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Sample records for ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron

  1. Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard X-ray, and its applications in electrochemistry Friday, December 14, 2012 - 3:30pm SSRL, Bldg. 137, room 322...

  2. In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In Situ Ambient ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Scientific Reports; Journal ...

  3. Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray, and its applications in electrochemistry | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Soft X-ray and Hard X-ray, and its applications in electrochemistry Friday, December 14, 2012 - 3:30pm SSRL, Bldg. 137, room 322 Zhi Liu The synchrotron based ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) endstation[1] pioneered at ALS based on differentially pumped electron energy analyzer has been recognized by scientific communities as

  4. Adsorption of 2-propanol on ice probed by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newberg, John T.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2015-08-18

    The interaction of 2-propanol with ice was examined via ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), a surface sensitive technique that probes the adsorbed 2-propanol directly with submonolayer resolution. Isothermal uptake experiments were performed on vapor deposited ice at 227 K in the presence of the equilibrium water vapor pressure of 0.05 Torr and 2-propanol partial pressures ranging from 5 × 10-5 to 2 × 10-3 Torr. The C 1s APXPS spectra of adsorbed 2-propanol showed two characteristic peaks associated with the COH alcohol group and CMe methyl groups in a 1 : 2 ratio, respectively. Coverage increased with 2-propanol partial pressure and followed first order Langmuir kinetics with a Langmuir constant of K = 6.3 × 103 Torr-1. The 1 : 2 ratio of COH : CMe remained constant with increasing coverage, indicating there is no chemical reaction upon adsorption. The observed Langmuir kinetics using APXPS is consistent with previous observations of other small chain alcohols via indirect adsorption methods using, e.g., Knudsen cell and coated wall flow tube reactors.

  5. Adsorption of 2-propanol on ice probed by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Newberg, John T.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2015-08-18

    The interaction of 2-propanol with ice was examined via ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), a surface sensitive technique that probes the adsorbed 2-propanol directly with submonolayer resolution. Isothermal uptake experiments were performed on vapor deposited ice at 227 K in the presence of the equilibrium water vapor pressure of 0.05 Torr and 2-propanol partial pressures ranging from 5 × 10-5 to 2 × 10-3 Torr. The C 1s APXPS spectra of adsorbed 2-propanol showed two characteristic peaks associated with the COH alcohol group and CMe methyl groups in a 1 : 2 ratio, respectively. Coverage increased with 2-propanol partialmore » pressure and followed first order Langmuir kinetics with a Langmuir constant of K = 6.3 × 103 Torr-1. The 1 : 2 ratio of COH : CMe remained constant with increasing coverage, indicating there is no chemical reaction upon adsorption. The observed Langmuir kinetics using APXPS is consistent with previous observations of other small chain alcohols via indirect adsorption methods using, e.g., Knudsen cell and coated wall flow tube reactors.« less

  6. Using “Tender” x-ray ambient pressure x-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy as a direct probe of solid-liquid interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Axnanda, Stephanus; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Mao, Baohua; Rani, Sana; Chang, Rui; Karlsson, Patrik G.; Edwards, Mårten O. M.; Lundqvist, Måns; Moberg, Robert; Ross, Phil; et al

    2015-05-07

    We report a new method to probe the solid-liquid interface through the use of a thin liquid layer on a solid surface. An ambient pressure XPS (AP-XPS) endstation that is capable of detecting high kinetic energy photoelectrons (7 keV) at a pressure up to 110 Torr has been constructed and commissioned. Additionally, we have deployed a “dip & pull” method to create a stable nanometers-thick aqueous electrolyte on platinum working electrode surface. Combining the newly constructed AP-XPS system, “dip & pull” approach, with a “tender” X-ray synchrotron source (2 keV–7 keV), we are able to access the interface between liquidmore » and solid dense phases with photoelectrons and directly probe important phenomena occurring at the narrow solid-liquid interface region in an electrochemical system. Using this approach, we have performed electrochemical oxidation of the Pt electrode at an oxygen evolution reaction (OER) potential. Under this potential, we observe the formation of both Pt²⁺ and Pt⁴⁺ interfacial species on the Pt working electrode in situ. We believe this thin-film approach and the use of “tender” AP-XPS highlighted in this study is an innovative new approach to probe this key solid-liquid interface region of electrochemistry.« less

  7. Water adsorption, solvation and deliquescence of alkali halide thin films on SiO2 studied by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arima, Kenta; Jiang, Peng; Deng, Xingyi; Bluhm, Henrik; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-03-31

    The adsorption of water on KBr thin films evaporated onto SiO2 was investigated as a function of relative humidity (RH) by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. At 30percent RH adsorbed water reaches a coverage of approximately one monolayer. As the humidity continues to increase, the coverage of water remains constant or increases very slowly until 60percent RH, followed by a rapid increase up to 100percent RH. At low RH a significant number of the Br atoms are lost due to irradiation damage. With increasing humidity solvation increases ion mobility and gives rise to a partial recovery of the Br/K ratio. Above 60percent RH the increase of the Br/K ratio accelerates. Above the deliquescence point (85percent RH), the thickness of the water layer continues to increase and reaches more than three layers near saturation. The enhancement of the Br/K ratio at this stage is roughly a factor 2.3 on a 0.5 nm KBr film, indicating a strong preferential segregation of Br ions to the surface of the thin saline solution on SiO2.

  8. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - X-Ray and UV Photoelectron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy X-Ray and UV Photoelectron Spectroscopy Example of graph made with cluster tool; plots counts (Y-axis) vs. binding energy (X-axis) for PET Carbon 1S. High-resolution XPS spectra of carbon 1s from polyethylene terephthalate backsheet material, showing excellent quantitative agreement between measured and predicted peak area ratios. Subtle differences in polymer functionality are assessed by deviations from stoichiometry. In photoemission techniques, we use either X-rays or

  9. Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using an environmental cell with silicon nitride membrane windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsunemi, Eika; Watanabe, Yoshio; Oji, Hiroshi; Cui, Yi-Tao; Son, Jin-Young

    2015-06-21

    We applied hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) to a sample under ambient pressure conditions using an environmental cell with an approximately 24 nm-thick SiN{sub x} membrane window. As a model chemical substance, europium (II) iodide (EuI{sub 2}) sealed in the cell with argon gas was investigated with HAXPES to identify the chemical species present inside the cell. The optical and morphological properties of the sample within the cell were measured with optical and fluorescent microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry. We confirmed the effectiveness of the gas barrier properties of the cell with the SiN{sub x} window and demonstrated its applicability to various other optical and electron measurements as well as HAXPES.

  10. Closing the pressure gap in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy by membrane hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmelle, Renaud; Borgschulte, Andreas; Probst, Benjamin; Alberto, Roger; Zttel, Andreas; Bleiner, Davide

    2015-05-15

    Comprehensive studies of gas-solid reactions require the in-situ interaction of the gas at a pressure beyond the operating pressure of ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The recent progress of near ambient pressure XPS allows to dose gases to the sample up to a pressure of 20 mbar. The present work describes an alternative to this experimental challenge, with a focus on H{sub 2} as the interacting gas. Instead of exposing the sample under investigation to gaseous hydrogen, the sample is in contact with a hydrogen permeation membrane, through which hydrogen is transported from the outside to the sample as atomic hydrogen. Thereby, we can reach local hydrogen concentrations at the sample inside an UHV chamber, which is equipped with surface science tools, and this corresponds to a hydrogen pressure up to 1 bar without affecting the sensitivity or energy resolution of the spectrometer. This experimental approach is validated by two examples, that is, the reduction of a catalyst precursor for CO{sub 2} hydrogenation and the hydrogenation of a water reduction catalyst for photocatalytic H{sub 2} production, but it opens the possibility of the new in situ characterisation of energy materials and catalysts.

  11. Reactivity of Au nanoparticles supported over SiO2 and TiO2 studiedby ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herranz, Tirma; Deng, Xingyi; Cabot, Andreu; Alivisatos, Paul; Liu, Zhi; Soler-Illia, Galo; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-04-15

    The influence of the metal cluster size and the identity of the support on the reactivity of gold based catalysts have been studied in the CO oxidation reaction. To overcome the structural complexity of the supported catalysts, gold nanoparticles synthesized from colloidal chemistry with precisely controlled size have been used. Those particles were supported over SiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} and their catalytic activity was measured in a flow reactor. The reaction rate was dependent on the particle size and the support, suggesting two reaction pathways in the CO oxidation reaction. In parallel, ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPS) has been performed under reaction conditions using bidimensional model catalysts prepared upon supporting the Au nanoparticles over planar polycrystalline SiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} thin films by means of the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique to mimic the characteristic of the powder samples. In this way, the catalytically active surface was characterized under true reaction conditions, revealing that during CO oxidation gold remains in the metallic state.

  12. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies on yttria, zirconia, and yttria-stabilized zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, D. ); Chatterjee, D. )

    1991-07-15

    Surfaces of yttria, zirconia, and yttria-stabilized zirconia were studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An almost threefold increase in the surface yttrium concentration was observed in the yttria-stabilized zirconia samples. The core level binding energies of yttrium, zirconium, and oxygen ions in yttria-stabilized zirconia showed chemical shifts. Valence bands and Auger parameters were monitored for the monoclinic and the tetragonal phases of zirconia. Characteristic differences were observed for the two phases due to their different oxygen coordination. The results were used to identify surface phase transitions which were difficult to detect by x-ray diffraction.

  13. In-situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of a Catalyst for Artificial

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photosynthesis | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource In-situ X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy of a Catalyst for Artificial Photosynthesis Monday, June 30, 2014 Plants and other organisms use a process called photosynthesis to produce carbohydrates and oxygen from water and carbon dioxide using sunlight. Artificial photosynthesis replicates this process to produce energy in the form of usable fuels for human needs. Researches have been developing devices for artificial photosynthesis,

  14. Room temperature reaction of oxygen with gold: an in situ ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Peng; Porsgaard, Soeren; Borondics, Ferenc; Kober, Mariana; Caballero, Alfonso; Bluhm, Hendrik; Besenbacher, Flemming; Salmeron, Miquel

    2010-02-01

    Gold is commonly regarded as the most inert element.1 However, the discovery of the exceptional catalytic properties of gold nanoparticles (NPs) for low temperature CO oxidation2 initiated great interest due to its promising applications and spawned a large number of studies devoted to the understanding of the reaction mechanism.3-6 Nevertheless, no consistent and conclusive picture has arisen.7-13

  15. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for electrochemical reactions in ordinary solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masuda, Takuya; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency , 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 333-0012 ; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kobata, Masaaki; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Noguchi, Hidenori; PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency , 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 333-0012; Graduate School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810; International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics , National Institute for Materials Science , Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 ; Kawasaki, Tadahiro; Uosaki, Kohei; Graduate School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810; International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics , National Institute for Materials Science , Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044

    2013-09-09

    In situ electrochemical X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) apparatus, which allows XPS at solid/liquid interfaces under potential control, was constructed utilizing a microcell with an ultra-thin Si membrane, which separates vacuum and a solution. Hard X-rays from a synchrotron source penetrate into the Si membrane surface exposed to the solution. Electrons emitted at the Si/solution interface can pass through the membrane and be analyzed by an analyzer placed in vacuum. Its operation was demonstrated for potential-induced Si oxide growth in water. Effect of potential and time on the thickness of Si and Si oxide layers was quantitatively determined at sub-nanometer resolution.

  16. Ambient pressure XPS and IRRAS investigation of ethanol steam reforming on

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nickel-ceria catalysts Digg: ALSBerkeleyLab Facebook Page: 208064938929 Flickr: advancedlightsource/albums Twitter: AdvLightSource YouTube: AdvancedLightSource Home Science Highlights Journal Covers Ambient pressure XPS and IRRAS investigation of ethanol steam reforming on nickel-ceria catalysts Ambient pressure XPS and IRRAS investigation of ethanol steam reforming on nickel-ceria catalysts Print Monday, 15 August 2016 17:11 Ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) and

  17. Contact-free pyroelectric measurements using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehre, D.; Cohen, H.

    2013-07-29

    Non-contact pyroelectricity measurements based on x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are presented. Applied to Lithium Tantalate crystals, we demonstrate how the XPS-derived surface potential provides a simple probe of the desired property, free of all top-contact related difficulties. In particular, the increase in Lithium Tantalate spontaneous polarization under cooling, an experimentally challenging feature, is evaluated. We further inspect the roll of surface contaminants and the control over trapped surface charge in the XPS vacuum environment. Our approach can be extended to other non-contact probes, as well as to measuring additional electrical properties, such as piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity.

  18. Quantitative x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Quadrupole effects, shake-up, Shirley background, and relative sensitivity factors from a database of true x-ray photoelectron spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seah, M. P.; Gilmore, I. S.

    2006-05-01

    An analysis is provided of the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) intensities measured in the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) XPS database for 46 solid elements. This present analysis does not change our previous conclusions concerning the excellent correlation between experimental intensities, following deconvolving the spectra with angle-averaged reflection electron energy loss data, and the theoretical intensities involving the dipole approximation using Scofield's cross sections. Here, more recent calculations for cross sections by Trzhaskovskaya et al. involving quadrupole terms are evaluated and it is shown that their cross sections diverge from the experimental database results by up to a factor of 5. The quadrupole angular terms lead to small corrections that are close to our measurement limit but do appear to be supported in the present analysis. Measurements of the extent of shake-up for the 46 elements broadly agree with the calculations of Yarzhemsky et al. but not in detail. The predicted constancy in the shake-up contribution by Yarzhemsky et al. implies that the use of the Shirley background will lead to a peak area that is a constant fraction of the true peak area including the shake-up intensities. However, the measured variability of the shake-up contribution makes the Shirley background invalid for quantification except for situations where the sensitivity factors are from reference samples similar to those being analyzed.

  19. Probing hot-electron effects in wide area plasmonic surfaces using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayas, Sencer; Cupallari, Andi; Dana, Aykutlu

    2014-12-01

    Plasmon enhanced hot carrier formation in metallic nanostructures increasingly attracts attention due to potential applications in photodetection, photocatalysis, and solar energy conversion. Here, hot-electron effects in nanoscale metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures are investigated using a non-contact X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy based technique using continuous wave X-ray and laser excitations. The effects are observed through shifts of the binding energy of the top metal layer upon excitation with lasers of 445, 532, and 650?nm wavelength. The shifts are polarization dependent for plasmonic MIM grating structures fabricated by electron beam lithography. Wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces fabricated using a lithography free route by the dewetting of evaporated Ag on HfO{sub 2} exhibit polarization independent optical absorption and surface photovoltage. Using a simple model and making several assumptions about the magnitude of the photoemission current, the responsivity and external quantum efficiency of wide area plasmonic MIM surfaces are estimated as 500?nA/W and 11 10{sup ?6} for 445?nm illumination.

  20. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic investigation of nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrates synthesised by reactive milling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Leon . E-mail: l.black@shu.ac.uk; Garbev, Krassimir; Beuchle, Guenter; Stemmermann, Peter; Schild, Dieter

    2006-06-15

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to analyse a series of mechanochemically synthesised, nanocrystalline calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H). The samples, with Ca/Si ratios of 0.2 to 1.5, showed structural features of C-S-H(I). XPS analysis revealed changes in the extent of silicate polymerisation. Si 2p, Ca 2p and O 1s spectra showed that, unlike for the crystalline calcium silicate hydrate phases studied previously, there was no evidence of silicate sheets (Q{sup 3}) at low Ca/Si ratios. Si 2p and O 1s spectra indicated silicate depolymerisation, expressed by decreasing silicate chain length, with increasing C/S. In all spectra, peak narrowing was observed with increasing Ca/Si, indicating increased structural ordering. The rapid changes of the slope of FWHM of Si 2p, {delta} {sub Ca-Si} and {delta} {sub NBO-BO} as function of C/S ratio indicated a possible miscibility gap in the C-S-H-solid solution series between C/S 5/6 and 1. The modified Auger parameter ({alpha}') of nanocrystalline C-S-H decreased with increasing silicate polymerisation, a trend already observed studying crystalline C-S-H. Absolute values of {alpha}' were shifted about - 0.7 eV with respect to crystalline phases of equal C/S ratio, due to reduced crystallinity.

