrd Farm 17 miles northea5; - Crystal City. The soil type was Blanco silty loam; irrigatic- was supplied from a 1,100-foot Carrizo well. The s~te 1.1: been heavily fertilized...

  9. Impact of polydispersity on light propagation in colloidal photonic crystals Mathieu Allarda)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    Impact of polydispersity on light propagation in colloidal photonic crystals Mathieu Allarda, or variations in the size of particles, on the transmittance of slabs of colloidal photonic crystals is analyzed American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.1835533] Colloidal crystals offer a simple route

  10. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    diversion of sugar to microbial cell growth andor engineering ways to recover and reuse microbial cells (e.g., cell 6 retention or cell recycle bioreactor configurations) as well...

  11. Energy Use Reduction Potential in the Beet Sugar Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron, T. S.; Heist, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Process energy use data are presented for most of the forty operating beet sugar factories in the United States. Sixty percent of the processing capacity is in states that actively pursue cogeneration projects. Most of the present factories...

  12. Investigation of surface acoustic wave fields in silicon crystals by x-ray diffraction: A dynamical theory approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Investigation of surface acoustic wave fields in silicon crystals by x-ray diffraction: A dynamical at different x-ray energies from a Si crystal subjected to a deformation produced by surface acoustic wave of the elastic model describing the acoustic wave fields inside the crystal. © 2005 American Institute of Physics

  13. Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2005-11-15

    Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

  14. Restricting lignin and enhancing sugar deposition in secondary cell walls enhances monomeric sugar release after low temperature ionic liquid pretreatment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Scullin, Chessa; Cruz, Alejandro G.; Chuang, Yi -De; Simmons, Blake A.; Loque, Dominique; Singh, Seema

    2015-07-04

    Lignocellulosic biomass has the potential to be a major source of renewable sugar for biofuel production. Before enzymatic hydrolysis, biomass must first undergo a pretreatment step in order to be more susceptible to saccharification and generate high yields of fermentable sugars. Lignin, a complex, interlinked, phenolic polymer, associates with secondary cell wall polysaccharides, rendering them less accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis. Herein, we describe the analysis of engineered Arabidopsis lines where lignin biosynthesis was repressed in fiber tissues but retained in the vessels, and polysaccharide deposition was enhanced in fiber cells with little to no apparent negative impact on growth phenotype.

  15. The Impact of the European Union Sugar Sector Policy on Brazilian Poverty 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avram, Bianca

    2011-11-24

    This study assesses the impact of the European Union (EU) common sugar policy on Brazilian poverty levels. First, using a simple linear regression, the Brazilian and EU sugar exports to common third countries were analysed, ...

  16. Co-solvent Pretreatment Reduces Costly Enzyme Requirements for High Sugar and Ethanol Yields from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Co-solvent Pretreatment Reduces Costly Enzyme Requirements for High Sugar and Ethanol Yields from limits potential sugar yields.[7] Thus, it is desirable We introduce a new pretreatment called co-solvent

  17. Sugar Monomer and Oligomer Solubility 179 Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology Vol. 105108, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    - ties of sugars common to many biomass feedstocks in the temperature range of 25­30°C. Then we reviewed

  18. Monochromator Crystal Glitch Library

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    SSRL's Monochromator Crystal Glitch Library allows users to view glitch spectra online, list specific crystal orientations, and download PDF files of the glitch spectra. (Specialized Interface)

  19. Crystallization process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler, Robert J. (Shaker Heights, OH); Brown, William R. (Brecksville, OH); Auyang, Lun (Highland Heights, OH); Liu, Yin-Chang (Richmond Heights, OH); Cook, W. Jeffrey (Cleveland Heights, OH)

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  20. International Crystal Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    International Crystal Manufacturing CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR AND FILTER PRODUCTS International Crystal Manufacturing, Inc. P.O. Box 26330 · Oklahoma City, OK 73126-0330 · Phone (405) 236-3741 Fax (405) 235@icmfg.com #12;2 International Crystal Manufacturing, Inc. P.O. Box 26330 · Oklahoma City, OK 73126-0330 · Phone

  1. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  2. CRYSTAL COLLIMATION AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FLILLER,R.P.,III.DREES,A.GASSNER,D.HAMMONS,L.MCINTYRE,G.PEGGS,S.TRBOJEVIC,D.BIRYUKOV,V.CHESNOKOV,Y.TEREKHOV,V.

    2003-06-19

    Crystal Channeling occurs when an ion enters a crystal with a small angle with respect to the crystal planes. The electrostatic interaction between the incoming ion and the lattice causes the ion to follow the crystal planes. By mechanically bending a crystal, it is possible to use a crystal to deflect ions. One novel use of a bent crystal is to use it to channel beam halo particles into a collimator downstream. By deflecting the halo particles into a collimator with a crystal it may be possible to improve collimation efficiency as compared to a single collimator. A bent crystal is installed in the yellow ring of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In this paper we discuss our experience with the crystal collimator, and compare our results to previous data, simulation, and theoretical prediction.

  3. CRYSTAL COLLIMATION AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FLILLER,III, R.P.; DREES,A.; GASSNER,D.; HAMMONS,L.; MCINTYRE,G.; PEGGS,S.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; BIRYUKOV,V.; CHESNKOV,Y.; TEREKHOV,V.

    2002-06-02

    For the year 2001 run, a bent crystal was installed in the yellow ring of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The crystal forms the first stage of a two stage collimation system. By aligning the crystal to the beam, halo particles are channeled through the crystal and deflected into a copper scraper. The purpose is to reduce beam halo with greater efficiency than with a scraper alone. In this paper we present the first results from the use of the crystal collimator. We compare the crystal performance under various conditions, such as different particle species, and beta functions.

  4. Cylindrical photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibanescu, Mihai, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we explore the properties of cylindrical photonic crystal waveguides in which light is confined laterally by the band gap of a cylindrically-layered photonic crystal. We show in particular that axially-uniform ...

  5. Apparatus for mounting crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longeway, Paul A. (East Windsor, NJ)

    1985-01-01

    A thickness monitor useful in deposition or etching reactor systems comprising a crystal-controlled oscillator in which the crystal is deposited or etched to change the frequency of the oscillator. The crystal rests within a thermally conductive metallic housing and arranged to be temperature controlled. Electrode contacts are made to the surface primarily by gravity force such that the crystal is substantially free of stress otherwise induced by high temperature.

  6. Honda: North American Manufacturing Facilities | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Honda: North American Manufacturing Facilities Honda: North American Manufacturing Facilities From October, 2008 Honda: North American Manufacturing Facilities More Documents &...

  7. KCP Sugar Industries and Corporation Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervar Hydro JumpHuari Silicon MaterialJunco NovoNewhlerKCP Sugar

  8. Sugars Can Actually Be Good For Your Health (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2011-10-04

    Like peanut M&Ms, all cells are coated with sugars but the functions of these sugar coatings were a mystery until very recently. This presentation will highlight recent fascinating discoveries regarding why cells are coated with sugars, as well as new tools for cancer detection that take advantage of the cells sugar coating. Professor Bertozzis lab focuses on profiling changes in cell surface glycosylation associated with cancer, inflammation and bacterial infection, and exploiting this information for development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In addition, her group develops nanoscience-based technologies for probing cell function and for medical diagnostics.

  9. Sugars Can Actually Be Good For Your Health (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2009-02-09

    Like peanut M&Ms, all cells are coated with sugars but the functions of these sugar coatings were a mystery until very recently. This presentation will highlight recent fascinating discoveries regarding why cells are coated with sugars, as well as new tools for cancer detection that take advantage of the cells sugar coating. Professor Bertozzis lab focuses on profiling changes in cell surface glycosylation associated with cancer, inflammation and bacterial infection, and exploiting this information for development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. In addition, her group develops nanoscience-based technologies for probing cell function and for medical diagnostics.

  10. Face shear piezoelectric properties of relaxor-PbTiO3 single crystals Shujun Zhang,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Wenwu

    Face shear piezoelectric properties of relaxor-PbTiO3 single crystals Shujun Zhang,1,a Fei Li,1TiO3 crystals, piezoelectric d36 coefficients were determined to be in the range of 2000­2500 p-frequency-transducer applications. © 2011 American Institute of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3584851 The excellent electromechanical

  11. Tax and Evolution in SugarScape Thomas Back and Daniel Vermeulen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eiben, A.E. "Guszti"

    and redistribution scheme to the basic SugarScape model [2]. The second model ex- #3; Thomas Back is also aTax and Evolution in SugarScape Thomas Back #3; and Daniel Vermeulen Leiden Institute of Advanced on a population. This is done using two di#11;erent models. The #12;rst model adds a basic taxation

  12. Sugar CSC CSC'2009 CSC'2009 Results Summary Short Report on the Results of the Fourth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Sugar CSC CSC'2009 CSC'2009 Results Summary . . . .. . . Short Report on the Results of the Fourth Short Report on the Results of the Fourth International Constr #12;Sugar CSC CSC'2009 CSC'2009 Results encoding establishes bound propagation in the original CSP. We participated the fourth international CSP

  13. This paper presents the development of a simulation program (SUGAR) for planar MEMS devices. The approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ABSTRACT This paper presents the development of a simulation program (SUGAR) for planar MEMS, and high-level sim- ulation package for MEMS. Keywords: MEMS, SUGAR, nodal analysis, nonlinear model, Matlab INTRODUCTION Rapid development of MEMS technology requires CAD tools for support. Most

  14. Sugar++: A SAT-Based MAX-CSP/COP Solver Tomoya Tanjo1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Sugar++: A SAT-Based MAX-CSP/COP Solver Tomoya Tanjo1 , Naoyuki Tamura2 , and Mutsunori Banbara2 1 describes some features of Sugar++, a SAT-based MAX- CSP/COP solver entering the Third International CSP Solver Competition. In our approach, a MAX-CSP is translated into a Constraint Optimization Problem (COP

  15. Photonic crystals Fabrication of Tunable Spherical Colloidal Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photonic crystals Fabrication of Tunable Spherical Colloidal Crystals Immobilized in Soft Hydrogels** Toshimitsu Kanai, Daeyeon Lee, Ho Cheung Shum, and David A. Weitz* Spherical colloidal crystals are three as photonic crystals in the optical regime.[2] In contrast to conventional film-type colloidal crystals where

  16. Aging in American Convents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corwin, Anna I.

    2009-01-01

    Schuster. Snowdon, David 2001 Aging with Grace: What the Nunreligion, devotion, and aging. CSW JAN09 update tocAging in American Convents FIELDWORK REPORT by Anna I.

  17. Automated macromolecular crystallization screening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Segelke, Brent W.; Rupp, Bernhard; Krupka, Heike I.

    2005-03-01

    An automated macromolecular crystallization screening system wherein a multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced. A multiplicity of analysis plates is produced utilizing the reagent mixes combined with a sample. The analysis plates are incubated to promote growth of crystals. Images of the crystals are made. The images are analyzed with regard to suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A design of reagent mixes is produced based upon the expected suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A second multiplicity of mixes of the reagent components is produced utilizing the design and a second multiplicity of reagent mixes is used for a second round of automated macromolecular crystallization screening. In one embodiment the multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced by a random selection of reagent components.

  18. Precedents in African American architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sass, Lawrence

    1994-01-01

    As a sub-sets of American culture, African Americans have not been able to offer culturally specific architectural elements to the design process because the history of African American form and space has not been recognized ...

  19. American Institute of Aeronautics Astronautics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Institute of Aeronautics Astronautics Study Cylindrical Thruster Low Power Space scaling of magnetic circuit leaves almost no magnetic Copyright American Institute Aeronautics; American Institute of Aeronautics Astronautics ability coaxial thrusters achieve performance moderate power

  20. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  1. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Tan, Eric; Tao, Ling; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  2. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  3. Phononic crystal devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Kady, Ihab F. (Albuquerque, NM); Olsson, Roy H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-10

    Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.

  4. Americans Abroad: A Global Diaspora?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croucher, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    D. “Confederate Migration to Mexico. ” Hispanic AmericanHarmon, “Confederate Migration to Mexico,” Hispanic AmericanUS Retirement Migration to Mexico and Panama. Washington,

  5. Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    2004 Available online 26 November 2004 Abstract Reducing the use of non-renewable fossil energy of bioethanol as an automotive fuel. Conversion of sugar and starch to ethanol has been proven at an industrial of making ethanol or sugar from the juice was very sensitive to the price of sugar in China. This result

  6. Function Photonic Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang-Yao Wu; Bai-Jun Zhang; Jing-Hai Yang; Xiao-Jing Liu; Nuo Ba; Yi-Heng Wu; Qing-Cai Wang; Guang-Huai Wang

    2012-12-01

    In the paper, we present a new kind of function photonic crystals, which refractive index is a function of space position. Unlike conventional PCs, which structure grow from two materials, A and B, with different dielectric constants $\\epsilon_{A}$ and $\\epsilon_{B}$. By Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional function photonic crystals. For one-dimensional function photonic crystals, we study the dispersion relation, band gap structure and transmissivity, and compare them with conventional photonic crystals. By choosing various refractive index distribution function $n(z)$, we can obtain more width or more narrow band gap structure than conventional photonic crystals.

  7. AFRICAN AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY Sample Syllabus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopfinger, Joseph B.

    AFRICAN AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 503 Sample Syllabus Course Description and Overview: This course examines the psychology of the African American experience. We begin the course with an overview of Black/African American psychology as an evolving field of study and consider the Black/African American Psychology

  8. Zymomonas pentose-sugar fermenting strains and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Chou, Yat-Chen (Golden, CO); Howe, William (Golden, CO); Eddy, Christine (Golden, CO); Evans, Kent (Littleton, CO); Mohagheghi, Ali (Northglenn, CO)

    2007-05-29

    Disclosed in the present invention is a Zymomonas integrant and derivatives of these integrants that posses the ability to ferment pentose into ethanol. The genetic sequences encoding for the pentose-fermenting enzymes are integrated into the Zymomonas in a two-integration event of homologous recombination and transposition. Each operon includes more than one pentose-reducing enzyme encoding sequence. The integrant in some embodiments includes enzyme sequences encoding xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transketolase and transketolase. The Zymomonas integrants are highly stable, and retain activity for producing the pentose-fermenting enzyme for between 80 to 160 generations. The integrants are also resistant to acetate inhibition, as the integrants demonstrate efficient ethanol production even in the presence of 8 up to 16 grams acetate per liter media. These stably integrated sequences provide a unique Zymomonas that may then be used for the efficient conversion of pentose sugars (xylose, arabinose) to ethanol. Method of using the Zymomonas integrants and derivatives thereof in production of ethanol from cellulosic feedstock is also disclosed. The invention also provides a method for preparing a Zymomonas integrant as part of the present invention. The host Zymomonas strain found particularly useful in the creation of these compositions and methods is Zymomonas mobilis 31821.

  9. A Vocation for Industrial Transformation: Ideology, Organizational Isomorphism, and Upgrading in the Guatemalan Sugar Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuentes, Alberto Jose

    Between the late 1970s and the 2000s, the Guatemalan sugar industry transitioned from a production model with deplorable labor conditions and low productivity to a highly efficient model with improved conditions. This paper ...

  10. Sugar Stability of Sweet Sorghum Exposed to Climate Controlled and Ambient Storage Conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herb, Dustin Walker

    2014-08-22

    (Salix ssp.), and hybrid poplar (Populus ssp.) used for lignocellulosic conversion (Lewandowski et al., 2000; McLaughlin and Adams, 2005), and sugarcane and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) as a sugar-based bioenergy crop adaptable to both...

  11. Mixed methods evaluation of a randomized control pilot trial targeting sugar-sweetened beverage behaviors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zoellner, Jamie; Cook, Emily; Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes; You, Wen; Davy, Brenda; Estabrooks, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This Excessive sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and low health literacy skills have emerged as two public health concerns in the United States (US); however, there is limited research on how to effectively address ...

  12. RAW MATERIALS EVALUATION AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES FOR CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL C. R. Wilke, R. D. Yang,of Cellulose Conversion on Ethanol Cost. References Wilke,of Hydrolyzate to Ethanol and Single Cell Protein,"

  13. Lienert named American Welding Society Fellow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lienert Named American Welding Society Fellow Lienert named American Welding Society Fellow Lienert was inducted into the American Welding Society's 2012 Class of Fellows during...

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF SUGAR CONSUMPTION IN THE FERMENTATION OF TEMULOSE FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalka, Jacquelyn

    2007-07-14

    OPTIMIZATION OF SUGAR CONSUMPTION IN THE FERMENTATION OF TEMULOSE FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION A Senior Honors Thesis by JACQUELYN MICHALKA Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University In partial fulfillment... of the requirements of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2007 Major: Biological Systems Engineering ii ABSTRACT Optimization of Sugar Consumption in the Fermentation of Temulose for the Production of Ethanol Jacquelyn Michalka...

  15. Asian American women entrepreneurs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suh, Clara J

    2014-01-01

    There are an estimated 620,300 firms owned by Asian American women nationwide, and they contribute $105 billion to the U.S. economy. They are also active in Greater Boston's innovation and entrepreneurship communities. ...

  16. The great American garage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, B. Alex (Brian Alex), 1977-

    2004-01-01

    How does one explore the suburban home? Go in through the garage, of course. Sales, bands, suicides, and business startups: The suburban garage is the most culturally flexible space in the entire American domestic environment. ...

  17. American Nuclear Society Awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nuclear Society Awards Established in 1999 by the Fusion Energy Division of the American Nuclear Society (ANS) and named after LLNL's co-founder, the Edward Teller Medal recognizes...

  18. Theoretical investigation of fabrication-related disorder on the properties of photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    .' The perfect crystal structure is shown in Fig. 1. It is essentially a layered struc- ture, typical of most 3D structure. 0 1995 American Institute of Physics. I. INTRODUCTION Photonic band-gap (PBG) materials have the structure and lead to significant changes in the properties of optical devices. One limiting factor

  19. The American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database is a compilation of every crystal structure potentially of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downs, Robert T.

    and symmetry, and a list of elements in the structure. This element list contains the atomic coordinates, site by checking that the cell parameters reproduce the cell volume, and the atomic coordinates reproduce the bond). An example of a dataset for phlogopite is given in Table 1. As of the beginning of the calendar year 2

  20. New crystal forms of Diocleinae lectins in the presence of different dimannosides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista [Departamento de Física-IBILCE-Universidade Estadual Paulista, São José do Rio Preto 15054-000 (Brazil); Bezerra, Gustavo Arruda; Oliveira, Taianá Maia de; Souza, Emmanuel Prata de [Biomol-Lab, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza-CE, Caixa Postal 6043, CEP 60455-970 (Brazil); Rocha, Bruno Anderson Matias da [Biomol-Lab, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza-CE, Caixa Postal 6043, CEP 60455-970 (Brazil); Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE 63195-000 (Brazil); Benevides, Raquel Guimarães [Biomol-Lab, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza-CE, Caixa Postal 6043, CEP 60455-970 (Brazil); Delatorre, Plínio [Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, CE 63195-000 (Brazil); Cavada, Benildo Sousa, E-mail: bscavada@ufc.br [Biomol-Lab, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza-CE, Caixa Postal 6043, CEP 60455-970 (Brazil); Azevedo, Walter Filgueira Jr de, E-mail: bscavada@ufc.br [Faculdade de Biociências-PUCRS, Av. Ipiranga 6681, TECNOPUC-Predio 92a, 90619-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Departamento de Física-IBILCE-Universidade Estadual Paulista, São José do Rio Preto 15054-000 (Brazil)

    2006-11-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray data of Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL) and C. maritima lectin (CML) complexed with Man(?1-2)Man(?1)OMe, Man(?1-3)Man(?1)OMe and Man(?1-4)Man(?1)OMe in two crystal forms [the complexes with Man(?1-3)Man(?1)OMe and Man(?1-4)Man(?1)OMe crystallized in space group P3{sub 2} and those with Man(?1-2)Man(?1)OMe crystallized in space group I222], which differed from those of the native proteins (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 for CML and C222 for CGL), are reported. Studying the interactions between lectins and sugars is important in order to explain the differences observed in the biological activities presented by the highly similar proteins of the Diocleinae subtribe. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray data of Canavalia gladiata lectin (CGL) and C. maritima lectin (CML) complexed with Man(?1-2)Man(?1)OMe, Man(?1-3)Man(?1)OMe and Man(?1-4)Man(?1)OMe in two crystal forms [the complexes with Man(?1-3)Man(?1)OMe and Man(?1-4)Man(?1)OMe crystallized in space group P3{sub 2} and those with Man(?1-2)Man(?1)OMe crystallized in space group I222], which differed from those of the native proteins (P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 for CML and C222 for CGL), are reported. The crystal complexes of ConA-like lectins with Man(?1-4)Man(?1)OMe are reported here for the first time.

  1. 56 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN APRIL 2006 COPYRIGHT 2006 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robins, Gabriel

    56 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN APRIL 2006 COPYRIGHT 2006 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, INC. #12;www.sciam.com SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 57 Computing with Quantum Knots uantum computers promise to perform calculations be- lieved to be impossible for ordinary computers. Some of those calculations are of great real-world

  2. American Association of Petroleum Geologists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, Alan Jay

    American Association of Petroleum Geologists 40th Eastern Section Meeting September 24-29, 2011 MEETING SPONSORS #12;2011 Eastern Section American Association of Petroleum Geologists 40th Annual Meeting

  3. Frequency doubling crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Francis (Danville, CA); Velsko, Stephan P. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A systematic approach to the production of frequency conversion crystals is described in which a chiral molecule has attached to it a "harmonic generating unit" which contributes to the noncentrosymmetry of the molecule. Certain preferred embodiments of such harmonic generating units include carboxylate, guanadyly and imidazolyl units. Certain preferred crystals include L-arginine fluoride, deuterated L-arginine fluoride, L-arginine chloride monohydrate, L-arginine acetate, dithallium tartrate, ammonium N-acetyl valine, N-acetyl tyrosine and N-acetyl hydroxyproline. Chemical modifications of the chiral molecule, such as deuteration, halogenation and controlled counterion substitution are available to adapt the dispersive properties of a crystal in a particular wavelength region.

  4. A VUV Photoionization and Ab Initio Determination of the Ionization Energy of a Gas Phase Sugar (Deoxyribose).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Debashree

    2012-01-01

    electronic structure calculations of vertical and adiabatic ionization energies. Ab initio molecular dynamics (dynamics snapshots along the reaction coordinate. Keywords: sugars, synchrotron radiation, electronic structure calculations,

  5. American Cultural History History 390

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 American Cultural History History 390 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries, letters. popular), theses, the Web Check subject guide under: Research by Subject History by Region American collection unless stated. Album of American History E178 .A2 A (5 volumes; Stauffer ­ Books) Columbia

  6. Central American electrical interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    A technical cooperation grant of $2.25 million, designed to strengthen the capacity of Central American countries to operate their regional interconnected electrical system, was announced by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). The grant, extended from the banks Fund for Special Operations, will help improve the capacity of the regions electric power companies to achieve economical, safe operation of the interconnected electric power systems. The funds will also be used to finance regional studies of the accords, procedures, regulations, and supervisory mechanisms for the system, as well as program development and data bases.

  7. Commercial Application of Freeze Crystallization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorgol, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    crystallization for this particular application presented HPD's designers with a new set of technical challenges. The largest freeze crystallization unit in the world, prior to the Chetwynd installation, was a desalination unit in operation in Saudi Arabia...

  8. Controlling Chirality of Entropic Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damasceno, Pablo F; Schultz, Benjamin A; Engel, Michael; Glotzer, Sharon C

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal crystal structures with complexity and diversity rivaling atomic and molecular crystals have been predicted and obtained for hard particles by entropy maximization. However, so far homochiral colloidal crystals, which are candidates for photonic metamaterials, are absent. Using Monte Carlo simulations we show that chiral polyhedra exhibiting weak directional entropic forces self-assemble either an achiral crystal or a chiral crystal with limited control over the crystal handedness. Building blocks with stronger faceting exhibit higher selectivity and assemble a chiral crystal with handedness uniquely determined by the particle chirality. Tuning the strength of directional entropic forces by means of particle rounding or the use of depletants allows for reconfiguration between achiral and homochiral crystals. We rationalize our findings by quantifying the chirality strength of each particle, both from particle geometry and potential of mean force and torque diagrams.

  9. Journal of Crystal Growth ] (

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) at high pressure of CO2 (initial PCO2 ¼ 55 bar) and moderate to high temperature (30 and 90 1C) was used and the dissolved quantity of CO2 have a significant effect on the average particle size, specific surface areaJournal of Crystal Growth ] (

  10. Silicon crystal growing by oscillating crucible technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwuttke, G.H.; Kim, K.M.; Smetana, P.

    1983-08-03

    A process for growing silicon crystals from a molten melt comprising oscillating the container during crystal growth is disclosed.

  11. Membrane Protein Crystallization in Lipidic Mesophases. Hosting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CATIONS; CRYSTALLIZATION; CRYSTALLOGRAPHY; CRYSTALS; HOST; LIPIDS; MEMBRANE PROTEINS; MEMBRANES; NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE; PEPTIDES; RANGE; SHAPE; SIZE Word Cloud More...

  12. American Disabilities Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits private employers, state and local governments, employment agencies and labor unions from discriminating against qualified individuals with disabilities in job application procedures, hiring, firing, advancement, compensation, job training, and other terms, conditions, and privileges of employment.

  13. Ethanol from sugar cane: flask experiments using the EX-FERM technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rolz, C.; Cabrera, S.

    1980-09-01

    Alcohol production at the laboratory scale from sugar cane pieces by the EX-FERM technique was studied with 37 strains of Saccharomyces spp. The EX-FERM process is novel in that it employs the simultaneous extraction and fermentation of the sucrose in a cane-water suspension. The final ethanol concentration reached 4.27 to 5.37g per 100 ml, and sugar consumption was above 98% in three cases during a second EX-FERM cycle employing previously air-dried chips and pith. Product yields were within accepted values. Cane treatment did not appear to affect the results at this level.

  14. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, S.K.; Hames, B.R.; Myers, M.D.

    1998-03-24

    A method is described for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  15. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Myers, Michele D. (Dacono, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  16. From Refining Sugar to Growing Tomatoes: Industrial Ecology and Business Model Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Samuel W.; Bocken, Nancy M. P.; Barlow, Claire Y.; Chertow, Marian R.

    2014-10-13

    to 40,000 t Soft drinks producers, fire protection sector Electricity British Sugar 320,000 MWh Energy suppliers 4.6 Ecological benefits realized Table 3 provides a quantitative assessment of the major ecological benefits realized... in the UK with an 85.4% market share (IBISWorld 2013b). Also viewed as the most efficient beet sugar factory in Europe (IBISWorld 2013b) “Co- Products” Animal feed Trident (Now a subsidiary of AB Agri, part of the AB Food group) 140,000 t UK...

