National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron

  1. Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard X-ray, and its applications in electrochemistry Friday, December 14, 2012 - 3:30pm SSRL, Bldg. 137, room 322...

  2. Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray, and its applications in electrochemistry | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard X-ray, and its applications in electrochemistry Friday, December 14, 2012 - 3:30pm SSRL, Bldg. 137, room 322 Zhi Liu The synchrotron based ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) endstation[1] pioneered at ALS based on differentially pumped electron energy analyzer has been recognized by scientific communities as

  3. Adsorption of 2-propanol on ice probed by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Newberg, John T.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2015-08-18

    The interaction of 2-propanol with ice was examined via ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), a surface sensitive technique that probes the adsorbed 2-propanol directly with submonolayer resolution. Isothermal uptake experiments were performed on vapor deposited ice at 227 K in the presence of the equilibrium water vapor pressure of 0.05 Torr and 2-propanol partial pressures ranging from 5 × 10-5 to 2 × 10-3 Torr. The C 1s APXPS spectra of adsorbed 2-propanol showed two characteristic peaks associated with the COH alcohol group and CMe methyl groups in a 1 : 2 ratio, respectively. Coverage increased with 2-propanol partialmore » pressure and followed first order Langmuir kinetics with a Langmuir constant of K = 6.3 × 103 Torr-1. The 1 : 2 ratio of COH : CMe remained constant with increasing coverage, indicating there is no chemical reaction upon adsorption. The observed Langmuir kinetics using APXPS is consistent with previous observations of other small chain alcohols via indirect adsorption methods using, e.g., Knudsen cell and coated wall flow tube reactors.« less

  4. Adsorption of 2-propanol on ice probed by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newberg, John T.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2015-08-18

    The interaction of 2-propanol with ice was examined via ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), a surface sensitive technique that probes the adsorbed 2-propanol directly with submonolayer resolution. Isothermal uptake experiments were performed on vapor deposited ice at 227 K in the presence of the equilibrium water vapor pressure of 0.05 Torr and 2-propanol partial pressures ranging from 5 10-5 to 2 10-3 Torr. The C 1s APXPS spectra of adsorbed 2-propanol showed two characteristic peaks associated with the COH alcohol group and CMe methyl groups in a 1 : 2 ratio, respectively. Coverage increased with 2-propanol partial pressure and followed first order Langmuir kinetics with a Langmuir constant of K = 6.3 103 Torr-1. The 1 : 2 ratio of COH : CMe remained constant with increasing coverage, indicating there is no chemical reaction upon adsorption. The observed Langmuir kinetics using APXPS is consistent with previous observations of other small chain alcohols via indirect adsorption methods using, e.g., Knudsen cell and coated wall flow tube reactors.

  5. Using “Tender” x-ray ambient pressure x-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy as a direct probe of solid-liquid interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Axnanda, Stephanus; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Mao, Baohua; Rani, Sana; Chang, Rui; Karlsson, Patrik G.; Edwards, Mårten O. M.; Lundqvist, Måns; Moberg, Robert; Ross, Phil; et al

    2015-05-07

    We report a new method to probe the solid-liquid interface through the use of a thin liquid layer on a solid surface. An ambient pressure XPS (AP-XPS) endstation that is capable of detecting high kinetic energy photoelectrons (7 keV) at a pressure up to 110 Torr has been constructed and commissioned. Additionally, we have deployed a “dip & pull” method to create a stable nanometers-thick aqueous electrolyte on platinum working electrode surface. Combining the newly constructed AP-XPS system, “dip & pull” approach, with a “tender” X-ray synchrotron source (2 keV–7 keV), we are able to access the interface between liquidmore » and solid dense phases with photoelectrons and directly probe important phenomena occurring at the narrow solid-liquid interface region in an electrochemical system. Using this approach, we have performed electrochemical oxidation of the Pt electrode at an oxygen evolution reaction (OER) potential. Under this potential, we observe the formation of both Pt²⁺ and Pt⁴⁺ interfacial species on the Pt working electrode in situ. We believe this thin-film approach and the use of “tender” AP-XPS highlighted in this study is an innovative new approach to probe this key solid-liquid interface region of electrochemistry.« less

  6. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Applied to Soot & What...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Applied to Soot & What It Can Do for You X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Applied to Soot & What It Can Do for You Presentation given at DEER...

  7. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - X-Ray and UV Photoelectron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy X-Ray and UV Photoelectron Spectroscopy Example of graph made with cluster tool; plots counts (Y-axis) vs. binding energy (X-axis) for PET Carbon 1S. High-resolution XPS spectra of carbon 1s from polyethylene terephthalate backsheet material, showing excellent quantitative agreement between measured and predicted peak area ratios. Subtle differences in polymer functionality are assessed by deviations from stoichiometry. In photoemission techniques, we use either X-rays or

  8. Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using an environmental cell with silicon nitride membrane windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsunemi, Eika; Watanabe, Yoshio; Oji, Hiroshi; Cui, Yi-Tao; Son, Jin-Young

    2015-06-21

    We applied hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) to a sample under ambient pressure conditions using an environmental cell with an approximately 24?nm-thick SiN{sub x} membrane window. As a model chemical substance, europium (II) iodide (EuI{sub 2}) sealed in the cell with argon gas was investigated with HAXPES to identify the chemical species present inside the cell. The optical and morphological properties of the sample within the cell were measured with optical and fluorescent microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry. We confirmed the effectiveness of the gas barrier properties of the cell with the SiN{sub x} window and demonstrated its applicability to various other optical and electron measurements as well as HAXPES.

  9. Closing the pressure gap in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy by membrane hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmelle, Renaud; Borgschulte, Andreas; Probst, Benjamin; Alberto, Roger; Zttel, Andreas; Bleiner, Davide

    2015-05-15

    Comprehensive studies of gas-solid reactions require the in-situ interaction of the gas at a pressure beyond the operating pressure of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The recent progress of near ambient pressure XPS allows to dose gases to the sample up to a pressure of 20 mbar. The present work describes an alternative to this experimental challenge, with a focus on H{sub 2} as the interacting gas. Instead of exposing the sample under investigation to gaseous hydrogen, the sample is in contact with a hydrogen permeation membrane, through which hydrogen is transported from the outside to the sample as atomic hydrogen. Thereby, we can reach local hydrogen concentrations at the sample inside an UHV chamber, which is equipped with surface science tools, and this corresponds to a hydrogen pressure up to 1 bar without affecting the sensitivity or energy resolution of the spectrometer. This experimental approach is validated by two examples, that is, the reduction of a catalyst precursor for CO{sub 2} hydrogenation and the hydrogenation of a water reduction catalyst for photocatalytic H{sub 2} production, but it opens the possibility of the new in situ characterisation of energy materials and catalysts.

  10. In-situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of a Catalyst for Artificial...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In-situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of a Catalyst for Artificial Photosynthesis Monday, June 30, 2014 Plants and other organisms use a process called photosynthesis to produce...

  11. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies on yttria, zirconia, and yttria-stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, D. ); Chatterjee, D. )

    1991-07-15

    Surfaces of yttria, zirconia, and yttria-stabilized zirconia were studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An almost threefold increase in the surface yttrium concentration was observed in the yttria-stabilized zirconia samples. The core level binding energies of yttrium, zirconium, and oxygen ions in yttria-stabilized zirconia showed chemical shifts. Valence bands and Auger parameters were monitored for the monoclinic and the tetragonal phases of zirconia. Characteristic differences were observed for the two phases due to their different oxygen coordination. The results were used to identify surface phase transitions which were difficult to detect by x-ray diffraction.

  12. In-situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of a Catalyst for Artificial

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photosynthesis | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource In-situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of a Catalyst for Artificial Photosynthesis Monday, June 30, 2014 Plants and other organisms use a process called photosynthesis to produce carbohydrates and oxygen from water and carbon dioxide using sunlight. Artificial photosynthesis replicates this process to produce energy in the form of usable fuels for human needs. Researches have been developing devices for artificial photosynthesis,

  13. Room temperature reaction of oxygen with gold: an in situ ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Peng; Porsgaard, Soeren; Borondics, Ferenc; Kober, Mariana; Caballero, Alfonso; Bluhm, Hendrik; Besenbacher, Flemming; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-02-01

    Gold is commonly regarded as the most inert element.1 However, the discovery of the exceptional catalytic properties of gold nanoparticles (NPs) for low temperature CO oxidation2 initiated great interest due to its promising applications and spawned a large number of studies devoted to the understanding of the reaction mechanism.3-6 Nevertheless, no consistent and conclusive picture has arisen.7-13

  14. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for electrochemical reactions in ordinary solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masuda, Takuya; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency , 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 333-0012 ; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kobata, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Noguchi, Hidenori; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency , 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 333-0012; Graduate School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810; International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics , National Institute for Materials Science , Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 ; Kawasaki, Tadahiro; Uosaki, Kohei; Graduate School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810; International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics , National Institute for Materials Science , Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044

    2013-09-09

    In situ electrochemical X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) apparatus, which allows XPS at solid/liquid interfaces under potential control, was constructed utilizing a microcell with an ultra-thin Si membrane, which separates vacuum and a solution. Hard X-rays from a synchrotron source penetrate into the Si membrane surface exposed to the solution. Electrons emitted at the Si/solution interface can pass through the membrane and be analyzed by an analyzer placed in vacuum. Its operation was demonstrated for potential-induced Si oxide growth in water. Effect of potential and time on the thickness of Si and Si oxide layers was quantitatively determined at sub-nanometer resolution.

  15. Contact-free pyroelectric measurements using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehre, D.; Cohen, H.

    2013-07-29

    Non-contact pyroelectricity measurements based on x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are presented. Applied to Lithium Tantalate crystals, we demonstrate how the XPS-derived surface potential provides a simple probe of the desired property, free of all top-contact related difficulties. In particular, the increase in Lithium Tantalate spontaneous polarization under cooling, an experimentally challenging feature, is evaluated. We further inspect the roll of surface contaminants and the control over trapped surface charge in the XPS vacuum environment. Our approach can be extended to other non-contact probes, as well as to measuring additional electrical properties, such as piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity.

  16. Probing hot-electron effects in wide area plasmonic surfaces using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayas, Sencer; Cupallari, Andi; Dana, Aykutlu

    2014-12-01

    Plasmon enhanced hot carrier formation in metallic nanostructures increasingly attracts attention due to potential applications in photodetection, photocatalysis, and solar energy conversion. Here, hot-electron effects in nanoscale metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures are investigated using a non-contact X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy based technique using continuous wave X-ray and laser excitations. The effects are observed through shifts of the binding energy of the top metal layer upon excitation with lasers of 445, 532, and 650?nm wavelength. The shifts are polarization dependent for plasmonic MIM grating structures fabricated by electron beam lithography. Wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces fabricated using a lithography free route by the dewetting of evaporated Ag on HfO{sub 2} exhibit polarization independent optical absorption and surface photovoltage. Using a simple model and making several assumptions about the magnitude of the photoemission current, the responsivity and external quantum efficiency of wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces are estimated as 500?nA/W and 11 10{sup ?6} for 445?nm illumination.

  17. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy study of the compatibility of the explosive PETN with candidate plastic bonding materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vannet, M.D.; Wang, P.S.; Moddeman, W.E.; Bowling, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    The compatibility of the explosive PETN with two plastic bonding materials, ethyl cellulose and a halogenated vinyl polymer (FPC 461), was determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Both were found to coat the PETN crystals, and no change in chemical composition was found in the PETN or the plastic due to either the process or their mutual presence. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the hydration of C{sub 2}S thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rheinheimer, Vanessa; Casanova, Ignasi

    2014-06-01

    Electron-beam evaporation was used to produce thin films of ?-dicalcium silicate. Chemical and mineralogical compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and grazing-angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD), respectively. Results show that no fractionation occurs during evaporation and isostructural condensation of the material as synthesized films have the same composition as the initial bulk material. Samples were gradually hydrated under saturated water spray conditions and analyzed with XPS. Polymerization of the silicate chains due to hydration, and subsequent formation of C-S-H, has been monitored through evaluation of energy shifts on characteristic silicon peaks. Quantitative analyses show changes on the surface by the reduction of the Ca/Si ratio and an increase on the difference between binding energies of bridging and non-bridging oxygen. Finally, SEM/FIB observation shows clear differences between the surface and cross section of the initial sample and the reacted sample.

  19. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on Pd doped SnO{sub 2} liquid petroleum gas sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phani, A.R.

    1997-10-01

    The present investigation deals with the electrical response of palladium doped tin oxide, as a means of improving the selectivity for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) in the presence of CO, CH{sub 4}. The sensor element with the composition of Pd(1.5 wt{percent}) in the base material SnO{sub 2} sintered at 800{degree}C, has shown a high sensitivity towards LPG with a negligible cross interference of CO and CH{sub 4} at an operating temperature of 350{degree}C. This greatly suggests the possibility of utilizing the sensor for the detection of LPG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been carried out to determine the possible chemical species involved in the gas-solid interaction and the enhancing mechanism of the Pd doped SnO{sub 2} sensor element, towards LPG sensitivity. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Spectroscopic evidence for Ag(III) in highly oxidized silver films by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Chambers, Scott A.; Bagus, Paul S.

    2010-12-16

    In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was utilized to identify the chemical state of silver in a range of silver oxide thin films obtained by co-deposition of silver and atomic oxygen. A highly oxidized silver species was observed at an unexpectedly low Ag 3d5/2 binding energy (BE) of 366.8 eV with an associated broad satellite at 368.2 eV; this species was assigned as Ag(III). It was found to be highly unstable in vacuum, but could be regenerated by further exposure to atomic oxygen. Both BE shifts and intensity changes of the O 1s peak were found to correlate with changes in the silver oxidation state. Theoretical calculations of the expected XPS of high spin Ag(III) provide insight into the significance of satellite structure and shake features in the Ag 3d spectra.

  1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of Al-related dipole at the HfO{sub 2}/Si interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, L. Q.; Barrett, N.; Jegou, P.

    2009-01-15

    The presence of an ultrathin oxide layer at the high-k/SiO{sub 2} interface may result in an interfacial dipole related to the specific high-k dielectric used for the gate stacks. 1 nm HfO{sub 2}/x nmAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}/Si stacks with different x values (x=0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2) have been prepared by atomic layer deposition. Using photoelectron spectroscopy, an Al-related interfacial dipole in the HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} gate stack has been identified. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that the dipole is correlated with the formation of an interfacial Al-silicate. The dipole is located at the Al-silicate interface between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}, and its strength increases with the increase in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness because of Al silicate growth. Such Al-related interfacial dipole should have potential applications in future positive metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  2. ANALYSIS OF PASSIVATED SURFACES FOR MASS SPECTROMETER INLET SYSTEMS BY AUGER ELECTRON AND X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajo, H.; Clark, E.

    2010-09-01

    Stainless steel coupons approximately 0.5' in diameter and 0.125' thick were passivated with five different surface treatments and an untreated coupon was left as a control. These surface treatments are being explored for use in tritium storage containers. These coupons were made to allow surface analysis of the surface treatments using well-know surface analysis techniques. Depth profiles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were performed on these coupons to characterize the surface and near surface regions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were collected as well. All of the surface treatments studied here appear to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks on the treated samples. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7-0.9 nm thick) as well as the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E's silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.

  3. Elemental content of enamel and dentin after bleaching of teeth (a comparative study between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imam, H.; Ahmed, Doaa; Eldakrouri, Ashraf; Department of Optometry and Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Science, King Saud University, Riyadh

    2013-06-21

    The elemental content of the superficial and inner enamel as well as that of dentin was analyzed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of bleached and unbleached tooth specimens. It is thus clear from the spectral analysis using both the LIBS and XPS technique that elemental changes (though insignificant within the scopes of this study) of variable intensities do occur on the surface of the enamel and extend deeper to reach dentin. The results of the LIBS revealed a slight reduction in the calcium levels in the bleached compared to the control specimens in all the different bleaching groups and in both enamel and dentin. The good correlation found between the LIBS and XPS results demonstrates the possibility of LIBS technique for detection of minor loss in calcium and phosphorus in enamel and dentin.

  4. Angle-resolved environmental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: A new laboratory setup for photoemission studies at pressures up to 0.4 Torr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangolini, F.; Wabiszewski, G. E.; Egberts, P.; Ahlund, J.; Backlund, K.; Karlsson, P. G.; Adiga, V. P.; Streller, F.; Wannberg, B.; Carpick, R. W.

    2012-09-15

    The paper presents the development and demonstrates the capabilities of a new laboratory-based environmental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system incorporating an electrostatic lens and able to acquire spectra up to 0.4 Torr. The incorporation of a two-dimensional detector provides imaging capabilities and allows the acquisition of angle-resolved data in parallel mode over an angular range of 14 Degree-Sign without tilting the sample. The sensitivity and energy resolution of the spectrometer have been investigated by analyzing a standard Ag foil both under high vacuum (10{sup -8} Torr) conditions and at elevated pressures of N{sub 2} (0.4 Torr). The possibility of acquiring angle-resolved data at different pressures has been demonstrated by analyzing a silicon/silicon dioxide (Si/SiO{sub 2}) sample. The collected angle-resolved spectra could be effectively used for the determination of the thickness of the native silicon oxide layer.

  5. Conduction band offset at GeO{sub 2}/Ge interface determined by internal photoemission and charge-corrected x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W. F.; Nishimula, T.; Nagashio, K.; Kita, K.; Toriumi, A.

    2013-03-11

    We report a consistent conduction band offset (CBO) at a GeO{sub 2}/Ge interface determined by internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) and charge-corrected X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). IPE results showed that the CBO value was larger than 1.5 eV irrespective of metal electrode and substrate type variance, while an accurate determination of valence band offset (VBO) by XPS requires a careful correction of differential charging phenomena. The VBO value was determined to be 3.60 {+-} 0.2 eV by XPS after charge correction, thus yielding a CBO (1.60 {+-} 0.2 eV) in excellent agreement with the IPE results. Such a large CBO (>1.5 eV) confirmed here is promising in terms of using GeO{sub 2} as a potential passivation layer for future Ge-based scaled CMOS devices.

  6. Band structure of the epitaxial Fe/MgO/GaAs(001) tunnel junction studied by x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Y.; Le Breton, J. C.; Turban, P.; Lepine, B.; Schieffer, P.; Jezequel, G.

    2006-10-09

    The electronic band structure in the epitaxial Fe/MgO/GaAs(001) tunnel junction has been studied by x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The Schottky barrier height (SBH) of Fe on MgO/GaAs heterostructure is determined to be 3.3{+-}0.1 eV, which sets the Fe Fermi level at about 0.3 eV above the GaAs valence band maximum. This SBH is also exactly the same as that measured from Fe on MgO monocrystal. After Fe deposition, no band bending change is observed in MgO and GaAs underlayers. On the contrary, Au and Al depositions led to clear variation of the band bending in both MgO and GaAs layers. This effect is analyzed as a fingerprint of defect states at the MgO/GaAs interface.

  7. Soft X-Ray and Vacuum Ultraviolet Based Spectroscopy of the Actinides...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectroscopy, Synchrotron-radiation-based photoelectron spectroscopy, Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, Soft x-ray emission spectroscopy, Inverse photoelectron spectroscopy,...

  8. In Situ Observation of Water Dissociation with Lattice Incorporation at FeO Particle Edges Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Xingyi; Lee, Junseok; Wang, Congjun; Matranga, Christopher; Aksoy, Funda; Liu, Zhi

    2011-03-15

    The dissociation of H2O and formation of adsorbed hydroxyl groups, on FeO particles grown on Au(111) were identified with in situ,: X:ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) at water pressures ranging from 3 x 10-8 to 0.1 Torr. The facile dissociation of H2O takes place at FeO particle edges, and it was successfully observed in situ With atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The in situ STM studies show that adsorbed hydroxyl groups were formed exclusively along the edges of the FeO particles with the 0 atom becoming directly incorporated into the oxide crystalline lattice The STM results are consistent with coordinatively unsaturated ferrous (CUF) sites along the FeO particle edge causing the observed reactivity with H2O. Our results also directly illustrate how structural defects and under.-coordinated sites participate in chemical reactions.

  9. X ray photoelectron analysis of oxide-semiconductor interface after breakdown in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shekhter, P.; Palumbo, F.; Cohen Weinfeld, K.; Eizenberg, M.

    2014-09-08

    In this work, the post-breakdown characteristics of metal gate/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs structures were studied using surface analysis by x ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that for dielectric breakdown under positive bias, localized filaments consisting of oxidized substrate atoms (In, Ga and As) were formed, while following breakdown under negative bias, a decrease of oxidized substrate atoms was observed. Such differences in the microstructure at the oxide-semiconductor interface after breakdown for positive and negative voltages are explained by atomic diffusion of the contact atoms into the gate dielectric in the region of the breakdown spot by the current induced electro-migration effect. These findings show a major difference between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs and SiO{sub 2}/Si interfaces, opening the way to a better understanding of the breakdown characteristics of III-V complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor technology.

  10. Analysis of passivated A-286 stainless steel surfaces for mass spectrometer inlet systems by Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ajo, Henry; Blankenship, Donnie; Clark, Elliot

    2014-07-25

    In this study, various commercially available surface treatments are being explored for use on stainless steel components in mass spectrometer inlet systems. Type A-286 stainless steel coupons, approximately 12.5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were passivated with one of five different surface treatments; an untreated coupon served as a control. The surface and near-surface microstructure and chemistry of the coupons were investigated using sputter depth profiling using Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the surface treatments studied appeared to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks onmore » the treated samples in SEM images. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7–0.9 nm thick), as well as to the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E’s silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.« less

  11. Effects of Pt and Zr on the oxidation behavior of FeTbCo magneto-optic films: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, D.; Hatwar, T. K.

    1989-07-01

    We report the effects of Pt and Zr on the oxidation behavior of FeTbCo magneto-optic films. The addition of 10 at. % Pt or Zr increased environmental stability without significantly affecting the magneto-optic properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to study /ital in/ /ital situ/ oxidation of clean FeTbCoPt and FeTbCoZr films under 5/times/10/sup /minus/7/ Torr of oxygen at room temperature. Pt and Zr played different roles in increasing the oxidation resistance of the alloy. In the FeTbCoPt alloy, Pt reduced the oxygen uptake and retarded the oxidation kinetics of Fe. No oxidation of Pt was observed. In the FeTbCoZr alloy, Zr oxidized readily and segregated to the surface to form a protective layer. The Tb/Fe ratio at the surface increased with oxygen exposure in both alloys but at a faster rate in the FeTbCoPt alloy than in the FeTbCoZr alloy.

  12. Electrical conductivity anomaly and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of YCr{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} negative temperature coefficient ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Bo; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Zhao, Qing; Chang, Aimin E-mail: wuy@alfred.edu; Li, Yiyu; Liu, Yin; Wu, Yiquan E-mail: wuy@alfred.edu

    2014-03-10

    Electrical conductivity anomaly of perovskite-type YCr{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} negative temperature coefficient (NTC) ceramics produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been investigated by using defect chemistry theory combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. From the results of the ln?-1/T curves and the XPS analysis, it can be considered that YCr{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} ceramics exhibit the hopping conductivity. The major carriers in YCrO{sub 3} are holes, which are compensated by the oxygen vacancies produced due to the introduction of Mn ions. The Mn{sup 4+} ion contents increase monotonically in the range of 0.2???x???0.5. The resistivity increases at first and then decreases with increasing Mn contents, which has the same varying tendency with activation energy. The electrical conductivity anomaly appearing in these ceramics may be due to the variation of Cr{sup 4+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions concentration as Mn content changes.

  13. Analysis of passivated A-286 stainless steel surfaces for mass spectrometer inlet systems by Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajo, Henry; Blankenship, Donnie; Clark, Elliot

    2014-07-25

    In this study, various commercially available surface treatments are being explored for use on stainless steel components in mass spectrometer inlet systems. Type A-286 stainless steel coupons, approximately 12.5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were passivated with one of five different surface treatments; an untreated coupon served as a control. The surface and near-surface microstructure and chemistry of the coupons were investigated using sputter depth profiling using Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the surface treatments studied appeared to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks on the treated samples in SEM images. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.70.9 nm thick), as well as to the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor Es silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.

  14. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  15. Sample-morphology effects on x-ray photoelectron peak intensities. II. Estimation of detection limits for thin-film materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Cedric J.; Werner, Wolfgang S. M.; Smekal, Werner

    2014-09-01

    The authors show that the National Institute of Standards and Technology database for the simulation of electron spectra for surface analysis (SESSA) can be used to determine detection limits for thin-film materials such as a thin film on a substrate or buried at varying depths in another material for common x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement conditions. Illustrative simulations were made for a W film on or in a Ru matrix and for a Ru film on or in a W matrix. In the former case, the thickness of a W film at a given depth in the Ru matrix was varied so that the intensity of the W 4d{sub 5/2} peak was essentially the same as that for a homogeneous RuW{sub 0.001} alloy. Similarly, the thickness of a Ru film at a selected depth in the W matrix was varied so that the intensity of the Ru 3p{sub 3/2} peak matched that from a homogeneous WRu{sub 0.01} alloy. These film thicknesses correspond to the detection limits of each minor component for measurement conditions where the detection limits for a homogeneous sample varied between 0.1 at.?% (for the RuW{sub 0.001} alloy) and 1 at.?% (for the WRu{sub 0.01} alloy). SESSA can be similarly used to convert estimates of XPS detection limits for a minor species in a homogeneous solid to the corresponding XPS detection limits for that species as a thin film on or buried in the chosen solid.