  1. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy evaluation of MHD channel electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martello, D.V.; Baltrus, J.P.; Diehl, J.R.; Makovsky, L.E.

    1994-12-31

    Anode elements from the coal-fired Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) channel at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) in Butte, Montana have been selected for study of the effects of localized phase morphology and chemistry on anode degradation. The platinum/tungsten/copper anode elements from the 1A{sub 4} channel were examined with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy following testing in the MHD channel, and the results compared to those for unexposed anodes. Evidence suggests that the surface of the tungsten anode is chemically attacked by a potassium-rich slag to form a fine-grained crystalline reaction product layer that is covered by a fused, glassy slag during channel operation. Examination of a mechanically separated, partially delaminated platinum cap and polished cross-sections of anode segments showed evidence of chemical attack along the braze used to join the two caps. Interface porosity may provide a path for slag penetration and diffusion of corrosive gases and liquids during channel operation, leading to delamination. The microstructure of the brazed joint cross-sections were similar, independent of exposure severity in the MHD channel. The primary mechanism of tungsten degradation appears to be grain exfoliation due to severe grain boundary attack.

  2. Band bending at ferroelectric surfaces and interfaces investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apostol, Nicoleta Georgiana

    2014-11-24

    This work reports on the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to quantify band bending at ferroelectric free surfaces and at their interfaces with metals. Surfaces exhibiting out-of-plane ferroelectric polarization are characterized by a band bending, due to the formation of a dipole layer at the surface, composed by the uncompensated polarization charges (due to ionic displacement) and to the depolarization charge sheet of opposite sign, composed by mobile charge carriers, which migrate near surface, owing to the depolarization electric field. To this surface band bending due to out-of-plane polarization states, metal-semiconductor Schottky barriers must be considered additionally when ferroelectrics are covered by metal layers. It is found that the net band bending is not always an algebraic sum of the two effects discussed above, since sometimes the metal is able to provide additional charge carriers, which are able to fully compensate the surface charge of the ferroelectric, up to the vanishing of the ferroelectric band bending. The two cases which will be discussed in more detail are Au and Cu deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on PbZr{sub 0.2}Ti{sub 0.8}O{sub 3}(001) single crystal thin layers, prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Gold forms unconnected nanoparticles, and their effect on the band bending is the apparition of a Schottky band bending additional to the band bending due to the out-of-plane polarization. Copper, starting with a given thickness, forms continuous metal layers connected to the ground of the system, and provide electrons in sufficient quantity to compensate the band bending due to the out-of-plane polarization.

  3. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy study of the compatibility of the explosive PETN with candidate plastic bonding materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vannet, M.D.; Wang, P.S.; Moddeman, W.E.; Bowling, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    The compatibility of the explosive PETN with two plastic bonding materials, ethyl cellulose and a halogenated vinyl polymer (FPC 461), was determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Both were found to coat the PETN crystals, and no change in chemical composition was found in the PETN or the plastic due to either the process or their mutual presence. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of the hydration of C{sub 2}S thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rheinheimer, Vanessa; Casanova, Ignasi

    2014-06-01

    Electron-beam evaporation was used to produce thin films of ?-dicalcium silicate. Chemical and mineralogical compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and grazing-angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD), respectively. Results show that no fractionation occurs during evaporation and isostructural condensation of the material as synthesized films have the same composition as the initial bulk material. Samples were gradually hydrated under saturated water spray conditions and analyzed with XPS. Polymerization of the silicate chains due to hydration, and subsequent formation of C-S-H, has been monitored through evaluation of energy shifts on characteristic silicon peaks. Quantitative analyses show changes on the surface by the reduction of the Ca/Si ratio and an increase on the difference between binding energies of bridging and non-bridging oxygen. Finally, SEM/FIB observation shows clear differences between the surface and cross section of the initial sample and the reacted sample.

  5. Silicon nanocrystals with high boron and phosphorus concentration hydrophilic shell—Raman scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujii, Minoru Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Masataka; Imakita, Kenji

    2014-02-28

    Boron (B) and phosphorus (P) codoped silicon (Si) nanocrystals, which exhibit very wide range tunable luminescence due to the donor to acceptor transitions and can be dispersed in polar liquids without organic ligands, are studied by Raman scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Codoped Si nanocrystals exhibit a Raman spectrum significantly different from those of intrinsic ones. First, the Raman peak energy is almost insensitive to the size and is very close to that of bulk Si crystal in the diameter range of 2.7 to 14 nm. Second, the peak is much broader than that of intrinsic ones. Furthermore, an additional broad peak, the intensity of which is about 20% of the main peak, appears around 650 cm{sup −1}. The peak can be assigned to local vibrational modes of substitutional B and B-P pairs, B clusters, B-interstitial clusters, etc. in Si crystal. The Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies suggest that a crystalline shell heavily doped with these species is formed at the surface of a codoped Si nanocrystal and it induces the specific properties, i.e., hydrophilicity, high-stability in water, high resistance to hydrofluoric acid, etc.

  6. Electronic structure of Al- and Ga-doped ZnO films studied by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabás, M.; Ramos Barrado, José R.; Torelli, P.; Barrett, N. T.

    2014-01-01

    Al- and Ga-doped sputtered ZnO films (AZO, GZO) are semiconducting and metallic, respectively, despite the same electronic valence structure of the dopants. Using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy we observe that both dopants induce a band in the electronic structure near the Fermi level, accompanied by a narrowing of the Zn 3d/O 2p gap in the valence band and, in the case of GZO, a substantial shift in the Zn 3d. Ga occupies substitutional sites, whereas Al dopants are in both substitutional and interstitial sites. The latter could induce O and Zn defects, which act as acceptors explaining the semiconducting character of AZO and the lack of variation in the optical gap. By contrast, mainly substitutional doping is consistent with the metallic-like behavior of GZO.

  7. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies on Pd doped SnO{sub 2} liquid petroleum gas sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phani, A.R.

    1997-10-01

    The present investigation deals with the electrical response of palladium doped tin oxide, as a means of improving the selectivity for liquid petroleum gas (LPG) in the presence of CO, CH{sub 4}. The sensor element with the composition of Pd(1.5 wt{percent}) in the base material SnO{sub 2} sintered at 800{degree}C, has shown a high sensitivity towards LPG with a negligible cross interference of CO and CH{sub 4} at an operating temperature of 350{degree}C. This greatly suggests the possibility of utilizing the sensor for the detection of LPG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies have been carried out to determine the possible chemical species involved in the gas-solid interaction and the enhancing mechanism of the Pd doped SnO{sub 2} sensor element, towards LPG sensitivity. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Spectroscopic evidence for Ag(III) in highly oxidized silver films by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Chambers, Scott A.; Bagus, Paul S.

    2010-12-16

    In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was utilized to identify the chemical state of silver in a range of silver oxide thin films obtained by co-deposition of silver and atomic oxygen. A highly oxidized silver species was observed at an unexpectedly low Ag 3d5/2 binding energy (BE) of 366.8 eV with an associated broad satellite at 368.2 eV; this species was assigned as Ag(III). It was found to be highly unstable in vacuum, but could be regenerated by further exposure to atomic oxygen. Both BE shifts and intensity changes of the O 1s peak were found to correlate with changes in the silver oxidation state. Theoretical calculations of the expected XPS of high spin Ag(III) provide insight into the significance of satellite structure and shake features in the Ag 3d spectra.

  9. Annealing dependence of diamond-metal Schottky barrier heights probed by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaowei, M.; Muller, E. M.; Rumaiz, A. K.; Weiland, C.; Cockayne, E.; Woicik, J. C.; Jordan-Sweet, J.; Smedley, J.

    2012-05-14

    Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was applied to investigate the diamond-metal Schottky barrier heights for several metals and diamond surface terminations. The position of the diamond valence-band maximum was determined by theoretically calculating the diamond density of states and applying cross section corrections. The diamond-platinum Schottky barrier height was lowered by 0.2 eV after thermal annealing, indicating annealing may increase carrier injection in diamond devices leading to photoconductive gain. The platinum contacts on oxygen-terminated diamond was found to provide a higher Schottky barrier and therefore a better blocking contact than that of the silver contact in diamond-based electronic devices.

  10. Surface study of stainless steel electrode deposition from soil electrokinetic (EK) treatment using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Embong, Zaidi; Johar, Saffuwan; Tajudin, Saiful Azhar Ahmad; Sahdan, Mohd Zainizan

    2015-04-29

    Electrokinetic (EK) remediation relies upon application of a low-intensity direct current through the soil between stainless steel electrodes that are divided into a cathode array and an anode array. This mobilizes charged species, causing ions and water to move toward the electrodes. Metal ions and positively charged organic compounds move toward the cathode. Anions such as chloride, fluoride, nitrate, and negatively charged organic compounds move toward the anode. Here, this remediation techniques lead to a formation of a deposition at the both cathode and anode surface that mainly contributed byanion and cation from the remediated soil. In this research, Renggam-Jerangau soil species (HaplicAcrisol + RhodicFerralsol) with a surveymeter reading of 38.0 ± 3.9 μR/hr has been investigation in order to study the mobility of the anion and cation under the influence electric field. Prior to the EK treatment, the elemental composition of the soil and the stainless steel electrode are measured using XRF analyses. Next, the soil sample is remediated at a constant electric potential of 30 V within an hour of treatment period. A surface study for the deposition layer of the cathode and anode using X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that a narrow photoelectron signal from oxygen O 1s, carbon, C 1s silica, Si 2p, aluminium, Al 2p and chromium, Cr 2p exhibited on the electrode surface and indicate that a different in photoelectron intensity for each element on both electrode surface. In this paper, the mechanism of Si{sup 2+} and Al{sup 2+} cation mobility under the influence of voltage potential between the cathode and anode will be discussed in detail.

  11. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of Al-related dipole at the HfO{sub 2}/Si interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, L. Q.; Barrett, N.; Jegou, P.

    2009-01-15

    The presence of an ultrathin oxide layer at the high-k/SiO{sub 2} interface may result in an interfacial dipole related to the specific high-k dielectric used for the gate stacks. 1 nm HfO{sub 2}/x nmAl{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}/Si stacks with different x values (x=0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2) have been prepared by atomic layer deposition. Using photoelectron spectroscopy, an Al-related interfacial dipole in the HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2} gate stack has been identified. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that the dipole is correlated with the formation of an interfacial Al-silicate. The dipole is located at the Al-silicate interface between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}, and its strength increases with the increase in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness because of Al silicate growth. Such Al-related interfacial dipole should have potential applications in future positive metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  12. ANALYSIS OF PASSIVATED SURFACES FOR MASS SPECTROMETER INLET SYSTEMS BY AUGER ELECTRON AND X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajo, H.; Clark, E.

    2010-09-01

    Stainless steel coupons approximately 0.5' in diameter and 0.125' thick were passivated with five different surface treatments and an untreated coupon was left as a control. These surface treatments are being explored for use in tritium storage containers. These coupons were made to allow surface analysis of the surface treatments using well-know surface analysis techniques. Depth profiles using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were performed on these coupons to characterize the surface and near surface regions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were collected as well. All of the surface treatments studied here appear to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks on the treated samples. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7-0.9 nm thick) as well as the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E's silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.

  13. Electronic structure of β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} single crystals investigated by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guo-Ling; Zhang, Fabi; Guo, Qixin; Cui, Yi-Tao; Oji, Hiroshi; Son, Jin-Young

    2015-07-13

    By combination of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) and first-principles band structure calculations, the electronic states of β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated to deepen the understanding of bulk information for this compound. The valence band spectra of HAXPES presented the main contribution from Ga 4sp, which are well represented by photoionization cross section weighted partial density of states. The experimental data complemented with the theoretical study yield a realistic picture of the electronic structure for β-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  14. Measurement of the valence band-offset in a PbSe/ZnO heterojunction by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Lin; Qiu Jijun; Weng Binbin; Yuan Zijian; Shi Zhisheng; Li Xiaomin; Gan Xiaoyan; Sellers, Ian R.

    2012-12-24

    A heterojunction of PbSe/ZnO has been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to directly measure the valence-band offset (VBO) of the heterojunction. The VBO, {Delta}E{sub V}, was determined as 2.51 {+-} 0.05 eV using the Pb 4p{sup 3/2} and Zn 2p{sup 3/2} core levels as a reference. The conduction-band offset, {Delta}E{sub C}, was, therefore, determined to be 0.59 {+-} 0.05 eV based on the above {Delta}E{sub V} value. This analysis indicates that the PbSe/ZnO heterojunction forms a type I (Straddling Gap) heterostructure.

  15. Surface carbonation of synthetic C-S-H samples: A comparison between fresh and aged C-S-H using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Leon Garbev, Krassimir; Gee, Ian

    2008-06-15

    This paper presents a continuation of studies into silicate anion structure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A series of C-S-H samples have been prepared mechanochemically, and then stored under ambient conditions for six months. Storage led to surface carbonation, the extent of which was dependent upon the calcium/silicon ratio of the fresh sample. Carbonation arose through decalcification of the C-S-H, leading to increased silicate polymerisation. The surfaces of the most calcium-rich phases (C/S = 1.33 and 1.50) underwent complete decalcification to yield silica (possibly containing some silanol groups) and calcium carbonate. Carbonation, and hence changes in silicate anion structure, was minimal for the C-S-H phases with C/S = 0.67 and 0.75.

  16. Electronic structure of the polymer-cathode interface of an organic electroluminescent device investigated using operando hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeuchi, J.; Hamamatsu, H.; Miyamoto, T.; Tanaka, S.; Yamashita, Y.; Yoshikawa, H.; Ueda, S.

    2015-08-28

    The electronic structure of a polymer-cathode interface of an operating organic light-emitting diode (OLED) was directly investigated using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES). The potential distribution profile of the light-emitting copolymer layer as a function of the depth under the Al/Ba cathode layer in the OLED depended on the bias voltage. We found that band bending occurred in the copolymer of 9,9-dioctylfluorene (50%) and N-(4-(2-butyl)-phenyl)diphenylamine (F8-PFB) layer near the cathode at 0 V bias, while a linear potential distribution formed in the F8-PFB when a bias voltage was applied to the OLED. Direct observation of the built-in potential and that band bending formed in the F8-PFB layer in the operating OLED suggested that charges moved in the F8-PFB layer before electron injection from the cathode.

  17. Conduction band offset at GeO{sub 2}/Ge interface determined by internal photoemission and charge-corrected x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W. F.; Nishimula, T.; Nagashio, K.; Kita, K.; Toriumi, A.

    2013-03-11

    We report a consistent conduction band offset (CBO) at a GeO{sub 2}/Ge interface determined by internal photoemission spectroscopy (IPE) and charge-corrected X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). IPE results showed that the CBO value was larger than 1.5 eV irrespective of metal electrode and substrate type variance, while an accurate determination of valence band offset (VBO) by XPS requires a careful correction of differential charging phenomena. The VBO value was determined to be 3.60 {+-} 0.2 eV by XPS after charge correction, thus yielding a CBO (1.60 {+-} 0.2 eV) in excellent agreement with the IPE results. Such a large CBO (>1.5 eV) confirmed here is promising in terms of using GeO{sub 2} as a potential passivation layer for future Ge-based scaled CMOS devices.