  17. Process for whole cell saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using a dual bioreactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Jue (Okemos, MI); Okeke, Benedict (Montgomery, AL)

    2012-03-27

    The present invention describes a process for saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using whole microbial cells, which are enriched from cultures inoculated with paper mill waste water, wood processing waste and soil. A three-member bacterial consortium is selected as a potent microbial inocula and immobilized on inedible plant fibers for biomass saccharification. The present invention further relates the design of a dual bioreactor system, with various biocarriers for enzyme immobilization and repeated use. Sugars are continuously removed eliminating end-product inhibition and consumption by cell.

  18. SugarJ: Library-based Syntactic Language Extensibility Sebastian Erdweg, Tillmann Rendel, Christian Kastner, and Klaus Ostermann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaestner, Christian

    a user-defined syntax for using the semantic artifacts exported by the library. Each piece of syntacticSugarJ: Library-based Syntactic Language Extensibility Sebastian Erdweg, Tillmann Rendel, Christian with the same ease as the main extension mechanism of the programming language--libraries. Sugar libraries

  19. J. Field Ornithol. 73(1):8285, 2002 Locale-specific sugar packet opening by Lesser Antillean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fussman, Gregor

    Bullfinches in Barbados Simon M. Reader,1,3,4 Daniel Nover,2 and Louis Lefebvre2 1 Bellairs Institute of McGill University, Barbados, West Indies 2 McGill University, Montre´al, Canada Received 8 January 2001; accepted 11 of sugar on the grounds of a hotel on the west coast of Barbados. We presented closed sugar packets at 40

  20. Variable frequency photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Jing-Hai; Li, Hong; Chen, Wan-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed a new one-dimensional variable frequency photonic crystals (VFPCs), and calculated the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution of VFPCs with and without defect layer, and considered the effect of defect layer and variable frequency function on the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution. We have obtained some new characteristics for the VFPCs, which should be help to design a new type optical devices.

  1. Digestibility of the Sugars, Starches, Pentosans, and Protein of Some Feeding Stuffs. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1922-01-01

    STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL. President BULLETIN NO. 290 FEBRUARY, 1922 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY DIGESTIBILITY OF THE SUGARS, STARCHES, PENTOSANS, AND PROTEIDS OF SOME FEEDING STUFFS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DI... .................................... Digestibility of the Feeds 14 .............................. Digestibility by Groups of Feeds 19 ................................... Proteids and Non.proteids 20 Acknowledgment ........................................... 21...

  2. UVA-visible photo-excitation of guanine radical cations produces sugar radicals in DNA and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    UVA-visible photo-excitation of guanine radical cations produces sugar radicals in DNA and model, 2005; Revised and Accepted September 6, 2005 ABSTRACT This work presents evidence that photo- nucleosides and deoxyribonucleotides. In dsDNA at low temperatures, formation of C10 is observed from photo

  3. Thermophilic and thermoacidophilic sugar transporter genes and enzymes from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and related organisms, methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Apel, William A. (Jackson, WY); Thompson, Vicki S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Reed, David W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lacey, Jeffrey A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-12-06

    Isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences encoding polypeptides from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius are provided. Further provided are methods for transporting sugars across cell membranes using isolated and/or purified polypeptides and nucleic acid sequences from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius.

  4. The effect of sugars on turion germination and growth of Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton, Donald Ross

    1979-01-01

    to tropical zones and occurs 1n and around the Carribean. In an independent effort Stewart (1969) and Stewart and Smith (1972) induced turion production with ABA. S g a also ti 1 t S. ~o1 hiza cultu e t p d e tu i s (Henssen, 1954). Those sugars wh1ch...

  5. Strong Cellulase Inhibition by Mannan Polysaccharides in Cellulose Conversion to Sugars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Strong Cellulase Inhibition by Mannan Polysaccharides in Cellulose Conversion to Sugars Rajeev and their enzymatically prepared hydrolyzates were discovered to be strongly inhibitory to fungal cellulase in cellulose; galactomannan; oligomers; xylan Introduction Lignocellulosic biomass comprised of three major compo- nents--cellulose

  6. Drug delivery systems based on sugar-macromolecule conjugates Benjamin G Davis* & Mark A Robinson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Ben G.

    Drug delivery systems based on sugar-macromolecule conjugates Benjamin G Davis* & Mark A Robinson in Drug Discovery & Development 2002 5(2): 279-288 PharmaPress Ltd ISSN 1367-6733 The specificity-tuning of active drug delivery through their great ability to undergo site- specific modification

  7. VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY Water Solutions of Boric Acid and Sugar for Management of German

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    germanica (L.), is a synanthropic pest clearly recognized as medically and economically important (SchalandVETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY Water Solutions of Boric Acid and Sugar for Management of German Cockroach STRINGHAM, D. WES WATSON, AND COBY SCHAL2 Department of Entomology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh

  8. AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION (ASA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall toUranium Marketing Annual ReportAMERICAN STATISTICAL

  9. The American Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCEDInstallers/ContractorsPhotovoltaics »TanklessResearchEnergy2 DOE Hydrogen12TheAmerican

  10. New American Home 2009 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01

    This brochure details the New American Home 2009, which demonstrates the use of innovative building materials, cutting-edge design, and the latest construction techniques.

  11. Opportunities and Inaudibilities: Asian American Internet Musicians

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regullano, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    60–73. Spooner, Tom. “Asian-Americans and the Internet. ”Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project.americans-and-the-internet/. Timothy DeLaGhetto Dog Joke. ,

  12. Radiation and spin separation of high energy positrons by bent crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bashmakov, Y.A.

    1995-09-01

    The channeling of ultrahigh energy positrons both in bent and straight crystals can serve as an effective source of hard photons. The presence in the channel of the strong inhomogeneous electrical field gives rise to a number of interesting peculiarities of the motion of the channeling particles. The radiative separation of particles depending on spin orientation with respect to the plane of motion and radiative polarization can make it possible to obtain by means of bent crystals a positron beam with a degree of polarization about 10 to 20{percent}. Because of availability of the ultrahigh energy positron beams such experiments can be carried out nowadays. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Crystal face temperature determination means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nason, D.O.; Burger, A.

    1994-11-22

    An optically transparent furnace having a detection apparatus with a pedestal enclosed in an evacuated ampule for growing a crystal thereon is disclosed. Temperature differential is provided by a source heater, a base heater and a cold finger such that material migrates from a polycrystalline source material to grow the crystal. A quartz halogen lamp projects a collimated beam onto the crystal and a reflected beam is analyzed by a double monochromator and photomultiplier detection spectrometer and the detected peak position in the reflected energy spectrum of the reflected beam is interpreted to determine surface temperature of the crystal. 3 figs.

  14. Florida Nuclear Profile - Crystal River

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crystal River1" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date"...

  15. Growing Giant Crystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not findGeoscience/EnvironmentGlobalADDITIONALGrowing Giant Crystals

  16. Lienert named American Welding Society Fellow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lienert named American Welding Society Fellow November 29, 2012 Thomas J. Lienert of the Lab's Metallurgy group was inducted into the American Welding Society's 2012 Class of...

  17. Weatherization Formula Grants - American Recovery and Reinvestment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Weatherization Formula Grants - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Weatherization Formula Grants - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) U.S. Department of...

  18. NORTH AMERICAN ELECTRIC RELIABILITY COUNCIL: Preliminary Disturbance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Report More Documents & Publications North American Electric Reliability Council Power Outage Update North American Electric Reliability Council Outage Announcement Electric System...

  19. Energy Innovation: Green Button Initiative Empowering Americans...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Innovation: Green Button Initiative Empowering Americans to Save Energy and Money Energy Innovation: Green Button Initiative Empowering Americans to Save Energy and Money...

  20. Chinese and Chinese American Life-Writing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, KK

    2015-01-01

    The Chinaman Pacific: Must a Chinese American Critic ChooseAn Anthology of Ancient Chinese Poetry (??????) (Shanghai,The Woman Warrior and the Chinese-American Autobiographical

  1. American Gas Association | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American Gas Association American Gas Association Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication 111011ExParte.pdf More Documents & Publications Ex Parte Memorandum - Natural...

  2. Native American Finance Officers Association Conference | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Native American Finance Officers Association Conference Native American Finance Officers Association Conference March 5, 2012 - 5:50pm Addthis This event will take place on March...

  3. Central American update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1987-07-01

    The Central American Energy Resources Project is designed to help the countries of Honduras, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama develop their geothermal resources. Auxiliary project goals are to increase economic development and employment in Central America; to provide a scientific basis for the private sector to develop natural resources; and to provide scientific training to in-country scientists, engineers, and technicians. The energy resources project began in March 1985. The progress being made in El Salvador (production well logging and geophysical operations), Panama (site selection for the first temperature-gradient well), and Honduras (well drilling of temperature-gradient wells) is summarized.

  4. Central American resource studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Eeckhout, E.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with five Central American countries to assist in the development of their energy and mineral resources. Since 1985, mineral resources in Costa Rica, peat resources in Costa Rica and Panama, geothermal energy resources in Honduras and Guatemala, and geothermal field development in El Salvador and Costa Rica have been topics of study. This paper presents an overview of this work -- within these proceedings are papers that deal with specific aspects of each topic, and these will be duly noted. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  5. American Chemical Society Fellow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TAPropane TexasAmbipolarXunamed as American

  6. Optics of globular photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorelik, V S

    2007-05-31

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the optical properties of globular photonic crystals - new physical objects having a crystal structure with the lattice period exceeding considerably the atomic size, are presented. As globular photonic crystals, artificial opal matrices consisting of close-packed silica globules of diameter {approx}200 nm were used. The reflection spectra of these objects characterising the parameters of photonic bands existing in these crystals in the visible spectral region are presented. The idealised models of the energy band structure of photonic crystals investigated in the review give analytic dispersion dependences for the group velocity and the effective photon mass in a globular photonic crystal. The characteristics of secondary emission excited in globular photonic crystals by monochromatic and broadband radiation are presented. The results of investigations of single-photon-excited delayed scattering of light observed in globular photonic crystals exposed to cw UV radiation and radiation from a repetitively pulsed copper vapour laser are presented. The possibilities of using globular photonic crystals as active media for lasing in different spectral regions are considered. It is proposed to use globular photonic crystals as sensitive sensors in optoelectronic devices for molecular analysis of organic and inorganic materials by the modern methods of laser spectroscopy. The results of experimental studies of spontaneous and stimulated globular scattering of light are discussed. The conditions for observing resonance and two-photon-excited delayed scattering of light are found. The possibility of accumulation and localisation of the laser radiation energy inside a globular photonic crystal is reported. (review)

  7. Extraction and transformation of proton beam at RHIC using bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nurushev, S.B.; Krivosheev, O.E.; Pivovarov, Y.L.; Potylitsin, A.P.

    1995-09-01

    The effect of transformation of polarization of relativistic protons using extraction and deflection by bent crystal is investigated by means of computer simulation. The 250 {ital GeV}/{ital c} proton beam from RHIC can be deflected to an angle, {theta}{sub {ital p}}=3 mrad with simultaneous transformation of initial longitudinal polarization to transverse polarization. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Continuous Plug Flow Crystallization of Pharmaceutical Compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Alejandro J.

    Crystallization processes in the pharmaceutical industry are usually designed to obtain crystals with controlled size, shape, purity, and polymorphic form. Knowledge of the process conditions required to fabricate crystals ...

  9. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caimi, Perry G. (Kennett Square, PA); Chou, Yat-Chen (Lakewood, CO); Franden, Mary Ann (Centennial, CO); Knoke, Kyle (Newark, DE); Tao, Luan (Havertown, PA); Viitanen, Paul V. (West Chester, PA); Zhang, Min (Lakewood, CO); Zhang, Yuying (New Hope, PA)

    2011-03-01

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in mixed-sugars medium comprising xylose, and, in particular, in the presence of acetate.

  10. Kakira Sugar Works (1985) Limited, Kakira biomass cogeneration: Volume 3 -- Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-06-01

    This report, conducted by John H. Payne, Inc., was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The study concerns the technical and financial feasibility of the Kakira Sugar Works Limited to increase its capacity to 5,000 TCD and to sell its surplus power to the Uganda Electricity Board. This is Volume 3, the Purchase Energy Contract between Kakira Cogeneration Company Limited and Uganda Electricity Board.

  11. A study of the balance sheet approach applied to the world sugar market 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia-Pazos, Jorge Luis

    1976-01-01

    production. A constant upward trend In consumption is evident, and projections are therefore more reliable. Forecast balance sheet tables were bui'It for 1975 to 1980. Under iv the assumption that other important factors, ln addition to trend, would... tion Anal sis and Forecast. 96 Harvested Area Trend Analysis Yield Trend Analysis. World Production Responses to World Prices. World Sugar Consumption Analysis. 104 104 110 111 Vl. World Su ar Forecast Balance Sheet. 116 Projections...

  12. Thinking American, Working American, Playing American Folk Dance in Chicago, 1890-1940 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herzogenrath, Jessica

    2014-07-23

    for the consideration of folk dance as an integral part of the physical education of children and young women as well as its function as an element of defining American-ness in both higher education and social settlements. Second, the dissertation demonstrates...

  13. Dissipation in a Crystallization Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sven Dorosz; Thomas Voigtmann; Tanja Schilling

    2015-04-16

    We discuss the crystallization process from the supersaturated melt in terms of its non-equilibrium properties. In particular, we quantify the amount of heat that is produced irreversibly when a suspension of hard spheres crystallizes. This amount of heat can be interpreted as arising from the resistance of the system against undergoing phase transition. We identify an intrinsic compression rate that separates a quasi-static regime from a regime of rapid crystallization. In the former the disspated heat grows linearly in the compression rate. In the latter the system crystallizes more easily, because new relaxation channels are opened, at the cost of forming a higher fraction of non-equilibrium crystal structures. In analogy to a shear-thinning fluid, the system shows a decreased resistance when it is driven rapidly.

  14. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Impact of the Switch to Liquid Sugar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 SOCIAL IMPACTUBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Impact of the Switch to Liquid Sugar Kristian Plakaris, Dhruv Raturi, Anuj Mehta University of British

  15. Crystal Structures of Lipoglycopeptide Antibiotic Deacetylases...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystal Structures of Lipoglycopeptide Antibiotic Deacetylases: Implications for the Biosynthesis of A40926 and Teicoplanin Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystal...

  16. Frequency mixing crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ebbers, Christopher A. (Livermore, CA); Davis, Laura E. (Manteca, CA); Webb, Mark (Salida, CA)

    1992-01-01

    In a laser system for converting infrared laser light waves to visible light comprising a source of infrared laser light waves and means of harmoic generation associated therewith for production of light waves at integral multiples of the frequency of the original wave, the improvement of said means of harmonic generation comprising a crystal having the chemical formula X.sub.2 Y(NO.sub.3).sub.5 .multidot.2 nZ.sub.2 o wherein X is selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Tl; Y is selected from the group consisting of Sc, Y, La, Ce, Nd, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Al, Ga, and In; Z is selected from the group consisting of H and D; and n ranges from 0 to 4.

  17. Lamella settler crystallizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maimoni, Arturo (Orinda, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A crystallizer which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as well as in other electrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities.

  18. Lamella settler crystallizer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maimoni, A.

    1990-12-18

    A crystallizer is described which incorporates a lamella settler and which is particularly applicable for use in batteries and power cells for electric vehicles or stationary applications. The lamella settler can be utilized for coarse particle separation or for agglomeration, and is particularly applicable to aluminum-air batteries or power cells for solving the hydrargillite (aluminum-hydroxide) removal problems from such batteries. This invention provides the advantages of very low energy consumption, turbulence, shear, cost and maintenance. Thus, due to the low shear and low turbulence of this invention, it is particularly effective in the control of aluminum hydroxide particle size distribution in the various sections of an aluminum-air system, as well as in other electrochemical systems requiring separation for phases of different densities. 3 figs.

  19. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate/fermentation process yielded improvements beyond what was expected solely from the addition of sugar. In order to expand the economic potential for building a biorefinery, the conversion of enzyme hydrolysates of AFEX-treated bagasse to succinic acid was also investigated. This program established a solid basis for pre-treatment of bagasse in a manner that is feasible for producing ethanol at raw sugar mills.

  20. The Bases Are Loaded: American Indians and American Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meland, Carter; Bauerkemper, Joseph; Howe, LeAnne; Stark, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    with the perspectives of American Indian studies. In general, as Nikhil Pal Singh notes, current cultural discourse "counterposes multiculturalism and universalism as principal, opposed terms in the culture wars."6 Singh elaborates that this oppo sition "determines... with the perspectives of American Indian studies. In general, as Nikhil Pal Singh notes, current cultural discourse "counterposes multiculturalism and universalism as principal, opposed terms in the culture wars."6 Singh elaborates that this oppo sition "determines...

  1. Anisotropic shock sensitivity and detonation temperature of pentaerythritol tetranitrate single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, C. S.; Holmes, N. C.; Souers, P. C.; Wu, C. J.; Ree, F. H.; Dick, J. J.

    2000-07-01

    Shock temperatures of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) single crystals have been measured by using a nanosecond time-resolved spectropyrometric system operated at six discrete wavelengths between 350 and 700 nm. The results show that the shock sensitivity of PETN is strongly dependent on the crystal orientation: Sensitive along the shock propagation normal to the (110) plane, but highly insensitive normal to the (100) plane. The detonation temperature of PETN is, however, independent from the crystal orientation and is determined to be 4140 ({+-}70) K. The time-resolved data yielding the detonation velocity 8.28 ({+-}0.10) mm/{mu}s can be interpreted in the context of a modified thermal explosion model. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  2. LGBT African-American Individuals and African-American Same-Sex Couples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Gary J.; Kastanis, Angel

    2013-01-01

    of African-American same-sex couples are raising children.African-American same-sex couples raising children reportAfrican- American different-sex couples ($47,300 vs. $

  3. American Indian Policy and Relevant DOE and Executive Orders...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tribal Programs American Indian Policy and Relevant DOE and Executive Orders American Indian Policy and Relevant DOE and Executive Orders Over the course of American history,...

  4. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  5. Idaho_AmericanFallsRockland

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Power - Idaho Wind Anemometer Loan Program American FallsRockland Site 106 Latitude: N. 42 deg. 40.682' Longitude: W. 112 deg. 46.325' Elevation: 6579' Anemometer Height: 20...

  6. The New American Home 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-12-01

    The New American Home® is built annually as a showcase home for the International Builders’ Show® to demonstrate innovative technologies, construction techniques, products, and design trends for the homebuilding industry to use in any new or remodeled home.

  7. Diffraction Phenomena in Spontaneous and Stimulated Radiation by Relativistic Particles in Crystals (Review)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baryshevsky, V.G.

    2011-01-01

    crystal and originates a bent crystal channel. On the otherthe crystal and forms a bent crystal channel. In [128] the

  8. Banding in single crystals during plastic deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahesh, Sivasambu

    Banding in single crystals during plastic deformation M. Arul Kumar a Sivasambu Mahesh a,b a. India. Abstract A rigid-plastic rate-independent crystal plasticity model capable of capturing band- ing such as dense dislocation walls. Key words: crystal plasticity, single crystal, macroscopic shear band, regular

  9. Active materials in photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter (Peter A.)

    2007-01-01

    I analyze new phenomena arising from embedding active materials inside of photonic crystal structures. These structures strongly modify the photonic local density of states (LDOS), leading to quantitative and qualitative ...

  10. Heat transport through ion crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahuel Freitas; Esteban Martinez; Juan Pablo Paz

    2014-12-09

    We study the thermodynamical properties of crystals of trapped ions which are laser cooled to two different temperatures in two separate regions. We show that these properties strongly depend on the structure of the ion crystal. Such structure can be changed by varying the trap parameters and undergoes a series of phase transitions from linear to zig-zag or helicoidal configurations. Thus, we show that these systems are ideal candidates to observe and control the transition from anomalous to normal heat transport. All structures behave as `heat superconductors', with a thermal conductivity increasing linearly with system size and a vanishing thermal gradient inside the system. However, zig-zag and helicoidal crystals turn out to be hyper sensitive to disorder having a linear temperature profile and a length independent conductivity. Interestingly, disordered 2D ion crystals are heat insulators. Sensitivity to disorder is much smaller in the 1D case.

  11. African Americans and the Spanish-American War and Philippine Insurrection: Military Participation, Recognition, and Memory, 1898-1904

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Timothy Dale

    2013-01-01

    and the Spanish American War. ” Indiana Magazine of History,the Spanish American War, The Sixth Virginia Volunteers. ”African Americans and the War Against Spain. ” The North

  12. Crystal collimation for LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirarchi, Daniele; Scandale, Walter; Hall, Geoffrey

    Future upgrades of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may demand improved cleaning performance of its collimation system. Very efficient collimation is required during regular operations at high intensities, because even a small amount of energy deposited on superconducting magnets can cause an abrupt loss of superconducting conditions (quench). The present collimation system has accomplished its tasks during the LHC Run I very well, where no quench with circulating beam took place with up to 150 MJ of stored energy at 4 TeV. On the other hand, uncertainty remains on the performance at the design energy of 7 TeV and with 360 MJ of stored energy. In particular, a further increase up to about 700 MJ is expected for the high luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC), where improved cleaning performance may be needed together with a reduction of collimator impedance. The possibility to use a crystal-based collimation system represents an option for improving both cleaning performance and impedance compared to the present s...

  13. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, D. Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Cockroft, Nigel J. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal.

  14. Minimizing radiation damage in nonlinear optical crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke, D.W.; Bennett, B.L.; Cockroft, N.J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods are disclosed for minimizing laser induced damage to nonlinear crystals, such as KTP crystals, involving various means for electrically grounding the crystals in order to diffuse electrical discharges within the crystals caused by the incident laser beam. In certain embodiments, electrically conductive material is deposited onto or into surfaces of the nonlinear crystals and the electrically conductive surfaces are connected to an electrical ground. To minimize electrical discharges on crystal surfaces that are not covered by the grounded electrically conductive material, a vacuum may be created around the nonlinear crystal. 5 figs.

  15. Excerpt from Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives on the American Colonization of the Philippines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    Dead Stars: American and Philippine Literary Perspectives onthe American Colonization of the Philippines (Quezon City:University of the Philippines Press, 2011). Published with

  16. Crystal Potential Formula for the Calculation of Crystal Lattice Sums1 Don Steiger and Calvin Ahlbrandt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glaser, Rainer

    Crystal Potential Formula for the Calculation of Crystal Lattice Sums1 Don Steiger and Calvin; In Final Form: April 7, 1998 A new formula is derived for the determination of the potential energy of the central unit cell of a finite crystal; this formula is called the crystal potential formula. The crystal

  17. An Ionic Liquid Reaction and Separation Process for Production of Hydroxymethylfurfural from Sugars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wei; Zheng, Feng; Li, Joanne; Cooper, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    There has been world-wide interest to making plastics out of renewable biomass feedstock for recent years. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is viewed as an attractive alternate to terephthalic acid (TPA) for production of polyesters (PET) and polyamides. Conversion of sugars into HMF has been studied in numerous publications. In this work, a complete ionic liquid reaction and separation process is presented for nearly stoichiometric conversion of fructose into HMF. Different adsorbent materials are evaluated and silicalite material is demonstrated effective for isolation of 99% pure HMF from actual ionic liquid reaction mixtures and for recovery of the un-converted sugars and reaction intermediate along with the ionic liquid. Membrane-coated silicalite particles are prepared and studied for a practical adsorption process operated at low pressure drops but with separation performances comparable or better than the powder material. Complete conversion of fresh fructose feed into HMF in the recycled ionic liquid is shown under suitable reaction conditions. Stability of HMF product is characterized. A simplified process flow diagram is proposed based on these research results, and the key equipment such as reactor and adsorbent bed is sized for a plant of 200,000 ton/year of fructose processing capacity. The proposed HMF production process is much simpler than the current paraxylene (PX) manufacturing process from petroleum oil, which suggests substantial reduction to the capital cost and energy consumption be possible. At the equivalent value to PX on the molar basis, there can be a large gross margin for HMF production from fructose and/or sugars.

  18. Determinants of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in young children: a systematic review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paes, Veena Mazarello; Hesketh, Kathryn; O’Malley, Claire; Moore, Helen; Summerbell, Carolyn; Griffin, Simon; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Ong, Ken K.; Lakshman, Rajalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    TITLE PAGE Title of article: Determinants of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in young children: a systematic review Authors: Veena Mazarello Paes1,2, Kathryn Hesketh2,3, Claire O’Malley4, Helen Moore4, Carolyn Summerbell4, Simon Griffin1... . Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(08):1338-46. 37. Koh GA, Scott JA, Oddy WH, Graham KI, Binns CW. Exposure to non-core foods and beverages in the first year of life: Results from a cohort study. Nutrition & Dietetics. 2010;67(3):137-42. 38. Lim S, Zoellner...

  19. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  20. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yao; Stipanovic, Arthur J [SUNY-ESF; Winter, William T. [SUNY-ESF; Wilson, David B.; Kim, Young-Jun

    2007-12-01

    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA "Roadmap" objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled "The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases" was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by "pure" enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH "pretreatment" provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  1. The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stipanovic, Arthur J

    2014-11-17

    Consistent with the US-DOE and USDA “Roadmap” objective of producing ethanol and chemicals from cellulosic feedstocks more efficiently, a three year research project entitled “The Effect of Cellulose Crystal Structure and Solid-State Morphology on the Activity of Cellulases” was initiated in early 2003 under DOE sponsorship (Project Number DE-FG02-02ER15356). A three year continuation was awarded in June 2005 for the period September 15, 2005 through September 14, 2008. The original goal of this project was to determine the effect of cellulose crystal structure, including allomorphic crystalline form (Cellulose I, II, III, IV and sub-allomorphs), relative degree of crystallinity and crystallite size, on the activity of different types of genetically engineered cellulase enzymes to provide insight into the mechanism and kinetics of cellulose digestion by “pure” enzymes rather than complex mixtures. We expected that such information would ultimately help enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymatic conversion processes thereby creating a more cost-effective commercial process yielding sugars for fermentation into ethanol and other chemical products. Perhaps the most significant finding of the initial project phase was that conversion of native bacterial cellulose (Cellulose I; BC-I) to the Cellulose II (BC-II) crystal form by aqueous NaOH “pretreatment” provided an increase in cellulase conversion rate approaching 2-4 fold depending on enzyme concentration and temperature, even when initial % crystallinity values were similar for both allomorphs.

