Sample records for american air liquide

  1. Metal-air low temperature ionic liquid cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel A

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present application relates to an electrochemical metal-air cell in which a low temperature ionic liquid is used.

  2. Air Liquide Hydrogen Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapersWindeySanta2004) |Agawam,Ahmeek,Wisconsin: EnergyAir Liquide

  3. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  4. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  5. High air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masquelier, Donald A. (Tracy, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Willeke, Klaus (Cincinnati, OH)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high air volume to low liquid volume aerosol collector. A high volume flow of aerosol particles is drawn into an annular, centripetal slot in a collector which directs the aerosol flow into a small volume of liquid pool contained is a lower center section of the collector. The annular jet of air impinges into the liquid, imbedding initially airborne particles in the liquid. The liquid in the pool continuously circulates in the lower section of the collector by moving to the center line, then upwardly, and through assistance by a rotating deflector plate passes back into the liquid at the outer area adjacent the impinging air jet which passes upwardly through the liquid pool and through a hollow center of the collector, and is discharged via a side outlet opening. Any liquid droplets escaping with the effluent air are captured by a rotating mist eliminator and moved back toward the liquid pool. The collector includes a sensor assembly for determining, controlling, and maintaining the level of the liquid pool, and includes a lower centrally located valve assembly connected to a liquid reservoir and to an analyzer for analyzing the particles which are impinged into the liquid pool.

  6. Nuclear tanker producing liquid fuels from air and water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galle-Bishop, John Michael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emerging technologies in CO? air capture, high temperature electrolysis, microchannel catalytic conversion, and Generation IV reactor plant systems have the potential to create a shipboard liquid fuel production system ...

  7. Maximal air bubble entrainment at liquid drop impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouwhuis, Wilco; Tran, Tuan; Keij, Diederik L; Winkels, Koen G; Peters, Ivo R; van der Meer, Devaraj; Sun, Chao; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At impact of a liquid drop on a solid surface an air bubble can be entrapped. Here we show that two competing effects minimize the (relative) size of this entrained air bubble: For large drop impact velocity and large droplets the inertia of the liquid flattens the entrained bubble, whereas for small impact velocity and small droplets capillary forces minimize the entrained bubble. However, we demonstrate experimentally, theoretically, and numerically that in between there is an optimum, leading to maximal air bubble entrapment. Our results have a strong bearing on various applications in printing technology, microelectronics, immersion lithography, diagnostics, or agriculture.

  8. Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

  9. Liquid metal reactor air cooling baffle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, A.

    1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A baffle is provided between a relatively hot containment vessel and a relatively cold silo for enhancing air cooling performance. The baffle includes a perforate inner wall positionable outside the containment vessel to define an inner flow riser therebetween, and an imperforate outer wall positionable outside the inner wall to define an outer flow riser therebetween. Apertures in the inner wall allow thermal radiation to pass laterally therethrough to the outer wall, with cooling air flowing upwardly through the inner and outer risers for removing heat. 3 figs.

  10. Liquid metal reactor air cooling baffle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A baffle is provided between a relatively hot containment vessel and a relatively cold silo for enhancing air cooling performance. The baffle includes a perforate inner wall positionable outside the containment vessel to define an inner flow riser therebetween, and an imperforate outer wall positionable outside the inner wall to define an outer flow riser therebetween. Apertures in the inner wall allow thermal radiation to pass laterally therethrough to the outer wall, with cooling air flowing upwardly through the inner and outer risers for removing heat.

  11. VAPOR SPACE AND LIQUID/AIR INTERFACECORROSION TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zapp, P.; Hoffman, E.

    2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The phenomena of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion of carbon steel in simulated liquid waste environments have been investigated. Initial experiments have explored the hypothesis that vapor space corrosion may be accelerated by the formation of a corrosive electrolyte on the tank wall by a process of evaporation of relatively warmer waste and condensation of the vapor on the relatively cooler tank wall. Results from initial testing do not support the hypothesis of electrolyte transport by evaporation and condensation. The analysis of the condensate collected by a steel specimen suspended over a 40 C simulated waste solution showed no measurable concentrations of the constituents of the simulated solution and a decrease in pH from 14 in the simulant to 5.3 in the condensate. Liquid/air interface corrosion was studied as a galvanic corrosion system, where steel at the interface undergoes accelerated corrosion while steel in contact with bulk waste is protected. The zero-resistance-ammeter technique was used to measure the current flow between steel specimens immersed in solutions simulating (1) the high-pH bulk liquid waste and (2) the expected low-pH meniscus liquid at the liquid/air interface. Open-circuit potential measurements of the steel specimens were not significantly different in the two solutions, with the result that (1) no consistent galvanic current flow occurred and (2) both the meniscus specimen and bulk specimen were subject to pitting corrosion.

  12. Air Liquide Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDITCaliforniaWeifangwikiAgoura Hills,Oeste PaulistaLiquide Group Place:

  13. Liquid Cooling v. Air Cooling Evaluation in the Maui High-Performance...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Liquid Cooling v. Air Cooling Evaluation in the Maui High-Performance Computing Center Liquid Cooling v. Air Cooling Evaluation in the Maui High-Performance Computing Center Study...

  14. EPA Tribal Training and Outreach Support for the American Indian Air Quality Training Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is accepting applications to provide training, and technical and outreach support for the American Indian Air Quality Training Program.

  15. Sudden structural change at ati air/binary liquid interface: Sum frequency study of the air/acetonitrile-water interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    Sudden structural change at ati air/binary liquid interface: Sum frequency study of the air/acetonitrile change in an air/acetonitrile-water interface as the solution composition varies; the abruptness of which and in the polarization of the signal from the acetonitrile molecules in the interface observed using infrared + visible

  16. Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui High Performance Computing Center

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Study evaluates the energy efficiency of a new, liquid-cooled computing system applied in a retrofit project compared to the previously used air-cooled system.

  17. Femtosecond laser ablation of brass in air and liquid media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaheen, M. E. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada) [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Gagnon, J. E.; Fryer, B. J. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada) [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research (GLIER), University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser ablation of brass in air, water, and ethanol was investigated using a femtosecond laser system operating at a wavelength of 785 nm and a pulse width less than 130 fs. Scanning electron and optical microscopy were used to study the efficiency and quality of laser ablation in the three ablation media at two different ablation modes. With a liquid layer thickness of 3 mm above the target, ablation rate was found to be higher in water and ethanol than in air. Ablation under water and ethanol showed cleaner surfaces and less debris re-deposition compared to ablation in air. In addition to spherical particles that are normally formed from re-solidified molten material, micro-scale particles with varying morphologies were observed scattered in the ablated structures (craters and grooves) when ablation was conducted under water. The presence of such particles indicates the presence of a non-thermal ablation mechanism that becomes more apparent when ablation is conducted under water.

  18. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Development of a Compact Liquid Fueled Pulsed Detonation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    automotive ignition system. Pre-heated liquid fuel is sprayed into a current of pre-heated air and thoroughly Hz. The PDE set up is water cooled allowing long duration testing. Diagnostics are performed using it necessary to preheat the fuel and/or air and to use nozzles to finely atomize the fuel spray. Liquid fueled

  19. Compressible air cushioning in liquid-solid impacts Peter D. Hicks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purvis, Richard

    Compressible air cushioning in liquid-solid impacts Peter D. Hicks Department of Mechanical of Mathematics, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK. r.purvis@uea.ac.uk Abstract--Air cushioning the influence of air compressibility. Building on earlier incompress- ible analyses, a local asymptotic model

  20. Experimental study of the atomization process for viscous liquids by meniscus perturbation and micro air jet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Heejin, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to understand the atomization process in the specialized printing method which consists of the high frequency oscillating motion of a needle and a micro air jet. Highly viscous liquids, ...

  1. The design of a microfabricated air electrode for liquid electrolyte fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierre, Fritz, 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation, the microfabricated electrode (MFE) concept was applied to the design of an air electrode for liquid electrolyte fuel cells. The catalyst layer of the electrode is envisioned to be fabricated by using ...

  2. A Preliminary Evaluation of Alternative Liquid Desiccants for a Hybrid Desiccant Air Conditioner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Studak, J. W.; Peterson, J. L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the condenser of a vapor-compression air conditioner. The liquid desiccants studied were lithium chloride, lithium bromide, calcium chloride, and triethylene glycol. Each candidate desiccant was subjected to a screening process which weighed the merits...

  3. Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

  4. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  5. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy and EmissionsDepartment of EnergyLiquid

  6. High-throughput liquid-absorption air-sampling apparatus and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon (95706 William Dr., Hinsdale, IL 60521)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable high-throughput liquid-absorption air sampler [PHTLAAS] has an asymmetric air inlet through which air is drawn upward by a small and light-weight centrifugal fan driven by a direct current motor that can be powered by a battery. The air inlet is so configured as to impart both rotational and downward components of motion to the sampled air near said inlet. The PHTLAAS comprises a glass tube of relatively small size through which air passes at a high rate in a swirling, highly turbulent motion, which facilitates rapid transfer of vapors and particulates to a liquid film covering the inner walls of the tube. The pressure drop through the glass tube is <10 cm of water, usually <5 cm of water. The sampler's collection efficiency is usually >20% for vapors or airborne particulates in the 2-3.mu. range and >50% for particles larger than 4.mu.. In conjunction with various analyzers, the PHTLAAS can serve to monitor a variety of hazardous or illicit airborne substances, such as lead-containing particulates, tritiated water vapor, biological aerosols, or traces of concealed drugs or explosives.

  7. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  8. Splashing phenomena of room temperature liquid metal droplet striking on the pool of the same liquid under ambient air environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haiyan Li; Shengfu Mei; Lei Wang; Yunxia Gao; Jing Liu

    2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, the fluid dynamics of room temperature liquid metal (RTLM) droplet impacting onto a pool of the same liquid in ambient air was investigated. A series of experiments were conducted in order to disclose the influence of the oxidation effect on the impact dynamics. The droplet shape and impact phenomenology were recorded with the aid of a high-speed digital camera. The impact energy stored in the splash structures was estimated via a theoretical model and several morphological parameters obtained from instantaneous images of the splash. It was observed that the droplet shape and the splashing morphology of RTLM were drastically different from those of water, so was the impact dynamics between room temperature LM pool and high temperature LM pool. The energy analysis disclosed that the height of the jet is highly sensitive to the viscosity of the fluid, which is subjected to the oxidation effect and temperature effect simultaneously, and thus perfectly explained the phenomena. These basic findings are important for the application of RTLM in a series of newly emerging technologies such as liquid metal based spray cooling, ink-jet printed electronics, interface material painting and coating, metallurgy, and 3D packages, etc.

  9. Computational study of ion distributions at the air/liquid methanol interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiuquan; Wick, Collin D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2011-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamic simulations with polarizable potentials were performed to systematically investigate the distribution of NaCl, NaBr, NaI, and SrCl2 at the air/liquid methanol interface. The density profiles indicated that there is no substantial enhancement of anions at the interface for the NaX systems in contrast to what was observed at the air/aqueous interface. The surfactant-like shape of the larger more polarizable halide anions is compensated by the surfactant nature of methanol itself. As a result, methanol hydroxy groups strongly interacted with one side of polarizable anions, in which their induced dipole points, and methanol methyl groups were more likely to be found near the positive pole of anion induced dipoles. Furthermore, salts were found to disrupt the surface structure of methanol, reducing the observed enhancement of methyl groups at the outer edge of the air/liquid methanol interface. With the additional of salts to methanol, the computed surface potentials increased, which is in contrast to what is observed in corresponding aqueous systems, where the surface potential decreases with the addition of salts. Both of these trends have been indirectly observed with experiments. This was found to be due to the propensity of anions for the air/water interface that is not present at the air/liquid methanol interface. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  10. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  11. Near-field dispersal modeling for liquid fuel-air explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, D.R.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The near-field, explosive dispersal of a liquid into air has been explored using a combination of analytical and numerical models. The near-field flow regime is transient, existing only as long as the explosive forces produced by the detonation of the burster charge dominate or are approximately equal in magnitude to the aerodynamic drag forces on the liquid. The near-field model provides reasonable initial conditions for the far-field model, which is described in a separate report. The near-field model consists of the CTH hydrodynamics code and a film instability model. In particular, the CTH hydrodynamics code is used to provide initial temperature, pressure, and velocity fields, and bulk material distribution for the far-field model. The film instability model is a linear stability model for a radially expanding fluid film, and is used to provide a lower bound on the breakup time and an upper and lower bound on the initial average drop diameter for the liquid following breakup. Predictions of the liquid breakup time and the initial arithmetic average drop diameter from the model compare favorably with the sparse experimental data. 26 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

    1995-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo`s structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated. 5 figures.

  13. Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo's structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated.

  14. Liquid-Air Interface Corrosion Testing Simulating The Environment Of Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiersma, B.; Gray, J. R.; Garcia-Diaz, B. L.; Murphy, T. H.; Hicks, K. R.

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupon tests on A537 carbon steel materials were conducted to evaluate the Liquid-Air Interface (LAI) corrosion susceptibility in a series of solutions designed to simulate conditions in the radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Nuclear Facility. The new stress corrosion cracking requirements and the impact of ammonia on LAI corrosion were the primary focus. The minimum R value (i.e., molar ratio of nitrite to nitrate) of 0.15 specified by the new stress corrosion cracking requirements was found to be insufficient to prevent pitting corrosion at the LAI. The pH of the test solutions was 10, which was actually less than the required pH 11 defined by the new requirements. These tests examined the effect of the variation of the pH due to hydroxide depletion at the liquid air interface. The pits from the current testing ranged from 0.001 to 0.008 inch in solutions with nitrate concentrations of 0.4 M and 2.0 M. The pitting and general attack that occurred progressed over the four-months. No significant pitting was observed, however, for a solution with a nitrate concentration of 4.5 M. The pitting depths observed in these partial immersion tests in unevaporated condensates ranged from 0.001 to 0.005 inch after 4 months. The deeper pits were in simulants with low R values. Simulants with R values of approximately 0.6 to 0.8 appeared to significantly reduce the degree of attack. Although, the ammonia did not completely eliminate attack at the LAI, the amount of corrosion in an extremely corrosive solution was significantly reduced. Only light general attack (< 1 mil) occurred on the coupon in the vicinity of the LAI. The concentration of ammonia (i.e., 50 ppm or 500 ppm) did not have a strong effect.

  15. High Efficiency Liquid-Desiccant Regenerator for Air Conditioning and Industrial Drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lowenstein

    2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 2 quads of fossil fuels are used each year for moisture removal. This includes industrial and agricultural processes where feedstocks and final products must be dried, as well as comfort conditioning of indoor spaces where the control of humidity is essential to maintaining healthy, productive and comfortable working conditions. Desiccants, materials that have a high affinity for water vapor, can greatly reduce energy use for both drying and dehumidification. An opportunity exists to greatly improve the competitiveness of advanced liquid-desiccant systems by increasing the efficiency of their regenerators. It is common practice within the chemical process industry to use multiple stage boilers to improve the efficiency of thermal separation processes. The energy needed to regenerate a liquid desiccant, which is a thermal separation process, can also be reduced by using a multiple stage boiler. In this project, a two-stage regenerator was developed in which the first stage is a boiler and the second stage is a scavenging-air regenerator. The only energy input to this regenerator is the natural gas that fires the boiler. The steam produced in the boiler provides the thermal energy to run the second-stage scavenging-air regenerator. This two-stage regenerator is referred to as a 1?-effect regenerator. A model of the high-temperature stage of a 1?-effect regenerator for liquid desiccants was designed, built and successfully tested. At nominal operating conditions (i.e., 2.35 gpm of 36% lithium chloride solution, 307,000 Btu/h firing rate), the boiler removed 153 lb/h of water from the desiccant at a gas-based efficiency of 52.9 % (which corresponds to a COP of 0.95 when a scavenging-air regenerator is added). The steam leaving the boiler, when condensed, had a solids concentration of less than 10 ppm. This low level of solids in the condensate places an upper bound of about 6 lb per year for desiccant loss from the regenerator. This low loss will not create maintenance problems nor will it significantly increase operating expenses. An energy balance on the boiler showed that heat loss through the insulated jacket was 10%. This value is much higher than the 2% to 5% that is typical of most boilers and indicates a need to better insulate the unit. With insulation that brings jacket losses down to 5%, a 1?-effect regenerator that uses this boiler as its high-temperature stage will have a gas-based COP of 1.05. The estimated cost to manufacture a 300-lb/h, 1?-effect regenerator at 500 units per year is $17,140. Unfortunately, the very high cost for natural gas that now prevails in the U.S. makes it very difficult for a gas-fired LDAC to compete against an electric vapor-compression air conditioner in HVAC applications. However, there are important industrial markets that need very dry air where the high price of natural gas will encourage the sale of a LDAC with the 1?-effect regenerator since in these markets it competes against less efficient gas-fired desiccant technologies. A manufacturer of industrial dehumidification equipment is now negotiating a sales agreement with us that would include the 1?-effect regenerator.

  16. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection...

  17. Overview of Air Liquide refrigeration systems between 1.8 K and 200 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gondrand, C.; Durand, F.; Delcayre, F.; Crispel, S. [AL-AT, 2 rue de Clémencières, 38360 Sassenage (France); Baguer, G. M. Gistau [CRYOGUY, 44, chemin de la Buisse, 38330 Biviers (France)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Cryogenic refrigeration systems are necessary for numerous applications. Gas purification and distillation require temperatures between 15 K and 200 K depending on the application, space simulation chambers down to 15 K, superconductivity between 1.8 K and up to 75 K (magnets, cavities or HTS devices like cables, FCL, SMES, etc), Cold Neutron Sources between 15 and 20 K, etc. Air Liquide Advanced Technologies is designing and manufacturing refrigerators since 60 years to satisfy those needs. The step by step developments achieved have led to machines with higher efficiency and reliability. In 1965, reciprocating compressors and Joule Thomson expansion valves were used. In 1969, centripetal expanders began to be used. In 1980, oil lubricated screw compressors took the place of reciprocating compressors and a standard range of Claude cycle refrigerators was developed: the HELIAL series. 1980 was also the time for cryogenic centrifugal compressor development. In 2011, driven by the need for lower operational cost (high efficiency and low maintenance), cycle oil free centrifugal compressors on magnetic bearings were introduced instead of screw compressors. The power extracted by centripetal expanders was recovered. Based on this technology, a range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators has been designed for temperatures between 40 K and 150 K. On-going development will enable widening the range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators to cryogenic temperatures down to 15 K.. Cryogenic centrifugal circulators have been developed in order to answer to an increasing demand of 4 K refrigerators able to distribute cold power.

  18. Iterative Optimal and Adaptive Control of a Near Isothermal Liquid Piston Air Compressor in a Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    Gas compression and expansion has many applications in pneumatic and hydraulic systems, including in the Com- pressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system for offshore wind turbine that has recently been

  19. Air flow characteristics of dry and liquid loaded packed and fluidized systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millsap, George Wayne

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acknowledgnent s List of Tables List of Figures Introduction Description of s Fluidised Bed Obgectives Application 1 2 3 Description of Apparatus Test Procedure Preparation of Bed Material Beds With Upward Flow of Air Beds With Upward Flow of Air... obgectives of thi ~ investigation were: (1) to deternine the air flow-pressure drop relationships in a dry bed of unifornly sised spherical particles in both the packed and fluidised regines of air flow; (3) to deternine under the sane air flow conditions...

  20. MODELING AND TRAJECTORY OPTIMIZATION OF WATER SPRAY COOLING IN A LIQUID PISTON AIR COMPRESSOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    and expansion has many applications in pneumatic and hydraulic systems, including in the Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system for offshore wind turbine that has recently been proposed in [1,2]. Since the air

  1. Free radially expanding liquid sheet in air: time- and space-resolved measurement of the thickness field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clara Vernay; Laurence Ramos; Christian Ligoure

    2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The collision of a liquid drop against a small target results in the formation of a thin liquid sheet that extends radially until it reaches a maximum diameter. The subsequent retraction is due to the air-liquid surface tension. We have used a time- and space-resolved technique to measure the thickness field of this class of liquid sheet, based on the grey level measurement of the image of a dyed liquid sheet recorded using a fast camera. This method enables a precise measurement of the thickness in the range $(10-450) \\, \\mathrm{\\mu m}$, with a temporal resolution equal to that of the camera. We have measured the evolution with time since impact, $t$, and radial position, $r$, of the thickness, $h(r,t)$, for various drop volumes and impact velocities. Two asymptotic regimes for the expansion of the sheet are evidenced. The scalings of the thickness with $t$ and $r$ measured in the two regimes are those that were predicted in \\citet{Rozhkov2004} fort the short-time regime and \\citet{Villermaux2011} for the long time regime, but never experimentally measured before. Interestingly, our experimental data also evidence the existence of a maximum of the film thickness $h_{\\rm{max}}(r)$ at a radial position $r_{\\rm{h_{max}}}(t)$ corresponding to the crossover of these two asymptotic regimes. The maximum moves with a constant velocity of the order of the drop impact velocity, as expected theoretically. Thanks to our visualization technique, we also evidence an azimuthal thickness modulation of the liquid sheets.