  18. Angle-resolved environmental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: A new laboratory setup for photoemission studies at pressures up to 0.4 Torr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mangolini, F.; Wabiszewski, G. E.; Egberts, P.; Ahlund, J.; Backlund, K.; Karlsson, P. G.; Adiga, V. P.; Streller, F.; Wannberg, B.; Carpick, R. W.

    2012-09-15

    The paper presents the development and demonstrates the capabilities of a new laboratory-based environmental X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy system incorporating an electrostatic lens and able to acquire spectra up to 0.4 Torr. The incorporation of a two-dimensional detector provides imaging capabilities and allows the acquisition of angle-resolved data in parallel mode over an angular range of 14 Degree-Sign without tilting the sample. The sensitivity and energy resolution of the spectrometer have been investigated by analyzing a standard Ag foil both under high vacuum (10{sup -8} Torr) conditions and at elevated pressures of N{sub 2} (0.4 Torr). The possibility of acquiring angle-resolved data at different pressures has been demonstrated by analyzing a silicon/silicon dioxide (Si/SiO{sub 2}) sample. The collected angle-resolved spectra could be effectively used for the determination of the thickness of the native silicon oxide layer.

  19. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Analyses of Corrosion Products Formed on Rock Bolt Carbon Steel in Chloride Media with Bicarbonate and Silicate Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deodeshmukh, Vinay; Venugopal, A; Chandra, Dhanesh; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Daemen, Jack; Jones, D A.; Lea, Alan S.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2004-11-01

    The passivation behavior of Yucca Mountain Repository rock bolt carbon steel in deaerated 3.5% NaCl solution containing SiO{sub 3}{sup 2} and HCO{sub 3} ions was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic methods. Polarization results indicate that combinations of silicate and bicarbonate anions decrease the passive current density and raise the pitting potential. XPS results indicate the enrichment of silica at passive potentials and the formation of mixed FeCO{sub 3} and silica film at lower potentials. This change in film composition was responsible for the changes in corrosion rate at lower and higher potentials. XPS results also support the thermodynamic data with regard to the occurrence of second oxidation peak observed in the polarization curves to be due to the oxidation of FeCO{sub 3} to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  20. Band structure of the epitaxial Fe/MgO/GaAs(001) tunnel junction studied by x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Y.; Le Breton, J. C.; Turban, P.; Lepine, B.; Schieffer, P.; Jezequel, G.

    2006-10-09

    The electronic band structure in the epitaxial Fe/MgO/GaAs(001) tunnel junction has been studied by x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The Schottky barrier height (SBH) of Fe on MgO/GaAs heterostructure is determined to be 3.3{+-}0.1 eV, which sets the Fe Fermi level at about 0.3 eV above the GaAs valence band maximum. This SBH is also exactly the same as that measured from Fe on MgO monocrystal. After Fe deposition, no band bending change is observed in MgO and GaAs underlayers. On the contrary, Au and Al depositions led to clear variation of the band bending in both MgO and GaAs layers. This effect is analyzed as a fingerprint of defect states at the MgO/GaAs interface.

  1. Elemental content of enamel and dentin after bleaching of teeth (a comparative study between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imam, H.; Ahmed, Doaa; Eldakrouri, Ashraf; Department of Optometry and Vision Science, College of Applied Medical Science, King Saud University, Riyadh

    2013-06-21

    The elemental content of the superficial and inner enamel as well as that of dentin was analyzed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of bleached and unbleached tooth specimens. It is thus clear from the spectral analysis using both the LIBS and XPS technique that elemental changes (though insignificant within the scopes of this study) of variable intensities do occur on the surface of the enamel and extend deeper to reach dentin. The results of the LIBS revealed a slight reduction in the calcium levels in the bleached compared to the control specimens in all the different bleaching groups and in both enamel and dentin. The good correlation found between the LIBS and XPS results demonstrates the possibility of LIBS technique for detection of minor loss in calcium and phosphorus in enamel and dentin.

  2. Sample-morphology effects on x-ray photoelectron peak intensities. III. Simulated spectra of model core–shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Cedric J.; Chudzicki, Maksymilian; Werner, Wolfgang S. M.; Smekal, Werner

    2015-09-15

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology database for the simulation of electron spectra for surface analysis has been used to simulate Cu 2p photoelectron spectra for four types of spherical copper–gold nanoparticles (NPs). These simulations were made to extend the work of Tougaard [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 14, 1415 (1996)] and of Powell et al. [J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31, 021402 (2013)] who performed similar simulations for four types of planar copper–gold films. The Cu 2p spectra for the NPs were compared and contrasted with analogous results for the planar films and the effects of elastic scattering were investigated. The new simulations were made for a monolayer of three types of Cu/Au core–shell NPs on a Si substrate: (1) an Au shell of variable thickness on a Cu core with diameters of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 nm; (2) a Cu shell of variable thickness on an Au core with diameters of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 nm; and (3) an Au shell of variable thickness on a 1 nm Cu shell on an Au core with diameters of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 nm. For these three morphologies, the outer-shell thickness was varied until the Cu 2p{sub 3/2} peak intensity was the same (within 2%) as that found in our previous work with planar Cu/Au morphologies. The authors also performed similar simulations for a monolayer of spherical NPs consisting of a CuAu{sub x} alloy (also on a Si substrate) with diameters of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 nm. In the latter simulations, the relative Au concentration (x) was varied to give the same Cu 2p{sub 3/2} peak intensity (within 2%) as that found previously. For each morphology, the authors performed simulations with elastic scattering switched on and off. The authors found that elastic-scattering effects were generally strong for the Cu-core/Au-shell and weak for the Au-core/Cu-shell NPs; intermediate elastic-scattering effects were found for the Au-core/Cu-shell/Au-shell NPs. The shell thicknesses required to give

  3. Evaluating the solid electrolyte interphase formed on silicon electrodes: A comparison of ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ neutron reflectometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Doucet, Mathieu; Browning, Jim; Baldwin, J. K.; Winiarz, Jeffrey; Kaiser, Helmut; Taub, H.; Veith, Gabriel M.

    2016-04-15

    This work details the in situ characterization of the interface between a silicon electrode and an electrolyte using a linear fluorinated solvent molecule, 0.1 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in deuterated dimethyl perfluoroglutarate (d6-PF5M2) (1.87 x 10-2 mS/cm-1). The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) composition and thickness determined via in situ neutron reflectometry (NR) and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were compared. The data show that SEI expansion and contraction (breathing) during electrochemical cycling was observed via both techniques; however, ex situ XPS suggests that the SEI thickness increases during Si lithiation and decreases during delithiation, while in situ NR suggestsmore » the opposite. The most likely cause of this discrepancy is the selective removal of SEI components (top 20 nm of the SEI) during the electrode rinse process, required to remove electrolyte residue prior to ex situ analysis, demonstrating the necessity of performing SEI characterizations in situ.« less

  4. X ray photoelectron analysis of oxide-semiconductor interface after breakdown in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shekhter, P.; Palumbo, F.; Cohen Weinfeld, K.; Eizenberg, M.

    2014-09-08

    In this work, the post-breakdown characteristics of metal gate/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs structures were studied using surface analysis by x ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that for dielectric breakdown under positive bias, localized filaments consisting of oxidized substrate atoms (In, Ga and As) were formed, while following breakdown under negative bias, a decrease of oxidized substrate atoms was observed. Such differences in the microstructure at the oxide-semiconductor interface after breakdown for positive and negative voltages are explained by atomic diffusion of the contact atoms into the gate dielectric in the region of the breakdown spot by the current induced electro-migration effect. These findings show a major difference between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs and SiO{sub 2}/Si interfaces, opening the way to a better understanding of the breakdown characteristics of III-V complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor technology.

  5. Analysis of passivated A-286 stainless steel surfaces for mass spectrometer inlet systems by Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajo, Henry; Blankenship, Donnie; Clark, Elliot

    2014-07-25

    In this study, various commercially available surface treatments are being explored for use on stainless steel components in mass spectrometer inlet systems. Type A-286 stainless steel coupons, approximately 12.5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were passivated with one of five different surface treatments; an untreated coupon served as a control. The surface and near-surface microstructure and chemistry of the coupons were investigated using sputter depth profiling using Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the surface treatments studied appeared to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks on the treated samples in SEM images. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7–0.9 nm thick), as well as to the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E’s silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.

  6. In Situ Observation of Water Dissociation with Lattice Incorporation at FeO Particle Edges Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Xingyi; Lee, Junseok; Wang, Congjun; Matranga, Christopher; Aksoy, Funda; Liu, Zhi

    2011-03-15

    The dissociation of H2O and formation of adsorbed hydroxyl groups, on FeO particles grown on Au(111) were identified with in situ,: X:ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) at water pressures ranging from 3 x 10-8 to 0.1 Torr. The facile dissociation of H2O takes place at FeO particle edges, and it was successfully observed in situ With atomically resolved scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The in situ STM studies show that adsorbed hydroxyl groups were formed exclusively along the edges of the FeO particles with the 0 atom becoming directly incorporated into the oxide crystalline lattice The STM results are consistent with coordinatively unsaturated ferrous (CUF) sites along the FeO particle edge causing the observed reactivity with H2O. Our results also directly illustrate how structural defects and under.-coordinated sites participate in chemical reactions.

  7. Electrical conductivity anomaly and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of YCr{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} negative temperature coefficient ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Bo; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 ; Zhao, Qing; Chang, Aimin E-mail: wuy@alfred.edu; Li, Yiyu; Liu, Yin; Wu, Yiquan E-mail: wuy@alfred.edu

    2014-03-10

    Electrical conductivity anomaly of perovskite-type YCr{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} negative temperature coefficient (NTC) ceramics produced by spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been investigated by using defect chemistry theory combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. From the results of the ln?-1/T curves and the XPS analysis, it can be considered that YCr{sub 1?x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 3} ceramics exhibit the hopping conductivity. The major carriers in YCrO{sub 3} are holes, which are compensated by the oxygen vacancies produced due to the introduction of Mn ions. The Mn{sup 4+} ion contents increase monotonically in the range of 0.2???x???0.5. The resistivity increases at first and then decreases with increasing Mn contents, which has the same varying tendency with activation energy. The electrical conductivity anomaly appearing in these ceramics may be due to the variation of Cr{sup 4+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions concentration as Mn content changes.

  8. Effects of Pt and Zr on the oxidation behavior of FeTbCo magneto-optic films: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, D.; Hatwar, T. K.

    1989-07-01

    We report the effects of Pt and Zr on the oxidation behavior of FeTbCo magneto-optic films. The addition of 10 at. % Pt or Zr increased environmental stability without significantly affecting the magneto-optic properties. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to study /ital in/ /ital situ/ oxidation of clean FeTbCoPt and FeTbCoZr films under 5/times/10/sup /minus/7/ Torr of oxygen at room temperature. Pt and Zr played different roles in increasing the oxidation resistance of the alloy. In the FeTbCoPt alloy, Pt reduced the oxygen uptake and retarded the oxidation kinetics of Fe. No oxidation of Pt was observed. In the FeTbCoZr alloy, Zr oxidized readily and segregated to the surface to form a protective layer. The Tb/Fe ratio at the surface increased with oxygen exposure in both alloys but at a faster rate in the FeTbCoPt alloy than in the FeTbCoZr alloy.

  9. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of negative electrodes from high-power lithium-ion cells showing various levels of power fade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herstedt, Marie; Abraham, Daniel P.; Kerr, John B.

    2004-02-28

    High-power lithium-ion cells for transportation applications are being developed and studied at Argonne National Laboratory. The current generation of cells containing LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}-based cathodes, graphite-based anodes, and LiPF6-based electrolytes show loss of capacity and power during accelerated testing at elevated temperatures. Negative electrode samples harvested from some cells that showed varying degrees of power and capacity fade were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The samples exhibited a surface film on the graphite, which was thicker on samples from cells that showed higher fade. Furthermore, solvent-based compounds were dominant on samples from low power fade cells, whereas LiPF{sub 6}-based products were dominant on samples from high power fade cells. The effect of sample rinsing and air exposure is discussed. Mechanisms are proposed to explain the formation of compounds suggested by the XPS data.

  10. Analysis of passivated A-286 stainless steel surfaces for mass spectrometer inlet systems by Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ajo, Henry; Blankenship, Donnie; Clark, Elliot

    2014-07-25

    In this study, various commercially available surface treatments are being explored for use on stainless steel components in mass spectrometer inlet systems. Type A-286 stainless steel coupons, approximately 12.5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick, were passivated with one of five different surface treatments; an untreated coupon served as a control. The surface and near-surface microstructure and chemistry of the coupons were investigated using sputter depth profiling using Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the surface treatments studied appeared to change the surface morphology dramatically, as evidenced by lack of tool marks onmore » the treated samples in SEM images. In terms of the passivation treatment, Vendors A-D appeared to have oxide layers that were very similar in thickness to each other (0.7–0.9 nm thick), as well as to the untreated samples (the untreated sample oxide layers appeared to be somewhat larger). Vendor E’s silicon coating appears to be on the order of 200 nm thick.« less

  11. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  12. Sample-morphology effects on x-ray photoelectron peak intensities. II. Estimation of detection limits for thin-film materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Cedric J.; Werner, Wolfgang S. M.; Smekal, Werner

    2014-09-01

    The authors show that the National Institute of Standards and Technology database for the simulation of electron spectra for surface analysis (SESSA) can be used to determine detection limits for thin-film materials such as a thin film on a substrate or buried at varying depths in another material for common x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurement conditions. Illustrative simulations were made for a W film on or in a Ru matrix and for a Ru film on or in a W matrix. In the former case, the thickness of a W film at a given depth in the Ru matrix was varied so that the intensity of the W 4d{sub 5/2} peak was essentially the same as that for a homogeneous RuW{sub 0.001} alloy. Similarly, the thickness of a Ru film at a selected depth in the W matrix was varied so that the intensity of the Ru 3p{sub 3/2} peak matched that from a homogeneous WRu{sub 0.01} alloy. These film thicknesses correspond to the detection limits of each minor component for measurement conditions where the detection limits for a homogeneous sample varied between 0.1 at.?% (for the RuW{sub 0.001} alloy) and 1 at.?% (for the WRu{sub 0.01} alloy). SESSA can be similarly used to convert estimates of XPS detection limits for a minor species in a homogeneous solid to the corresponding XPS detection limits for that species as a thin film on or buried in the chosen solid.

  13. Effect of Cl{sub 2}- and HBr-based inductively coupled plasma etching on InP surface composition analyzed using in situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouchoule, S.; Vallier, L.; Patriarche, G.; Chevolleau, T.; Cardinaud, C.

    2012-05-15

    A Cl{sub 2}-HBr-O{sub 2}/Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching process has been adapted for the processing of InP-based heterostructures in a 300-mm diameter CMOS etching tool. Smooth and anisotropic InP etching is obtained at moderate etch rate ({approx}600 nm/min). Ex situ x-ray energy dispersive analysis of the etched sidewalls shows that the etching anisotropy is obtained through a SiO{sub x} passivation mechanism. The stoichiometry of the etched surface is analyzed in situ using angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is observed that Cl{sub 2}-based ICP etching results in a significantly P-rich surface. The phosphorous layer identified on the top surface is estimated to be {approx}1-1.3-nm thick. On the other hand InP etching in HBr/Ar plasma results in a more stoichiometric surface. In contrast to the etched sidewalls, the etched surface is free from oxides with negligible traces of silicon. Exposure to ambient air of the samples submitted to Cl{sub 2}-based chemistry results in the complete oxidation of the P-rich top layer. It is concluded that a post-etch treatment or a pure HBr plasma step may be necessary after Cl{sub 2}-based ICP etching for the recovery of the InP material.