  16. Effect of Cl{sub 2}- and HBr-based inductively coupled plasma etching on InP surface composition analyzed using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouchoule, S.; Vallier, L.; Patriarche, G.; Chevolleau, T.; Cardinaud, C.

    2012-05-15

    A Cl{sub 2}-HBr-O{sub 2}/Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching process has been adapted for the processing of InP-based heterostructures in a 300-mm diameter CMOS etching tool. Smooth and anisotropic InP etching is obtained at moderate etch rate ({approx}600 nm/min). Ex situ x-ray energy dispersive analysis of the etched sidewalls shows that the etching anisotropy is obtained through a SiO{sub x} passivation mechanism. The stoichiometry of the etched surface is analyzed in situ using angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is observed that Cl{sub 2}-based ICP etching results in a significantly P-rich surface. The phosphorous layer identified on the top surface is estimated to be {approx}1-1.3-nm thick. On the other hand InP etching in HBr/Ar plasma results in a more stoichiometric surface. In contrast to the etched sidewalls, the etched surface is free from oxides with negligible traces of silicon. Exposure to ambient air of the samples submitted to Cl{sub 2}-based chemistry results in the complete oxidation of the P-rich top layer. It is concluded that a post-etch treatment or a pure HBr plasma step may be necessary after Cl{sub 2}-based ICP etching for the recovery of the InP material.

  17. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

    1994-05-03

    An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

  18. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R.; Bionta, Richard M.; Ables, Elden

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

  19. Bandpass x-ray diode and x-ray multiplier detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, C.L.

    1982-09-27

    An absorption-edge of an x-ray absorption filter and a quantum jump of a photocathode determine the bandpass characteristics of an x-ray diode detector. An anode, which collects the photoelectrons emitted by the photocathode, has enhanced amplification provided by photoelectron-multiplying means which include dynodes or a microchannel-plate electron-multiplier. Suppression of undesired high frequency response for a bandpass x-ray diode is provided by subtracting a signal representative of energies above the passband from a signal representative of the overall response of the bandpass diode.

  20. A combined capacitance-voltage and hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterisation of metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As capacitor structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jun; Povey, Ian M.; Hurley, Paul K.; Walsh, Lee; Hughes, Greg; Woicik, Joseph C.; O'Regan, Terrance P.

    2014-07-14

    Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) characterization and hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) measurements have been used to study metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As capacitor structures with high (Ni) and low (Al) work function metals. The HAXPES measurements observe a band bending occurring prior to metal deposition, which is attributed to a combination of fixed oxide charges and interface states of donor-type. Following metal deposition, the Fermi level positions at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As interface move towards the expected direction as observed from HAXPES measurements. The In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As surface Fermi level positions determined from both the C-V analysis at zero gate bias and HAXPES measurements are in reasonable agreement. The results are consistent with the presence of electrically active interface states at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As interface and suggest an interface state density increasing towards the In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As valence band edge.

  1. In-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on the impact of current compliance and switching cycles on oxygen and carbon defects in resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowinska, Malgorzata Bertaud, Thomas; Walczyk, Damian; Calka, Pauline; Walczyk, Christian; Thiess, Sebastian; Alff, Lambert; Schroeder, Thomas

    2014-05-28

    In this study, direct experimental materials science evidence of the important theoretical prediction for resistive random access memory (RRAM) technologies that a critical amount of oxygen vacancies is needed to establish stable resistive switching in metal-oxide-metal samples is presented. In detail, a novel in-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique is applied to non-destructively investigates the influence of the current compliance and direct current voltage sweep cycles on the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface chemistry and physics of resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells. These studies indeed confirm that current compliance is a critical parameter to control the amount of oxygen vacancies in the conducting filaments in the oxide layer during the RRAM cell operation to achieve stable switching. Furthermore, clear carbon segregation towards the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface under electrical stress is visible. Since carbon impurities impact the oxygen vacancy defect population under resistive switching, this dynamic carbon segregation to the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface is suspected to negatively influence RRAM device endurance. Therefore, these results indicate that the RRAM materials engineering needs to include all impurities in the dielectric layer in order to achieve reliable device performance.

  2. X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including film developing and scanning, and image plate scanning. Related images X-ray framing camera being loaded into the TIM in the Trident North Target Area. X-ray framing...

  3. X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diagnostics X-Ray Diagnostics Maintenance of existing devices and development of advanced concepts Contact John Oertel (505) 665-3246 Email Hot, dense matter produced by intense laser interaction with a solid target often produces x-rays with energies from 100 eV to those exceeding 100 keV. A suite of diagnostics and methods have been deployed at Trident to diagnose the x-ray emission from laser-matter interaction experiments, or to use the x-rays as a probe of dense matter. These

  4. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the morphology and chemistry of a PdCl{sub 2}/SnCl{sub 2} electroless plating catalysis system adsorbed onto shape memory alloy particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvain, J.F.; Fouassier, O.; Lescaux, S.

    2004-11-01

    A study of the different stages of the electroless deposition of copper on micronic NiTi shape memory alloy particles activated by one-step and two-step methods has been conducted from both a chemical and a morphological point of view. The combination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging has allowed detection of the distribution of the formed compounds and depth quantification and estimation of the surface topographic parameters. For the two-step method, at the sensitization of the early stages, it is observed by AFM that Sn is absorbed in form of clusters that tend to completely cover the surface and form a continuous film. XPS analysis have shown that Sn and Pd are first absorbed in form of oxide (SnO{sub 2} and PdO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 4}]. After the entire sensitization step, the NiTi substrate is covered with Sn-based compounds. After the sensitization and the activation steps the powder roughness increases. Behavior of the Sn and Pd growth for the one-step method does not follow the behavior found for the two-step method. Indeed, XPS analysis shows a three-dimensional (3D) growth of Pd clusters on top of a mixture of metallic tin, oxide (SnO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 2}]. These Pd clusters are covered with a thin layer of Pd-oxide contamination induced by the electroless process. The mean roughness for the one-step and two-step processes are equivalent. After copper deposition, the decrease of mean roughness is attributed to a filling of surface valleys, observed after the Sn-Pd coating step.

  5. The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    been combined with high spatial resolution in a streak camera. In an x-ray streak camera system, the photocathode converts the x-ray signal into a photoelectron analog signal. The...

  6. Ambient-pressure silica aerogel films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, S.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brinker, C.J. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hurd, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Very highly porous (aerogel) silica films with refractive index in the range 1.006--1.05 (equivalent porosity 98.5--88%) were prepared by an ambient-pressure process. It was shown earlier using in situ ellipsometric imaging that the high porosity of these films was mainly attributable to the dilation or `springback` of the film during the final stage of drying. This finding was irrefutably reconfirmed by visually observing a `springback` of >500% using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Ellipsometry and ESEM also established the near cent per cent reversibility of aerogel film deformation during solvent intake and drying. Film thickness profile measurements (near the drying line) for the aerogel, xerogel and pure solvent cases are presented from imaging ellipsometry. The thickness of these films (crack-free) were controlled in the range 0.1-3.5 {mu}m independent of refractive index.

  7. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA); Stearns, Daniel S. (Mountain View, CA); Hawryluk, Andrew M. (Modesto, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

  8. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1987-08-07

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

  9. Chest x-Rays

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica.

  10. Spray Structure Measured with X-Ray Radiography | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structure Measured with X-Ray Radiography Spray Structure Measured with X-Ray Radiography Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_kastengren.pdf More Documents & Publications Effect of Ambient Pressure on Diesel Spray Axial Velocity and Internal Structure X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of Nozzle Geometry Ultrafast X-ray

  11. 15.05.29 RH Operando X-ray - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of a Semiconductor/Liquid Junction by Operando X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Lichterman , M. F. et al. Direct Observation of the Energetics at a Semiconductor/Liquid Junction by Operando X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Energy Environ. Sci ., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C5EE01014D (2015). Scientific Achievement We demonstrated that the operando XPS technique, applied to a semiconductor/liquid junction, can directly measure the positions of the electronic states of the

  12. X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  13. X-Ray Detection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ratio, I I on I off , recorded with plus (+, blue) and minus (-, red) x-ray helicities. This measurement was taken at -5 mA, which corresponds to a current...

  14. X-ray fluorescence mapping

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy and Imaging: X-ray Fluorescence Mapping Of increasing scientific interest is the detection, quantification and mapping of elemental content of samples, often down...

  15. X-ray Imaging Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    microscopy (PEEM), angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), coherent diffraction imaging, x-ray microscopy, micro-tomography, holographic imaging, and x-ray...

  16. Gamma Radiation & X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation and X-Rays 1. Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation like visible light, radio waves, and ultraviolet light. These electromagnetic radiations...

  17. X-ray microtomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landis, Eric N.; Keane, Denis T.

    2010-12-15

    In this tutorial, we describe X-ray microtomography as a technique to nondestructively characterize material microstructure in three dimensions at a micron level spatial resolution. While commercially available laboratory scale instrumentation is available, we focus our attention on synchrotron-based systems, where we can exploit a high flux, monochromatic X-ray beam to produce high fidelity three-dimensional images. A brief description of the physics and the mathematical analysis behind the technique is followed by example applications to specific materials characterization problems, with a particular focus on the utilization of three-dimensional image processing that can be used to extract a wide range of useful information.

  18. X-ray beam finder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, H.W.

    1983-06-16

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  19. Photoelectron spectroscopy of wet and gaseous samples through graphene membranes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kraus, Jrgen; Reichelt, Robert; Gnther, Sebastian; Gregoratti, Luca; Amati, Matteo; Kiskinova, Maya; Yulaev, Alexander; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2014-09-21

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and microscopy are highly important for exploring morphologically and chemically complex liquidgas, solidliquid and solidgas interfaces under realistic conditions, but the very small electron mean free path inside dense media imposes serious experimental challenges. Currently, near ambient pressure PES is conducted using dexterously designed electron energy analyzers coupled with differentially pumped electron lenses which make it possible to conduct PES measurements at a few hPa. This report proposes an alternative ambient pressure approach that can be applied to a broad class of samples and be implemented in conventional PES instruments. It uses ultrathin electron transparent but molecularmoreimpermeable membranes to isolate the high pressure sample environment from the high vacuum PES detection system. We show that the separating graphene membrane windows are both mechanically robust and sufficiently transparent for electrons in a wide energy range to allow soft X-ray PES of liquid and gaseous water. The performed proof-of-principle experiments confirm the possibility to probe vacuum-incompatible toxic or reactive samples placed inside such hermetic, gas flow or fluidic environmental cells.less

  20. Effect of Ambient Pressure on Diesel Spray Axial Velocity and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    icon deer07kastengren.pdf More Documents & Publications Spray Structure Measured with X-Ray Radiography Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection...

  1. Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}; as-deposited amorphous, crystalline, and laser-reamorphized

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, Jan H. Tominaga, Junji; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alex V.; Ueda, Shigenori; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Ishimaru, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2014-02-10

    We have investigated the electronic structure of as-deposited, crystalline, and laser-reamorphized Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} using high resolution, hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A shift in the Fermi level as well as a broadening of the spectral features in the valence band and the Ge 3d level between the amorphous and crystalline state is observed. Upon amorphization, Ge 3d and Sb 4d spectra show a surprisingly small breaking of resonant bonds and changes in the bonding character as evidenced by the very similar density of states in all cases.

  2. Tunable X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyce, James R. (Williamsburg, VA)

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  3. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  4. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  5. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA); Chornenky, Victor I. (Minnetonka, MN)

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  6. X-Ray Science Education

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TV Network external link DNA Interactive external link Reciprocal Net external link X-ray Science Courses and Programs Various educational efforts are closely related to the...

  7. X-ray shearing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, Jeffrey A. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-07-08

    An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

  8. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA); Bell, Perry M. (Tracy, CA); Robinson, Ronald B. (Modesto, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  9. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has...

  10. SMB, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a well-established technique for simultaneous local geometric and electronic structure...

  11. Dissociation of strong acid revisited: X-ray photoelectron spectroscop...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is a turnover to a more structured solvation shell, accompanied by an increase in hydrogen bonding between HNO3 and water. We suggest that the driving force behind the more...

  12. Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface: An X-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study Authors: Nelson, A J ; Swanberg, E L ; Voss, L F ; Graff, R T ; Conway, A M ; Nikolic, R J ; Payne, S A ; Kim, H ; Cirignano, L ; Shah, K Publication Date:

  13. Compact x-ray source and panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayon, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  14. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  15. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A. (Woodside, CA); Boyers, David G. (Mountain View, CA); Pincus, Cary I. (Sunnyvale, CA); Maccagno, Pierre (Stanford, CA)

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  16. Hard x-ray delay line for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hard x-ray delay line for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and jitter-free pump-probe experiments at LCLS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hard x-ray delay line for...

  17. A computational study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources on the National Ignition Facility laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A computational study of x-ray emission...

  18. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser: Application to Spin Crossover Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Femtosecond X-ray...

  19. Soft X-ray techniques to study mesoscale magnetism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortright, Jeffrey B.

    2003-06-26

    Heterogeneity in magnetization (M) is ubiquitous in modern systems. Even in nominally homogeneous materials, domains or pinning centers typically mediate magnetization reversal. Fundamental lengths determining M structure include the domain wall width and the exchange stiffness length, typically in the 4-400 nm range. Chemical heterogeneity (phase separation, polycrystalline microstructure, lithographic or other patterning, etc.) with length scales from nanometers to microns is often introduced to influence magnetic properties. With 1-2 nm wavelengths {lambda}, soft x-rays in principle can resolve structure down to {lambda}/2, and are well suited to study these mesoscopic length scales [1, 2]. This article highlights recent advances in resonant soft x-ray methods to resolve lateral magnetic structure [3], and discusses some of their relative merits and limitations. Only techniques detecting x-ray photons (rather than photo-electrons) are considered [4], since they are compatible with strong applied fields to probe relatively deeply into samples. The magneto-optical (MO) effects discovered by Faraday and Kerr were observed in the x-ray range over a century later, first at ''hard'' wavelengths in diffraction experiments probing interatomic magnetic structure [5]. In the soft x-ray range, magnetic linear [6] and circular [7] dichroism spectroscopies first developed that average over lateral magnetic structure. These large resonant MO effects enable different approaches to study magnetic structure or heterogeneity that can be categorized as microscopy or scattering [1]. Direct images of magnetic structure result from photo-emission electron microscopes [4, 8] and zone-plate microscopes [9, 10]. Scattering techniques extended into the soft x-ray include familiar specular reflection that laterally averages over structure but can provide depth-resolved information, and diffuse scattering and diffraction that provide direct information about lateral magnetic structure. Scattering techniques are further classified as partially for fully coherent according to the extent of transverse coherence of the incident beam.

  20. Some new schemes for producing high-accuracy elliptical X-ray mirrors by elastic bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padmore, H.A.; Howells, M.R.; Irick, S.; Renner, T.; Sandler, R.; Koo, Y.-M.

    1996-08-01

    Although x-ray micro-foci can be produced by a variety of diffractive methods, grazing incidence mirrors are the only route to an achromatic focus. In this paper we describe our efforts to produce elliptically shaped mirrors with the very high figure accuracy necessary for producing a micro-focus. The motivation for this work is provided by the need to produce achromatic foci for a range of applications ranging from tunable micro-focus x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ({mu}-XPS) at soft x-ray energies to micro-focus white beam x-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD) at hard x-ray energies. We describe the methodology of beam bending, a practical example of a system we have produced for {mu}-XRD, and results demonstrating the production of a surface with micro-radian figure accuracy.

  1. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

  2. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless...

  3. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods Print To be held as part of SPIE. http://spie.org/OP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA

  4. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  5. Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron and X-ray Scattering Neutron and X-ray Scattering When used together, neutrons and high-energy x-rays provide a supremely powerful scientific tool for mining details about the structure of materials. Combining neutrons and high-energy x-rays to explore the frontiers of materials in extreme environments. Illuminating previously inaccessible time and spatial scales. Enabling in situ research to design, discover, and control materials. Get Expertise Donald Brown Email Pushing the limits of

  6. Phase-sensitive X-ray imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Kevin Louis

    2013-01-08

    X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

  7. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  8. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  9. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  10. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  11. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  12. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, R.B.

    1996-05-21

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  13. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  14. X-Ray Microscopy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy X-Ray Microscopy This group exploits the unique capabilities of hard X-ray microscopy to visualize and understand the structure and behavior of hybrid, energy-related, and tailored nanomaterials The Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe, located at Sector 26 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and operated by our group and APS, is the only dedicated X-ray microscopy beamline within the portfolios of the nation's Nanoscale Science Research Centers. Our scientific program seeks to understand

  15. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, Malcolm R. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobsen, Chris (Sound Beach, NY)

    1995-01-01

    A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

  16. Controlling X-rays With Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

    2010-08-02

    Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

  17. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

  18. High speed x-ray beam chopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPherson, Armon (Oswego, IL); Mills, Dennis M. (Naperville, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A fast, economical, and compact x-ray beam chopper with a small mass and a small moment of inertia whose rotation can be synchronized and phase locked to an electronic signal from an x-ray source and be monitored by a light beam is disclosed. X-ray bursts shorter than 2.5 microseconds have been produced with a jitter time of less than 3 ns.

  19. Effect of Ambient Pressure on Diesel Spray Axial Velocity and Internal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Structure | Department of Energy Ambient Pressure on Diesel Spray Axial Velocity and Internal Structure Effect of Ambient Pressure on Diesel Spray Axial Velocity and Internal Structure Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_kastengren.pdf More Documents &

  20. X-ray microscopy. Beyond ensemble averages

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ice, Gene E.; Budai, John D.

    2015-06-23

    This work exemplifies emerging tools to characterize local materials structure and dynamics, made possible by powerful X-ray synchrotron and transmission electron microscopy methods.

  1. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R. (Berkeley, CA); Cahn, Robert (Walnut Creek, CA); Cederstrom, Bjorn (Traellborg, SE); Danielsson, Mats (Stocksund, SE); Vestlund, Jonas (Stockholm, SE)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  2. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  3. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  4. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are

  5. X-ray laser microscope apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon (Princeton, NJ); DiCicco, Darrell S. (Plainsboro, NJ); Hirschberg, Joseph G. (Coral Gables, FL); Meixler, Lewis D. (East Windsor, NJ); Sathre, Robert (Princeton, NJ); Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1990-01-01

    A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  6. Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fluences (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Fluences Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Fluences Authors: Schreck, Simon ; Beye, Martin ; Sellberg, Jonas A. ; McQueen, Trevor ; Laksmono, Hartawan ; Kennedy, Brian ; Eckert, Sebastian ; Schlesinger, Daniel ; Nordlund, Dennis ; Ogasawara, Hirohito ; Sierra, Raymond G. ; Segtnan,

  7. Phased Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Erin Miller

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a range of technologies to broaden the field of explosives detection. Phased contrast X-ray imaging, which uses silicon gratings to detect distortions in the X-ray wave front, may be applicable to mail or luggage scanning for explosives; it can also be used in detecting other contraband, small-parts inspection, or materials characterization.

  8. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also presentmore » data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  9. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1994-12-20

    An x-ray source is described utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms. 6 figures.

  10. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http://spie.org/OP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA

  11. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  12. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http:spie.orgOP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA...

  13. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray source utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms.

  14. X-ray grid-detector apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boone, John M. (Folsom, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-27

    A hybrid grid-detector apparatus for x-ray systems wherein a microchannel plate structure has an air-interspaced grid portion and a phosphor/optical fluid-filled grid portion. The grids are defined by multiple adjacent channels separated by lead-glass septa. X-rays entering the air-interspaced grid portion at an angle of impingement upon the septa are attenuated, while non-impinging x-rays pass through to the phosphor/fluid filled portion. X-ray energy is converted to luminescent energy in the phosphor/fluid filled portion and the resultant beams of light are directed out of the phosphor/optical fluid filled portion to an imaging device.

  15. Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography Authors: Chapman, H.N., Fromme, P., Barty, A., White, T.A., Kirian, R.A., Aquila, A., Hunter, M.S., Schulz, J., DePonte, D.P.,...

  16. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray...

  17. Subject: Ames Blue Alert - X-ray Shutter Maintenance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ames Blue Alert - X-ray Shutter Maintenance Statement: This lesson learned involves an Ames Laboratory x-ray system. Prior to starting x- ray experiments checking the operability...

  18. Femtosecond Time-Delay X-ray Holography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-Delay X-ray Holography X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) will produce photon pulses with a unique and desirable combination of properties. Their short X-ray wavelengths allow...

  19. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  20. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  1. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D. (Woodside, CA); Huang, Zhirong (Stanford, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  2. X-ray Tube with Magnetic Electron Steering - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Increases the proportion of electrons emitted from the cathode that contribute to X-ray production in a compact geometry Provides increased X-ray generation efficiency by...

  3. X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization of Limestone Aggregate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for...

  4. X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of fulvalene(tetracarbonyl)diruthenium on photoexcitation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray transient ...

  5. Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through...

  6. Category:X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) page? For detailed information on...

  7. Exotic X-ray back-diffraction: a path toward a softinelastic X-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    scattering spectrometer (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Exotic X-ray back-diffraction: a path toward a softinelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Exotic X-ray back-diffraction: a path toward a softinelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer Authors: Hoennicke M. ; Zhou J. ; Conley,R. ; Cusatis,C. ; Kakuno,E.M. ; Bouet,N. ; Marques,J.B. ; Vicentin,F.C. Publication Date: 2014-09-20 OSTI Identifier: 1165974 Report Number(s): BNL--107230-2014-JA

  8. Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R.

    1997-12-01

    Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

  9. Ambient pressure process for preparing aerogel thin films reliquified sols useful in preparing aerogel thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, Charles Jeffrey; Prakash, Sai Sivasankaran

    1999-01-01

    A method for preparing aerogel thin films by an ambient-pressure, continuous process. The method of this invention obviates the use of an autoclave and is amenable to the formation of thin films by operations such as dip coating. The method is less energy intensive and less dangerous than conventional supercritical aerogel processing techniques.

  10. Influence of structural disorder on soft x-ray optical behavior of NbC thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Amol E-mail: rrcat.amol@gmail.com; Modi, Mohammed H.; Sinha, A. K.; Lodha, G. S.; Rajput, Parasmani

    2015-05-07

    Structural and chemical properties of compound materials are modified, when thin films are formed from bulk materials. To understand these changes, a study was pursued on niobium carbide (NbC) thin films of different thicknesses deposited on Si (100) substrate using ion beam sputtering technique. Optical response of the film was measured in 436?nm wavelength region using Indus-1 reflectivity beamline. A discrepancy in soft x-ray performance of NbC film was observed which could not be explained with Henke's tabulated data (see http://henke.lbl.gov/optical{sub c}onstants/ ). In order to understand this, detailed structural and chemical investigations were carried out using x-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, x-ray absorption near edge structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. It was found that the presence of unreacted carbon and Nb deficiency due to reduced Nb-Nb coordination are responsible for lower soft x-ray reflectivity performance. NbC is an important material for soft x-ray optical devices, hence the structural disorder need to be controlled to achieve the best performances.

  11. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itl, E.; Kooser, K.; Rachlew, E.; Huels, M. A.; Kukk, E.

    2014-06-21

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the CC{sub ?} bond and the presence of the CNH{sub 2}{sup +} fragment.

  12. Kinetics of Methane Hydrate Decomposition Studied via in Situ Low Temperature X-ray Powder Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Susan M; Rawn, Claudia J; Keffer, David J.; Mull, Derek L; Payzant, E Andrew; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrates are known to have a slowed decomposition rate at ambient pressure and temperatures below the melting point of ice termed self-preservation or anomalous preservation. As hydrate exothermically decomposes, gas is released and water of the clathrate cages transforms into ice. Two regions of slowed decomposition for methane hydrate, 180 200 K and 230 260 K, were observed, and the kinetics were studied by in situ low temperature x-ray powder diffraction. The kinetic constants for ice formation from methane hydrate were determined by the Avrami model within each region and activation energies, Ea, were determined by the Arrhenius plot. Ea determined from the data for 180 200 K was 42 kJ/mol and for 230 260 K was 22 kJ/mol. The higher Ea in the colder temperature range was attributed to a difference in the microstructure of ice between the two regions.

  13. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, Malcolm S. (Berkeley, CA); Jacobsen, Chris (Sound Beach, NY)

    1997-01-01

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 .mu.m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holgraphic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required.

  14. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, M.S.; Jacobsen, C.

    1997-03-18

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 {micro}m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holographic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required. 15 figs.

  15. Ultrafast X-Ray Coherent Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reis, David

    2009-05-01

    This main purpose of this grant was to develop the nascent #12;eld of ultrafast x-ray science using accelerator-based sources, and originally developed from an idea that a laser could modulate the di#11;racting properties of a x-ray di#11;racting crystal on a fast enough time scale to switch out in time a shorter slice from the already short x-ray pulses from a synchrotron. The research was carried out primarily at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) sector 7 at Argonne National Laboratory and the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at SLAC; in anticipation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser that became operational in 2009 at SLAC (all National User Facilities operated by BES). The research centered on the generation, control and measurement of atomic-scale dynamics in atomic, molecular optical and condensed matter systems with temporal and spatial resolution . It helped develop the ultrafast physics, techniques and scienti#12;c case for using the unprecedented characteristics of the LCLS. The project has been very successful with results have been disseminated widely and in top journals, have been well cited in the #12;eld, and have laid the foundation for many experiments being performed on the LCLS, the world's #12;rst hard x-ray free electron laser.

  16. X-Ray Data from the X-Ray Data Booklet Online

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Thompson, Albert C.; Attwood, David T.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Underwood, James H.; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kirz, Janos; Lindau, Ingolf; Pianetta, Piero; Winick, Herman; Williams, Gwyn P.; Scofield, James H.