  2. Experimental Investigation on the Operation Performance of a Liquid Desiccant Air-conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Wu, Z.; Gu, W.; Zhang, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large share of energy consumption is taken by an air-conditioning system. It worsens the electricity load of the power network. Therefore, more and more scholars are paying attention to research on new types of air-conditioning systems...

  3. 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. The 2010 California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    © 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. The 2010 California Research at the Nexus.50331 AcceptedArticle #12;© 2013 American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Abstract

  4. TESTING VAPOR SPACE AND LIQUID-AIR INTERFACE CORROSION IN SIMULATED ENVIRONMENTS OF HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELLED TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E.

    2013-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochemical coupon testing were performed on 6 Hanford tank solution simulants and corresponding condensate simulants to evaluate the susceptibility of vapor space and liquid/air interface corrosion. Additionally, partial-immersion coupon testing were performed on the 6 tank solution simulants to compliment the accelerated electrochemical testing. Overall, the testing suggests that the SY-102 high nitrate solution is the most aggressive of the six solution simulants evaluated. Alternatively, the most passive solution, based on both electrochemical testing and coupon testing, was AY-102 solution. The presence of ammonium nitrate in the simulants at the lowest concentration tested (0.001 M) had no significant effect. At higher concentrations (0.5 M), ammonium nitrate appears to deter localized corrosion, suggesting a beneficial effect of the presence of the ammonium ion. The results of this research suggest that there is a threshold concentration of ammonium ions leading to inhibition of corrosion, thereby suggesting the need for further experimentation to identify the threshold.

  5. Chemoreception of air- and waterborne food chemicals by the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banta, Marilyn Rhett

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were tested for their ability to detect air- and waterborne chemicals from food. Several tests investigated alligators' ability to detect waterborne chemicals from aqueous extracts of various prey items. Juvenile alligators exposed to serial... containing 20 L-amino acids. There was no difference in the responses to the amino acid solution and water. Twelve juvenile alligators were tested for their ability to detect airborne chemicals from various prey items. Gular pumping was used...

  6. Case Study: Evaluating Liquid v. Air Cooling in the Maui High Performance Computing Center

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Change RequestFirstchampions, checklists, tap- pingLiquid Cooling

  7. Air-Quality Data from NARSTO (North American Research Strategy for Tropospheric Ozone)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    NARSTO is a public/private partnership dedicated to improving management of air quality in North America. It was established on February 13, 1995 when representatives of Canada, the United States, and Mexico signed the NARSTO Charter in a ceremony at the White House. The Department of Energy is one of the charter members providing funding. The central programmatic goal of NARSTO is to provide data and information for use in the determination of workable, efficient, and effective strategies for local and regional ozone and fine particle management. Since its founding, NARSTO has completed three major scientific Assessments of critical air quality management issues. NARSTO maintains the Quality Systems Science Center and the NARSTO Data Archive for storing data from NARSTO Affiliated Research Activities and making these data available to the scientific community. NARSTO also facilitates activities, such as the Reactivity Research Working Group, which provide critical reviews of the state of the science in areas of interest to air quality policy makers. In January 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Sciences Division announced their sponsorship of the NARSTO Quality Systems Science Center (QSSC). The QSSC is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory within the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). Quality Assurance and Data Management assistance and guidelines are provided by the QSCC, along with access to data files. The permanent data archive is maintained by the NASA EOSDIS Distributed Active Archive Center at the Langley Research Center. The archived data can be reached by a link from the QSSC.(Specialized Interface) See also the NARSTO web site at http://www.narsto.org/

  8. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Ultrafast laser induced periodic sub-wavelength aluminum surface structures and nanoparticles in air and liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuladeep, Rajamudili; Dar, Mudasir H.; Rao, D. Narayana, E-mail: dnrsp@uohyd.ac.in, E-mail: dnr-laserlab@yahoo.com [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Deepak, K. L. N. [Department of Physics and Center for Research in Photonics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa K1N6N5, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this communication, we demonstrate the generation of laser-induced periodic sub-wavelength surface structures (LIPSS) or ripples on a bulk aluminum (Al) and Al nanoparticles (NPs) by femtosecond (fs) laser direct writing technique. Laser irradiation was performed on Al surface at normal incidence in air and by immersing in ethanol (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH) and water (H{sub 2}O) using linearly polarized Ti:sapphire fs laser pulses of ?110 fs pulse duration and ?800?nm wavelength. Field emission scanning electron microscope is utilized for imaging surface morphology of laser written structures and it reveals that the spatial periodicity as well as the surface morphology of the LIPSS depends on the surrounding dielectric medium and also on the various laser irradiation parameters. The observed LIPSS have been classified as low spatial frequency LIPSS which are perpendicularly oriented to the laser polarization with a periodicity from 460 to 620?nm and high spatial frequency LIPSS which spectacles a periodicity less than 100?nm with the orientation parallel to the polarization of the incident laser beam. Fabricated colloidal solutions, which contain the Al NPs, were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM results reveal the formation of internal cavities in Al NPs both in ethanol and water. Formation mechanism of LIPSS and cavities inside the nanoparticles are discussed in detail.

  10. of October 2002 African Americans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    the impact of air pollution from coal-fired power plants upon the African American community. The Black

  11. EPA Tribal Training and Outreach Support for the American Indian...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Tribal Training and Outreach Support for the American Indian Air Quality Training Program EPA Tribal Training and Outreach Support for the American Indian Air Quality Training...

  12. An Investigation of Ammonia Extraction from Liquid Manure Using a Gas-Permeable Membrane Pollution of air, soil and water caused by excessive ammonia (NH3) emission and deposition from animal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    An Investigation of Ammonia Extraction from Liquid Manure Using a Gas-Permeable Membrane Summary Pollution of air, soil and water caused by excessive ammonia (NH3) emission and deposition from animal by extracting it from liquid manure and potentially using the recovered NH3 as fertilizer. For this purpose, lab

  13. Metal-Air Electric Vehicle Battery: Sustainable, High-Energy Density, Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage – Metal-Air Ionic Liquid (MAIL) Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: ASU is developing a new class of metal-air batteries. Metal-air batteries are promising for future generations of EVs because they use oxygen from the air as one of the battery’s main reactants, reducing the weight of the battery and freeing up more space to devote to energy storage than Li-Ion batteries. ASU technology uses Zinc as the active metal in the battery because it is more abundant and affordable than imported lithium. Metal-air batteries have long been considered impractical for EV applications because the water-based electrolytes inside would decompose the battery interior after just a few uses. Overcoming this traditional limitation, ASU’s new battery system could be both cheaper and safer than today’s Li-Ion batteries, store from 4-5 times more energy, and be recharged over 2,500 times.

  14. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 224 Altus Air Force Base Solar Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, Bryan J.

    2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal goal of this project was to evaluate altus Air Force Base for building integrated silicon or thin film module photovoltaic opportunities. This report documents PNNL's efforts and documents study conclusions.

  15. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    of burner temperature and the aspects of implementing advanced modeling based control approaches using], auxiliary and uninterruptible power systems [13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19]. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuelDesign and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air

  16. african american family: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Williams II, Ronald Cartell 2011-01-01 17 of October 2002 African Americans Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Injustice Air Injustice of October 2002 African Americans & Power...

  17. african american health: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    skin Pichon, Latrice Crystal 2008-01-01 15 of October 2002 African Americans Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Injustice Air Injustice of October 2002 African Americans & Power...

  18. african american children: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Williams II, Ronald Cartell 2011-01-01 15 of October 2002 African Americans Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Injustice Air Injustice of October 2002 African Americans & Power...

  19. african american adults: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Williams II, Ronald Cartell 2011-01-01 10 of October 2002 African Americans Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Injustice Air Injustice of October 2002 African Americans & Power...

  20. african american families: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Williams II, Ronald Cartell 2011-01-01 17 of October 2002 African Americans Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Injustice Air Injustice of October 2002 African Americans & Power...

  1. Primary zone air proportioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

    1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

  2. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy studies of solid-vacuum, solid-air and solid-liquid interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffer, Saskia

    2002-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron based surface probing techniques can provide detailed information about surface structure or chemical composition in vacuum environments. The development of new surface techniques has made possible in situ molecular level studies of solid-gas interfaces and more recently, solid-liquid interfaces. The aim of this dissertation is two-fold. First, by using novel sample preparation, Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and other traditional ultra high vacuum (UHV) techniques are shown to provide new information on the insulator/vacuum interface. The surface structure of the classic insulator NaCl has been determined using these methods. Second, using sum frequency generation (SFG) surface specific vibrational spectroscopy studies were performed on both the biopolymer/air and electrode/electrolyte interfaces. The surface structure and composition of polyetherurethane-silicone copolymers were determined in air using SFG, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). SFG studies of the electrode (platinum, gold and copper)/electrolyte interface were performed as a function of applied potential in an electrochemical cell.

  3. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  4. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  5. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  6. Fact Sheet: Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage (October...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SustainX American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage Demonstrating a modular, market-ready energy storage system that uses compressed air...

  7. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  8. Padding with Compressed Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beals, C.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We commonly find plants using padding to transport liquids or light solids short distances from tankers into storage tanks. Padding can wreck havoc in compressed air systems with limited storage, undersized cleanup equipment (dryers and filters...

  9. Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Concept Landfill WWTP digester Biogas membrane Pipeline quality methane CH4 Pipeline Hydrogen Production To Fuel Cell Vehicles Stationary Fuel Cells With H2...

  10. ambient air zinc: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Pressure CERN Preprints Summary: Recent experiments on coating flows and liquid drop impact both demonstrate that wetting failures caused by air entrainment can be suppressed...

  11. Rapid microwave hydrothermal synthesis of ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} with high photocatalytic activity toward aromatic compounds in air and dyes in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Meng [School of Resources and Environment, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Li Danzhen, E-mail: dzli@fzu.edu.cn [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang Wenjuan; Chen Zhixin; Huang Hanjie; Li Wenjuan; He Yunhui; Fu Xianzhi [Research Institute of Photocatalysis, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Photocatalysis, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized from Ga(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and ZnCl{sub 2} via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} were evaluated by the degradation of pollutants in air and aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination. The results demonstrated that ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities higher than that of commercial P25 (Degussa Co.) in the degradation of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, respectively. In the liquid phase degradation of dyes (methyl orange, Rhodamine B, and methylene blue), ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} has also exhibited remarkable activities higher than that of P25. After 32 min of UV light irradiation, the decomposition ratio of methyl orange (10 ppm, 150 mL) over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} (0.06 g) was up to 99%. The TOC tests revealed that the mineralization ratio of MO (10 ppm, 150 mL) was 88.1% after 90 min of reaction. A possible mechanism of the photocatalysis over ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} was also proposed. - Graphical abstract: In the degradation of RhB under UV light irradiation, ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} had exhibited efficient photo-activity, and after only 24 min of irradiation the decomposition ratio was up to 99.8%. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A rapid and facile M-H method to synthesize ZnGa{sub 2}O{sub 4} photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalyst exhibits high activity toward benzene and dyes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst possesses more surface hydroxyl sites than TiO{sub 2} (P25). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep oxidation of different aromatic compounds and dyes over catalyst.

  12. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  13. E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioning automatic Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exhaust air... conditions. Because of these external demands, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air... monitors include a remote alarm signal andor automatic...

  14. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between...

  15. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

    2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  16. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Infotech@Aerospace Conference, Paper No. 2005-7077 A Small Semi-Autonomous Rotary-Wing Unmanned Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -7077 1 A Small Semi-Autonomous Rotary-Wing Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) Scott D. Hanford* , Lyle N. Long System (GPS) will not work indoors, so other sensors will have to be used for indoor flight. The software. * NSF Fellow, Aerospace Engineering, Member AIAA, sdh187@psu.edu. Professor, Aerospace Engineering

  17. american short form: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    government reform problems. Who We Are 1 12;At first glance, air pollution generally and power plant Kammen, Daniel M. 450 425 The American Cockroach Regeneration Environmental...

  18. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source.

  19. A numerical method for the simulation of low Mach number liquid-gas flows.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    consisting of the air bubbles and the liquid water are investigated. They are driven by a heat supply

  20. Low Loss Liquid Crystal Photonic Bandgap Fiber in the Near-Infrared Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    ) The presence of air-holes in the microstructure gives the possibility to infuse liquids and therefore, create

  1. Unloading using auger tool and foam and experimental identification of liquid loading of low rate natural gas wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bose, Rana

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    flow rate versus liquid flow rate at 30 psi……………………… 68 8.1b Air flow rate versus liquid flow rate at 22 psi……………………… 68 8.1c Air flow rate versus liquid flow rate at 15 psi……………………… 69 8.2a Liquid holdup through the tubing at 30 psi... with and without Auger (air-water) and with and without Auger (air-foam)……………70 8.2b Liquid holdup through the tubing at 22 psi with and without Auger(air-water) and with and without Auger (air-foam)…………… 71 8.2c Liquid...

  2. Vapor-liquid equilibrium of water-acetone-air at ambient temperatures and pressures. An analysis of different VLE-fitting methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lichtenbelt, J.H.; Schram, B.J.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The availability of accurate equilibrium data is of high importance in chemical engineering practice both for design and research purposes. It appeared that for the gas absorption system water-acetone-air in the range of special interest for absorption and desorption operations, neither literature data nor calculations following UNIFAC gave a sufficient accuracy. An experimental program was set up to determine equilibrium data with an accuracy within 2% for low acetone concentrations (up to 7 wt % gas phase) at ambient temperature (16-30/sup 0/C) and atmospheric pressure (740-860 mmHg). From experiments the activity coefficient at infinite dilution of acetone ..gamma.. is found to be 6.79 (0.01) at 20/sup 0/C and 7.28 (0.01) at 25/sup 0/C, while the total error in ..gamma.. is 1.5%. The equilibrium constant can be calculated from ..gamma.. and shows the same error. The experimental data-fitting with procedures of Margules (two parameters) and Van Laar were successful, but NRTL, Wilson, and UNIQUAC failed, probably because of the small concentration range used.

  3. air flow control: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    injection system is designed and tested for an experimental free liquid-piston engine compressor. The application discussed utilizes available high pressure air from Barth,...

  4. air argon carbon: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in gaseous argon CERN Preprints Summary: While developing a liquid argon detector for dark matter searches we investigate the influence of air contamination on the VUV...

  5. September 2010 American Recovery and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    September 2010 i American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance U.S. Naval by applying GSHP systems. The current HVAC system for the building is a conventional Air Handling Unit (AHU) system with chiller. The heating and the DHW are provided by district steam. The building is close

  6. Fluorescent optical liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid level sensor comprising a transparent waveguide containing fluorescent material that is excited by light of a first wavelength and emits at a second, longer wavelength. The upper end of the waveguide is connected to a light source at the first wavelength through a beveled portion of the waveguide such that the input light is totally internally reflected within the waveguide above an air/liquid interface in a tank but is transmitted into the liquid below this interface. Light is emitted from the fluorescent material only in those portions of the waveguide that are above the air/liquid interface, to be collected at the upper end of the waveguide by a detector that is sensitive only to the second wavelength. As the interface moves down in the tank, the signal strength from the detector will increase.

  7. Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

  8. Air-bridge microcavities Pierre R. Villeneuve, Shanhui Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Air-bridge microcavities Pierre R. Villeneuve, Shanhui Fan, and J. D. Joannopoulos Department structures with micron-sized features using semiconductor materials. © 1995 American Institute of Physics

  9. 1 American Studies AMERICAN STUDIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vertes, Akos

    1 American Studies AMERICAN STUDIES An innovative department with 15 core faculty and 12 affiliated of culture, ideas and religious beliefs; the development and transformation of public cultures and spaces. Topics include the civil rights movement, the student movement, the Vietnam War, and the counterculture

  10. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  11. Air breathing direct methanol fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Water loss from the cell is minimized by making the conductive cathode assembly hydrophobic and the conductive anode assembly hydrophilic.

  12. Liquid crystal variable retarders in atomic scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furst, J.E.; Yu, D.H.; Hayes, P.A.; DSouza, C.M.; Williams, J.F. [Physics Department, Centre for Atomic, Molecular, and Surface Physics, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands. WA. 6907 (Australia)] [Physics Department, Centre for Atomic, Molecular, and Surface Physics, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands. WA. 6907 (Australia)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The applications of liquid crystal variable retarders in the production of spin-polarized electrons and in the determination of the polarization of optical radiation from atoms excited by polarized electrons are discussed. The advantages of using liquid crystal variable retarders in the measurement of Stokes parameters are insensitivity to the incident photon direction, large transmission diameter, variable retardation over large wavelength range without mechanical movement, and {ital in} {ital situ} calibration. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Indirect evaporative cooler using membrane-contained, liquid desiccant for dehumidification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozubal, Eric Joseph; Slayzak, Steven Joseph

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirect evaporative cooler for cooling inlet supply air from a first temperature to a second, lower temperature using a stream of liquid coolant and a stream of exhaust or purge air. The cooler includes a first flow channel for inlet supply air and a second flow channel adjacent the first for exhaust air. The first and second flow channels are defined in part by sheets of a membrane permeable to water vapor such that mass is transferred as a vapor through the membrane from the inlet supply air to a contained liquid desiccant for dehumidification and also to the exhaust air as heat is transferred from the inlet supply air to the liquid coolant. A separation wall divides the liquid desiccant and the coolant but allows heat to be transferred from the supply air to the coolant which releases water vapor to the counter or cross flowing exhaust air.

  14. Using liquid desiccant as a regenerable filter for capturing and deactivating contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slayzak, Steven J. (Denver, CO); Anderson, Ren S. (Broomfield, CO); Judkoff, Ronald D. (Golden, CO); Blake, Daniel M. (Golden, CO); Vinzant, Todd B. (Golden, CO); Ryan, Joseph P. (Golden, CO)

    2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method, and systems for implementing such method, for purifying and conditioning air of weaponized contaminants. The method includes wetting a filter packing media with a salt-based liquid desiccant, such as water with a high concentration of lithium chloride. Air is passed through the wetted filter packing media and the contaminants in are captured with the liquid desiccant while the liquid desiccant dehumidifies the air. The captured contaminants are then deactivated in the liquid desiccant, which may include heating the liquid desiccant. The liquid desiccant is regenerated by applying heat to the liquid desiccant and then removing moisture. The method includes repeating the wetting with the regenerated liquid desiccant which provides a regenerable filtering process that captures and deactivates contaminants on an ongoing basis while also conditioning the air. The method may include filtration effectiveness enhancement by electrostatic or inertial means.

  15. Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

  16. Simulation and study of thermal performance of liquid desiccant cooling cycle configurations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhir, Rajesh

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    evaporative cooler(s), liquid desiccant packed dehumidifying tower, and air-to-air heat exchanger. Constant effectiveness of 0.85 and 0.9 were assumed for the direct evaporative cooler and air-to-air heat exchanger respectively. The performance of these five...

  17. ILASS Europe 2013, 25th European Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Chania, Greece, 1-4 September 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    characterizing the air flow configuration. Introduction Reduction of pollutant emissions and improvement, Greece, 1-4 September 2013 1 Experimental study on the influence of the liquid and air thicknesses on a planar air- blasted liquid sheet Baptiste Déjean1* , Pierre Berthoumieu1 and Pierre Gajan1 1: DMAE, Onera

  18. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

  19. air control system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a b s t r a c t This paper Li, Perry Y. 38 Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLAR DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dao, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS K. Dao, M. Wahlig, E. Wali,are liquid paths. DM: multistage pump driver, driven by highvapor. DW: main circulation pump driven by strong absorbent.

  1. air flow models: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tube represents one of the many in a honeycomb geometry inserted in a liquid piston air compressor to minimize temperature rise. A dimensionless number for the heat flow rate...

  2. air velocity temperature: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tube represents one of the many in a honeycomb geometry inserted in a liquid piston air compressor to minimize temperature rise. A dimensionless number for the heat flow rate...

  3. Hydrophilization of Liquid Surfaces by Plasma Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor Multanen; Gilad Chaniel; Roman Grynyov; Ron Yosef Loew; Naor Siany; Edward Bormashenko

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of the cold radiofrequency air plasma on the surface properties of silicone oils (polydimethylsiloxane) was studied. Silicone oils of various molecular masses were markedly hydrophilized by the cold air plasma treatment. A pronounced decrease of the apparent water contact angles was observed after plasma treatment. A general theoretical approach to the calculation of apparent contact angles is proposed. The treated liquid surfaces demonstrated hydrophobic recovery. The characteristic time of the hydrophobic recovery grew with the molecular mass of the silicone oil.