  14. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, Craig R.; Bionta, Richard M.; Ables, Elden

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

  15. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

    1994-05-03

    An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

  16. A combined droplet train and ambient pressure photoemission spectrometer for the investigation of liquid/vapor interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starr, David E.; Wong, Ed K.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2008-05-01

    We describe a combined ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy/droplet train apparatus for investigating the nature and heterogeneous chemistry of liquid/vapor interfaces. In this instrument a liquid droplet train with typical droplet diameters from 50...150 {micro}m is produced by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG). The droplets are irradiated by soft X-rays (100...1500 eV) in front of the entrance aperture of a differentially pumped electrostatic lens system that transfers the emitted electrons into a conventional hemispherical electron analyzer. The photoemission experiments are performed at background pressures of up to several Torr, which allows the study of environmentally important liquid/vapor interfaces, in particular aqueous solutions, under equilibrium conditions. The exposure time of the droplet surface to the background gases prior to the XPS measurement can be varied, which will allow future kinetic measurements of gas uptake on liquid surfaces. As an example, a measurement of the surface composition of a {chi} = 0.21 aqueous methanol solution is presented. The concentration of methanol at the vapor/liquid interface is enhanced by a factor of about 3 over the bulk value, while the expected bulk value is recovered at depths larger than about 1.5 nm.

  17. Bandpass x-ray diode and x-ray multiplier detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, C.L.

    1982-09-27

    An absorption-edge of an x-ray absorption filter and a quantum jump of a photocathode determine the bandpass characteristics of an x-ray diode detector. An anode, which collects the photoelectrons emitted by the photocathode, has enhanced amplification provided by photoelectron-multiplying means which include dynodes or a microchannel-plate electron-multiplier. Suppression of undesired high frequency response for a bandpass x-ray diode is provided by subtracting a signal representative of energies above the passband from a signal representative of the overall response of the bandpass diode.

  18. In-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on the impact of current compliance and switching cycles on oxygen and carbon defects in resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowinska, Malgorzata Bertaud, Thomas; Walczyk, Damian; Calka, Pauline; Walczyk, Christian; Thiess, Sebastian; Alff, Lambert; Schroeder, Thomas

    2014-05-28

    In this study, direct experimental materials science evidence of the important theoretical prediction for resistive random access memory (RRAM) technologies that a critical amount of oxygen vacancies is needed to establish stable resistive switching in metal-oxide-metal samples is presented. In detail, a novel in-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique is applied to non-destructively investigates the influence of the current compliance and direct current voltage sweep cycles on the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface chemistry and physics of resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells. These studies indeed confirm that current compliance is a critical parameter to control the amount of oxygen vacancies in the conducting filaments in the oxide layer during the RRAM cell operation to achieve stable switching. Furthermore, clear carbon segregation towards the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface under electrical stress is visible. Since carbon impurities impact the oxygen vacancy defect population under resistive switching, this dynamic carbon segregation to the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface is suspected to negatively influence RRAM device endurance. Therefore, these results indicate that the RRAM materials engineering needs to include all impurities in the dielectric layer in order to achieve reliable device performance.

  19. A combined capacitance-voltage and hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterisation of metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As capacitor structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jun; Povey, Ian M.; Hurley, Paul K.; Walsh, Lee; Hughes, Greg; Woicik, Joseph C.; O'Regan, Terrance P.

    2014-07-14

    Capacitance-Voltage (C-V) characterization and hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) measurements have been used to study metal/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As capacitor structures with high (Ni) and low (Al) work function metals. The HAXPES measurements observe a band bending occurring prior to metal deposition, which is attributed to a combination of fixed oxide charges and interface states of donor-type. Following metal deposition, the Fermi level positions at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As interface move towards the expected direction as observed from HAXPES measurements. The In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As surface Fermi level positions determined from both the C-V analysis at zero gate bias and HAXPES measurements are in reasonable agreement. The results are consistent with the presence of electrically active interface states at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As interface and suggest an interface state density increasing towards the In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As valence band edge.

  20. Band alignment of HfO{sub 2}/multilayer MoS{sub 2} interface determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: Effect of CHF{sub 3} treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xinke; He, Jiazhu; Tang, Dan; Jia, Fang; Lu, Youming Zhu, Deliang; Liu, Wenjun; Cao, Peijiang; Han, Sun; Liu, Qiang; Wen, Jiao; Yu, Wenjie; Pan, Jisheng; He, Zhubing; Ang, Kah-Wee

    2015-09-07

    The energy band alignment between HfO{sub 2}/multilayer (ML)-MoS{sub 2} was characterized using high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The HfO{sub 2} was deposited using an atomic layer deposition tool, and ML-MoS{sub 2} was grown by chemical vapor deposition. A valence band offset (VBO) of 1.98 eV and a conduction band offset (CBO) of 2.72 eV were obtained for the HfO{sub 2}/ML-MoS{sub 2} interface without any treatment. With CHF{sub 3} plasma treatment, a VBO and a CBO across the HfO{sub 2}/ML-MoS{sub 2} interface were found to be 2.47 eV and 2.23 eV, respectively. The band alignment difference is believed to be dominated by the down-shift in the core level of Hf 4d and up-shift in the core level of Mo 3d, or the interface dipoles, which caused by the interfacial layer in rich of F.

  1. X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    including film developing and scanning, and image plate scanning. Related images X-ray framing camera being loaded into the TIM in the Trident North Target Area. X-ray framing...

  2. X-Ray Diagnostics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diagnostics X-Ray Diagnostics Maintenance of existing devices and development of advanced concepts Contact John Oertel (505) 665-3246 Email Hot, dense matter produced by intense laser interaction with a solid target often produces x-rays with energies from 100 eV to those exceeding 100 keV. A suite of diagnostics and methods have been deployed at Trident to diagnose the x-ray emission from laser-matter interaction experiments, or to use the x-rays as a probe of dense matter. These

  3. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations of the morphology and chemistry of a PdCl{sub 2}/SnCl{sub 2} electroless plating catalysis system adsorbed onto shape memory alloy particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvain, J.F.; Fouassier, O.; Lescaux, S.

    2004-11-01

    A study of the different stages of the electroless deposition of copper on micronic NiTi shape memory alloy particles activated by one-step and two-step methods has been conducted from both a chemical and a morphological point of view. The combination of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging has allowed detection of the distribution of the formed compounds and depth quantification and estimation of the surface topographic parameters. For the two-step method, at the sensitization of the early stages, it is observed by AFM that Sn is absorbed in form of clusters that tend to completely cover the surface and form a continuous film. XPS analysis have shown that Sn and Pd are first absorbed in form of oxide (SnO{sub 2} and PdO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 4}]. After the entire sensitization step, the NiTi substrate is covered with Sn-based compounds. After the sensitization and the activation steps the powder roughness increases. Behavior of the Sn and Pd growth for the one-step method does not follow the behavior found for the two-step method. Indeed, XPS analysis shows a three-dimensional (3D) growth of Pd clusters on top of a mixture of metallic tin, oxide (SnO) and hydroxide [Sn(OH){sub 2}]. These Pd clusters are covered with a thin layer of Pd-oxide contamination induced by the electroless process. The mean roughness for the one-step and two-step processes are equivalent. After copper deposition, the decrease of mean roughness is attributed to a filling of surface valleys, observed after the Sn-Pd coating step.

  4. Ambient-pressure silica aerogel films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, S.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brinker, C.J. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hurd, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Very highly porous (aerogel) silica films with refractive index in the range 1.006--1.05 (equivalent porosity 98.5--88%) were prepared by an ambient-pressure process. It was shown earlier using in situ ellipsometric imaging that the high porosity of these films was mainly attributable to the dilation or `springback` of the film during the final stage of drying. This finding was irrefutably reconfirmed by visually observing a `springback` of >500% using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Ellipsometry and ESEM also established the near cent per cent reversibility of aerogel film deformation during solvent intake and drying. Film thickness profile measurements (near the drying line) for the aerogel, xerogel and pure solvent cases are presented from imaging ellipsometry. The thickness of these films (crack-free) were controlled in the range 0.1-3.5 {mu}m independent of refractive index.

  5. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, Natale M.; Stearns, Daniel S.; Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

  6. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1987-08-07

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

  7. Chest x-Rays

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The B-reading is a special reading of a standard chest x-ray film performed by a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). The reading looks for changes on the chest x-ray that may indicate exposure and disease caused by agents such as asbestos or silica.

  8. X-ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawson, John M.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays, whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays.

  9. 15.05.29 RH Operando X-ray - JCAP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of a Semiconductor/Liquid Junction by Operando X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Lichterman , M. F. et al. Direct Observation of the Energetics at a Semiconductor/Liquid Junction by Operando X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Energy Environ. Sci ., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C5EE01014D (2015). Scientific Achievement We demonstrated that the operando XPS technique, applied to a semiconductor/liquid junction, can directly measure the positions of the electronic states of the

  10. Effect of Ambient Pressure on Diesel Spray Axial Velocity and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spray Structure Measured with X-Ray Radiography Ultrafast X-ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process and Diesel Sprays Vehicle Technologies Office ...

  11. X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  12. X-Ray Detection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ratio, I I on I off , recorded with plus (+, blue) and minus (-, red) x-ray helicities. This measurement was taken at -5 mA, which corresponds to a current...

  13. X-ray Imaging Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    microscopy (PEEM), angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), coherent diffraction imaging, x-ray microscopy, micro-tomography, holographic imaging, and x-ray...

  14. X-ray fluorescence mapping

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy and Imaging: X-ray Fluorescence Mapping Of increasing scientific interest is the detection, quantification and mapping of elemental content of samples, often down...

  15. X-ray microtomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landis, Eric N.; Keane, Denis T.

    2010-12-15

    In this tutorial, we describe X-ray microtomography as a technique to nondestructively characterize material microstructure in three dimensions at a micron level spatial resolution. While commercially available laboratory scale instrumentation is available, we focus our attention on synchrotron-based systems, where we can exploit a high flux, monochromatic X-ray beam to produce high fidelity three-dimensional images. A brief description of the physics and the mathematical analysis behind the technique is followed by example applications to specific materials characterization problems, with a particular focus on the utilization of three-dimensional image processing that can be used to extract a wide range of useful information.

  16. Photoelectron spectroscopy of wet and gaseous samples through graphene membranes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kraus, Jürgen; Reichelt, Robert; Günther, Sebastian; Gregoratti, Luca; Amati, Matteo; Kiskinova, Maya; Yulaev, Alexander; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and microscopy are highly important for exploring morphologically and chemically complex liquid–gas, solid–liquid and solid–gas interfaces under realistic conditions, but the very small electron mean free path inside dense media imposes serious experimental challenges. Currently, near ambient pressure PES is conducted using dexterously designed electron energy analyzers coupled with differentially pumped electron lenses which make it possible to conduct PES measurements at a few hPa. This report proposes an alternative ambient pressure approach that can be applied to a broad class of samples and be implemented in conventional PES instruments. It uses ultrathin electron transparent but molecularmore » impermeable membranes to isolate the high pressure sample environment from the high vacuum PES detection system. We show that the separating graphene membrane windows are both mechanically robust and sufficiently transparent for electrons in a wide energy range to allow soft X-ray PES of liquid and gaseous water. The performed proof-of-principle experiments confirm the possibility to probe vacuum-incompatible toxic or reactive samples placed inside such hermetic, gas flow or fluidic environmental cells.« less

  17. Spray Structure Measured with X-Ray Radiography | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Spray Structure Measured with X-Ray Radiography Spray Structure Measured with X-Ray Radiography Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_kastengren.pdf (17.93 MB) More Documents & Publications Effect of Ambient Pressure on Diesel Spray Axial Velocity and Internal Structure X-Ray Characterization of Diesel Sprays and the Effects of Nozzle Geometry

  18. X-ray beam finder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, H.W.

    1983-06-16

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  19. Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}; as-deposited amorphous, crystalline, and laser-reamorphized

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, Jan H. Tominaga, Junji; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alex V.; Ueda, Shigenori; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Ishimaru, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2014-02-10

    We have investigated the electronic structure of as-deposited, crystalline, and laser-reamorphized Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} using high resolution, hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. A shift in the Fermi level as well as a broadening of the spectral features in the valence band and the Ge 3d level between the amorphous and crystalline state is observed. Upon amorphization, Ge 3d and Sb 4d spectra show a surprisingly small breaking of resonant bonds and changes in the bonding character as evidenced by the very similar density of states in all cases.

  20. Soft-x-ray

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Soft-x-ray emission, plasma equilibrium, and fluctuation studies on Madison Symmetric Torus C. Xiao Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin and Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada P. Franz Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA Sulla Fusione, Italy and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, Unita' di Ricerca di Padova, Italy B. E. Chapman and D. Craig Department of Physics, University of

  1. Fluctuation X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saldin, PI: D. K.; Co-I's: J. C. H. Spence and P. Fromme

    2013-01-25

    The work supported by the grant was aimed at developing novel methods of finding the structures of biomolecules using x-rays from novel sources such as the x-ray free electron laser and modern synchrotrons

  2. X-ray position detector and implementation in a mirror pointing servo system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rabedeau, Thomas A.; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Stefan, Peter M.

    2016-04-05

    An X-ray beam position and stability detector is provided having a first metal blade collinear with a second metal blade, where an edge of the first metal blade is opposite an edge of the second metal blade, where the first metal blade edge and the second metal blade edge are disposed along a centerline with respect to each other, where the metal blades are capable of photoelectron emission when exposed to an x-ray beam, a metal coating on the metal blades that is capable of enhancing the photoelectron emission, or suppressing energy-resonant contaminants, or enhancing the photoelectron emission and suppressing energy-resonant contaminants, a background shielding element having an electrode capable of suppressing photoelectron emission from spurious x-rays not contained in an x-ray beam of interest, and a photoelectron emission detector having an amplifier capable of detecting the photoelectron emission as a current signal.

  3. Tunable X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyce, James R.

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  4. SMB, X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    include X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES), Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS), High Energy Resolution Fluorescence Detection (HERFD) and X-ray Raman Spectroscopy (XRS). ...

  5. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  6. X-ray lithography source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  7. Beamline 9.3.2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surfaces, interfaces, catalysis, environmental science, material science, electrochemistry Endstations: Ambient pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (APXPS)* Ambient...

  8. Solar X-ray physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bornmann, P.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on solar X-ray phenomena performed by American scientists during 1987-1990 is reviewed. Major topics discussed include solar images observed during quiescent times, the processes observed during solar flares, and the coronal, interplanetary, and terrestrial phenomena associated with solar X-ray flares. Particular attention is given to the hard X-ray emission observed at the start of the flare, the energy transfer to the soft X-ray emitting plasma, the late resolution of the flare as observed in soft X-ray, and the rate of occurrence of solar flares as a function of time and latitude. Pertinent aspects of nonflaring, coronal X-ray emission and stellar flares are also discussed. 175 refs.

  9. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E.; Stone, Gary F.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Chornenky, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  10. X-Ray Science Education

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TV Network external link DNA Interactive external link Reciprocal Net external link X-ray Science Courses and Programs Various educational efforts are closely related to the...