  2. An energy atlas of five Central American countries. Un atlas energetico de cinco paises Centroamericanos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trocki, L.; Newman, C.K.; Gurule, F.; Aragon, P.C.; Peck, C.

    1988-08-01

    In a series of maps and figures, this atlas summarizes what is known about the energy resources and how these resources and oil imports supply the energy needs of five Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. The main exploited energy resources are firewood, hydroelectric energy, bagasse from sugar cane residues, and geothermal energy. Limited oil exploration in the region has uncovered modest oil resources only in Guatemala. Peat and small coal deposits are also known to exist but are not presently being exploited. After the description of energy resources, this atlas describes energy supply and demand patterns in each country. It concludes with a description of socioeconomic data that strongly affect energy demand. 4 refs.

  3. Fuel Cell Manufacturing: American Energy and Manufacturing Competitive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Manufacturing: American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit Fuel Cell Manufacturing: American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit Presentation on...

  4. The relationship between verve and the academic achievement of African American and European American middle school students 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawkins, Torrance N.

    2006-04-12

    between African American and European American students? 2. Is there a significant difference in verve levels of African American male and African American female students in middle school? 3. Is there a significant difference in the academic achievement...

  5. Multiscale modeling and control of crystal shape and size distributions: accounting for crystal aggregation, evaluation of continuous crystallization systems and run-to-run control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, Joseph Sangil

    2015-01-01

    continuous crystallization, an optimal condition for the production of crystals with a desired shape can be maintained until the process

  6. Information Technology: American National Standard for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format Publication 500-245 Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint, Facial, & Scar Mark & Tattoo (SMT) Information Sponsored by Information Technology

  7. American Valve: Order (2010-CW-1411)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered American Valve, Inc. to pay a $5,000 civil penalty after finding American Valve had failed to certify that certain showerhead models comply with the applicable water conservation standards.

  8. North American Leaders Summit: Energy Deliverables | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    discussions at the North American Leaders Summit, to be held in Guadalajara, Mexico, on August 9-10, 2009. Building on the work of the North American Energy Working...

  9. American Range: Order (2014-CE-23006)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered American Range Corporation to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding American Range had failed to certify that certain models of cooking products comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  10. Chinese American Faculty Association of Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Tu-nan

    Chinese American Faculty Association of Southern California CAFA Fall Picnic Date: October 27 picnic. Sincerely, Andy Yao Cindy Fang President, CAFA Vice-President, CAFA #12;Chinese American Faculty

  11. Heart Healthy Home Cooking African American Style

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jun

    Heart Healthy Home Cooking African American Style With Every Heartbeat Is Life #12;#12;Heart Recipe Substitutions for Heart Healthy Cooking at the heart of African American family life and special celebrations. This recipe book brings together many

  12. Information Technology: American National Standard for Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format 500-275 Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format Coleman, and Patrice Yuh, Editors Sponsored by Information Access Division Information Technology

  13. Information Technology: American National Standard for Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format-271 Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format for the Interchange Sponsored by Information Access Division Information Technology Laboratory National Institute of Standards

  14. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of succinic acid production were such that it could not compete with current commercial practice. To allow recovery of commercial amounts of ethanol from bagasse fermentation, research was conducted on high solids loading fermentations (using S. cerevisiae) with commercial cellulase on pretreated material. A combination of SHF/SSF treatment with fed-batch operation allowed fermentation at 30% solids loading. Supplementation of the fermentation with a small amount of black-strap molasses had results beyond expectation. There was an enhancement of conversion as well as production of ethanol levels above 6.0% w/w, which is required both for efficient distillation as well as contaminant repression. The focus of fermentation development was only on converting the cellulose to ethanol, as this yeast is not capable of fermenting both glucose and xylose (from hemicellulose). In anticipation of the future development of such an organism, we screened the commercially available xylanases to find the optimum mix for conversion of both cellulose and hemicellulose. A different mixture than the spezyme/novozyme mix used in our fermentation research was found to be more efficient at converting both cellulose and hemicellulose. Efforts were made to select a mutant of Pichia stipitis for ability to co-ferment glucose and xylose to ethanol. New mutation technology was developed, but an appropriate mutant has not yet been isolated. The ability to convert to stillage from biomass fermentations were determined to be suitable for anaerobic degradation and methane production. An economic model of a current sugar factory was developed in order to provide a baseline for the cost/benefit analysis of adding cellulosic ethanol production.

  15. Calibrating Curved Crystals Used for Plasma Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haugh, M. J., Jacoby, K. D., Ross, P. W., Rochau, G. Wu, M., Regan, S. P., Barrios, M. A.

    2012-10-29

    The throughput and resolving power of an X-ray spectrometer that uses a curved crystal as the diffraction element is determined primarily by the crystal X-ray reflectivity properties. This poster presents a measurement technique for these crystal parameters using a simple diode source to produce a narrow spectral band. The results from measurements on concave elliptical polyethylene terephthalate (PET) crystals and convex potassium acid phthalate (KAP) crystals show large variations in the key parameters compared to those from the flat crystal.

  16. Precision Crystal Calorimeters in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ren-Yuan Zhu

    2010-01-08

    Precision crystal calorimeters traditionally play an important role in high energy physics experiments. In the last two decades, it faces a challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper reviews the performance of crystal calorimeters constructed for high energy physics experiments and the progress achieved in understanding crystal?s radiation damage as well as in developing high quality scintillating crystals for particle physics. Potential applications of new generation scintillating crystals of high density and high light yield, such as LSO and LYSO, in particle physics experiments is also discussed.

  17. Manufacturing method of photonic crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, In Sung; Lee, Tae Ho; Ahn, Jin Ho; Biswas, Rana; Constant, Kristen P.; Ho, Kai-Ming; Lee, Jae-Hwang

    2013-01-29

    A manufacturing method of a photonic crystal is provided. In the method, a high-refractive-index material is conformally deposited on an exposed portion of a periodic template composed of a low-refractive-index material by an atomic layer deposition process so that a difference in refractive indices or dielectric constants between the template and adjacent air becomes greater, which makes it possible to form a three-dimensional photonic crystal having a superior photonic bandgap. Herein, the three-dimensional structure may be prepared by a layer-by-layer method.

  18. Hydrodynamic interactions in colloidal crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeber, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    In dense colloids it is commonly assumed that hydrodynamic interactions do not play a role. However, a found theoretical quantification is often missing. We present computer simulations that are motivated by experiments where a large colloidal particle is dragged through a colloidal crystal. To qualify the influence of long-ranged hydrodynamics, we model the setup by conventional Langevin dynamics simulations and by an improved scheme with limited hydrodynamic interactions. This scheme significantly improves our results and allows to show that hydrodynamics strongly impacts on the development of defects, the crystal regeneration as well as on the jamming behavior.

  19. The early American motion picture industry: promoting American cultural hegemony 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wier, Theresa Joanne

    1994-01-01

    For the American motion picture industry, a key period in its development was that which followed World War I until the advent of the techonology of sound film. Film occupied a unique position during this period, as both a product and promoter...

  20. Photon tunnelling microscopy of polyethylene single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasarao, Mohan

    Photon tunnelling microscopy of polyethylene single crystals Mohan Srinivasarao* and Richard S:photon tunnellingmicroscopy;single crystals; polyethylene) INTRODUCTION The study of morphology of polymers is an area

  1. Defects in Self Assembled Colloidal Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koh, Yaw Koon

    Colloidal self assembly is an efficient method for making 3-D ordered nanostructures suitable for materials such as photonic crystals and macroscopic solids for catalysis and sensor applications. Colloidal crystals grown ...

  2. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into Sustainable Paper Alternatives for the UBC Campus (Sugar Cane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    paper alternative in Canada. The carbon footprint associated with the processing, transporting. From an environmental standpoint, the sugar cane paper has a 23 percent lower carbon footprint than preference for the sugar cane paper due to it being 100 percent tree free and having a lower carbon footprint

  3. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into 30% Recycled Wood Fiber Paper and Sugar Cane Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sugar cane paper on a local and national scale.The raw materials used to make both the wood fibre paper based on raw materials, labour, pulp and bleach used for making the papers including an investigation&T) with paper made of sugar cane. The product of the TreeZero Company, the TreeFrog paper is manufactured

  4. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Economic Influence of Sugar Cane and Wheat Waste Paper on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that have occurred within the pulp and paper industry. #12;ii After thorough analysis on both the sugar cane, increasing GDP. However, the disadvantage of making this switch is that the Canadian pulp and paper industry into the Economic Influence of Sugar Cane and Wheat Waste Paper on Canadian Economy Daniel Khuu, David Wong, Ka Wang

  5. Ames Lab 101: Growing Crystals in Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trivedi, Rohit

    2011-01-01

    Rohit Trivedi, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research with NASA to grow crystals in space.

  6. Ames Lab 101: Growing Crystals in Space

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Trivedi, Rohit

    2012-08-29

    Rohit Trivedi, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research with NASA to grow crystals in space.

  7. Crystal of GTP Cyclohydrolase Type IB

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swairjo, Manal A.; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; de Crecy-Lagard, Valerie

    2012-12-11

    This invention relates to a novel, bacterial GTP Cyclohydrolase Type IB enzyme, and the crystal structure thereof.

  8. 2012 Fellow American Geophysical Union

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    ) are critical to the intensity of ocean currents, to long- and short-term climate variations, and the health2012 Fellow American Geophysical Union James Moum, professor in the College of Earth, Ocean contributions to our understanding of ocean mixing in coastal, abyssal and Equatorial regimes using innovative

  9. National Museum of American History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott

    National Museum of American History Strategic Plan 2013--2018 #12;Contents Looking Ahead 2 Mission Funding the Plan 12 Coda 15 A Tagline to Remember 16 Milestones 17 Credits 21 Love History. Use History. Make History. #12;Mission Through incomparable collections, rigorous research, and dynamic public

  10. North American Cross-Border

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Consumption in USA and Canada 21 Figure 8: Electricity Export as a Fraction of Domestic Consumption in USANorth American Cross-Border Electricity Trade Ian M. Loomis Virginia Center for Coal and Energy ii List of Tables ii List of Figures 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 2 INTRODUCTION 5 ELECTRICITY GENERATION

  11. The American Medical Association Foundation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;2 The Odontology Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences presented Robert Barsley, DDS, JD, Professor of Dentistry, with the Reidar Sognnaes AwardforExcellencein ForensicDentistry. This is another member in forensic dentistry­ the late Dr. Reidar Sognnaes ­ who was probably best known for disproving the theory

  12. A Heart Health American Indians

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jun

    Honoring the Gift of Heart Health A Heart Health Educator's Manual for American Indians U . S . D E Health Service Office of Prevention, Education, and Control #12;Honoring the Gift of Heart Health A Heart National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Indian Health Service NIH Publication No. 06-5218 Revised

  13. QER- Comment of American Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dear QER Team; Thank you for the opportunity to provide comments to the Quadrennial Energy Review Task Force to discuss the water and energy nexus, advances in water innovative technologies, and the impact of climate change on water issues. On behalf of American Water, I wish to submit the following White Papers which we have prepared on these critical issues: Innovations in Energy Use Sustainability and Resiliency Planning for Water Utilities One Water Water/Energy Correlation The Value of Water Challenges in the Water Industry: Climate Change Challenges in the Water Industry: Meeting Demand in the West Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Desalination Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Going Green Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Water Reuse Bridging the Water Innovation Gap. Founded in 1886, American Water is the largest publicly traded U.S. water and wastewater utility company. With headquarters in Voorhees, NJ, the company employs approximately 6,600 dedicated professionals who provide drinking water, wastewater and other related services to an estimated 14 million people in more than 40 states. Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions or if there is any way American Water can be helpful to your mission. Respectfully Yours, Martin (See attached file: White Papers.pdf) Martin D. Kerckhoff Vice President and Divisional General Counsel Central Division American Water CONFIDENTIAL & PRIVILEGED COMMUNICATION This email and any attachments hereto constitute a legally confidential communication from the Legal Department of American Water. The information contained herein is subject to attorney-client privilege and is for the sole use of the intended original addressee. If you are not the intended original addressee, you are hereby notified that any reading, disclosure, copying, distribution, use, or taking of any action in reliance on the contents contained herein is strictly prohibited. If you have received this message in error, please immediately notify us at 314.966.2241 and delete this message from your system. WARNING: Although American Water has taken reasonable precautions to ensure that no viruses are present in this email, it is the responsibility of the recipient to ensure that it is virus free. No responsibility is accepted by American Water for any loss or damage arising in any way from the receipt and/or use of this email.

  14. Compound structure one-dimensional photonic crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Fang, Yun-Tuan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new compound structure one-dimensional photonic crystal, which include series connection, parallel connection and positive and negative feedback compound structure photonic crystal. We have studied their transmission characteristics and obtained some new results, which should be help to design new type optical devices, such as optical amplifier, photonic crystal laser and so on.

  15. Nanoscale Calorimetry of Isolated Polyethylene Single Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Leslie H.

    Nanoscale Calorimetry of Isolated Polyethylene Single Crystals A. T. KWAN, M. YU. EFREMOV, E. A-film differential scanning calorimetry to investigate the melt- ing of isolated polyethylene single crystals of lamellar single crystals of polyethylene (PE). We obtain thickness, diffraction, and calorimetry data

  16. Robotic CCD microscope for enhanced crystal recognition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Segelke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA); Toppani, Dominique (Livermore, CA)

    2007-11-06

    A robotic CCD microscope and procedures to automate crystal recognition. The robotic CCD microscope and procedures enables more accurate crystal recognition, leading to fewer false negative and fewer false positives, and enable detection of smaller crystals compared to other methods available today.

  17. Premelting at Defects Within Bulk Colloidal Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collings, Peter

    Premelting at Defects Within Bulk Colloidal Crystals A. M. Alsayed,1 M. F. Islam,1 J. Zhang,1 P. J at grain boundaries and dislocations within bulk colloidal crystals using real- time video microscopy. The crystals are equilibrium close-packed, three- dimensional colloidal structures made from thermally

  18. Synthesis, crystal structure and luminescence properties of lanthanide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    English Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; COORDINATION NUMBER; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; CRYSTALS; ENERGY TRANSFER; LIGANDS;...

  19. Comparative data on effects of leading pretreatments and enzyme loadings and formulations on sugar yields from different switchgrass sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    , a powerful greenhouse gas that feeds global climate change. Biomass is the only sustainable resource that canComparative data on effects of leading pretreatments and enzyme loadings and formulations on sugar States b Center for Environmental Research and Technology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92506

  20. American Studies What does it mean to be American? What are the origins of American

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miles, Will

    trends, popular culture, environmental issues, science and religion Emily Mieras, Ph.D., College, politics, values and culture? How are our lives shaped by race, ethnicity, class and gender? These are some, politics, religion, the arts and the sciences to gain an understanding of the American experience and its

  1. NEW RESULTS FROM CRYSTAL COLLIMATION AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FLILLER,R.P.,IIIDREES,A.GASSNER,D.HAMMONS,L.MCINTYRE,G.PEGGS,S.TRBOJEVIC,D.BIRYUKOV,V.CHESNOKOV,Y.TEREKHOV,V.

    2003-05-12

    In this paper, we discuss new results from the use of the crystal collimator from the 2003 run. The yellow ring of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has a bent crystal collimator. By properly aligning the crystal to the beam halo, particles entering the crystal are deflected away from the beam and intercepted downstream in a copper scraper. The purpose of a bent crystal is to improve the collimation efficiency as compared to a scraper alone. We compare these results to previous data, simulation, and theoretical predictions.

  2. Incoherent bremsstrahlung in flat and bent crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. F. Shul'ga; V. V. Syshchenko; A. I. Tarnovsky

    2010-06-03

    The bremsstrahlung cross section for relativistic electrons in a crystal is split into the sum of coherent and incoherent parts (the last is due to a thermal motion of atoms in the crystal). Although the spectrum of incoherent radiation in crystal is similar to one in amorphous medium, the incoherent radiation intensity could demonstrate substantial dependence on the crystal orientation due to the electrons' flux redistribution in the crystal. In the present paper we apply our method of the incoherent bremsstrahlung simulation developed earlier to interpretation of some recent experimental results obtained at the Mainz Microtron MAMI.

  3. Coherent bremsstrahlung in a bent crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondarenco, M V

    2009-01-01

    At passage of an ultra-high-energy particle through a bent crystal coherent bremsstrahlung is emitted but with characteristic frequencies distributed continuously, in relation with the crystal bend profile. For practical crystals, such radiation can be calculated by the stationary phase approximation technique. The radiation spectrum averaged over the impact parameters is evaluated. Its characteristic feature is the presence of sharp breaks (or of the spectrum end-point) at photon energies proportional to frequencies of crystalline plane crossing at the edges of the crystal, but those features will smear out if the angular divergence of the beam is comparable to half the crystal bending angle.

  4. Deflection and Extraction of Pb Ions up to 33 TeV/c by a Bent Silicon Crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arduini, G.; Biino, C.; Clement, M.; Cornelis, K.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Ferioli, G.; Fidecaro, G.; Gatignon, L.; Grafstroem, P.; Gyr, M.; Herr, W.; Klem, J.; Mikkelsen, U.; Weisse, E.; Mo Uggerho Taratin, A.; Freund, A.; Keppler, P.; Major, J.

    1997-11-01

    The first results from an experiment to deflect a beam of fully stripped, ultrarelativistic Pb{sup 82+} ions of 400 GeV/c per unit of charge, equivalent to 33 TeV/c , by means of a bent crystal are reported. Deflection efficiencies are as high as 14{percent}, in agreement with theoretical estimates. In a second experiment a bent crystal was used to extract 270 GeV/c -per-charge Pb{sup 82+} (22 TeV/c) ions from a coasting beam in the CERN-SPS, and a high extraction efficiency of up to 10{percent} was found. These represent the first measurements to demonstrate applications of bent crystals in high energy heavy ion beams. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  5. Comparative study of broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Findikoglu, A. T.; Jia, Q. X.; Kwon, C.; Reagor, D. W.; Kaduchak, G.; Rasmussen, K. Oe.; Bishop, A. R.

    1999-12-27

    We have used a coplanar waveguide structure to study broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate. We have incorporated both time- and frequency-domain measurements to determine small-signal effective refractive index and loss tangent as functions of frequency (up to 4 GHz), dc bias (up to 10{sup 6} V/m), and cryogenic temperature (17 and 60 K). The large-signal impulse response of the devices and the associated phenomenological nonlinear wave equation illustrate how dissipation and nonlinearity combine to produce the overall response in the large-signal regime. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  6. Emission in a SnS{sub 2} inverted opaline photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanov, S. G.; Maka, T.; Sotomayor Torres, C. M.; Mueller, M.; Zentel, R.

    2001-08-06

    The photoluminescence of a dye embedded in the three-dimensional SnS{sub 2} inverted opal has been studied. Changes of the emission spectrum compared with the free-space dye emission was observed in the stop-band frequency range in accord with reflectance/transmission spectra of this photonic crystal. The angular-dependent component, due to the Bragg stop band, and the angular-independent component, which is, possibly, related to the minimum in the density of photon states, have been distinguished in the dye emission spectrum. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  7. High resolution monochromatic X-ray imaging system based on spherically bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aglitskiy, Y.; Lehecka, T.; Obenschain, S.; Bodner, S.; Pawley, C.; Gerber, K.; Sethian, J.; Brown, C.M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Holland, G.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a new X-ray imaging system based on spherically curved crystals. It is designed and used for diagnostics of targets ablatively accelerated by the Nike KrF laser [1,2]. The imaging system is used for plasma diagnostics of the main target and for characterization of potential backlighters. A spherically curved quartz crystal (2d=6.687{Angstrom}, R=200mm) is used to produce monochromatic backlit images with the He-like Si resonance line (1865 eV) as the source of radiation. The spatial resolution of the X-ray optical system is 3{endash}4 {mu}m. Time resolved backlit monochromatic images of CH planar targets driven by the Nike facility have been obtained with 6{endash}7 {mu}m spatial resolution. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, Göttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  9. Bent core liquid crystal elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verduzco, R.; DiMasi, E.; Luchette, P.; Ho Hong, S.; Harden, J.; Palffy-Muhoray, P.; Kilbey II, S.M.; Sprunt, S.; Gleeson, G.T. Jakli, A.

    2010-07-28

    Liquid crystal (LC) elastomers with bent-core side-groups incorporate the properties of bent-core liquid crystals in a flexible and self-supporting polymer network. Bent-core liquid crystal elastomers (BCEs) with uniform alignment were prepared by attaching a reactive bent-core LC to poly(hydrogenmethylsiloxane) and crosslinking with a divinyl crosslinker. Phase behavior studies indicate a nematic phase over a wide temperature range that approaches room temperature, and thermoelastic measurements show that these BCEs can reversibly change their length by more than a factor of two upon heating and cooling. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies reveal multiple, broad low-angle peaks consistent with short-range smectic C order of the bent-core side groups. A comparison of these patterns with predictions of a Landau model for short-range smectic C order shows that the length scale for smectic ordering in BCEs is similar to that seen in pure bent-core LCs. The combination of rubber elasticity and smectic ordering of the bent-core side groups suggests that BCEs may be promising materials for sensing, actuating, and other advanced applications.

  10. The African-American house as a vehicle of discovery for an African-American architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Charles E. (Charles Edward)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research is three-fold: (1) This thesis seeks to uncover evidence of a distinctly African-American architectural form. The primary building type observed will be the house, or the housing of African-Americans ...

  11. Cold War love : producing American liberalism in interracial marriages between American soldiers and Japanese women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsuchiya, Tomoko

    2011-01-01

    Justice: Americanization of Japanese War Crimes at the Endof the Post-Cold War. ” Journal of Asian American Studies256. Berry, Nicholas O. War and the Red Cross: The Unspoken

  12. Design and manipulation of 1-D rugate photonic crystals of porous silicon for chemical sensing applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Brian Henry

    2010-01-01

    Respirators. American Industrial Hygiene AssociationAIHAJ - American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2001. 62(

  13. Asymmetrically cut crystals for synchrotron radiation monochromators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. ); Cerrina, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetrically cut crystals are interesting for use in synchrotron radiation monochromators because of their good energy resolution characteristics and their focusing properties. Ray tracing codes, such as SHADOW, are very efficient in the design and development of new optical devices. In order to determine the convenience of using asymmetrically cut crystals for x-ray monochromators, SHADOW has been extended to include these kinds of crystals. The physical approach to ray tracing asymmetrically cut crystals is based on the coexistence of two periodic structures. One of these is the bulk periodic structure of the Bragg planes. Such a structure determines the existence of a rocking curve near the Bragg condition, and is implemented in SHADOW following the Darwin--Prins formalism of the dynamical theory of diffraction. The second periodic structure is a one-dimensional grating on the crystal surface, formed by the truncation of the lattice planes with the surface. This grating is responsible for the focusing properties of these crystals and plays an essential role in determining the trajectory of the rays. The combination of an asymmetric crystal and a nonplanar surface can be easily achieved by bending (Johann case) to provide improved properties. More complex cases such as the ground-bent crystals (i.e., Johansson geometry) can be considered as a particular case of asymmetrical crystals in which the angle between the Bragg planes and the surface change along the crystal surface. All these cases have been implemented in SHADOW.

  14. Blood Sugar and Brothers' Voices: An Exploratory Study Of The Self-Care Management Experiences of African-American Men Living With Type 2 Diabetes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sherman, Ledric D

    2013-07-23

    Self-care is the key to living a long and healthy life for people with diabetes. Yet numerous studies show that self-care is far from optimal. This has resulted in attempts to understand the progress underlying self-care behavior in the efforts...

  15. Central American geologic map project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dengo, G.

    1986-07-01

    During the Northeast Quadrant Panel meeting of the Circum-Pacific Map Project held in Mexico City, February 1985, Central American panel members proposed and adopted plans for compiling a geologic map of Central America, probably at a scale of 1:500,000. A local group with participants from each country was organized and coordinated by Rolando Castillo, director, Central American School of Geology, University of Costa Rica, for the geologic aspects, and Fernando Rudin, director, Geographic Institute of Costa Rica, for the topographic base. In 1956, the US Geological Survey published a geologic map of the region at a scale of 1:1 million. Subsequent topographic and geologic mapping projects have provided a large amount of new data. The entire area is now covered by topographic maps at a scale of 1:50,000, and these maps have been used in several countries as a base for geologic mapping. Another regional map, the Metallogenic Map of Central America (scale = 1:2 million), was published in 1969 by the Central American Research Institute for Industry (ICAITI) with a generalized but updated geologic base map. Between 1969 and 1980, maps for each country were published by local institutions: Guatemala-Belize at 1:500,000, Honduras at 1:500,000, El Salvador at 1:100,000, Nicaragua at 1:1 million, Costa Rica at 1:200,000, and Panama at 1:1 million. This information, in addition to that of newly mapped areas, served as the base for the Central American part of the Geologic-Tectonic Map of the Caribbean Region (scale = 1:2.5 million), published by the US Geological Survey in 1980, and also fro the Northeast Quadrant Maps of the Circum-Pacific Region. The new project also involves bathymetric and geologic mapping of the Pacific and Caribbean margins of the Central American Isthmus. A substantial amount of new information of the Middle America Trench has been acquired through DSDP Legs 67 and 84.

  16. American Valve: Proposed Penalty (2010-CW-1411)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that American Valve, Inc. failed to certify a variety of showerheads as compliant with the applicable water conservation standards.

  17. Americans with Disabilities Act Signed (1990)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) prohibits discrimination and ensures equal opportunity for persons with disabilities in employment, State and local government services, public...

  18. The Smithsonian American Art Museum GATEWAY Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about using LEDs in a GATEWAY demonstration at the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, DC, including an interview with lighting designer Scott Rosenfeld.

  19. Comments of North American Electric Reliability Corporation ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    RFI. North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) More Documents & Publications City Utilities of Springfield Missouri Comments on Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and...

  20. North American Renewables Registry (Multiple States)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North American Renewables Registry (NAR) provides a Web-based platform trusted to create, track, and manage renewable energy certificate (REC) origination for clean generation facilities and...

  1. New American Home 2011, Orlando, Florida (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This brochure details the New American Home 2011, which demonstrates the use of innovative building materials, cutting-edge design, and the latest construction techniques.

  2. American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit will bring together leaders and perspectives from industry, government, academia, national laboratories, labor, and policy organizations...

  3. Wanderlust: rootlessness and restlessness in American culture, 1950-1970 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lepine, Amy

    2013-02-22

    Historian Ray Billington, in arguing that the "migratory compulsion" in Americans is partly the result of the influence of the frontier on American history, claims: "If students of the American character can agree upon any ...