  4. a Newtonian liquid surface Matthew Thrasher, Sunghwan Jung,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    a lubricating layer air. Figure 2 shows rebound nearly vertical small velocities and becomes more oblique larger into a mineral oil. 1 1 Thrasher, S. Y. Pang, C.­P. Chuu, Swinney, bouncing Newtonian liquid rebounding surface

  5. Air Quality: Construction Project Air Permit Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Air Quality: Construction Project Air Permit Requirements Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 All manager or operator must submit the completed form to the air quality program manager before the project

  6. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  7. Air Entrainment by Viscous Contact Lines Antonin Marchand1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    an unexpectedly weak dependence of entrainment speed on liquid viscosity, pointing towards a crucial role the breakup of the air film strongly resembles the dewetting of a liquid film, the wetting speeds are larger only affects the gas density, and thus the speed of sound and the mean free path in the gas. A similar

  8. Elementary excitations of liquid 4 He in aerogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glyde, Henry R.

    Elementary excitations of liquid 4 He in aerogel O. Plantevin and B. Fa°k Commissariat a` l-roton excitations of liquid 4 He immersed in aerogel of 95% porosity have been measured using inelastic neutron.25 K. Aerogel grown with deuterated materials not exposed to air was used and measure- ments in bulk

  9. DRAFT: NONLINEAR CONTROLLER DESIGN WITH BANDWIDTH CONSIDERATION FOR A NOVEL COMPRESSED AIR ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    are the pump/motor displacements inside the hydraulic transformer and the liquid piston air compressor regulation and gen- erator power tracking for a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system, a nonlinear/expander. While the pump/motor inside the liquid piston has a low band- width, the other pump/motor inside

  10. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  11. Air Pollution (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article states regulations for monitoring air pollution, methods for permit applications, emission limitations for pollutants and air quality standards.

  12. Central American

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR57451 Clean Energy Technologies A! CJ M H-LoS

  13. Investigation of sonic/subsonic air-blast atomization using Rayleigh- and Mie-scattering visualization techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Tae-Kyun

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To examine the jet mixing in air-blast twin fluid atomization, the sonic and supersonic air jet developments have been exclusively visualized using the Rayleigh scattering principle and the development of liquid spray has been separately visualized...

  14. High throughput liquid absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL); Bozen, Ralph M. (Hattiesburg, MS)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container comprising a wettable material. The wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid which flows from one part of the container to a lower end. Sampled air flows through the container in contact with the wetted material with a swirling motion which results in efficient transfer of analyte vapors or aerosol particles to the sorbing liquid and preconcentration of traces of analyte in the liquid. The preconcentrated traces of analyte may be either detected within the container or removed therefrom for injection into a separate detection means or for subsequent analysis.

  15. High throughput liquid absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.; Bozen, R.M.

    1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container comprising a wettable material. The wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid which flows from one part of the container to a lower end. Sampled air flows through the container in contact with the wetted material with a swirling motion which results in efficient transfer of analyte vapors or aerosol particles to the sorbing liquid and preconcentration of traces of analyte in the liquid. The preconcentrated traces of analyte may be either detected within the container or removed therefrom for injection into a separate detection means or for subsequent analysis. 12 figs.

  16. American Indian Complex to Cool Off Using Ice Storage System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In Oklahoma City, summer temperatures can get above 100 degrees, making cooling more of a necessity than a luxury. But the designers of the American Indian Cultural Center and Museum (AICCM) wanted to make cooling choices that reflect American Indian cultures' respect for the land. So, rather than using conventional air-conditioning, the museum's main complex will use an ice storage system estimated to save 644,000 kilowatt hours of electricity a year.

  17. American Academy of Sleep Medicine American Academy of Sleep Medicine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Steven A.

    © American Academy of Sleep Medicine American Academy of Sleep Medicine The following product has been developed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Copyright © 2003 American Academy of Sleep: (708) 492-0943 Visit Us at www.aasmnet.org #12;© American Academy of Sleep Medicine American Academy

  18. Liquid foams of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

  19. Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 REACTIONS BETWEEN OZONE AND BUILDING PRODUCTS: IMPACT ON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    indoor sources such as photocopiers, laser printers or air purifiers, outdoor ozone is the main source generated using pure oxygen (Air Liquide, 99.999 % O2) through an UV light generator (Pen Ray, model SOG 1Proceedings: Indoor Air 2005 2118 REACTIONS BETWEEN OZONE AND BUILDING PRODUCTS: IMPACT ON PRIMARY

  20. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  1. Dye-Induced Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearity in Liquids and Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muenster, R.; Jarasch, M.; Zhuang, X.; Shen, Y. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals (LC) in the isotropic phase can be enhanced by 1 order of magnitude by dissolving 0.1{percent} of anthraquinone dye in the LC. The enhancement decreases by {approximately}30{percent} when the LC transforms into the nematic phase. The same guest-host effect also exists in non-LC liquids. It can be explained by a model based on the change of guest-host interaction induced by optical excitations of the dye. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air 2008, August 17-perception of indoor air quality during immediate and longeraddressing indoor air quality, thermal environment, lighting

  3. Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the Netherlands, Indoor Air 2, 127 – 136. BuildingPaliaga, G. (2009) Moving air for comfort. ASHRAE Journal,ventilation system on perceived air quality, Indoor Air

  4. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  5. Efficiency of compressed-air systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The program undertaken by this contract is intended to quantify the current state of knowledge in American industry concerning the energy efficient design and operation of industrial compressed air systems and system components. Since there is no standard reference for designers and operators of compressed air systems which provides guidelines for maximizing the energy efficiency of these systems, a major product of this contract was the preparation of a guidebook for this purpose.

  6. Feasibility of air capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjan, Manya

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capturing CO2 from air, referred to as Air Capture, is being proposed as a viable climate change mitigation technology. The two major benefits of air capture, reported in literature, are that it allows us to reduce the ...

  7. Moving air for comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward; Turner, Stephen; Zhang, Hui; Paliaga, Gwelen

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brager, L. Zagreus. 2007, “Air movement preferences observed709-731. 9. Toftum, J. 2004. “Air movement – good or bad? ”Indoor Air 14, pp 40-45. 10. Gong, N. , K. Tham, A. Melikov,

  8. Air Pollution Control (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This chapter enumerates primary and secondary ambient air quality standards and the significant deterioration increments. Significant deterioration refers to an increase in ambient air pollution...

  9. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  10. AiR surface: AiR surface 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Jiro

    AiR surface: 1 PDA AiR surface 1 1: AiR surface () () 2 [1] [2] 3 AiR surface AiR surface surface surface surface 3.1 surface [3]( 3 ) surface 3.2 surface surface AiR surface 4 AiR surface surface AiR surface: Virtual Touch Panel

  11. Air Pollution Spring 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATS 555 Air Pollution Spring 2010 T Th 11:00 ­ 12:15, NESB 101 Instructor: Prof. Sonia Kreidenweis an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine concentrations of air pollutants and their effects on health and welfare. Review regulations governing air pollution. 3. Examine the meteorological

  12. Engaging Reluctant Americans into Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelton, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gain a sustainable advantage CATEE December 18, 2012 But I don’t want to! Engaging reluctant Americans (almost all of them) into energy efficiency and sustainability ESL-KT-13-12-58 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San... Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Gain a sustainable advantage ESL-KT-13-12-58 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Gain a sustainable advantage ESL-KT-13-12-58 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...

  13. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishimoto, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

  14. VOC and HAP recovery using ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Milota : Kaichang Li

    2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    During the manufacture of wood composites, paper, and to a lesser extent, lumber, large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as terpenes, formaldehyde, and methanol are emitted to air. Some of these compounds are hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). The air pollutants produced in the forest products industry are difficult to manage because the concentrations are very low. Presently, regenerative thermal oxidizers (RTOs and RCOs) are commonly used for the destruction of VOCs and HAPs. RTOs consume large amounts of natural gas to heat air and moisture. The combustion of natural gas generates increased CO2 and NOx, which have negative implications for global warming and air quality. The aforementioned problems are addressed by an absorption system containing a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) as an absorbent. RTILs are salts, but are in liquid states at room temperature. RTILs, an emerging technology, are receiving much attention as replacements for organic solvents in industrial processes with significant cost and environmental benefits. Some of these processes include organic synthesis, extraction, and metal deposition. RTILs would be excellent absorbents for exhausts from wood products facilities because of their unique properties: no measurable vapor pressure, high solubility of wide range of organic compounds, thermal stability to 200°C (almost 400°F), and immisciblity with water. Room temperature ionic liquids were tested as possible absorbents. Four were imidizolium-based and were eight phosphonium-based. The imidizolium-based ionic liquids proved to be unstable at the conditions tested and in the presence of water. The phosphonium-based ionic liquids were stable. Most were good absorbents; however, cleaning the contaminates from the ionic liquids was problematic. This was overcome with a higher temperature (120°C) than originally proposed and a very low pressure (1 kPa. Absorption trials were conducted with tetradecy(trihexyl)phosphonium dicyanamide as the RTIL. It was determined that it has good absorption properties for methanol and ?-pinene, is thermally stable, and is relatively easy to synthesize. It has a density of 0.89 g/mL at 20°C and a molecular weight of 549.9 g/mol. Trials were conducted with a small absorption system and a larger absorption system. Methanol, formaldehyde, and other HAPs were absorbed well, nearly 100%. Acetaldehyde was difficult to capture. Total VOC capture, while satisfactory on methanol and ?-pinene in a lab system, was less than expected in the field, 60-80%. The inability to capture the broad spectrum of total organics is likely due to difficulties in cleaning them from the ionic liquid rather than the ability of the ionic liquid to absorb. It’s likely that a commercial system could be constructed to remove 90 to 100% of the gas contaminates. Selecting the correct ionic liquid would be key to this. Absorption may not be the main selection criterion, but rather how easily the ionic liquid can be cleaned is very important. The ionic liquid absorption system might work very well in a system with a limited spectrum of pollutants, such as a paint spray line, where there are not very high molecular weight, non volatile, compounds in the exhaust.

  15. american raptor american: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K 1998-01-01 163 Socioeconomic Characteristics of American Indians in Los Angeles County University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: American Indians is critical...

  16. AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST Public Anthropology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST Public Anthropology 2012 Public Anthropology Year in Review: Actually, Rick a torrent of criticism from anthropologists, including an online response by #12;Year in Review: Public

  17. Native American Heritage Month

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This month, we celebrate the rich heritage and myriad contributions of American Indians and Alaska Natives, and we rededicate ourselves to supporting tribal sovereignty, tribal self-determination,...

  18. Precedents in African American architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sass, Lawrence

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a sub-sets of American culture, African Americans have not been able to offer culturally specific architectural elements to the design process because the history of African American form and space has not been recognized ...

  19. Equation for liquid density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Yang, H.C.; Hopper, J.R.; Cawley, W.A. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (US))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saturated liquid densities for organic chemicals are given as functions of temperature using a modified Rackett equation.

  20. Liquid detection circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, Thomas O. (North Aurora, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

  1. Air-sea interaction at contrasting sites in the Eastern Tropical Pacific : mesoscale variability and atmospheric convection at 10°N

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrar, J. Thomas (John Thomas), 1976-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of ocean dynamics in driving air-sea interaction is examined at two contrasting sites on 125°W in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean using data from the Pan American Climate Study (PACS) field program. Analysis ...

  2. Fault detection methods for vapor-compression air conditioners using electrical measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughman, Christopher Reed.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) This method was experimentally tested and validated on a commercially available air handler and duct system. In the second class of faults studied, liquid refrigerant, rather than vapor, enters the cylinder of a ...

  3. Lifecycle impacts of natural gas to hydrogen pathways on urban air quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Guihua; Ogden, Joan M; Nicholas, Michael A

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generation of electricity in California, which resulted in more air pollution than central power plants [electricity-intensive liquid hydrogen truck pathway, emis- sions from diesel truck delivery and electric generation at power plants

  4. Performance Evaluation for Modular, Scalable Liquid-Rack Cooling Systems in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, TengFang

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the modular liquid cooling system with varying supply waterinlet supply air temperature, while modular system coolingcooling needed (up to 9.8 kW/rack) at various supply water

  5. Environmentally Benign Production of Ionic Liquids in CO2-Expanded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nwosu, Sylvia Ogechi

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The need to reduce air pollution in chemical manufacturing processes continues to drive the search for alternative solvents. Ionic Liquids (ILs) have emerged in recent years as a promising solution. In contrast to traditional ...

  6. air temperature air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  7. Modeling air entrainment in plunging jet using 3DYNAFS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Wu, Xiongjun; Chahine, Georges L

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the liquid jet plunges into a free surface, significant air is entrained into the water and forms air pockets. These air pockets eventually break up into small bubbles, which travel downstream to form a bubbly wake. To better understand the underlying flow physics involved in the bubble entrainment, in the linked videos, air entrainment due to a water jet plunging onto a pool of stationary water was numerically studied by using the 3DYNAFS software suit. The flow field is simulated by directly solving the Navier-Stokes equations through the viscous module, 3DYNAFS-VIS, using a level set method for capturing the free surface. The breakup of entrained air pockets and the resulting bubbly flow were modeled by coupling 3DYNAFS-VIS with a Lagrangian multi-bubble tracking model, 3DYNAFS-DSM (Hsiao & Chahine, 2003), which emits bubbles into the liquid according to local liquid/gas interface flow conditions based on the sub-grid air entrainment modeling proposed by Ma et al. (2011), and tracks all bubbles in t...

  8. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  9. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  10. Smithsonian American Art Museum INVENTORIES OF AMERICAN PAINTING AND SCULPTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    Smithsonian American Art Museum INVENTORIES OF AMERICAN PAINTING AND SCULPTURE GUIDELINES FOR REPORTING WORKS The INVENTORIES OF AMERICAN PAINTING AND SCULPTURE were created by the Smithsonian American collections around the country. The database for the Inventories references over 360,000 works from two

  11. General Air Permits (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any source, including a temporary source, which emits or has the potential to emit any air contaminant requires an air permit. Facilities with potential emissions less than 5 tons per year of any...

  12. Healthy Air Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maryland Healthy Air Act was developed with the purpose of bringing Maryland into attainment with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and fine particulate matter by the...

  13. Compressed Air Supply Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPRESSED AIR SUPPLY EFFICENCY Babu Joseph, Ph.D., P.E. Engineer Southern California Edison Irwindale, CA ABSTRACT This project, under contract from California Energy Commission, developed the CASE (Compressed Air Supply Efficiency...

  14. American Journal of EPIDEMIOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominici, Francesca

    mortality and particulate air pollution, even at concentrations below regulatory limits. These findings have for assessing the effect of particulate air pollution on daily mortality even at current levels. Am J Epidemiol 2000; 152:397­406. air pollution; models, statistical; mortality Received for publication February 17

  15. on man, nature & air pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on man, nature & air pollution About three decades ago, itand episodes of air pollution the following summer. Wetthe increase in air pollution. This hypothesis generated

  16. Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    simply and cost-effectively with a dual path arrangement that treats and controls the ventilation air independently of the recirculation air. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)--the nonprofit R&D arm of the electric utility industry... particular type of application. EPRI is developing variations of the dual path concept to meet different reeofit and new construction markets. Figure 6. Ventilation Air Conditioner as a Separate Unit EPRVCALMAC System: Separate Unit for Ventilation Air...

  17. MAD-AIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tooley, J. J.; Moyer, N. A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with stress- related illness rather than the anwr that spells RELIEF. Air flow in, through ad arourd a house is an important concern in the building we call haw. !lb enhance air flow and change the various corditions or properties of the air, a variety...

  18. Air Quality Chapter Outline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Chapter 30 Air Quality Chapter Outline 1 Overview 2 1.1 Hazards / Impacts 2 1.2 Exposure Sources 3 Manual Chapter 30: Air Quality 7 References 20 8 Implementation 21 9 Ownership 22 1 Overview SLAC operations produce a wide range of air emissions. Sources of emissions include standard equipment

  19. Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization During Economizer Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, K.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.; Wang, Z.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature at supply air temperature setpoint. Mechanical cooling is always required when outside air temperature is higher than the supply air temperature setpoint. Generally the supply air temperature setpoint is set at 55°F for space humidity control...

  20. Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2011 Liquid Nitrogen Packed Column Distributor Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    concepts for a liquid nitrogen distributor for a packed distillation column. The design team at Penn State distillation column design. Approach The design team first gathered customer specifications from Air ProductsPENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2011 Liquid Nitrogen Packed Column

  1. Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

  2. air liquide adds: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    instructions. o To edit or remove Firestone, Jeremy 312 A wavelet add-on code for new-generation N-body simulations and data de-noising (JOFILUREN) Astrophysics (arXiv)...

  3. ADP-Automatic Data Processing Inc Air Liquide USA LLC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dasgupta, Dipankar

    Trust Foundation Texas Gas Transmission Corporation The Guardian Life Insurance Company of America The Henry Luce Foundation The Principal Financial Group Foundation Time Warner Foundation Towers Perrin UBS Employee Giving

  4. Case Study: Evaluating Liquid versus Air Cooling in the Maui...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Federal High Performance Computing Data Centers Case Study: Innovative Energy Efficiency Approaches in NOAA's...

  5. Air and Liquid Advisors ALA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1AMEE JumpAeroWindcapitalInformationChemicals Inc Jump

  6. Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1Albuquerque, NM - Building Americaof42.2 (AprilSevere drought in

  7. CIBLE DE TRITIUM LIQUIDE M. CHEMARIN, L. FEUVRAIS, M. GOUANRE, M. C. LEMAIRE et G. NICOLA,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    236. CIBLE DE TRITIUM LIQUIDE M. CHEMARIN, L. FEUVRAIS, M. GOUAN�RE, M. C. LEMAIRE et G. NICOLAÏ, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Lyon. Résumé. - On présente une cible de tritium ou deutérium liquide de petite dimension : 0,4 cm3 de tritium liquide, soit une perte d'énergie de 1,4 MeV pour des deutons de 27

  8. Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Raj

    1 Air to Air Communication Protocol Arjan Durresi1 , Vamsi Paruchuri1 , Leonard Barolli2 and Raj. Louis, MO 63130, USA 314-935-4963, jain@cse.wustl.edu Abstract--We present Air to Air Communication (AAC........................................................2 3. AIR TO AIR COMMUNICATION..............................3 4. SIMULATIONS

  9. Air Pollution- Local Air Quality (Ontario, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Air Pollution regulation administered by the Ministry of the Environment enforces compliance to the standards set in the Ontario law. The law is phased in, with portions taking effect in 2010,...

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits Kristi Busico ambient air pollutants and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the roles of the physicochemical components the relation between ambient air pollution and cardiovascular conditions using ambient air quality data

  11. ELECTROSTATICALLY DRIVEN ROTOR ON CONDUCTIVE LIQUID RING BEARINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    avoid dry friction, eliminate wear and enhance reliability; compared with gas bearing [7], liquid]. However, the solid-solid friction, large in microscale, requires high voltage or large current to overcome the friction and often causes serious wear [6]. Gas or air bearing [7], created through electrostatic

  12. Liquid Holdup Profiles in Structured Packing Determined via Neutron Radiography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eldridge, R. Bruce

    scans of an operating air-water contactor were performed at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR packings are widely employed in vapor-liquid contacting devices for distillation, absorption, and stripping. The high specific surface areas (ap), regular geometries, and high void fraction () of structured packing

  13. Moore honored with American Statistical Association award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    American Statistical Association Award Moore honored with American Statistical Association award Lisa Moore is the recipient of the 2013 Don Owen Award presented by the American...

  14. Modeling and Control of a Free Liquid-Piston Engine Compressor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barth, Eric J.

    Modeling and Control of a Free Liquid-Piston Engine Compressor Chao Yong, Eric J. Barth, José A-piston engine compressor. The dynamic model includes 1) the injection dynamics of the air/fuel mixture, 2 issue, since standard air compressors are too heavy for the intended target scale, as are portable tanks

  15. (Ionization in liquids)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes charge transport following ionization of model liquids and how this process may be important in carcinogenesis. 15 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs. (MHB)

  16. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  17. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Sheng; Jie Zhang; Jing Liu

    2014-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clarified. Such events are hard to achieve otherwise on rigid metal or conventional liquid spheres. This finding has both fundamental and practical significances which suggest a generalized way of making smart soft machine, collecting discrete metal fluids, as well as flexibly manipulating liquid metal objects including accompanying devices.