  11. X-ray shearing interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2003-07-08

    An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

  12. Structural and superconducting features of Tl-1223 prepared at ambient pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shipra, Fnu; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Sefat, Athena Safa

    2015-09-25

    This study provides an account of the bulk preparation of TlBa2Ca2Cu3O9-δ (Tl-1223) superconductor at ambient pressure, and the Tc features under thermal-annealing conditions. The ‘as-prepared’ Tl-1223 (Tc =106 K) presents a significantly higher Tc = 125 K after annealing the polycrystalline material in either flowing Ar+4% H2, or N2 gases. In order to understand the fundamental reasons for a particular Tc, we refined the average bulk structures using powder X-ray diffraction data. Although Ar+4%H2 annealed Tl- 1223 shows an increased ‘c’ lattice parameter, it shrinks by 0.03% (approximately unchanged) upon N2 anneal. Due to such indeterminate conclusions on the averagemore » structural changes, local structures were investigated at using aberration-corrected scanning-transmission electron microscopy technique. Similar compositional changes in the atomic arrangements of both annealed-samples of Tl-1223 were detected in which the plane containing Ca atomic layer gives a non-uniform contrast, due to substitution of some heavier Tl. In this report, extensive bulk properties are summarized through temperature-dependent resistivity, and shielding and Meissner fractions of magnetic susceptibility results; the bulk and local structures are investigated to correlate to properties.« less

  13. Miniature x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  14. X-ray microtomographic scanners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syryamkin, V. I. Klestov, S. A.

    2015-11-17

    The article studies the operating procedures of an X-ray microtomographic scanner and the module of reconstruction and analysis 3D-image of a test sample in particular. An algorithm for 3D-image reconstruction based on image shadow projections and mathematical methods of the processing are described. Chapter 1 describes the basic principles of X-ray tomography and general procedures of the device developed. Chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to the problem of resources saving by the system during the X-ray tomography procedure, which is achieved by preprocessing of the initial shadow projections. Preprocessing includes background noise removing from the images, which reduces the amount of shadow projections in general and increases the efficiency of the group shadow projections compression. In conclusion, the main applications of X-ray tomography are presented.

  15. X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) Title: X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) The primary interactions of ...

  16. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  17. SMB, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a well-established technique for simultaneous local geometric and electronic structure...

  18. RYLLA. [X-ray transport code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyde, R.A.

    1983-06-08

    This paper describes a computer code, RYLLA, which models the deposition of x-rays into thin metal slabs, and transports the resulting photoelectrons, finding the distribution of electrons leaving the slab from both the front and back surfaces. The slab must be homogeneous, but can contain a mixture of up to 5 different elements. Due to the short electron mean free path at low electron energies, RYLLA should be used only for studying thin slabs, roughly < 100 mg/cm/sup 2/ for low Z metals, and < 10 mg/cm/sup 2/ for high Z metals. X-ray energies should be in the range of 1 to 150 keV, as they are deposited only via photoionization and Compton scattering processes. Following photoionization, a hole exists in the electron cloud of the absorbing atom. This fills either by Auger or fluoresence, resulting in lower energy holes which are also filled. Fluoresence photons are transported and absorbed in the same manner as the primary photons, except that they are isotropically produced. Once all photons have been transported and absorbed, and all holes have been filled, a space- and energy-dependent electron source spectrum has been obtained. This is used in a discrete ordinate expansion solution of the 1-D transport equation, which gives the output electron spectra at the two slab surfaces. This paper discusses both the physics and coding of RYLLA. Examples of user input are given, as are some comparisons with other codes.

  19. Dissociation of strong acid revisited: X-ray photoelectron spectroscop...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    is a turnover to a more structured solvation shell, accompanied by an increase in hydrogen bonding between HNO3 and water. We suggest that the driving force behind the more...

  20. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) Applied to Soot & What...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. ...

  1. Compact x-ray source and panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayon, Stephen E.

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  2. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  3. Focused X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary I.; Maccagno, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  4. Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at High X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Fluences Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reabsorption of Soft X-Ray Emission at ...

  5. Hard x-ray delay line for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hard x-ray delay line for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and jitter-free pump-probe experiments at LCLS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hard x-ray delay line for...

  6. A computational study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A computational study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources on the National Ignition Facility laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A computational study of x-ray ...

  7. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser: Application to Spin Crossover Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Femtosecond X-ray...

  8. A computational study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    study of x-ray emission from high-Z x-ray sources on the National Ignition Facility laser Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A computational study of x-ray emission...

  9. Soft X-ray techniques to study mesoscale magnetism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortright, Jeffrey B.

    2003-06-26

    Heterogeneity in magnetization (M) is ubiquitous in modern systems. Even in nominally homogeneous materials, domains or pinning centers typically mediate magnetization reversal. Fundamental lengths determining M structure include the domain wall width and the exchange stiffness length, typically in the 4-400 nm range. Chemical heterogeneity (phase separation, polycrystalline microstructure, lithographic or other patterning, etc.) with length scales from nanometers to microns is often introduced to influence magnetic properties. With 1-2 nm wavelengths {lambda}, soft x-rays in principle can resolve structure down to {lambda}/2, and are well suited to study these mesoscopic length scales [1, 2]. This article highlights recent advances in resonant soft x-ray methods to resolve lateral magnetic structure [3], and discusses some of their relative merits and limitations. Only techniques detecting x-ray photons (rather than photo-electrons) are considered [4], since they are compatible with strong applied fields to probe relatively deeply into samples. The magneto-optical (MO) effects discovered by Faraday and Kerr were observed in the x-ray range over a century later, first at ''hard'' wavelengths in diffraction experiments probing interatomic magnetic structure [5]. In the soft x-ray range, magnetic linear [6] and circular [7] dichroism spectroscopies first developed that average over lateral magnetic structure. These large resonant MO effects enable different approaches to study magnetic structure or heterogeneity that can be categorized as microscopy or scattering [1]. Direct images of magnetic structure result from photo-emission electron microscopes [4, 8] and zone-plate microscopes [9, 10]. Scattering techniques extended into the soft x-ray include familiar specular reflection that laterally averages over structure but can provide depth-resolved information, and diffuse scattering and diffraction that provide direct information about lateral magnetic structure

  10. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light ... wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of ...

  11. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  12. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods Print To be held as part of SPIE. http://spie.org/OP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA

  13. Some new schemes for producing high-accuracy elliptical X-ray mirrors by elastic bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padmore, H.A.; Howells, M.R.; Irick, S.; Renner, T.; Sandler, R.; Koo, Y.-M.

    1996-08-01

    Although x-ray micro-foci can be produced by a variety of diffractive methods, grazing incidence mirrors are the only route to an achromatic focus. In this paper we describe our efforts to produce elliptically shaped mirrors with the very high figure accuracy necessary for producing a micro-focus. The motivation for this work is provided by the need to produce achromatic foci for a range of applications ranging from tunable micro-focus x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ({mu}-XPS) at soft x-ray energies to micro-focus white beam x-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD) at hard x-ray energies. We describe the methodology of beam bending, a practical example of a system we have produced for {mu}-XRD, and results demonstrating the production of a surface with micro-radian figure accuracy.

  14. Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron and X-ray Scattering Neutron and X-ray Scattering When used together, neutrons and high-energy x-rays provide a supremely powerful scientific tool for mining details about the structure of materials. Combining neutrons and high-energy x-rays to explore the frontiers of materials in extreme environments. Illuminating previously inaccessible time and spatial scales. Enabling in situ research to design, discover, and control materials. Get Expertise Donald Brown Email Pushing the limits of

  15. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  16. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  17. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  18. Phase-sensitive X-ray imager

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Kevin Louis

    2013-01-08

    X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

  19. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging

  20. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  1. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  2. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, R.B.

    1996-05-21

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  3. X-Ray Microscopy | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Microscopy X-Ray Microscopy This group exploits the unique capabilities of hard X-ray microscopy to visualize and understand the structure and behavior of hybrid, energy-related, and tailored nanomaterials The Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe, located at Sector 26 of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and operated by our group and APS, is the only dedicated X-ray microscopy beamline within the portfolios of the nation's Nanoscale Science Research Centers. Our scientific program seeks to understand

  4. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, Malcolm R.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1995-01-01

    A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

  5. Controlling X-rays With Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

    2010-08-02

    Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

  6. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1994-01-01

    A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

  7. High speed x-ray beam chopper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPherson, Armon; Mills, Dennis M.

    2002-01-01

    A fast, economical, and compact x-ray beam chopper with a small mass and a small moment of inertia whose rotation can be synchronized and phase locked to an electronic signal from an x-ray source and be monitored by a light beam is disclosed. X-ray bursts shorter than 2.5 microseconds have been produced with a jitter time of less than 3 ns.

  8. X-ray laser microscope apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon; DiCicco, Darrell S.; Hirschberg, Joseph G.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Sathre, Robert; Skinner, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  9. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). ...

  10. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nygren, David R.; Cahn, Robert; Cederstrom, Bjorn; Danielsson, Mats; Vestlund, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  11. Gamma and X-ray Dosimetric Method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taplin, G.V.; Douglas, C.H.

    1954-06-29

    This patent application concerns a highly stable two-phase liquid system for use in a colorimetric dosimeter for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation.

  12. Gamma Radiation & X-Rays

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gamma Radiation and X-Rays 1. Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation like visible light, radio waves, and ultraviolet light. These electromagnetic radiations differ only in the amount of energy they have. Gamma rays and X-rays are the most energetic of these. 2. Gamma radiation is able to travel many meters in air and many centimeters in human tissue. It readily penetrates most materials and is sometimes called "penetrating radiation." 3. X-rays are like gamma rays.

  13. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are

  14. X-ray microscopy. Beyond ensemble averages

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ice, Gene E.; Budai, John D.

    2015-06-23

    This work exemplifies emerging tools to characterize local materials structure and dynamics, made possible by powerful X-ray synchrotron and transmission electron microscopy methods.

  15. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light ...

  16. SMB, X-Ray Spectroscopy & Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home » X-Ray Spectroscopy & Imaging X-Ray Spectroscopy & Imaging SSRL has five hard X-ray Spectroscopy beamlines and three Microfocus Imaging beamlines dedicated to Biological and Biomedical research funded by the NIH and DOE-BER. The SMB group supports and develops technical instrumentation and theoretical methods for state-of-the-art tender and hard X-ray spectroscopy and EXAFS studies on metalloproteins, cofactors and metals in medicine. The SMB group has also contributed to the

  17. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  18. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  19. Phased Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Erin Miller

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a range of technologies to broaden the field of explosives detection. Phased contrast X-ray imaging, which uses silicon gratings to detect distortions in the X-ray wave front, may be applicable to mail or luggage scanning for explosives; it can also be used in detecting other contraband, small-parts inspection, or materials characterization.

  20. X-ray Attenuation and Absorption Calculations.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1988-02-25

    This point-source, polychromatic, discrete energy X-ray transport and energy deposition code system calculates first-order spectral estimates of X-ray energy transmission through slab materials and the associated spectrum of energy absorbed by the material.

  1. Accelerator-driven X-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong

    2015-11-09

    After an introduction which mentions x-ray tubes and storage rings and gives a brief review of special relativity, the subject is treated under the following topics and subtopics: synchrotron radiation (bending magnet radiation, wiggler radiation, undulator radiation, brightness and brilliance definition, synchrotron radiation facilities), x-ray free-electron lasers (linac-driven X-ray FEL, FEL interactions, self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), SASE self-seeding, fourth-generation light source facilities), and other X-ray sources (energy recovery linacs, Inverse Compton scattering, laser wakefield accelerator driven X-ray sources. In summary, accelerator-based light sources cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Synchrotron radiation (bending magnet, wiggler and undulator radiation) has unique properties that can be tailored to the users’ needs: bending magnet and wiggler radiation is broadband, undulator radiation has narrow spectral lines. X-ray FELs are the brightest coherent X-ray sources with high photon flux, femtosecond pulses, full transverse coherence, partial temporal coherence (SASE), and narrow spectral lines with seeding techniques. New developments in electron accelerators and radiation production can potentially lead to more compact sources of coherent X-rays.

  2. In Situ Studies of Surface Mobility on Noble Metal Model Catalysts Using STM and XPS at Ambient Pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, Derek Robert

    2010-06-14

    High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (HP-STM) and Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy were used to study the structural properties and catalytic behavior of noble metal surfaces at high pressure. HP-STM was used to study the structural rearrangement of the top most atomic surface layer of the metal surfaces in response to changes in gas pressure and reactive conditions. AP-XPS was applied to single crystal and nanoparticle systems to monitor changes in the chemical composition of the surface layer in response to changing gas conditions. STM studies on the Pt(100) crystal face showed the lifting of the Pt(100)-hex surface reconstruction in the presence of CO, H2, and Benzene. The gas adsorption and subsequent charge transfer relieves the surface strain caused by the low coordination number of the (100) surface atoms allowing the formation of a (1 x 1) surface structure commensurate with the bulk terminated crystal structure. The surface phase change causes a transformation of the surface layer from hexagonal packing geometry to a four-fold symmetric surface which is rich in atomic defects. Lifting the hex reconstruction at room temperature resulted in a surface structure decorated with 2-3 nm Pt adatom islands with a high density of step edge sites. Annealing the surface at a modest temperature (150 C) in the presence of a high pressure of CO or H{sub 2} increased the surface diffusion of the Pt atoms causing the adatom islands to aggregate reducing the surface concentration of low coordination defect sites. Ethylene hydrogenation was studied on the Pt(100) surface using HP-STM. At low pressure, the lifting of the hex reconstruction was observed in the STM images. Increasing the ethylene pressure to 1 Torr, was found to regenerate the hexagonally symmetric reconstructed phase. At room temperature ethylene undergoes a structural rearrangement to form ethylidyne. Ethylidyne preferentially binds at the three-fold hollow sites, which are present on

  3. Acronyms

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AF antiferromagnet, antiferromagnetic AFM atomic force microscopymicroscope AFRD ... Photon Source APXPS ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ARIA Accelerator ...

  4. Probing convex polygons with X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelsbrunner, H.; Skiena, S.S. )

    1988-10-01

    An X-ray probe through a polygon measures the length of intersection between a line and the polygon. This paper considers the properties of various classes of X-ray probes, and shows how they interact to give finite strategies for completely describing convex n-gons. It is shown that (3n/2)+6 probes are sufficient to verify a specified n-gon, while for determining convex polygons (3n-1)/2 X-ray probes are necessary and 5n+O(1) sufficient, with 3n+O(1) sufficient given that a lower bound on the size of the smallest edge of P is known.

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: X-ray vision

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Sandia-developed X-Ray Toolkit, or XTK, is a specialized X-ray visualization tool to help bomb disposal squads make fast, accurate, and precise assessments of potentially dangerous devices such as pipe bombs and IEDs. The image here, captured via the XTK software package using its unique image-stitching capability, shows the inner workings of a mock IED. Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS News X-ray vision By Nancy Salem Photography By Randy Montoya Thursday, September 01, 2016 Sandia, UNM

  6. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also presentmore » data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.« less

  7. Laser plasma x-ray source for ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miaja-Avila, L.; O'Neil, G. C.; Uhlig, J.; Cromer, C. L.; Dowell, M. L.; Jimenez, R.; Hoover, A. S.; Silverman, K. L.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-03-02

    We describe a laser-driven x-ray plasma source designed for ultrafast x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The source is comprised of a 1 kHz, 20 W, femtosecond pulsed infrared laser and a water target. We present the x-ray spectra as a function of laser energy and pulse duration. Additionally, we investigate the plasma temperature and photon flux as we vary the laser energy. We obtain a 75 μm FWHM x-ray spot size, containing ~106 photons/s, by focusing the produced x-rays with a polycapillary optic. Since the acquisition of x-ray absorption spectra requires the averaging of measurements from >107 laser pulses, we also present data on the source stability, including single pulse measurements of the x-ray yield and the x-ray spectral shape. In single pulse measurements, the x-ray flux has a measured standard deviation of 8%, where the laser pointing is the main cause of variability. Further, we show that the variability in x-ray spectral shape from single pulses is low, thus justifying the combining of x-rays obtained from different laser pulses into a single spectrum. Finally, we show a static x-ray absorption spectrum of a ferrioxalate solution as detected by a microcalorimeter array. Altogether, our results demonstrate that this water-jet based plasma source is a suitable candidate for laboratory-based time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments.

  8. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light ... wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of ...