    The original X-Ray Data Booklet, published in 1985, became a classic reference source. The online version has been significantly revised and updated to reflect today's science. Hundreds of pages of authoritative data provide the x-ray properties of elements, information on synchrotron radiation, scattering processes, optics and detectors, and other related calculations, formulas, and data tables.

  17. PROPX: An X-ray Manipulation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyrala, G.A.

    1992-05-01

    An interactive micro-computer program that performs some manipulations on an input x-ray spectrum is introduced and described. The program is used to calculate the effect of absorption of filters, transmission through fibers, responsivity of photocathodes, responsivity of absorptive detectors, folding of responses, plotting of cross sections, and calculation, as a function of electron temperature, of the response due to a bremsstrahlung spectrum. Fluorescence from the targets is not included. Two different x-ray libraries are offered, one covers the x-ray range 30--10,000 eV with 288 energy points, and the other covers the energy range 10 eV to 1 MeV with 250 energy points per decade. 7 refs.

  18. Soft X-Ray Spectroscopic Study of Dense Strontium-Doped Lanthanum Manganite Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L Piper; A Preston; S Cho; A DeMasi; J Laverock; K Smith; L Miara; J Davis; S Basu; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The evolution of the Mn charge state, chemical composition, and electronic structure of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) cathodes during the catalytic activation of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has been studies using X-ray spectroscopy of as-processed, exposed, and activated dense thin LSMO films. Comparison of O K-edge and Mn L{sub 3,2}-edge X-ray absorption spectra from the different stages of LSMO cathodes revealed that the largest change after the activation occurred in the Mn charge state with little change in the oxygen environment. Core-level X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and Mn L{sub 3} resonant photoemission spectroscopy studies of exposed and as-processed LSMO determined that the SOFC environment (800 C ambient pressure of O{sub 2}) alone results in La deficiency (severest near the surface with Sr doping >0.55) and a stronger Mn{sup 4+} contribution, leading to the increased insulating character of the cathode prior to activation. Meanwhile, O K-edge X-ray absorption measurements support Sr/La enrichment nearer the surface, along with the formation of mixed Sr{sub x}Mn{sub y}O{sub z} and/or passive MnO{sub x} and SrO species.

  19. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

    2014-07-01

    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  20. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon (Princeton, NJ); Skinner, Charles H. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Rosser, Roy (Princeton, NJ)

    1993-01-01

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  1. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Rosser, R.

    1993-01-05

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  2. Radiobiological studies using gamma and x rays.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, Charles Augustus; Longley, Susan W.; Scott, Bobby R. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Yong [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Wilder, Julie [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Hutt, Julie A. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Padilla, Mabel T. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Gott, Katherine M. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-02-01

    There are approximately 500 self-shielded research irradiators used in various facilities throughout the U.S. These facilities use radioactive sources containing either 137Cs or 60Co for a variety of biological investigations. A report from the National Academy of Sciences[1] described the issues with security of particular radiation sources and the desire for their replacement. The participants in this effort prepared two peer-reviewed publications to document the results of radiobiological studies performed using photons from 320-kV x rays and 137Cs on cell cultures and mice. The effectiveness of X rays was shown to vary with cell type.

  3. X-ray focal spot locating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Hubert W. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1985-07-30

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  4. Photoelectronic characterization of heterointerfaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brumbach, Michael Todd

    2012-02-01

    In many devices such as solar cells, light emitting diodes, transistors, etc., the performance relies on the electronic structure at interfaces between materials within the device. The objective of this work was to perform robust characterization of hybrid (organic/inorganic) interfaces by tailoring the interfacial region for photoelectron spectroscopy. Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) were utilized to induce dipoles of various magnitudes at the interface. Additionally, SAMs of molecules with varying dipolar characteristics were mixed into spatially organized structures to systematically vary the apparent work function. Polymer thin films were characterized by depositing films of varying thicknesses on numerous substrates with and without interfacial modifications. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) was performed to evaluate a buried interface between indium tin oxide (ITO), treated under various conditions, and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). Conducting polymer films were found to be sufficiently conducting such that no significant charge redistribution in the polymer films was observed. Consequently, a further departure from uniform substrates was taken whereby electrically disconnected regions of the substrate presented ideally insulating interfacial contacts. In order to accomplish this novel strategy, interdigitated electrodes were used as the substrate. Conducting fingers of one half of the electrodes were electrically grounded while the other set of electrodes were electronically floating. This allowed for the evaluation of substrate charging on photoelectron spectra (SCOPES) in the presence of overlying semiconducting thin films. Such an experiment has never before been reported. This concept was developed out of the previous experiments on interfacial modification and thin film depositions and presents new opportunities for understanding chemical and electronic changes in a multitude of materials and interfaces.

  5. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., q.sub.max /q.sub.min.congruent.100.

  6. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focusing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points. 3 figs.

  7. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, Peter A. (Arvada, CO)

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focussing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points.

  8. SLAC All Access: X-ray Microscope

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Liu, Yijin

    2014-06-13

    SLAC physicists Johanna Nelson and Yijin Liu give a brief overview of the X-ray microscope at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that is helping improve rechargeable-battery technology by letting researchers peek into the inner workings of batteries as they operate.

  9. Emission features and expansion dynamics of nanosecond laser ablation plumes at different ambient pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farid, N.; Harilal, S. S. Hassanein, A.; Ding, H.

    2014-01-21

    The influence of ambient pressure on the spectral emission features and expansion dynamics of a plasma plume generated on a metal target has been investigated. The plasma plumes were generated by irradiating Cu targets using 6?ns, 1064?nm pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The emission and expansion dynamics of the plasma plumes were studied by varying air ambient pressure levels ranging from vacuum to atmospheric pressure. The ambient pressure levels were found to affect both the line intensities and broadening along with the signal to background and signal to noise ratios and the optimum pressure conditions for analytical applications were evaluated. The characteristic plume parameters were estimated using emission spectroscopy means and noticed that the excitation temperature peaked ?300?Torr, while the electron density showed a maximum ?100?Torr. Fast-gated images showed a complex interaction between the plume and background air leading to changes in the plume geometry with pressure as well as time. Surface morphology of irradiated surface showed that the pressure of the ambient gas affects the laser-target coupling significantly.

  10. X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for extended X-ray sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitter, Manfred L. (Princeton, NJ); Fraenkel, Ben (Jerusalem, IL); Gorman, James L. (Bordentown, NJ); Hill, Kenneth W. (Lawrenceville, NJ); Roquemore, A. Lane (Cranbury, NJ); Stodiek, Wolfgang (Princeton, NJ); von Goeler, Schweickhard E. (Princeton, NJ)

    2001-01-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokomak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters using the imaging properties for Bragg angles near 45. For a Bragg angle of 45.degree., the spherical crystal focuses a bundle of near parallel X-rays (the cross section of which is determined by the cross section of the crystal) from the plasma to a point on a detector, with parallel rays inclined to the main plain of diffraction focused to different points on the detector. Thus, it is possible to radially image the plasma X-ray emission in different wavelengths simultaneously with a single crystal.

  11. X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATIONS CONSTITUTING THE GALACTIC RIDGE X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morihana, Kumiko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Ken [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)] [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Yoshida, Tessei, E-mail: morihana@crab.riken.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-03-20

    Apparently diffuse X-ray emission has been known to exist along the central quarter of the Galactic Plane since the beginning of X-ray astronomy; this is referred to as the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). Recent deep X-ray observations have shown that numerous X-ray point sources account for a large fraction of the GRXE in the hard band (2-8 keV). However, the nature of these sources is poorly understood. Using the deepest X-ray observations made in the Chandra bulge field, we present the result of a coherent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of individual X-ray point sources for the purpose of constraining their nature and deriving their fractional contributions to the hard-band continuum and Fe K line emission of the GRXE. Based on the X-ray color-color diagram, we divided the point sources into three groups: A (hard), B (soft and broad spectrum), and C (soft and peaked spectrum). The group A sources are further decomposed spectrally into thermal and non-thermal sources with different fractions in different flux ranges. From their X-ray properties, we speculate that the group A non-thermal sources are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf (WD) binaries such as magnetic and non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), pre-CVs, and symbiotic stars, whereas the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flares and quiescence, respectively. In the log N-log S curve of the 2-8 keV band, the group A non-thermal sources are dominant above Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is gradually taken over by Galactic sources in the fainter flux ranges. The Fe K{alpha} emission is mostly from the group A thermal (WD binaries) and the group B (X-ray active stars) sources.

  12. Rise time measurement for ultrafast X-ray pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); Weber, Franz A. (Oakland, CA); Moon, Stephen J. (Tracy, CA)

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  13. Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  14. X-ray radiography for container inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Jonathan I.; Morris, Christopher L.

    2011-06-07

    Arrangements of X-ray inspection systems are described for inspecting high-z materials in voluminous objects such as containers. Inspection methods may involve generating a radiographic image based on detected attenuation corresponding to a pulsed beams of radiation transmitted through a voluminous object. The pulsed beams of radiation are generated by a high-energy source and transmitted substantially downward along an incident angle, of approximately 1.degree. to 30.degree., to a vertical axis extending through the voluminous object. The generated radiographic image may be analyzed to detect on localized high attenuation representative of high-z materials and to discriminate high-z materials from lower and intermediate-z materials on the basis of the high density and greater attenuation of high-z material for higher energy (3-10 MeV) X-rays, and the compact nature of threatening masses of fissionable materials.

  15. X-ray Science Division (XSD) | Advanced Photon Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XSD Groups XSD Safety and Training XSD Strategic Plan XSD Visitor Program XSD Intranet X-ray Science Division (XSD) XSD enables world-class research using x-rays by developing...

  16. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Thursday, 21 May 2015 11:16 Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in...

  17. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that can be controlled by varying the properties of the optical control beam. Problems arise, however, when the probe pulse lies in the x-ray regime because x rays interact...

  18. A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-temperature and ... Title: A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-temperature ...

  19. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in...

  20. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing...

  1. NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary You are accessing a document from...

  2. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Schemes that use one light...

  3. Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering | Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & workshops IXN Group Useful Links Current APS status ESAF System GUP System X-Ray Science Division My APS Portal Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering Sector 3 is...

  4. Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering | Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XSD-IXN XSD-IXN Home Staff Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering The Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering group operates beamlines at APS Sectors 3, 9 and 30....

  5. X-ray imaging of Nonlinear Resonant Gyrotropic Magnetic Vortex...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray imaging of Nonlinear Resonant Gyrotropic Magnetic Vortex Core Motion in Circular Permalloy Disks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray imaging of Nonlinear...

  6. NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary Abstract not provided. Authors: Fournier, K. B. 1 + ...

  7. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  8. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  9. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  10. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  11. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  12. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  13. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  14. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  15. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  16. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  17. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  18. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  19. Vacuum space charge effects in sub-picosecond soft X-ray photoemission on a molecular adsorbate layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dell'Angela, M.; Anniyev, T.; Beye, M.; Coffee, R.; Föhlisch, A.; Gladh, J.; Kaya, S.; Katayama, T.; Krupin, O.; Nilsson, A.; et al

    2015-03-01

    Vacuum space charge-induced kinetic energy shifts of O 1s and Ru 3d core levels in femtosecond soft X-ray photoemission spectra (PES) have been studied at a free electron laser (FEL) for an oxygen layer on Ru(0001). We fully reproduced the measurements by simulating the in-vacuum expansion of the photoelectrons and demonstrate the space charge contribution of the high-order harmonics in the FEL beam. Employing the same analysis for 400 nm pump-X-ray probe PES, we can disentangle the delay dependent Ru 3d energy shifts into effects induced by space charge and by lattice heating from the femtosecond pump pulse.

  20. X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Henke, B. L.; Gullikson, E. M.; Davis, J. C.

    The primary interactions of low-energy x-rays within condensed matter, viz. photoabsorption and coherent scattering, are described for photon energies outside the absorption threshold regions by using atomic scattering factors. The atomic scattering factors may be accurately determined from the atomic photoabsorption cross sections using modified Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. From a synthesis of the currently available experimental data and recent theoretical calculations for photoabsorption, the angle-independent, forward-scattering components of the atomic scattering factors have been thus semiempirically determined and tabulated here for 92 elements and for the region 50-30,000 eV. Atomic scattering factors for all angles of coherent scattering and at the higher photon energies are obtained from these tabulated forward-scattering values by adding a simple angle-dependent form-factor correction. The incoherent scattering contributions that become significant for the light elements at the higher photon energies are similarly determined. The basic x-ray interaction relations that are used in applied x-ray physics are presented here in terms of the atomic scattering factors. The bulk optical constants are also related to the atomic scattering factors. These atomic and optical relations are applied to the detailed calculation of the reflectivity characteristics of a series of practical x-ray mirror, multilayer, and crystal monochromators. Comparisons of the results of this semiempirical,"atom-like", description of x-ray interactions for the low-energy region with those of experiment and ab initio theory are presented.

  1. Femtosecond laser-electron x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Barty, Chris P.; Gibson, David J.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2004-04-20

    A femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source. A high-brightness relativistic electron injector produces an electron beam pulse train. A system accelerates the electron beam pulse train. The femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source includes a high intra-cavity power, mode-locked laser and an x-ray optics system.

  2. X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Extended X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraekel, Benjamin; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Stodiek, Wolfgang; Goeler, Schweickhard von

    1999-05-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokamak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters such as ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion charge-state distributions, and impurity transport. The imaging properties of these spherically or toroidally curved crystals provide both spectrally and spatially resolved X-ray data from the plasma using only one small spherically or toroidally curved crystal, thus eliminating the requirement for a large array of crystal spectrometers and the need to cross-calibrate the various crystals.

  3. Holographic Methods in X-ray Crystallography

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-28

    The holographic method makes use of partially modeled electron density and experimentally-measured structure factor amplitudes to recover electron density corresponding to the unmodeled part of a crystal structure. This paper describes a fast algorithm that makes it possible to apply the holographic method to sizable crystallographic problems. The algorithm uses positivity constraints on the electron density, and can incorporate a target electron density, making it similar to solvent flattening. Using both synthetic and experimental data,morewe assess the potential for applying the holographic method to macromolecular x-ray crystallography.less

  4. Digital X-ray Pipe Inspector Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-10-29

    The Digital X-ray Pipe Inspector software requires a digital x-ray image of a pipe as input to the program, such as the image in Attachment A Figure 1. The image may be in a variety of software formats such as bitmap, jpeg, tiff, DICOM or DICONDE. The software allows the user to interactively select a region of interest from the image for analysis. This software is used to analyze digital x-ray images of pipes tomore » evaluate loss of wall thickness. The software specifically provides tools to analyze the image in (a) the pipe walls, (b) between the pipe walls. Traditional software uses only the information at the pipe wall while this new software also evaluates the image between the pipewalls. This makes the inspection process faster, more thorough, more efficient, and reduces expensive reshots. Attachment A Figure 2 shows a region of interest (a green box) drawn by the user around an anomaly in the pipe wall. This area is automatically analyzed by the external pipe wall tool with the result shown in Attachment A Figure 3. The edges of the pipe wall are detected and highlighted in yellow and areas where the wall thickness in less the the minimum wall threshold are shown in red. These measurements are typically made manually in other software programs, which lead to errors and inconsistency because the location of the edges are estimated by the user. Attachment A Figure 4 shows a region of interest (a green box) drawn by the user between the pipe walls. As can be seen there are intensity anomalies that correspond to wall defects. However, this information is not used directly by other software programs. In order to fully investigate these anomalies, the pipe would be reinspected in a different orientation to attempt to obtain a view of the anomaly in the pipe wall rather than the interior of the pipe. The pipe may need to be x-rayed a number of times to obtain the correct orientation. This is very costly and time consuming. The new software can perform the analysis directly on the intensity information in the original image. Figures 5 through 9 in Attachment A show wall defects in red for various percents of wall thickness loss. For example, Figure 5 show defects (in red) where the wall thickness is 95% or less than the nominal wall thickness (or a 5% or greater wall thickness loss). Wall thicknesses can be given in absolute terms as well.« less

  5. Apparatus for monitoring X-ray beam alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1991-10-08

    A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for monitoring alignment of an X-ray beam in an instrument employing an X-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of X-ray beam intensities from the X-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low X-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high X-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of X-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to X-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the X-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the X-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency. 2 figures.

  6. Apparatus for monitoring X-ray beam alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, Peter A. (Arvada, CO)

    1991-10-08

    A self-contained, hand-held apparatus is provided for minitoring alignment of an X-ray beam in an instrument employing an X-ray source. The apparatus includes a transducer assembly containing a photoresistor for providing a range of electrical signals responsive to a range of X-ray beam intensities from the X-ray beam being aligned. A circuit, powered by a 7.5 VDC power supply and containing an audio frequency pulse generator whose frequency varies with the resistance of the photoresistor, is provided for generating a range of audible sounds. A portion of the audible range corresponds to low X-ray beam intensity. Another portion of the audible range corresponds to high X-ray beam intensity. The transducer assembly may include an a photoresistor, a thin layer of X-ray fluorescent material, and a filter layer transparent to X-rays but opaque to visible light. X-rays from the beam undergoing alignment penetrate the filter layer and excite the layer of fluorescent material. The light emitted from the fluorescent material alters the resistance of the photoresistor which is in the electrical circuit including the audio pulse generator and a speaker. In employing the apparatus, the X-ray beam is aligned to a complete alignment by adjusting the X-ray beam to produce an audible sound of the maximum frequency.

  7. Advanced Research in Diesel Fuel Sprays Using X-rays From The Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, C

    2003-08-24

    The fuel distribution and degree of atomization in the combustion chamber is a primary factor in the formation of emissions in diesel engines. A number of diagnostics to study sprays have been developed over the last twenty years; these are primarily based on visible light measurement techniques. However, visible light scatters strongly from fuel droplets surrounding the spray, which prevents penetration of the light. This has made quantitative measurements of the spray core very difficult, particularly in the relatively dense near- nozzle region [1-3]. For this reason we developed the x-ray technique to study the properties of fuel sprays in a quantitative way [4]. The x-ray technique is not limited by scattering, which allows it to be used to make quantitative measurements of the fuel distribution. These measurements are particularly effective in the region near the nozzle where other techniques fail. This technique has led to a number of new insights into the structure of fuel sprays, including the discovery and quantitative measurement of shock waves generated under some conditions by high-pressure diesel sprays [5]. We also performed the first-ever quantitative measurements of the time-resolved mass distribution in the near-nozzle region, which demonstrated that the spray is atomized only a few nozzle diameters from the orifice [6]. Our recent work has focused on efforts to make measurements under pressurized ambient conditions. We have recently completed a series of measurements at pressures up to 5 bar and are looking at the effect of ambient pressure on the structure of the spray. The enclosed figure shows the mass distributions measured for 1,2, and 5 bar ambient pressures. As expected, the penetration decreases as the pressure increases. This leads to changes in the measured mass distribution, including an increase in the density at the leading edge of the spray. We have also observed a narrowing in the cone angle of the spray core as the pressure increases. This is counter to visible light spray measurements, and current work is underway in an effort to understand this effect.

  8. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seidler, G. T. Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R.

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ?5 keV to ?10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  9. Gated monochromatic x-ray imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oertel, J.A.; Archuleta, T.; Clark, L.

    1995-09-01

    We have recently developed a gated monochromatic x-ray imaging diagnostic for the national Inertial-Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. This new imaging system will be one of the primary diagnostics to be utilized on University of Rochester`s Omega laser fusion facility. The new diagnostic is based upon a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope dispersed by diffraction crystals, as first described by Marshall and Su. The dispersed images are gated by four individual proximity focused microchannel plates and recorded on film. Spectral coverage is tunable up to 8 keV, spectral resolution has been measured at 20 eV, temporal resolution is 80 ps, and spatial resolution is better than 10 {mu}m.

  10. Gray scale x-ray mask

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M. (Livermore, CA); Gonzales, Marcela (Seattle, WA)

    2006-03-07

    The present invention describes a method for fabricating an embossing tool or an x-ray mask tool, providing microstructures that smoothly vary in height from point-to-point in etched substrates, i.e., structure which can vary in all three dimensions. The process uses a lithographic technique to transfer an image pattern in the surface of a silicon wafer by exposing and developing the resist and then etching the silicon substrate. Importantly, the photoresist is variably exposed so that when developed some of the resist layer remains. The remaining undeveloped resist acts as an etchant barrier to the reactive plasma used to etch the silicon substrate and therefore provides the ability etch structures of variable depths.

  11. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

    1984-11-29

    An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  12. Density gradient free electron collisionally excited X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Edward M. (Pleasanton, CA); Rosen, Mordecai D. (Berkeley, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An operational X-ray laser (30) is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition X-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The X-ray laser (30) is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam (32) illuminates a free-standing thin foil (34) that may be associated with a substrate (36) for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the X-ray laser gain medium. The X-ray laser (30) may be driven by more than one optical laser beam (32, 44). The X-ray laser (30) has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

  13. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Seppala, L.G.

    1991-03-26

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm[sup 2]. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics. 9 figures.

  14. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, R.M.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Skulina, K.M.

    1995-01-17

    A process is disclosed for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments in the soft x-ray region. 13 figures.

  15. Fabrication process for a gradient index x-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Skulina, Kenneth M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A process for fabricating high efficiency x-ray lenses that operate in the 0.5-4.0 keV region suitable for use in biological imaging, surface science, and x-ray lithography of integrated circuits. The gradient index x-ray optics fabrication process broadly involves co-sputtering multi-layers of film on a wire, followed by slicing and mounting on block, and then ion beam thinning to a thickness determined by periodic testing for efficiency. The process enables the fabrication of transmissive gradient index x-ray optics for the 0.5-4.0 keV energy range. This process allows the fabrication of optical elements for the next generation of imaging and x-ray lithography instruments m the soft x-ray region.

  16. Soft x-ray reduction camera for submicron lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, Andrew M. (2708 Rembrandt Pl., Modesto, CA 95356); Seppala, Lynn G. (7911 Mines Rd., Livermore, CA 94550)

    1991-01-01

    Soft x-ray projection lithography can be performed using x-ray optical components and spherical imaging lenses (mirrors), which form an x-ray reduction camera. The x-ray reduction is capable of projecting a 5x demagnified image of a mask onto a resist coated wafer using 4.5 nm radiation. The diffraction limited resolution of this design is about 135 nm with a depth of field of about 2.8 microns and a field of view of 0.2 cm.sup.2. X-ray reflecting masks (patterned x-ray multilayer mirrors) which are fabricated on thick substrates and can be made relatively distortion free are used, with a laser produced plasma for the source. Higher resolution and/or larger areas are possible by varying the optic figures of the components and source characteristics.

  17. X-ray transmission movies of spontaneous dynamic events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Holmes, M.; Novak, A.; Oschwald, D.; Dolgonos, P.; Qualls, B.

    2014-11-15

    We describe a new x-ray radiographic imaging system which allows for continuous x-ray transmission imaging of spontaneous dynamic events. We demonstrate this method on thermal explosions in three plastic bonded formulations of the energetic material octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine. We describe the x-ray imaging system and triggering developed to enable the continuous imaging of a thermal explosion.

  18. X-ray interferometry with spherically bent crystals (abstract)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in manufacturing high-quality spherically bent crystals allows highly monochromatic x-ray beams to be produced, and allows efficient x-ray imaging with {mu}m-scale resolution. This article explores some of the constraints for x-ray interferometry utilizing spherically bent crystals and laser-produced plasma sources, and discusses several shearing interferometer concepts that might be experimentally investigated.

  19. Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression In this paper, we propose a scheme to generate tunable coherent X-ray radiation for future light source applications. This scheme uses an energy chirped electron beam, a laser modulator, a laser chirper and two bunch compressors to generate a prebunched

  20. Legacy of the X-Ray Laser Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, J.

    1993-08-06

    The X-Ray Laser Program has evolved from a design effort focusing on developing a Strategic Defense Initiative weapon that protects against Soviet ICBMs to a scientific project that is producing new technologies for industrial and medical research. While the great technical successes and failures of the X-ray laser itself cannot be discussed, this article presents the many significant achievements made as part of the X-ray laser effort that are now being used for other applications at LLNL.

  1. Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for high energy density physics and light source experiments (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization of spatially resolved high resolution x-ray spectrometers for high energy density physics and light source experiments A high resolution 1D imaging x-ray spectrometer concept comprising a spherically

  2. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Wednesday, 29 August 2007 00:00 Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic

  3. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscopic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Refinement | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscopic Refinement Friday, September 28, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 322 SSRL Presents Kevin Stone X-ray absorption spectroscopy has become an important tool in understanding the electronic structure of materials. Resonant absorption edges in the soft x-ray regime are especially interesting as they allow the study of the lighter elements, such as in organic or

  4. Femtosecond nanocrystallography using X-ray lasers for membrane protein

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structure determination Femtosecond nanocrystallography using X-ray lasers for membrane protein structure determination Authors: Fromme, P., and Spence, J. C. H. Title: Femtosecond nanocrystallography using X-ray lasers for membrane protein structure determination Source: Current Opinion in Structural Biology Year: 2011 Volume: 21 Pages: 509-516 ABSTRACT: The invention of free electron X-ray lasers has opened a new era for membrane protein structure determination with the recent first

  5. Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Magnetism studies using resonant, coherent, x-ray scattering Monday, September 10, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Keoki Seu Seminar: With the advent of free electron lasers there has been interest in using coherent x-rays to probe condensed matter systems. Resonant scattering with x-rays allow elemental specificity with magnetic contrast, and coherent light leads to speckle in the scattered pattern due to interference from waves exiting the sample.