  18. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  19. The great American garage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, B. Alex (Brian Alex), 1977-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    How does one explore the suburban home? Go in through the garage, of course. Sales, bands, suicides, and business startups: The suburban garage is the most culturally flexible space in the entire American domestic environment. ...

  20. Asian American women entrepreneurs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suh, Clara J

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are an estimated 620,300 firms owned by Asian American women nationwide, and they contribute $105 billion to the U.S. economy. They are also active in Greater Boston's innovation and entrepreneurship communities. ...

  1. High-throughput liquid-absorption preconcentrator sampling methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon (95706 William Dr., Hinsdale, IL 60521)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container comprising a wettable material. The wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid which flows from one part of the container to a lower end. Sampled air flows through the container in contact with the wetted material with a swirling motion which results in efficient transfer of analyte vapors or aerosol particles to the sorbing liquid and preconcentration of traces of analyte in the liquid. The preconcentrated traces of analyte may be either detected within the container or removed therefrom for injection into a separate detection means or for subsequent analysis.

  2. High-throughput liquid-absorption preconcentrator sampling methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.

    1994-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container comprising a wettable material. The wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid which flows from one part of the container to a lower end. Sampled air flows through the container in contact with the wetted material with a swirling motion which results in efficient transfer of analyte vapors or aerosol particles to the sorbing liquid and preconcentration of traces of analyte in the liquid. The preconcentrated traces of analyte may be either detected within the container or removed therefrom for injection into a separate detection means or for subsequent analysis. 12 figs.

  3. Scalability of mass transfer in liquid-liquid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woitalka, A.

    We address liquid–liquid mass transfer between immiscible liquids using the system 1-butanol and water, with succinic acid as the mass transfer component. Using this system we evaluate the influence of two-phase flow ...

  4. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  5. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  6. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  7. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  8. Liquid contact resonance atomic force microscopy via experimental reconstruction of the hydrodynamic function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tung, Ryan C., E-mail: ryan.tung@nist.gov; Killgore, Jason P.; Hurley, Donna C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method to correct for surface-coupled inertial and viscous fluid loading forces in contact resonance (CR) atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments performed in liquid. Based on analytical hydrodynamic theory, the method relies on experimental measurements of the AFM cantilever's free resonance peaks near the sample surface. The free resonance frequencies and quality factors in both air and liquid allow reconstruction of a continuous hydrodynamic function that can be used to adjust the CR data in liquid. Validation experiments utilizing thermally excited free and in-contact spectra were performed to assess the accuracy of our approach. Results show that the method recovers the air frequency values within approximately 6%. Knowledge of fluid loading forces allows current CR analysis techniques formulated for use in air and vacuum environments to be applied to liquid environments. Our technique greatly extends the range of measurement environments available to CR-AFM.

  9. Air Pollution Control (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The mission of the Indiana Department of Environmental Management's Office of Air Quality implements federal and state regulations to protect human health and the environment while allowing the...

  10. Air Pollution Controls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Various statutes within the Wisconsin Legislative Documents relate to air pollution control. These statutes describe zoning, permitting, and emissions regulations for hazardous and non-hazardous...

  11. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, Ronald G. (Los Alamos, NM); Salazar, Samuel A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  12. Environmental Quality: Air (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Environmental Quality regulates air quality in Louisiana. The Department has an established a fee system for funding the monitoring, investigation and other activities required...

  13. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities.

  14. AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy! W H A T I S A I R L E A K A G E ? Ventilation is fresh air that enters a house in a controlled manner to exhaust excess moisture and reduce odors and stuffiness. Air leakage, or infiltration, is outside air that enters a house uncontrollably through cracks

  15. Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference Department: Chemical and General Safety Program: Air Quality Owner: Program Manager Authority: ES&H Manual, Chapter 30, Air Quality1 SLAC's air emissions are regulated through a federally mandated site-wide permit as well

  16. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  17. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

  18. Andrew Case "American Environmental History"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Andrew Case History "American Environmental History" Spring 2008 Advisor: William Cronon Classics, Richard. "It's Your Misfortune and None of My Own": A New History of the American West. (Norman

  19. Parameters defining flow resistance and the friction factor behavior in liquid annular seals with deliberately roughened surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villasmil Urdaneta, Larry Alfonso

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    replaced with stators containing different roughness patterns to reduce leakage and enhance rotor response. Several roughened seal experiments with liquid and air have produced leakage data indicating that the friction factor increases as the seal clearance...

  20. Compact air scrubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bentley, Bill F. (Santa Fe, NM); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Saunders, George C. (Espanola, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for removing material from a gas. A mist created by a piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer is contacted with the gas and both gas and mist are passed through baffled separators. Liquid effluent from the separators contains solid material removed from the gas and gaseous material which reacted with the liquid or was absorbed by the liquid. The invention is useful for collecting a sample of material in a gas, such as a vapor in the atmosphere, and in cleaning a gas. A relatively concentrated solution of a material present in a gas in a very small concentration can be obtained.

  1. Compressed Air System Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aegerter, R.

    Several years ago I went to a gas station and noticed that my car's tires were low on air. I saw the gas station had an air compressor, but it cost a quarter to use the compressor. I paid my quarter and used the compressor. I realized...

  2. Recirculating electric air filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

  3. Electrically Deformable Liquid Marbles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Tamir Stein; Gene Whyman; Marcelo Schiffer; Doron Aurbach

    2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid marbles, which are droplets coated with a hydrophobic powder, were exposed to a uniform electric field. It was established that a threshold value of the electric field, 15 cgse, should be surmounted for deformation of liquid marbles. The shape of the marbles was described as a prolate spheroid. The semi-quantitative theory describing deformation of liquid marbles in a uniform electric field is presented. The scaling law relating the radius of the contact area of the marble to the applied electric field shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  4. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  5. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  6. Latin American and Caribbean Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    Latin American and Caribbean Studies Certificate About Us UWM graduates in the 21st century American and Caribbean Studies Certificate Program (LACS) will be especially well-prepared for careers academic focus in Latin American and Caribbean languages, histories, and cultures. However, the LACS

  7. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Coupled Level-Set/Volume-of-Fluid Method for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussman, Mark

    utilizing a coupled level-set/volume-of-fluid method to simulate liquid fuel atomization. The coupledAmerican Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Coupled Level-Set/Volume-of-Fluid Method, Canoga Park, Calif. 91309 This paper presents results of a multiphase computational fluid dynamics code

  8. Liquid Phase Heating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mordt, E. H.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature Water (HTW) central district heating systems are far superior to steam systems in large, spread out installations such as airports, universities and office complexes. Water, pressurized to keep it in the liquid state, is distributed at 400o...

  9. Liquidity facilities and signaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arregui, Nicolás

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

  10. Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

  11. Quantification and Physics of Cold Plasma Treatment of Organic Liquid Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edward Bormashenko; Victor Multanen; Gilad Chaniel; Roman Grynyov; Evgeny Shulzinger; Roman Pogreb; Hadas Aharoni; Yakir Nagar

    2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma treatment increases the surface energy of condensed phases: solids and liquids. Two independent methods of the quantification of the influence imposed by a cold radiofrequency air plasma treatment on the surface properties of silicone oils (polydimethylsiloxane) of various molecular masses and castor oil are introduced. Under the first method the water droplet coated by oils was exposed to the cold air radiofrequency plasma, resulting in an increase of oil/air surface energy. An expression relating the oil/air surface energy to the apparent contact angle of the water droplet coated with oil was derived. The apparent contact angle was established experimentally. Calculation of the oil/air surface energy and spreading parameter was carried out for the various plasma-treated silicone and castor oils. The second method is based on the measurement of the electret response of the plasma-treated liquids.

  12. air volume air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Air Preheat Economics Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Retrofit air preheat systems are the most reliable and efficient means to effect significant energy...

  13. Abatement of Air Pollution: Hazardous Air Pollutants (Connecticut...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    allowable stack concentrations and hazard limiting values for the emission of hazardous air pollutants. The regulations also discuss sampling procedures for hazardous air...

  14. Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    limits and permitting and operational requirements for facilities that may contribute to air emissions. General air quality standards and standards for specific contaminants are...

  15. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 7 - Emission of Air Contaminant...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with the enjoyment of life and property. The criteria for determining compliance is listed in the regulations, and is based on other air pollution and ambient air standards...

  16. Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

  17. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  18. Liquid mixing device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, R. P.

    1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixing device for mixing at least two liquids to produce a homogenous mixture. The device includes an elongated chamber in which a vertically oriented elongated mixing cavity is located. The cavity is sealed at its lower end and it is open at its upper end and in communication with the interior of the chamber. An elongated conduit extends the length of the cavity and is adapted to receive liquids to be mixed. The conduit includes a plurality of ports located at longitudinally spaced positions therealong and which ports are directed in different directions. The ports create plural streams of liquid which interact and mix with one another within the cavity. The mixed liquids overflow the cavity and out its top end into the chamber 24. The chamber 24 includes an outlet from which the mixed liquids are withdrawn. In accordance with the preferred embodiment gas eductor means are provided in the inlet to the conduit to introduce gas bubbles within the cavity. Gas vent means are also provided in the device to vent any introduced gases from the device so that only the mixed liquids flow out the outlet.

  19. Renewables and air quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wooley, D.R.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US heavy reliance on fossil fuels is a central obstacle to improving air quality and preventing catastrophic climate change. To solve this problem will require a combination of financial incentives and market rules that strongly encourage development of renewable energy resources to meet electric power demand. One promising policy option is to allow renewable energy resources to directly participate in air pollution emission trading mechanisms. Currently, the clean air benefits of renewable energy generally go unrecognized by regulators, under-appreciated by consumers and uncompensated by markets. Renewable energy is a key clean air alternative to conventional electricity generation, and the development of renewables could be stimulated by changes to the Clean Air Act's emissions trading programs. As Congress revisits clean air issues over the next several years, renewable energy representatives could push for statutory changes that reward the renewable energy industry for the air quality benefits it provides. By also becoming involved in key US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state rule-making cases, the renewables industry could influence the structure of emissions trading programs and strengthen one of the most persuasive arguments for wind, solar and biomass energy development.

  20. Texas Clean Air Act (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act is designed to safeguard the state's air resources from pollution by requiring the control and abatement of air pollution and emissions of air contaminants, consistent with the protection...

  1. Air Quality (Nova Scotia, Canada)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nova Scotia Environment is responsible for monitoring the air quality in the province, as well as administering fines and permits relating to air quality. The Air Quality Regulations state...

  2. Health Hazards in Indoor Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Health Hazards in Indoor Air. In Proceedings of the 2010for VOCs from post-1990 indoor air concentration studies inUnion project on indoor air pollutants. Allergy, 2008. 63(

  3. STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    American Air Liquide for an Advance Waiver of Domestic and Foreign Invention Rights under DOE Contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41586; W(A)-05-049, CH- 1334 The Petitioner, American Air...

  4. Journal Titles American Orthoptic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    Search Journal Titles American Orthoptic Journal Arctic Anthropology Contemporary Literature Ecological Restoration Journal of Human Resources Land Economics Land Management Pkg Landscape Journal Luso-Brazilian Review Monatshefte Native Plants Journal SubStance Article Copies/Permissions Journal Ebooks Library

  5. Making Compressed Air System Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porri, R. E.

    . The design of a compressed air system was formerly limited to the selection of an air compressor large enough to deliver sufficient compressed air for the estimated system requirements. As system air requirements grew, additional compressors were added... specification, selection and installation process will follow. BACKGROUND For more than 100 years compressed air has been used throughout industry as a safe and reliable utility. The generation of this utility is performed by an air compressor. The first...

  6. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  7. Air Cooling R&D

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    or otherwise restricted information. 2 State of the Art Everything on a vehicle is air cooled, ultimately... Air cooling can be done... When?... How? Honda Insight Power...

  8. Ambient Air Quality Standards (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations set statewide ambient air quality standards for various contaminants. The state code follows the regulations set forth in the National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality...

  9. Compressed Air Supply Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, B.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project, under contract from California Energy Commission, developed the CASE (Compressed Air Supply Efficiency) Index as a stand-alone value for compressor central plant efficiency. This Index captures the overall efficiency of a compressed...

  10. Retrofit Air Preheat Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goolsbee, J. A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Retrofit air preheat systems are the most reliable and efficient means to effect significant energy conservation for large existing industrial furnaces. Units can be quickly installed without a lengthy shutdown, and the furnace efficiency can...

  11. Canned Air in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2013-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: Not that long ago, coal smoke made the air here in Beijing so caustic that your nasal passages were seared with each breath. Those were the good old days: Car ownership was limited to government ...

  12. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, John (Bethel Park, PA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sampling apparatus is provided which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  13. Breathing zone air sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, J.

    1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A sampling apparatus is presented which comprises a sampler for sampling air in the breathing zone of a wearer of the apparatus and a support for the sampler preferably in the form of a pair of eyeglasses. The sampler comprises a sampling assembly supported on the frame of the eyeglasses and including a pair of sample transport tubes which are suspended, in use, centrally of the frame so as to be disposed on opposite sides of the nose of the wearer and which each include an inlet therein that, in use, is disposed adjacent to a respective nostril of the nose of the wearer. A filter holder connected to sample transport tubes supports a removable filter for filtering out particulate material in the air sampled by the apparatus. The sample apparatus is connected to a pump for drawing air into the apparatus through the tube inlets so that the air passes through the filter.

  14. Air pollution meteorology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eagleman, J.R.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Pollution Meteorology is divided into three parts: air pollution fundamentals; concentration calculations and distributions; and pollution and meteorological interactions. The first section includes chapters on the following topics: the problem; measurements, sources, and standards; air stagnation and pollutant index; and effects. The second section of the book includes chapters on diffusion theory, the Gaussian plume dispersion model, plume rise, various dispersion models, scale considerations, and concentration trends. The third and final section (on pollution and meteorological interactions) begins with two chapters on radiative and wind effects on dispersion, and then follows with chapters on acid rain, the ozone hole, the greenhouse effect, and nuclear winter. In summary, Air Pollution Meteorology does a good job of covering the field for physics, chemistry, and engineering students who want to obtain an overview of the subject.

  15. Air bag restraint device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  16. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  17. inAir: Sharing Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankoff, Jennifer

    evidence has indicated that indoor air pollution within homes and other buildings can be worse than the outdoor air pollution in even the largest and most industrialized cities. For example, the California Air Resources Board estimates that indoor air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside levels [4

  18. Clearing the Air: "AIR" Training Session Wednesday, December 18

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Christopher A.

    Clearing the Air: "AIR" Training Session Wednesday, December 18 12 p.m. ­ 1:00 p.m. Human Resources/Tobacco- Free! Join us for an interactive session and learn more about "AIR" (Approach, Inform, Refer, and safe campus environment. Visit Clearing the Air website (http://tobaccofree.ucr.edu/) for more

  19. Air distribution effectiveness with stratified air distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Air distribution effectiveness with stratified air distribution systems Kisup Lee* Zheng Jiang, Ph.D Qingyan Chen, Ph.D. Student Member ASHRAE Fellow ASHRAE ABSTRACT Stratified air distribution systems such as Traditional Displacement Ventilation (TDV) and Under- Floor Air Distribution (UFAD

  20. Abstract--A novel compressed air energy storage system for wind turbine is proposed. It captures excess power prior to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    Abstract-- A novel compressed air energy storage system for wind turbine is proposed. It captures instead of supply. Energy is stored in a high pressure dual chamber liquid-compressed air storage vessel a challenge. An energy storage system can provide steady and predictable power by storing excess energy

  1. ILASS Europe 2013, 25th European Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Chania, Greece, 1-4 September 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chambers, the injection of fuel is commonly achieved by air-blast atomizers which create a spray sheared liquid sheet by a planar air-blast atomizer (Figure 1). Here, this database is used as a reference carried out in which both the influence of the mesh resolution and the effect of some relevant physical

  2. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED INTO A DWELLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED.peuportier@mines-paristech.fr, Tel.: +33 1 40 51 91 51 ABSTRACT An inverter-driven air-to-air heat pump model has been developped capacity air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air sources (crawlspace, attic, sunspace, heat

  3. The effects of outdoor heat exchanger hydrophobic treatment on the performance of an air source heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Brandon DeWayne

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mode, the system must remove heat from the cold outdoor air and provide it to the conditioned space. To remove the heat from the outdoor air, the refrigerant entering the outdoor heat exchanger must be colder than the outdoor air. The outdoor air... is pulled across the heat exchanger surface by the outdoor fan Hence, the cold liquid refrigerant passing through the evaporator coil receives heat from the outdoor ambient air passing over the coil, causing the refrigerant to vaporize into a cool gas...

  4. Distribution, Abundance, and survival of Nesting American Dippers near Juneau, Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ... variation in survival or focus on the effects of stream pollution on dipper physiology and reproduction. The American Dipper ( ... 1973, Price and Bock 1983). Nocturnal drainage of cold air down narrow ravines (see Pypker et al. 2007) and the high winds common ...

  5. Aerosol Science and Technology, 46:12391245, 2012 Copyright C American Association for Aerosol Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Aerosol Science and Technology, 46:1239­1245, 2012 Copyright C American Association for Aerosol of Surfactants in Nanoparticles Produced by an Electrospray Aerosol Generator Amanda C. MacMillan,1 John B, USA Electrospray aerosol generators (EAGs) disperse conducting solutions into air, promptly neutralize

  6. 86 BYU 20072008 Undergraduate Catalog American Heritage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    86 BYU 2007­2008 Undergraduate Catalog American Heritage American Heritage 100. American Heritage, and patterns of historical development. American Studies American Studies Office 4095 JFSB Kerry Soper; literary criticism; historical research; and social, political, and economic analysis. The program provides

  7. Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    PSE - 1 Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment) MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN WITH AIR PSE Developed by Prof. Donald Dabdub Computational Environmental Sciences Laboratory Mechanical COMPUTER MODELS An air pollution model is a computer program that computes how the different chemical

  8. Ionic liquids and electrochemistry: from proteins to electrochromic devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keizer, T. S. (Timothy S.); McCleskey, T. M. (Thomas Mark); Baker, G. A. (Gary A.); Burrell, A. K. (Anthony K.); Baker, S. N. (Sheila N.); Warner, B. P. (Benjamin P.); Hall, S. B. (Simon B.)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We will report on a wide range of activities within the chemistry division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results on basic and applied research involving electrochemistry will be discussed. Topics will include electrochemistry of proteins, sensors based on electrochemical signals, temperature sensors, electrochromic devices in ionic liquids and the characterization of organic cation radicals. We have recently developed several applications in ionic liquids that include electrochromic devices, temperature sensors and chemical sensors. The electrochromic windows are being marketed as selftinting automotive mirrors. The ionic liquid based temperature sensor is stable and accurate over a wide range and has the potential to provide high-resolution temperature imaging. Chemical sensors have been developed that use electrochemistry to detect low levels of potential chemical agents in air. We have also studied the basic chemistry of charge transfer complexes and proteins in ionic liquids. Charge transfer complexes display unique behavior in ionic liquid compare to traditional solvents. Proteins can be solubilized at high levels that make it possible to probe electrochemistry in the proper ionic liquid.

  9. Compressed air energy storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

  10. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space area. Room temperatures are controlled by pneumatic thermostats. The AHU has a minimum outside air damper and a maximum outside air damper. The minimum outside air damper is fully open when the AHU is in operation. The maximum outside air... of thermostat, and the relationship between room temperature set point and return air temperature. The Role Of Thermostat Traditional pneumatic thermostat is a proportional (P) type controller. It senses the space temperature changes and produces...

  11. Single-Duct Constant Air Volume System Supply Air Temperature Reset: Using Return Air Temperature or Outside Air Temperature?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D.; Liu, M.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    space area. Room temperatures are controlled by pneumatic thermostats. The AHU has a minimum outside air damper and a maximum outside air damper. The minimum outside air damper is fully open when the AHU is in operation. The maximum outside air... understand how this reset scheme responds to building load change, thus resulting in supply air temperature reset, it is helpful to explain the role of thermostat. In the following section, we explain the way how the thermostat works, the type...

  12. liquid nberwp.tex Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Saving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    liquid nberwp.tex Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Saving Christopher D. Carroll ccarroll to the optimal consumption/saving problem under uncertainty have long known that there are quantitatively important in- teractions between liquidity constraints and precautionary saving behavior. This paper

  13. New American Home 2009 (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brochure details the New American Home 2009, which demonstrates the use of innovative building materials, cutting-edge design, and the latest construction techniques.