  9. X-ray grid-detector apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boone, John M.; Lane, Stephen M.

    1998-01-27

    A hybrid grid-detector apparatus for x-ray systems wherein a microchannel plate structure has an air-interspaced grid portion and a phosphor/optical fluid-filled grid portion. The grids are defined by multiple adjacent channels separated by lead-glass septa. X-rays entering the air-interspaced grid portion at an angle of impingement upon the septa are attenuated, while non-impinging x-rays pass through to the phosphor/fluid filled portion. X-ray energy is converted to luminescent energy in the phosphor/fluid filled portion and the resultant beams of light are directed out of the phosphor/optical fluid filled portion to an imaging device.

  10. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, C.M.

    1994-12-20

    An x-ray source is described utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms. 6 figures.

  11. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http:spie.orgOP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA

  12. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., qmax/qmin approx=lO0.

  13. X-rays Illuminate Ancient Archimedes Text

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... DailyIndia.com: http:www.dailyindia.comshow48286.phpX-rays-illuminate-Archimedes-writings North Korea Times: http:story.northkoreatimes.comp.xct9ciddd8845aa60952db2id...

  14. X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Nanoimaging: Instruments and Methods To be held as part of SPIE. http://spie.org/OP318 August 28-29, 2013; San Diego, California, USA

  15. X-ray source for mammography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Logan, Clinton M.

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray source utilizing anode material which shifts the output spectrum to higher energy and thereby obtains higher penetrating ability for screening mammography application, than the currently utilized anode material. The currently used anode material (molybdenum) produces an energy x-ray spectrum of 17.5/19.6 keV, which using the anode material of this invention (e.g. silver, rhodium, and tungsten) the x-ray spectrum would be in the 20-35 keV region. Thus, the anode material of this invention provides for imaging of breasts with higher than average x-ray opacity without increase of the radiation dose, and thus reduces the risk of induced breast cancer due to the radiation dose administered for mammograms.

  16. X-ray image intensifier phosphor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1975-12-01

    Y/sub 1-x/Gd/sub x/.PO$sub 4$:Tb$sup 3+$ is an effective phosphor for use in X-ray intensifier screens and in nuclear radiation detection systems.

  17. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    be reconstructed by a single Fourier transform; this is known as Fourier transform holography. The problem of getting sufficiently coherent x-rays onto and off of the sample in a...

  18. Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pulses from a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source (4). ... We mitigate the problem of radiation damage in crystallography by using pulses briefer ...

  19. Optimization efforts in gated x-ray intensifiers (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimization efforts in gated x-ray intensifiers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Optimization efforts in gated x-ray intensifiers Gated x-ray intensifiers are often ...

  20. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Wednesday, 30 November 2005 00:00 Electron and x-ray...

  1. X-ray laser driven gold targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrova, Tz. B. Whitney, K. G.; Davis, J.

    2014-03-15

    The femtosecond population dynamics of gold irradiated by a coherent high-intensity (>10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) x-ray laser pulse is investigated theoretically. There are two aspects to the assembled model. One is the construction of a detailed model of platinum-like gold inclusive of all inner-shell states that are created by photoionization of atomic gold and decay either by radiative or Auger processes. Second is the computation of the population dynamics that ensues when an x-ray pulse is absorbed in gold. The hole state generation depends on the intensity and wavelength of the driving x-ray pulse. The excited state populations reached during a few femtosecond timescales are high enough to generate population inversions, whose gain coefficients are calculated. These amplified lines in the emitted x-ray spectrum provide important diagnostics of the radiation dynamics and also suggest a nonlinear way to increase the frequency of the coherent output x-ray pulses relative to the frequency of the driver input x-ray pulse.

  2. Compton backscattered collmated X-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    2000-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  3. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, R.D.; Huang, Z.

    1998-10-20

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source is disclosed for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications. 4 figs.

  4. Compton backscattered collimated x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruth, Ronald D.; Huang, Zhirong

    1998-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive and collimated x-ray source for applications such as x-ray lithography is disclosed. An intense pulse from a high power laser, stored in a high-finesse resonator, repetitively collides nearly head-on with and Compton backscatters off a bunched electron beam, having relatively low energy and circulating in a compact storage ring. Both the laser and the electron beams are tightly focused and matched at the interaction region inside the optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction not only gives rise to x-rays at the desired wavelength, but also cools and stabilizes the electrons against intrabeam scattering and Coulomb repulsion with each other in the storage ring. This cooling provides a compact, intense bunch of electrons suitable for many applications. In particular, a sufficient amount of x-rays can be generated by this device to make it an excellent and flexible Compton backscattered x-ray (CBX) source for high throughput x-ray lithography and many other applications.

  5. Ambient pressure process for preparing aerogel thin films reliquified sols useful in preparing aerogel thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, Charles Jeffrey; Prakash, Sai Sivasankaran

    1999-01-01

    A method for preparing aerogel thin films by an ambient-pressure, continuous process. The method of this invention obviates the use of an autoclave and is amenable to the formation of thin films by operations such as dip coating. The method is less energy intensive and less dangerous than conventional supercritical aerogel processing techniques.

  6. Kinetics of Methane Hydrate Decomposition Studied via in Situ Low Temperature X-ray Powder Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Susan M; Rawn, Claudia J; Keffer, David J.; Mull, Derek L; Payzant, E Andrew; Phelps, Tommy Joe

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrates are known to have a slowed decomposition rate at ambient pressure and temperatures below the melting point of ice termed self-preservation or anomalous preservation. As hydrate exothermically decomposes, gas is released and water of the clathrate cages transforms into ice. Two regions of slowed decomposition for methane hydrate, 180 200 K and 230 260 K, were observed, and the kinetics were studied by in situ low temperature x-ray powder diffraction. The kinetic constants for ice formation from methane hydrate were determined by the Avrami model within each region and activation energies, Ea, were determined by the Arrhenius plot. Ea determined from the data for 180 200 K was 42 kJ/mol and for 230 260 K was 22 kJ/mol. The higher Ea in the colder temperature range was attributed to a difference in the microstructure of ice between the two regions.

  7. X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization of Limestone Aggregate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for...

  8. Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Integrated X-ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals The elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals used in the Supersnout 2 X-ray ...

  9. Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae Prev Next Title: Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence ...

  10. A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    394 PPPL- 4394 A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of ... Fusion Links A spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer for measurement of ...

  11. Development of a Spatially Resolving X-Ray Crystal Spectrometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of a Spatially Resolving X-Ray Crystal Spectrometer For Measurement of ... Links Development of a spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer for measurement of ...

  12. Development Of a Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Development Of a Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer For ... Title: Development Of a Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer For Measurement Of ...

  13. Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for ...

  14. X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray transient absorption and picosecond IR spectroscopy of fulvalene(tetracarbonyl)diruthenium on photoexcitation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray transient ...

  15. Category:X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) page? For detailed information on...

  16. Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accepted Manuscript: Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields in ... September 3, 2016 Title: Direct synchrotron x-ray measurements of local strain fields in ...

  17. Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generation of Coherent X-Ray Radiation through Modulation Compression ...

  18. Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko ...

  19. Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ... Title: Experimental X-ray characterization of Gekko XII laser propagation through very low ...

  20. Transient x-ray diffraction and its application to materials science and x-ray optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, A.A.; Kopp, R.; Cobble, J.; Kyrala, G.; Springer, R.

    1997-12-01

    Time resolved x-ray diffraction and scattering have been applied to the measurement of a wide variety of physical phenomena from chemical reactions to shock wave physics. Interest in this method has heightened in recent years with the advent of versatile, high power, pulsed x-ray sources utilizing laser plasmas, electron beams and other methods. In this article, we will describe some of the fundamentals involved in time resolved x-ray diffraction, review some of the history of its development, and describe some recent progress in the field. In this article we will emphasize the use of laser-plasmas as the x-ray source for transient diffraction.

  1. Influence of structural disorder on soft x-ray optical behavior of NbC thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Amol E-mail: rrcat.amol@gmail.com; Modi, Mohammed H.; Sinha, A. K.; Lodha, G. S.; Rajput, Parasmani

    2015-05-07

    Structural and chemical properties of compound materials are modified, when thin films are formed from bulk materials. To understand these changes, a study was pursued on niobium carbide (NbC) thin films of different thicknesses deposited on Si (100) substrate using ion beam sputtering technique. Optical response of the film was measured in 4–36 nm wavelength region using Indus-1 reflectivity beamline. A discrepancy in soft x-ray performance of NbC film was observed which could not be explained with Henke's tabulated data (see http://henke.lbl.gov/optical{sub c}onstants/ ). In order to understand this, detailed structural and chemical investigations were carried out using x-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, x-ray absorption near edge structure, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. It was found that the presence of unreacted carbon and Nb deficiency due to reduced Nb-Nb coordination are responsible for lower soft x-ray reflectivity performance. NbC is an important material for soft x-ray optical devices, hence the structural disorder need to be controlled to achieve the best performances.

  2. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Itl, E.; Kooser, K.; Rachlew, E.; Huels, M. A.; Kukk, E.

    2014-06-21

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the CC{sub ?} bond and the presence of the CNH{sub 2}{sup +} fragment.

  3. Ultrafast X-Ray Coherent Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reis, David

    2009-05-01

    This main purpose of this grant was to develop the nascent #12;eld of ultrafast x-ray science using accelerator-based sources, and originally developed from an idea that a laser could modulate the di#11;racting properties of a x-ray di#11;racting crystal on a fast enough time scale to switch out in time a shorter slice from the already short x-ray pulses from a synchrotron. The research was carried out primarily at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) sector 7 at Argonne National Laboratory and the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at SLAC; in anticipation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser that became operational in 2009 at SLAC (all National User Facilities operated by BES). The research centered on the generation, control and measurement of atomic-scale dynamics in atomic, molecular optical and condensed matter systems with temporal and spatial resolution . It helped develop the ultrafast physics, techniques and scienti#12;c case for using the unprecedented characteristics of the LCLS. The project has been very successful with results have been disseminated widely and in top journals, have been well cited in the #12;eld, and have laid the foundation for many experiments being performed on the LCLS, the world's #12;rst hard x-ray free electron laser.

  4. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, M.S.; Jacobsen, C.

    1997-03-18

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 {micro}m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holographic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required. 15 figs.

  5. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howells, Malcolm S.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1997-01-01

    Methods for forming X-ray images having 0.25 .mu.m minimum line widths on X-ray sensitive material are presented. A holgraphic image of a desired circuit pattern is projected onto a wafer or other image-receiving substrate to allow recording of the desired image in photoresist material. In one embodiment, the method uses on-axis transmission and provides a high flux X-ray source having modest monochromaticity and coherence requirements. A layer of light-sensitive photoresist material on a wafer with a selected surface is provided to receive the image(s). The hologram has variable optical thickness and variable associated optical phase angle and amplitude attenuation for transmission of the X-rays. A second embodiment uses off-axis holography. The wafer receives the holographic image by grazing incidence reflection from a hologram printed on a flat metal or other highly reflecting surface or substrate. In this second embodiment, an X-ray beam with a high degree of monochromaticity and spatial coherence is required.

  6. Soft X-Ray Spectroscopic Study of Dense Strontium-Doped Lanthanum Manganite Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L Piper; A Preston; S Cho; A DeMasi; J Laverock; K Smith; L Miara; J Davis; S Basu; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The evolution of the Mn charge state, chemical composition, and electronic structure of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO) cathodes during the catalytic activation of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has been studies using X-ray spectroscopy of as-processed, exposed, and activated dense thin LSMO films. Comparison of O K-edge and Mn L{sub 3,2}-edge X-ray absorption spectra from the different stages of LSMO cathodes revealed that the largest change after the activation occurred in the Mn charge state with little change in the oxygen environment. Core-level X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and Mn L{sub 3} resonant photoemission spectroscopy studies of exposed and as-processed LSMO determined that the SOFC environment (800 C ambient pressure of O{sub 2}) alone results in La deficiency (severest near the surface with Sr doping >0.55) and a stronger Mn{sup 4+} contribution, leading to the increased insulating character of the cathode prior to activation. Meanwhile, O K-edge X-ray absorption measurements support Sr/La enrichment nearer the surface, along with the formation of mixed Sr{sub x}Mn{sub y}O{sub z} and/or passive MnO{sub x} and SrO species.

  7. X-Ray Data from the X-Ray Data Booklet Online

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Thompson, Albert C.; Attwood, David T.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Underwood, James H.; Kim, Kwang-Je; Kirz, Janos; Lindau, Ingolf; Pianetta, Piero; Winick, Herman; Williams, Gwyn P.; Scofield, James H.

    The original X-Ray Data Booklet, published in 1985, became a classic reference source. The online version has been significantly revised and updated to reflect today's science. Hundreds of pages of authoritative data provide the x-ray properties of elements, information on synchrotron radiation, scattering processes, optics and detectors, and other related calculations, formulas, and data tables.

  8. PROPX: An X-ray Manipulation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyrala, G.A.

    1992-05-01

    An interactive micro-computer program that performs some manipulations on an input x-ray spectrum is introduced and described. The program is used to calculate the effect of absorption of filters, transmission through fibers, responsivity of photocathodes, responsivity of absorptive detectors, folding of responses, plotting of cross sections, and calculation, as a function of electron temperature, of the response due to a bremsstrahlung spectrum. Fluorescence from the targets is not included. Two different x-ray libraries are offered, one covers the x-ray range 30--10,000 eV with 288 energy points, and the other covers the energy range 10 eV to 1 MeV with 250 energy points per decade. 7 refs.

  9. Differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stutman, Daniel; Finkenthal, Michael

    2014-07-01

    A differential phase contrast X-ray imaging system includes an X-ray illumination system, a beam splitter arranged in an optical path of the X-ray illumination system, and a detection system arranged in an optical path to detect X-rays after passing through the beam splitter.

  10. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Rosser, R.

    1993-01-05

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  11. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, Szymon; Skinner, Charles H.; Rosser, Roy

    1993-01-01

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  12. Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thuering, T.; Stampanoni, M.; Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich ; Barber, W. C.; Iwanczyk, J. S.; Seo, Y.; Alhassen, F.

    2013-05-13

    Although compatible with polychromatic radiation, the sensitivity in X-ray phase contrast imaging with a grating interferometer is strongly dependent on the X-ray spectrum. We used an energy resolving detector to quantitatively investigate the dependency of the noise from the spectral bandwidth and to consequently optimize the system-by selecting the best energy band matching the experimental conditions-with respect to sensitivity maximization and, eventually, dose. Further, since theoretical calculations of the spectrum are usually limited due to non-ideal conditions, an energy resolving detector accurately quantifies the spectral changes induced by the interferometer including flux reduction and beam hardening.

  13. Radiobiological studies using gamma and x rays.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, Charles Augustus; Longley, Susan W.; Scott, Bobby R. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Yong [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Wilder, Julie [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Hutt, Julie A. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Padilla, Mabel T. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM; Gott, Katherine M. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM

    2013-02-01

    There are approximately 500 self-shielded research irradiators used in various facilities throughout the U.S. These facilities use radioactive sources containing either 137Cs or 60Co for a variety of biological investigations. A report from the National Academy of Sciences[1] described the issues with security of particular radiation sources and the desire for their replacement. The participants in this effort prepared two peer-reviewed publications to document the results of radiobiological studies performed using photons from 320-kV x rays and 137Cs on cell cultures and mice. The effectiveness of X rays was shown to vary with cell type.