  6. 14.05.14 RH Synchrotron X-ray - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High-Throughput Synchrotron X-Ray Experimentation for Combinatorial Phase Matching Gregoire, J. M. et al. High-throughput synchrotron X-ray diffraction for combinatorial phase mapping. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 21, 1262-1268, DOI: 10.1107/s1600577514016488 (2014). Scientific Achievement Development of new synchrotron X-ray diffraction and fluorescence methods for rapid characterization of material libraries. Significance & impact First demonstration of prototype facility capable of

  7. ANL CT Reconstruction Algorithm for Utilizing Digital X-ray

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-05-01

    Reconstructs X-ray computed tomographic images from large data sets known as 16-bit binary sinograms when using a massively parallelized computer architecture such as a Beowuif cluster by parallelizing the X-ray CT reconstruction routine. The algorithm uses the concept of generation of an image from carefully obtained multiple 1-D or 2-D X-ray projections. The individual projections are filtered using a digital Fast Fourier Transform. The literature refers to this as filtered back projection.

  8. Ultra-short wavelength x-ray system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umstadter, Donald (Ann Arbor, MI); He, Fei (Ann Arbor, MI); Lau, Yue-Ying (Potomac, MD)

    2008-01-22

    A method and apparatus to generate a beam of coherent light including x-rays or XUV by colliding a high-intensity laser pulse with an electron beam that is accelerated by a synchronized laser pulse. Applications include x-ray and EUV lithography, protein structural analysis, plasma diagnostics, x-ray diffraction, crack analysis, non-destructive testing, surface science and ultrafast science.

  9. X-ray compass for determining device orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.; Fitch, J.P.; Everett, M.J.; Colston, B.W.; Stone, G.F.

    1999-06-15

    An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source are disclosed. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. 25 figs.

  10. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme...

  11. Self-terminating diffraction gates femtosecond X-ray nanocrystallograp...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The shortest apparent pulse lengths occur at the highest resolution, and our measurements indicate that current X-ray free-electron laser technology5 should enable structural ...

  12. Stimulated X-Ray Emission for Spectroscopy | Stanford Synchrotron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Room 108A Speaker: Clemens Weninger, Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems Program Description The recent advance of x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs)...

  13. High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL); Knapp, Gordon S. (Cupertino, CA); Westbrook, Edwin M. (Chicago, IL); Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

  14. Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering involving shallow core levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multiplet resonance lifetimes in ...

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    protein from Drosophila melanogaster Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of Drep-3, a DFF-related protein ...

  16. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes

  17. X-ray Diffuse Scattering Measurements of Nucleation Dynamics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray Diffuse Scattering Measurements of Nucleation Dynamics at Femtosecond Resolution Real-time measurement and control of the non-equilibrium properties of materials represents ...

  18. Staff Research Physicist (X-Ray Spectroscopy) | Princeton Plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of X-ray spectrometers for high energy density plasma at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL, Livermore, California). In...

  19. X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Marchesini, Stefano

    2015-03-16

    X-ray diffraction pattern of a sample of 50 nm colloidal gold particles, recorded at a wavelength of 2.1 nm.

  20. X-Ray Microscopy Capabilities | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe (HXN) facility provides scanning fluorescence, scanning diffraction, and full-field transmission and tomographic imaging capabilities with a spatial...

  1. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) typically performed using a SEM or EPMA, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analyses. Rock Lab Analysis Core Analysis Cuttings Analysis Isotopic...

  2. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the microscopic world, can have unwanted consequences for the materials they probe. Radiation damage due to x-ray absorption is, for instance, an unwanted consequence of using...

  3. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    were able to directly observe redox processes in thin-film iron and cobalt perovskite oxide electrocatalysts using surface-sensitive, x-ray absorption spectroscopy while...

  4. Diagnostics Implemented on NIF - X-ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray Diagnostics Diagnostic acronym Diangostic Port location Built and commisioned by Description of function Published references ARIANE Active Readout in a Neutron Environment (gated x-ray imager) 90-89 (but uses DIM) LLNL ARIANE is a gated x-ray detector measuring x-ray output at yields up to ~1E16 neutrons from TCC. ARIANE uses gated MCP technology adapted to operate in this neutron regime by moving the detector to a position just outside of the target chamber wall. ARIANE is typically used

  5. Simulating Wavefront Correction via Deformable Mirrors at X-Ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: X-ray Adaptive Optics, San Diego, CA, United States, Aug 14 - Aug 14, 2012 Research Org: Lawrence Livermore...

  6. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Prev Next Title: X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Authors: Turner, Joshua J. ; Huang, Xiaojing ; Krupin, Oleg ; Seu, Keoki A. ; Parks, Daniel ; Kevan,...

  7. Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    X-ray powder diffraction, which has traditionally been used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline...

  8. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    under investigation. X-ray powder diffraction is widely used in geology, environmental science, material science, and engineering to rapidly identify unknown crystalline substances...

  9. XRMS: X-Ray Spectroscopy of Magnetic Solids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XRMS: X-Ray Spectroscopy of Magnetic Solids October 22-23, 2011 SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA More information...

  10. Electronic structure of titania aerogels: Soft x-ray absorption...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Electronic structure of titania aerogels: Soft x-ray absorption study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electronic structure of titania aerogels: Soft...

  11. X-ray compass for determining device orientation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Matthews, Dennis L. (Moss Beach, CA); Fitch, Joseph P. (Livermore, CA); Everett, Matthew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Colston, Billy W. (Livermore, CA); Stone, Gary F. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the orientation of a device with respect to an x-ray source. In one embodiment, the present invention is coupled to a medical device in order to determine the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. In such an embodiment, the present invention is comprised of a scintillator portion which is adapted to emit photons upon the absorption of x-rays emitted from the x-ray source. An x-ray blocking portion is coupled to the scintillator portion. The x-ray blocking portion is disposed so as to vary the quantity of x-rays which penetrate the scintillator portion based upon the particular rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source. A photon transport mechanism is also coupled to the scintillator portion. The photon transport mechanism is adapted to pass the photons emitted from the scintillator portion to an electronics portion. By analyzing the quantity of the photons, the electronics portion determines the rotational orientation of the medical device with respect to the x-ray source.

  12. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    methods (see previous highlight, "Demonstration of Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging"). Experimental diffraction data used as input to the difference map algorithm....

  13. Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals used in the Supersnout 2 X-ray spectrometer on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ...

  14. X-ray laser system, x-ray laser and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    London, Richard A. (Oakland, CA); Rosen, Mordecai D. (Berkeley, CA); Strauss, Moshe (Omer, IL)

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is an x-ray laser system comprising a laser containing generating means for emitting short wave length radiation, and means external to said laser for energizing said generating means, wherein when the laser is in an operative mode emitting radiation, the radiation has a transverse coherence length to width ratio of from about 0.05 to 1. Also disclosed is a method of adjusting the parameters of the laser to achieve the desired coherence length to laser width ratio.

  15. Femtosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy with hard x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katayama, Tetsuo; Togashi, Tadashi; Tono, Kensuke; Kameshima, Takashi; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Hatsui, Takaki; Yabashi, Makina; Obara, Yuki; Misawa, Kazuhiko; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Kurahashi, Naoya; Ogi, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Toshinori; Molecular Reaction Dynamics Research Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198

    2013-09-23

    We have developed a method of dispersive x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL), generated by a self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mechanism. A transmission grating was utilized for splitting SASE-XFEL light, which has a relatively large bandwidth (ΔE/E ∼ 5 × 10{sup −3}), into several branches. Two primary split beams were introduced into a dispersive spectrometer for measuring signal and reference spectra simultaneously. After normalization, we obtained a Zn K-edge absorption spectrum with a photon-energy range of 210 eV, which is in excellent agreement with that measured by a conventional wavelength-scanning method. From the analysis of the difference spectra, the noise ratio was evaluated to be ∼3 × 10{sup −3}, which is sufficiently small to trace minute changes in transient spectra induced by an ultrafast optical laser. This scheme enables us to perform single-shot, high-accuracy x-ray absorption spectroscopy with femtosecond time resolution.

  16. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Applied to Soot & What It Can Do for

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    You | Department of Energy Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_vanderwal.pdf More Documents & Publications Burning Modes and Oxidation Rates of Soot: Relevance to Diesel Particulate Traps Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications Effect of Alternative Fuels on Soot Properties and Regeneration of Diesel Particulate

  17. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, D.R.

    1995-07-18

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays from the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detector such that each one of the semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction. 5 figs.

  18. High resolution energy-sensitive digital X-ray

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R. (Berkeley, CA)

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting an x-ray and for determining the depth of penetration of an x-ray into a semiconductor strip detector. In one embodiment, a semiconductor strip detector formed of semiconductor material is disposed in an edge-on orientation towards an x-ray source such that x-rays From the x-ray source are incident upon and substantially perpendicular to the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector. The semiconductor strip detector is formed of a plurality of segments. The segments are coupled together in a collinear arrangement such that the semiconductor strip detector has a length great enough such that substantially all of the x-rays incident on the front edge of the semiconductor strip detector interact with the semiconductor material which forms the semiconductor strip detector. A plurality of electrodes are connected to the semiconductor strip detect or such that each one of the of semiconductor strip detector segments has at least one of the of electrodes coupled thereto. A signal processor is also coupled to each one of the electrodes. The present detector detects an interaction within the semiconductor strip detector, between an x-ray and the semiconductor material, and also indicates the depth of penetration of the x-ray into the semiconductor strip detector at the time of the interaction.

  19. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  20. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Eric H. (Berkeley, CA); Legros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Madden, Norm W. (Livermore, CA); Goulding, Fred (Lafayette, CA); Landis, Don (Pinole, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  1. Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Charles K.; Boyer, Keith; Solem, Johndale C.; Haddad, Waleed S.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced.

  2. Apparatus for generating x-ray holograms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, C.K.; Boyer, K.; Solem, J.C.; Haddad, W.S.

    1990-09-11

    Apparatus for x-ray microholography of living biological materials. A Fourier transform holographic configuration is described as being most suitable for the 3-dimensional recording of the physical characteristics of biological specimens. The use of a spherical scatterer as a reference and a charge-coupled device two-dimensional detector array placed in the forward direction relative to the incident x-radiation for viewing electromagnetic radiation simultaneously scattered from both the specimen and the reference scatterer permits the ready reconstruction of the details of the specimen from the fringe pattern detected by the charge-coupled device. For example, by using a nickel reference scatter at 4.5 nm, sufficient reference illumination is provided over a wide enough angle to allow similar resolution in both transverse and longitudinal directions. Both laser and synchrotron radiation sources are feasible for generating microholographs. Operation in the water window (2.4 to 4.5 nm) should provide maximum contrast for features of the specimen and spatial resolution on the order of the wavelength of x-radiation should be possible in all three dimensions, which is sufficient for the visualization of many biological features. It is anticipated that the present apparatus will find utility in other areas as well where microscopic physical details of a specimen are important. A computational procedure which enables the holographic data collected by the detector to be used to correct for misalignments introduced by inexact knowledge of the relative positions of the spherical reference scatterer and the sample under investigation has been developed. If the correction is performed prior to reconstruction, full compensation can be achieved and a faithfully reconstructed image produced. 7 figs.

  3. NEW X-RAY DETECTIONS OF WNL STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Guedel, Manuel; Schmutz, Werner; Sokal, Kimberly R.

    2012-05-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that putatively single nitrogen-type Wolf-Rayet stars (WN stars) without known companions are X-ray sources. However, almost all WN star X-ray detections so far have been of earlier WN2-WN6 spectral subtypes. Later WN7-WN9 subtypes (also known as WNL stars) have proved more difficult to detect, an important exception being WR 79a (WN9ha). We present here new X-ray detections of the WNL stars WR 16 (WN8h) and WR 78 (WN7h). These new results, when combined with previous detections, demonstrate that X-ray emission is present in WN stars across the full range of spectral types, including later WNL stars. The two WN8 stars observed to date (WR 16 and WR 40) show unusually low X-ray luminosities (L{sub x} ) compared to other WN stars, and it is noteworthy that they also have the lowest terminal wind speeds (v{sub {infinity}}). Existing X-ray detections of about a dozen WN stars reveal a trend of increasing L{sub x} with wind luminosity L{sub wind} = (1/2)M-dot v{sup 2}{sub {infinity}}, suggesting that wind kinetic energy may play a key role in establishing X-ray luminosity levels in WN stars.

  4. Soft-x-ray spectroscopy study of nanoscale materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, J.-H.

    2005-07-30

    The ability to control the particle size and morphology of nanoparticles is of crucial importance nowadays both from a fundamental and industrial point of view considering the tremendous amount of high-tech applications. Controlling the crystallographic structure and the arrangement of atoms along the surface of nanostructured material will determine most of its physical properties. In general, electronic structure ultimately determines the properties of matter. Soft X-ray spectroscopy has some basic features that are important to consider. X-ray is originating from an electronic transition between a localized core state and a valence state. As a core state is involved, elemental selectivity is obtained because the core levels of different elements are well separated in energy, meaning that the involvement of the inner level makes this probe localized to one specific atomic site around which the electronic structure is reflected as a partial density-of-states contribution. The participation of valence electrons gives the method chemical state sensitivity and further, the dipole nature of the transitions gives particular symmetry information. The new generation synchrotron radiation sources producing intensive tunable monochromatized soft X-ray beams have opened up new possibilities for soft X-ray spectroscopy. The introduction of selectively excited soft X-ray emission has opened a new field of study by disclosing many new possibilities of soft X-ray resonant inelastic scattering. In this paper, some recent findings regarding soft X-ray absorption and emission studies of various nanostructured systems are presented.

  5. Spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas at X-ray wavelength

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, A., E-mail: a-physics2001@yahoo.com; Tibai, Z. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary)] [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary); Hebling, J. [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary) [Institute of Physics, University of Pecs, Pecs7624 (Hungary); Szentagothai Research Centre, University of Pecs, Pecs-7624 (Hungary); Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2014-03-15

    Using a finite curvature beam, we investigate here the spatiotemporal focusing dynamics of a laser pulse in plasmas at X-ray wavelength. We trace the dependence of curvature parameter on the focusing of laser pulse and recognize that the self-focusing in plasma is more intense for the X-ray laser pulse with curved wavefront than with flat wavefront. The simulation results demonstrate that spatiotemporal focusing dynamics in plasmas can be controlled with the appropriate choice of beam-plasma parameters to explore the high intensity effects in X-ray regime.

  6. Laser-Produced Coherent X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Umstadter

    2007-01-31

    We study the generation of x-rays from the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-intense laser pulse either directly or via laser generated ion channels. The laser pulse acts as the accelerator and wiggler leading to an all-optical synchrotron-like x-ray source. The mm sized accelerator and micron-sized wiggler leads to a compact source of high brightness, ultrafast x-rays with applications in relativistic nonlinear optics, ultrafast chemistry, biology, inner-shell electronic processes and phase transitions.

  7. Resonant x-ray magnetic scattering in holmium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, D.

    1991-01-01

    We review the results of resonant x-ray magnetic scattering experiments on the rare earth metal holmium. When the incident incident x-ray energy is tuned near the L{sub III} absorption edge, large resonant enhancements of the magnetic scattering and resonant integer harmonics are observed. These results are analyzed within the theory of x-ray resonance exchange scattering assuming electric dipole (2p {yields} 5d) and quadrupole (2p {yields} 4f) transitions among atomic orbitals. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Characterization of X-ray generator beam profiles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Dean J; Harding, Lee T.; Thoreson, Gregory G.; Theisen, Lisa Anne; Parmeter, John Ethan; Thompson, Kyle Richard

    2013-07-01

    T to compute the radiography properties of various materials, the flux profiles of X-ray sources must be characterized. This report describes the characterization of X-ray beam profiles from a Kimtron industrial 450 kVp radiography system with a Comet MXC-45 HP/11 bipolar oil-cooled X-ray tube. The empirical method described here uses a detector response function to derive photon flux profiles based on data collected with a small cadmium telluride detector. The flux profiles are then reduced to a simple parametric form that enables computation of beam profiles for arbitrary accelerator energies.

  9. X-ray backscatter imaging of nuclear materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Gunning, John E; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Ott, Larry J; Shedlock, Daniel

    2014-09-30

    The energy of an X-ray beam and critical depth are selected to detect structural discontinuities in a material having an atomic number Z of 57 or greater. The critical depth is selected by adjusting the geometry of a collimator that blocks backscattered radiation so that backscattered X-ray originating from a depth less than the critical depth is not detected. Structures of Lanthanides and Actinides, including nuclear fuel rod materials, can be inspected for structural discontinuities such as gaps, cracks, and chipping employing the backscattered X-ray.

  10. New X-ray insight into oxygen intercalation in epitaxial graphene grown on 4H-SiC(0001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, G. Tokarczyk, M.; D?browski, P.; Ciepielewski, P.; Mo?d?onek, M.; Strupi?ski, W.; Baranowski, J. M.

    2015-03-14

    Efficient control of intercalation of epitaxial graphene by specific elements is a way to change properties of the graphene. Results of several experimental techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman mapping, reflectivity, attenuated total reflection, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray reflectometry, gave a new insight into the intercalation of oxygen in the epitaxial graphene grown on 4H-SiC(0001). These results confirmed that oxygen intercalation decouples the graphene buffer layer from the 4H-SiC surface and converts it into the graphene layer. However, in contrast to the hydrogen intercalation, oxygen does not intercalate between carbon planes (in the case of few layer graphene) and the interlayer spacing stays constant at the level of 3.353.32?. Moreover, X-ray reflectometry showed the presence of an oxide layer having the thickness of about 0.8? underneath the graphene layers. Apart from the formation of the nonuniform thin oxide layer, generation of defects in graphene caused by oxygen was also evidenced. Last but not least, water islands underneath defected graphene regions in both intercalated and non-intercalated samples were most probably revealed. These water islands are formed in the case of all the samples stored under ambient laboratory conditions. Water islands can be removed from underneath the few layer graphene stacks by relevant thermal treatment or by UV illumination.

  11. X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies of the active sites of nickel- and copper-containing metalloproteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, G.O.

    1993-06-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a useful tool for obtaining structural and chemical information about the active sites of metalloproteins and metalloenzymes. Information may be obtained from both the edge region and the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) or post-edge region of the K-edge X-ray absorption spectrum of a metal center in a compound. The edge contains information about the valence electronic structure of the atom that absorbs the X-rays. It is possible in some systems to infer the redox state of the metal atom in question, as well as the geometry and nature of ligands connected to it, from the features in the edge in a straightforward manner. The EXAFS modulations, being produced by the backscattering of the ejected photoelectron from the atoms surrounding the metal atom, provide, when analyzed, information about the number and type of neighbouring atoms, and the distances at which they occur. In this thesis, analysis of both the edge and EXAFS regions has been used to gain information about the active sites of various metalloproteins. The metalloproteins studied were plastocyanin (Pc), laccase and nickel carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (Ni CODH). Studies of Cu(I)-imidazole compounds, related to the protein hemocyanin, are also reported here.

  12. Soft x-ray capabilities for investigating the strongly correlated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soft x-ray capabilities for investigating the strongly correlated electron materials Friday, September 14, 2012 - 1:00pm SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Jun-Sik Lee Seminar One of the...

  13. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with...

  14. Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low density aerogels (2-5 mgcc) creating multi-keV photons from a titanium solid foil Citation...

  15. X-ray crystallographic analysis of adipocyte fatty acid binding...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    binding protein (aP2) modified with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray crystallographic analysis of adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2) ...

  16. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    vice versa. At the ALS, researchers were able to directly observe redox processes in thin-film iron and cobalt perovskite oxide electrocatalysts using surface-sensitive, x-ray...

  17. Systems and methods for detecting x-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-05-02

    Systems and methods for detecting x-rays are disclosed herein. One or more x-ray-sensitive scintillators can be configured from a plurality of heavy element nano-sized particles and a plastic material, such as polystyrene. As will be explained in greater detail herein, the heavy element nano-sized particles (e.g., PbWO4) can be compounded into the plastic material with at least one dopant that permits the plastic material to scintillate. X-rays interact with the heavy element nano-sized particles to produce electrons that can deposit energy in the x-ray sensitive scintillator, which in turn can produce light.

  18. In situ Nanotomography and Operando Transmission X-ray Microscopy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Operando Transmission X-ray Microscopy of Micron-sized Ge Particles in Battery Anodes Friday, August 29, 2014 Ge fig1 Figure 1. Schematic of the irreversible...

  19. X-ray mask and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.

    2004-10-26

    The present invention describes a method for fabricating an x-ray mask tool which is a contact lithographic mask which can provide an x-ray exposure dose which is adjustable from point-to-point. The tool is useful in the preparation of LIGA plating molds made from PMMA, or similar materials. In particular the tool is useful for providing an ability to apply a graded, or "stepped" x-ray exposure dose across a photosensitive substrate. By controlling the x-ray radiation dose from point-to-point, it is possible to control the development process for removing exposed portions of the substrate; adjusting it such that each of these portions develops at a more or less uniformly rate regardless of feature size or feature density distribution.

  20. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the XMLD signal across the Ni L2,3 edges was determined by rotating the orientation of x-ray polarization E and external magnetic field H relative to the crystalline axes. ...

  1. Development of a Spatially Resolving X-Ray Crystal Spectrometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fusion Links Development of a spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer for measurement of ion-temperature "T i ... and rotation-velocity "v... profiles in ITER a... ...

  2. X-ray Diffraction from Membrane Protein Nanocrystals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray Diffraction from Membrane Protein Nanocrystals Authors: Hunter, M.S., DePonte, D.P., Shapiro, D.A., Kirian, R.A., Wang, X., Starodub, D., Marchesini, S., Weierstall, U.,...

  3. X-ray Microscopy and Imaging (XSD-XMI)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and (c) technical R&D in collaborations with other groups on nano-focusing x-ray optics, image contrast mechanisms, phase-retrieval methodology, detectors and data...

  4. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and angles of x rays scattered from the sample rather than transmitted through it). Shapiro et al. have now chimed in with the first lensless imaging of a sample as complex as a...

  5. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the...

  6. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Work performed on ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 Citation: J.J. Turner et al., "X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures," Phys....

  7. Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    very low density aerogels (2-5 mgcc) creating multi-keV photons from a titanium solid foil Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental X-ray characterization of...

  8. High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1995-01-01

    An x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury.

  9. High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray energies up to 22 keV Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals...

  10. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering - Combining Structural with Spectroscop...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    28, 2012 - 10:00am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 322 SSRL Presents Kevin Stone X-ray absorption spectroscopy has become an important tool in understanding the electronic structure...

  11. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures by X-ray Spectro...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J. Lning, W. F. Schlotter and J. Sthr (SSRL) The unprecedented properties of X-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs) under development world wide will open the door for entirely...

  12. High performance x-ray anti-scatter grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1995-05-23

    Disclosed are an x-ray anti-scatter grid for x-ray imaging, particularly for screening mammography, and method for fabricating same, x-rays incident along a direct path pass through a grid composed of a plurality of parallel or crossed openings, microchannels, grooves, or slots etched in a substrate, such as silicon, having the walls of the microchannels or slots coated with a high opacity material, such as gold, while x-rays incident at angels with respect to the slots of the grid, arising from scatter, are blocked. The thickness of the substrate is dependent on the specific application of the grid, whereby a substrate of the grid for mammography would be thinner than one for chest radiology. Instead of coating the walls of the slots, such could be filed with an appropriate liquid, such as mercury. 4 Figs.

  13. Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aigeldinger, Georg; Skala, Dawn M.; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Talin, Albert Alec; Losey, Matthew W.; Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter

    2009-10-27

    The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

  14. X-ray imaging reveals secrets in battery materials | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray imaging reveals secrets in battery materials June 22, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Imaging and data analysis techniques offer new approach to probing material properties In a new...

  15. HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grudberg, Peter Matthew

    2013-04-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many ?? you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with associated preamplifiers; these detectors surpassed the performance we expected to get from the Ketek detectors, however they are housed in a sealed module, which does not offer the ease of repair and expandability we??d hoped to achieve with the Ketek SDD??s. Our packaging efforts were quite successful, as we came up with a very compact way to mount the detector and to house the associated electronics, as well as a very effective way to reliably take out the heat (from the electronics as well as the detector??s Peltier coolers) without risk of condensation and without external airflow or vibration, which could create problems for the target applications. While we were able to design compact processing electronics that fit into the detector assembly, they are still at the prototype stage, and would require a significant redesign to achieve product status. We have not yet tested this detector at a synchrotron facility; we do still plan on working with some close contacts at the nearby Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) to get some testing with the beam (using existing commercial electronics for readout, as the integrated processor is not ready for use).

  16. Dose optimization in cardiac x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gislason-Lee, Amber J.; McMillan, Catherine; Cowen, Arnold R.; Davies, Andrew G.