  14. Economizer Based Data Center Liquid Cooling with Advanced Metal Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy Chainer

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A new chiller-less data center liquid cooling system utilizing the outside air environment has been shown to achieve up to 90% reduction in cooling energy compared to traditional chiller based data center cooling systems. The system removes heat from Volume servers inside a Sealed Rack and transports the heat using a liquid loop to an Outdoor Heat Exchanger which rejects the heat to the outdoor ambient environment. The servers in the rack are cooled using a hybrid cooling system by removing the majority of the heat generated by the processors and memory by direct thermal conduction using coldplates and the heat generated by the remaining components using forced air convection to an air- to- liquid heat exchanger inside the Sealed Rack. The anticipated benefits of such energy-centric configurations are significant energy savings at the data center level. When compared to a traditional 10 MW data center, which typically uses 25% of its total data center energy consumption for cooling this technology could potentially enable a cost savings of up to $800,000-$2,200,000/year (assuming electricity costs of 4 to 11 cents per kilowatt-hour) through the reduction in electrical energy usage.

  15. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  16. Breakup of Liquid Filaments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castrejon-Pita, Alfonso A.; Castrejon-Pita, J.R.; Hutchings, I.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , including the dispersion of liquid drugs into res- pirable droplets, microfluidics, crop- and paint-spraying, and ink-jet printing [2–4]. There are also biological sys- tems in which either long filaments remain intact, or many droplets are formed [5, 6...

  17. Leonard Wood and the American Empire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruitt, James Herman

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    During the ten years following the Spanish American War (1898 to 1908), Major General Leonard Wood served as the primary agent of American imperialism. Wood was not only a proconsul of the new American Empire; he was a ...

  18. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

    2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

  19. Auxiliary air injector assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sager, R.L.

    1987-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an auxiliary air injector assembly kit for replacement use to connect a secondary air line from an engine air pump to an exhaust pipe in a variety of combustion engine exhaust systems. The exhaust pipe has an auxiliary air receiving hole formed in a wall thereof. The assembly comprises a flexible conduit adapted to be readily cut to length and connected at one end to the secondary air line, a metal tube, means for connecting a first end of the metal tube to the other end of the flexible conduit, and a hollow fitting with an air flow-through passage and having a conical portion adapted to fit in the hole in a leak resistant manner. The fitting has a bearing portion with a convex spherical surface located outside the exhaust pipe when the conical portion is in the hole. A second end of the metal tube has a flange with a concave spherical surface to seat against the convex spherical surface in a leak resistant manner. A clamp means connects the metal tube to the exhaust pipe and applies pressure on the metal tube flange against the bearing portion of the fitting to hold the fitting in the hole. The clamp means includes a saddle having an opening larger than the tube but smaller than the tube flange. The tube extends through the saddle opening. The clamp means also includes a U-bolt assembly for extending around the exhaust pipe and forcing the saddle against the tube flange and toward the exhaust pipe.

  20. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

    2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  1. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  2. Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations establish emissions limits and permitting and operational requirements for facilities that may contribute to air emissions. General air quality standards and standards for...

  3. Weatherization Formula Grants - American Recovery and Reinvestment...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Weatherization Formula Grants - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Weatherization Formula Grants - American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) U.S. Department of...

  4. American Wind Energy Association Offshore WINDPOWER Conference...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American Wind Energy Association Offshore WINDPOWER Conference & Exhibition American Wind Energy Association Offshore WINDPOWER Conference & Exhibition October 7, 2014 9:00AM EDT...

  5. Energy Innovation: Green Button Initiative Empowering Americans...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Innovation: Green Button Initiative Empowering Americans to Save Energy and Money Energy Innovation: Green Button Initiative Empowering Americans to Save Energy and Money...

  6. Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Factors influencing quantitative liquid (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Abstract:...

  7. Analysis & Simulation of Dynamics in Supercooled Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elmatad, Yael Sarah

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Moreover, the heat capacity of that liquid is also higherthe intensive heat capacities of the liquid and the crystal,

  8. Simultaneous Production and Distribution of Industrial Gas Supply-Chains Pablo A. Marchetti1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    -chains. In this industry, cryogenic air separation processes are used to produce oxygen, nitrogen, and argon both as gaseous and liquid products. Air separation units consume large amounts of electricity, mainly due American Air Liquide Inc., Delaware Research and Technology Center, Newark, DE 19702 3 Air Liquide, Paris

  9. Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The ambient air quality standards are based on the national ambient air quality standards. The Vermont standards are classified as primary and secondary standards and judged adequate to protect...

  10. Industrial HVAC Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Retrofit Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, E. L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Retrofitting air-to-air energy recovery equipment is relatively simply to design and easy to install. Additionally, HVAC energy recovery is almost risk free when compared to process retrofit. Life cycle cost analysis is the best way to illustrate...

  11. Compressed Air 101: Getting Compressed Air to Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, J. J.; Bessey, E. G.

    "Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user. Based on a survey (conducted by Oregon State University and the Bonneville Power Administration) of energy audit reports from 125 plants, air compressors account for roughly 10% of total...

  12. The American Recovery

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssuesEnergy Solar Decathlon2001 Power PlantAPRIL 1, 2011TheAmerican

  13. American Physical Society awards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta Fe MetroWeinbergAmerican Physical Society

  14. American Venture Acceleration Fund

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta Fe MetroWeinbergAmericanSix regional

  15. American Physical Society Fellows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumni Alumni PARC/I-CARES CERTIFICATE INofNuclear SocietyAmerican

  16. AMERICAN STATISTICAL ASSOCIATION

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4Residential17.Keeping PaceAMERICAN

  17. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide both the backdrop and the impetus for this study.

  18. Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadtherr, Mark A.

    Modeling Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquid Systems with NRTL, Electrolyte-NRTL, and UNIQUAC different excess Gibbs free energy models are evaluated: the NRTL, UNIQUAC and electrolyte- NRTL (eNRTL) models. In the case of eNRTL, a new formulation of the model is used, based on a symmetric reference

  19. Help cut pollution with vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woinsky, S.G.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators are common in chemical process industries plants. In addition to separating phases, these devices can aid in reducing pollution in the plant. Two-phase separators achieve pollution prevention via recycling of intermediates and final products. It is doubtful that most vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators are used specifically for pollution prevention projects. They may have another purpose yet provide pollution prevention as a bonus. The first step in achieving pollution prevention by design is for operating companies to be aware of vapor/liquid and liquid/liquid separators as potential pollution prevention devices. Then, likely applications need to be investigated. Since the quantities of material recovered are relatively small, higher value products are the most likely targets, especially for liquid/liquid separators. However, for vapor/liquid separators, the costs involved are usually relatively low since only the cost of a separator pad is normally involved, and more moderately valued products can be targets.

  20. Cold Air Distribution in Office Buildings: Technology Assessment for California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.S.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    warmer room air with the cold supply air whenever the supplyroom air diffusion with cold supply air temperatures under

  1. The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holley, James Andrew

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis James Andrew Holley Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1978 Major SubJect: Mechanical Engineering THE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis hy James Andrew Holley Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departm nt) Memb e...

  2. Liquid filtration simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corey, I.; Bergman, W.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have a developed a computer code that simulates 3-D filtration of suspended particles in fluids in realistic filter structures. This code, being the most advanced filtration simulation package developed to date, provides LLNL and DOE with new capabilities to address problems in cleaning liquid wastes, medical fluid cleaning, and recycling liquids. The code is an integrated system of commercially available and LLNL-developed software; the most critical are the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and the particle transport program. For the CFD solver, we used a commercial package based on Navier-Stokes equations and a LLNL-developed package based on Boltzman-lattice gas equations. For the particle transport program, we developed a cod based on the 3-D Langevin equation of motion and the DLVO theory of electrical interactions. A number of additional supporting packages were purchased or developed to integrate the simulation tasks and to provide visualization output.

  3. Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion Practical Air Pollution Dispersion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moncrieff, John B.

    Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion 1 of 5 Practical ­ Air Pollution Dispersion in the lectures how such models can be used to explain observed concentrations of air pollutants in an area and to test `what-if' scenarios for pollution control and reduction. You will use the Gaussian Plume Model

  4. Schrodinger Fermi Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Juven

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a class of strongly interacting many-body fermionic systems in 2+1D non-relativistic conformal field theory via holography. The 5D charged black hole with asymptotic Schrodinger isometry in the bulk gravity side introduces parameters of background density and finite particle number into the boundary field theory. We propose the holographic dictionary, and realize a quantum phase transition of this fermionic liquid with fixed particle number by tuning the background density $\\beta$ at zero temperature. On the larger $\\beta$ side, we find the signal of a sharp quasiparticle pole on the spectral function A(k,w), indicating a well-defined Fermi surface. On the smaller $\\beta$ side, we find only a hump with no sharp peak for A(k,w), indicating the disappearance of Fermi surface. The dynamical exponent $z$ of quasiparticle dispersion goes from being Fermi-liquid-like $z\\simeq1$ scaling at larger $\\beta$ to a non-Fermi-liquid scaling $z\\simeq 3/2$ at smaller $\\beta$. By comparing the structure of Green's fu...

  5. Transactions of the ASAE Vol. 45(5): xxxxxx E 2002 American Society of Agricultural Engineers ISSN 00012351 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel Jr., Frederick C.

    Transactions of the ASAE Vol. 45(5): xxx­xxx E 2002 American Society of Agricultural Engineers ISSN, 1988; Harkin, 1997). Most of these facilities typically manage manure and wastewater as a liquid, which, and Frederick C. Michel, Jr., ASAE Member Engineer, Assistant Professor, Department of Food, Agricultural

  6. Louisiana Air Control Law (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law states regulations for air quality control and states the powers and duties of the secretary of environmental quality. It provides information about permits and licenses, air quality...

  7. Tennessee Air Quality Act (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tennessee Air Quality Act (AQA) delegates the power to maintain air quality in the State to the Department of Environment and Conservation. Under the Department of the Environment and...

  8. Air Pollution Control Fees (Ohio)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Facilities with a potential to emit any one regulated air pollutant of a quantity greater than or equal to 100 tons per year, or any one hazardous air pollutant (HAP) greater than or equal to 10...

  9. Compressed Air Audits using AIRMaster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, G. M.; McGill, R. D.; Bessey, E. G.; Vischer, K.

    Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user and therefore a prime target for industrial energy audits. The project goal was to develop a software tool, AIRMaster, and supporting methodology for performing compressed air system audits...

  10. Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This initial class demonstrates how to compute the current cost of your plant's compressed...

  11. THE SOUTH AMERICAN JUDICIAL COLLOQUIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraden, Seth

    on the historic premises of the Stock Exchange (Bolsa de Comercio) of Buenos Aires, presided over by Dr. Ricardo. CONVENORS Ricardo LiRosi, Judge of the Court of Appeal in Buenos Aires and Vice BUENOS AIRES 4 ­ 7 NOVEMBER 2009 #12;With thanks to Elisa Trotta Gamus for her assistance

  12. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976. Geometand appliances and air pollution levels in the indoorAnnual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association,

  13. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Japanese Union of Air Pollution Prevention Associations,The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976, GeometAnnual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association,

  14. Review: Integrating Climate, Energy and Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, David E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate, Energy and Air Pollution By Gary Bryner with RobertEnergy, and Air Pollution. Cambridge, Massachusetts, The MITClimate, Energy, and Air Pollution provides a well-

  15. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wahl, Linnea

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL-470E-20Ì1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Preparedfor Estimating Fugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides fromStandards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Radionuclides),

  16. Oil and Gas Air Heaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium....

  17. Oil and Gas Air Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium....

  18. Latin American Theatre Review, Volume 31, Number 1: Book Reviews

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Mexico City, the open air performances in the atrium of the Templo de San Francisco on Avenida Juárez and performances of La noche más venturosa come to mind when I think of the pastorela. Like the Don Juan theme that originates in Spain, then comes... saínete La comparsa se despide de Alberto Vacarezza. Por último, Marina F. Sikora examina la recepción de cuatro comedias de Gregorio de Laferrére. 190 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW La tercera sección se enfoca en la producción teatral de dos ciudades...

  19. TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery Input file: ducts.in You are a technician for the Air Conditioning Machinery company (ACM). Unfortunately, when you arrive at a customer site to install some air conditioning ducts, you discover that you are running low on supplies. You have only six duct segments

  20. Air Pollution Socio-Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Traffic Air Pollution and Socio-Economic Status Gregory C Pratt PhD Kristie Ellickson PhD #12 · Relationships #12;Living near traffic increases exposure to air pollution and is associated with adverse health exposed to traffic and air pollution. They are also more vulnerable and have an increased risk of adverse

  1. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  2. Air Observe System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This manuscript contains a description and basic principles for observing inaccessible areas using low cost, easily deployed equipment. The basic premise is to suspend a tiny video camera at an altitude of 10 - 200 meters over the area to be surveyed. The TV camera supports at altitude by wind or balloon. The technical challenges regard the means by which the camera is suspended. Such a system may be used by military or police forces or by civil authorities for rescue missions or assessment of natural disasters. The method may be further developed for military applications by integrating the surveillance task with deployment of munitions. Key words: air observer, air suspended system, low altitude video observer.

  3. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  4. Air cathode structure manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Momyer, William R. (Palo Alto, CA); Littauer, Ernest L. (Los Altos Hills, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved air cathode structure for use in primary batteries and the like. The cathode structure includes a matrix active layer, a current collector grid on one face of the matrix active layer, and a porous, nonelectrically conductive separator on the opposite face of the matrix active layer, the collector grid and separator being permanently bonded to the matrix active layer. The separator has a preselected porosity providing low IR losses and high resistance to air flow through the matrix active layer to maintain high bubble pressure during operation of the battery. In the illustrated embodiment, the separator was formed of porous polypropylene. A thin hydrophobic film is provided, in the preferred embodiment, on the current collecting metal grid.

  5. First Floor Smithsonian American Art Museum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    First Floor Smithsonian American Art Museum American Experience Folk Art Special ExhibitionsMillan Education Center Folk Art One Life Archives of American Art Gallery Recent AcquisitionsMuseum Store Museum Museum Graphic Arts American Art through 1940 America's Presidents The Struggle for Justice

  6. Professor, Communication Studies and African American Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Professor, Communication Studies and African American Studies Director of African American of Communication and Theatre Arts and Director of the African American Studies Program at the University of Puget Book Chapter Award from the African American Communication and Culture Division and the Black Caucus

  7. Liquid class predictor for liquid handling of complex mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seglke, Brent W. (San Ramon, CA); Lekin, Timothy P. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of establishing liquid classes of complex mixtures for liquid handling equipment. The mixtures are composed of components and the equipment has equipment parameters. The first step comprises preparing a response curve for the components. The next step comprises using the response curve to prepare a response indicator for the mixtures. The next step comprises deriving a model that relates the components and the mixtures to establish the liquid classes.

  8. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, D.N.

    1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids is disclosed. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities. 5 figs.

  9. Air Risk Information Support Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  10. Development of Refrigerant Change Indicator and Dirty Air Filter Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The most common problems affecting residential and light commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are slow refrigerant leaks and dirty air filters. Equipment users are usually not aware of a problem until most of the refrigerant has escaped or the air filter is clogged with dirt. While a dirty air filter can be detected with a technology based on the air pressure differential across the filter, such as a ''whistling'' indicator, it is not easy to incorporate this technology into existing HVAC diagnostic equipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a low-cost, nonintrusive refrigerant charge indicator and dirty air filter detection sensor. The sensors, based on temperature measurements, will be inexpensive and easy to incorporate into existing heat pumps and air conditioners. The refrigerant charge indicator is based on the fact that when refrigerant starts to leak, the evaporator coil temperature starts to drop and the level of liquid subcooling drops. When the coil temperature or liquid subcooling drops below a preset reading, a signal, such as a yellow warning light, can be activated to warn the equipment user that the system is undercharged. A further drop of coil temperature or liquid subcooling below another preset reading would trigger a second warning signal, such as a red warning light, to warn the equipment user that the unit now detects a leak and immediate action should be taken. The warning light cannot be turned off until it is re-set by a refrigeration repairman. To detect clogged air filters, two additional temperature sensors can be applied, one each across the evaporator. When the air filter is accumulating buildup, the temperature differential across the evaporator will increase because of the reduced airflow. When the temperature differential reaches a pre-set reading, a signal will be sent to the equipment user that the air filter needs to be changed. A traditional refrigerant charge indicator requires intrusion into the system to measure the refrigerant high-side and low-side pressures. Once the pressures are known, based on the equipment's refrigerant charging chart? or in most cases, based on the technician's experience? the refrigerant charging status is determined. However, there is a catch: by the time a refrigeration technician is called, most of the refrigerant has already escaped into the atmosphere. The new technology provides a real-time warning so that when, say, 20% of the refrigerant has leaked, the equipment users will be warned, even though the equipment is still functioning properly at rated capacity. Temperature sensors are becoming very accurate and very low in cost, compared with pressure sensors. Using temperature sensors to detect refrigerant charge status is inherently nonintrusive, inexpensive, and accurate. With the addition of two temperature sensors for detecting dirty air filters, the capability of the diagnostic equipment is further enhanced with very little added cost. This report provides laboratory test data on the change of indoor coil refrigerant temperature and subcooling as a function of refrigerant charge for a 2-ton split heat pump system. The data can be used in designing the indicators for refrigerant loss and dirty air filter sensors.

  11. Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2005-049

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is a request by AMERICAN AIR LIQUIDE for a DOE waiver of domestic and foreign patent rights under agreement DE-FC26-02NT41586.

  12. Removal of ammonia from contaminated air in a biotrickling filter Denitrifying bioreactor combination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Removal of ammonia from contaminated air in a biotrickling filter ­ Denitrifying bioreactor of a biotrickling filter, a deni- trification reactor and a polishing bioreactor for the trickling liquid by accumulating nitrate and nitrite and avoiding generation of contaminated water. All bioreactors were packed

  13. State of the Art of Air-source Heat Pump for Cold Regions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, C.; Liang, N.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, research on air source heat pump systems for cold regions in recent years is first summarized and compared. These systems can be divided into three kinds: a single-stage compression heat pump, liquid/vapor injection heat pump, and a...

  14. Heat transfer and friction characteristics of air flow in microtubes Chien-Yuh Yang a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Heat transfer and friction characteristics of air flow in microtubes Chien-Yuh Yang a, , Chia September 2011 Keywords: Microtube Heat transfer Liquid Crystal Thermography a b s t r a c t Several researches dealing with the single-phase forced convection heat transfer inside microchannels have been

  15. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  16. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  17. Determination of Binding Constants of Cyclodextrins in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    unique chemical and physical properties, including being air and moisture stable, a high solubility power with supercritical fluid CO2;9-11 (4) electrochemical reactions;12,13 and (5) as a medium for enzymatic reactions.14Determination of Binding Constants of Cyclodextrins in Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids by Near

  18. Liquid RF Antennas, Electronics and Sensors: A Modeling Challenge Anya Traille and Manos M. Tentzeris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    of metal [3]. While metallic antennas are quite effective in the air, they exhibit a sharp dielectric], while inkjet-printable batteries require the deposition of semi-liquid conductive gels. Plus, many efficiency. A conventional metal antenna placed flush into human skin will induce a surface wave within

  19. Improved TPB-coated Light Guides for Liquid Argon TPC Light Detection Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Moss; L. Bugel; G. Collin; J. M. Conrad; B. J. P. Jones; J. Moon; M. Toups; T. Wongjirad

    2015-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Scintillation light produced in liquid argon (LAr) must be shifted from 128 nm to visible wavelengths in light detection systems used for liquid argon time-projection chambers (LArTPCs). To date, LArTPC light collection systems have employed tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) coatings on photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) or plates placed in front of the PMTs. Recently, a new approach using TPB-coated light guides was proposed. In this paper, we report on light guides with improved attenuation lengths above 100 cm when measured in air. This is an important step in the development of meter-scale light guides for future LArTPCs. Improvements come from using a new acrylic-based coating, diamond-polished cast UV transmitting acrylic bars, and a hand-dipping technique to coat the bars. We discuss a model for connecting bar response in air to response in liquid argon and compare this to data taken in liquid argon. The good agreement between the prediction of the model and the measured response in liquid argon demonstrates that characterization in air is sufficient for quality control of bar production. This model can be used in simulations of light guides for future experiments.

  20. North American SynchroPhasor Initiative (NASPI) Technical Report...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the North American SynchroPhasor Initiative, a collaboration between the North American electric industry (utilities, grid operators, vendors and consultants), the North American...

  1. Society of American Indian Government Employees Annual National Training Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Event includes plenary session, American Indian law classes, Native American youth workshops, cultural presentations, and a veterans program. Sponsored by the Society of American Indian Government...

  2. american subtropical area: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    English American Studies Sussex, University of 30 Grant Title: AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY WOMEN (AAUW) -AMERICAN FELLOWSHIPS Funding Opportunity Number: NA Engineering...