  14. X-ray focal spot locating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Hubert W.

    1985-07-30

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  15. Local X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of Fe/Cu(111) using a tunneling smart tip

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    DiLullo, Andrew; Shirato, Nozomi; Cummings, Marvin; Kersell, Heath; Chang, Hao; Rosenmann, Daniel; Miller, Dean; Freeland, John W.; Hla, Saw -Wai; Rose, Volker

    2016-01-28

    Localized spectroscopy with simultaneous topographic, elemental and magnetic information is presented. A synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscope has been employed for the local study of the X-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the FeL2,3-edges of a thin iron film grown on Cu(111). Polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra have been obtained through a tunneling smart tip that serves as a photoelectron detector. In contrast to conventional spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray excitations provide magnetic contrast even with a non-magnetic tip. Intensity variations in the photoexcited tip current point to chemical variations within a single magnetic Fe domain.

  16. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focusing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points. 3 figs.

  17. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering Detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hessler, Jan P.

    2004-06-15

    A detector for time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering includes a nearly constant diameter, evacuated linear tube having an end plate detector with a first fluorescent screen and concentric rings of first fiber optic bundles for low angle scattering detection and an annular detector having a second fluorescent screen and second fiber optic bundles concentrically disposed about the tube for higher angle scattering detection. With the scattering source, i.e., the specimen under investigation, located outside of the evacuated tube on the tube's longitudinal axis, scattered x-rays are detected by the fiber optic bundles, to each of which is coupled a respective photodetector, to provide a measurement resolution, i.e., dq/q, where q is the momentum transferred from an incident x-ray to an x-ray scattering specimen, of 2% over two (2) orders of magnitude in reciprocal space, i.e., q.sub.max /q.sub.min.congruent.100.

  18. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, Peter A.

    1992-11-17

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focussing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points.

  19. SLAC All Access: X-ray Microscope

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Nelson, Johanna; Liu, Yijin

    2014-06-13

    SLAC physicists Johanna Nelson and Yijin Liu give a brief overview of the X-ray microscope at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that is helping improve rechargeable-battery technology by letting researchers peek into the inner workings of batteries as they operate.

  20. X-ray spectroscopy of manganese clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grush, M.M.

    1996-06-01

    Much of this thesis represents the groundwork necessary in order to probe Mn clusters more productively than with conventional Mn K-edge XAS and is presented in Part 1. Part 2 contains the application of x-ray techniques to Mn metalloproteins and includes a prognosis at the end of each chapter. Individual Mn oxidation states are more readily distinguishable in Mn L-edge spectra. An empirical mixed valence simulation routine for determining the average Mn oxidation state has been developed. The first Mn L-edge spectra of a metalloprotein were measured and interpreted. The energy of Mn K{beta} emission is strongly correlated with average Mn oxidation state. K{beta} results support oxidation states of Mn(III){sub 2}(IV){sub 2} for the S{sub 1} state of Photosystem II chemical chemically reduced preparations contain predominantly Mn(II). A strength and limitation of XAS is that it probes all of the species of a particular element in a sample. It would often be advantageous to selectively probe different forms of the same element. The first demonstration that chemical shifts in x-ray fluorescence energies can be used to obtain oxidation state-selective x-ray absorption spectra is presented. Spin-dependent spectra can also be used to obtain a more simplified picture of local structure. The first spin-polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure using Mn K{beta} fluorescence detection is shown.

  1. Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A.; Aquila, Andrew; Schulz, Joachim; DePonte, Daniel P.; Martin, Andrew V.; Coppola, Nicola; Liang, Mengning; Caleman, Carl; Gumprecht, Lars; Stern, Stephan; Nass, Karol; Fromme, Petra; Hunter, Mark S.; Grotjohann, Ingo; Fromme, Raimund; Kirian, Richard A.; Weierstall, Uwe; Doak, R. Bruce; Schmidt, Kevin E.; Wang, Xiaoyu; Spence, John C. H.; Schlichting, Ilme; Epp, Sascha W.; Rolles, Daniel; Rudenko, Artem; Foucar, Lutz; Rudek, Benedikt; Erk, Benjamin; Schmidt, Carlo; Hömke, André; Strüder, Lothar; Ullrich, Joachim; Krasniqi, Faton; Lomb, Lukas; Shoeman, Robert L.; Bott, Mario; Barends, Thomas R. M.; Kuhnel, Kai-Uwe; Schroter, Claus-Dieter; Hartmann, Robert; Holl, Peter; Reich, Christian; Soltau, Heike; Kimmel, Nils; Weidenspointner, Georg; Pietschner, Daniel; Hauser, Günter; Herrmann, Sven; Schaller, Gerhard; Schopper, Florian; Andritschke, Robert; Boutet, Sébastien; Krzywinski, Jacek; Bostedt, Christoph; Messerschmidt, Marc; Bozek, John D.; Williams, Garth J.; Bogan, Michael J.; Hampton, Christina Y.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Starodub, Dmitri; Gorke, Hubert; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Frank, Matthias; Maia, Filipe R. N. C.; Hajdu, Janos; Timneanu, Nicusor; Seibert, M. Marvin; Andreasson, Jakob; Rocker, Andrea; Jönsson, Olof; Svenda, Martin; Holton, James M.; Marchesini, Stefano; Neutze, Richard; Schorb, Sebastian; Rupp, Daniela; Adolph, Marcus; Gorkhover, Tais; Andersson, Inger; Barthelmess, Miriam; Bajt, Saša; Hirsemann, Helmut; Potdevin, Guillaume; Graafsma, Heinz; Nilsson, Björn

    2011-02-03

    X-ray crystallography provides the vast majority of macromolecular structures, but the success of the method relies on growing crystals of sufficient size. In conventional measurements, the necessary increase in X-ray dose to record data from crystals that are too small leads to extensive damage before a diffraction signal can be recorded. It is particularly challenging to obtain large, well-diffracting crystals of membrane proteins, for which fewer than 300 unique structures have been determined despite their importance in all living cells. Here we present a method for structure determination where single-crystal X-ray diffraction ‘snapshots’ are collected from a fully hydrated stream of nanocrystals using femtosecond pulses from a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source. We prove this concept with nanocrystals of photosystem I, one of the largest membrane protein complexes. More than 3,000,000 diffraction patterns were collected in this study, and a three-dimensional data set was assembled from individual photosystem I nanocrystals (~200 nm to 2 μm in size). We mitigate the problem of radiation damage in crystallography by using pulses briefer than the timescale of most damage processes. This offers a new approach to structure determination of macromolecules that do not yield crystals of sufficient size for studies using conventional radiation sources or are particularly sensitive to radiation damage.

  2. Emission features and expansion dynamics of nanosecond laser ablation plumes at different ambient pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farid, N.; Harilal, S. S. Hassanein, A.; Ding, H.

    2014-01-21

    The influence of ambient pressure on the spectral emission features and expansion dynamics of a plasma plume generated on a metal target has been investigated. The plasma plumes were generated by irradiating Cu targets using 6?ns, 1064?nm pulses from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The emission and expansion dynamics of the plasma plumes were studied by varying air ambient pressure levels ranging from vacuum to atmospheric pressure. The ambient pressure levels were found to affect both the line intensities and broadening along with the signal to background and signal to noise ratios and the optimum pressure conditions for analytical applications were evaluated. The characteristic plume parameters were estimated using emission spectroscopy means and noticed that the excitation temperature peaked ?300?Torr, while the electron density showed a maximum ?100?Torr. Fast-gated images showed a complex interaction between the plume and background air leading to changes in the plume geometry with pressure as well as time. Surface morphology of irradiated surface showed that the pressure of the ambient gas affects the laser-target coupling significantly.

  3. Density of hydrophobically confined deeply cooled water investigated by small angle X-ray scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Zhang, Yang; Jeng, U-Ser; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2015-09-07

    The behavior of water near hydrophobic surfaces has attracted great attention due to chemical and geological applications. Here, we report small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of water confined in the hydrophobic nanoporous carbon material, CMK-1-14, from ambient to deeply cooled temperatures. Moreover, by monitoring the scattering intensity of the first Bragg peak, which is directly related to the scattering length density contrast between the carbon matrix and the confined water, the average density of the hydrophobically confined water was determined from 300 K to 150 K at ambient pressure. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction measurements showed thatmore » the majority of such hydrophobically confined water did not crystallize in the investigated temperature range. By exploiting the fast speed of SAXS measurements and the continuous temperature ramping, the average density profile and the deduced thermal expansion coefficient (alpha(p)) were obtained. We found that the well-known density maximum of water at 277 K downshifted to 260 K, and the density minimum which has been observed in hydrophilic confinement disappeared. Additionally, the previously measured large density decreasing of 18% at low temperature was recalibrated to a more reasonable 10% instead. Consequently, the recalculated ap peak was found to be quite similar to that of the water confined in hydrophilic MCM-41-S-15 suggesting an intrinsic property of water, which does not sensitively depend on the confinement surface.« less

  4. Density of hydrophobically confined deeply cooled water investigated by small angle X-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Zhang, Yang; Jeng, U-Ser; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2015-09-07

    The behavior of water near hydrophobic surfaces has attracted great attention due to chemical and geological applications. Here, we report small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of water confined in the hydrophobic nanoporous carbon material, CMK-1-14, from ambient to deeply cooled temperatures. Moreover, by monitoring the scattering intensity of the first Bragg peak, which is directly related to the scattering length density contrast between the carbon matrix and the confined water, the average density of the hydrophobically confined water was determined from 300 K to 150 K at ambient pressure. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the majority of such hydrophobically confined water did not crystallize in the investigated temperature range. By exploiting the fast speed of SAXS measurements and the continuous temperature ramping, the average density profile and the deduced thermal expansion coefficient (alpha(p)) were obtained. We found that the well-known density maximum of water at 277 K downshifted to 260 K, and the density minimum which has been observed in hydrophilic confinement disappeared. Additionally, the previously measured large density decreasing of 18% at low temperature was recalibrated to a more reasonable 10% instead. Consequently, the recalculated ap peak was found to be quite similar to that of the water confined in hydrophilic MCM-41-S-15 suggesting an intrinsic property of water, which does not sensitively depend on the confinement surface.

  5. Density of hydrophobically confined deeply cooled water investigated by small angle X-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Kao-Hsiang; Zhang, Yang; Jeng, U-Ser; Mou, Chung-Yuan

    2015-09-07

    Water’s behavior near hydrophobic surfaces has attracted great attention due to chemical and geological applications. Here, we report small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) studies of water confined in the hydrophobic nanoporous carbon material, CMK-1-14, from ambient to deeply cooled temperatures. By monitoring the scattering intensity of the first Bragg peak, which is directly related to the scattering length density contrast between the carbon matrix and the confined water, the average density of the hydrophobically confined water was determined from 300 K to 150 K at ambient pressure. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the majority of such hydrophobically confined water did not crystallize in the investigated temperature range. By exploiting the fast speed of SAXS measurements and the continuous temperature ramping, the average density profile and the deduced thermal expansion coefficient (α{sub p}) were obtained. We found that the well-known density maximum of water at 277 K downshifted to 260 K, and the density minimum which has been observed in hydrophilic confinement disappeared. In addition, the previously measured large density decreasing of 18% at low temperature was recalibrated to a more reasonable 10% instead. Consequently, the recalculated α{sub p} peak was found to be quite similar to that of the water confined in hydrophilic MCM-41-S-15 suggesting an intrinsic property of water, which does not sensitively depend on the confinement surface.

  6. Photoelectronic characterization of heterointerfaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brumbach, Michael Todd

    2012-02-01

    In many devices such as solar cells, light emitting diodes, transistors, etc., the performance relies on the electronic structure at interfaces between materials within the device. The objective of this work was to perform robust characterization of hybrid (organic/inorganic) interfaces by tailoring the interfacial region for photoelectron spectroscopy. Self-assembled monolayers (SAM) were utilized to induce dipoles of various magnitudes at the interface. Additionally, SAMs of molecules with varying dipolar characteristics were mixed into spatially organized structures to systematically vary the apparent work function. Polymer thin films were characterized by depositing films of varying thicknesses on numerous substrates with and without interfacial modifications. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) was performed to evaluate a buried interface between indium tin oxide (ITO), treated under various conditions, and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). Conducting polymer films were found to be sufficiently conducting such that no significant charge redistribution in the polymer films was observed. Consequently, a further departure from uniform substrates was taken whereby electrically disconnected regions of the substrate presented ideally insulating interfacial contacts. In order to accomplish this novel strategy, interdigitated electrodes were used as the substrate. Conducting fingers of one half of the electrodes were electrically grounded while the other set of electrodes were electronically floating. This allowed for the evaluation of substrate charging on photoelectron spectra (SCOPES) in the presence of overlying semiconducting thin films. Such an experiment has never before been reported. This concept was developed out of the previous experiments on interfacial modification and thin film depositions and presents new opportunities for understanding chemical and electronic changes in a multitude of materials and interfaces.

  7. Principles of femtosecond X-ray/optical cross-correlation with X-ray induced transient optical reflectivity in solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, S. E-mail: martin.beye@helmholtz-berlin.de; Beye, M. E-mail: martin.beye@helmholtz-berlin.de; Pietzsch, A.; Quevedo, W.; Hantschmann, M.; Ochmann, M.; Huse, N.; Ross, M.; Khalil, M.; Minitti, M. P.; Turner, J. J.; Moeller, S. P.; Schlotter, W. F.; Dakovski, G. L.; Föhlisch, A.

    2015-02-09

    The discovery of ultrafast X-ray induced optical reflectivity changes enabled the development of X-ray/optical cross correlation techniques at X-ray free electron lasers worldwide. We have now linked through experiment and theory the fundamental excitation and relaxation steps with the transient optical properties in finite solid samples. Therefore, we gain a thorough interpretation and an optimized detection scheme of X-ray induced changes to the refractive index and the X-ray/optical cross correlation response.

  8. Neutron and X-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carini, Gabriella; Denes, Peter; Gruener, Sol; Lessner, Elianne

    2012-08-01

    The Basic Energy Sciences (BES) X-ray and neutron user facilities attract more than 12,000 researchers each year to perform cutting-edge science at these state-of-the-art sources. While impressive breakthroughs in X-ray and neutron sources give us the powerful illumination needed to peer into the nano- to mesoscale world, a stumbling block continues to be the distinct lag in detector development, which is slowing progress toward data collection and analysis. Urgently needed detector improvements would reveal chemical composition and bonding in 3-D and in real time, allow researchers to watch “movies” of essential life processes as they happen, and make much more efficient use of every X-ray and neutron produced by the source The immense scientific potential that will come from better detectors has triggered worldwide activity in this area. Europe in particular has made impressive strides, outpacing the United States on several fronts. Maintaining a vital U.S. leadership in this key research endeavor will require targeted investments in detector R&D and infrastructure. To clarify the gap between detector development and source advances, and to identify opportunities to maximize the scientific impact of BES user facilities, a workshop on Neutron and X-ray Detectors was held August 1-3, 2012, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Participants from universities, national laboratories, and commercial organizations from the United States and around the globe participated in plenary sessions, breakout groups, and joint open-discussion summary sessions. Sources have become immensely more powerful and are now brighter (more particles focused onto the sample per second) and more precise (higher spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution). To fully utilize these source advances, detectors must become faster, more efficient, and more discriminating. In supporting the mission of today’s cutting-edge neutron and X-ray sources, the workshop identified six detector research challenges

  9. X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for extended X-ray sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraenkel, Ben; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, A. Lane; Stodiek, Wolfgang; von Goeler, Schweickhard E.

    2001-01-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokomak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters using the imaging properties for Bragg angles near 45. For a Bragg angle of 45.degree., the spherical crystal focuses a bundle of near parallel X-rays (the cross section of which is determined by the cross section of the crystal) from the plasma to a point on a detector, with parallel rays inclined to the main plain of diffraction focused to different points on the detector. Thus, it is possible to radially image the plasma X-ray emission in different wavelengths simultaneously with a single crystal.