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Scarlata, C.; Tan, E. C. D.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Sexton, D.

    2015-03-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic-derived hydrolysate. This model leverages expertise established over time in biomass deconstruction and process integration research at NREL, while adding in new technology areas for sugar purification and catalysis. The overarching process design converts biomass to die die diesel- and naphtha-range fuels using dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, purifications, and catalytic conversion focused on deoxygenating and oligomerizing biomass hydrolysates.

  5. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Tan, E. C. D.; Biddy, M. J.; Beckham, G. T.; Scarlata, C.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.

    2013-10-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of biological conversion of lingnocellulosic-dervied sugars. The process design converts biomass to a hydrocarbon intermediate, a free fatty acid, using dilute-acid pretreatement, enzymatic saccharification, and bioconversion. Ancillary areas--feed handling, hydrolysate conditioning, product recovery and upgrading (hydrotreating) to a final blendstock material, wastewater treatment, lignin combusion, and utilities--are also included in the design.

  6. Crystallization and functionality of inorganic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dongfeng@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Keyan [School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Jun [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Ministry of Education, Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, Xiangtan University, 411105 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Ministry of Education, Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, Xiangtan University, 411105 (China); Sun, Congting; Chen, Kunfeng [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-10-15

    In this article, we briefly summarized our recent work on the studies of crystallization and functionality of inorganic materials. On the basis of the chemical bonding theory of single crystal growth, we can quantitatively simulate Cu{sub 2}O crystallization processes in solution system. We also kinetically controlled Cu{sub 2}O crystallization process in the reduction solution route. Lithium ion battery and supercapacitor performances of some oxides such as Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and MnO{sub 2} were shown to elucidate the important effect of crystallization on functionality of inorganic materials. This work encourages us to create novel functionalities through the study of crystallization of inorganic materials, which warrants more chances in the field of functional materials.

  7. American Indian Studies Program at Haskell Indian Nations University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chenault, Venida

    2001-03-01

    currently offered by American Indian Studies meeting requirements for the major include: A1S301 Introduction to American Indian Studies - 3 credit hours Introduces students to the American Indian Studies (AIS) discipline, but also challenges the standard... currently offered by American Indian Studies meeting requirements for the major include: A1S301 Introduction to American Indian Studies - 3 credit hours Introduces students to the American Indian Studies (AIS) discipline, but also challenges the standard...

  8. Multiscale modeling and control of crystal shape and size distributions: accounting for crystal aggregation, evaluation of continuous crystallization systems and run-to-run control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, Joseph Sangil

    2015-01-01

    and Size Distributions: Accounting for Crystal Aggregation,and Size Distributions: Accounting for Crystal Aggregation,steady-state growth rate accounting for the dependence of

  9. Top Value Added Chemicals From Biomass: I. Results of Screening for Potential Candidates from Sugars and Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werpy, Todd A.; Holladay, John E.; White, James F.

    2004-11-01

    This report identifies twelve building block chemicals that can be produced from sugars via biological or chemical conversions. The twelve building blocks can be subsequently converted to a number of high-value bio-based chemicals or materials. Building block chemicals, as considered for this analysis, are molecules with multiple functional groups that possess the potential to be transformed into new families of useful molecules. The twelve sugar-based building blocks are 1,4-diacids (succinic, fumaric and malic), 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, 3-hydroxy propionic acid, aspartic acid, glucaric acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, glycerol, sorbitol, and xylitol/arabinitol. In addition to building blocks, the report outlines the central technical barriers that are preventing the widespread use of biomass for products and chemicals.

  10. Crystal Nucleation of Colloidal Suspensions under Shear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronald Blaak; Stefan Auer; Daan Frenkel; Hartmut Lowen

    2004-06-10

    We use Brownian Dynamics simulations in combination with the umbrella sampling technique to study the effect of shear flow on homogeneous crystal nucleation. We find that a homogeneous shear rate leads to a significant suppression of the crystal nucleation rate and to an increase of the size of the critical nucleus. A simple, phenomenological extension of classical nucleation theory accounts for these observations. The orientation of the crystal nucleus is tilted with respect to the shear direction.

  11. Phonon manipulation with phononic crystals.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim Bongsang; Hopkins, Patrick Edward; Leseman, Zayd C.; Goettler, Drew F.; Su, Mehmet F.; El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Reinke, Charles M.; Olsson, Roy H., III

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrated engineered modification of propagation of thermal phonons, i.e. at THz frequencies, using phononic crystals. This work combined theoretical work at Sandia National Laboratories, the University of New Mexico, the University of Colorado Boulder, and Carnegie Mellon University; the MESA fabrication facilities at Sandia; and the microfabrication facilities at UNM to produce world-leading control of phonon propagation in silicon at frequencies up to 3 THz. These efforts culminated in a dramatic reduction in the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystals by a factor of almost 30 as compared with the bulk value, and about 6 as compared with an unpatterned slab of the same thickness. This work represents a revolutionary advance in the engineering of thermoelectric materials for optimal, high-ZT performance. We have demonstrated the significant reduction of the thermal conductivity of silicon using phononic crystal structuring using MEMS-compatible fabrication techniques and in a planar platform that is amenable to integration with typical microelectronic systems. The measured reduction in thermal conductivity as compared to bulk silicon was about a factor of 20 in the cross-plane direction [26], and a factor of 6 in the in-plane direction. Since the electrical conductivity was only reduced by a corresponding factor of about 3 due to the removal of conductive material (i.e., porosity), and the Seebeck coefficient should remain constant as an intrinsic material property, this corresponds to an effective enhancement in ZT by a factor of 2. Given the number of papers in literature devoted to only a small, incremental change in ZT, the ability to boost the ZT of a material by a factor of 2 simply by reducing thermal conductivity is groundbreaking. The results in this work were obtained using silicon, a material that has benefitted from enormous interest in the microelectronics industry and that has a fairly large thermoelectric power factor. In addition, the techniques and scientific understanding developed in the research can be applied to a wide range of materials, with the caveat that the thermal conductivity of such a material be dominated by phonon, rather than electron, transport. In particular, this includes several thermoelectric materials with attractive properties at elevated temperatures (i.e., greater than room temperature), such as silicon germanium and silicon carbide. It is reasonable that phononic crystal patterning could be used for high-temperature thermoelectric devices using such materials, with applications in energy scavenging via waste-heat recovery and thermoelectric cooling for high-performance microelectronic circuits. The only part of the ZT picture missing in this work was the experimental measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of our phononic crystal devices. While a first-order approximation indicates that the Seebeck coefficient should not change significantly from that of bulk silicon, we were not able to actually verify this assumption within the timeframe of the project. Additionally, with regards to future high-temperature applications of this technology, we plan to measure the thermal conductivity reduction factor of our phononic crystals as elevated temperatures to confirm that it does not diminish, given that the nominal thermal conductivity of most semiconductors, including silicon, decreases with temperature above room temperature. We hope to have the opportunity to address these concerns and further advance the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric materials in future projects.

  12. Crystal growth and annealing for minimized residual stress

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gianoulakis, Steven E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing crystals that minimizes birefringence even at large crystal sizes, and is suitable for production of CaF.sub.2 crystals. The method of the present invention comprises annealing a crystal by maintaining a minimal temperature gradient in the crystal while slowly reducing the bulk temperature of the crystal. An apparatus according to the present invention includes a thermal control system added to a crystal growth and annealing apparatus, wherein the thermal control system allows a temperature gradient during crystal growth but minimizes the temperature gradient during crystal annealing.

  13. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" June 7, 2015 Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" A well-known scientific principle...

  14. North American Market Challenges for Diesel Engines | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American Market Challenges for Diesel Engines North American Market Challenges for Diesel Engines 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Gale Banks...

  15. American Gas Association Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication American Gas Association Memorandum Summarizing Ex Parte Communication On October 9, 2014, a workshop was hosted by the American Gas...

  16. Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine 68bhydrogreensmallhydroch11.ppt More Documents & Publications Real World Demonstration of a New American...

  17. North American SynchroPhasor Initiative (NASPI) Technical Report...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Phasor Tools Visualization North American SynchroPhasor Initiative (NASPI) Technical Report - Phasor Tools Visualization This technical report was developed by the North American...

  18. Energy Secretary Moniz Will Host North American Energy Ministers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    highlight three key areas, including: 1) North American data collaboration, 2) Mexico's energy reform and its implications for the North American energy sector, and 3) creating a...

  19. The Economic and Educational Impact of Native American Art Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Taylor Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Institute of American Indian Arts: Modernism and U.S. Indianand Charlotte Klonk. Art History: A Critical Introduction toCompany and Native American Art. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland

  20. Energy Department Selects Five Native American Communities to...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Selects Five Native American Communities to Receive Technical Assistance for Tribal Renewable Energy Project Development Energy Department Selects Five Native American...

  1. Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine Laboratory Demonstration of a New...

  2. North American Energy Ministers Take Further Action on Energy...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    North American Energy Ministers Take Further Action on Energy Security and the Environment North American Energy Ministers Take Further Action on Energy Security and the...

  3. American Energy Data Challenge Hackathons - "Apps For Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    American Energy Data Challenge Hackathons - "Apps For Energy": Turning Energy Data into Working Apps in 24 Hours American Energy Data Challenge Hackathons - "Apps For Energy":...

  4. Energy Department Authorizes American LNG Marketing LLC's Application...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    American LNG Marketing LLC's Application to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Energy Department Authorizes American LNG Marketing LLC's Application to Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

  5. Energy Secretary Moniz Will Host North American Energy Ministers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    three key areas, including: 1) North American data collaboration, 2) Mexico's energy reform and its implications for the North American energy sector, and 3) creating a resilient...

  6. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  7. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  8. Nanoscopic Manipulation and Imaging of Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenblatt, Charles S.

    2014-02-04

    This is the final project report. The project’s goals centered on nanoscopic imaging and control of liquid crystals and surfaces. We developed and refined techniques to control liquid crystal orientation at surfaces with resolution as small as 25 nm, we developed an optical imaging technique that we call Optical Nanotomography that allows us to obtain images inside liquid crystal films with resolution of 60 x 60 x 1 nm, and we opened new thrust areas related to chirality and to liquid crystal/colloid composites.

  9. Crystal Structures of Phosphite Dehydrogenase Provide Insights...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structures of Phosphite Dehydrogenase Provide Insights into Nicotinamide Cofactor Regeneration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystal Structures of Phosphite...

  10. Photonic crystals for high temperature applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeng, Yi Xiang

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the design, optimization, fabrication, and experimental realization of metallic photonic crystals (MPhCs) for high temperature applications, for instance thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion ...

  11. Scale Effects in Crystal Plasticity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padubidri Janardhanachar, Guruprasad

    2010-07-14

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 26 Schematic highlighting the steps followed in the calibration of the parameters which enter into the simulations: (a) The initial source and obstacle properties (?nuc, ??nuc, ?obs, ?obs) were calibrated to match the apparent yield and hardening.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 37 Deformed configuration and contour plots are shown for crystal with size D = 6.4 ?m, aspect ratio (H/D) of 2:1, and initial source density of ?nuc = 20?1012 m?2 at a strain level of ? = 0.1: (a) Deformed configuration showing symmetric double...

  12. BPS States, Crystals, and Matrices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Su?kowski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    We review free fermion, melting crystal, and matrix model representations of wall-crossing phenomena on local, toric Calabi-Yau manifolds. We consider both unrefined and refined BPS counting of closed BPS states involving D2- and D0-branes bound to a D6-brane, as well as open BPS states involving open D2-branes ending on an additional D4-brane. Appropriate limit of these constructions provides, among the others, matrix model representation of refined and unrefined topological string amplitudes.

  13. North American Natural Gas Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  14. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TAPropaneand Los Alamos NationalAmerican Recovery

  15. African Americans and the Spanish-American War and Philippine Insurrection: Military Participation, Recognition, and Memory, 1898-1904

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Timothy Dale

    2013-01-01

    American Rebel in the Philippine, 1899-1901. ” The PacificSpanish-American War and Philippine Insurrection: Militaryofficers serving in the Philippines), acknowledged that the

  16. The Automobile in American History History 392

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    1 The Automobile in American History History 392 Consider Resources Primary Resources: letters. popular), theses, the Web Check subject guide: How-to & Help Research by Subject History American History Find Background Information The following titles are shelved in the Stauffer Library Reference

  17. AmericanSociety of Civil Engineers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AmericanSociety of Civil Engineers Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge for the 21st Century Preparing the Civil Engineer for the Future Second Edition Prepared by the Body of Knowledge Committee Engineers--Registered in U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. American Society of Civil Engineers 1801

  18. The Great American Education-Industrial Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    The Great American Education-Industrial Complex Ideology, Technology, and Profit Anthony G. Picciano & Joel Spring The Great American Education-Industrial Complex examines the structure and nature in a powerful common entity, and detail how the educational-industrial complex has grown and strengthened its

  19. ACCEPTABLE HUMANITIES (HU) COURSES * African American Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Literature CAS AA 215 Arts of Africa and its Diaspora American & New England Studies CAS AM 200 and the Art of Film History of Art and Architecture All 100-, 200-, and 300-level CAS AH lecture courses offered in the History of Art & Architecture Department Modern Languages and Comparative Literature CAS LC

  20. American Cooler Technologies: Order (2013-CE-5305)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered American Cooler Technologies to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding American Cooler Technologies had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in coolers or freezers (WICF) components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  1. THE AMERICAN MINERALOGIST, VOL. 53, NOVEMBER-DECEMBER, 1968 CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY OF THE BASIC MANGANESE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Joseph R.

    in Table 1, and the Fobs-Fcalc data are given in Table 2.1 TABLE 1.EVEITE. ATOMIC COORDINATES AND ISOTROPIC in eveite are in five-fold coordination which, excepting its dimorph sarkinite, is hitherto undocumented+ , and O1- were 1841 #12;obtained from International Tables for X-ray Crystallography, Vol. 3 (1962

  2. Energizing American Competitiveness in Solar Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    production of single crystal silicon using directional solidification. To compete in the clean energy race, inventing new technologies is not enough. We have to make them to sell...

  3. A Complete Microfluidic Screening Platform for Rational Protein Crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Carl L.

    A Complete Microfluidic Screening Platform for Rational Protein Crystallization Billy T. C. Lau integration, and low reagent consumption, microfluidic devices have emerged as viable technologies for protein crystallization. Current microfluidic crystallization technologies have focused on two separate strategies: one

  4. Using Two-Dimensional Colloidal Crystals to Understand Crystallography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loening, Niko

    Using Two-Dimensional Colloidal Crystals to Understand Crystallography Instructor Notes Geometric). #12;Using Two-Dimensional Colloidal Crystals to Understand Crystallography Instructions for Students the patterns that result from the diffraction of electromagnetic radiation by a crystal provides structural

  5. Structural Evolution of Colloidal Crystals with Increasing Ionic Strength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Structural Evolution of Colloidal Crystals with Increasing Ionic Strength Michael A. Bevan. In Final Form: June 5, 2004 We have directly observed the structural evolution of colloidal crystals colloidal crystals were shear melted and then evolved

  6. Mesoscopic Monodisperse Ferromagnetic Colloids Enable Magnetically Controlled Photonic Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asher, Sanford A.

    Mesoscopic Monodisperse Ferromagnetic Colloids Enable Magnetically Controlled Photonic Crystals ferromagnetic composite particles readily self-assemble into magnetically responsive photonic crystals that efficiently Bragg diffract incident light. Magnetic fields can be used to control the photonic crystal

  7. Crystallization Kinetics of Thermosensitive Colloids Probed by Transmission Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jianzhong

    Crystallization Kinetics of Thermosensitive Colloids Probed by Transmission Spectroscopy Shijun hard spheres, soft spheres, and PNIPAM spheres. Introduction Crystallization of colloidal systems systems.1-15 In recent years, colloidal crystals have been used extensively for the fabrication

  8. Supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering ASHWINI NANGIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giri, Ranjit K.

    Supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering ASHWINI NANGIA School of Chemistry, University. This article traces the evolution of supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering starting from the early of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India. e-mail: ashwini.nangia@gmail.com Advances in supramolecular chemistry

  9. Growth Of Oriented Crystals At Polymerized Membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charych, Deborah H. (Albany, CA), Berman, Amir (Ben-Shiva, IL)

    2000-01-25

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the growth and alignment of crystals at biopolymeric films. The methods and compositions of the present invention provide means to generate a variety of dense crystalline ceramic films, with totally aligned crystals, at low temperatures and pressures, suitable for use with polymer and plastic substrates.

  10. Coherent multilayer crystals and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schuller, I.K.; Falco, C.M.

    1980-10-30

    A new material is described consisting of a coherent multilayer crystal of two or more elements where each layer is composed of a single element. Each layer may vary in thickness from about 2 A to 2500 A. The multilayer crystals are prepared by sputter deposition under conditions which slow the sputtered atoms to near substrate temperatures before they contact the substrate.

  11. Ames Lab 101: Single Crystal Growth

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Schlagel, Deborah

    2014-06-04

    Ames Laboratory scientist Deborah Schlagel talks about the Lab's research in growing single crystals of various metals and alloys. The single crystal samples are vital to researchers' understanding of the characteristics of a materials and what gives these materials their particular properties.

  12. Coherent bremsstrahlung in a bent crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. V. Bondarenco

    2010-06-04

    Radiation spectrum from high energy $e^\\pm$ in a bent crystal with arbitrary curvature distribution along the longitudinal coordinate is evaluated, based on the stationary phase approximation. For a uniformly bent crystal a closed-form expression for the spectrum is derived. Features such as sharp end of spectrum and volume reflection turnover at beginning of the spectrum are discussed. The coherence length in a bent crystal appears to depend only on the crystal geometry and not on the electron or photon energies, which is essential for interpretation of the results. Estimates of non-dipole radiation and multiple scattering effects are given. The value for the crystal bending angle at which the dipole coherent bremsstrahlung theory holds best appears to be $\\sim 10^{-4}\\mathrm{rad}$.

  13. THE TWO STAGE CRYSTAL COLLIMATOR FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FLILLER, R.P. III; DREES, A.; GASSNER, D.; HAMMONS, L.; MCINTYRE, G.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; BIRYUKOV, V.; CHESNOKOV, Y.; TEREKHOV, V.

    2001-06-18

    The use of a two stage crystal collimation system in the RHIC yellow ring is examined. The system includes a copper beam scraper and a bent silicon crystal. While scrapers were installed in both of the RHIC rings before the year 2000 run, the crystal is installed for the 2001 run in one ring only, forming a two stage collimation system there. We present simulations of the expected channeling through the bent silicon crystal for both protons and gold ions with various beam parameters. This gives a picture of the particle losses around the ring, and the expected channeling efficiency. These results are then used to optimize the beam parameters in the area of the crystal to obtain maximum channeling efficiency, minimize out-scattering in the secondary collimator, and reduce beam halo.

  14. Liquid crystal device and method thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiyanovskii, Sergij V; Gu, Mingxia; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2012-10-23

    The invention provides a liquid crystal device and method thereof. Subsequent to applying a first electrical voltage on a liquid crystal to induce a reorientation of the liquid crystal, a second electrical voltage with proper polarity is applied on the liquid crystal to assist the relaxation of the reorientation that was induced by the first electrical voltage. The "switch-off" phase of the liquid crystal can therefore be accelerated or temporally shortened, and the device can exhibit better performance such as fast response to on/off signals. The invention can be widely used LCD, LC shutter, LC lens, spatial light modulator, telecommunication device, tunable filter, beam steering device, and electrically driven LC device, among others.

  15. Crystallization and Mechanical Properties of Poly(l-lactide)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystallization and Mechanical Properties of Poly(l-lactide)-Based RubberySemicrystalline Multiblock Copolymers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystallization and...

  16. Crystallizing Membrane Proteins in Lipidic Mesophases. A Host...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystallizing Membrane Proteins in Lipidic Mesophases. A Host Lipid Screen Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystallizing Membrane Proteins in Lipidic Mesophases. A Host...

  17. Microfluidic systems for continuous crystallization of small organic molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sultana, Mahmooda

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents one of the first demonstrations of continuous crystallization in microfluidic devices, and illustrates their use for various applications related to crystallization of small organic molecules. ...

  18. Advertising Stigmatas: The Evolution of Advertising in American Poetic Culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spies, Elizabeth Jean

    2010-01-01

    artificial theatricality of the American home and housewife became blended, amalgamated with the vision

  19. A Gradual Reawakening: Broadacre City and a New American Agrarianism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wise, Ella

    2013-01-01

    Green Development, and Renewable Energy. 2nd ed. AmericanCritical Agrarianism. ” Renewable Agriculture and Food

  20. Ethanol Pathways in the 2050 North American Transportation Futures Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    A paper discussing the various ethanol pathways in the 2050 North American Transportation Futures Study

  1. American Journal of Science and TechnologyAmerican Journal of Science and TechnologyAmerican Journal of Science and TechnologyAmerican Journal of Science and Technology 2014; 1(4): 168-181

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    American Journal of Science and TechnologyAmerican Journal of Science and TechnologyAmerican Journal of Science and TechnologyAmerican Journal of Science and Technology 2014; 1(4): 168-181 Published online August 30, 2014 (http://www.aascit.org/journal/ajst) Keywords Injection Over-Molding, Polymer

  2. EIS-0468: American Centrifuge Plant in Piketon, OH | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    EIS-0468: Final Environmental Impact Statement Proposed American Centrifuge Plant in Piketon, Ohio Pike County, Ohio...

  3. 2010 American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS 2010)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billinge, Simon

    2011-06-17

    The ACNS provides a focal point for the national neutron user community to strengthen ties within this diverse group, while at the same time promoting neutron research among colleagues in related disciplines identified as “would-be” neutron users. The American Conference on Neutron Scattering thus serves a dual role as a national user meeting and a scientific meeting. As a venue for scientific exchange, the ACNS showcases recent results and provides forums for scientific discussion of neutron research in diverse fields such as hard and soft condensed matter, liquids, biology, magnetism, engineering materials, chemical spectroscopy, crystal structure, and elementary excitations, fundamental physics and development of neutron instrumentation through a combination of invited talks, contributed talks and poster sessions. As a “super-user” meeting, the ACNS fulfills the main objectives of users' meetings previously held periodically at individual national neutron facilities, with the advantage of a larger and more diverse audience. To this end, each of the major national neutron facilities (NIST, LANSCE, HFIR and SNS) have an opportunity to exchange information and update users, and potential users, of their facility. This is also an appropriate forum for users to raise issues that relate to the facilities. For many of the national facilities, this super-user meeting should obviate the need for separate user meetings that tax the time, energy and budgets of facility staff and the users alike, at least in years when the ACNS is held. We rely upon strong participation from the national facilities. The NSSA intends that the American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) will occur approximately every two years, but not in years that coincide with the International or European Conferences on Neutron Scattering. The ACNS is to be held in association with one of the national neutron centers in a rotating sequence, with the host facility providing local organization and planning assistance. Additional logistical support is being provided this year through a partnership with the conferencing office of the Materials Research Society (MRS). The ACNS, targeting the entire potential neutron North American user community, complements the annual NIST, ANL and LANSCE neutron and scattering schools which give hands-on experience primarily to graduate students who anticipate using neutron scattering in their thesis research. The summer schools are promoted at the ACNS and represent a natural path for students to take after being inspired by the activities of the ACNS.

  4. Era Bell Thompson: Observations of an American Daughter on the American South and the African Congo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zacharias, Karenbeth Garvin

    2012-12-31

    ERA BELL THOMPSON: REFLECTIONS IN THE MIRROR OBSERVATIONS OF AN AMERICAN DAUGHTER ON THE AMERICAN SOUTH AND THE AFRICAN CONGO BY KARENBETH G. ZACHARIAS Submitted to the graduate degree program in History and the Graduate Faculty of the University... not have been possible but for the enormous support provided by the Department of History at the University of Kansas. In addition, I would like to thank the Departments of African and African American Studies and Humanities and Western Civilization...

  5. Chasing the illusive American dream: an historical analysis of Mexican-American education, employment, and culture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ham, Arwen Eugene

    2013-02-22

    in partial fulfil/ment of the requirements of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2004 Major: Psychology CHASING THE ILLUSIVE AMERICAN DREAM: AN HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF MEXICAN-AMERICAN EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND CULTURE A Senior Honors... Approved as to style and content by: s~= Sara Alpe (Fellows Advisor) April 2004 Major: Psychology ABSTRACT Chasing the Illusive American Dream: An Historical Analysis of Mexican-Atnerican Education, Employment, and Culture. (April 2004) Arwen...

  6. Fractionalization of Interstitials in Curved Colloidal Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William T. M. Irvine; Mark J. Bowick; Paul M. Chaikin

    2013-10-11

    Understanding the out-of equilibrium behaviour of point defects in crystals, yields insights into the nature and fragility of the ordered state, as well as being of great practical importance. In some rare cases defects are spontaneously healed - a one-dimensional crystal formed by a line of identical charged particles, for example, can accommodate an interstitial (extra particle) by a re-adjusting all particle positions to even out the spacing. In sharp contrast, particles organized into a perfect hexagonal crystal in the plane cannot accommodate an interstitial by a simple re-adjustment of the particle spacing - the interstitial remains instead trapped between lattice sites and diffuses by hopping, leaving the crystal permanently defected. Here we report on the behavior of interstitials in colloidal crystals on curved surfaces. Using optical tweezers operated independently of three dimensional imaging, we insert a colloidal interstitial in a lattice of similar particles on flat and curved (positively and negatively) oil-glycerol interfaces and image the ensuing dynamics. We find that, unlike in flat space, the curved crystals self-heal through a collective rearrangement that re-distributes the increased density associated with the interstitial. The self-healing process can be interpreted in terms of an out of equilibrium interaction of topological defects with each other and with the underlying curvature. Our observations suggest the existence of "particle fractionalization" on curved surface crystals.

  7. American” Pictures and (Trans-)National Iconographies: Mapping Interpictorial Clusters in American Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hebel, Udo J.