  3. american statistical association: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23 Grant Title: AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY WOMEN (AAUW) -AMERICAN FELLOWSHIPS Funding Opportunity Number: NA Engineering Websites Summary: Grant Title: AMERICAN...

  4. Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries:...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries: Status, Challenges, and Perspective. Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries: Status, Challenges,...

  5. Process for preparing liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L. (Albany, OR); Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); O'Connor, William K. (Lebanon, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparing radioactive and other hazardous liquid wastes for treatment by the method of vitrification or melting is provided for.

  6. Air Cooling for High Temperature Power Electronics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current emphasis on developing high-temperature power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely air-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-air heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and air supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an air-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline air-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction temperature. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction temperature, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.

  7. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  8. energy company opens American branch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    in clean-energy investment and delivering unique projects and innovative products and servicesenergy company opens American branch in West Sacramento Substainible energy for sustainable energy supply. Ecostream markets such things as solar roof panel installations and other long

  9. Laser ablated copper plasmas in liquid and gas ambient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Thareja, Raj K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)] [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of copper ablated plasma plumes generated using laser ablation of copper targets in both liquid (de-ionized water) and gas (air) ambients is reported. Using time and space resolved visible emission spectroscopy (450-650 nm), the plasma plumes parameters are investigated. The electron density (n{sub e}) determined using Stark broadening of the Cu I (3d{sup 10}4d{sup 1} {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-3d{sup 10}4p{sup 1} {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} at 521.8 nm) line is estimated and compared for both plasma plumes. The electron temperature (T{sub e}) was estimated using the relative line emission intensities of the neutral copper transitions. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectral analysis of the ablated copper surface indicated abundance of spherical nanoparticles in liquid while those in air are amalgamates of irregular shapes. The nanoparticles suspended in the confining liquid form aggregates and exhibit a surface plasmon resonance at ?590 nm.

  10. Liquid Phase 3D Printing for Quickly Manufacturing Metal Objects with Low Melting Point Alloy Ink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional 3D printings are generally time-consuming and printable metal inks are rather limited. From an alternative way, we proposed a liquid phase 3D printing for quickly making metal objects. Through introducing metal alloys whose melting point is slightly above room temperature as printing inks, several representative structures spanning from one, two and three dimension to more complex patterns were demonstrated to be quickly fabricated. Compared with the air cooling in a conventional 3D printing, the liquid-phase-manufacturing offers a much higher cooling rate and thus significantly improves the speed in fabricating metal objects. This unique strategy also efficiently prevents the liquid metal inks from air oxidation which is hard to avoid otherwise in an ordinary 3D printing. Several key physical factors (like properties of the cooling fluid, injection speed and needle diameter, types and properties of the printing ink, etc.) were disclosed which would evidently affect the printing quality. In addit...

  11. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  12. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Roger L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  13. Regenerative air heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hasselquist, Paul B. (Maple Grove, MN); Baldner, Richard (Minnetonka, MN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  14. Abatement of Air Pollution: Prohibition of Air Pollution (Connecticut...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Energy and Environmental Protection All air pollution not otherwise covered by these regulations is prohibited. Stationary sources...

  15. Abatement of Air Pollution: Air Pollution Control Equipment and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    These regulations contain instructions for the operation and monitoring of air pollution control equipment, as well as comments on procedures in the event of equipment breakdown,...

  16. air surveillance air: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of California eScholarship Repository Summary: chamber, passive sampling, passive solar house, measurementhouse, we planed the distribution of fresh air, passivepassive...

  17. Determination of the Transient Response Characteristics of the Air-Source Heat Pump During the Reverse Cycle Defrost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, D. L.; Anand, N. K.; Peterson, K. T.; Schleising, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .1 Description of Test Points 3.9 Fi?. 3.4 Heat Pump System Schematic 3.10 Fig. 3.5 Refrigerant Line Temperature Probe 3.11 for leak testing, equipment replacement, and system break- down. The valves proved to be extremely useful because when a specific section... Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering Texas A&M University ESL-TR-88/06-04 GLOSSARY OF TERMS AMCA Air Movement and Control Association ARI Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air...

  18. Liquid crystal polyester thermosets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM); Hoyt, Andrea E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides (1) curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 where R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are radicals selected from the group consisting of maleimide, substituted maleimide, nadimide, substituted naimide, ethynyl, and (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 where R.sup.3 is hydrogen with the proviso that the two carbon atoms of (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 are bound on the aromatic ring of A.sup.1 or A.sup.3 to adjacent carbon atoms, A.sup.1 and A.sup.3 are 1,4-phenylene and the same where said group contains one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, or propyl, alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, A.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of 1,4-phenylene, 4,4'-biphenyl, 2,6-naphthylene and the same where said groups contain one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro, lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, and propyl, lower alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl or fluoroalkoxy, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, and B.sup.1 and B.sup.2 are selected from the group consisting of --C(O)--O-- and --O--C(O)--, (2) thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions comprised of heat-cured segments derived from monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 as described above, (3) curable blends of at least two of the polyester monomers and (4) processes of preparing the curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers.

  19. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  20. Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer equipment designs. All of the data discussed above were taken under forced convective conditions (both laminar and turbulent). Some recent data taken at ORNL under free convection conditions are also presented and results discussed. This data was taken using a simple crucible experiment with an instrumented nickel heater inserted in the salt to induce natural circulation within the crucible. The data was taken over a temperature range of 550oC to 650oC in FLiNaK salt. This data covers both laminar and turbulent natural convection conditions, and is compared to existing forms of natural circulation correlations.

  1. Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Kesanli, Banu (Mersin, TR); Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

  2. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

    1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

  3. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Singh, Prahlad (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

  4. Oklahoma Clean Air Act (Oklahoma)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation establishes the authority for the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality to administer programs to maintain and monitor air quality across Oklahoma. The Department monitors...

  5. Nebraska Air Quality Regulations (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Environmental Quality, contain provisions pertaining to ambient air quality standards, pollution source operating permits, emissions reporting,...

  6. Vapor-liquid equilibria of hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, A.; Lamm, S.; Orbey, H.; Sandler, S.I. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) + 1-heptene, MTBE + four-component gasoline prototype, ethanol + four-component gasoline prototype, and separately MTBE and ethanol with the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Gasoline Blend A are reported. Small additions of MTBE have a very small effect on the total equilibrium pressure of this gasoline blend, and at most temperatures will decrease this pressure. In contrast, small additions of ethanol to this gasoline blend result in a significant increase in the equilibrium pressure at all temperatures. Analysis shows that the vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the MTBE-containing systems are easily correlated using a modified Peng-Robinson equation of state with conventional van der Waals one-fluid mixing rules. Data for mixtures containing ethanol cannot be accurately correlated in this way.

  7. Micropyrolyzer for chemical analysis of liquid and solid samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowry, Curtis D. (Albuquerque, NM); Morgan, Catherine H. (Ann Arbor, MI); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A micropyrolyzer has applications to pyrolysis, heated chemistry, and thermal desorption from liquid or solid samples. The micropyrolyzer can be fabricated from semiconductor materials and metals using standard integrated circuit technologies. The micropyrolyzer enables very small volume samples of less than 3 microliters and high sample heating rates of greater than 20.degree. C. per millisecond. A portable analyzer for the field analysis of liquid and solid samples can be realized when the micropyrolyzer is combined with a chemical preconcentrator, chemical separator, and chemical detector. Such a portable analyzer can be used in a variety of government and industrial applications, such as non-proliferation monitoring, chemical and biological warfare detection, industrial process control, water and air quality monitoring, and industrial hygiene.

  8. Competition and Reliability in North American Electricity Markets...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Electricity Markets Technical Workshop Competition and Reliability in North American Electricity Markets Technical Workshop Competition and Reliability in North American...

  9. american students utilizing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PARTNERS American Institute of Chemical Engineers Alpha Omega Epsilon International Engineering & Technical Science Sorority American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and...

  10. Moral pressure : American democracy and Chinese human rights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Stephanie Tze-Hua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Sino-American agreement on nuclear cooperation, andof the Sino-American agreement on nuclear cooperation, and

  11. Fuel Cell Manufacturing: American Energy and Manufacturing Competitive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Manufacturing: American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit Fuel Cell Manufacturing: American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit Presentation on...

  12. Urban air quality of Kathmandu valley

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, C.K. [Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology, Kathmandu (Nepal)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The oval shaped tectonic basin of Kathmandu valley occupying about 600 sq. km. of area is situated in the middle sector of Himalayan range. There are three districts in the alley, i.e. Kathmandu, Litilpur, and Bhaktapur. Out of the three the most populated is the Kathmandu city (the capital of Kingdom of Nepal) which has 668,000 population in an area of approximately 50 sq. km. The city population consumes energy about 1/3 of total imports of Nepal in the form of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, furnace oil and cooking gas. This has resulted heavy pollution of air in the city leading bronchitis, and throat and chest diseases. Vehicle has increased several fold leading in recent months to 100,000 in number in a road of about 900 kms., out of which 25% is only metalled. Most of two and three wheelers are polluting the air by emission gases as well as dust particulate. SO{sub 2} has been found to go as high as 202 micro grams per cubic meter and NO{sub 2} to 126 micro gram particularly in winter months when a thick layer of fog covers the valley up to 10:00 AM in the morning. All the gases are mixed within the limited air below the fog and the ground. This creates the problem. Furthermore, municipal waste of 500 m{sup 3} a day and also liquid waste directly dumping in Bagmati river to the tune of 500,000 liters per day makes city ugly and filthy. Unless pollution of air, water, and land are controlled in time, Nepal will lose much of its foreign exchange earnings from tourist industry. It is found that tourist arrivals are considerably reduced in recent years and most of hotels occupancy is 50 to 60% in peak time. Nepal is trying to introduce legal frame work for pollution control but it will take time to be effective like in other developing countries unless government is strong.

  13. An air line carries air at 800 kPa and 80C. An Air line ~ O O C insulated tank initially contains 20C air at a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Haimei

    An air line carries air at 800 kPa and 80°C. An Air line ~ O O C insulated tank initially contains 20°C air at a pressure of 90kPa. The valve is opened, and air flows into the tank. Determine the final temperature of the air in the tank and the mass of air that enters the tank if the valve is left

  14. Reactive Air Aluminization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

  15. Air gun test evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carleton, J.J. II; Fox, L.; Rudy, C.R.

    1992-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A mechanical shock testing apparatus is used for testing the response of components subject to large accelerations in hostile environments. The test acceleration is provided by the impact of a bullet against a plate on which the component to be tested is mounted. This report describes a series of experiments that were performed to determine the dependence of the air gun test apparatus performance on incremental changes in the hardware configurations, changes in the pressure used to drive the bullet, and different accelerometers. The effect of variation of these experimental factors on the measured acceleration was determined using a Taguchi screening experimental design. Experimental settings were determined that can be used to operate the tester with a measured output within acceleration specifications.

  16. Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Julian D.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; Nazaroff, William W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    survey data, and the air-pollution modeling group at Environfor vehicle-related air pollution exposure in minority andtotal health impact of air pollution. Urban planners often

  17. American Statistical Association Names Fellows for 2010 ALEXANDRIA VA (PRWEB) MAY 20, 2010 The American Statistical Association (ASA), the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    American Statistical Association Names Fellows for 2010 ALEXANDRIA VA (PRWEB) MAY 20, 2010 ­ The American Statistical Association (ASA), the nation's preeminent professional statistical society, today the American Statistical Association The American Statistical Association (ASA), a scientific and educational

  18. Singular Limits in Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1910-31-00T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate equilibrium configurations for a polymer stabilized liquid crys- tal material ... eling the cross section of the liquid crystal-polymer fiber composite.

  19. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface...

  20. Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

  1. Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahon L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Monongahela, PA); Finseth, Dennis H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  2. Dual harmonic Kelvin probe force microscopy at the graphene–liquid interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Liam; Rodriguez, Brian J., E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Weber, Stefan A. L. [Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Vlassiouk, Ivan V. [Energy and Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Tselev, Alexander; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a powerful technique for the determination of the contact potential difference (CPD) between an atomic force microscope tip and a sample under ambient and vacuum conditions. However, for many energy storage and conversion systems, including graphene-based electrochemical capacitors, understanding electrochemical phenomena at the solid–liquid interface is paramount. Despite the vast potential to provide fundamental insight for energy storage materials at the nanoscale, KPFM has found limited applicability in liquid environments to date. Here, using dual harmonic (DH)-KPFM, we demonstrate CPD imaging of graphene in liquid. We find good agreement with measurements performed in air, highlighting the potential of DH-KPFM to probe electrochemistry at the graphene–liquid interface.

  3. The Puzzle of Hypertension in African-Americans56 Scientific American February 1999 The Puzzle of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraden, Seth

    The Puzzle of Hypertension in African-Americans56 Scientific American February 1999 The Puzzle of Hypertension in African-Americans by Richard S. Cooper, Charles N. Rotimi and Ryk Ward N early all Americans undergo a steady rise in blood pressure with age. Almost 25 percent cross the line into hypertension

  4. Information Technology: American National Standard for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format Publication 500-245 Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint, Facial, & Scar Mark & Tattoo (SMT) Information Sponsored by Information Technology

  5. American Range: Order (2014-CE-23006)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered American Range Corporation to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding American Range had failed to certify that certain models of cooking products comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  6. Heart Healthy Home Cooking African American Style

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Heart Healthy Home Cooking African American Style With Every Heartbeat Is Life #12;#12;Heart Recipe Substitutions for Heart Healthy Cooking at the heart of African American family life and special celebrations. This recipe book brings together many

  7. American Statistical Association National Science Foundation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermúdez, José Luis

    American Statistical Association National Science Foundation U.S. Census Bureau ASA American Statistical Association 732 North Washington Street Alexandria, VA 22314-1943 U.S. government and analysis, statistical methodology and computing, information and behavioral science, and geography

  8. American Valve: Order (2010-CW-1411)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered American Valve, Inc. to pay a $5,000 civil penalty after finding American Valve had failed to certify that certain showerhead models comply with the applicable water conservation standards.

  9. Information Technology: American National Standard for Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format-271 Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format for the Interchange Sponsored by Information Access Division Information Technology Laboratory National Institute of Standards

  10. Information Technology: American National Standard for Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format 500-275 Information Technology: American National Standard for Information Systems-- Data Format Coleman, and Patrice Yuh, Editors Sponsored by Information Access Division Information Technology

  11. Dissertations Recently Completed on Latin American Theatre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW Dissertations Recently Completed on Latin American Theatre Ascarrunz-Gilman, Graciela. "El sentido religioso del teatro de Carlos Solór- zano." (California, Davis) Bixler, Jacqueline Eyring. "Theory and Technique...

  12. North American Technician Excellence Wayne Reedy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    and light HVACR commercial technicians in air conditioning, air distribution, heat pump, gas heating and oil's largest non-profit certification organization for heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration/or Service certification in one or more SPECIALTY areas, including: Air Conditioning Air Distribution Heat

  13. Protective supplied breathing air garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

    1984-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

  14. Environmental Aspects of Air Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Innovation Center #12;2 Aviation and Climate #12;3 Combustion Products Commercial jet fuel is essentially FOR AIR TRANSPORTATIONCENTER FOR AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS RESEARCHSYSTEMS RESEARCH Metron Aviation GMU, and the process inside real engines is considerably more complex. Typical emission rates for jet aircraft (grams

  15. D0 Instrument Air System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serges, T.J.; /Fermilab

    1988-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The main function of the instrument air system is to operate control valves associated with the cryogenics in the D0 hall. Occasionally, it will be used for purging purposes. Appendix A shows a schematic of the air instrument system along with a corresponding components list.

  16. EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Neal.A.

    and refrigeration equipment. To minimise pollution risks by ensuring regular maintenance of equipment containing Act 1993. SCOPE: All air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment METHOD: Air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment: 1. Swansea University uses equipment containing ozone-depleting substances

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mulholland, James A.

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Respiratory Emergency Department Visits Jennifer L. Peel pollution and respiratory outcomes. More refined assessment has been limited by study size and available air quality data. Methods: Measurements of 5 pollutants (particulate matter PM10 , ozone, nitrogen dioxide NO2

  18. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  19. Air Force Enhanced Use Lease

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Headquarters U.S. Air Force 1 Air Force Enhanced Use Lease Mr. Brian Brown 16 Oct. 12 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 2...

  20. Air Force Renewable Energy Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in All We Do" I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Topics Air Force Energy Use Air Force Facility Energy Center Current RE...

  1. Solid-Liquid Interfacial Premelting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yang; Asta, Mark; Laird, Brian Bostian

    2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    liquid-liquid miscibility gap, negligible solubility of Pb in the Al solid phase, and a large melting point separa- tion (600 K for Pb and 933 K for Al). We have previously reported results from MD simulations on this system at 625 K, a temperature just... undergoes a roughening transition about 100 K below the melting point of Al. Simulation details.—In our simulations of the Al-Pb solid-liquid interface, we employ a classical many-body potential developed by Landa et al. [42] to model the inter- atomic...

  2. The air transportation industry birthplace of reliability-centered maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matteson, T.D.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1980s and 1970s provided a timely opportunity for examining and radically changing the process called {open_quotes}preventive maintenance{close_quotes} as it is applied to the aircraft used for scheduled air transportation. The Federal Aviation Administration and four major airlines, United, American, Pan American and Trans World, were the {open_quotes}principals{close_quotes} in that process. While United`s work with the FAA on the Boeing 737 had opened the door a crack, the Boeing 747 presented a major opportunity to radically improve the process for maintenance program design. That program was guided by the results of United`s analyses of failure data from operations of several fleets, each larger than 100 aircraft, and the concurrent experience of American, Pan American and Trans World. That knowledge provided the insights necessary to support an entirely different approach to maintenance program design. As a result, while United`s existing maintenance program required scheduled overhaul of 339 items on each DC-8, it required overhaul of only 8 items on the B-7471 Although the initial thrust of that work focused on components of active systems, there was concurrent work focused on items whose principal function was to carry the loads associated with operations. That program focused on the classification of structurally-significant items and their classification as {open_quotes}safe life{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}damage tolerant{close_quote} to determine what periodic replacements or repeated inspections were required. That work came to the attention of the Department of Defense which supported preparation of the book-length report by F. Stanley Nowlan and Howard F. Heap at United Airlines entitled {open_quote}Reliability-Centered maintenance{close_quotes}.

  3. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an {open_quotes}upsized{close_quotes} condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  4. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. (Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an [open quotes]upsized[close quotes] condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  5. TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willenbring, Jeb F.

    fellowship. c 2002 American Mathematical Society 4393 #12;4394 JEB F. WILLENBRING on V , under the usual

  6. NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY Libby R. Tronnes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    , and Demography" CAIH (2002) Indians in the American South Post-Contact Gallay, Alan. The Indian Slave Trade

  7. Economic Impact of the American Clean Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Economic Impact of the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 on the West Virginia Economy ........................................................................................................................ 1 American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines the impact of the American Clean Energy

  8. Leonard Wood and the American Empire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruitt, James Herman

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    During the ten years following the Spanish American War (1898 to 1908), Major General Leonard Wood served as the primary agent of American imperialism. Wood was not only a proconsul of the new American Empire; he was a symbol of the empire...

  9. Sum frequency and second harmonic generation from the surface of a liquid microjet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolentsev, Nikolay; Chen, Yixing; Roke, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.roke@epfl.ch [Laboratory for Fundamental Biophotonics (LBP), Institute of Bioengineering (IBI), School of Engineering STI, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jena, Kailash C. [Laboratory for Fundamental Biophotonics (LBP), Institute of Bioengineering (IBI), School of Engineering STI, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, 140001 (India); Brown, Matthew A. [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of a liquid microjet as a possible source of interest for Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy is examined. We measured non-resonant SHG scattering patterns from the air/water interface of a microjet of pure water and observe a strong enhancement of the SHG signal for certain scattering angles. These enhancements can be explained by the optical properties and the shape of the liquid microjet. SFG experiments at the surface of a liquid microjet of ethanol in air show that it is also possible to measure the coherent vibrational SFG spectrum of the ethanol/air interface in this way. Our findings are useful for future far-UV or X-ray based nonlinear optical surface experiments on liquid jets. In addition, combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and SHG/SFG measurements are feasible, which will be very useful in improving our understanding of the molecular foundations of electrostatic and chemical surface properties and phenomena.