  10. X-RAY POINT-SOURCE POPULATIONS CONSTITUTING THE GALACTIC RIDGE X-RAY EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morihana, Kumiko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Ken [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)] [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshino-dai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Yoshida, Tessei, E-mail: morihana@crab.riken.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2013-03-20

    Apparently diffuse X-ray emission has been known to exist along the central quarter of the Galactic Plane since the beginning of X-ray astronomy; this is referred to as the Galactic Ridge X-ray emission (GRXE). Recent deep X-ray observations have shown that numerous X-ray point sources account for a large fraction of the GRXE in the hard band (2-8 keV). However, the nature of these sources is poorly understood. Using the deepest X-ray observations made in the Chandra bulge field, we present the result of a coherent photometric and spectroscopic analysis of individual X-ray point sources for the purpose of constraining their nature and deriving their fractional contributions to the hard-band continuum and Fe K line emission of the GRXE. Based on the X-ray color-color diagram, we divided the point sources into three groups: A (hard), B (soft and broad spectrum), and C (soft and peaked spectrum). The group A sources are further decomposed spectrally into thermal and non-thermal sources with different fractions in different flux ranges. From their X-ray properties, we speculate that the group A non-thermal sources are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf (WD) binaries such as magnetic and non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), pre-CVs, and symbiotic stars, whereas the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flares and quiescence, respectively. In the log N-log S curve of the 2-8 keV band, the group A non-thermal sources are dominant above Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is gradually taken over by Galactic sources in the fainter flux ranges. The Fe K{alpha} emission is mostly from the group A thermal (WD binaries) and the group B (X-ray active stars) sources.

  11. Rise time measurement for ultrafast X-ray pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  12. Rise Time Measurement for Ultrafast X-Ray Pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Celliers, Peter M.; Weber, Franz A.; Moon, Stephen J.

    2005-04-05

    A pump-probe scheme measures the rise time of ultrafast x-ray pulses. Conventional high speed x-ray diagnostics (x-ray streak cameras, PIN diodes, diamond PCD devices) do not provide sufficient time resolution to resolve rise times of x-ray pulses on the order of 50 fs or less as they are being produced by modern fast x-ray sources. Here, we are describing a pump-probe technique that can be employed to measure events where detector resolution is insufficient to resolve the event. The scheme utilizes a diamond plate as an x-ray transducer and a p-polarized probe beam.

  13. X-ray radiography for container inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Jonathan I.; Morris, Christopher L.

    2011-06-07

    Arrangements of X-ray inspection systems are described for inspecting high-z materials in voluminous objects such as containers. Inspection methods may involve generating a radiographic image based on detected attenuation corresponding to a pulsed beams of radiation transmitted through a voluminous object. The pulsed beams of radiation are generated by a high-energy source and transmitted substantially downward along an incident angle, of approximately 1.degree. to 30.degree., to a vertical axis extending through the voluminous object. The generated radiographic image may be analyzed to detect on localized high attenuation representative of high-z materials and to discriminate high-z materials from lower and intermediate-z materials on the basis of the high density and greater attenuation of high-z material for higher energy (3-10 MeV) X-rays, and the compact nature of threatening masses of fissionable materials.

  14. Ultrashort x-ray backlighters and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umstadter, D., University of Michigan

    1997-08-01

    Previously, using ultrashort laser pulses focused onto solid targets, we have experimentally studied a controllable ultrafast broadband radiation source in the extreme ultraviolet for time-resolved dynamical studies in ultrafast science [J. Workman, A. Maksimchuk, X. Llu, U. Ellenberger, J. S. Coe, C.-Y. Chien, and D. Umstadter, ``Control of Bright Picosecond X-Ray Emission from Intense Sub- Picosecond Laser-Plasma Interactions,`` Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2324 (1995)]. Once armed with a bright ultrafast broadband continuum x-ray source and appropriate detectors, we used the source as a backlighter to study a remotely produced plasma. The application of the source to a problem relevant to high-density matter completes the triad: creating and controlling, efficiently detecting, and applying the source. This work represented the first use of an ultrafast laser- produced x-ray source as a time-resolving probe in an application relevant to atomic, plasma and high-energy-density matter physics. Using the x-ray source as a backlighter, we adopted a pump-probe geometry to investigate the dynamic changes in electronic structure of a thin metallic film as it is perturbed by an ultrashort laser pulse. Because the laser deposits its energy in a skin depth of about 100 {Angstrom} before expansion occurs, up to gigabar pressure shock waves lasting picosecond in duration have been predicted to form in these novel plasmas. This raises the possibility of studying high- energy-density matter relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and astrophysics in small-scale laboratory experiments. In the past, time-resolved measurements of K-edge shifts in plasmas driven by nanosecond pulses have been used to infer conditions in highly compressed materials. In this study, we used 100-fs laser pulses to impulsively drive shocks into a sample (an untamped 1000 {Angstrom} aluminum film on 2000 {Angstrom} of parylene-n), measuring L-edge shifts.

  15. Sample holder for X-ray diffractometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hesch, Victor L.

    1992-01-01

    A sample holder for use with X-ray diffractometers with the capability to rotate the sample, as well as to adjust the position of the sample in the x, y, and z directions. Adjustment in the x direction is accomplished through loosening set screws, moving a platform, and retightening the set screws. Motion translators are used for adjustment in the y and z directions. An electric motor rotates the sample, and receives power from the diffractometer.

  16. Interatomic scattering in energy dependent photoelectron spectra of Ar clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patanen, M.; Benkoula, S.; Nicolas, C.; Goel, A.; Antonsson, E.; Neville, J. J.; Miron, C.

    2015-09-28

    Soft X-ray photoelectron spectra of Ar 2p levels of atomic argon and argon clusters are recorded over an extended range of photon energies. The Ar 2p intensity ratios between atomic argon and clusters’ surface and bulk components reveal oscillations similar to photoelectron extended X-ray absorption fine structure signal (PEXAFS). We demonstrate here that this technique allows us to analyze separately the PEXAFS signals from surface and bulk sites of free-standing, neutral clusters, revealing a bond contraction at the surface.

  17. TU-A-9A-07: X-Ray Acoustic Computed Tomography (XACT): 100% Sensitivity to X-Ray Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, L; Ahmad, M; Nikoozadeh, A; Pratx, G; Khuri-Yakub, B; Xing, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To assess whether X-ray acoustic computed tomography (XACT) is more sensitive to X-ray absorption than that of the conventional X-ray imaging. Methods: First, a theoretical model was built to analyze the X-ray absorption sensitivity of XACT imaging and conventional X-ray imaging. Second, an XACT imaging system was developed to evaluate the X-ray induced acoustic signal generation as well as the sensitivity improvement over transmission x-ray imaging. Ultra-short x-ray pulses (60-nanosecond) were generated from an X-ray source operated at the energy of 150 kVp with a 10-Hz repetition rate. The X-ray pulse was synchronized with the acoustic detection via a x-ray scintillation triggering to acquire the X-ray induced acoustic signal. Results: Theoretical analysis shows that X-ray induced acoustic signal is sensitive only to the X-ray absorption, while completely insensitive to out the X-ray scattering and fluorescence. XACT has reduced background and increased contrast-to-noise ratio, and therefore has increased sensitivity compared to transmission x-ray imaging. For a 50-μm size, gadolinium insertion in tissue exposed to 40 keV X-rays; the sensitivity of XACT imaging is about 28.9 times higher than that of conventional X-ray imaging. Conclusion: X-ray acoustic computer tomography (XACT) as a new imaging modality combines X-ray absorption contrast and high ultrasonic resolution in a single modality. It is feasible to improve the imaging sensitivity with XACT imaging compared with conventional X-ray imaging. Taking advantage of the high ultrasonic resolution, it is possible to perform 3-D imaging with a single x-ray pulse with arrays of transducers without any mechanical motion of the imaging system. This single-shot capability offers the potential of reducing radiation dose by a factor of 1000, and imaging 100 times faster when compared to the conventional X-ray CT, and thus revolutionizing x-ray imaging applications in medicine and biology. The authors

  18. NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  19. Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enabling X-ray free electron laser crystallography for challenging biological systems from a limited number of crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enabling X-ray ...

  20. NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary (Technical Report) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NIF and OMEGA X-Ray Environments Summary Abstract not provided. Authors: Fournier, K. B. 1 + ...

  1. A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-temperature and ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal ...

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray crystallographic studies of Drep-3, a DFF-related protein from Drosophila melanogaster Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Crystallization and preliminary X-ray ...

  3. Structure and Reactivity of X-ray Amorphous Uranyl Peroxide,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Structure and Reactivity of X-ray Amorphous Uranyl Peroxide, U 2 O 7 Prev Next Title: Structure and Reactivity of X-ray Amorphous Uranyl Peroxide, U 2 O 7 ...

  4. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in...

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing...

  6. Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering | Advanced Photon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & workshops IXN Group Useful Links Current APS status ESAF System GUP System X-Ray Science Division My APS Portal Sector 3 : High Resolution X-ray Scattering Sector 3 is...

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XSD-IXN XSD-IXN Home Staff Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering The Inelastic X-ray and Nuclear Resonant Scattering group operates beamlines at APS Sectors 3, 9 and 30....

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    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XSD Groups XSD Safety and Training XSD Strategic Plan XSD Visitor Program XSD Intranet X-ray Science Division (XSD) XSD enables world-class research using x-rays by developing...

  9. ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis ALS X-Rays Shine a New Light on Catalysis Print Thursday, 21 May 2015 11:16 Electrocatalysts are responsible for expediting reactions in...

  10. X-ray photonic microsystems for the manipulation of synchrotron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (MEMS) when combined with micro-optics have found a wide range of photonics applications. ... for X-rays, a new generation of photonics microsystems for X-ray wavelengths will ...

  11. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in ...

  12. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    While x-ray transparency will have immediate applications at x-ray light sources, the important result is that the findings lay a foundation for a broader spectrum of applications. ...

  13. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing ...

  14. X-ray imaging of Nonlinear Resonant Gyrotropic Magnetic Vortex...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray imaging of Nonlinear Resonant Gyrotropic Magnetic Vortex Core Motion in Circular Permalloy Disks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray imaging of Nonlinear ...

  15. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  16. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  17. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  18. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  19. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  20. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  1. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  2. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  3. X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy of Magnetic Structures Print science brief icon Scientists working at ALS Beamline 12.0.2.2 have demonstrated a new x-ray technique for producing short-exposure nanoscale images of the magnetic structure of materials. The new method combines aspects of coherent x-ray diffraction, which can determine 3-D charge distributions, and resonant magnetic scattering, which is sensitive to magnetic structures. Physicists have used coherent x-ray diffraction to measure the

  4. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  5. Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Imaging by Soft X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy Print Electron and x-ray microscopes are a valuable tool for both the life and materials sciences, but they are limited in their ability to image with nanometer-scale resolution in three dimensions nonperiodic objects that are several microns in size. To fill this gap, the technique of coherent x-ray diffraction imaging now under development takes advantage of the penetrating power of x rays while simultaneously removing the limitations

  6. Femtosecond laser-electron x-ray source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Barty, Chris P.; Gibson, David J.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2004-04-20

    A femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source. A high-brightness relativistic electron injector produces an electron beam pulse train. A system accelerates the electron beam pulse train. The femtosecond laser-electron X-ray source includes a high intra-cavity power, mode-locked laser and an x-ray optics system.

  7. X-Ray Interactions with Matter from the Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Henke, B. L.; Gullikson, E. M.; Davis, J. C.

    The primary interactions of low-energy x-rays within condensed matter, viz. photoabsorption and coherent scattering, are described for photon energies outside the absorption threshold regions by using atomic scattering factors. The atomic scattering factors may be accurately determined from the atomic photoabsorption cross sections using modified Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations. From a synthesis of the currently available experimental data and recent theoretical calculations for photoabsorption, the angle-independent, forward-scattering components of the atomic scattering factors have been thus semiempirically determined and tabulated here for 92 elements and for the region 50-30,000 eV. Atomic scattering factors for all angles of coherent scattering and at the higher photon energies are obtained from these tabulated forward-scattering values by adding a simple angle-dependent form-factor correction. The incoherent scattering contributions that become significant for the light elements at the higher photon energies are similarly determined. The basic x-ray interaction relations that are used in applied x-ray physics are presented here in terms of the atomic scattering factors. The bulk optical constants are also related to the atomic scattering factors. These atomic and optical relations are applied to the detailed calculation of the reflectivity characteristics of a series of practical x-ray mirror, multilayer, and crystal monochromators. Comparisons of the results of this semiempirical,"atom-like", description of x-ray interactions for the low-energy region with those of experiment and ab initio theory are presented.

  8. Vacuum space charge effects in sub-picosecond soft X-ray photoemission on a molecular adsorbate layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dell'Angela, M.; Anniyev, T.; Beye, M.; Coffee, R.; Föhlisch, A.; Gladh, J.; Kaya, S.; Katayama, T.; Krupin, O.; Nilsson, A.; et al

    2015-03-01

    Vacuum space charge-induced kinetic energy shifts of O 1s and Ru 3d core levels in femtosecond soft X-ray photoemission spectra (PES) have been studied at a free electron laser (FEL) for an oxygen layer on Ru(0001). We fully reproduced the measurements by simulating the in-vacuum expansion of the photoelectrons and demonstrate the space charge contribution of the high-order harmonics in the FEL beam. Employing the same analysis for 400 nm pump-X-ray probe PES, we can disentangle the delay dependent Ru 3d energy shifts into effects induced by space charge and by lattice heating from the femtosecond pump pulse.

  9. Different X-ray spectral evolution for black hole X-ray binaries in dual tracks of radio-X-ray correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Qingwen; Dong, Ai-Jun

    2014-06-10

    Recently, an 'outlier' track of radio-X-ray correlation was found, which is much steeper than the former universal correlation, where dual tracks were speculated to be triggered by different accretion processes. In this work, we test this issue by exploring hard X-ray spectral evolution in four black-hole X-ray binaries with multiple, quasi-simultaneous radio and X-ray observations. First, we find that hard X-ray photon indices, Γ, are negatively and positively correlated with X-ray fluxes when the X-ray flux, F{sub 3-9} {sub keV}, is below and above a critical flux, F{sub X,} {sub crit}, which are consistent with predictions of the advection-dominated accretion flow and the disk-corona model, respectively. Second, and most importantly, we find that the radio-X-ray correlations are also clearly different when the X-ray fluxes are higher and lower than the critical flux as defined by X-ray spectral evolution. The data points with F{sub 3-9} {sub keV} ≳ F{sub X,} {sub crit} have a steeper radio-X-ray correlation (F{sub X}∝F{sub R}{sup b} and b ∼ 1.1-1.4), which roughly forms the ''outlier'' track. However, the data points with anti-correlation of Γ – F{sub 3-9} {sub keV} either stay in the universal track with b ∼ 0.61 or stay in the transition track (from the universal to 'outlier' tracks or vice versa). Therefore, our results support that the universal and ''outlier'' tracks of radio-X-ray correlations are regulated by radiatively inefficient and radiatively efficient accretion model, respectively.

  10. X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer for Extended X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, Manfred L.; Fraekel, Benjamin; Gorman, James L.; Hill, Kenneth W.; Roquemore, Lane A.; Stodiek, Wolfgang; Goeler, Schweickhard von

    1999-05-01

    Spherically or toroidally curved, double focusing crystals are used in a spectrometer for X-ray diagnostics of an extended X-ray source such as a hot plasma produced in a tokamak fusion experiment to provide spatially and temporally resolved data on plasma parameters such as ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal rotation, electron temperature, impurity ion charge-state distributions, and impurity transport. The imaging properties of these spherically or toroidally curved crystals provide both spectrally and spatially resolved X-ray data from the plasma using only one small spherically or toroidally curved crystal, thus eliminating the requirement for a large array of crystal spectrometers and the need to cross-calibrate the various crystals.