    2015-01-01

    Knutson. Norman Rockwell: Pictures for the American People.Photographic Memories: Private Pictures, Public Images, andP. 2003. Mitchell, W. J. T. Picture Theory. Chicago: U of

  8. A novel fermentation strategy for removing the key inhibitor acetic acid and efficiently utilizing the mixed sugars from lignocellulosic hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark A. Eiteman PHD; Elliot Altman Phd

    2009-02-11

    As part of preliminary research efforts, we have completed several experiments which demonstrate 'proof of concept.' These experiments addressed the following three questions: (1) Can a synthetic mixed sugar solution of glucose and xylose be efficiently consumed using the multi-organism approach? (2) Can this approach be used to accumulate a model product? (3) Can this approach be applied to the removal of an inhibitor, acetate, selectively from mixtures of xylose and glucose? To answer the question of whether this multi-organism approach can effectively consume synthetic mixed sugar solutions, we first tested substrate-selective uptake using two strains, one unable to consume glucose and one unable to consume xylose. The xylose-selective strain ALS998 has mutations in the three genes involved in glucose uptake, rendering it unable to consume glucose: ptsG codes for the Enzyme IICB{sup Glc} of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for carbohydrate transport (Postma et al., 1993), manZ codes for the IID{sup Man} domain of the mannose PTS permease (Huber, 1996), glk codes for glucokinase (Curtis and Epstein 1975) We also constructed strain ALS1008 which has a knockout in the xylA gene encoding for xylose isomerase, rendering ALS1008 unable to consume xylose. Two batch experiments and one continuous bioprocess were completed. In the first experiment, each strain was grown separately in a defined medium of 8 g/L xylose and 15 g/L glucose which represented xylose and glucose concentrations that can be generated by actual biomass. In the second experiment, the two strains were grown together in batch in the same defined, mixed-sugar medium. In a third experiment, we grew the strains continuously in a 'chemostat', except that we shifted the concentrations of glucose and xylose periodically to observe how the system would respond. (For example, we shifted the glucose concentration suddenly from 15 g/L to 30 g/L in the feed).

  9. Incoherent bremsstrahlung in flat and bent crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. F. Shul'ga; V. V. Syshchenko; A. I. Tarnovsky

    2011-11-01

    Incoherent bremsstrahlung by high-energy particles in crystal is due to the thermal spread of atoms in relation to their equilibrium positions in the lattice. The simulation procedure developed earlier for the incoherent radiation is applied to the case of the electrons and positrons motion in the sinusoidally bent crystal. The results of simulation are in agreement with the data of recent experiments carried out at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. The possibility of use of the sinusoidally bent crystals as undulators is discussed.

  10. Coherent bremsstrahlung in a bent crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondarenco, M. V.

    2010-05-15

    Coherent radiation spectrum from high energy e{sup {+-}}in a bent crystal with arbitrary curvature distribution along the longitudinal coordinate is evaluated, based on the stationary phase approximation. For a uniformly bent crystal a closed-form expression for the spectrum is derived. The spectrum features include a dip at its beginning and the sharp end, which may split into two breaks depending on the particle incidence angle. Estimates of nondipole radiation and multiple scattering effects are given. The value for the crystal bending angle at which the dipole coherent bremsstrahlung theory holds best appears to be {approx}10{sup -4} rad.

  11. A procedure for diamond turning KDP crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montesanti, R.C.; Thompson, S.L.

    1995-07-07

    A procedure and the equipment necessary for single-point diamond flycutting (loosely referred to as diamond turning) potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are described. It is based on current KDP diamond turning activities at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), drawing upon knowledge from the Nova crystal finishing development during the 1980`s and incorporating refinements from our efforts during 1995. In addition to describing a step-by-step process for diamond turning KDP, specific discussions are included on the necessary diamond tool geometry and edge sharpness, cutting fluid, and crystal preparation, handling, cleaning, and inspection. The authors presuppose that the reader is already familiar with diamond turning practices.

  12. Cold neutron scattering in imperfect deuterium crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrzej Adamczak

    2010-12-10

    The differential cross sections for cold neutron scattering in mosaic deuterium crystals have been calculated for various target temperatures. The theoretical results are compared with the recent experimental data for the neutron wavelengths $\\lambda\\approx$~1--9~\\AA. It is shown that the structures of observed Bragg peaks can be explained by the mosaic spread of about $3^{\\circ}$ and contributions from a~limited number of crystal orientations. Such a~crystal structure should be also taken into account in ultracold neutron upscattering due to the coherent phonon annihilation in solid deuterium.

  13. Novel photonic crystal cavities and related structures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luk, Ting Shan

    2007-11-01

    The key accomplishment of this project is to achieve a much more in-depth understanding of the thermal emission physics of metallic photonic crystal through theoretical modeling and experimental measurements. An improved transfer matrix technique was developed to enable incorporation of complex dielectric function. Together with microscopic theory describing emitter radiative and non-radiative relaxation dynamics, a non-equilibrium thermal emission model is developed. Finally, experimental methodology was developed to measure absolute emissivity of photonic crystal at high temperatures with accuracy of +/-2%. Accurate emissivity measurements allow us to validate the procedure to treat the effect of the photonic crystal substrate.

  14. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo

    2014-10-06

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal.

  15. NMR and NQR parameters of ethanol crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milinkovic, M

    2012-01-01

    Electric field gradients and chemical shielding tensors of the stable monoclinic crystal phase of ethanol are computed. The projector-augmented wave (PAW) and gauge-including projector-augmented wave (GIPAW) models in the periodic plane-wave density functional theory are used. The crystal data from X-ray measurements, as well as the structures where either all atomic, or only hydrogen atom positions are optimized in the density functional theory are analyzed. These structural models are also studied by including the semi-empirical Van der Waals correction to the density functional theory. Infrared spectra of these five crystal models are calculated.

  16. Structural characterization of thin film photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramania, G.; Biswas, R.; Constant, K.; Sigalas, M. M.; Ho, K. M.

    2001-06-15

    We quantitatively analyze the structure of thin film inverse-opal photonic crystals composed of ordered arrays of air pores in a background of titania. Ordering of the sphere template and introduction of the titania background were performed simultaneously in the thin film photonic crystals. Nondestructive optical measurements of backfilling with high refractive index liquids, angle-resolved reflectivity, and optical spectroscopy were combined with band-structure calculations. The analysis reveals a thin film photonic crystal structure with a very high filling fraction (92{endash}94%) of air and a substantial compression along the c axis ({similar_to}22{endash}25%).

  17. Depression in Chinese American Immigrant Adults: An Exploration of Culturally Based Manifestations, Structure, and Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Rose

    2009-01-01

    1 Study 1: Depression in Chinese American immigrants: Social52 Study 3: The Chinese American Depression Scale (CADS-9):structure of depression in Chinese American immigrants: An

  18. Review: Still Struggling for Equality: American Public Library Services with Minorities by Plummer Alston Jones, Jr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Yang

    2005-01-01

    1991). American public library service to the immigrantEquality: American Public Library Services with Minoritiesfor the American public library enterprise. Libraries,

  19. The North American Free Trade Agreement: A Legal Analysis of Effects and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Proposed North American Free Trade Agreement,' August 12,Proposed North American Free Trade Agreement," August 12,THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT: A LEGAL ANALYSIS OF

  20. The American ballpark : a structural perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeney, Raymond W. (Raymond Winfield)

    2008-01-01

    A recent boom in ballpark construction in the last decade has brought great attention to the design of these stadiums. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the history of the American ballpark through the 20th century, ...

  1. American Process—Alpena Biorefinery Lessons

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 1D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding I: Integrated Biorefinery (Lessons Learned and Best Practices) American Process—Alpena Biorefinery Lessons Theodora Retsina, Chief Executive Officer, America Process Inc.

  2. EIS-0468: American Centrifuge Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of construction, operation, and decommissioning of the American Centrifuge Plant (ACP), located on DOE reservation in Piketon, Ohio. (DOE adopted this EIS issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on 02/16/2011.)

  3. Sentimental Poetry of the American Civil War

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trapp, Marjorie Jane

    2010-01-01

    Company, 1866. Devon, W. A. War Lyrics. New York: SinclairHickey, ed. Ballads of the War. New York: J. Robins, 1862.Eggleston, G. C, ed. American War Ballads and Lyrics. New

  4. Transforming the American Economy Through Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Secretary Chu joins Vice President Joe Biden as he details the role the Recovery Act has played in funding innovation that will help build a foundation for a more robust and competitive American...

  5. The Courts in American Public Culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silbey, Susan S.

    In American public imagination, courts are powerful but also impotent. They are guardians of citizens' rights but also agents of corporate wealth; simultaneously the least dangerous branch and the ultimate arbiters of ...

  6. Organization of Chinese Americans Federal Leadership Training

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Organization of Chinese Americans (OCA) will hold its Federal Leadership Training (FLT) on July 18-19, 2013, during its National Convention in Washington, D.C.  The theme of this year’s...

  7. TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    of New York PSC-CUNY Research Award Program. The second author was partially supported by NSF Grant # DMS-9971833. c 2003 American Mathematical Society 1233 License or copyright restrictions may apply

  8. ORISE: College of American Pathologists renews accreditation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    College of American Pathologists renews accreditation of ORISE beryllium laboratory Lab is one of only four in U.S. certified to test for sensitization to beryllium FOR IMMEDIATE...

  9. PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyu-Hwan J.

    PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY Volume 142, Number 7, July 2014, Pages 2291­2301.99.16.10. License or copyright restrictions may apply to redistribution; see http://www.ams

  10. American Evaluation Association Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.

  11. Continuous countercurrent chromatographic separator for the purification of sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Final project report, July 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooley, R.J.

    1997-12-01

    Production of pure sugars is required to enable production of fuels and chemicals from biomass feedstocks. Hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose (principal constituents of biomass) produces sugars that can be utilized in various fermentation process to produce valuable chemicals. Unfortunately, the hydrolysis process also liberates chemicals from the biomass that can be toxic to the fermenting organisms. The two primary toxic components of biomass hydrolyzate are sulfuric acid (catalyst used in the hydrolysis) and acetic acid (a component of the feed biomass). In the standard batch chromatographic separation of these three components, sugar elutes in the middle. Batch chromatographic separations are not practical on a commercial scale, because of excess dilution and high capital costs. Because sugar is the {open_quotes}center product,{close_quotes} a continuous separation would require two costly binary separators. However, a single, slightly larger separator, configured to produce three products, would be more economical. This FIRST project develops a cost-effective method for purifying biomass hydrolyzate into fermentable sugars using a single continuous countercurrent separator to separate this ternary mixture.

  12. Enhancing a Pathway-Genome Database (PGDB) to Capture Subcellular Localization of Metabolites and Enzymes: The Nucleotide-Sugar Biosynthetic Pathways of Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nag, A.; Karpinets, T. V.; Chang, C. H.; Bar-Peled, M.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how cellular metabolism works and is regulated requires that the underlying biochemical pathways be adequately represented and integrated with large metabolomic data sets to establish a robust network model. Genetically engineering energy crops to be less recalcitrant to saccharification requires detailed knowledge of plant polysaccharide structures and a thorough understanding of the metabolic pathways involved in forming and regulating cell-wall synthesis. Nucleotide-sugars are building blocks for synthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. The biosynthesis of nucleotide-sugars is catalyzed by a multitude of enzymes that reside in different subcellular organelles, and precise representation of these pathways requires accurate capture of this biological compartmentalization. The lack of simple localization cues in genomic sequence data and annotations however leads to missing compartmentalization information for eukaryotes in automatically generated databases, such as the Pathway-Genome Databases (PGDBs) of the SRI Pathway Tools software that drives much biochemical knowledge representation on the internet. In this report, we provide an informal mechanism using the existing Pathway Tools framework to integrate protein and metabolite sub-cellular localization data with the existing representation of the nucleotide-sugar metabolic pathways in a prototype PGDB for Populus trichocarpa. The enhanced pathway representations have been successfully used to map SNP abundance data to individual nucleotide-sugar biosynthetic genes in the PGDB. The manually curated pathway representations are more conducive to the construction of a computational platform that will allow the simulation of natural and engineered nucleotide-sugar precursor fluxes into specific recalcitrant polysaccharide(s).

  13. Changes in mobility of plastic crystal ethanol during its transformation into the monoclinic crystal state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanz, Alejandro Nogales, Aurora; Ezquerra, Tiberio A.; Puente-Orench, Inés; Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, ICMA-CSIC, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza ; Jiménez-Ruiz, Mónica

    2014-02-07

    Transformation of deuterated ethanol from the plastic crystal phase into the monoclinic one is investigated by means of a singular setup combining simultaneously dielectric spectroscopy with neutron diffraction. We postulate that a dynamic transition from plastic crystal to supercooled liquid-like configuration through a deep reorganization of the hydrogen-bonding network must take place as a previous step of the crystallization process. Once these precursor regions are formed, subsequent crystalline nucleation and growth develop with time.

  14. Microstructured Porous Silica Obtained via Colloidal Crystal Templates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velev, Orlin D.

    Microstructured Porous Silica Obtained via Colloidal Crystal Templates O. D. Velev,* T. A. Jede, R modified colloidal crystals as templates for silica polymerization is reported. 3D close-packed crystals, representing a negative replica of the original colloidal crystal. The size of the pores can be controlled

  15. Colloidal Crystal Templating DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705403

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Limin

    Angewandte Chemie Colloidal Crystal Templating DOI: 10.1002/anie.200705403 Bioinspired Fabrication or nanometer scale have not, to date, been built within a calcite single crystal. Colloidal crystals of 3D Ordered Macroporous Single Crystals of Calcite from a Transient Amorphous Phase** Cheng Li

  16. Freeze Crystallization Processes: Efficiency by Flexibility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heist, J. A.; Barron, T. S.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in fractionating solutions by distillation and evaporation can be reduced by 70% to 90% by using freeze crystallization processes. The thermodynamic bases for the substantially lower energy requirements include: 1) The phase...

  17. CRYSTALLINE REPRESENTATIONS AND F -CRYSTALS. Mark Kisin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kisin, Mark

    CRYSTALLINE REPRESENTATIONS AND F -CRYSTALS. Mark and finite flat group schemes, con* *jectured by Breuil, and to show that a crystalline representation. In this paper we generalize Breuil's theory to describe crystalline represen* *tations of higher weight or

  18. Photo-responsive liquid crystal block copolymers/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr, Michael Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Photo-responsive liquid crystal polymers (LCP) which contain azobenzene moieties have gained interest for their ability to change properties by merely irradiating them with the correct wavelength of light in the appropriate ...

  19. Method for solid state crystal growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolas, George S.; Beekman, Matthew K.

    2013-04-09

    A novel method for high quality crystal growth of intermetallic clathrates is presented. The synthesis of high quality pure phase crystals has been complicated by the simultaneous formation of both clathrate type-I and clathrate type-II structures. It was found that selective, phase pure, single-crystal growth of type-I and type-II clathrates can be achieved by maintaining sufficient partial pressure of a chemical constituent during slow, controlled deprivation of the chemical constituent from the primary reactant. The chemical constituent is slowly removed from the primary reactant by the reaction of the chemical constituent vapor with a secondary reactant, spatially separated from the primary reactant, in a closed volume under uniaxial pressure and heat to form the single phase pure crystals.

  20. Soft Matter Perspective on Protein Crystal Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diana Fusco; Patrick Charbonneau

    2015-07-10

    Crystallography may be the gold standard of protein structure determination, but obtaining the necessary high-quality crystals is also in some ways akin to prospecting for the precious metal. The tools and models developed in soft matter physics to understand colloidal assembly offer some insights into the problem of crystallizing proteins. This topical review describes the various analogies that have been made between proteins and colloids in that context. We highlight the explanatory power of patchy particle models, but also the challenges of providing guidance for crystallizing specific proteins. We conclude with a presentation of possible future research directions. This article is intended for soft matter scientists interested in protein crystallization as a self-assembly problem, and as an introduction to the pertinent physics literature for protein scientists more generally.

  1. Neutron detection with single crystal organic scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hamel, S; Carman, L; Faust, M; Lordi, V; Cherepy, N; Stoeffl, W; Payne, S

    2009-07-15

    Detection of high-energy neutrons in the presence of gamma radiation background utilizes pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) phenomena in organics studied previously only with limited number of materials, mostly liquid scintillators and single crystal stilbene. The current paper presents the results obtained with broader varieties of luminescent organic single crystals. The studies involve experimental tools of crystal growth and material characterization in combination with the advanced computer modeling, with the final goal of better understanding the relevance between the nature of the organic materials and their PSD properties. Special consideration is given to the factors that may diminish or even completely obscure the PSD properties in scintillating crystals. Among such factors are molecular and crystallographic structures that determine exchange coupling and exciton mobility in organic materials and the impurity effect discussed on the examples of trans-stilbene, bibenzyl, 9,10-diphenylanthracene and diphenylacetylene.

  2. Crystallization and arrest mechanisms of model colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haxton, Thomas K; Whitelam, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We performed dynamic simulations of spheres with short-range attractive interactions for many values of interaction strength and range. Fast crystallization occurs in a localized region of this parameter space, but the character of crystallization pathways is not uniform within this region. Pathways range from one-step, in which a crystal nucleates directly from a gas, to two-step, in which substantial liquid-like clusters form and only subsequently become crystalline. Crystallization can fail because of slow nucleation from either gas or liquid, or because of dynamic arrest caused by strong interactions. Arrested states are characterized by the formation of networks of face-sharing tetrahedra that can be detected by a local common neighbor analysis.

  3. Enhancement of crystal homogeneity of protein crystals under application of an external alternating current electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koizumi, H.; Uda, S.; Fujiwara, K.; Nozawa, J.; Tachibana, M.; Kojima, K.

    2014-10-06

    X-ray diffraction rocking-curve measurements were performed on tetragonal hen egg white (HEW) lysozyme crystals grown with and without the application of an external alternating current (AC) electric field. The crystal quality was assessed by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) value for each rocking curve. For two-dimensional maps of the FWHMs measured on the 440 and the 12 12 0 reflection, the crystal homogeneity was improved under application of an external electric field at 1 MHz, compared with that without. In particular, the significant improvement of the crystal homogeneity was observed for the 12 12 0 reflection.

  4. Crystal growth and detector performance of large size high-purity Ge crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guojian; Mei, Hao; Mei, Dongming; Irmscher, Klaus; Guan, Yutong; Yang, Gang

    2015-01-01

    High-purity germanium crystals approximately 12 cm in diameter were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The dislocation density of the crystals was determined to be in the range of 2000 - 4200 cm-2, which meets a requirement for use as a radiation detector. The axial and radial distributions of impurities in the crystals were measured and are discussed. A planar detector was also fabricated from one of the crystals and then evaluated for electrical and spectral performance. Measurements of gamma-ray spectra from Cs-137 and Am-241 sources demonstrate that the detector has excellent energy resolution.

  5. Crystal growth and detector performance of large size high-purity Ge crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guojian Wang; Mark Amman; Hao Mei; Dongming Mei; Klaus Irmscher; Yutong Guan; Gang Yang

    2015-05-07

    High-purity germanium crystals approximately 12 cm in diameter were grown in a hydrogen atmosphere using the Czochralski method. The dislocation density of the crystals was determined to be in the range of 2000 - 4200 cm-2, which meets a requirement for use as a radiation detector. The axial and radial distributions of impurities in the crystals were measured and are discussed. A planar detector was also fabricated from one of the crystals and then evaluated for electrical and spectral performance. Measurements of gamma-ray spectra from Cs-137 and Am-241 sources demonstrate that the detector has excellent energy resolution.

  6. Colloidal Particles at Chiral Liquid Crystal Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anne Claire Pawsey; Juho Lintuvuori

    2014-03-19

    Colloidal particles trapped at an interface between two fluids can form a wide range of different structures. Replacing one of the fluid with a liquid crystal increases the complexity of interactions and results in a greater range of possible structures. New behaviour emerges when colloidal particles interact with defects in the liquid crystal phases. Here we discuss the templating of colloids at a cholesteric isotropic interface.

  7. Electron Beam Production by Pyroelectric Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James D. Brownridge; Stephen M. Shafroth

    2002-09-20

    Pyroelectric crystals are used to produce self-focused electron beams with energies greater than 170 keV. No high voltage power supply or electron gun is needed. The system works by simply changing the temperature of a crystal of LiNbO3 or LiTaO3 by about 100oC in dilute gas. Electron beam energy spectra as well as positive-ion-beam energy spectra and profiles are shown. A change in the crystal temperature of 100oC will cause a spontaneous change in polarization. The change in polarization will be manifested by a change in charge on the surface of the crystal. It is this uncompensated charge that produces the electric field, which accelerates the electrons, or the positive ions and gives rise to the plasma, which in turn focuses them. The source of the accelerated electrons or positive ions is gas molecules ionized near the crystal surface. When the crystal surface is negative electrons are accelerated away from it and positive ions are attracted to the surface. These positive ions reduce the net negative charge on the surface thereby reducing the electric field, which causes the electron energy to decrease over time even though the focal properties remain unchanged. When the surface is positive the reverse obtains and the positive ion beam energy decreases over time as well. We will present video clips, photographic and electronic data that demonstrate many of the characteristics and applications of these electron beams.

  8. "American manufacturers are a cornerstone of the American economy and embody the best in American values. They enhance U.S. competitiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    "American manufacturers are a cornerstone of the American economy and embody the best in American." Manufacturing in America: a Comprehensive Strategy to Address the Challenges to U.S. Manufacturers January 16, 2004 #12;THE NETWORK-CENTRIC INNOVATION IMPERATIVE: How Manufacturers Work with Their Suppliers

  9. Dislocation-dynamics based crystal plasticity law for the low-and high-temperature deformation regimes of bcc crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devincre, Benoit

    Dislocation-dynamics based crystal plasticity law for the low- and high-temperature deformation; bcc; Crystal plasticity; Thermal activation 1. Introduction Crystal plasticity modeling at the level regimes of bcc crystal Ghiath Monnet a, , Ludovic Vincent b , Benoit Devincre c a EDF ­ R&D, MMC, avenue

  10. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  11. Deflection of light by using tungsten bronze crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jelsma, L.F.; McWright, G.M.; Schumacher, F.A.; Neurgaonkar, R.R.

    1988-07-05

    This paper reports our preliminary results on an electrooptical light deflector for streak camera applications that uses tungsten bronze SBN:60% crystals. We found the performance of these ferroelectric crystals to be an order of magnitude better than the best LiNbO/sub 3/ crystals currently available. We discuss the theory and performance of this crystal as well as other bronze crystals for application to the streak camera. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Native American Support Programs Task Force Changing Winds: Service to Native American Students

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    and Communities in Montana Final Report of the MSU Native American Support Programs Task Force Submitted To Shelly Hogan #12;Native American Support Programs Task Force Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TO STUDENT SUCCESS 12 FIGURE 6 WAYS TO ACHIEVE PROGRAM IMPROVEMENT 12 FIGURE 7 EMERGING THEMES: WHAT

  13. Performative Returns and the Rememory of History: genealogy and performativity in the American racial state

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kokontis, Kate Menninger

    2011-01-01

    of Immigration, Italian-ness, and the Port-of-Entry: on thecitizenship, American-ness, and belonging) and blackness (and therefore American-ness, has come to mean. 5 Thus it is

  14. Crystallization and identification of the glycosylated moieties of two isoforms of the main allergen Hev b 2 and preliminary X-ray analysis of two polymorphs of isoform II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuentes-Silva, D. [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Cuidad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Mendoza-Hernández, G. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Cuidad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Stojanoff, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source, Upton, NY (United States); Palomares, L. A. [Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Cuidad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Zenteno, E. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Cuidad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Torres-Larios, A. [Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Cuidad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Rodríguez-Romero, A., E-mail: adela@servidor.unam.mx [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior s/n, Cuidad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México, DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2007-09-01

    Crystallization of important glycoenzymes involved in IgE-mediated latex allergy. Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains several allergenic proteins that are involved in type I allergy. One of them is Hev b 2, which is a ?-1,3-glucanase enzyme that exists in different isoforms with variable glycosylation content. Two glucanase isoforms were isolated from trees of the GV-42 clone by gel filtration, affinity and ion-exchange chromatography. Isoform I had a carbohydrate content of about 20%, with N-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine, fucose and galactose residues as the main sugars, while isoform II showed 6% carbohydrate content constisting of N-acetyl-glucosamine, fucose, mannose and xylose. Both isoforms were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Isoform I crystals were grown using 0.2 M trisodium citrate dihydrate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 20%(v/v) 2-propanol, but these crystals were not appropriate for data collection. Isoform II crystals were obtained under two conditions and X-ray diffraction data were collected from both. In the first condition (0.2 M trisodium citrate, 0.1 M sodium cacodylate pH 6.5, 30% 2-propanol), crystals belonging to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1} with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.17, c = 77.41 Å were obtained. In the second condition [0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M trisodium citrate dihydrate pH 5.6, 30%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 4000] the isoform II crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.08, b = 89.67, c = 101.80 Å, ? = 113.6°. Preliminary analysis suggests that there are four molecules of isoform II in both asymmetric units.

  15. Liquid crystals boojum-colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tasinkevych; N. M. Silvestre; M. M. Telo da Gama

    2012-04-02

    Colloidal particles dispersed in a liquid crystal lead to distortions of the director field. The distortions are responsible for long-range effective colloidal interactions whose asymptotic behaviour is well understood. The short distance behaviour of the interaction, however, is sensitive to the structure and dynamics of the topological defects nucleated near the colloidal particles in the strong anchoring regime. The full non-linear theory is required in order to determine the interaction at short separations. Spherical colloidal particles with sufficiently strong planar degenerate anchoring nucleate a pair of antipodal surface topological defects, known as boojums. We use the Landau-de Gennes formalism in order to resolve the mesoscopic structure of the boojum cores and to determine the pairwise colloidal interaction. We compare the results in three (3D) and two (2D) spatial dimensions. The corresponding free energy functionals are minimized numerically using finite elements with adaptive meshes. Boojums are always point-like in 2D, but acquire a rather complex structure in 3D which depends on the combination of the anchoring potential, the radius of the colloid, the temperature and the LC elastic anisotropy. We identify three types of defect cores in 3D which we call single, double and split core boojums, and investigate the associated structural transitions. In the presence of two colloidal particles there are substantial re-arrangements of the defects at short distances, both in 3D and 2D. These re-arrangements lead to qualitative changes in the force-distance profile when compared to the asymptotic quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. In line with the experimental results, the presence of the defects prevents coalescence of the colloidal particles in 2D, but not in 3D systems.

  16. A new RNASeq-based reference transcriptome for sugar beet and its application in transcriptome-scale analysis of vernalization and gibberellin responses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutasa-Gottgens, Effie S; Joshi, Anagha; Holmes, Helen F; Hedden, Peter; Gottgens, Berthold

    2012-03-19

    in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Background Sugar beet crops account for about 30% of world sugar production and are important in Europe, North Amer- ica, and increasingly in Asia, South America and North Africa. In temperate... , optimised at 150 nM and 60°C. Next, the integrity of the RNA samples was confirmed on a standard denaturing formaldehyde RNA gel and by BvEF1a RT-PCR. Minimum 30 ?g aliquots of total RNA for each treatment were then sent for custom sequencing prior to which...