  10. Air Leakage and Air Transfer Between Garage and Living Space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project focused on evaluation of air transfer between the garage and living space in a single-family detached home constructed by a production homebuilder in compliance with the 2009 International Residential Code and the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code. The project gathered important information about the performance of whole-building ventilation systems and garage ventilation systems as they relate to minimizing flow of contaminated air from garage to living space. A series of 25 multi-point fan pressurization tests and additional zone pressure diagnostic testing characterized the garage and house air leakage, the garage-to-house air leakage, and garage and house pressure relationships to each other and to outdoors using automated fan pressurization and pressure monitoring techniques. While the relative characteristics of this house may not represent the entire population of new construction configurations and air tightness levels (house and garage) throughout the country, the technical approach was conservative and should reasonably extend the usefulness of the results to a large spectrum of house configurations from this set of parametric tests in this one house. Based on the results of this testing, the two-step garage-to-house air leakage test protocol described above is recommended where whole-house exhaust ventilation is employed. For houses employing whole-house supply ventilation (positive pressure) or balanced ventilation (same pressure effect as the Baseline condition), adherence to the EPA Indoor airPLUS house-to-garage air sealing requirements should be sufficient to expect little to no garage-to-house air transfer.

  11. Analysis of a Dedicated Outdoor Air System and Low Temperature Supply Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guang, L.; Li, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the principles and the characteristics of a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) and low temperature supply air system. DOAS is offered based on the demands of indoor air quality and the low temperature supply air system...

  12. Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation Project Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation Project Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) Project Evaluating, Developing, and Delivering Air Quality Characterization Data to Environmental Public Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Network. The EPA is developing routinely available air quality information

  13. Gaseous and Liquid Hydrogen Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today's state of the art for hydrogen storage includes 5,000- and 10,000-psi compressed gas tanks and cryogenic liquid hydrogen tanks for on-board hydrogen storage.

  14. Liquid measurement - Techniques and problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caffey, B.R.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews a few liquid measurement techniques and their associated problems. In measuring liquid petroleum gas, the first obstacle to overcome is accomodating some form of volumetric measurement. This is usually accomplished by orifice, positive displacement, or turbine meters. Each of the three established methods is covered extensively by industry standards in the API Manual of Petroleum Standards. If the operator follows these standards, very accurate results can be achieved.

  15. Cold air distribution in office buildings: technology assessment for califonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Borgers, T.; LaBerge, P.; Gadgil, A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    room air with the cold supply air whenever the supplyroomair diffusion with cold supply air temperatures space

  16. Calculate viscosities for 355 liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Lin, Xiaoyan; Li Bu (Lamar Univ., TX (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid viscosities are important factors in process design and operation. The viscosity of a liquid determines its flow properties, such as velocity and pressure drop. In addition, the heat- and mass-transfer characteristics of a liquid are affected by its viscosity. An equation can be used to calculate liquid viscosities as a function of temperature. In the accompanying table, regression coefficients are included for 355 compounds with five, six or seven carbon atoms--generally the most-widely used in the chemical and petroleum industries. To calculate the viscosity of a liquid at any temperature between its melting and critical points (T[sub min] and T[sub max]), use the following equation: log[sub 10] [eta][sub liq] = A + B/T + CT + DT[sup 2] where [eta][sub liq] = viscosity, cP, A,B,C and D = regression coefficients, and T = liquid temperature, K. Insert the temperature into the equation along with the corresponding regression coefficients from the table. The chemical formulae are listed by the number of carbon atoms.

  17. AIR LEAKAGE OF NEWLY INSTALLED RESIDENTIAL WINDOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weidt, John

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tables 2.0.2a 2.0.2b PAGE Air Leakage Through Sash/FrameOperation Types . . . . . Air Leakage of Installed WindowsComparison of Window Types Air Leakage Performance of

  18. Air movement preferences observed in office buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Movement – Good or Bad? Indoor Air 14: 40-45. Toftum, J (Quality Survey. Indoor Air 14 (8): 65–74. Internationalon the Perception of Indoor Air Quality during Immediate and

  19. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  20. Liquid Phase 3D Printing for Quickly Manufacturing Metal Objects with Low Melting Point Alloy Ink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Wang; Jing Liu

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional 3D printings are generally time-consuming and printable metal inks are rather limited. From an alternative way, we proposed a liquid phase 3D printing for quickly making metal objects. Through introducing metal alloys whose melting point is slightly above room temperature as printing inks, several representative structures spanning from one, two and three dimension to more complex patterns were demonstrated to be quickly fabricated. Compared with the air cooling in a conventional 3D printing, the liquid-phase-manufacturing offers a much higher cooling rate and thus significantly improves the speed in fabricating metal objects. This unique strategy also efficiently prevents the liquid metal inks from air oxidation which is hard to avoid otherwise in an ordinary 3D printing. Several key physical factors (like properties of the cooling fluid, injection speed and needle diameter, types and properties of the printing ink, etc.) were disclosed which would evidently affect the printing quality. In addition, a basic route to make future liquid phase 3D printer incorporated with both syringe pump and needle arrays was also suggested. The liquid phase 3D printing method, which owns potential values not available in a conventional modality, opens an efficient way for quickly making metal objects in the coming time.

  1. WearAir: Expressive T-shirts for Air Quality Sensing Sunyoung Kim and Eric Paulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mankoff, Jennifer

    are less proactively concerned with air quality. AIR POLLUTANT: VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Different types of air pollutants contribute to air quality in different locations: Ozone, CO, NOx and VOCs are major contributors to outdoor air pollution; and particulate matters, VOCs, carbon monoxide and lead are common air

  2. Air pollution kills. So what? Air quality engineering to improve public health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levinson, David M.

    9/14/12 1 Air pollution kills. So what? Air quality engineering to improve public health;9/14/12 2 Air Quality Engineering H Air Quality Engineering H #12;9/14/12 3 Really? Air pollution running out of coffins and florists were running out of flowers. -- BBC #12;9/14/12 4 Air pollution

  3. Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Iain S. Walker, Mike Lubliner, Darryl Dickerhoff,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers of California. #12;1 Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Iain S. Walker, LBNL Mike Lubliner, Washington been made in reducing air leakage in residential and to a lesser extent small commercial forced air

  4. U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Mission Develop Quality Leaders for the Air Force. Personnel and Resources Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) includes four,796 new Second Lieutenants who entered active duty in the United States Air Force. Organization Air Force

  5. Air-Con International: Noncompliance Determination and Proposed...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Notice of Noncompliance Determination to Air-Con International finding that a variety of central air conditioners and air conditioning heat pumps distributed under the Air-Con...

  6. TESTING OF AIR-FLOW WINDOWS FOR EVALUATION AND APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boehm, R.F.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PRESSURE: TAPS RETURN** REFERENCE** Return-Air ConditioningMakeup-Air Conditioning Energy a.Through Glass Return-Air Conditioning Energy Makeuo-Air

  7. air bags compared: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3. AIR TO AIR COMMUNICATION...3 4. SIMULATIONS Jain, Raj 435 Oil and Gas Air Heaters Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Most conventional air...

  8. air entrainment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3. AIR TO AIR COMMUNICATION...3 4. SIMULATIONS Jain, Raj 174 Oil and Gas Air Heaters Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Most conventional air...

  9. air brakes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3. AIR TO AIR COMMUNICATION...3 4. SIMULATIONS Jain, Raj 203 Oil and Gas Air Heaters Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Most conventional air...

  10. al aire libre: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3. AIR TO AIR COMMUNICATION...3 4. SIMULATIONS Jain, Raj 162 Oil and Gas Air Heaters Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Most conventional air...

  11. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  12. Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22- Air Toxics (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Permits are required to construct, install, or modify any stationary source which has the potential to increase emissions of a listed toxic air contaminant by an amount greater than the minimum...

  13. Reference Inside KS1992 Tray Inside Air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Llope, William J.

    Reference Inside KS1992 0.2 Tray Inside Air 0.5 Tray Inside Air 0.8 Tray Inside Air 0.2 Tray Side Wall Inner 0.2 Tray Side Wall Inner Under TAMP near sensor pos4 Under TAMP near sensor pos4 Air Gap Below TDIG pos1 Air Gap Below TDIG pos4 Air Gap Below TDIG pos6 HPTDC1 Chip pos6 HPTDC4 Chip pos6 HPTDC2

  14. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1987-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  15. Inertial impaction air sampling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dewhurst, K.H.

    1990-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

  16. CSP Tower Air Brayton Combustor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrating solar power tower air Brayton combustor project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot CSP R&D award program. The team, led by the Southwest Research Institute, is working to develop an external combustor that allows for the mixing of CSP-heated air with natural gas in hybridized power plants. This project aims to increase the temperature capabilities of the CSP tower air receiver and gas turbine to 1,000ºC and achieve energy conversion efficiencies greater than 50%.

  17. The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holley, James Andrew

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    domestic automobiles and trucks because of its proven success. This system requires approximately 4 hp (2. 983 kW)[3] for operation snd employs a pressurized fluorinated hydrocarbon (R-12), hereafter fluorocarbon, as a refrigerant. Most of the research... extraction and avoid the use of a fluorocarbon refrigerant. The maJority of work involved with the new units has associated itself in the area of utilizing an absorption cycle or air cycle. The absorption air conditioning unit differs significantly from...

  18. North American Cross-Border

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sourced steam coal burnt in power plants in the northeastern portion of the United States. As coal mining of electrical power from Canada appears to have little impact on the production of steam coal in VirginiaNorth American Cross-Border Electricity Trade Ian M. Loomis Virginia Center for Coal and Energy

  19. QER- Comment of American Water

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dear QER Team; Thank you for the opportunity to provide comments to the Quadrennial Energy Review Task Force to discuss the water and energy nexus, advances in water innovative technologies, and the impact of climate change on water issues. On behalf of American Water, I wish to submit the following White Papers which we have prepared on these critical issues: Innovations in Energy Use Sustainability and Resiliency Planning for Water Utilities One Water Water/Energy Correlation The Value of Water Challenges in the Water Industry: Climate Change Challenges in the Water Industry: Meeting Demand in the West Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Desalination Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Going Green Innovation Solutions Within the Water Industry: Water Reuse Bridging the Water Innovation Gap. Founded in 1886, American Water is the largest publicly traded U.S. water and wastewater utility company. With headquarters in Voorhees, NJ, the company employs approximately 6,600 dedicated professionals who provide drinking water, wastewater and other related services to an estimated 14 million people in more than 40 states. Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions or if there is any way American Water can be helpful to your mission. Respectfully Yours, Martin (See attached file: White Papers.pdf) Martin D. Kerckhoff Vice President and Divisional General Counsel Central Division American Water CONFIDENTIAL & PRIVILEGED COMMUNICATION This email and any attachments hereto constitute a legally confidential communication from the Legal Department of American Water. The information contained herein is subject to attorney-client privilege and is for the sole use of the intended original addressee. If you are not the intended original addressee, you are hereby notified that any reading, disclosure, copying, distribution, use, or taking of any action in reliance on the contents contained herein is strictly prohibited. If you have received this message in error, please immediately notify us at 314.966.2241 and delete this message from your system. WARNING: Although American Water has taken reasonable precautions to ensure that no viruses are present in this email, it is the responsibility of the recipient to ensure that it is virus free. No responsibility is accepted by American Water for any loss or damage arising in any way from the receipt and/or use of this email.

  20. Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKigney, Edward Allen (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony Keiran (Los Alamos, NM); Bennett, Bryan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Cooke, David Wayne (Santa Fe, NM); Ott, Kevin Curtis (Los Alamos, NM); Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal (Los Alamos, NM); Del Sesto, Rico Emilio (Los Alamos, NM); Gilbertson, Robert David (Los Alamos, NM); Muenchausen, Ross Edward (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, Thomas Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  1. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LOMEOH(TM)) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1996-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOEP") Demonstration Project at K.ingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L, P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOHY Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. On 4 October 1994, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and signed the agreements that would form the Partnership, secure the demonstration site, and provide the financial commitment and overall project management for the project. These partnership agreements became effective on 15 March 1995, when DOE authorized the commencement of Budget Period No. 2 (Mod. AO08 to the Cooperative Agreement). The Partnership has subcontracted with Air Products to provide the overall management of the project, and to act as the primary interface with DOE. As subcontractor to the Partnership, Air Products will also provide the engineering design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and will provide the technical and engineering supervision needed to conduct the operational testing program required as part of the project. As subcontractor to Air Products, Eastman will be responsible for operation of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and for the interconnection and supply of synthesis gas, utilities, product storage, and other needed sewices. The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas fi-om Eastman's integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOHTM process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small 3,200 gallons per day, DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates.

  2. Method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport, and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrail, Bernard P. (Pasco, WA); Martin, Paul F. (Richland, WA); Lindenmeier, Clark W. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions. The method and apparatus of the present invention permit distinguishing individual precipitation events and their effect on dissolution behavior isolated to the specific event. The present invention is especially useful for dynamically measuring hydraulic parameters when a chemical reaction occurs between a particulate material and either liquid or gas (e.g. air) or both, causing precipitation that changes the pore structure of the test material.

  3. Colorado Air Pollution Control Division - Construction Permits...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Colorado Air Pollution Control Division - Construction Permits Forms and Air Pollutant Emission Notices (APENs)...

  4. Covered Product Category: Residential Central Air Conditioners...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Central Air Conditioners Covered Product Category: Residential Central Air Conditioners The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for residential...

  5. COMBUSTION-GENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hollowell, C.D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Status of Indoor Air Pollution Research 1976. GeometNovakov, T. : Formation of Pollution Particulate NitrogenGENERATED INDOOR AIR POLLUTION Dr. C. D. Hollowell, Dr. R.

  6. Stochastic Microenvironment Models for Air Pollution Exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naihua Duan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    human exposure to air pollution." SIMS Technical Report No.human exposure to air pollution." Environment International.Annual Meeting of the A i r Pollution Control Association,

  7. Cleaner Vehicles, Cleaner Fuel & Cleaner Air

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality Cleaner Vehicles, Cleaner Fuel, & Cleaner Air Overview of the 2007 Heavy-Duty Engine & Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel Program 2 Presentation...

  8. Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant...

  9. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase methanol (LPMEOH) Process A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program seeks to offer the energy marketplace more efficient and environmentally benign coal utilization technology options by demonstrating them in industrial settings. This document is a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of one of the projects selected in Round III of the CCT Program, the commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process, initially described in a Report to Congress by DOE in 1992. Methanol is an important, large-volume chemical with many uses. The desire to demonstrate a new process for the production of methanol from coal, prompted Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to submit a proposal to DOE. In October 1992, DOE awarded a cooperative agreement to Air Products to conduct this project. In March 1995, this cooperative agreement was transferred to Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership), a partnership between Air Products and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman). DOE provided 43 percent of the total project funding of $213.7 million. Operation of the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit, which is sited at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee, commenced in April 1997. Although operation of the CCT project was completed in December 2002, Eastman continues to operate the LPMEOH Demonstration Unit for the production of methanol. The independent evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from Volume 2 of the project's Final Report (Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Co., L.P. 2003), as well as other references cited.

  10. Liquid Cooling in Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cader, Tahir; Sorell,, Vali; Westra, Levi; Marquez, Andres

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor manufacturers have aggressively attacked the problem of escalating microprocessor power consumption levels. Today, server manufacturers can purchase microprocessors that currently have power consumption levels capped at 100W maximum. However, total server power levels continue to increase, with the increase in power consumption coming from the supportin chipsets, memory, and other components. In turn, full rack heat loads are very aggressivley climbing as well, and this is making it increasingly difficult and cost-prohibitive for facility owners to cool these high power racks. As a result, facilities owners are turning to alternative, and more energy efficient, cooling solutions that deploy liquids in one form or another. The paper discusses the advent of the adoption of liquid-cooling in high performance computing centers. An overview of the following competing rack-based, liquid-cooling, technologies is provided: in-row, above rack, refrigerated/enclosed rack, rear door heat exchanger, and device-level (i.e., chip-level). Preparation for a liquid-cooled data center, retroft and greenfield (new), is discussed, with a focus on the key issues that are common to all liquid-cooling technologies that depend upon the delivery of water to the rack (or in some deployments, a Coolant Distribution Unit). The paper then discusses, in some detail, the actual implementation and deployment of a liquid device-level cooled (spray cooled) supercomputer at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Initial results from a successful 30 day compliance test show excellent hardware stability, operating system (OS) and software stack stability, application stability and performance, and an availability level that exceeded expectations at 99.94%. The liquid-cooled supercomputer achieved a peak performance of 9.287 TeraFlops, which placed it at number 101 in the June 2007 Top500 fastest supercomputers worldwide. Long-term performance and energy efficiency testing is currently underway, and detailed results will be reported in upcoming publications.

  11. Liquid membrane purification of biogas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. (Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

  12. Air Dispersion Modeling for Building 3026C/D Demolition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Richard C [ORNL; Sjoreen, Andrea L [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents estimates of dispersion coefficients and effective dose for potential air dispersion scenarios of uncontrolled releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) buildings 3026C, 3026D, and 3140 prior to or during the demolition of the 3026 Complex. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) AERMOD system1-6 was used to compute these estimates. AERMOD stands for AERMIC Model, where AERMIC is the American Meteorological Society-EPA Regulatory Model Improvement Committee. Five source locations (three in building 3026D and one each in building 3026C and the filter house 3140) and associated source characteristics were determined with the customer. In addition, the area of study was determined and building footprints and intake locations of air-handling systems were obtained. In addition to the air intakes, receptor sites consisting of ground level locations on four polar grids (50 m, 100 m, 200 m, and 500 m) and two intersecting lines of points (50 m separation), corresponding to sidewalks along Central Avenue and Fifth Street. Three years of meteorological data (2006 2008) were used each consisting of three datasets: 1) National Weather Service data; 2) upper air data for the Knoxville-Oak Ridge area; and 3) local weather data from Tower C (10 m, 30 m and 100 m) on the ORNL reservation. Annual average air concentration, highest 1 h average and highest 3 h average air concentrations were computed using AERMOD for the five source locations for the three years of meteorological data. The highest 1 h average air concentrations were converted to dispersion coefficients to characterize the atmospheric dispersion as the customer was interested in the most significant response and the highest 1 h average data reflects the best time-averaged values available from the AERMOD code. Results are presented in tabular and graphical form. The results for dose were obtained using radionuclide activities for each of the buildings provided by the customer.7 Radiation dose was calculated assuming complete release of the building inventory as information was lacking regarding the portion of the building inventory expected to be released. Thus the results are derived using an extremely conservative release as documented in the Preliminary Hazard Screening report.7 To more closely approximate the result of a release, one must estimate the fraction of the total inventory released and multiply the results described above by that fraction. An example of how this calculation is accomplished is provided. Should an actual uncontrolled release occur, the results of this modeling effort could only be used to establish a rough order-of-magnitude for the event.

  13. Missouri Air Conservation Law (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law's purpose is to maintain the purity of the air resources of the state to protect the health, general welfare and physical property of the people, maximum employment and the full industrial...

  14. Kansas Air Quality Act (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    No person shall construct, own, operate, install, alter or use any air contaminant emission stationary source which, in accordance with rules and regulations, the secretary finds may cause or...

  15. Kansas Air Quality Regulations (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All new air contaminant emission sources or alterations to emission sources that are required to be reported shall be in compliance with all applicable emission control regulations at the time that...

  16. Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Swarooph

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    on a 3-ton residential air conditioner are then presented to intuitively understand the effect of expansion valve and evaporator fan cycling in a real system. A real time optimization method is explored and the feasibility, recommendations for a...

  17. Fuel Cell Systems Air Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Air Management Honeywell TIAX UTC Mechanology, LLC · Turbocompressor for PEM Fuel Cells · Hybrid-Machined Thin Film H2 Gas Sensors - ATMI · Sensor Development for PEM Fuel Cell Systems ­ Honeywell · Gallium

  18. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roberts, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kumar, Satish [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2010-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments by Dickey et al. [Langmuir, 22, 4315 (2006)] and Leach et al. [Chaos, 15, 047506 (2005)] show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study [J. Fluid Mech., 631, 255 (2009)] which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DC field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented here may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.

  19. Parameter exploration of optically trapped liquid aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. R. Burnham; P. J. Reece; D. McGloin

    2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    When studying the motion of optically trapped particles on the $\\mu s$ time scale, in low viscous media such as air, inertia cannot be neglected. Resolution of unusual and interesting behaviour not seen in colloidal trapping experiments is possible. In attempt to explain the phenomena we use power spectral methods to perform a parameter study of the Brownian motion of optically trapped liquid aerosol droplets concentrated around the critically damped regime. We present evidence that the system is suitably described by a simple harmonic oscillator model which must include a description of Fax\\'{e}n's correction, but not necessarily frequency dependent hydrodynamic corrections to Stokes' law. We also provide results describing how the system behaves under several variables and discuss the difficulty in decoupling the parameters responsible for the observed behaviour. We show that due to the relatively low dynamic viscosity and high trap stiffness it is easy to transfer between over- and under-damped motion by experimentally altering either trap stiffness or damping. Our results suggest stable aerosol trapping may be achieved in under-damped conditions, but the onset of deleterious optical forces at high trapping powers prevents the probing of the upper stability limits due to Brownian motion.