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to optimize x-ray image quality to dose ratios in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. This study examined independently the effects of peak x-ray tube voltage (kVp), copper (Cu), and gadolinium (Gd) x-ray beam filtration on the image quality to radiation dose balance for adult patient sizes.Methods: Image sequences of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantoms representing two adult patient sizes were captured using a modern flat panel detector based x-ray imaging system. Tin and copper test details were used to simulate iodine-based contrast medium and stents/guide wires respectively, which are used in clinical procedures. Noise measurement for a flat field image and test detail contrast were used to calculate the contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Entrance surface dose (ESD) and effective dose measurements were obtained to calculate the figure of merit (FOM), CNR{sup 2}/dose. This FOM determined the dose efficiency of x-ray spectra investigated. Images were captured with 0.0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.4, and 0.9 mm Cu filtration and with a range of gadolinium oxysulphide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S) filtration.Results: Optimum x-ray spectra were the same for the tin and copper test details. Lower peak tube voltages were generally favored. For the 20 cm phantom, using 2 Lanex Fast Back Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S screens as x-ray filtration at 65 kVp provided the highest FOM considering ESD and effective dose. Considering ESD, this FOM was only marginally larger than that from using 0.4 mm Cu at 65 kVp. For the 30 cm phantom, using 0.25 mm copper filtration at 80 kVp was most optimal; considering effective dose the FOM was highest with no filtration at 65 kVp.Conclusions: These settings, adjusted for x-ray tube loading limits and clinically acceptable image quality, should provide a useful option for optimizing patient dose to image quality in cardiac x-ray imaging. The same optimal x-ray beam spectra were found for both the tin and copper details, suggesting that iodine contrast based imaging and visualization of interventional devices could potentially be optimized for dose using similar x-ray beam spectra.

  17. Self-cleaning rotating anode X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulikas, Arvydas P.

    1989-01-01

    A self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source comprising an evacuable housing, a rotatable cylindrical anode within the housing, a source of electrons within the housing which electrons are caused to impinge upon the anode to produce x-rays, and means for ionizing residual particles within the housing and accelerating such ions so as to impinge upon the anode to sputter impurities from the surface thereof.

  18. Self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulikas, A.P.

    1987-06-02

    A self-cleaning rotating anode x-ray source comprising and evacuable housing, a rotatable cylindrical anode within the housing, a source of electrons within the housing which electrons are caused to impinge upon the anode to produce x-rays, and means for ionizing residual particles within the housing and accelerating such ions so as to impinge upon the anode to sputter impurities from the surface thereof. 2 figs.

  19. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  20. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print Wednesday, 31 October 2012 00:00 The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film

  1. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  2. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  3. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  4. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  5. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Thursday, 21 May 2015 11:16 Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab

  6. New focusing multilayer structures for X-ray plasma spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibishkin, M S; Luchin, V I; Salashchenko, N N; Chernov, V V; Chkhalo, N I; Kazakov, E D; Shevelko, A P

    2008-02-28

    New focusing short-period multilayer structures are developed which opens up wide possibilities for X-ray and VUV spectroscopy. Multilayer structures are deposited on a flat surface of a mica crystal which is then bent to a small-radius cylinder. The use of this structure in a von Hamos spectrometer for X-ray laser plasma diagnostics is demonstrated. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  7. Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    involving shallow core levels (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering involving shallow core levels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Multiplet resonance lifetimes in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering involving shallow core levels Authors: Wray, L. Andrew ; Yang, Wanli ; Eisaki, Hiroshi ; Hussain, Zahid ; Chuang, Yi-De Publication Date: 2012-11-19 OSTI Identifier: 1101794 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal

  8. Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Spectroscopy provides valuable information about the temperature and density of a compressed pellet in a plasma. Elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals are used as components for spectrometers. Their elliptical geometry gives several

  9. Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals The elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals used in the Supersnout 2 X-ray spectrometer on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have been calibrated photometrically in the range of 5.5 to 16 keV. The

  10. Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    biological systems from a limited number of crystals (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals Authors: Uervirojnangkoorn, Monarin ; Zeldin, Oliver B. ; Lyubimov, Artem Y. ; Hattne, Johan Search SciTech Connect for

  11. Elastic wave velocity measurement combined with synchrotron X-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    measurements at high pressure and high temperature conditions: Towards prediction and reproduction of MoHole rocks (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Elastic wave velocity measurement combined with synchrotron X-ray measurements at high pressure and high temperature conditions: Towards prediction and reproduction of MoHole rocks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Elastic wave velocity measurement combined with synchrotron X-ray measurements at high pressure and high temperature

  12. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  13. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  14. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  15. Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unexpected Angular Dependence of X-Ray Magnetic Linear Dichroism Print Using spectroscopic information for magnetometry and magnetic microscopy obviously requires detailed theoretical understanding of spectral shape and magnitude of dichroism signals. A research team at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 has now shown unambiguously that, contrary to common belief, spectral shape and magnitude of x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) are not only determined by the relative orientation of magnetic moments and

  16. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning

  17. Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Techniques | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Probing Spatial, Electronic Structures with X-ray Scattering, Spectroscopic Techniques Wednesday, September 5, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Gang Chen Seminar: Structures at atomic scales are traditionally determined through X-ray crystallography that amplifies scattering intensities by introducing spatial periodicity. For amorphous materials and many macromolecules, such as viruses, proteins and biofilms, it is hard to

  18. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  19. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in many promising renewable energy technologies. However, the extreme sensitivity of their surface redox states to temperatures, to gas pressures, and to electrochemical reaction conditions renders them difficult to investigate by conventional surface-science techniques. Recently a team of Stanford and Berkeley Lab researchers used x-rays at the ALS in a novel way to observe the behavior of

  20. New Directions in X-Ray Light Sources

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Falcone, Roger

    2010-01-08

    July 15, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Molecular movies of chemical reactions and material phase transformations need a strobe of x-rays, the penetrating light that reveals how atoms and molecules assemble in chemical and biological systems and complex materials. Roger Falcone, Director of the Advanced Light Source,will discuss a new generation of x ray sources that will enable a new science of atomic dynamics on ultrafast timescales.

  1. X-ray tube with magnetic electron steering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Kim W. (Albuquerque, NM); Turman, Bobby N. (Albuquerque, NM); Kaye, Ronald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Schneider, Larry X. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    An X-ray tube uses a magnetic field to steer electrons. The magnetic field urges electrons toward the anode, increasing the proportion of electrons emitted from the cathode that reach desired portions of the anode and consequently contribute to X-ray production. The magnetic field also urges electrons reflected from the anode back to the anode, further increasing the efficiency of the tube.

  2. X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fulvalene(tetracarbonyl)diruthenium on photoexcitation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of fulvalene(tetracarbonyl)diruthenium on photoexcitation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of fulvalene(tetracarbonyl)diruthenium on photoexcitation Authors: Harpham, M. R. ; Nguyen, S. C. ; Hou, Z. ; Grossman, J. C. ; Harris, C. B. ; Mara, M. W. ; Stickrath, A. B. ; Kanai, Y. ;

  3. X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_powell.pdf More Documents & Publications X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of Nozzle Geometry Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process and Diesel Sprays Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry

  4. A New Scheme for Stigmatic X-ray Imaging with Large Magnification...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    F; Beiersdorfer, P; Wang, E; Sanchez del Rio, M; Caughey, T A 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY X-ray Imaging X-ray Imaging This paper describes a new x-ray scheme for...

  5. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, Joseph

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.

  6. Evaluation of partial coherence correction in X-ray ptychography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burdet, Nicolas; Shi, Xiaowen; Parks, Daniel; Clark, Jesse N.; Huang, Xiaojing; Kevan, Stephen D.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2015-02-23

    Coherent X-ray Diffraction Imaging (CDI) and X-ray ptychography both heavily rely on the high degree of spatial coherence of the X-ray illumination for sufficient experimental data quality for reconstruction convergence. Nevertheless, the majority of the available synchrotron undulator sources have a limited degree of partial coherence, leading to reduced data quality and a lower speckle contrast in the coherent diffraction patterns. It is still an open question whether experimentalists should compromise the coherence properties of an X-ray source in exchange for a higher flux density at a sample, especially when some materials of scientific interest are relatively weak scatterers. Amoreprevious study has suggested that in CDI, the best strategy for the study of strong phase objects is to maintain a high degree of coherence of the illuminating X-rays because of the broadening of solution space resulting from the strong phase structures. In this article, we demonstrate the first systematic analysis of the effectiveness of partial coherence correction in ptychography as a function of the coherence properties, degree of complexity of illumination (degree of phase diversity of the probe) and sample phase complexity. We have also performed analysis of how well ptychographic algorithms refine X-ray probe and complex coherence functions when those variables are unknown at the start of reconstructions, for noise-free simulated data, in the case of both real-valued and highly-complex objects.less

  7. Lasers, extreme UV and soft X-ray

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nilsen, Joseph

    2015-09-20

    Three decades ago, large ICF lasers that occupied entire buildings were used as the energy sources to drive the first X-ray lasers. Today X-ray lasers are tabletop, spatially coherent, high-repetition rate lasers that enable many of the standard optical techniques such as interferometry to be extended to the soft X-ray regime between wavelengths of 10 and 50 nm. Over the last decade X-ray laser performance has been improved by the use of the grazing incidence geometry, diode-pumped solid-state lasers, and seeding techniques. The dominant X-ray laser schemes are the monopole collisional excitation lasers either driven by chirped pulse amplification (CPA)more » laser systems or capillary discharge. The CPA systems drive lasing in neon-like or nickel-like ions, typically in the 10 – 30 nm range, while the capillary system works best for neon-like argon at 46.9 nm. Most researchers use nickel-like ion lasers near 14 nm because they are well matched to the Mo:Si multilayer mirrors that have peak reflectivity near 13 nm and are used in many applications. As a result, the last decade has seen the birth of the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) that can reach wavelengths down to 0.15 nm and the inner-shell Ne laser at 1.46 nm.« less

  8. Normal incidence X-ray mirror for chemical microanalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Martin J. (Tijeras, NM); Romig, Jr., Alton D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A non-planar, focusing mirror, to be utilized in both electron column instruments and micro-x-ray fluorescence instruments for performing chemical microanalysis on a sample, comprises a concave, generally spherical base substrate and a predetermined number of alternating layers of high atomic number material and low atomic number material contiguously formed on the base substrate. The thickness of each layer is an integral multiple of the wavelength being reflected and may vary non-uniformly according to a predetermined design. The chemical analytical instruments in which the mirror is used also include a predetermined energy source for directing energy onto the sample and a detector for receiving and detecting the x-rays emitted from the sample; the non-planar mirror is located between the sample and detector and collects the x-rays emitted from the sample at a large solid angle and focuses the collected x-rays to the sample. For electron column instruments, the wavelengths of interest lie above 1.5 nm, while for x-ray fluorescence instruments, the range of interest is below 0.2 nm. Also, x-ray fluorescence instruments include an additional non-planar focusing mirror, formed in the same manner as the previously described m The invention described herein was made in the performance of work under contract with the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC04-76DP00789, and the United States Government has rights in the invention pursuant to this contract.

  9. Achieving hard X-ray nanofocusing using a wedged multilayer Laue...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    anticipate that continuous development on wedged MLLs will advance x-ray nanofocusing optics to new frontiers and enrich capabilities and opportunities for hard X-ray microscopy....

  10. Proposed New Accelerator Design for Homeland Security X-Ray Applicatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Proposed New Accelerator Design for Homeland Security X-Ray Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Proposed New Accelerator Design for Homeland Security X-Ray...

  11. Proposed New Accelerator Design for Homeland Security X-Ray Applicatio...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Proposed New Accelerator Design for Homeland Security X-Ray Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Proposed New Accelerator Design for Homeland Security X-Ray ...

  12. Towards three-dimensional and attosecond x-ray imaging at the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x-ray wavelength appears desirable to achieve maximal spatial resolution in x-ray diffraction experiments, longer wavelengths turns out to enable the identification of...

  13. Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process and Diesel Sprays Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection ...

  14. X-Ray Diffraction > Analytical Resources > Research > The Energy Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center at Cornell Analytical Resources In This Section Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectroscopy (DEMS) Electron Microscopy X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Diffraction

  15. Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy of Diamondoid Thiol Monolayers on Gold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willey, T.M.; Fabbri, J.D.; Lee, J.R.I.; Schreiner, P.R.; Fokin, A.A.; Tkachenko, B.A.; Fokina, N.A.; Dahl, J.E.P.; Carlson, R.M.K.; Vance, A.L.; Yang, W.; Terminello, L.J.; Buuren, T.van; Melosh, N.A.

    2009-05-26

    Diamondoids, hydrocarbon molecules with cubic-diamond-cage structures, have unique properties with potential value for nanotechnology. The availability and ability to selectively functionalize this special class of nanodiamond materials opens new possibilities for surface modification, for high-efficiency field emitters in molecular electronics, as seed crystals for diamond growth, or as robust mechanical coatings. The properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of diamondoids are thus of fundamental interest for a variety of emerging applications. This paper presents the effects of thiol substitution position and polymantane order on diamondoid SAMs on gold using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A framework to determine both molecular tilt and twist through NEXAFS is presented and reveals highly ordered diamondoid SAMs, with the molecular orientation controlled by the thiol location. C 1s and S 2p binding energies are lower in adamantane thiol than alkane thiols on gold by 0.67 {+-} 0.05 and 0.16 {+-} 0.04 eV, respectively. These binding energies vary with diamondoid monolayer structure and thiol substitution position, consistent with different degrees of steric strain and electronic interaction with the substrate. This work demonstrates control over the assembly, in particular the orientational and electronic structure, providing a flexible design of surface properties with this exciting new class of diamond nanoparticles.

  16. Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy of Diamondoid Thiol Monolayers on Gold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willey, T M; Fabbri, J; Lee, J I; Schreiner, P; Fokin, A A; Tkachenko, B A; Fokina, N A; Dahl, J; Carlson, B; Vance, A L; Yang, W; Terminello, L J; van Buuren, T; Melosh, N

    2007-11-27

    Diamondoids, hydrocarbon molecules with cubic-diamond-cage structures, have unique properties with potential value for nanotechnology. The availability and ability to selectively functionalize this special class of nanodiamond materials opens new possibilities for surface-modification, for high-efficiency field emitters in molecular electronics, as seed crystals for diamond growth, or as robust mechanical coatings. The properties of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of diamondoids are thus of fundamental interest for a variety of emerging applications. This paper presents the effects of thiol substitution position and polymantane order on diamondoid SAMs on gold using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A framework to determine both molecular tilt and twist through NEXAFS is presented and reveals highly ordered diamondoid SAMs, with the molecular orientation controlled by the thiol location. C 1s and S 2p binding energies are lower in adamantane thiol than alkane thiols on gold by 0.67 {+-} 0.05 eV and 0.16 {+-} 0.04 eV respectively. These binding energies vary with diamondoid monolayer structure and thiol substitution position, consistent with different amounts of steric strain and electronic interaction with the substrate. This work demonstrates control over the assembly, in particular the orientational and electronic structure, providing a flexible design of surface properties with this exciting new class of diamond clusters.

  17. X-RAY EMISSION FROM MAGNETIC MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naz, Yal; Petit, Vronique; Rinbrand, Melanie; Owocki, Stan; Cohen, David; Ud-Doula, Asif; Wade, Gregg A.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetically confined winds of early-type stars are expected to be sources of bright and hard X-rays. To clarify the systematics of the observed X-ray properties, we have analyzed a large series of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, corresponding to all available exposures of known massive magnetic stars (over 100 exposures covering ?60% of stars compiled in the catalog of Petit et al.). We show that the X-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with the stellar wind mass-loss rate, with a power-law form that is slightly steeper than linear for the majority of the less luminous, lower- M-dot B stars and flattens for the more luminous, higher- M-dot O stars. As the winds are radiatively driven, these scalings can be equivalently written as relations with the bolometric luminosity. The observed X-ray luminosities, and their trend with mass-loss rates, are well reproduced by new MHD models, although a few overluminous stars (mostly rapidly rotating objects) exist. No relation is found between other X-ray properties (plasma temperature, absorption) and stellar or magnetic parameters, contrary to expectations (e.g., higher temperature for stronger mass-loss rate). This suggests that the main driver for the plasma properties is different from the main determinant of the X-ray luminosity. Finally, variations of the X-ray hardnesses and luminosities, in phase with the stellar rotation period, are detected for some objects and they suggest that some temperature stratification exists in massive stars' magnetospheres.

  18. In operando Investigation of SOFC Electrodes Using Synchrotron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of SOFC Electrodes Using Synchrotron-based Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (AP-XPS) in a Novel Two- Environment Chamber. Citation Details In-Document Search...

  19. Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siddons, D.P.; Johnson, E.D.; Guckel, H.; Klein, J.L.

    1997-10-21

    An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures. 21 figs.

  20. The History of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrini, C.; ,

    2012-06-28

    The successful lasing at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory of the Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the first X-ray free-electron laser (X-ray FEL), in the wavelength range 1.5 to 15 {angstrom}, pulse duration of 60 to few femtoseconds, number of coherent photons per pulse from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 11}, is a landmark event in the development of coherent electromagnetic radiation sources. Until now electrons traversing an undulator magnet in a synchrotron radiation storage ring provided the best X-ray sources. The LCLS has set a new standard, with a peak X-ray brightness higher by ten orders of magnitudes and pulse duration shorter by three orders of magnitudes. LCLS opens a new window in the exploration of matter at the atomic and molecular scales of length and time. Taking a motion picture of chemical processes in a few femtoseconds or less, unraveling the structure and dynamics of complex molecular systems, like proteins, are some of the exciting experiments made possible by LCLS and the other X-ray FELs now being built in Europe and Asia. In this paper, we describe the history of the many theoretical, experimental and technological discoveries and innovations, starting from the 1960s and 1970s, leading to the development of LCLS.

  1. Method and apparatus for micromachining using hard X-rays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siddons, David Peter (Shoreham, NY); Johnson, Erik D. (Ridge, NY); Guckel, Henry (Madison, WI); Klein, Jonathan L. (Madison, WI)

    1997-10-21

    An X-ray source such as a synchrotron which provides a significant spectral content of hard X-rays is used to expose relatively thick photoresist such that the portions of the photoresist at an exit surface receive at least a threshold dose sufficient to render the photoresist susceptible to a developer, while the entrance surface of the photoresist receives an exposure which does not exceed a power limit at which destructive disruption of the photoresist would occur. The X-ray beam is spectrally shaped to substantially eliminate lower energy photons while allowing a substantial flux of higher energy photons to pass through to the photoresist target. Filters and the substrate of the X-ray mask may be used to spectrally shape the X-ray beam. Machining of photoresists such as polymethylmethacrylate to micron tolerances may be obtained to depths of several centimeters, and multiple targets may be exposed simultaneously. The photoresist target may be rotated and/or translated in the beam to form solids of rotation and other complex three-dimensional structures.

  2. Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shapiro, D.; Thibault, P.; Beetz, T.; Elser, V.; Howells, M.; Jacobsen, C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Miao, H.; Neiman, A. M.; et al

    2005-10-25

    We have used the method of x-ray diffraction microscopy to image the complex-valued exit wave of an intact and unstained yeast cell. The images of the freeze-dried cell, obtained by using 750-eV x-rays from different angular orientations, portray several of the cell's major internal components to 30-nm resolution. The good agreement among the independently recovered structures demonstrates the accuracy of the imaging technique. To obtain the best possible reconstructions, we have implemented procedures for handling noisy and incomplete diffraction data, and we propose a method for determining the reconstructed resolution. This work represents a previously uncharacterized application of x-ray diffractionmore » microscopy to a specimen of this complexity and provides confidence in the feasibility of the ultimate goal of imaging biological specimens at 10-nm resolution in three dimensions.« less

  3. Imaging X-ray Thomson Scattering Spectrometer Design and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamboa, E.J.; Huntington, C.M.; Trantham, M.R.; Keiter, P.A; Drake, R.P.; Montgomery, David; Benage, John F.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    2012-05-04

    In many laboratory astrophysics experiments, intense laser irradiation creates novel material conditions with large, one-dimensional gradients in the temperature, density, and ionization state. X-ray Thomson scattering is a powerful technique for measuring these plasma parameters. However, the scattered signal has previously been measured with little or no spatial resolution, which limits the ability to diagnose inhomogeneous plasmas. We report on the development of a new imaging x-ray Thomson spectrometer (IXTS) for the Omega laser facility. The diffraction of x-rays from a toroidally-curved crystal creates high-resolution images that are spatially resolved along a one-dimensional profile while spectrally dispersing the radiation. This focusing geometry allows for high brightness while localizing noise sources and improving the linearity of the dispersion. Preliminary results are presented from a scattering experiment that used the IXTS to measure the temperature profile of a shocked carbon foam.

  4. Data fusion in neutron and X-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrapp, Michael J.; Goldammer, Matthias; Schulz, Michael; Issani, Siraj; Bhamidipati, Suryanarayana; Bni, Peter

    2014-10-28

    We present a fusion methodology between neutron and X-ray computed tomography (CT). On the one hand, the inspection by X-ray CT of a wide class of multimaterials in non-destructive testing applications suffers from limited information of object features. On the other hand, neutron imaging can provide complementary data in such a way that the combination of both data sets fully characterizes the object. In this contribution, a novel data fusion procedure, called Fusion Regularized Simultaneous Algebraic Reconstruction Technique, is developed where the X-ray reconstruction is modified to fulfill the available data from the imaging with neutrons. The experiments, which were obtained from an aluminum profile containing a steel screw, and attached carbon fiber plates demonstrate that the image quality in CT can be significantly improved when the proposed fusion method is used.

  5. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, C.R.; Rockett, P.D.

    1987-08-04

    An x-ray source is disclosed having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events. 5 figs.

  6. Movable anode x-ray source with enhanced anode cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, Charles R. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rockett, Paul D. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1987-01-01

    An x-ray source having a cathode and a disc-shaped anode with a peripheral surface at constant radius from the anode axis opposed to the cathode. The anode has stub axle sections rotatably carried in heat conducting bearing plates which are mounted by thermoelectric coolers to bellows which normally bias the bearing plates to a retracted position spaced from opposing anode side faces. The bellows cooperate with the x-ray source mounting structure for forming closed passages for heat transport fluid. Flow of such fluid under pressure expands the bellows and brings the bearing plates into heat conducting contact with the anode side faces. A worm gear is mounted on a shaft and engages serrations in the anode periphery for rotating the anode when flow of coolant is terminated between x-ray emission events.

  7. X-ray radiography with highly charged ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marrs, Roscoe E. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An extremely small (1-250 micron FWHM) beam of slow highly charged ions deexciting on an x-ray production target generates x-ray monochromatic radiation that is passed through a specimen and detected for imaging. The resolution of the x-ray radiograms is improved and such detection is achieved with relatively low dosages of radiation passing through the specimen. An apparatus containing an electron beam ion trap (and modifications thereof) equipped with a focusing column serves as a source of ions that generate radiation projected onto an image detector. Electronic and other detectors are able to detect an increased amount of radiation per pixel than achieved by previous methods and apparati.

  8. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Grant, Thomas D.; Liu, Haiguang; James, Daniel; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; et al

    2015-08-20

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ~700 Å diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ~40 Å resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is a pertinent step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  9. High resolution collimator system for X-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberhard, Jeffrey W.; Cain, Dallas E.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution in an X-ray computerized tomography (CT) inspection system is achieved by using a collimator/detector combination to limit the beam width of the X-ray beam incident on a detector element to the desired resolution width. In a detector such as a high pressure Xenon detector array, a narrow tapered collimator is provided above a wide detector element. The collimator slits have any desired width, as small as a few mils at the top, the slit width is easily controlled, and they are fabricated on standard machines. The slit length determines the slice thickness of the CT image.

  10. Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies Print Thursday, 11 September 2014 15:18 Sometimes, the spins in a magnetic material will form tiny swirls that can move around like particles. The spins themselves stay put-it's the pattern that moves. These quasiparticles have been dubbed "skyrmions," after British physicist Tony Skyrme, who described their mathematics in a series of papers in the early 1960s. Now, over 50 years later,

  11. The First Angstrom X-Ray Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galayda, John; /SLAC

    2012-08-24

    The Linac Coherent Light Source produced its first x-ray laser beam on 10 April 2009. Today it is routinely producing x-ray pulses with energy >2 mJ across the operating range from 820-8,200 eV. The facility has begun operating for atomic/molecular/optical science experiments. Performance of the facility in its first user run (1 October - 21 December) and current machine development activities will be presented. Early results from the preparations for the start of the second user run is also reported.

  12. Bragg x-ray survey spectrometer for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varshney, S. K.; Jakhar, S. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Barnsley, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); O'Mullane, M. G. [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Several potential impurity ions in the ITER plasmas will lead to loss of confined energy through line and continuum emission. For real time monitoring of impurities, a seven channel Bragg x-ray spectrometer (XRCS survey) is considered. This paper presents design and analysis of the spectrometer, including x-ray tracing by the Shadow-XOP code, sensitivity calculations for reference H-mode plasma and neutronics assessment. The XRCS survey performance analysis shows that the ITER measurement requirements of impurity monitoring in 10 ms integration time at the minimum levels for low-Z to high-Z impurity ions can largely be met.

  13. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1996-04-16

    A window is disclosed that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 {micro}m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons. 1 fig.

  14. Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A window that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 .mu.m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons.

  15. Serial femtosecond X-ray diffraction of enveloped virus microcrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, Robert M.; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Grant, Thomas D.; Liu, Haiguang; James, Daniel; Nelson, Garrett; Subramanian, Ganesh; Aquila, Andrew; Hunter, Mark S.; Liang, Mengning; Boutet, Sbastien; Coe, Jesse; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Liu, Wei; Fromme, Petra; Cherezov, Vadim; Hogue, Brenda G.

    2015-08-20

    Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has produced high-resolution, room temperature, time-resolved protein structures. We report preliminary SFX of Sindbis virus, an enveloped icosahedral RNA virus with ~700 diameter. Microcrystals delivered in viscous agarose medium diffracted to ~40 resolution. Small-angle diffuse X-ray scattering overlaid Bragg peaks and analysis suggests this results from molecular transforms of individual particles. Viral proteins undergo structural changes during entry and infection, which could, in principle, be studied with SFX. This is a pertinent step toward determining room temperature structures from virus microcrystals that may enable time-resolved studies of enveloped viruses.