  17. P-10 / Z. Meng P-10 Post-Crystallization of Metal-Induced Laterally Crystallized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Tianjin 300071, P. R. China. Abstract Post-crystallization heat-treatment of metal-induced laterally/MILC poly-Si. In this paper, post-crystallization heat-treatment of MILC poly-Si thin film using YAG solid. Following the patterning of the a-Si layer into active islands, 100nm low-temperature oxide (LTO) was formed

  18. Toward photonic-crystal metamaterials: Creating magnetic emitters in photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    resonances in a three-dimensional 3D photonic crystal. Photonic crystals are periodic dielectric structures be de- signed to operate even at optical frequencies, where naturally occurring materials have. Povinelli,a) Steven G. Johnson, and J. D. Joannopoulos Department of Physics and the Center for Materials

  19. CRYSTAL Simulation Code and New Coherent Effects in Bent Crystal at the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sytov, Alexei I

    2014-01-01

    The LHC crystal-based collimation system is mainly addressed. A CRYSTAL simulation code for particle tracking in crystals is introduced. Its essence consists in both adequate and fast sampling of proton trajectories in crystals which is crucial for both correct description of experiments and quantitative prediction of new effects. The H8 single-pass experiment at the CERN SPS as well as 7 TeV proton deflection by a bent crystal at the LHC are simulated. We predict the existence of dechanneling peaks corresponding to the planar channeling oscillations as well as describe the possibility of their observation at high energies, specifically in the LHC crystal-assisted collimation experiment planned on 2015. An effect of excess over the amorphous level of ionization losses in the channeling mode was also found for the LHC energy. In addition, the LHC crystal-based collimation system is simulated as well as its possible improved layouts with application of a crystal with the cut and multiple volume reflection in on...

  20. Language Education, Race, and the Remaking of American Citizenship in Los Angeles, 1900-1968

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutfreund, Zevi

    2013-01-01

    See “The Mexican- Americans NEDA Much Better School System,and “The Mexican-Americans NEDA Much Better School System,”

  1. Literature for American Power Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Recent experimental work of the Toulouse-Argonne collaboration has opened the perspective of a focusing gamma-ray telescope operating in the energy range of nuclear transitions, featuring unprecedented sensitivity, angular and energy resolution. The instrument consists of a tunable crystal diffraction lens situated on a stabilized spacecraft, focusing gamma-rays onto a small array of Germanium detectors perched on an extendible boom. While the weight of such an instrument is less than 500 kg, it features an angular resolution of 15 in., an energy resolution of 2 keV and a 3 {sigma} narrow line sensitivity of a few times 10 {sup {minus}7} photons s{sup {minus}2} cm {sup {minus}2} (10 {sup 6} sec observation). This instrumental concept permits observation of any identified source at any selected line-energy ;in a range of typically 200 keV to 1300 keV. The resulting ``sequential`` operation mode makes sites of explosive nucleosynthesis natural scientific objectives for such a telescope: The nuclear lines of extragalactic supernovae ({sup 56}Ni, {sup 44}Ti, {sup 60}Fe) and galactic novac (p{sup {minus}}p{sup +} line, {sup 7}Be) are accessible to observation, one at a time, due to the erratic appearance and the sequence of half-lifes of these events Other scientific objective include the narrow 511 keV line from galactic broad class annihilators (such as 1E1740-29, nova musca) and possible redshifted annihilation lines from AGN`s.

  2. American Samoa's Rebate Program Brings ENERGY STAR to Island

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thanks to a grant through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, residents of American Samoa are able for the first time to purchase ENERGY STAR air conditioners – and for 30 percent off - through the Island's first appliance rebate program.

  3. ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to 823 Million in the Next Five Years ENERGY STAR Residential Water Heaters to Save Americans Up to 823 Million in the...

  4. Home Front as Warfront: African American World War I Drama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egging, Anna Katherine

    2010-08-31

    This dissertation recovers little-known African American World War I plays that blur the boundary between the home front and warfront. I argue that with this focus, the plays wage their own war for African American citizenship ...

  5. 2013 Asian American & Pacific Islander Heritage Month Resources...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of this event. The theme of this year's Heritage Month is "I Want the Wide American Earth," chosen by the Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center to highlight the poem by...

  6. CHINESE AMERICAN FACULTY ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (CAFA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Tu-nan

    1 CHINESE AMERICAN FACULTY ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (CAFA) NEWSLETTER, January 28, 2003 and Friends, Happy Chinese New Year! As your President and President-elect of the Chinese American Faculty

  7. A Qualitative Description of African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, Becky

    2012-08-31

    The low rates of breastfeeding among African American women in the U.S. is a poorly understood, persistent disparity that contributes to higher incidences of morbidity and mortality for African Americans across the lifespan. ...

  8. 21H.101 American History to 1865, Fall 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, Pauline

    This course focuses on a basic history of American social, economic, and political development from the colonial period through the Civil War. The colonial heritages of Spanish and British America; the American Revolution ...

  9. American Road: Clean Diesels for the Real World | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American Road: Clean Diesels for the Real World American Road: Clean Diesels for the Real World Perspectives on clean diesels and public policy as it is developing in the US, as...

  10. Derrick A. Bell Jr., RACE, RACISM AND AMERICAN LAW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payne, William

    1983-01-01

    Derrick A. Bell Jr. , RACE, RACISM AND AMERICAN LAW. Little,1. D. A. BELL JR. , RACE, RACISM AND AMERICAN LAW xxvii (2dhereinafter cited as BFLL, Racism]. 2. Id. at xxiv. 3. Id.

  11. Mapping mesoscale heterogeneity in the plastic deformation of a copper single crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magid, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    1 Introduction Crystal plasticity is a heterogeneousmodeling of crystal plasticity promise significant advancesthe mechanisms of plasticity in single crystal copper. The

  12. North American Free Trade and U.S. Agriculture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosson, C. Parr; Benson, Geoffrey A.; Moulton, Kirby S.; Sanders, Larry D.

    1999-06-23

    -term view of U.S.-Mexico trade and the implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)....

  13. T N YORK, NEW YORKI AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    lDC) r; T N YORK, NEW YORKI OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING /*s\\ TECHNICAL ANDITI

  14. Civic and Political Engagement of Chinese Americans in Ethnic Suburbs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Sophia

    2012-01-01

    Americans worked on the Transcontinental Railroad or asGold Rush and on the Transcontinental Railroad contributed

  15. Apparatus for growing HgI.sub.2 crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schieber, Michael M. (Jerusalem, IL); Beinglass, Israel (Jerusalem, IL); Dishon, Giora (Jerusalem, IL)

    1978-01-01

    A method and horizontal furnace for vapor phase growth of HgI.sub.2 crystals which utilizes controlled axial and radial airflow to maintain the desired temperature gradients. The ampoule containing the source material is rotated while axial and radial air tubes are moved in opposite directions during crystal growth to maintain a desired distance and associated temperature gradient with respect to the growing crystal, whereby the crystal interface can advance in all directions, i.e., radial and axial according to the crystallographic structure of the crystal. Crystals grown by this method are particularly applicable for use as room-temperature nuclear radiation detectors.

  16. Sieving hydrogen isotopes through two dimensional crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Lozada-Hidalgo; S. Hu; O. Marshall; A. Mishchenko; A. N. Grigorenko; R. A. W. Dryfe; B. Radha; I. V. Grigorieva; A. K. Geim

    2015-11-20

    One-atom-thick crystals are impermeable to atoms and molecules, but hydrogen ions (thermal protons) penetrate through them. We show that monolayers of graphene and boron nitride can be used to separate hydrogen ion isotopes. Employing electrical measurements and mass spectrometry, we find that deuterons permeate through these crystals much slower than protons, resulting in a separation factor of 10 at room temperature. The isotope effect is attributed to a difference of about 60 meV between zero-point energies of incident protons and deuterons, which translates into the equivalent difference in the activation barriers posed by two dimensional crystals. In addition to providing insight into the proton transport mechanism, the demonstrated approach offers a competitive and scalable way for hydrogen isotope enrichment.

  17. LHC Collimation with Bent Crystals - LUA9

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scandale, W; Assmann, R; Losito, R; Cavoto, G; Ivanov, Yu-M; Hall, G; Markiewicz, T; Taratin, A-M; Chesnokov, Yu-A; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2011-01-01

    An experiment to demonstrate the feasibility of multi-stage collimation assisted by bent crystals in the Large Hadron Collider is proposed. Bent silicon crystals acting as primary collimators are expected to direct the beam halo promptly onto secondary absorbers thus ideally reducing outscattering, beam losses and the radiation load in critical regions of the ring. Extensive tests conducted by the UA9 Collaboration in the SPS and in H8 with proton and lead ion beams have shown that crystal-assisted collimation can improve the efficiency of a one-stage collimation system. The proposed experiment, called LUA9, has received full support from the CERN management, and expression of interest from three Russian Institutions (PNPI, IHEP, JINR), INFN, LAL-Orsay, Imperial College and SLAC (through the US LARP programme). This document reviews the scope, goals, organization, costs, manpower needed and the schedule of LUA9.

  18. Microscale locomotion in a nematic liquid crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieger, Madison S; Powers, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms often encounter anisotropy, for example in mucus and biofilms. We study how anisotropy and elasticity of the ambient fluid affects the speed of a swimming microorganism with a prescribed stroke. Motivated by recent experiments on swimming bacteria in anisotropic environments, we extend a classical model for swimming microorganisms, the Taylor swimming sheet, actuated either by transverse or longitudinal traveling waves in a three-dimensional nematic liquid crystal without twist. We calculate the swimming speed and entrained volumetric flux as a function of the swimmer's stroke properties as well as the elastic and rheological properties of the liquid crystal. The behavior is quantitatively and qualitatively well-approximated by a hexatic liquid crystal except in the cases of small Ericksen number and in a nematic fluid with tumbling parameter near the transition to a flow-aligning nematic, where anisotropic effects dominate. We also propose a novel method of swimming or pumping in a nematic flu...

  19. Sieving hydrogen isotopes through two dimensional crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozada-Hidalgo, M; Marshall, O; Mishchenko, A; Grigorenko, A N; Dryfe, R A W; Radha, B; Grigorieva, I V; Geim, A K

    2015-01-01

    One-atom-thick crystals are impermeable to atoms and molecules, but hydrogen ions (thermal protons) penetrate through them. We show that monolayers of graphene and boron nitride can be used to separate hydrogen ion isotopes. Employing electrical measurements and mass spectrometry, we find that deuterons permeate through these crystals much slower than protons, resulting in a separation factor of 10 at room temperature. The isotope effect is attributed to a difference of about 60 meV between zero-point energies of incident protons and deuterons, which translates into the equivalent difference in the activation barriers posed by two dimensional crystals. In addition to providing insight into the proton transport mechanism, the demonstrated approach offers a competitive and scalable way for hydrogen isotope enrichment.

  20. Quantum Calabi-Yau and Classical Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei Okounkov; Nikolai Reshetikhin; Cumrun Vafa

    2003-11-11

    We propose a new duality involving topological strings in the limit of large string coupling constant. The dual is described in terms of a classical statistical mechanical model of crystal melting, where the temperature is inverse of the string coupling constant. The crystal is a discretization of the toric base of the Calabi-Yau with lattice length $g_s$. As a strong evidence for this duality we recover the topological vertex in terms of the statistical mechanical probability distribution for crystal melting. We also propose a more general duality involving the dimer problem on periodic lattices and topological A-model string on arbitrary local toric threefolds. The $(p,q)$ 5-brane web, dual to Calabi-Yau, gets identified with the transition regions of rigid dimer configurations.

  1. Density functional theory for carbon dioxide crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Yiwen; Mi, Jianguo Zhong, Chongli

    2014-05-28

    We present a density functional approach to describe the solid?liquid phase transition, interfacial and crystal structure, and properties of polyatomic CO{sub 2}. Unlike previous phase field crystal model or density functional theory, which are derived from the second order direct correlation function, the present density functional approach is based on the fundamental measure theory for hard-sphere repulsion in solid. More importantly, the contributions of enthalpic interactions due to the dispersive attractions and of entropic interactions arising from the molecular architecture are integrated in the density functional model. Using the theoretical model, the predicted liquid and solid densities of CO{sub 2} at equilibrium triple point are in good agreement with the experimental values. Based on the structure of crystal-liquid interfaces in different planes, the corresponding interfacial tensions are predicted. Their respective accuracies need to be tested.

  2. The Acculturation of Chinese-American Adolescents in Negotiating Autonomy and Connectedness: Comparison between Chinese- and European-Americans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Tzu-Fen

    2012-02-14

    Chinese-American adolescents were compared with the major group in the United States (European-American adolescents) in negotiating self-concepts related with autonomy and connectedness. Senses of autonomy and connectedness were evaluated...

  3. American Suppliers: The Role of Americans in the Perpetuation and Maintenance of the Postwar Black Market in Germany 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fasulo, Micheal

    2012-02-14

    market as an essentially German experience, populated in the main by Germans and displaced persons. In so doing, I posit a schema of American illicit supply to Germans and displaced persons. This thesis argues that Americans operated as suppliers...

  4. Using Opponent Modeling to Adapt Team Play in American Football

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukthankar, Gita Reese

    Using Opponent Modeling to Adapt Team Play in American Football Kennard R. Laviersa , Gita generation and real-time team response in the Rush 2008 American football simulator. Simultaneously of data-driven models. Keywords: opponent modeling; American football; play recognition; adaptive players

  5. Fourth North American Symposium on Assessing the Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) addresses crossborder trade in services such as commercial truckingFourth North American Symposium on Assessing the Environmental Effects of Trade Phoenix / 23 April 08 R E S E A R C H P A P E R Environmental Implications of Trade Liberalization on North American

  6. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics AIAA20001928

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 AIAA­2000­1928 OPTIMIZING CONTROL OF OPEN BAY Copyrightã2000 The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. All rights reserved. Abstract. (1999), #12; American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2 Shaw and Northcraft (1999), Stanek et

  7. AIAA 2001-4111 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linder, Stephen

    AIAA 2001- 4111 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Copyright © 2001 Stephen Paul Linder. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. with permission. 5@alum.mit.edu ' ¡¤¡(§¨£0)21436587!© 59A@§¨$B#DC!3FEG"©¨¡("© #12;American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2 track

  8. American Samoa Initial Technical Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busche, S.; Conrad, M.; Funk, K.; Kandt, A.; McNutt, P.

    2011-09-01

    This document is an initial energy assessment for American Samoa, the first of many steps in developing a comprehensive energy strategy. On March 1, 2010, Assistant Secretary of the Interior Tony Babauta invited governors and their staff from the Interior Insular Areas to meet with senior principals at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Meeting discussions focused on ways to improve energy efficiency and increase the deployment of renewable energy technologies in the U.S. Pacific Territories. In attendance were Governors Felix Camacho (Guam), Benigno Fitial (Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands), and Togiola Tulafono, (American Samoa). This meeting brought together major stakeholders to learn and understand the importance of developing a comprehensive strategic plan for implementing energy efficiency measures and renewable energy technologies. For several decades, dependence on fossil fuels and the burden of high oil prices have been a major concern but never more at the forefront as today. With unstable oil prices, the volatility of fuel supply and the economic instability in American Samoa, energy issues are a high priority. In short, energy security is critical to American Samoa's future economic development and sustainability. Under an interagency agreement, funded by the Department of Interior's Office of Insular Affairs, NREL was tasked to deliver technical assistance to the islands of American Samoa. Technical assistance included conducting an initial technical assessment to define energy consumption and production data, establish an energy consumption baseline, and assist with the development of a strategic plan. The assessment and strategic plan will be used to assist with the transition to a cleaner energy economy. NREL provided an interdisciplinary team to cover each relevant technical area for the initial energy assessments. Experts in the following disciplines traveled to American Samoa for on-island site assessments: (1) Energy Efficiency and Building Technologies; (2) Integrated Wind-Diesel Generation; (3) Transmission and Distribution; (4) Solar Technologies; and (5) Biomass and Waste-to-Energy. In addition to these core disciplines, team capabilities also included expertise in program analysis, project financing, energy policy and energy planning. The intent of the technical assessment was to provide American Samoa with a baseline energy assessment. From the baseline, various scenarios and approaches for deploying cost effective energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies could be created to meet American Samoa's objectives. The information provided in this energy assessment will be used as input in the development of a draft strategic plan and the development of scenarios and strategies for deploying cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable products.

  9. Technical Report for DE-FG02-03ER46029 Sugar-Coated PPEs, Novel Nanomaterials and Sensing Modules for Disease and Bioterrorism Related Threats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uwe Bunz

    2003-08-27

    The detection and sensing of biological warfare agents (Ricin, Anthrax toxin), of disease agents (cholera, botulinum and tetanus toxins, influenza virus etc) and of biologically active species is important for national security and disease control. A premiere goal would be the simple colorimetric or fluorimetric detection of such toxins by a dipstick test. It would be desirable to sense 5,000-10,000 toxin molecules, i.e. 10-100 fg of a toxin contained 1-5 mL of sample. Fluorescent conjugated polymers should be particularly interesting in this regard, because they can carry multiple identical and/or different recognition units. Such an approach is particularly valuable for the detection of lectin toxins, because these bind to oligomeric carbohydrate displays. Lectins bind multivalently to sugars, i.e. several covalently connected sugar moieties have to be exposed to the lectin at the same time to obtain binding. The requirement of multivalency of the lectin-sugar interactions should allow a very sensitive detection of lectins with sugar coated conjugated polymers in an agglutination type assay, where the fluorescence of the PPEs disappears upon binding to the lectins. High molecular weights of the used PPEs would mean high sensitivity. Herein we present our progress towards that goal up to date.

  10. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into the Technology Behind the Manufacturing of Sugar Cane and Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    products. In 1984, over 65% of the paper consumed worldwide was derived from wood pulp and only 25. To compensate for the increasing demand in paper and wood fibre pulp, sugar cane paper, which uses bagasse, has have been used for their juice in the beverage industry. As of 2009, 5-10% of the paper produced

  11. MINERAL INDUCED FORMATION OF SUGAR PHOSPHATES * S. PITSCH 1'2, A. ESCHENMOSER l, B. GEDULIN 2, S. HUI 2 and G. ARRHENIUS e

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arrhenius, Gustaf

    phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates diastereoselectively rac. hexose-2,4,6- triphosphates in high yield and, in the presence of formaldehyde under other as the major product (Figure 1). In the La Jolla laboratory, on the other hand, the observation had been made

  12. The Central American cold surge: an observational analysis of the deep southward penetration of North American cold fronts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reding, Philip John

    1992-01-01

    THE CENTRAL AMERICAN COLD SURGE: AN OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE DEEP SOUTHWARD PENETRATION OF NORTH AMERICAN COLD FRONTS A Thesis by PHILIP JOHN REDING Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A &M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Meteorology THE CENTRAL AMERICAN COLD SURGE: AN OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE DEEP SOUTHWARD PENETRATION OF NORTH AMERICAN COLD FRONTS A Thesis by PHILIP...

  13. Surface acoustic waves in rotating orthorhombic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel Destrade

    2013-04-24

    The propagation of surface (Rayleigh) waves over a rotating orthorhombic crystal is studied. The crystal possesses three crystallographic axes, normal to the symmetry planes: the half-space is cut along a plane normal to one of these axes, the wave travels in the direction of another, and the rotation occurs at a uniform rate about any of the three axes. The secular equation for the surface wave speed is found explicitly; in contrast to the non-rotating case, it is dispersive (frequency-dependent). Both Coriolis and centrifugal accelerations appear in the equations of motion: none can be neglected in favor of the other, even at small rotation rates.

  14. Interface control and snow crystal growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jessica Li; Laura P. Schaposnik

    2015-05-08

    The growth of snow crystals is dependent on the temperature and saturation of the environment. In the case of dendrites, Reiter's local two-dimensional model provides a realistic approach to the study of dendrite growth. In this paper we obtain a new geometric rule that incorporates interface control, a basic mechanism of crystallization that is not taken into account in the original Reiter's model. By defining two new variables, growth latency and growth direction, our improved model gives a realistic model not only for dendrite but also for plate forms.

  15. Algorithmic crystal chemistry: A cellular automata approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krivovichev, S. V.

    2012-01-15

    Atomic-molecular mechanisms of crystal growth can be modeled based on crystallochemical information using cellular automata (a particular case of finite deterministic automata). In particular, the formation of heteropolyhedral layered complexes in uranyl selenates can be modeled applying a one-dimensional three-colored cellular automaton. The use of the theory of calculations (in particular, the theory of automata) in crystallography allows one to interpret crystal growth as a computational process (the realization of an algorithm or program with a finite number of steps).

  16. Seismic Crystals And Earthquake Shield Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Baykant Alagoz; Serkan Alagoz

    2009-05-15

    We theoretically demonstrate that earthquake shield made of seismic crystal can damp down surface waves, which are the most destructive type for constructions. In the paper, seismic crystal is introduced in aspect of band gaps (Stop band) and some design concepts for earthquake and tsunami shielding were discussed in theoretical manner. We observed in our FDTD based 2D elastic wave simulations that proposed earthquake shield could provide about 0.5 reductions in magnitude of surface wave on the Richter scale. This reduction rate in magnitude can considerably reduce destructions in the case of earthquake.

  17. Optical amplification enhancement in photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sapienza, R.; Leonetti, M.; Froufe-Perez, L. S.; Galisteo-Lopez, J. F.; Lopez, C.; Conti, C.

    2011-02-15

    Improving and controlling the efficiency of a gain medium is one of the most challenging problems of laser research. By measuring the gain length in an opal-based photonic crystal doped with laser dye, we demonstrate that optical amplification is more than twenty-fold enhanced along the {Gamma}-K symmetry directions of the face-centered-cubic photonic crystal. These results are theoretically explained by directional variations of the density of states, providing a quantitative connection between density of the states and light amplification.

  18. American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine, and Massachusetts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    1 American Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida Public Opinion on Global Warming in the American States: An In-Depth Study of Florida, Maine warming has been happening · What might have caused global warming · Whether global warming

  19. Proceedings of the 2001 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition Copyright 2001, American Society for Engineering Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roylance, David

    Proceedings of the 2001 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition Copyright 2001, American Society for Engineering Education Session 1464 Innovations in Teaching Mechanics," with structural engineering students wondering why they had to take it. #12;Proceedings of the 2001 American

  20. American racism and African diplomats: race and American Cold War policy in West Africa 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oriabure, Stephannie Ebhota

    2001-01-01

    ramifications of the experiences of African diplomats in the United States during the Kennedy administration within both a national and international context. African encounters with American racism illustrate the interplay between foreign policy and domestic...

  1. "As Un-American as Rabies": Addiction and Identity in American Postwar Junkie Literature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, Abigail Leigh

    2011-02-22

    The years following World War II symbolized a new beginning for the United States. While at the height of global power, Americans founds that they were able to experience a leisurely existence where items, desired instead ...

  2. Engineering light using large area photonic crystal devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tandon, Sheila (Sheila N.), 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Photonic crystals are fabricated structures composed of a periodic arrangement of materials with differing indices of refraction. This research has focused on the realization of two distinct photonic crystal structures in ...

  3. First-principles intermolecular binding energies in organic molecular crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perger, Warren F.

    tetranitrate (PETN) using the CRYSTAL98/03 and Gaussian98 programs (with Gaussian basis sets) and the DMol crystals, for example, PETN [2] (although, of course, the lattice modes cannot be calculated this way

  4. Modeling dislocation density evolution in continuum crystal plasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arsenlis, Athanasios, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Dislocations are the singly most important material defects in crystal plasticity, and although dislocation mechanics has long been understood as the underlying physical basis for continuum crystal plasticity formulations, ...

  5. Morphological control of silicalite-1 crystals using microemulsion mediated growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seung Ju

    2005-11-01

    space afforded by the microemulsion, is essential. The results suggest that this may be a versatile and useful approach to controlling zeolite crystal morphology and growth of crystals obtained from conventional high-silica zeolite synthesis procedures....

  6. Synthesis and crystal structure studies of ethyl 5-methyl-1,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. It crystallizes in monoclinic class under the space group P2sub 1c with cell parameters a 8.4593(4) , b15.6284(6)...

  7. 37A Focus on Crystallography Crystals and mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greuel, Gert-Martin

    , or as polished gems. Less known is that the largest part (about 98%) of the solid ground is crystalline. This means that crystals are a stable state of the condensed matter. The term "crystal" is derived from

  8. A World's Top-10 X-ray Crystal Structure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A World's Top-10 X-ray Crystal Structure October 7, 2014 Bookmark and Share Philip Coppens An x-ray crystal structure solved by Philip Coppens has been chosen as one of the world's...

  9. The experimental setup of the Interaction in Crystals for Emission...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    high intensity sources via the coherent interactions with crystals in the sub-GeV energy range has been proved by the ICE-RAD (Interaction in Crystals for Emission of...

  10. Anomalous phenomena and spectral tailoring in photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghebrebrhan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Photonic crystals are recently discovered meta-materials whose optical properties arise from periodic refractive index variations. In this thesis I examine various aspects of photonic crystals including a self-assembled ...

  11. Super-collimation in a rod-based photonic crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shih, Ta-Ming, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    Super-collimation is the propagation of a light beam without spreading that occurs when the light beam is guided by the dispersion properties of a photonic crystal, rather than by defects in the photonic crystal. ...

  12. Imaging x-ray crystal spectrometers for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; Roquemore, A.L.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Kahn, S.M.; Elliott, S.R.; Fraenkel, B.

    1999-01-01

    A new type of high-resolution x-ray imaging crystal spectrometers is described for implementation on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on the ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion-charge state distributions, and impurity transport. These data are derived from observations of the satellite spectra of heliumlike argon, ArthinspXVII, which is the dominant charge state for electron temperatures in the range from 0.4 to 3.0 keV and which is accessible to NSTX. Experiments at the Torus Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR) demonstrate that a throughput of 2{times}10{sup 5}thinspphotons/s (corresponding to the count-rate limit of the present detectors) can easily be obtained with small, nonperturbing argon gas puffs of less than 1{times}10{sup {minus}3}thinspTorrthinspscr(l)/s, so that it is possible to record spectra with a small statistical error and a good time resolution (typically 50 and 1 ms in some cases). Employing a novel design, which is based on the imaging properties of spherically bent crystals, the spectrometers will provide spectrally and spatially resolved images of the plasma for all experimental conditions, which include ohmically heated discharges as well as plasmas with rf and neutral-beam heating. The conceptual design, experimental results on the focusing properties, and relevant spectral data from TEXTOR are presented. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Crystallization and Identification of the Glycosylated Moieties of Two Isoforms of the Main Allergen Hev b 2 and Preliminary X-ray Analysis of Two Polymorphs of Isoform ll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuentes-Silva,D.; Mendoza-Hernandez, G.; Stojanoff, V.; Palomares, L.; Zenteno, E.; Torres-Larios, A.; Rodriguez-Romero, A.