  20. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments by Dickey and Leach show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DCmore »field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented here may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.« less

  1. Respiratory survey of North American Indian children living in proximity to an aluminum smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernst, P.; Thomas, D.; Becklake, M.R.

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We explored the relationship of respiratory symptoms and lung function to exposure to ambient air pollution consisting of particulate and gaseous fluorides. The subjects were 253 North American Indian children 11 to 17 yr of age living on the Akwasasne reserve, which is adjacent to an aluminum smelter. Among boys, closing volume (CV/VC%) was increased in those raised closest to the smelter as opposed to those having lived most of their lives farthest from this source of air pollution. In both sexes, there was a significant linear relationship between increasing CV/VC% and the amount of fluoride contained in a spot urine sample. We conclude that exposure to fluoride air pollution in the community may be associated with abnormalities in small airways. The implication of these abnormalities for future respiratory health is unknown.

  2. Optimising the Fresh Air Economiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biship, R.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , S., ?Economizers in Air Handling Systems?, CED Engineering Course M01-014, Stony Point New York, 2000. Moser, D., ?Free Cooling: Don?t Let Savings Slip Away?, Portland Energy Conservation Inc., published in Building Operating Management.... New Zealand, Standard NZS 4303:1990, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, Standards Association of New Zealand, Wellington. Portland Energy Conservation Inc., from Functional Testing Guide on website: (http...

  3. [Cu(I)(bpp)]BF4: the first extended coordination network prepared solvothermally in an ionic liquid solvent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    , the two-dimensional net- work [Cu(bpp)]BF4 [bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane], pro- duced via and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) ligand. [bmim][BF4], as a room temperature ionic liquid, is air

  4. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Growth and instability of the liquid rim in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deegan, Robert

    Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Growth and instability of the liquid rim The impact of a drop on a film of the same fluid is ubiquitous in nature and arises in many different contexts such as rain and surf interactions with the air-sea interface, fuel injection systems, spray

  5. Visualization of effect of turbulators on local heat transfer distribution in a 180 degree turn with liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajesh, Gopal

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid crystal experiments have been conducted to study the turbulent heat transfer for fully developed flow of air in a two-pass square channel with two opposite walls roughened with parallel and cross arrays of full ribs and with V-shaped ribs...

  6. Determination of the pressure at the gas-liquid interface using acoustic speed measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heggelund, Dag Gustav

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The density can be expressed with the use of the real gas law. This yields BP = ? (g/gc) *dz*P*M/(144*Z*R*T) BP = ? (g/gc) *dz*P*SG*MAIR/(144*Z*R*T) (26) 21 where: SG MAIR specific gravity of gas. (air= 1. 0), Molecular weight of air, 28. 966...DETERMINATION OF THE PRESSURE AT THE GAS-LIQUID INTERFACE USING ACOUSTIC SPEED MEASUREMENTS A Thesis by DAG GUSTAV HEGGELUND Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  7. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1983-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

  8. Are polar liquids less simple?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Fragiadakis; C. M. Roland

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong correlation between equilibrium fluctuations of the potential energy, U, and the virial, W, is a characteristic of a liquid that implies the presence of certain dynamic properties, such as density scaling of the relaxation times and isochronal superpositioning of the relaxation function. In this work we employ molecular dynamics simulations (mds) on methanol and two variations, lacking hydrogen bonds and a dipole moment, to assess the connection between the correlation of U and W and these dynamic properties. We show, in accord with prior results of others [T.S. Ingebrigtsen, T.B. Schroder, J.C. Dyre, Phys. Rev. X 2, 011011 (2012).], that simple van der Waals liquids exhibit both strong correlations and the expected dynamic behavior. However, for polar liquids this correspondence breaks down - weaker correlation between U and W is not associated with worse conformance to density scaling or isochronal superpositioning. The reason for this is that strong correlation between U and W only requires their proportionality, whereas the expected dynamic behavior depends primarily on constancy of the proportionality constant for all state points. For hydrogen-bonded liquids, neither strong correlation nor adherence to the dynamic properties is observed; however, this nonconformance is not directly related to the concentration of hydrogen bonds, but rather to the greater deviation of the intermolecular potential from an inverse power law (IPL). Only (hypothetical) liquids having interactions governed strictly by an IPL are perfectly correlating and exhibit the consequent dynamic properties over all thermodynamic conditions.

  9. Exploring the concept of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns at shallow depth: A modeling study of air tightness and energy balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, H.-M.; Rutqvist, J.; Ryu, D.-W.; Choi, B.-H.; Sunwoo, C.; Song, W.-K.

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a numerical modeling study of coupled thermodynamic, multiphase fluid flow and heat transport associated with underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns. Specifically, we explored the concept of using concrete lined caverns at a relatively shallow depth for which constructing and operational costs may be reduced if air tightness and stability can be assured. Our analysis showed that the key parameter to assure long-term air tightness in such a system was the permeability of both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. The analysis also indicated that a concrete lining with a permeability of less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2} would result in an acceptable air leakage rate of less than 1%, with the operational pressure range between 5 and 8 MPa at a depth of 100 m. It was further noted that capillary retention properties and the initial liquid saturation of the lining were very important. Indeed, air leakage could be effectively prevented when the air-entry pressure of the concrete lining is higher than the operational air pressure and when the lining is kept moist at a relatively high liquid saturation. Our subsequent energy-balance analysis demonstrated that the energy loss for a daily compression and decompression cycle is governed by the air-pressure loss, as well as heat loss by conduction to the concrete liner and surrounding rock. For a sufficiently tight system, i.e., for a concrete permeability off less than 1×10{sup -18} m{sup 2}, heat loss by heat conduction tends to become proportionally more important. However, the energy loss by heat conduction can be minimized by keeping the air-injection temperature of compressed air closer to the ambient temperature of the underground storage cavern. In such a case, almost all the heat loss during compression is gained back during subsequent decompression. Finally, our numerical simulation study showed that CAES in shallow rock caverns is feasible from a leakage and energy efficiency viewpoint. Our numerical approach and energy analysis will next be applied in designing and evaluating the performance of a planned full-scale pilot test of the proposed underground CAES concept.

  10. The early American motion picture industry: promoting American cultural hegemony

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wier, Theresa Joanne

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    : CULTURAL IMPERIALISM? Introduction Film as imperialism? Technology Cultural Imperialism Economic Trends Conclusion 67 67 69 72 74 79 81 Vl THE ADVENT OF SOUND 85 Introduction Europe Conclusion 85 95 99 VII CONCLUDING COMMENTS 100... classical imperialism to a new category of international exportation founded on the products of the second industrial revolution: steel, the internal combusion [sic] engine and electricity ? including motion pictures" (1980, 81). However, American...

  11. Oxidation Protection of Uranium Nitride Fuel using Liquid Phase Sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Paul A. Lessing

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two methods are proposed to increase the oxidation resistance of uranium nitride (UN) nuclear fuel. These paths are: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U3Si2) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with various compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering or Liquid Phase Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance. The advantages (high thermal conductivity, very high melting point, and high density) of nitride fuel have long been recognized. The sodium cooled BR-10 reactor in Russia operated for 18 years on uranium nitride fuel (UN was used as the driver fuel for two core loads). However, the potential advantages (large power up-grade, increased cycle lengths, possible high burn-ups) as a Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel are offset by uranium nitride's extremely low oxidation resistance (UN powders oxidize in air and UN pellets decompose in hot water). Innovative research is proposed to solve this problem and thereby provide an accident tolerant LWR fuel that would resist water leaks and high temperature steam oxidation/spalling during an accident. It is proposed that we investigate two methods to increase the oxidation resistance of UN: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance.

  12. Fragmentation of suddenly heated liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J.A.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fragmentation of free liquids in Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors could determine the upper bound on reactor pulse rate. The x-ray ablated materials must cool and recondense to allow driver beam propagation. The increased surface area caused by fragmentation will enhance the cooling and condensation rates. Relaxation from the suddenly heated state will move a liquid into the negative pressure region under the liquid-vapor P-V dome. The lithium equation of state was used to demonstrate that neutron-induced vaporization uses only a minor fraction of the added heat, much less than would be required to drive the expansion. A 77% expansion of the lithium is required before the rapid vaporization process of spinodal decomposition could begin, and nucleation and growth are too slow to contribute to the expansion.

  13. EA-1751: Smart Grid, New York State Gas & Electric, Compressed Air Energy Storage Demonstration Plant, Near Watkins Glen, Schuyler County, New York

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE will prepare an EA to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of providing a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 for the construction of a compressed air energy storage demonstration plant in Schuyler County, New York.

  14. EA-1752: Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E), Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) Compression Testing Phase Project, San Joaquin County, California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE is preparing this EA to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of providing a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 for the construction of an advanced compressed air energy storage plant in San Francisco, California.

  15. Gain and continuous-wave laser oscillation on the 1315 nm atomic iodine transition pumped by an air-helium electric discharge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    peroxide and Cl2 gas. Logistic issues with this chemical sin- glet oxygen generator motivated many by a radio-frequency-excited electric discharge sustained in a dry air-He­NO gas mixture. Active oxygen American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2957678 The classical chemical oxygen iodine laser COIL re

  16. Liquid soap film generates electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad Amjadi; Sadegh Feiz; Reza Montazeri Namin

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We have observed that a rotating liquid soap film generates electricity when placed between two non-contact electrodes with a sufficiently large potential difference. In our experiments suspended liquid film (water + soap film) is formed on the surface of a circular frame, which is forced to rotate in the $x-y$ horizontal plane by a motor. This system is located at the center of two capacitor-like vertical plates to apply an external electric voltage difference in the $x-$direction. The produced electric current is collected from the liquid film using two conducting electrodes that are separated in the $y-$direction. We previously reported that a liquid film in an external electric field rotates when an electric current passes through it, naming it the liquid film motor (LFM). In this paper we report a novel technique, in which a similar device can be used as an electric generator, converting the rotating mechanical energy to electrical energy. The liquid film electric generator (LFEG) is in stark contrast to the LFM, both of which could be designed similarly in very small scales like micro scales with different applications. Although the device is comparable to commercial electric motors or electric generators, there is a significant difference in their working principles. Usually in an electric motor or generator the magnetic field causes the driving force, while in a LFM or LFEG the Coulomb force is the driving force. This fact is also interesting from the Bio-science point of view and brings a similarity to bio motors. Here we have investigated the electrical characteristics of such a generator for the first time experimentally and modelled the phenomenon with electroconvection governing equations. A numerical simulation is performed using the local approximation for the charge-potential relation and results are in qualitative agreement with experiments.

  17. Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

  18. Air UCI Summer Training Program in Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Air UCI Summer Training Program in Environmental Chemistry for Science Teachers I. July 11 ­ July · Lectures by AirUCI faculty · Lab tours of AirUCI laboratories · Follow-up for several years Distribution Models and predictions. Syllabus: Lectures Every AirUCI faculty member is actively involved

  19. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  20. Meteorological Effects on Air/Fuel Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferri, J. L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) where subscript 1 indicates at condition 1 and subsc 1pt 2 Indicates at condition 2. Solving for E gives 2 100. (E . 13) Example 1 A furnace with a pressure type ratio control sys~em is calibrated at 10% excess air with 30 of air. If the air... of ... 30 of ... 460? 590 oR Substituting in Equation 13 and solving for E gives 2 E = (100 ... 10) (:;~)II, - 100 = 3.3% excess ir. 2 If the furnace had been calibrated to 10% excess air with iOO of air, the % excess air with 30 of air would bJI 590 II...

  1. New airport liquid analysis system undergoes testing at Albuquerque...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New airport liquid analysis system New airport liquid analysis system undergoes testing at Albuquerque International Sunport A new tool that distinguishes potential-threat liquids...

  2. THERMODYNAMICS OF SOLID AND LIQUID GROUP III-V ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, T.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a high temperature heat capacity for liquid gallium which isthe molar heat capacity of the stoichiometric liquid and theheat capacity of the supercooled stoichiometric binary liquid

  3. The African-American house as a vehicle of discovery for an African-American architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Charles E. (Charles Edward)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research is three-fold: (1) This thesis seeks to uncover evidence of a distinctly African-American architectural form. The primary building type observed will be the house, or the housing of African-Americans ...

  4. Cold War love : producing American liberalism in interracial marriages between American soldiers and Japanese women

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsuchiya, Tomoko

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Justice: Americanization of Japanese War Crimes at the Endof the Post-Cold War. ” Journal of Asian American Studies256. Berry, Nicholas O. War and the Red Cross: The Unspoken

  5. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  6. Bouncing of a jet off a Newtonian liquid surface Matthew Thrasher, Sunghwan Jung,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    of silicone oil of flow rate Q and viscosity is falling from height H to a bath of the same liquid, which until the jet bounces; the jet and bath are separated by a lubricating layer of air. Figure 2 shows by pouring mineral oil into a pan of mineral oil.1 1 M. Thrasher, S. Jung, Y. K. Pang, C.-P. Chuu, and H. L

  7. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zénó Farkas

    2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  8. Air Pollution 7.1 INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    CHAPTER 7 Air Pollution 7.1 INTRODUCTION 7.2 OVERVIEW OF EMISSIONS 7.3 THE CLEAN AIR ACT 7.4 THE POLLUTANT STANDARDS INDEX 7.5 CRITERIA POLLUTANTS 7.6 TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS 7.7 AIR POLLUTION IN THE WORLD'S MEGACITIES 7.8 MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS 7.9 STATIONARY SOURCES 7.10 AIR POLLUTION AND METEOROLOGY 7

  9. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farkas, Zénó

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  10. Numerical Analysis of a Cold Air Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, L.; Li, R.; Yuan, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cold air distribution systems may reduce the operating energy consumption of air-conditioned air supply system and improve the outside air volume percentages and indoor air quality. However, indoor temperature patterns and velocity field are easily...

  11. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Iain S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Driven Unitary  Air?Conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment”.  Air Conditioning &  Air?source Heat Pump Equipment.  Air?apply to the air handlers of heat pumps and electric 

  12. Indoor Air Quality Poor indoor air quality comes from many sources. It can lead to having

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indoor Air Quality Fact Sheet Poor indoor air quality comes from many sources. It can lead Indoor Air Pollutants · Molds · Pollen · Dander from pet fur · Secondhand smoke · Formaldehyde · Carbon such as cleaners and pesticides How to Improve Indoor Air Quality · Open windows when you can to let in fresh air

  13. About Nuccio Heating & Air Headquartered in Tampa, Florida, Nuccio Heating & Air serves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    a customer say, `you installed my first air conditioner - yourself!'" Nuccio Heating & Air serves commercialAbout Nuccio Heating & Air Headquartered in Tampa, Florida, Nuccio Heating & Air serves commercial ­ the majority being highly mobile ­ sell and service heating and air conditioning systems for the company

  14. Copyright American Museum of Natural History 2012 ISSN 0003-0082 AMERICAN MUSEUM NOVITATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Copyright © American Museum of Natural History 2012 ISSN 0003-0082 AMERICAN MUSEUM NOVITATES NumberDivision of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History; 2Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém University, Washington, DC; 5Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Australia; 6Koninklijk Belgisch Insti- tuut voor

  15. Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Center for Latin American,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Jay

    CLACLS Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Center for Latin American, Caribbean Psychology Ph.D. Program Quantitative Research Associate Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino, Caribbean and Latino Studies is a research institute that works for the advancement of the study of Latin

  16. Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Center for Latin American,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Jay

    CLACLS Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies Center for Latin American, Caribbean - Report 56 - January 2014 #12;The Center for Latin American, Caribbean and Latino Studies is a research institute that works for the advancement of the study of Latin America, the Caribbean, and Latinos

  17. Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert W. Style; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; Benjamin Allen; Katharine E. Jensen; Henry P. Foote; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and engineering materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite's bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby's theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet's deformation is strongly size-dependent with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straight-forward extension of Eshelby's theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive effect of liquid-stiffening of solids is expected whenever droplet radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young's modulus of the solid matrix.

  18. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavin, Basil F. (Albion, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: American Institute of Aeronautics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Two Sandia Leaders Elected American Association for the Advancement of Science Fellows On December 15, 2014, in Climate, Energy,...

  20. 2005 American Conference on Theoretical Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, Emily A

    2006-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The materials uploaded are meant to serve as final report on the funds provided by DOE-BES to help sponsor the 2005 American Conference on Theoretical Chemistry.

  1. The Smithsonian American Art Museum GATEWAY Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about using LEDs in a GATEWAY demonstration at the Smithsonian American Art Museum in Washington, DC, including an interview with lighting designer Scott Rosenfeld.

  2. North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC): Reliability...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    (NERC): Reliability Considerations from the Integration of Smart Grid North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC): Reliability Considerations from the Integration of...

  3. American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The American Energy and Manufacturing Competitiveness Summit will bring together leaders and perspectives from industry, government, academia, national laboratories, labor, and policy organizations...

  4. Building America Research for the American Home

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program is helping to engineer American homes for better energy performance, durability, quality, affordability, and comfort.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: American Society of Mechanical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paper Presented at American Society of Mechanical Engineers' (ASME) 2012 Internal Combustion Engine Division (ICED) Conference On August 28, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Energy...

  6. Asian American Pacific Islander Heritage Month

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Generations of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have helped make America what it is today. Their histories recall bitter hardships and proud accomplishments -- from the laborers who...

  7. American Valve: Proposed Penalty (2010-CW-1411)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that American Valve, Inc. failed to certify a variety of showerheads as compliant with the applicable water conservation standards.

  8. North American Renewables Registry (Multiple States)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North American Renewables Registry (NAR) provides a Web-based platform trusted to create, track, and manage renewable energy certificate (REC) origination for clean generation facilities and...

  9. Comments of North American Electric Reliability Corporation ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    currently developing a report, entitled "Reliability Consideration from Integration of Smart Grid" that will address many of the issues raised in the DOE RFI. North American...

  10. New American Home 2011, Orlando, Florida (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brochure details the New American Home 2011, which demonstrates the use of innovative building materials, cutting-edge design, and the latest construction techniques.

  11. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  12. Americans with Disabilities Act Signed (1990) | Department of...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Americans with Disabilities Act Signed (1990) Americans with Disabilities Act Signed (1990) July 26, 2013 7:30PM EDT The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) prohibits...

  13. Can hedge funds time market liquidity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Charles

    We explore a new dimension of fund managers' timing ability by examining whether they can time market liquidity through adjusting their portfolios' market exposure as aggregate liquidity conditions change. Using a large ...

  14. Mixing in a liquid metal electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Douglas H.

    Fluid mixing has first-order importance for many engineering problems in mass transport, including design and optimization of liquid-phase energy storage devices. Liquid metal batteries are currently being commercialized ...

  15. ELECTRONS ON THE SURFACE OF LIQUID HELIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, David Kay

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ON THE SURFACE OF LIQUID HELIUM David Kay Lambert (Ph. D.ON THE SURFACE OF LIQUID HELIUM David Kay Lambert Materialsthe potential well near a helium surface, The charge density

  16. MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of solid and liquid wastes generated at mushroom producing facilities. Environmental guidelines#12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE The Mushroom Waste Management Project (MWMP) was initiated by Environment Canada, the BC Ministry

  17. BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cairns, Elton J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and DiMattio, American Industrial Hygiene Association, "76:471. American Industrial Hygiene Association, "Community

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: fuel-air mixing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Paper Presented at American Society of Mechanical Engineers' (ASME) 2012 Internal Combustion Engine Division (ICED) Conference On August 28, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Energy...

  19. The Air-Fluorescence Yield

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Arqueros; F. Blanco; D. Garcia-Pinto; M. Ortiz; J. Rosado

    2008-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Detection of the air-fluorescence radiation induced by the charged particles of extensive air showers is a well-established technique for the study of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. Fluorescence telescopes provide a nearly calorimetric measure of the primary energy. Presently the main source of systematic uncertainties comes from our limited accuracy in the fluorescence yield, that is, the number of fluorescence photons emitted per unit of energy deposited in the atmosphere by the shower particles. In this paper the current status of our knowledge on the fluorescence yield both experimental an theoretical will be discussed.

  20. Leads Tactical Air Control Party (TACP) and Air Support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    leadership in the demanding environment of Joint operations -Meet medical standards for Ground Based Control as an ALO. Joint Air Operations Command and Control Course: The JAOC2C will provide the 13L ALO an overview, Ranger School, the Joint Operational Fires and Effects Course, and others. initiAL trAining AdvAnced tr