  16. Cooling for a rotating anode X-ray tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for cooling a rotating anode X-ray tube. An electromagnetic motor is provided to rotate an X-ray anode with cooling passages in the anode. These cooling passages are coupled to a cooling structure located adjacent the electromagnetic motor. A liquid metal fills the passages of the cooling structure and electrical power is provided to the motor to rotate the anode and generate a rotating magnetic field which moves the liquid metal through the cooling passages and cooling structure.

  17. High order reflectivity of graphite (HOPG) crystals for x ray...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    at 12.6 keV to 0.5 mrad at 22.1 keV. The current study indicates that HOPG crystals are suitable for measuring scattering signals from high energy x ray sources (E ge 20 keV). ...

  18. X-ray characterization of solid small molecule organic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Billinge, Simon; Shankland, Kenneth; Shankland, Norman; Florence, Alastair

    2014-06-10

    The present invention provides, inter alia, methods of characterizing a small molecule organic material, e.g., a drug or a drug product. This method includes subjecting the solid small molecule organic material to x-ray total scattering analysis at a short wavelength, collecting data generated thereby, and mathematically transforming the data to provide a refined set of data.

  19. Operational properties of fluctuation X-ray scattering data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malmerberg, Erik; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Zwart, Petrus H.

    2015-03-20

    X-ray scattering images collected on timescales shorter than rotation diffusion times using a (partially) coherent beam result in a significant increase in information content in the scattered data. These measurements, named fluctuation X-ray scattering (FXS), are typically performed on an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) and can provide fundamental insights into the structure of biological molecules, engineered nanoparticles or energy-related mesoscopic materials beyond what can be obtained with standard X-ray scattering techniques. In order to understand, use and validate experimental FXS data, the availability of basic data characteristics and operational properties is essential, but has been absent up to this point.more » In this communication, an intuitive view of the nature of FXS data and their properties is provided, the effect of FXS data on the derived structural models is highlighted, and generalizations of the Guinier and Porod laws that can ultimately be used to plan experiments and assess the quality of experimental data are presented.« less

  20. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope Control Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-08-05

    User Interface and control software or C++ to run on specifically equipped computer running Windows Operating Systems. Program performs specific control functions required to operate Interferometer controlled scanning transmission X-ray microscopes at ALS beamlines 532 and 11.0.2. Graphical user interface facilitates control, display images and spectra.

  1. X-ray Emission from Thunderstorms and Lightning

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dwyer, Joseph [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida, United States

    2010-01-08

    How lightning is initiated in the relatively low electric fields inside thunderclouds and how it can then propagate for tens of kilometers through virgin air are two of the great unsolved problems in the atmospheric sciences.  Until very recently it was believed that lightning was entirely a conventional discharge, involving only low-energy (a few eV) electrons.  This picture changed completely a few years ago with the discovery of intense x-ray emission from both natural cloud-to-ground lightning and rocket-triggered lightning.  This energetic emission cannot be produced by a conventional discharge, and so the presence of x-rays strongly implies that runaway breakdown plays a role in lightning processes.  During runaway breakdown, electrons are accelerated through air to nearly the speed of light by strong electric fields.  These runaway electrons then emit bremsstrahlung x-rays and gamma-rays during collisions with air.  Indeed, the x-ray and gamma-ray emission produced by runaway breakdown near the tops of thunderstorms is bright enough to be seen from outer space, 600 km away.  As a result, the physics used for decades to describe thunderstorm electrification and lightning discharges is incomplete and needs to be revisited. 

  2. Enhanced Electron Efficiency in an X-ray Diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Sun, L. MacNeil

    2010-05-20

    The goal for this research is to optimize the XRD structure and usage configurations and increase the efficiency of the XRD. This research was successful in optimizing the XRD structure and usage configurations, thus creating a high efficiency XRD. Best efficiency occurs when there is an angle between the photocathode and incident X-rays.

  3. Soft x-ray diagnostics for pulsed power machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idzorek, G.C.; Coulter, W.L.; Walsh, P.J.; Montoya, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    A variety of soft x-ray diagnostics are being fielded on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus and Procyon pulsed power systems and also being fielded on joint US/Russian magnetized target fusion experiments known as MAGO (Magnitoye Obzhatiye). The authors have designed a low-cost modular photoemissive detector designated the XRD-96 that uses commercial 1100 series aluminum for the photocathode. In addition to photocathode detectors a number of designs using solid state silicon photodiodes have been designed and fielded. They also present a soft x-ray time-integrated pinhole camera system that uses standard type TMAX-400 photographic film that obviates the need for expensive and no longer produced zero-overcoat soft x-ray emulsion film. In a typical experiment the desired spectral energy cuts, signal intensity levels, and desired field of view will determine diagnostic geometry and x-ray filters selected. The authors have developed several computer codes to assist in the diagnostic design process and data deconvolution. Examples of the diagnostic design process and data analysis for a typical pulsed power experiment are presented.

  4. X-rays at Solid-Liquid Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosch, Helmut (Max Planck Institute for Metals Research) [Max Planck Institute for Metals Research

    2007-05-02

    Solid-liquid interfaces play an important role in many areas of current and future technologies, and in our biosphere. They play a key role in the development of nanofluidics and nanotribology, which sensitively depend on our knowledge of the microscopic structures and phenomena at the solid-liquid interface. The detailed understanding of how a fluid meets a wall is also a theoretical challenge. In particular, the phenomena at repulsive walls are of interest, since they affect many different phenomena, such as water-repellent surfaces or the role of the hydrophobic interaction in protein folding. Recent x-ray reflectivity studies of various solid-liquid interfaces have disclosed rather intriguiing phenomena, which will be discussed in this lecture: premelting of ice in contact with silica; liquid Pb in contact with Si; water in contact with hydrophobic surfaces. These experiments, carried out with high-energy x-ray microbeams, reveal detailed insight into the liquid density profile closest to the wall. A detailed insight into atomistic phenomena at solid-liquid interfaces is also a prerequisite in the microscopic control of electrochemical reactions at interfaces. Recent x-ray studies show the enormous future potential of such non-destructive analytical tools for the in situ observation of (electro-)chemical surface reactions. This lecture will review recent x-ray experiments on solid-liquid interfaces.

  5. Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser (10) is formed of a vanadium (12) and titanium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions (32).

  6. Vanadium-pumped titanium x-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, J.

    1992-05-26

    A resonantly photo-pumped x-ray laser is formed of a vanadium and titanium foil combination that is driven by two beams of intense line focused optical laser radiation. Ground state neon-like titanium ions are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from fluorine-like vanadium ions. 4 figs.

  7. Compact X-ray Light Source Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Manke, Kristin L.; Plata, Charity

    2012-12-01

    This report, produced jointly by EMSL and FCSD, is the result of a workshop held in September 2011 that examined the utility of a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) in addressing many scientific challenges critical to advancing energy science and technology.

  8. Crystal defect studies using x-ray diffuse scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larson, B.C.

    1980-01-01

    Microscopic lattice defects such as point (single atom) defects, dislocation loops, and solute precipitates are characterized by local electronic density changes at the defect sites and by distortions of the lattice structure surrounding the defects. The effect of these interruptions of the crystal lattice on the scattering of x-rays is considered in this paper, and examples are presented of the use of the diffuse scattering to study the defects. X-ray studies of self-interstitials in electron irradiated aluminum and copper are discussed in terms of the identification of the interstitial configuration. Methods for detecting the onset of point defect aggregation into dislocation loops are considered and new techniques for the determination of separate size distributions for vacancy loops and interstitial loops are presented. Direct comparisons of dislocation loop measurements by x-rays with existing electron microscopy studies of dislocation loops indicate agreement for larger size loops, but x-ray measurements report higher concentrations in the smaller loop range. Methods for distinguishing between loops and three-dimensional precipitates are discussed and possibilities for detailed studies considered. A comparison of dislocation loop size distributions obtained from integral diffuse scattering measurements with those from TEM show a discrepancy in the smaller sizes similar to that described above.

  9. Lensless imaging of nanoporous glass with soft X-rays

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, Joshua J.; Nelson, Johanna; Huang, Xiaojing; Steinbrener, Jan; Jacobsen, Chris

    2013-06-01

    Coherent soft X-ray diffraction has been used to image nanoporous glass structure in two dimensions using different methods. The merit of the reconstructions was judged using a new method of Fourier phase correlation with a final, refined image. The porous structure was found to have a much larger average size then previously believed.

  10. X-ray ablation measurements and modeling for ICF applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.T.

    1996-09-01

    X-ray ablation of material from the first wall and other components of an ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) chamber is a major threat to the laser final optics. Material condensing on these optics after a shot may cause damage with subsequent laser shots. To ensure the successful operation of the ICF facility, removal rates must be predicted accurately. The goal for this dissertation is to develop an experimentally validated x-ray response model, with particular application to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Accurate knowledge of the x-ray and debris emissions from ICF targets is a critical first step in the process of predicting the performance of the target chamber system. A number of 1-D numerical simulations of NIF targets have been run to characterize target output in terms of energy, angular distribution, spectrum, and pulse shape. Scaling of output characteristics with variations of both target yield and hohlraum wall thickness are also described. Experiments have been conducted at the Nova laser on the effects of relevant x-ray fluences on various materials. The response was diagnosed using post-shot examinations of the surfaces with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope instruments. Judgments were made about the dominant removal mechanisms for each material. Measurements of removal depths were made to provide data for the modeling. The finite difference ablation code developed here (ABLATOR) combines the thermomechanical response of materials to x-rays with models of various removal mechanisms. The former aspect refers to energy deposition in such small characteristic depths ({approx} micron) that thermal conduction and hydrodynamic motion are significant effects on the nanosecond time scale. The material removal models use the resulting time histories of temperature and pressure-profiles, along with ancillary local conditions, to predict rates of surface vaporization and the onset of conditions that would lead to spallation.

  11. Automatic tool alignment in a backscatter X-ray scanning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garretson, Justin; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas S.; Monda, Mark J.

    2015-11-17

    Technologies pertaining to backscatter x-ray scanning systems are described herein. The backscatter x-ray scanning system includes an x-ray source, which directs collimated x-rays along a plurality of output vectors towards a target. A detector detects diffusely reflected x-rays subsequent to respective collimated x-rays impacting the target, and outputs signals indicative of parameters of the detected x-rays. An image processing system generates an x-ray image based upon parameters of the detected x-rays, wherein each pixel in the image corresponds to a respective output vector. A user selects a particular portion of the image, and a medical device is positioned such that its directional axis is coincident with the output vector corresponding to at least one pixel in the portion of the image.

  12. Automatic tool alignment in a backscatter x-ray scanning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garretson, Justin; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas S.; Monda, Mark J.

    2015-06-16

    Technologies pertaining to backscatter x-ray scanning systems are described herein. The backscatter x-ray scanning system includes an x-ray source, which directs collimated x-rays along a plurality of output vectors towards a target. A detector detects diffusely reflected x-rays subsequent to respective collimated x-rays impacting the target, and outputs signals indicative of parameters of the detected x-rays. An image processing system generates an x-ray image based upon parameters of the detected x-rays, wherein each pixel in the image corresponds to a respective output vector. A user selects a particular portion of the image, and a tool is positioned such that its directional axis is coincident with the output vector corresponding to at least one pixel in the portion of the image.

  13. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jeon, Insu; Jung, Jin-Ho; Jin, Gye-Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb

    2014-09-15

    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  14. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Goodman, C.A.

    1996-08-20

    Apparatus is disclosed for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels. 12 figs.

  15. High resolution, multiple-energy linear sweep detector for x-ray imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Goodman, Claude A. (Kensington, CA)

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus for generating plural electrical signals in a single scan in response to incident X-rays received from an object. Each electrical signal represents an image of the object at a different range of energies of the incident X-rays. The apparatus comprises a first X-ray detector, a second X-ray detector stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector, and an X-ray absorber stacked upstream of the first X-ray detector. The X-ray absorber provides an energy-dependent absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the first X-ray detector, but provides no absorption of the incident X-rays before they are incident at the second X-ray detector. The first X-ray detector includes a linear array of first pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a first range of energies. The first X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a first electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the first pixels. The second X-ray detector includes a linear array of second pixels, each of which produces an electrical output in response to the incident X-rays in a second range of energies, broader than the first range of energies. The second X-ray detector also includes a circuit that generates a second electrical signal in response to the electrical output of each of the second pixels.

  16. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang -Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sébastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; et al

    2015-09-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting schememore » is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.« less

  17. Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galli, Lorenzo; Son, Sang -Kil; Barends, Thomas R. M.; White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Botha, Sabine; Boutet, Sbastien; Caleman, Carl; Doak, R. Bruce; Nanao, Max H.; Nass, Karol; Shoeman, Robert L.; Timneanu, Nicusor; Santra, Robin; Schlichting, Ilme; Chapman, Henry N.

    2015-09-30

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential `bleaching' of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. In conclusion, a pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.

  18. Background-reducing X-ray multilayer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloch, Jeffrey J. (Los Alamos, NM); Roussel-Dupre', Diane (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Barham W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer "wavetrap" deposited over the surface of a layered, synthetic-microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered, mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 .ANG. wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 .ANG. has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, and their number and distance for the "wavetrap."

  19. X-ray calibration of Kodak Direct Exposure film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D.B.; Burkhalter, P.G.; Rockett, P.D.; Bird, C.R.; Hailey, C.J.; Sullivan, D.

    1985-08-15

    Kodak Direct Exposure film (DEF) has replaced Kodak No-Screen film for use in x-ray diffraction analysis and in autoradiography. DEF is a double-emulsion film which has been found to have improved radio-graphic characteristics over No-Screen. A set of H-D curves has been generated for DEF at five photon energies: 0.930, 1.49, 1.74, 4.51/4.93, and 6.93 keV. The KMSF x-ray calibration facility was utilized to study the absolute sensitivity of this film over its full dynamic range. Physical examination of the film was followed by theoretical modeling, which adequately reproduced the measured curves.

  20. Fiber fed x-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P.

    1992-06-02

    X-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus is disclosed for detecting the position, energy, and intensity of x-ray/gamma ray radiation comprising scintillation means disposed in the path of such radiation and capable of generating photons in response to such radiation; first photodetection means optically bonded to the scintillation means and capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the intensity, and energy of the radiation detected by the scintillation means; second photodetection means capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the position of the radiation in the radiation pattern; and means for optically coupling the scintillation means to the second photodetection means. The photodetection means are electrically connected to control and storage means which may also be used to screen out noise by rejecting a signal from one photodetection means not synchronized to a signal from the other photodetection means; and also to screen out signals from scattered radiation. 6 figs.

  1. A compact x-ray free electron laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barletta, W.A. . Center for Advanced Accelerators Physics Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA ); Atac, M.; Cline, D.B.; Kolonko, J. . Center for Advanced Accelerators Physics); Bhowmik, A.; Bobbs, B.; Cover, R.A.; Dixon, F.P.; Rakowsky, G. . Rocketdyne Div.); Gallardo

    1988-01-01

    We present a design concept and simulation of the performance of a compact x-ray, free electron laser driven by ultra-high gradient rf-linacs. The accelerator design is based on recent advances in high gradient technology by a LLNL/SLAC/LBL collaboration and on the development of bright, high current electron sources by BNL and LANL. The GeV electron beams generated with such accelerators can be converted to soft x-rays in the range from 2--10 nm by passage through short period, high field strength wigglers as are being designed at Rocketdyne Linear light sources of this type can produce trains of picosecond (or shorter) pulses of extremely high spectral brilliance suitablee for flash holography of biological specimens in vivo and for studies of fast chemical reactions. 12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Phase Effects on Mesoscale Object X-ray Absorption Images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martz, Jr., H E; Aufderheide, M B; Barty, A; Lehman, S K; Kozioziemski, B J; Schneberk, D J

    2004-09-24

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory particular emphasis is being placed on the nondestructive characterization (NDC) of 'mesoscale' objects.[Martz and Albrecht 2003] We define mesoscale objects as objects that have mm extent with {micro}m features. Here we confine our discussions to x-ray imaging methods applicable to mesoscale object characterization. The goal is object recovery algorithms including phase to enable emerging high-spatial resolution x-ray imaging methods to ''see'' inside or image mesoscale-size materials and objects. To be successful our imaging characterization effort must be able to recover the object function to one micrometer or better spatial resolution over a few millimeters field-of-view with very high contrast.

  3. Inelastic X-ray Scattering from Shocked Liquid Deuterium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Regan, S. P.; Falk, K.; Gregori, G.; Radha, P. B.; Hu, S. X.; Boehly, T. R.; Crowley, B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Landen, O.; Gericke, D. O.; et al

    2012-12-28

    The Fermi-degenerate plasma conditions created in liquid deuterium by a laser-ablation—driven shock wave were probed with noncollective, spectrally resolved, inelastic x-ray Thomson scattering employing Cl Lyα line emission at 2.96 keV. Thus, these first x-ray Thomson scattering measurements of the microscopic properties of shocked deuterium show an inferred spatially averaged electron temperature of 8±5 eV, an electron density of 2.2(±0.5)×1023 cm-3, and an ionization of 0.8 (-0.25, +0.15). Our two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using equation-of-state models suited for the extreme parameters occurring in inertial confinement fusion research and planetary interiors are consistent with the experimental results.

  4. X-ray mask and method for providing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Skala, Dawn M.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention describes a method for fabricating an x-ray mask tool which can achieve pattern features having lateral dimension of less than 1 micron. The process uses a thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask to transfer an trace image pattern in the surface of a silicon wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is then anisotropically etched to provide an etched image of the trace image pattern consisting of a series of channels in the silicon having a high depth-to-width aspect ratio. These channels are then filled by depositing a metal such as gold to provide an inverse image of the trace image and thereby providing a robust x-ray mask tool.

  5. X-ray mask and method for providing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morales, Alfredo M. (Pleasanton, CA); Skala, Dawn M. (Fremont, CA)

    2004-09-28

    The present invention describes a method for fabricating an x-ray mask tool which can achieve pattern features having lateral dimension of less than 1 micron. The process uses a thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask to transfer an trace image pattern in the surface of a silicon wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is then anisotropically etched to provide an etched image of the trace image pattern consisting of a series of channels in the silicon having a high depth-to-width aspect ratio. These channels are then filled by depositing a metal such as gold to provide an inverse image of the trace image and thereby providing a robust x-ray mask tool.

  6. Fiber fed x-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hailey, Charles J. (San Francisco, CA); Ziock, Klaus-Peter (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    X-ray/gamma ray imaging apparatus is disclosed for detecting the position, energy, and intensity of x-ray/gamma ray radiation comprising scintillation means disposed in the path of such radiation and capable of generating photons in response to such radiation; first photodetection means optically bonded to the scintillation means and capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the intensity, and energy of the radiation detected by the scintillation means; second photodetection means capable of generating an electrical signal indicative of the position of the radiation in the radiation pattern; and means for optically coupling the scintillation means to the second photodetection means. The photodetection means are electrically connected to control and storage means which may also be used to screen out noise by rejecting a signal from one photodetection means not synchronized to a signal from the other photodetection means; and also to screen out signals from scattered radiation.

  7. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow

  8. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow

  9. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  10. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  11. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  12. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  13. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  14. Type I X-ray burst simulation code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    dAGILE is an astrophysical code that simulates accretion of matter onto a neutron star and the subsequent x-ray burst. It is a one-dimensional time-dependent spherically symmetric code with generalized nuclear reaction networks, diffusive radiation/conduction, realistic boundary conditions, and general relativistic hydrodynamics. The code is described in more detail in Astrophysical Journal 650(2006)332 and Astrophysical Journal Supplements 174(2008)261.

  15. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow

  16. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow

  17. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow

  18. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  19. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  20. Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polarized X-Rays Reveal Molecular Alignment in Printed Electronics Print The printing of electronic devices using giant roll-to-roll presses or inkjet-style printers has recently been made possible by the development of solution-processable organic materials with optoelectronic properties. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are already being produced commercially, and sensors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), and organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are also well on their way to commercial

  1. Detecting rare, abnormally large grains by x-ray diffraction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detecting rare, abnormally large grains by x-ray diffraction - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle

  2. X-ray Induced Quasiparticles: New Window on Unconventional

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Superconductivity | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) X-ray Induced Quasiparticles: New Window on Unconventional Superconductivity Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594

  3. The hidden X-ray breaks in afterglow light curves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, P. A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Horst, A. J. van der; Starling, R. L. C.

    2008-05-22

    Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) afterglow observations in the Swift era have a perceived lack of achromatic jet breaks compared to the BeppoSAX, or pre-Swift era. Specifically, relatively few breaks, consistent with jet breaks, are observed in the X-ray light curves of these bursts. If these breaks are truly missing, it has serious consequences for the interpretation of GRB jet collimation and energy requirements, and the use of GRBs as standard candles.Here we address the issue of X-ray breaks which are possibly 'hidden' and hence the light curves are misinterpreted as being single power-laws. We show how a number of precedents, including GRB 990510 and GRB 060206, exist for such hidden breaks and how, even with the well sampled light curves of the Swift era, these breaks may be left misidentified. We do so by synthesising X-ray light curves and finding general trends via Monte Carlo analysis. Furthermore, in light of these simulations, we discuss how to best identify achromatic breaks in afterglow light curves via multi-wavelength analysis.

  4. X-ray-selected galaxy groups in Botes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vajgel, Bruna; Lopes, Paulo A. A.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William R.; Murray, Stephen S.; Goulding, Andrew; Andrade-Santos, Felipe

    2014-10-10

    We present the X-ray and optical properties of the galaxy groups selected in the Chandra X-Botes survey. We used follow-up Chandra observations to better define the group sample and their X-ray properties. Group redshifts were measured from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey spectroscopic data. We used photometric data from the NOAO Deep Wide Field Survey to estimate the group richness (N {sub gals}) and the optical luminosity (L {sub opt}). Our final sample comprises 32 systems at z < 1.75 with 14 below z = 0.35. For these 14 systems, we estimate velocity dispersions (? {sub gr}) and perform a virial analysis to obtain the radii (R {sub 200} and R {sub 500}) and total masses (M {sub 200} and M {sub 500}) for groups with at least 5 galaxy members. We use the Chandra X-ray observations to derive the X-ray luminosity (L{sub X} ). We examine the performance of the group properties ?{sub gr}, L {sub opt}, and L{sub X} , as proxies for the group mass. Understanding how well these observables measure the total mass is important to estimate how precisely the cluster/group mass function is determined. Exploring the scaling relations built with the X-Botes sample and comparing these with samples from the literature, we find a break in the L{sub X} -M {sub 500} relation at approximately M {sub 500} = 5 10{sup 13} M {sub ?} (for M {sub 500} > 5 10{sup 13} M {sub ?}, M{sub 500}?L{sub X}{sup 0.610.02}, while for M {sub 500} ? 5 10{sup 13} M {sub ?}, M{sub 500}?L{sub X}{sup 0.440.05}). Thus, the mass-luminosity relation for galaxy groups cannot be described by the same power law as galaxy clusters. A possible explanation for this break is the dynamical friction, tidal interactions, and projection effects that reduce the velocity dispersion values of the galaxy groups. By extending the cluster luminosity function to the group regime, we predict the number of groups that new X-ray surveys, particularly eROSITA, will detect. Based on our cluster/group luminosity function estimates, eROSITA will identify ?1800 groups (L{sub X} = 10{sup 41}-10{sup 43} erg s{sup 1}) within a distance of 200 Mpc. Since groups lie in large-scale filaments, this group sample will map the large-scale structure of the local universe.

  5. X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation X-Ray Imaging of the Dynamic Magnetic Vortex Core Deformation Print Wednesday, 25 November 2009 00:00 Magnetic...

  6. In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells Print Wednesday, 25 February 2015 00:00 Plastic solar cells...

  7. Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Resonant Soft X-Ray Scattering of Tri-Block Copolymers Print Wednesday, 30 May 2012 00:00 In principle, tri-block copolymers...

  8. An Eulerian CFD model and X-ray radiography for coupled nozzle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Eulerian CFD model and X-ray radiography for coupled nozzle flow and spray in internal combustion engines Title An Eulerian CFD model and X-ray radiography for coupled nozzle...

  9. Imaging Antifungal Drug Molecules in Action using Soft X-Ray...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    development. Cell CAT Scans: 3-D Cell Imaging Routine medical x rays, such as chest x rays, can be used to identify a number of diseases. But this technique only produces...

  10. X-Ray Tools for Battery Development and Testing: Case Studies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Tools for Battery Development and Testing: Case Studies Case studies of the use of X-ray techniques for battery development and testing at the Advanced Photon Source PDF icon...

  11. Best X-Ray Tools for Battery Development and Testing | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Best X-Ray Tools for Battery Development and Testing Argonne's Advanced Photon Source has a suite of best-in-class X-ray techniques and lab space to tackle the most difficult...

  12. Soft X-ray Shock Loading and Momentum Coupling in Meteorite and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Soft X-ray Shock Loading and Momentum Coupling in Meteorite and Planetary Materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Soft X-ray Shock Loading and ...

  13. A versatile high-resolution x-ray imager (HRXI) for laser-plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    x-ray imager (HRXI) devoted to laser-plasma experiments combines two state-of-the-art technologies developed in France: a high-resolution x-ray microscope and a high-speed...

  14. Bright X-ray Stainless Steel K-shell Source Development at the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bright X-ray Stainless Steel K-shell Source Development at the National Ignition Facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bright X-ray Stainless Steel K-shell Source ...

  15. Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering From RNA, Proteins, And Protein...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering From RNA, Proteins, And Protein Complexes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering From RNA, Proteins, And Protein ...