    2007-01-01

    Latex from Hevea brasiliensis contains several allergenic proteins that are involved in type I allergy. One of them is Hev b 2, which is a {beta}-1,3-glucanase enzyme that exists in different isoforms with variable glycosylation content. Two glucanase isoforms were isolated from trees of the GV-42 clone by gel filtration, affinity and ion-exchange chromatography. Isoform I had a carbohydrate content of about 20%, with N-linked N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine, fucose and galactose residues as the main sugars, while isoform II showed 6% carbohydrate content consisting of N-acetyl-glucosamine, fucose, mannose and xylose. Both isoforms were crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Isoform I crystals were grown using 0.2 M trisodium citrate dihydrate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7.5 and 20%(v/v) 2-propanol, but these crystals were not appropriate for data collection. Isoform II crystals were obtained under two conditions and X-ray diffraction data were collected from both. In the first condition (0.2 M trisodium citrate, 0.1 M sodium cacodylate pH 6.5, 30% 2-propanol), crystals belonging to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 1} with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.17, c = 77.41 {angstrom} were obtained. In the second condition [0.2 M ammonium acetate, 0.1 M trisodium citrate dihydrate pH 5.6, 30%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 4000] the isoform II crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 85.08, b = 89.67, c = 101.80 {angstrom}, {beta}= 113.6{sup o}. Preliminary analysis suggests that there are four molecules of isoform II in both asymmetric units.

  14. METEOROLOGICAL Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Science Foundation.36 37 #12;2 Capsule Summary1 The Community Earth System Model provides the research for earth system15 studies, making it a true community tool. Here we describe this earth system model, its16 at the above DOI once it is available. © 2013 American Meteorological Society #12;1 The Community Earth System

  15. Electa Quinney Institute for American Indian Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    American Indian and Alaska Native applicants for the Early Childhood Education teacher certification and/or certification in Early Childhood Education (Birth-Grade3) Partners in this full-time, year.aiss.uwm.edu and the Early Childhood Education website: http://www4.uwm.edu/soe/departments/currins/early_childhood

  16. QER- Comment of American Hydrogen Northeast, Inc.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Dear Sir or Madam, Attached please find the Hydrogen Association and the American Hydrogen Northeast,inc's Comments on the first round of QER review. I wish to thank Secretary Moniz and Senator Reed for attending the Providence hearing and providing this opportunity to submit these comments.

  17. Vol . 129, No . I The American Naturalist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jumars, Pete

    ) suggested that principles of chemical-reactor theory (from which the idea of operating policies comes) canVol . 129, No . I The American Naturalist January 1987 MODELING ANIMAL GUTS AS CHEMICAL REACTORS those principles to develop explicit models of digestion . To design a process of chemical conversion

  18. Rothermere American Institute America's Home at Oxford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    its commitment to world-class research on the United States. Further financial support is essentialRothermere American Institute America's Home at Oxford Annual Report 2011-12 Director's Review will allow future generations of scholars, students and members of the public to understand better the United

  19. Modern Latin American History History 315

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    historicaltextarchive.com/ HuriSearch www.hurisearch.org/ Internet Archive archive.org/index.php Internet History times, such as: Internet Modern History Sourcebook www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook.html 19th1 Modern Latin American History History 315 Consider Resources Primary Resources: diaries, letters

  20. First-principles intermolecular binding energies in organic molecular crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandey, Ravi

    , with the GAUSSIANAUSSIAN 98 program) compare reasonably well with those in experiments using crystals, for example, PETN [2

  1. Radiative sensitivities of tropical anvils to small ice crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles S.; Kiehl, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    that the saturation vapor pressure drops relative to planarkm, S,- ~ 65%. The vapor pressure gradient from the crystal

  2. Dynamics and pattern selection at the crystal-melt interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummins, H.Z.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses: light scattering at the crystal-melt interface; morphological instability and pattern selection; and sidebranching.

  3. Time Crystals from Minimum Time Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mir Faizal; Mohammed M. Khalil; Saurya Das

    2014-12-29

    Motivated by the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, covariance, and a minimum measurable time, we propose a deformation of the Heisenberg algebra, and show that this leads to corrections to all quantum mechanical systems. We also demonstrate that such a deformation implies a discrete spectrum for time. In other words, time behaves like a crystal.

  4. The transmission of symmetry in liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jie Xu; Pingwen Zhang

    2015-09-22

    The existing experiments and simulations suggest that the molecular symmetry is always transmitted to homogeneous phases in liquid crystals. It has been proved for rod-like molecules. We conjecture that it holds for three other symmetries, and prove it for some molecules of these symmetries.

  5. Characterization of bent crystals for Laue lenses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liccardo, V; Frontera, F; Valsan, V

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the LAUE project devoted to build a long focal-length focusing optics for soft $\\gamma$-ray astronomy (80 - 600 keV), we present the results of reflectivity measurements of bent crystals in different configurations, obtained by bending perfect or mosaic flat crystals. We also compare these results with those obtained using flat crystals. The measurements were performed using the K$\\alpha$ line of the Tungsten anode of the X-ray tube used in the LARIX facility of the University of Ferrara. These results are finalized to select the best materials and to optimize the thickness of the crystal tiles that will be used for building a Laue lens petal which is a part of an entire Laue lens, with 20 m focal length and 100-300 keV passband. The final goal of the LAUE project is overcome, by at least 2 orders of magnitude, the sensitivity limits of the current generation of $\\gamma$-ray telescopes, and to improve the current $\\gamma$-ray imaging capability.

  6. A STUDY OF RHIC CRYSTAL COLLIMATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TRBOJEVIC,D.

    1998-06-26

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will experience increasing longitudinal and transverse heavy ion emittances, mostly due to intra-beam scattering (IBS). The experiments in RHIC are expected to not only have reduced luminosities due to IBS but also background caused by beam halo. Primary betatron collimators will be used to remove the large amplitude particles. The efficiency of the primary collimator in RHIC strongly depends on the alignment of the jaws which needs to be within about ten micro-radians for the optimum conditions. As proposed by V. Biryukov [1] bent crystals could be used to improve the efficiency of an existing collimation system by installing them upstream of the collimator jaws. Bent crystals have been successfully used in SPS, Protvino and Fermilab for extraction of the beam particles channeled through them. This study examines possible improvements of the primary collimator system for heavy ions at RHIC by use of bent crystals. Bent crystals will reduce the collimator jaws alignment requirement and will increase collimator efficiency thereby reducing detector background.

  7. A study of RHIC crystal collimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trbojevic, D.; Harrison, M.; Parker, B.; Thompson, P.; Stevens, A.; Biryukov, V.; Mokhov, N.; Drozhdin, A.

    1998-08-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will experience increasing longitudinal and transverse heavy ion emittances, mostly due to intra-beam scattering (IBS). The experiments in RHIC are expected to not only have reduced luminosities due to IBS but also background caused by beam halo. Primary betatron collimators will be used to remove the large amplitude particles. The efficiency of the primary collimator in RHIC strongly depends on the alignment of the jaws which needs to be within about ten micro-radians for the optimum conditions. As proposed by V. biryukov bent crystals could be used to improve the efficiency of an existing collimation system by installing them upstream of the collimator jaws. Bent crystals have been successfully used in SPS, Protvino and Fermilab for extraction of the beam particles channeled through them. This study examines possible improvements of the primary collimator system for heavy ions at RHIC by use of bent crystals. Bent crystals will reduce the collimator jaws alignment requirement and will increase collimator efficiency thereby reducing detector background.

  8. Analytical theory of multipass crystal extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biryukov, V.; Murphy, C.T.

    1997-10-01

    An analytical theory for the efficiency of particle extraction from an accelerator by means of a bent crystal is proposed. The theory agrees with all the measurements performed in the broad energy range of 14 to 900 GeV, where the efficiency range also spans over two decades, from {approximately}0.3% to {approximately}30%.

  9. A study of RHIC crystal collimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Trbojevic; V. M. Biryukov; M. Harrison; B. Parker; P. Thompson; A. Stevens; N. Mokhov; A. Drozhdin

    2001-11-07

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will experience increasing longitudinal and transverse heavy ion emittances, mostly due to intra-beam scattering (IBS). The experiments in RHIC are expected to not only have reduced luminosities due to IBS but also an unwanted beam halo. Primary betatron collimators will be used to remove the large amplitude particles. The efficiency of the primary collimator in RHIC depends very much on the alignment of the jaws which needs to be within few micro-radians for the best conditions. As proposed by V. Biryukov bent crystals could be used to improve the efficiency of an existing collimation system by installing them upstream of the collimator jaws. Bent crystals have been successfully used in SPS, Protvino and Fermilab for extraction of the beam particles channeled through them. This study examines possible improvements of the primary collimator system for heavy ions at RHIC by use of bent crystals. Bent crystals will reduce the collimator jaws alignment requirement and will increase collimator efficiency thereby reducing detector background.

  10. Module: Material Structure Focus: Crystal Packing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowley, Clarence W.

    ) and body centered cubic. Materials: Styrofoam Balls (20) Smaller Styrofoam Ball Round Toothpicks (16-258-5598 Teacher Notes: After a short review of crystal packing, have the students take 4 Styrofoam balls the students take 8 Styrofoam balls and attach them using toothpick so that they form 2 -4 ball diamond shape

  11. Communications Counterion Effects in Liquid Crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    such as SnS2.12 Typically, such mesoporous solids have periodic nanometer scale pores, and the mechanism of nanostructured CdS templated directly with ion-doped liquid crystals.13,14 In both cases the mesoporous solid of oligoethylene oxide (10) oleyl ether doped with cadmium acetate or cadmium chloride was utilized. In the other

  12. The diverse world of liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    The diverse world of liquid crystals Peter Palffy-Muhoray Orientationally ordered soft matter are still making new discoveries and gaining deeper understanding of orientational order and its-range ori- entational, but not positional, order. A more apt name would be orientationally ordered soft

  13. Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang

    2013-08-13

    Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.

  14. Ytterbium- and neodymium-doped vanadate laser hose crystals having the apatite crystal structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, S.A.; Kway, W.L.; DeLoach, L.D.; Krupke, W.F.; Chai, B.H.T.

    1994-08-23

    Yb[sup 3+] and Nd[sup 3+] doped Sr[sub 5](VO[sub 4])[sub 3]F crystals serve as useful infrared laser media that exhibit low thresholds of oscillation and high slope efficiencies, and can be grown with high optical quality. These laser media possess unusually high absorption and emission cross sections, which provide the crystals with the ability to generate greater gain for a given amount of pump power. Many related crystals such as Sr[sub 5](VO[sub 4])[sub 3]F crystals doped with other rare earths, transition metals, or actinides, as well as the many structural analogs of Sr[sub 5](VO[sub 4])[sub 3]F, where the Sr[sup 2+] and F[sup [minus

  15. Ytterbium- and neodymium-doped vanadate laser hose crystals having the apatite crystal structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kway, Wayne L. (Fremont, CA); DeLoach, Laura D. (Manteca, CA); Krupke, William F. (Pleasanton, CA); Chai, Bruce H. T. (Oviedo, FL)

    1994-01-01

    Yb.sup.3+ and Nd.sup.3+ doped Sr.sub.5 (VO.sub.4).sub.3 F crystals serve as useful infrared laser media that exhibit low thresholds of oscillation and high slope efficiencies, and can be grown with high optical quality. These laser media possess unusually high absorption and emission cross sections, which provide the crystals with the ability to generate greater gain for a given amount of pump power. Many related crystals such as Sr.sub.5 (VO.sub.4).sub.3 F crystals doped with other rare earths, transition metals, or actinides, as well as the many structural analogs of Sr.sub.5 (VO.sub.4).sub.3 F, where the Sr.sup.2+ and F.sup.- ions are replaced by related chemical species, have similar properties.

  16. Statistical Analysis of Crystallization Database Links Protein Physico-Chemical Features with Crystallization Mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusco, Diana

    X-ray crystallography is the predominant method for obtaining atomic-scale information about biological macromolecules. Despite the success of the technique, obtaining well diffracting crystals still critically limits going ...

  17. Swimming in A Crystal: Using Colloidal Crystals to Characterise Micro-swimmers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Aidan T; Dawson, Angela; Vissers, Teun; Schwarz-Linek, Jana; Lintuvuori, Juho S; Poon, Wilson C K

    2014-01-01

    We study the behaviour of hydrogen-peroxide-fuelled self-propelled Janus colloids in a 2D colloidal crystal matrix. The Janus swimmers orbit individual colloids, and hop between colloids stochastically. Analysing the hydrodynamics-induced periodic variations in their orbital speed shows that these swimmers are pushers - pushing fluid away fore and aft along their swimming axis - though we find little evidence implicating hydrodynamics in the orbital trapping itself. The hopping rate decreases with increasing fuel concentration, decreasing the swimmers' long-time diffusivity in the crystal. We find that another pusher, motile E. coli bacteria, behaves very differently in the same colloidal crystal: their well-known circular orbits on plain glass are rectified into long, straight runs in the crystal matrix, increasing their long-time diffusivity.

  18. Dislocation dynamics: from microscopic models to macroscopic crystal plasticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Hajj, Ahmad

    Dislocation dynamics: from microscopic models to macroscopic crystal plasticity A. El Hajj , H study ranges from atomic models to macroscopic crystal plasticity. At each scale, dislocations can crystal Z3 where each position with integer coordinates is occupied by one atom. We want to describe

  19. Discrete micromechanics of elastoplastic crystals in the finite deformation range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borja, Ronaldo I.

    Available online 19 March 2014 Abstract We present a rate-independent crystal plasticity theory follows a well-established `ultimate algorithm' for rate-independent crystal plasticity developed for infinites- imal deformation. Ó 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Crystal plasticity; Finite

  20. Giant Plasticity of a Quantum Crystal Ariel Haziot,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balibar, Sébastien

    Giant Plasticity of a Quantum Crystal Ariel Haziot,1 Xavier Rojas,1 Andrew D. Fefferman,1 John R crystals may irreversibly deform. This phenomenon is known as plasticity and it is due to the motion and in the zero temperature limit, helium 4 crystals present a giant plasticity that is anisotropic and reversible

  1. Liquid crystals and Q-tensors The free energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segatti, Antonio

    Liquid crystals and Q-tensors The free energy A temperature-dependent model Mathematical results #12;Liquid crystals and Q-tensors The free energy A temperature-dependent model Mathematical results, Non-isothermal nematic liquid crystals flows with the Ball-Majumdar free energy, Ann. Mat. Pura Appl

  2. Optical coupling between monocrystalline colloidal crystals and a planar waveguide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avrutsky, Ivan

    Optical coupling between monocrystalline colloidal crystals and a planar waveguide Y. Zhao,a) I demonstrated an optical material structure consisting of monocrystalline colloidal crystals and a planar struc- ture consisting of a planar waveguide and polycrystalline colloidal crystals.8 In this letter, we

  3. Characterization of internal order of colloidal crystals by optical diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    Characterization of internal order of colloidal crystals by optical diffraction M A T H I E U A L L of the internal order of colloidal crystals and to identify optimum growth conditions. This work leads shear, photonic crystal 1. Introduction A great deal of attention has recently been devoted to colloidal

  4. Introduction Liquid crystals [1] and colloids [2] are interesting model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Andrew B.

    Introduction Liquid crystals [1] and colloids [2] are interesting model systems for fundamental, 8] and by computer simulations [9]. When combining liquid crystals with colloids, typically-molecular weight liquid crystals with colloids or droplets [10, 12­ 18]. Inverted nematic emulsions may form

  5. Noncentral Forces in Crystals of Charged Colloids D. Reinke,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Andrew B.

    Noncentral Forces in Crystals of Charged Colloids D. Reinke,1 H. Stark,2 H.-H. von Gru¨nberg,3 properties of fcc crystals consisting of charge stabilized colloidal particles are determined from real space, the question arises whether the elastic proper- ties of colloidal crystals are comparable to metals and whether

  6. Ionic colloidal crystals of oppositely charged Mirjam E. Leunissen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leunissen, Mirjam

    Ionic colloidal crystals of oppositely charged particles Mirjam E. Leunissen1 *, Christina G charged particles can be tuned such that large ionic colloidal crystals form readily, with our theory, the stoichio- metry of our colloidal crystals is not dictated by charge neutrality; this allows us to obtain

  7. D-D Nuclear Fusion Using Different Size Pyroelectric Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    D-D Nuclear Fusion Using Different Size Pyroelectric Crystals A. M. Kovanen, D. J. Gillich, T. Z the conditions for D-D fusion in pyroelectric crystal accelerators. Three different pyroelectric crystal sizes are with the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY. A. M

  8. Growth and characterization of diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate single crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siva Sankari, R.; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate (DACS) is one of the most promising inorganic dielectric crystals with exceptional mechanical properties. Good quality crystals of DACS were grown by using solution method in a period of 30 days. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis in order to establish their crystalline nature. Thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis were performed for the crystal. Several solid state physical parameters have been determined for the grown crystals. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss and AC conductivity of the grown crystal were studied as a function of frequency and temperature has been calculated and plotted. - Highlights: • Diammonium copper disulphate is grown for the first time and CCDC number obtained. • Thermal analysis is done to see the stability range of the crystals. • Band gap and UV cut off wavelength of the crystal are determined to be 2.4 eV and 472.86 nm, respectively. • Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity are plotted as a function of applied field. - Abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate is one of the most promising inorganic crystals with exceptional dielectric properties. A good quality crystal was harvested in a 30-day period using solution growth method. The grown crystal was subjected to various characterization techniques like single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis. Unit cell dimensions of the grown crystal have been identified from XRD studies. Functional groups of the title compounds have been identified from FTIR studies. Thermal stability of the samples was checked by TG/DTA studies. Band gap of the crystal was calculated. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied as a function of frequency of the applied field. AC conductivity was plotted as a function of temperature.

  9. Simulation of beam steering phenomena in bent crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valery M. Biryukov

    2001-11-06

    The simulation methods for the channeling phenomena in GeV/TeV energy range in ideal or distorted crystal lattices are discussed. Monte Carlo predictions for feed-out and feed-in rates, dislocation dechanneling, and deflection efficiencies of bent crystals are compared to the experimental data. The role of multiple interactions with crystal in circular accelerators ("multipass channeling") for the efficiency boost in the crystal-aided extraction experiments is analysed. Possible future applications of the crystal channeling technique are considered.

  10. Inorganic arrangement crystal beryllium, lithium, selenium and silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobato, Ricardo; Fedrigo, Desire Francine Gobato

    2015-01-01

    The use of inorganic crystals technology has been widely date. Since quartz crystals for watches in the nineteenth century, and common way radio in the early twentieth century, to computer chips with new semiconductor materials. Chemical elements such as beryllium, lithium, selenium and silicon, are widely used in technology. The development of new crystals arising from that arrangement can bring technological advances in several areas of knowledge. The likely difficulty of finding such crystals in nature or synthesized, suggest an advanced study of the subject. A study using computer programs with ab initio method was applied. As a result of the likely molecular structure of the arrangement of a crystal was obtained.

  11. Strongly Driven Crystallization Processes in a Metallic Glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaGrange, T; Grummon, D S; Reed, B W; Browning, N D; King, W E; Campbell, G H

    2009-02-09

    The crystallization of amorphous NiTi thin films was studied in situ using pulsed laser heating in a dynamic transmission electron microscope. A single pulse can crystallize small areas of the film within 2 {micro}s. The crystallized volume fraction and morphology depend strongly on the laser energy, the laser spatial profile, and the heat transport in the film. As compared to slower furnace and continuous wave laser annealing, pulsed laser heating produces a dramatically different microstructure. Higher than expected crystallization rates were observed under pulsed irradiation that do not correlate with kinetic data obtained from the slow-heating crystallization experiments.

  12. Large effect of polydispersity on defect concentrations in colloidal crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sander Pronk; Daan Frenkel

    2004-02-03

    We compute the equilibrium concentration of stacking faults and point defects in polydisperse hard-sphere crystals. We find that, while the concentration of stacking faults remains similar to that of monodisperse hard sphere crystals, the concentration of vacancies decreases by about a factor two. Most strikingly, the concentration of interstitials in the maximally polydisperse crystal may be some six orders of magnitude larger than in a monodisperse crystal. We show that this dramatic increase in interstitial concentration is due to the increased probability of finding small particles and that the small-particle tail of the particle size distribution is crucial for the interstitial concentration in a colloidal crystal.

  13. Influence of Substrate on Crystallization in Polythiophene/fullerene Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C He; D Germack; J Kline; D Delongchamp; D Fischer; C Snyder; M Toney; J Kushmerick; L Richter

    2011-12-31

    The nanoscale morphology of the active layer in organic, bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells is crucial to device performance. Often a combination of casting conditions and post deposition thermal treatment is used to optimize the morphology. In general, the development of microscopic crystals is deleterious, as the exciton diffusion length is {approx}10 nm. We find that the microscopic crystallization behavior in polythiophene/fullerene blends is strongly influenced by the substrate on which the BHJ is cast. With a silicon oxide substrate, the crystal nucleation density is high and significant crystallization occurs at a temperature of 140 C. On more hydrophobic substrates, significantly higher temperatures are required for observable crystallization. This difference is attributed to the interfacial segregation of the PCBM, controlled by the substrate surface energy. The substrate dependence of crystallization has significant implications on the fullerene crystal growth mechanisms and practical implications for device studies.

  14. Advanced Bent Crystal Collimation Studies at the Tevatron (T-980)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zvoda, V; Carrigan, R; Drozhdin, A; Johnson, T; Kwan, S; Mokhov, N; Prosser, A; Reilly, R; Uplegger, R Rivera L; Shiltsev, V; Still, D; Zagel, J; Guidi, V; Bagli, E; Mazzolari, A; Ivanov, Yu; Chesnokov, Yu; Yazynin, I

    2011-01-01

    The T-980 bent crystal collimation experiment at the Tevatron has recently acquired substantial enhancements. First, two new crystals - a 16-strip one manufactured and characterized by the INFN Ferrara group and a quasi-mosaic crystal manufactured and characterized by the PNPI group. Second, a two plane telescope with 3 high-resolution pixel detectors per plane along with corresponding mechanics, electronics, control and software has been manufactured, tested and installed in the E0 crystal region. The purpose of the pixel telescope is to measure and image channeled (CH), volume-reflected (VR) and multiple volume-reflected (MVR) beam profiles produced by bent crystals. Third, an ORIGIN-based system has been developed for thorough analysis of experimental and simulation data. Results of analysis are presented for different types of crystals used from 2005 to present for channeling and volume reflection including pioneering tests of two-plane crystal collimation at the collider, all in comparison with detailed ...

  15. Low Radioactivity Crystals for Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dafinei, Ioan [Sezione INFN di Roma, P-le Aldo Moro 2, Roma I-00185 (Italy)

    2011-04-27

    The production of crystals needed for rare events physics represent a relatively new, exciting challenge in the field of materials science and engineering. Extremely low concentration of radioactive impurities and very high crystal perfection is required for the crystals to be used in experiments in which the main concerns are the reduction of the background and the use of high sensitivity detectors. A further complication is the fact that for an experiment with a significant discovery potential, relatively large quantities of crystals are needed. The present work makes a review of the general problems related to the production of crystals for rare events physics and gives details related to the production of the TeO{sub 2} crystals needed for the major experiment in this field using bolometric technique, namely the CUORE experiment. The potential use of crystals for future double beta decay experiments is also discussed.

  16. Multiscale modeling and control of crystal shape and size distributions: accounting for crystal aggregation, evaluation of continuous crystallization systems and run-to-run control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, Joseph Sangil

    2015-01-01

    of continuous crystallization process . . . . . . . 99demonstrated that a continuous process with a fines trap canresidence time of a continuous process is typically one or

  17. Partial rotational lattice order–disorder in stefin B crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renko, Miha [Josef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Taler-Ver?i?, Ajda [Josef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Miheli?, Marko [Josef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Žerovnik, Eva [Josef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Turk, Dušan, E-mail: dusan.turk@ijs.si [Josef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Centre of Excellence for Integrated Approaches in Chemistry and Biology of Proteins, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-04-01

    Crystal lattice disorders are a phenomenon which may hamper the determination of macromolecular crystal structures. Using the case of the crystal structure of stefin B, identification of rotational order–disorder and structure determination are described. At present, the determination of crystal structures from data that have been acquired from twinned crystals is routine; however, with the increasing number of crystal structures additional crystal lattice disorders are being discovered. Here, a previously undescribed partial rotational order–disorder that has been observed in crystals of stefin B is described. The diffraction images revealed normal diffraction patterns that result from a regular crystal lattice. The data could be processed in space groups I4 and I422, yet one crystal exhibited a notable rejection rate in the higher symmetry space group. An explanation for this behaviour was found once the crystal structures had been solved and refined and the electron-density maps had been inspected. The lattice of stefin B crystals is composed of five tetramer layers: four well ordered layers which are followed by an additional layer of alternatively placed tetramers. The presence of alternative positions was revealed by the inspection of electron-density score maps. The well ordered layers correspond to the crystal symmetry of space group I422. In addition, the positions of the molecules in the additional layer are related by twofold rotational axes which correspond to space group I422; however, these molecules lie on the twofold axis and can only be related in a statistical manner. When the occupancies of alternate positions and overlapping are equal, the crystal lattice indeed fulfills the criteria of space group I422; when these occupancies are not equal, the lattice only fulfills the criteria of space group I4.

  18. On the flight of an American Football

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curtis Horn; Heidi Fearn

    2007-06-04

    In this paper we examine the detailed theory of the American football in flight, with spin and air resistance included. We find the theory has much in common with the theory of a gyroscope and also rocket trajectory with a misaligned thruster. Unfortunately most of the air resistance data, for rocketry and ballistics, is for speeds of Mach 1 or higher, where the air resistance increases dramatically. We shall approximate a realistic air resistance, at the slower speeds of football flight, with a drag force proportional to cross sectional area and either $v$ or $v^2$, depending on speed, where $v$ is velocity of the football. We begin with a discussion of the motion, giving as much detail as possible without the use of complex analytic calculations. We point out the previous errors made with moments of inertia and make the necessary corrections for more accurate results. We show that the shape of an American football closely resembles a parabola of revolution.