  16. An Eulerian CFD Model and X-ray Radiography for Coupled Nozzle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model and X-ray Radiography for Coupled Nozzle Flow and Spray in Internal Combustion Engines Title An Eulerian CFD Model and X-ray Radiography for Coupled Nozzle Flow and Spray in...

  17. Bright X-ray Stainless Steel K-shell Source Development at the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bright X-ray Stainless Steel K-shell Source Development at the National Ignition Facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bright X-ray Stainless Steel K-shell Source...

  18. Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    increase of X-ray intensities from thin foils irradiated with a 200 TW femtosecond laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nonlinear increase of X-ray intensities...

  19. Femtosecond X-ray Diffraction From Two-Dimensional Protein Crystals...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Femtosecond X-ray Diffraction From Two-Dimensional Protein Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Femtosecond X-ray Diffraction From Two-Dimensional Protein Crystals...

  20. Transition-Edge Sensor X-Ray Fluorescence (TES-XRF) for High...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is a technique for material identification. A low energy electron gun bombards a thin foil anode to produce a spectrum of x-rays that irradiate a material ...

  1. In Situ X-Ray Scattering Helps Optimize Printed Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    that can operate in an x-ray beamline. With this capability, researchers can, for the first time, apply grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) and grazing-incidence...

  2. The X-Ray Source Application (XRSA) Test Cassette for Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The X-Ray Source Application (XRSA) Test Cassette for Radiation Exposures at the OMEGA Laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The X-Ray Source Application (XRSA) Test...

  3. Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Mod...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Mod Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel energy resolving x-ray pinhole camera on Alcator C-Mod A new energy...

  4. High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with New Laser Targets Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Z Non-Equilibrium Physics and Bright X-ray Sources with...

  5. Atomic Physics Measurements in Support of X-Ray Astronomy (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atomic Physics Measurements in Support of X-Ray Astronomy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atomic Physics Measurements in Support of X-Ray Astronomy You are accessing...

  6. X-ray and neutron scattering from nano-mgantic clusters | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray and neutron scattering from nano-mgantic clusters The student will participate in hands on X-ray scattering experiments on bio-inspired inorganic materials (i.e., magnetic...

  7. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast...

  8. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the...

  9. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soft X-Rays Print Wednesday, 26 May 2010 00:00 A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells, achieving the...

  10. A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A high-resolution x-ray imager (HRXI) devoted to laser-plasma experiments combines two state-of-the-art technologies developed in France: a high-resolution x-ray microscope and a ...

  11. The NIF x-ray spectrometer calibration campaign at Omega (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The NIF x-ray spectrometer calibration campaign at Omega Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The NIF x-ray spectrometer calibration campaign at Omega The calibration...

  12. X-ray area backlighter development at the National Ignition Facility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: X-ray area backlighter development at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray area backlighter development at the...

  13. The NIF X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) calibration campaign at Omega...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The NIF X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) calibration campaign at Omega Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The NIF X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) calibration campaign at Omega You are...

  14. Soft X-Ray and Vacuum Ultraviolet Based Spectroscopy of the Actinides...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Soft X-Ray and Vacuum Ultraviolet Based Spectroscopy of the Actinides Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Soft X-Ray and Vacuum Ultraviolet Based Spectroscopy of...

  15. Hubbard model corrections in real-space x-ray spectroscopy theory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hubbard model corrections in real-space x-ray spectroscopy theory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hubbard model corrections in real-space x-ray spectroscopy theory...

  16. Calibration of Spherically Bent Crystals used in X-Ray Spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Calibration of Spherically Bent Crystals used in X-Ray Spectroscopy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Calibration of Spherically Bent Crystals used in X-Ray...

  17. X-ray line polarization spectroscopy of Li-like satellite line...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: X-ray line polarization spectroscopy of Li-like satellite line spectra Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray line polarization spectroscopy of Li-like...

  18. In Operando Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of 3D Graphene Supercapacitor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In Operando Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of 3D Graphene Supercapacitor Electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In Operando Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of 3D Graphene...

  19. Photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy at the Linac Coherent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    different source characteristics and its resulting impact on sample delivery, X-ray optics, X-ray detection and data acquisition. Here it is described how photon-in photon-out...

  20. Advanced Research in Diesel Fuel Sprays Using X-rays from the...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review 2014: Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of Nozzle Geometry Fuel Injection and Spray Research ...

  1. Sequential Threat Detection for Harbor Defense: An X-ray Physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Defense: An X-ray Physics-Based Bayesian Approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sequential Threat Detection for Harbor Defense: An X-ray Physics-Based Bayesian ...

  2. Atomic Physics Measurements in Support of X-Ray Astronomy (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Atomic Physics Measurements in Support of X-Ray Astronomy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atomic Physics Measurements in Support of X-Ray Astronomy Authors: ...

  3. Linear Dichroism in Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering to Molecular...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Linear Dichroism in Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering to Molecular Spin-Orbit States Linear Dichroism in Resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering to Molecular Spin-Orbit States Print...

  4. Focus characterization at an X-ray free-electron laser by coherent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Focus characterization at an X-ray free-electron laser by coherent scattering and speckle analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Focus characterization at an X-ray...

  5. Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser Authors: ... protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser Source: OPTICS EXPRESS ...

  6. Atomic data for the ITER Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Atomic data for the ITER Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atomic data for the ITER Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer The...

  7. X-ray absorption near-edge spectra of overdoped La 2 - x Sr x...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray absorption near-edge spectra of overdoped La 2 - x Sr x CuO 4 high- T c superconductors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray absorption near-edge spectra of...

  8. High-Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources Authors: Perez, F ; Patterson,...

  9. Soft x-ray microscopy - a powerful analytical tool to image magnetism...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Soft x-ray microscopy - a powerful analytical tool to image magnetism down to fundamental length and times scales Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Soft x-ray microscopy -...

  10. Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams with high concentration of Ti Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bright x-ray sources from laser irradiation of foams...

  11. X-Ray Line-Shape Diagnostics and Novel Stigmatic Imaging Schemes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-Ray Line-Shape Diagnostics and Novel Stigmatic Imaging Schemes for the National Ignition Facility Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-Ray Line-Shape Diagnostics and...

  12. Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the domain wall depinning process...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the domain wall depinning process in permalloy magnetic nanowires Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic soft x-ray microscopy of the...

  13. Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray Background Radiation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV Gamma-ray Background Radiation through the Anisotropy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Probing the Cosmic X-ray and MeV...

  14. Patent: High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using diffraction lenses with mechanically bent crystals Citation Details Title: High resolution x-ray and gamma ray imaging using...

  15. High-Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Ti-concentration aerogels for bright x-ray sources You are accessing a...

  16. Atomic data for the ITER Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Atomic data for the ITER Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atomic data for the ITER Core Imaging X-ray Spectrometer You are...

  17. Standing-wave excited soft x-ray photoemission microscopy: application...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Standing-wave excited soft x-ray photoemission microscopy: application to Co microdot magnetic arrays Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Standing-wave excited soft x-ray...

  18. How to Turn Carbon into A Magnet? X-rays and Protons Give the...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    It is noteworthy that the detected magnetic signal is very small. Only the use of a modern scanning transmission x-ray microscope at a state of the art x-ray source that...

  19. Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a Compact Source using a Nanocathode...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a Compact Source using a Nanocathode Array and Emittance Exchange Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intense Super-radiant X-rays from a...

  20. Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser We have demonstrated flash diffractive imaging of nanostructures using pulses from the first soft-X-ray free-electron...

  1. Lensless Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging of Whole Biological Cells with Soft X-Rays Print A team of scientists has used x-ray diffraction microscopy at ALS Beamline 9.0.1 to make images of whole yeast cells,...

  2. The NIF X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) calibration campaign at Omega...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The NIF X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) calibration campaign at Omega Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The NIF X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) calibration campaign at Omega Authors: ...

  3. Synchrotron x-ray photoemission study of soft x-ray processed ultrathin glycine-water ice films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tzvetkov, George; Netzer, Falko P.

    2011-05-28

    Ultrathin glycine-water ice films have been prepared in ultrahigh vacuum by condensation of H{sub 2}O and glycine at 90 K on single crystalline alumina surfaces and processed by soft x-ray (610 eV) exposure for up to 60 min. The physicochemical changes in the films were monitored using synchrotron x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Two films with different amounts of H{sub 2}O have been considered in order to evaluate the influence of the water ice content on the radiation-induced effects. The analysis of C1s, N1s, and O1s spectral regions together with the changes in the valence band spectra indicates that amino acid degradation occurs fast mainly via decarboxylation and deamination of pristine molecules. Enrichment of the x-ray exposed surfaces with fragments with carbon atoms without strong electronegative substituents (C-C and C-H) is documented as well. In the thinner glycine-water ice film (six layers of glycine + six layers of water) the 3D ice suffers strongly from the x-rays and is largely removed from the sample. The rate of photodecomposition of glycine in this film is about 30% higher than for glycine in the thicker film (6 layers of glycine + 60 layers of water). The photoemission results suggest that the destruction of amino acid molecules is caused by the direct interaction with the radiation and that no chemical attack of glycine by the species released by water radiolysis is detected.

  4. Laboratory-based micro-X-ray fluorescence setup using a von Hamos crystal spectrometer and a focused beam X-ray tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kayser, Y.; B?achucki, W.; Dousse, J.-Cl.; Hoszowska, J.; Neff, M.; Romano, V.

    2014-04-15

    The high-resolution von Hamos bent crystal spectrometer of the University of Fribourg was upgraded with a focused X-ray beam source with the aim of performing micro-sized X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements in the laboratory. The focused X-ray beam source integrates a collimating optics mounted on a low-power micro-spot X-ray tube and a focusing polycapillary half-lens placed in front of the sample. The performances of the setup were probed in terms of spatial and energy resolution. In particular, the fluorescence intensity and energy resolution of the von Hamos spectrometer equipped with the novel micro-focused X-ray source and a standard high-power water-cooled X-ray tube were compared. The XRF analysis capability of the new setup was assessed by measuring the dopant distribution within the core of Er-doped SiO{sub 2} optical fibers.

  5. The MPI/AIT X-ray Imager (MAXI): High speed pn-CCD's for x-ray detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strueder, L.; Braeuninger, H.; Meier, M.; Predehl, P.; Reppin, C.; Sterzik, M.; Truemper, J. . Inst. fuer Astrophysik); Cattaneo, P.; Hauff, D.; Lutz, G.; Schuster, K.F.; Schwarz, A. . Werner-Heisenberg-Inst. fuer Physik); Kenziorra, E.; Staubert, A. (Tuebingen

    1989-06-01

    MAXI (MPI/AIT X-RAY Imager) is part of a proposal submitted to the European Space Agency (ESA) as focal plane instrumentation of the X-ray Multi Mission (XMM). Within a collaboration of 13 European institutes we have proposed a fully depleted (sensitive) pn CCD of 280 {mu}m thickness with a homogeneous sensitive area of 36 cm{sup 2} and a pixel size of 150 {times} 150 {mu}m{sup 2} which is well matched with the telescope's angular resolution of 30 arcsec, translating to a position resolution of approximately 1 mm in the focal plane. The X-ray sensitivity is higher than 90% from 250 eV up to 10 keV, the readout time in the full frame mode of the complete focal plane will be 2 ms with a readout noise of better than 5 e{sup {minus}} (rms). Prototypes of all individual components of the camera system have been fabricated and tested. The camera concept will be presented. The measured transfer properties of the CCD and the on-chip electronics will be treated. Taking into account the coupling of the on-chip amplifier to the following front-end electronics the expected performance will be derived.

  6. Portable Parallel Beam X-Ray Diffraction System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Portable Parallel Beam X-Ray Diffraction System Portable Parallel Beam X-Ray Diffraction System New, Low Power System Reduces Energy Consumption and Improves Process Efficiency Real-time, nondestructive, in-line measurements of material properties are needed for process control in metallurgical manufacturing. With AMO support, X-Ray Optical Systems, Inc., developed the X-Beam®, a portable x-ray diffraction (XRD) system that can be used to identify structural phases, determine grain size, and

  7. Advanced Research in Diesel Fuel Sprays Using X-rays from the Advanced

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Photon Source | Department of Energy Research in Diesel Fuel Sprays Using X-rays from the Advanced Photon Source Advanced Research in Diesel Fuel Sprays Using X-rays from the Advanced Photon Source 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Argonne National Laboratory PDF icon 2003_deer_powell.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel Injection and Spray Research Using X-Ray Diagnostics X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of Nozzle

  8. Advances in X-Ray Diagnostics of Diesel Fuel Sprays | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    X-Ray Diagnostics of Diesel Fuel Sprays Advances in X-Ray Diagnostics of Diesel Fuel Sprays Recent advances in high-speed X-ray imaging has shown several distinct behaviors of commercial fuel injectors that cannot be seen with more conventional techniques. PDF icon p-14_powell.pdf More Documents & Publications X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays Fuel Spray Research on Light-Duty Injection Systems Fuel Spray Research on Light-Duty Injection Systems

  9. 01-05-2006 - X-Ray Shutter Maintenance | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 - X-Ray Shutter Maintenance Document Number: NA Effective Date: 012006 File (public): PDF icon 01-05-2006...

  10. Final report: high resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobsen, Chris

    2014-12-07

    Final report on the project "High resolution lensless 3D imaging of nanostructures with coherent x-rays"

  11. Intense x-ray machine for penetrating radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucht, R.A.; Eckhouse, S.

    1989-01-01

    Penetrating radiography has been used for many years in the nuclear weapons research programs. In frequently penetrating radiography has been used in conventional weapons research programs. For example the Los Alamos PHERMEX machine was used to view uranium rods penetrating steel for the GAU-8 program, and the Ector machine was used to see low-density regions in forming metal jets. The armor/anti-armor program at Los Alamos has created a need for an intense flash x-ray machine that can be dedicated to conventional weapons research. The Balanced Technology Initiative, through DARPA, has funded the design and construction of such a machine at Los Alamos. It will be an 8- to 10-MeV diode machine capable of delivering a dose of 500 R at 1 m with a spot size of less than 5 mm. The machine used an 87.5-stage low-inductance Marx generator that charges up a 7.4-/Omega/, 32-ns water line. The water line is discharged through a self-breakdown oil switch into a 12.4-/Omega/ water line that rings up the voltage into the high-impendance x-ray diode. A long (233-cm) vacuum drift tube is used to separate the large-diameter oil-insulated diode region from the x-ray source area that may be exposed to high overpressures by the explosive experiments. The electron beam is self-focused at the target area using a low-pressure background gas. 15 refs., 11 figs.

  12. X-Ray Cargo Inspection: Status and Trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Gongyin; Bjorkholm, Paul; Fox, Timothy R.; Wilson, Zane; Bonsergent, Xavier

    2009-03-10

    Over the past several years, x-ray cargo inspection has experienced tremendous growth. There are several hundred systems in use world wide and a few new units are installed every week. Fielded systems are mostly located in north and West Africa, Middle East, Europe (especially Russia), East Asia, and South America. The majority of systems are powered by Varian M3, M6 or M9 Linac x-ray sources. The spatial resolution of these systems is typically 3-5 mm, penetration ranges from around 200 mm to 450 mm of steel and contrast sensitivity is typically 1-4%. Inspection throughput ranges from about 20 trucks per hour to 200 trucks per hour. Currently the systems are primarily used to fight import tax evasion and smuggling of controlled substances. There are a few clear trends: Imaging performance has been steadily improving; a variety of systems have been developed to fit different needs; also, there is a strong effort in material discrimination, or even identification and automatic detection. The last, but not least trend is a shift to security applications. The US government has launched major efforts such as CAARS and JINII to fight nuclear threat and systems that can automatically detect a small amount of high atomic number materials are being developed. This paper only covers RF linear accelerator based X-ray sources, which prevail in the industry. Induction accelerators (Betatrons) have some limited use in low-end imaging systems and high duty factors sources have recently been proposed for study.

  13. Monochromator for continuous spectrum x-ray radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staudenmann, J.L.; Liedl, G.L.

    1983-12-02

    A monochromator for use with synchrotron x-ray radiation comprises two diffraction means which can be rotated independently and independent means for translationally moving one diffraction means with respect to the other. The independence of the rotational and translational motions allows Bragg angles from 3.5/sup 0/ to 86.5/sup 0/, and facilitates precise and high-resolution monochromatization over a wide energy range. The diffraction means are removably mounted so as to be readily interchangeable, which allows the monochromator to be used for both non-dispersive and low dispersive.

  14. Monochromator for continuous spectrum x-ray radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staudenmann, Jean-Louis (Ames, IA); Liedl, Gerald L. (West Lafayette, IN)

    1987-07-07

    A monochromator for use with synchrotron x-ray radiation comprises two diffraction means which can be rotated independently and independent means for translationally moving one diffraction means with respect to the other. The independence of the rotational and translational motions allows Bragg angles from 3.5.degree. to 86.5.degree., and facilitates precise and high-resolution monochromatization over a wide energy range. The diffraction means are removably mounted so as to be readily interchangeable, which allows the monochromator to be used for both non-dispersive and low dispersive work.

  15. The three dimensional X-ray diffraction technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, D. Juul; Poulsen, H.F.

    2012-10-15

    This introductory tutorial describes the so called 3 dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) technique, which allows bulk non-destructive structural characterizations of crystalline materials. The motivations and history behind the development of this technique are described and its potentials are sketched. Examples of the use of the technique are given and future trends and developments are suggested. The primary aim of the paper is to give 3DXRD novices an easy introduction to the technique and to describe a way from a dream to reality and new results.

  16. Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies Print Sometimes, the spins in a magnetic material will form tiny swirls that can move around like particles. The spins themselves stay put-it's the pattern that moves. These quasiparticles have been dubbed "skyrmions," after British physicist Tony Skyrme, who described their mathematics in a series of papers in the early 1960s. Now, over 50 years later, scientists are intrigued by the possibility that skyrmions could play a key role in

  17. Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies Print Sometimes, the spins in a magnetic material will form tiny swirls that can move around like particles. The spins themselves stay put-it's the pattern that moves. These quasiparticles have been dubbed "skyrmions," after British physicist Tony Skyrme, who described their mathematics in a series of papers in the early 1960s. Now, over 50 years later, scientists are intrigued by the possibility that skyrmions could play a key role in

  18. Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies Print Sometimes, the spins in a magnetic material will form tiny swirls that can move around like particles. The spins themselves stay put-it's the pattern that moves. These quasiparticles have been dubbed "skyrmions," after British physicist Tony Skyrme, who described their mathematics in a series of papers in the early 1960s. Now, over 50 years later, scientists are intrigued by the possibility that skyrmions could play a key role in

  19. Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies Print Sometimes, the spins in a magnetic material will form tiny swirls that can move around like particles. The spins themselves stay put-it's the pattern that moves. These quasiparticles have been dubbed "skyrmions," after British physicist Tony Skyrme, who described their mathematics in a series of papers in the early 1960s. Now, over 50 years later, scientists are intrigued by the possibility that skyrmions could play a key role in

  20. Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies Print Sometimes, the spins in a magnetic material will form tiny swirls that can move around like particles. The spins themselves stay put-it's the pattern that moves. These quasiparticles have been dubbed "skyrmions," after British physicist Tony Skyrme, who described their mathematics in a series of papers in the early 1960s. Now, over 50 years later, scientists are intrigued by the possibility that skyrmions could play a key role in

  1. Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies Print Sometimes, the spins in a magnetic material will form tiny swirls that can move around like particles. The spins themselves stay put-it's the pattern that moves. These quasiparticles have been dubbed "skyrmions," after British physicist Tony Skyrme, who described their mathematics in a series of papers in the early 1960s. Now, over 50 years later, scientists are intrigued by the possibility that skyrmions could play a key role in

  2. Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies Print Sometimes, the spins in a magnetic material will form tiny swirls that can move around like particles. The spins themselves stay put-it's the pattern that moves. These quasiparticles have been dubbed "skyrmions," after British physicist Tony Skyrme, who described their mathematics in a series of papers in the early 1960s. Now, over 50 years later, scientists are intrigued by the possibility that skyrmions could play a key role in

  3. Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skyrmion Behavior Revealed by Two X-Ray Studies Print Sometimes, the spins in a magnetic material will form tiny swirls that can move around like particles. The spins themselves stay put-it's the pattern that moves. These quasiparticles have been dubbed "skyrmions," after British physicist Tony Skyrme, who described their mathematics in a series of papers in the early 1960s. Now, over 50 years later, scientists are intrigued by the possibility that skyrmions could play a key role in

  4. Argonne X-rays validate quantum magnetism model | Argonne National

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory X-rays validate quantum magnetism model May 20, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory and Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart, Germany have validated a theorized model of quantum magnetism by observing it firsthand in a honeycomb lattice. The research is featured in an article titled "Direct evidence for dominant bond-directional interactions in a honeycomb lattice iridate Na2IrO3" published

  5. High-performance double-filter soft x-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    performance double-filter soft x-ray diagnostic for measurement of electron temperature structure and dynamics M. B. McGarry, P. Franz, D. J. Den Hartog, J. A. Goetz, M. A. Thomas et al. Citation: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10E129 (2012); doi: 10.1063/1.4740274 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4740274 View Table of Contents: http://rsi.aip.org/resource/1/RSINAK/v83/i10 Published by the American Institute of Physics. Additional information on Rev. Sci. Instrum. Journal Homepage:

  6. Ultrafast X-Ray Diffraction of Heterogeneous Solid Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitan, Abraham

    2015-08-19

    Angularly resolved x-ray diffraction at 5.5 keV establishes the structure of a 5 m diameter solid hydrogen jet, providing a foundation for analysis of hydrogen in a warm dense matter state. The jet was composed of approximately 65 % 5% HCP and 35 % 5% FCC by volume with an average crystallite size on the order of hundreds of nanometers. Broadening in the angularly resolved spectrum provided strong evidence for anisotropic strain up to approximately 3 % in the HCP lattice. Finally, we found no evidence for orientational ordering of the crystal domains.

  7. Growing Cutting-edge X-ray Optics

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ray Conley

    2013-07-17

    Ever imagined that an Xbox controller could help open a window into a world spanning just one billionth of a meter? Brookhaven Lab's Ray Conley grows cutting-edge optics called multilayer Laue lenses (MLL) one atomic layer at a time to focus high-energy x-rays to within a single nanometer. To achieve this focusing feat, Ray uses a massive, custom-built atomic deposition device, an array of computers, and a trusty Xbox controller. These lenses will be deployed at the Lab's National Synchrotron Light Source II, due to begin shining super-bright light on pressing scientific puzzles in 2015

  8. Evaluating the variability of ceramics with x-ray fluorescence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crown, P.L.; Schwalbe, L.A.; London, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Our assessment of prehistoric trade in ceramics depends on our ability to identify and distinguish different sources of manufacture. For the American Southwest, archaeologists have proposed various models of ceramic manufacture and exchange. Until recently, conflicting hypotheses were tested mainly on the basis of petrographic analysis of nonplastic tempering materials. We have extended these analyses to include x-ray fluorescence (XRF). XRF provides a fast and inexpensive means of analyzing large numbers of samples. Since 1982, approximately 500 prehistoric sherds and 40 prepared clay and mineral samples have been examined with XRF. Multivariate statistical techniques have been applied to help identify groupings of samples with possible archaeological significance.

  9. X-Ray Diffraction of Heterogeneous Solid Hydrogen - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitan, Abraham

    2015-08-24

    Angularly resolved x-ray diffraction at 5.5 keV establishes the structure of a 5 ?m diameter solid hydrogen jet, providing a foundation for analysis of hydrogen in a warm dense matter state. The jet was composed of approximately 65% 5% HCP and 35% 5% FCC by volume with an average crystallite size on the order of hundreds of nanometers. Broadening in the angularly resolved spectrum provided strong evidence for anisotropic strain up to approximately 3 % in the HCP lattice. Finally, we found no evidence for orientational ordering of the crystal domains.

  10. IN SITU SURFACE X-RAY SCATTERING STUDIES OF ELECTROSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WANG,J.X.; ADZIC,R.R.; OCKO,B.M.

    1998-07-01

    A short review of the application of surface x-ray scattering techniques to the electrode/electrolyte interfaces is presented. Recent results on metal, halide, and metal-halide adlayers with three specific systems: Bi on Au(100) and Au(110); Br on Au(100) and Ag(100); and the coadsorption of Tl with Br or I on Au(111), are given as an illustration. Factors affecting ordering of pure metal and halide adlayers and the metal-halide surface compounds are discussed in some detail.

  11. A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experiments on OMEGA (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma Experiments on OMEGA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Versatile High-Resolution X-Ray Imager (HRXI) for Laser-Plasma Experiments on OMEGA A high-resolution x-ray imager (HRXI) devoted to laser-plasma experiments combines two state-of-the-art technologies developed in France: a high-resolution x-ray microscope and a high-speed x-ray streak camera. The resulting

  12. Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Material Science | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Beyond 3-D X-ray Imaging: Methodology Development and Applications in Material Science Thursday, September 6, 2012 - 10:45am SLAC, Bldg. 137, Room 226 Yijin Liu Seminar There was a revolutionary development of X-ray imaging over the past few decades. The most substantial advancements in this field are closely related to the availability of the new generation of X-ray sources and the advanced X-ray optics. The advanced X-ray Optics

  13. Apparatus and method to enhance X-ray production in laser produced plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Augustoni, A.L.; Gerardo, J.B.; Raymond, T.D.

    1992-12-29

    Method and apparatus for generating x-rays for use in, for instance, x-ray photolithography is disclosed. The method of generating x-rays includes the steps of providing a target and irradiating the target with a laser system which produces a train of sub-pulses to generate an x-ray producing plasma. The sub-pulses are of both high intensity and short duration. The apparatus for generating x-rays from a plasma includes a vacuum chamber, a target supported within the chamber and a laser system, including a short storage time laser. 8 figs.

  14. Apparatus and method to enhance X-ray production in laser produced plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Augustoni, Arnold L. (Albuquerque, NM); Gerardo, James B. (Albuquerque, NM); Raymond, Thomas D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for generating x-rays for use in, for instance, x-ray photolithography. The method of generating x-rays includes the steps of providing a target and irradiating the target with a laser system which produces a train of sub-pulses to generate an x-ray producing plasma. The sub-pulses are of both high intensity and short duration. The apparatus for generating x-rays from a plasma includes a vacuum chamber, a target supported within the chamber and a laser system, including a short storage time laser.

  15. Cryogenic, high-resolution x-ray detector with high count rate capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Matthias (Oakland, CA); Mears, Carl A. (Windsor, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA); Hiller, Larry J. (Livermore, CA); Barfknecht, Andrew T. (Menlo Park, CA)

    2003-03-04

    A cryogenic, high-resolution X-ray detector with high count rate capability has been invented. The new X-ray detector is based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), and operates without thermal stabilization at or below 500 mK. The X-ray detector exhibits good resolution (.about.5-20 eV FWHM) for soft X-rays in the keV region, and is capable of counting at count rates of more than 20,000 counts per second (cps). Simple, FET-based charge amplifiers, current amplifiers, or conventional spectroscopy shaping amplifiers can provide the electronic readout of this X-ray detector.

  16. Investigation of the hard x-ray background in backlit pinhole imagers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fein, J. R. Holloway, J. P.; Peebles, J. L.; Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Drake, R. P.

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-rays from laser-produced hot electrons (>10 keV) in backlit pinhole imagers can give rise to a background signal that decreases signal dynamic range in radiographs. Consequently, significant uncertainties are introduced to the measured optical depth of imaged plasmas. Past experiments have demonstrated that hard x-rays are produced when hot electrons interact with the high-Z pinhole substrate used to collimate the softer He-? x-ray source. Results are presented from recent experiments performed on the OMEGA-60 laser to further study the production of hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate and how these x-rays contribute to the background signal in radiographs. Radiographic image plates measured hard x-rays from pinhole imagers with Mo, Sn, and Ta pinhole substrates. The variation in background signal between pinhole substrates provides evidence that much of this background comes from x-rays produced in the pinhole substrate itself. A Monte Carlo electron transport code was used to model x-ray production from hot electrons interacting in the pinhole substrate, as well as to model measurements of x-rays from the irradiated side of the targets, recorded by a bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrometer. Inconsistencies in inferred hot electron distributions between the different pinhole substrate materials demonstrate that additional sources of hot electrons beyond those modeled may produce hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate.

  17. Direct detection of x-rays for protein crystallography employing a thick, large area CCD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for directly determining the crystalline structure of a protein crystal. The crystal is irradiated by a finely collimated x-ray beam. The interaction of the x-ray beam with the crystal produces scattered x-rays. These scattered x-rays are detected by means of a large area, thick CCD which is capable of measuring a significant number of scattered x-rays which impact its surface. The CCD is capable of detecting the position of impact of the scattered x-ray on the surface of the CCD and the quantity of scattered x-rays which impact the same cell or pixel. This data is then processed in real-time and the processed data is outputted to produce a image of the structure of the crystal. If this crystal is a protein the molecular structure of the protein can be determined from the data received.

  18. Method and apparatus for molecular imaging using X-rays at resonance wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapline, Jr., George F. (Alamo, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Holographic X-ray images are produced representing the molecular structure of a microscopic object, such as a living cell, by directing a beam of coherent X-rays upon the object to produce scattering of the X-rays by the object, producing interference on a recording medium between the scattered X-rays from the object and unscattered coherent X-rays and thereby producing holograms on the recording surface, and establishing the wavelength of the coherent X-rays to correspond with a molecular resonance of a constituent of such object and thereby greatly improving the contrast, sensitivity and resolution of the holograms as representations of molecular structures involving such constituent. For example, the coherent X-rays may be adjusted to the molecular resonant absorption line of nitrogen at about 401.3 eV to produce holographic images featuring molecular structures involving nitrogen.

  19. Towards adaptive, streaming analysis of x-ray tomography data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Mathew; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Marshall, Matthew J.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Lansing, Carina S.; Guillen, Zoe C.; Miller, Erin A.; Lanekoff, Ingela; Laskin, Julia

    2015-03-04

    Temporal and spatial resolution of chemical imaging methodologies such as x-ray tomography are rapidly increasing, leading to more complex experimental procedures and fast growing data volumes. Automated analysis pipelines and big data analytics are becoming essential to effectively evaluate the results of such experiments. Offering those data techniques in an adaptive, streaming environment can further substantially improve the scientific discovery process, by enabling experimental control and steering based on the evaluation of emerging phenomena as they are observed by the experiment. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)’ Chemical Imaging Initiative (CII - http://imaging.pnnl.gov/ ) has worked since 2011 towards developing a framework that allows users to rapidly compose and customize high throughput experimental analysis pipelines for multiple instrument types. The framework, named ‘Rapid Experimental Analysis’ (REXAN) Framework [1], is based on the idea of reusable component libraries and utilizes the PNNL developed collaborative data management and analysis environment ‘Velo’, to provide a user friendly analysis and data management environment for experimental facilities. This article will, discuss the capabilities established for X-Ray tomography, discuss lessons learned, and provide an overview of our more recent work in the Analysis in Motion Initiative (AIM - http://aim.pnnl.gov/ ) at PNNL to provide REXAN capabilities in a streaming environment.

  20. PHERMEX: pulsed high energy radiographic machine emitting x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The PHERMEX facility used to provide flash radiographs of explosives and explosive-driven metal systems is described. With this facility, precision radiographs of large objects containing materials with high atomic number and high density are attainable. PHERMEX encompass the high-current, three-cavity, 30-MeV linear electron accelerator; the 50-MHz radio-frequency power source to drive the cavities; timing, and signal detection system; and a data-acquisition system. Some unique features of PHERMEX are reliability; very intense sub-microsecond bremsstrahlung source rich in 4- to 8-MeV x rays; less than 1.0-mm-diam spot size; precision determination of edges, discontinuities, and areal-mass distribution; and flash radiographs of large explosive systems close to the x-ray target. Some aspects of the PHERMEX-upgrading program are discussed. The program will result in (1) an increased electron-beam energy to about 50 MeV, (2) the use of an electron-gun pulser that is capable of producing three-time-adjustable pulses for obtaining three radiographic pictures of a single explosive event, (3) an increased electron injection energy of 1.25 MeV, (4) the capability for recording high-speed signals, and (5) the use of computers to assist the monitoring and control of the data-acquisition system and the PHERMEX accelerator.

  1. PHERMEX: Pulsed High-Energy Radiographic Machine Emitting X rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The PHERMEX facility used to provide flash radiographs of explosives and explosive-driven metal systems is described. With this facility, precision radiographs of large objects containing materials with high atomic number and high density are attainable. PHERMEX encompasses the high-current, three-cavity, 30-MeV linear electron accelerator; the 50-MHz-radiofrequency power source to drive the cavities; timing, firing, and signal detection system; and a data-acquisition system. Some unique features of PHERMEX are reliability; very intensive submicrosecond bremsstrahlung source rich in 4- to 8-MeV x rays; less than 1.0-mm-diam spot size; precision determination of edges, discontinuities, and areal-mass distribution; and flash radiographs of large explosive systems close to the x-ray target. Some aspects of the PHERMEX-upgrading program are discussed. The program will result (1) in an increased electron-beam energy to about 50 MeV, (2) the use of an electron-gun pulser that is capable of producing three time-adjustable pulses for obtaining three radiographic pictures of a single explosive event, (3) an increased electron injection energy of 1.25 MeV, (4) the capability for recording high-speed signals, and (5) the use of computers to assist the monitoring and control of the data-acquisition system and the PHERMEX accelerator.

  2. X-ray diffractometry of lanthanum-nickel-aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosley, W.C.

    1988-08-08

    X-ray diffractometry provides much useful information on LANA alloys that complements data obtained by SEM and Electron Microprobe Analysis. Accurate measurements of the hexagonal lattice parameters of the primary LaNi{sub 5-y}Aly phase reveal the aluminum content (y) and allow the prediction of desorption pressures for the hydrogen isotopes. A study of the broadening of x-ray diffraction lines of the LaNi{sub 5-y}Aly primary phase caused by cyclic absorption and desorption of hydrogen suggests that substitution of aluminum for nickel stabilizes the primary phase with respect to formation of antistructure defects that could cause undesirable trapping of hydrogen isotopes. Correlation of XRD with SEM and EMPA results has helped identify secondary phases, determine their abundances in volume percent, and reveal how they react with hydrogen and the atmosphere. Characterizations of LANA alloys used in process development has provided the bases for development of specifications for alloys to be used in the Replacement Trittium Facility. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  3. Wide band focusing x-ray spectrograph with spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pikuz, S. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Hammer, D. A.

    2008-01-15

    A new, wide spectral bandwidth x-ray spectrograph, the wide-bandwidth focusing spectrograph with spatial resolution (WB-FSSR), based on spherically bent mica crystals, is described. The wide bandwidth is achieved by combining three crystals to form a large aperture dispersive element. Since the WB-FSSR covers a wide spectral band, it is very convenient for application as a routine diagnostic tool in experiments in which the desired spectral coverage is different from one test to the next. The WB-FSSR has been tested in imploding wire-array experiments on a 1 MA pulsed power machine, and x-ray spectra were recorded in the 1-20 A spectral band using different orders of mica crystal reflection. Using a two mirror-symmetrically placed WB-FSSR configuration, it was also possible to distinguish between a real spectral shift and a shift of recorded spectral lines caused by the spatial distribution of the radiating plasma. A spectral resolution of about 2000 was demonstrated and a spatial resolution of {approx}100 {mu}m was achieved in the spectral band of 5-10 A in second order of mica reflection. A simple method of numerical analysis of spectrograph capability is proposed.

  4. Accuracy evaluation of a Compton X-ray spectrometer with bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by a 6 MeV electron bunch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kojima, Sadaoki Arikawa, Yasunobu; Zhang, Zhe; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Morace, Alessio; Nagai, Takahiro; Abe, Yuki; Sakata, Shouhei; Inoue, Hiroaki; Utsugi, Masaru; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko; Togawa, Hiromi; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Kato, Ryukou

    2014-11-15

    A Compton-scattering-based X-ray spectrometer is developed to obtain the energy distribution of fast electrons produced by intense laser and matter interactions. Bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by fast electrons in a material are used to measure fast electrons energy distribution in matter. In the Compton X-ray spectrometer, X-rays are converted into recoil electrons by Compton scattering in a converter made from fused silica glass, and a magnet-based electron energy analyzer is used to measure the energy distribution of the electrons that recoil in the direction of the incident X-rays. The spectrum of the incident X-rays is reconstructed from the energy distribution of the recoil electrons. The accuracy of this spectrometer is evaluated using a quasi-monoenergetic 6 MeV electron bunch that emanates from a linear accelerator. An electron bunch is injected into a 1.5 mm thick tungsten plate to produce bremsstrahlung X-rays. The spectrum of these bremsstrahlung X-rays is obtained in the range from 1 to 9 MeV. The energy of the electrons in the bunch is estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation of particle-matter interactions. The result shows that the spectrometer's energy accuracy is 0.5 MeV for 6.0 MeV electrons.

  5. Dimensionality and noise in energy selective x-ray imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, Robert E.

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop and test a method to quantify the effect of dimensionality on the noise in energy selective x-ray imaging.Methods: The Cramr-Rao lower bound (CRLB), a universal lower limit of the covariance of any unbiased estimator, is used to quantify the noise. It is shown that increasing dimensionality always increases, or at best leaves the same, the variance. An analytic formula for the increase in variance in an energy selective x-ray system is derived. The formula is used to gain insight into the dependence of the increase in variance on the properties of the additional basis functions, the measurement noise covariance, and the source spectrum. The formula is also used with computer simulations to quantify the dependence of the additional variance on these factors. Simulated images of an object with three materials are used to demonstrate the trade-off of increased information with dimensionality and noise. The images are computed from energy selective data with a maximum likelihood estimator.Results: The increase in variance depends most importantly on the dimension and on the properties of the additional basis functions. With the attenuation coefficients of cortical bone, soft tissue, and adipose tissue as the basis functions, the increase in variance of the bone component from two to three dimensions is 1.4 10{sup 3}. With the soft tissue component, it is 2.7 10{sup 4}. If the attenuation coefficient of a high atomic number contrast agent is used as the third basis function, there is only a slight increase in the variance from two to three basis functions, 1.03 and 7.4 for the bone and soft tissue components, respectively. The changes in spectrum shape with beam hardening also have a substantial effect. They increase the variance by a factor of approximately 200 for the bone component and 220 for the soft tissue component as the soft tissue object thickness increases from 1 to 30 cm. Decreasing the energy resolution of the detectors increases the variance of the bone component markedly with three dimension processing, approximately a factor of 25 as the resolution decreases from 100 to 3 bins. The increase with two dimension processing for adipose tissue is a factor of two and with the contrast agent as the third material for two or three dimensions is also a factor of two for both components. The simulated images show that a maximum likelihood estimator can be used to process energy selective x-ray data to produce images with noise close to the CRLB.Conclusions: The method presented can be used to compute the effects of the object attenuation coefficients and the x-ray system properties on the relationship of dimensionality and noise in energy selective x-ray imaging systems.

  6. Soft x-ray undulator for the Siam Photon Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugmai, S.; Dasri, T.; Prawanta, S.; Siriwattanapaitoon, S.; Kwankasem, A.; Sooksrimuang, V.; Chachai, W.; Suradet, N.; Juthong, N.; Tancharakorn, S.

    2007-01-19

    An undulator for production of intense soft x-rays has been designed for the Siam Photon Source. The construction of the undulator has been completed. It is now being characterized and prepared for installation. The device, named U60, is a pure permanent magnet planar undulator, consisting of 41 magnetic periods, with 60 mm period length. Utilization of the undulator radiation in the photon energy range of 30 - 900 eV is expected. The design studies of the magnetic structure, including investigation of perturbations arising from the magnetic field of the device, their effects on the SPS storage ring and compensation schemes are described. A magnetic measurement system has been constructed for magnetic characterization of the device. Partial results of magnetic measurements are presented.

  7. Advances in x-ray computed microtomography at the NSLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowd, B.A.; Andrews, A.B.; Marr, R.B.; Siddons, D.P.; Jones, K.W.; Peskin, A.M.

    1998-08-01

    The X-Ray Computed Microtomography workstation at beamline X27A at the NSLS has been utilized by scientists from a broad range of disciplines from industrial materials processing to environmental science. The most recent applications are presented here as well as a description of the facility that has evolved to accommodate a wide variety of materials and sample sizes. One of the most exciting new developments reported here resulted from a pursuit of faster reconstruction techniques. A Fast Filtered Back Transform (FFBT) reconstruction program has been developed and implemented, that is based on a refinement of the gridding algorithm first developed for use with radio astronomical data. This program has reduced the reconstruction time to 8.5 sec for a 929 x 929 pixel{sup 2} slice on an R10,000 CPU, more than 8x reduction compared with the Filtered Back-Projection method.

  8. Hyperspectral image reconstruction for x-ray fluorescence tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grsoy, Do?a; Bier, Tekin; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matthew G.; De Carlo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A penalized maximum-likelihood estimation is proposed to perform hyperspectral (spatio-spectral) image reconstruction for X-ray fluorescence tomography. The approach minimizes a Poisson-based negative log-likelihood of the observed photon counts, and uses a penalty term that has the effect of encouraging local continuity of model parameter estimates in both spatial and spectral dimensions simultaneously. The performance of the reconstruction method is demonstrated with experimental data acquired from a seed of arabidopsis thaliana collected at the 13-ID-E microprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The resulting element distribution estimates with the proposed approach show significantly better reconstruction quality than the conventional analytical inversion approaches, and allows for a high data compression factor which can reduce data acquisition times remarkably. In particular, this technique provides the capability to tomographically reconstruct full energy dispersive spectra without compromising reconstruction artifacts that impact the interpretation of results.

  9. Air-core grid for scattered x-ray rejection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA); Lane, Stephen M. (Oakland, CA)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is directed to a grid used in x-ray imaging applications to block scattered radiation while allowing the desired imaging radiation to pass through, and to process for making the grid. The grid is composed of glass containing lead oxide, and eliminates the spacer material used in prior known grids, and is therefore, an air-core grid. The glass is arranged in a pattern so that a large fraction of the area is open allowing the imaging radiation to pass through. A small pore size is used and the grid has a thickness chosen to provide high scatter rejection. For example, the grid may be produced with a 200 .mu.m pore size, 80% open area, and 4 mm thickness.

  10. High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction Analysis Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-11-29

    The functionality of heRXD includes the following: distance and angular calibration and viewing flat-panel detector images used for X-ray diffraction; image (polar) rebinning or "caking"; line position fitting in powder diffraction images; image segmentation or "blob finding"; crystal orentation indesing; and lattice vector refinement. These functionalities encompass a critical set analyzing teh data for high-energy diffraction measurements that are currently performed at synchrotron sources such as the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The software design modularmore » and open source under LGPL. The intent is to provide a common framework and graphical user interface that has the ability to utillize internal as well as external subroutines to provide various optins for performing the fuctionalities listed above. The software will initially be deployed at several national user facilities--including APS, ALS, and CHESS--and then made available for download using a hosting service such as sourceforge.« less

  11. On-the-fly scans for X-ray ptychography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelz, Philipp M.; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Johnson, Ian; Holler, Mirko; Menzel, Andreas; Thibault, Pierre

    2014-12-22

    With the increasing importance of nanotechnology, the need for reliable real-time imaging of mesoscopic objects with nanometer resolution is rising. For X-ray ptychography, a scanning microscopy technique that provides nanometric resolution on extended fields of view, and the settling time of the scanning system is one of the bottlenecks for fast imaging. Here, we demonstrate that ptychographic on-the-fly scans, i.e., collecting diffraction patterns while the sample is scanned with constant velocity, can be modelled as a state mixture of the probing radiation and allow for reliable image recovery. Characteristics of the probe modes are discussed for various scan parameters, and the application to significantly reducing the scanning time is considered.

  12. X-ray studies of concentrated aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, K.F. Jr.; Warburton, W.K.; Fontaine, A.

    1987-07-01

    Concentrated aqueous solutions of three transition metal bromides (ZnBr/sub 2/, CuBr/sub 2/, and NiBr/sub 2/) and an alkali bromide (RbBr) have been studied with differential anomalous scattering (DAS) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). The aq-ZnBr/sub 2/ solutions exhibit considerable inner-shell ion complexing with the formation of tetrahedral complexes about the Zn/sup 2 +/. In aq-CuBr/sub 2/, the Cu/sup 2 +/ has an octahedral coordination shell. Most of the anions are bound directly to the cations in both solutions. In contrast, there are only a few Ni--Br nearest neighbors in aq-NiBr/sub 2/. Instead, cations and anions share hydrating water molecules. Preliminary data show that any ion complexing in aq-RbBr must be weak. These results are in good agreement with published thermodynamic studies.

  13. High efficiency replicated x-ray optics and fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W.; Lane, Stephen M.; Hoffman, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    Replicated x-ray optics are fabricated by sputter deposition of reflecting layers on a super-polished reusable mandrel. The reflecting layers are strengthened by a supporting multilayer that results in stronger stress-relieved reflecting surfaces that do not deform during separation from the mandrel. The supporting multilayer enhances the ability to part the replica from the mandrel without degradation in surface roughness. The reflecting surfaces are comparable in smoothness to the mandrel surface. An outer layer is electrodeposited on the supporting multilayer. A parting layer may be deposited directly on the mandrel before the reflecting surface to facilitate removal of the layered, tubular optic device from the mandrel without deformation. The inner reflecting surface of the shell can be a single layer grazing reflection mirror or a resonant multilayer mirror. The resulting optics can be used in a wide variety of applications, including lithography, microscopy, radiography, tomography, and crystallography.

  14. Air-core grid for scattered x-ray rejection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.; Lane, S.M.

    1995-10-03

    The invention is directed to a grid used in x-ray imaging applications to block scattered radiation while allowing the desired imaging radiation to pass through, and to process for making the grid. The grid is composed of glass containing lead oxide, and eliminates the spacer material used in prior known grids, and is therefore, an air-core grid. The glass is arranged in a pattern so that a large fraction of the area is open allowing the imaging radiation to pass through. A small pore size is used and the grid has a thickness chosen to provide high scatter rejection. For example, the grid may be produced with a 200 {micro}m pore size, 80% open area, and 4 mm thickness. 2 figs.

  15. X-ray detectors at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blaj, Gabriel; Caragiulo, Pietro; Carini, Gabriella; Carron, Sebastian; Dragone, Angelo; Freytag, Dietrich; Haller, Gunther; Hart, Philip; Hasi, Jasmine; Herbst, Ryan; et al

    2015-04-21

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) present new challenges for camera development compared with conventional light sources. At SLAC a variety of technologies are being used to match the demands of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and to support a wide range of scientific applications. In this paper an overview of X-ray detector design requirements at FELs is presented and the various cameras in use at SLAC are described for the benefit of users planning experiments or analysts looking at data. Features and operation of the CSPAD camera, which is currently deployed at LCLS, are discussed, and the ePix family, a newmore » generation of cameras under development at SLAC, is introduced.« less

  16. Hyperspectral image reconstruction for x-ray fluorescence tomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grsoy, Do?a; Bier, Tekin; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matthew G.; De Carlo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A penalized maximum-likelihood estimation is proposed to perform hyperspectral (spatio-spectral) image reconstruction for X-ray fluorescence tomography. The approach minimizes a Poisson-based negative log-likelihood of the observed photon counts, and uses a penalty term that has the effect of encouraging local continuity of model parameter estimates in both spatial and spectral dimensions simultaneously. The performance of the reconstruction method is demonstrated with experimental data acquired from a seed of arabidopsis thaliana collected at the 13-ID-E microprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The resulting element distribution estimates with the proposed approach show significantly better reconstruction quality than the conventional analytical inversionmoreapproaches, and allows for a high data compression factor which can reduce data acquisition times remarkably. In particular, this technique provides the capability to tomographically reconstruct full energy dispersive spectra without compromising reconstruction artifacts that impact the interpretation of results.less

  17. Optical synchronization system for femtosecond X-ray sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Russell B. (El Cerrito, CA); Holzwarth, Ronald (Munich, DE)

    2011-12-13

    Femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses require precise synchronization between 100 meter-10 km separated lasers in a various experiments. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1-10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with various implementations. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range two single-frequency lasers separated by several teraHertz will be lock to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes.

  18. Transverse Coherence of the LCLS X-Ray Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    Self-amplifying spontaneous radiation free-electron lasers, such as the LCLS or the European X-FEL, rely on the incoherent, spontaneous radiation as the seed for the amplifying process. Though this method overcomes the need for an external seed source one drawback is the incoherence of the effective seed signal. The FEL process allows for a natural growth of the coherence because the radiation phase information is spread out within the bunch due to slippage and diffraction of the radiation field. However, at short wavelengths this spreading is not sufficient to achieve complete coherence. In this presentation we report on the results of numerical simulations of the LCLS X-ray FEL. From the obtained radiation field distribution the coherence properties are extracted to help to characterize the FEL as a light source.

  19. X-ray Spectroscopy for Quality Control of Chemotherapy Drugs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greaves, E. D.; Barros, H.; Bermudez, J.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Angeli-Greaves, M.

    2007-10-26

    We develop a method, employing Compton peak standardization and the use of matrix-matched spiked samples with Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF), for the determination of platinum plasma concentrations of patients undergoing chemotherapy with Pt-bearing drugs. Direct blood plasma analysis attains Pt detection limits of 70 ng/ml. Measurement results of prescribed drug doses are compared to achieved blood Pt concentrations indicating a lack of expected correlations. Direct analysis of Pt-containing infused drugs from a variety of suppliers indicates cases of abnormal concentrations which raises quality control issues. We demonstrate the potential usefulness of the method for pharmacokinetic studies or for routine optimization and quality control of Pt chemotherapy treatments.

  20. Variable-metric diffraction crystals for x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B. )

    1992-02-01

    A variable-metric (VM) crystal is one in which the spacing between the crystalline planes changes with position in the crystal. This variation can be either parallel to the crystalline planes or perpendicular to the crystalline planes of interest and can be produced by either introducing a thermal gradient in the crystal or by growing a crystal made of two or more elements and changing the relative percentages of the two elements as the crystal is grown. A series of experiments were performed in the laboratory to demonstrate the principle of the variable-metric crystal and its potential use in synchrotron beam lines. One of the most useful applications of the VM crystal is to increase the number of photons per unit bandwidth in a diffracted beam without losing any of the overall intensity. In a normal synchrotron beam line that uses a two-crystal monochromator, the bandwidth of the diffracted photon beam is determined by the vertical opening angle of the beam which is typically 0.10--0.30 mrad or 20--60 arcsec. When the VM crystal approach is applied, the bandwidth of the beam can be made as narrow as the rocking curve of the diffracting crystal, which is typically 0.005--0.050 mrad or 1--10 arcsec. Thus a very large increase of photons per unit bandwidth (or per unit energy) can be achieved through the use of VM crystals. When the VM principle is used with bent crystals, new kinds of x-ray optical elements can be generated that can focus and defocus x-ray beams much like simple lenses where the focal length of the lens can be changed to match its application. Thus both large magnifications and large demagnifications can be achieved as well as parallel beams with narrow bandwidths.