  19. On the flight of an American Football

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horn, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the detailed theory of the American football in flight, with spin and air resistance included. We find the theory has much in common with the theory of a gyroscope and also rocket trajectory with a misaligned thruster. Unfortunately most of the air resistance data, for rocketry and ballistics, is for speeds of Mach 1 or higher, where the air resistance increases dramatically. We shall approximate a realistic air resistance, at the slower speeds of football flight, with a drag force proportional to cross sectional area and either $v$ or $v^2$, depending on speed, where $v$ is velocity of the football. We begin with a discussion of the motion, giving as much detail as possible without the use of complex analytic calculations. We point out the previous errors made with moments of inertia and make the necessary corrections for more accurate results. We show that the shape of an American football closely resembles a parabola of revolution.

  20. Symmetric Satellite Swarms and Choreographic Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latham Boyle; Jun Yong Khoo; Kendrick Smith

    2014-07-22

    In this paper, we introduce a natural dynamical analogue of crystalline order, which we call choreographic order. In an ordinary (static) crystal, a high degree of symmetry may be achieved through a careful arrangement of the fundamental repeated elements. In the dynamical analogue, a high degree of symmetry may be achieved by having the fundamental elements perform a carefully choreographed dance. For starters, we show how to construct and classify all symmetric satellite constellations. Then we explain how to generalize these ideas to construct and classify choreographic crystals more broadly. We introduce a quantity, called the "choreography" of a given configuration. We discuss the possibility that some (naturally occurring or artificial) many-body or condensed-matter systems may exhibit choreographic order, and suggest natural experimental signatures that could be used to identify and characterize such systems.

  1. Transmission Character of General Function Photonic Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang-Yao Wu; Bo-Jun Zhang; Jing-Hai Yang; Si-Qi Zhang; Xiao-Jing Liu; Jing Wang; Nuo Ba; Zhong Hua; Xin-Guo Yin

    2012-12-01

    In the paper, we present a new general function photonic crystals (GFPCs), which refractive index of medium is a arbitrary function of space position. Unlike conventional photonic crystals (PCs), which structure grow from two mediums $A$ and $B$, with different constant refractive indexes $n_{a}$ and $n_{b}$. Based on Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional GFPCs, and calculate its transfer matrix, which is different from the conventional PCs. We choose the linearity refractive index function for two mediums $A$ and $B$, and find the transmissivity of one-dimensional GFPCs can be much larger or smaller than 1 for different slope linearity refractive index function, which is different from the transmissivity of conventional PCs (its transmissivity is in the range of 0 and 1). Otherwise, we study the effect of different incident angles, the number of periods and optical thickness on the transmissivity, and obtain some new results different from the conventional PCs.

  2. The Other Pastorelas of Spanish American Drama.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quackenbush, L. Howard

    1973-04-01

    SPRING 1973 55 The Other Pastorelas of Spanish American Drama L. H. QUACKENBUSH The pastorela as a theatrical form encompasses a multitude of structures and has entertained audiences from colonial times to the present. As late as 1940, Marcus... reached cyclical proportions in the southwestern United States and Mexico.3 Numerous scholarly publications treat the development of these popular pieces, and they continue to receive a good deal of attention.4 This religious drama may be analyzed...

  3. Annabella: a North American coasting vessel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claesson, Stefan Hans

    1998-01-01

    schooner in 1841. 53 26 Map of southern New Jersey. 60 27 28 Section lines of the preserved remains of Annabella. . . . . Lines of a Milford, Delaware vessel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 FIGURE Page 29 A billet head of a 19th... enrolment records. . 54 Measurements of Milford, Delaware-built sloops in comparison to Annabella, 69 Timber dimensions required for construction of 100 ton vessel by American Shipmaster's Association in 1882 compared to timber dimensions of Annabella...

  4. Midwest Area Chinese American Resources Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chinese American Librarians Association - Midwest Chapter; Wu, Pei-ling; McElroy, Anna; Chang, Ling-li; Sanders, R. Bruce; Lin, Shao-Chen

    1995-01-01

    Copyright 1995 by the Chinese American Librarians Association - Midwest Chapter. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced. stored, or transmitted by any means without written permission from the publisher. Please send all written..., appointed by the president, include program planning, electronic publishing, nomination, public relations, and special task forces . State contacts are recruited by the vice president. Election usually takes place at the annual meeting held in April or May...

  5. UCN transport simulation in solid deuterium crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. N. Pokotilovski

    2012-03-04

    The extraction efficiency of ultracold neutrons from cryogenic moderators depends critically on the neutron transparency of the moderator material. The Monte Carlo simulation of the probability of the UCN going out from non-ideal (disordered) solid deuterium crystals has been performed. It was based on the use of the correlation function describing the density fluctuations in a disordered material, the latter being inferred from the measured very low neutron energy total cross sections for this material.

  6. Crystal growth furnace with trap doors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sachs, Emanual M. (Watertown, MA); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Lexington, MA)

    1982-06-15

    An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

  7. Method for fabricating apatite crystals and ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soules, Thomas F.; Schaffers, Kathleen I.; Tassano, Jr., John B.; Hollingsworth, Joel P.

    2013-09-10

    The present invention provides a method of crystallizing Yb:C-FAP [Yb.sup.3+:Ca.sub.5(PO.sub.4).sub.3F], by dissolving the Yb:C-FAP in an acidic solution, following by neutralizing the solution. The present invention also provides a method of forming crystalline Yb:C-FAP by dissolving the component ingredients in an acidic solution, followed by forming a supersaturated solution.

  8. Microscale locomotion in a nematic liquid crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madison S. Krieger; Saverio E. Spagnolie; Thomas R. Powers

    2015-09-18

    Microorganisms often encounter anisotropy, for example in mucus and biofilms. We study how anisotropy and elasticity of the ambient fluid affects the speed of a swimming microorganism with a prescribed stroke. Motivated by recent experiments on swimming bacteria in anisotropic environments, we extend a classical model for swimming microorganisms, the Taylor swimming sheet, actuated either by transverse or longitudinal traveling waves in a three-dimensional nematic liquid crystal without twist. We calculate the swimming speed and entrained volumetric flux as a function of the swimmer's stroke properties as well as the elastic and rheological properties of the liquid crystal. The behavior is quantitatively and qualitatively well-approximated by a hexatic liquid crystal except in the cases of small Ericksen number and in a nematic fluid with tumbling parameter near the transition to a flow-aligning nematic, where anisotropic effects dominate. We also propose a novel method of swimming or pumping in a nematic fluid by passing a traveling wave of director oscillation along a rigid wall.

  9. Microscale locomotion in a nematic liquid crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madison S. Krieger; Saverio E. Spagnolie; Thomas R. Powers

    2015-07-02

    Microorganisms often encounter anisotropy, for example in mucus and biofilms. We study how anisotropy and elasticity of the ambient fluid affects the speed of a swimming microorganism with a prescribed stroke. Motivated by recent experiments on swimming bacteria in anisotropic environments, we extend a classical model for swimming microorganisms, the Taylor swimming sheet, actuated either by transverse or longitudinal traveling waves in a three-dimensional nematic liquid crystal without twist. We calculate the swimming speed and entrained volumetric flux as a function of the swimmer's stroke properties as well as the elastic and rheological properties of the liquid crystal. The behavior is quantitatively and qualitatively well-approximated by a hexatic liquid crystal except in the cases of small Ericksen number and in a nematic fluid with tumbling parameter near the transition to a flow-aligning nematic, where anisotropic effects dominate. We also propose a novel method of swimming or pumping in a nematic fluid by passing a traveling wave of director oscillation along a rigid wall.

  10. Photonic Crystals for Enhancing Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LIN, SHAWN-YU; FLEMING, JAMES G.; MORENO, JOSEPH A.

    2003-03-01

    Thermophotovoltaics (TPV) converts the radiant energy of a thermal source into electrical energy using photovoltaic cells. TPV has a number of attractive features, including: fuel versatility (nuclear, fossil, solar, etc.), quiet operation, low maintenance, low emissions, light weight, high power density, modularity, and possibility for cogeneration of heat and electricity. Some of these features are highly attractive for military applications (Navy and Army). TPV could also be used for distributed power and automotive applications wherever fuel cells, microturbines, or cogeneration are presently being considered if the efficiencies could be raised to around 30%. This proposal primarily examine approaches to improving the radiative efficiency. The ideal irradiance for the PV cell is monochromatic illumination at the bandgap. The photonic crystal approach allows for the tailoring of thermal emission spectral bandwidth at specific wavelengths of interest. The experimental realization of metallic photonic crystal structures, the optical transmission, reflection and absorption characterization of it have all been carried out in detail and will be presented next. Additionally, comprehensive models of TPV conversion has been developed and applied to the metallic photonic crystal system.

  11. New organic crystals for pulse shape discrimination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, G; Zaitseva, N; Cherepy, N; Newby, J; Stoeffl, W; Payne, S

    2008-07-16

    Efficient, readily-available, low-cost, high-energy neutron detectors can play a central role in detecting illicit nuclear weapons since neutrons are a strong indication for the presence of fissile material such as Plutonium and Highly-Enriched Uranium. The main challenge in detecting fast neutrons consists in the discrimination of the signal from the gamma radiation background. At present, the only well-investigated organic crystal scintillator for fast neutron detection, in a n/{gamma} mixed field, is stilbene, which while offering good pulse shape discrimination, is not widely used because of its limited availability and high cost. In this work we report the results of our studies made with a number of new organic crystals, which exhibit pulse shape discrimination for detection of fast neutrons. In particular 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene features a light yield higher than anthracene and a Figure of Merit (FOM) for the pulse shape discrimination better than stilbene. New crystals are good candidates for the low-cost solution growth method, thus representing promising organic scintillators for widespread deployment for high-energy neutron detection.

  12. Robustness Test of a Silicon Strip Crystal for Crystal-Assisted Collimation Studies in the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lechner, A; Di Castro, M; Lendaro, J; Loprete, F; Losito, R; Maglioni, C; Masi, A; Montesano, S; Perillo-Marcone, A; Roguet, P S; Wollmann, D; Sancho, J B; Burkart, F; Scandale, W; Gavrikov, Y; Guidi, V; Mazzolari, A

    2013-01-01

    Over the past years, the UA9 experiment has successfully demonstrated the viability of enhancing the collimation efficiency of proton and ion beams in the SPS by means of bent crystals. An extension of UA9 to the LHC has been recently approved. The conditions imposed by the LHC operational environment, in particular the tremendous energy density of the beam, require a reliable understanding of the crystal integrity in view of potential accident scenarios such as an asynchronous beam dump. For this purpose, single pulse irradiation tests have been performed at the CERN-HiRadMat facility to examine the mechanical strength of a silicon strip crystal in case of direct beam impact. The tests were carried out using a 440 GeV proton beam of ?=0.5 mm transverse size. Individual pulse intensities reached up to 3×1013 protons, where a significant fraction is assumed to have impacted on the crystal. First visual inspections revealed no macroscopic damage to the crystal. Complementary post-irradiation tests are foresee...

  13. Food Name Portion Size Calories Total Fat (g) Saturated Fat (g) Cholesterol (g) Sodium (mg) Carbohydrates (g) Dietary Fiber (g) Sugar (g) Protein (g) Vitamin A Vitamin C Calcium Iron Breakfast Plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oklahoma, University of

    ) Sodium (mg) Carbohydrates (g) Dietary Fiber (g) Sugar (g) Protein (g) Vitamin A Vitamin C) Protein (g) Vitamin A Vitamin C Calcium Iron Egg and Cheese 241.62 23.55619 7.53121 0.21 328

  14. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 22, Number 1: Front Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1988-10-01

    direct all business correspondence to: Latin American Theatre Review, The Center of Latin American Studies, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045. LATIN AMERICAN . THEATRE 22/1 REVIEW FALL 1988 Contents L05 hijos del terremoto: Imágenes... Plays in Performance 129 Book Reviews 137 Publications Received 145 FALL 1988 3 Abstracts "Los hijos del terremoto: imágenes de un recuerdo" The temptation to search for influences or a logical content which can be paraphrased forgets that each...

  15. THE ETA AS OUTCASTES AND SCAPEGOATS AMONG JAPANESE AMERICANS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wax, Rosalie H.

    1965-10-01

    THE ETA AS OUTCASTES AND SCAPEGOATS AMONG JAPANESE AMERICANS Rosalie H. Wax University of Kansas Introduction For manyhundreds of years the lowestposition in Japanese social structure has been occupied by the eta, a hereditary outcaste group which... performed necessary but despised work. The presence, in the United States, of a con siderable number of persons of eta descent was revealed rather dramatically when the American Government obliged the evacuated Japanese Americans to answer a questionnaire...

  16. A German-American Icon: O, du schöne Schnitzelbank!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keel, William

    2003-09-01

    is open to membership from individuals, societies, libraries, and organizations. © 2004 by The Society for German-American Studies ISSN 0741-2827 Printed at the University of Kansas Printing Service, Lawrence, KS 66045 ( YEARBOOK OF GERMAN... Rapids, Michigan, and Jasper, Indiana. The classical German-American Schnitzelbank chart and song would seem to be something truly "made in America." Judging by the frequency with which the Schnitzelbank or some variation of it appears in American...

  17. Invited Review Article: Development of crystal lenses for energetic photons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, Robert K. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    This paper follows the development of crystal diffraction lenses designed to focus energetic photons. It begins with the search for a solution to the astrophysics problem of how to detect weak astrophysics sources of gamma rays and x-rays. This led to the basic designs for a lens and to the understanding of basic limitations of lens design. The discussion of the development of crystal diffraction lenses is divided into two parts: lenses using crystals with mosaic structure, and lenses that use crystals with curved crystal planes. This second group divides into two sub-groups: (1) Curved crystals that are used to increase the acceptance angle of the diffraction of a monochromatic beam and to increase the energy bandwidth of the diffraction. (2) Curved crystals used to focus gamma ray beams. The paper describes how these two types of crystals affect the design of the corresponding crystal lenses in different fields: astrophysics, medical imaging, detection of weak, distant, gamma-ray sources, etc. The designs of crystal lenses for these applications are given in enough detail to allow the reader to design a lens for his own application.

  18. Sandia Energy - Sandians Participate in 46th Annual American...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual American Geophysical Union (AGU) Conference Home Infrastructure Security Carbon Capture & Storage Climate Energy Partnership News Global Climate & Energy News & Events...

  19. Engaging African Americans in STEM Education | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    engaging young African American students in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) education. Director Dot Harris, who leads the Department's Office of Economic Impact...

  20. Bootstrapping a Sustainable North American PEM Fuel Cell Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Industry: Could a Federal Acquisition Program Make a Difference? The North American Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell industry may be at a critical juncture. A...

  1. Celebrating our work with Native American Students in STEM During...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    We especially want to increase access to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs for American Indians and Alaska Natives, offering hands-on...

  2. North American Standard Level VI Inspection Program Update: Ensuring...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ensuring Safe Transportation of Radioactive Material Presentation made by Carlisle Smith for the NTSF annual meeting held from May 14-16, 2013 in Buffalo, NY North American...

  3. Grant Guidance to Administer the American Recovery and Reinvestment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PROGRAM NOTICE 10-10: REPROGRAMMING TRAINING AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FUNDS TO PROGRAM OPERATIONS Weatherization Formula Grants - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA)...

  4. North American Energy Ministers Take Further Action on Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    23, 2007 - 2:55pm Addthis Joint Communiqu VICTORIA - Energy ministers for Canada, Mexico and the United States took another step toward enhancing North American energy...

  5. Idaho Operations Office: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Update

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Provencher, Rick

    2012-06-14

    An update from Idaho National Laboratory, Rick Provencher addresses the progress that has been made due to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.

  6. Frequency Control Concerns in the North American Electric Power...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Control Concerns in the North American Electric Power System Kirby, B.J. 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; EFFICIENCY; FREQUENCY CONTROL; MARKET; PERFORMANCE; POWER...

  7. DOE Announces Cooperative Agreement with USEC for American Centrifuge...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inc. to provide support for the continued development and demonstration of the American Centrifuge technology. The Department sees promise in this advanced technology, and last...

  8. President Obama Proclaims November National Native American Heritage...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Native American Heritage Month Proclamation Senior Advisor for Environmental Management David Huizenga, center, speaks with Pilar Thomas, deputy director of the Office of Indian...

  9. Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Ryu, Shinsei Not Available American Physical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Stability of edge states in strained graphene Ghaemi, Pouyan; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Ryu, Shinsei Not Available American Physical Society None USDOE United States 2013-04-01...

  10. Advertising Stigmatas: The Evolution of Advertising in American Poetic Culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spies, Elizabeth Jean

    2010-01-01

    1998. Wicke, Jennifer. Advertising Fictions: Literature,2005. Marchand, Roland. Advertising and the American Dream:DoubleDay Mitchell, Andrew. Advertising, Exposure, Memory,

  11. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    More Documents & Publications This taskcontract modification is for applying funding from the American Recovery Reinvestment Act FY 2008 & FY 2009 Annual Uncosted Balances Report...

  12. American Wind Energy Association Wind Energy Finance and Investment Seminar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The American Wind Energy Association Wind Energy Finance and Investment Seminar will be attended by representatives in the financial sector, businesses, bankers, government and other nonprofit...

  13. Factors Associated with Hepatitis B Testing Among Vietnamese Americans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Asian American adults for hepatitis B: a cross-sectionalFactors Associated with Hepatitis B Testing Among VietnameseBACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis B- associated

  14. FCTO Announces Plenary Talk at American Society of Mechanical...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Technologies Office at the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Energy Sustainability and Fuel Cell Technology Conference in Boston, Massachusetts, between June 30 and...

  15. Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dry by Global Warming" Scientific American: "Tall Trees Sucked Dry by Global Warming" Climate change will challenge tall trees like California's redwoods. June 7, 2015...

  16. Beat and Spoken Word Movements: Beating the American Bandwagon Mentality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Beat and Spoken Word Movements: Beating the Americanmodern times, spoken word poets use the Iraq-Afghanistan Warhow the Beat and spoken word poets comment on American

  17. Suspended Subjects: The Politics of Anger in Asian American Literature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Nan

    2009-01-01

    Masking Selves, Making Subjects: Japanese American Women,grief that minoritized subjects experience in their egoformation. For the racialized subject, David Eng argues in “

  18. Competition and Reliability in North American Energy Markets...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in North American Energy Markets: Issue Paper Synopses More Documents & Publications Blackout 2003: Summary of Comments from Forum and Email The Relationship between Competitive...

  19. The Challenges of Dynamic Water Management in the American West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doremus, Holly; Hanemann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The Challenges of Dynamic Water Management in the AmericanWESTERN WATER PROJECTS ARE HIGHLY VULNERABLE TO GLOBALTO REDISTRIBUTING WATER . INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS

  20. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009: Bioenergy Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office rewarded about 178 million in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 funds; the projects accelerate advanced biofuels RD&D, speed the...

  1. Math and Science Academy helps Native American schools empower...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Math and Science Academy helps Native American schools empower teachers Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue:...

  2. A Partial Mechanistic Understanding of the North American Monsoon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    North American monsoon (NAM) supplies about 60% to 80%, 45%, and 35% of the annual precipitation for northwestern Mexico, New Mexico, and Arizona, respectively. An understanding...

  3. Sandia Energy - Sandians Published in American Chemical Society...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Published in American Chemical Society's Environmental Science & Technology Home Climate Energy Water Security News Global Climate & Energy News & Events Systems Analysis Analysis...

  4. North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) Search Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the standard used by Federal statistical agencies in classifying business establishments for the purpose of collecting, analyzing, and...

  5. Crystal Structures of SlyA Protein, a Master Virulence Regulator of Salmonella, in Free and DNA-bound States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, Kyle T.; Duguid, Erica M.; He, Chuan

    2011-11-17

    SlyA is a master virulence regulator that controls the transcription of numerous genes in Salmonella enterica. We present here crystal structures of SlyA by itself and bound to a high-affinity DNA operator sequence in the slyA gene. SlyA interacts with DNA through direct recognition of a guanine base by Arg-65, as well as interactions between conserved Arg-86 and the minor groove and a large network of non-base-specific contacts with the sugar phosphate backbone. Our structures, together with an unpublished structure of SlyA bound to the small molecule effector salicylate (Protein Data Bank code 3DEU), reveal that, unlike many other MarR family proteins, SlyA dissociates from DNA without large conformational changes when bound to this effector. We propose that SlyA and other MarR global regulators rely more on indirect readout of DNA sequence to exert control over many genes, in contrast to proteins (such as OhrR) that recognize a single operator.

  6. Plasmas as cover art for The American Journal of Physics | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plasmas as cover art for The American Journal of Physics November 5, 2013 American Journal of Physics, Volume 81, No. 9, September 2013 (Photo by American Journal of Physics,...

  7. Industrial experience at the Arabian American Oil Company in Saudi Arabia: an internship report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akkad, Ruwaid Ahmed, 1943-

    2013-03-13

    During the ten years following the Spanish American War (1898 to 1908), Major General Leonard Wood served as the primary agent of American imperialism. Wood was not only a proconsul of the new American Empire; he was a ...

  8. Photochemical switching behavior of azofunctionalized polymer liquid crystal/SiO{sub 2} composite photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritsugu, M.; Kim, S. N.; Ogata, T.; Nonaka, T.; Kurihara, S.; Kubo, S.; Segawa, H.; Sato, O.

    2006-10-09

    A photochemically tunable photonic crystal was prepared by infiltrating azopolymer liquid crystal in a SiO{sub 2} inverse opal structure. The SiO{sub 2} inverse opal film obtained reflected a light corresponding to the periodicity as well as the refractive indices of the inverse opal structure. Linearly polarized light irradiation shifted the reflection band to longer wavelength more than 15 nm. This is caused by the formation of anisotropic molecular orientation of the azopolymer. The switched state was stable in the dark, and the reversible switching of the reflection band can be achieved by the linearly and circularly polarized light irradiations.

  9. Freedom's Journal and El Clamor Publico: African American and Mexican American Cultural Fronts in Nineteenth-Century Newsprint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nunez, Arturo Romero

    2010-01-01

    Newspaper, by Jacqueline Bacon. Afro-Americans in New YorkNewspaper, by Jacqueline Bacon. Journal of the EarlyPublishing, 2006. Print. Bacon, Jacqueline. “‘Acting as

  10. Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalibjian, Ralph (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-11

    A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device (10) including a photorefractive crystal (26) and a laser (12). The laser (12 ) produces a coherent light beam (14) which is split by a beam splitter (18) into a first laser beam (20) and a second laser beam (22). After passing through the crystal (26) the first laser beam (20) is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror (32), creating a third laser beam (30). The laser beams (20, 22, 30) are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal (26) by vibration of the crystal (30). In the third laser beam (30), modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector (34) into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal (26).

  11. Ytterbium-doped borate fluoride laser crystals and lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schaffers, Kathleen I. (Pleasanton, CA); DeLoach, Laura D. (Manteca, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA); Keszler, Douglas A. (Corvallis, OK)

    1997-01-01

    A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed from Yb-doped borate fluoride host crystals. The general formula for the host crystals is MM'(BO.sub.3)F, where M, M' are monovalent, divalent aria trivalent metal cations. A particular embodiment of the invention is Yb-doped BaCaBO.sub.3 F (Yb:BCBF). BCBF and some of the related derivative crystals are capable of nonlinear frequency conversion, whereby the fundamental of the laser is converted to a longer or shorter wavelength. In this way, these new crystals can simultaneously serve as self-frequency doubling crystals and laser materials within the laser resonator.

  12. Sagittal focusing of synchrotron x radiation with curved crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparks, C.J. Jr.; Ice, G.E.; Wong, J.; Batterman, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    We describe the sagittal focusing of x rays with singly bent crystals that accept the meridian plane divergence from a similar but flat crystal to form a pair in a nondispersive two-crystal Bragg monochromator. Curved crystals can intercept from 5 to 20 times the sagittal divergence of curved mirrors at x-ray energies above 10 keV. Anticlastic (transverse) bending of the crystal is made negligible in the meridian plane with reinforcing ribs cut parallel to the plane of scattering. Results show that at energies of 10, 20, and 30 keV the bent crystal performs efficiently and images the source size at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source.

  13. Ytterbium-doped borate fluoride laser crystals and lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schaffers, K.I.; DeLoach, L.D.; Payne, S.A.; Keszler, D.A.

    1997-10-14

    A new class of solid state laser crystals and lasers are formed from Yb-doped borate fluoride host crystals. The general formula for the host crystals is MM{prime}(BO{sub 3})F, where M, M{prime} are monovalent, divalent aria trivalent metal cations. A particular embodiment of the invention is Yb-doped BaCaBO{sub 3}F (Yb:BCBF). BCBF and some of the related derivative crystals are capable of nonlinear frequency conversion, whereby the fundamental of the laser is converted to a longer or shorter wavelength. In this way, these new crystals can simultaneously serve as self-frequency doubling crystals and laser materials within the laser resonator. 6 figs.

  14. Non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalibjian, R.

    1994-08-09

    A non-linear optical crystal vibration sensing device including a photorefractive crystal and a laser is disclosed. The laser produces a coherent light beam which is split by a beam splitter into a first laser beam and a second laser beam. After passing through the crystal the first laser beam is counter-propagated back upon itself by a retro-mirror, creating a third laser beam. The laser beams are modulated, due to the mixing effect within the crystal by vibration of the crystal. In the third laser beam, modulation is stable and such modulation is converted by a photodetector into a usable electrical output, intensity modulated in accordance with vibration applied to the crystal. 3 figs.

  15. Real World Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    World Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Unit 69dhydrogreenhydrodemonstration12.ppt More Documents & Publications Laboratory Demonstration of a New American...

  16. Involvement in Early Childhood Special Education Among Chinese and Non-Chinese American Parents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SooHoo, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    H. Brookes. Chiang, L. H. , & Hadadian, A. (2007). Chineseand Chinese-American families of children with disabilities.to developmental disabilities in Chinese American families.

  17. American Biogas Council: The Voice of the U.S. Biogas Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Breakout Session 3-C: Renewable Gaseous Fuels American Biogas Council: The Voice of the U.S. Biogas Industry Patrick Serfass, Executive Director, American Biogas Council

  18. Policy Flash 2014-35 Rescission of American Recovery and Reinvestment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Policy Flash 2014-35 Rescission of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Reporting Requirements. Policy Flash 2014-35 Rescission of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  19. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics The Influence of Streamwise Vorticity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 The Influence of Streamwise Vorticity of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. All rights reserved. #12;American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

  20. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Active System Identification of a DC-DC Converter Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Active System Identification of a DC and Computer Engineering, UCB 425. #12;American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2 analysis10