National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for ambient mercury species

  1. Concentrations of a water soluble, gas-phase mercury species in ambient air: Results from measurements and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindberg, S.E.; Stratton, W.J.; Pai, P.; Allan, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    There are few reliable data on the speciation of Hg in ambient air, although this information is critical to understanding the fate of Hg once released from point sources. The water soluble species of Hg that are thought to exist in flue gases would be subject to far greater local removal rates than is elemental Hg vapor, but methods are lacing to quantify this species. The authors developed a method using refluxing mist chambers to measure the airborne concentrations of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) in short-term samples under ambient conditions. The method exhibits an effective detection limit of 0.02 ng/m{sup 3} and a precision for ambient concentration levels of {+-}20--30%. Using a model that simulates atmospheric transport and fate of anthropogenic mercury emissions over the contiguous United States, the authors generated 24-hr RGM concentrations to compare to the measurement data. The average RGM concentrations measured with their mist chambers at sites in Tennessee (TN) and Indiana (IN) were 0.065 ng/m{sup 3} and 0.100 ng/m{sup 3}, respectively. These averages represent about 3% of total gaseous mercury (TGM), and RGM generally exceeds regional particulate Hg. The 24-hr model-simulated RGM concentration averages in the modeling grid cells representing TN and IN are 0.051 ng/m{sup 3} and 0.098 ng/m{sup 3} respectively, in good agreement with the data. The measured concentrations at the two sites exhibit weak positive correlations with temperature, solar radiation, O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, and TGM. These concentrations are high enough to suggest that RGM can play an important role in both wet and dry deposition on a regional scale.

  2. Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rob James; Virgil Joffrion; John McDermott; Steve Piche

    2010-05-31

    This project was awarded to demonstrate the ability to affect and optimize mercury speciation and multi-pollutant control using non-intrusive advanced sensor and optimization technologies. The intent was to demonstrate plant-wide optimization systems on a large coal fired steam electric power plant in order to minimize emissions, including mercury (Hg), while maximizing efficiency and maintaining saleable byproducts. Advanced solutions utilizing state-of-the-art sensors and neural network-based optimization and control technologies were proposed to maximize the removal of mercury vapor from the boiler flue gas thereby resulting in lower uncontrolled releases of mercury into the atmosphere. Budget Period 1 (Phase I) - Included the installation of sensors, software system design and establishment of the as-found baseline operating metrics for pre-project and post-project data comparison. Budget Period 2 (Phase II) - Software was installed, data communications links from the sensors were verified, and modifications required to integrate the software system to the DCS were performed. Budget Period 3 (Phase III) - Included the validation and demonstration of all control systems and software, and the comparison of the optimized test results with the targets established for the project site. This report represents the final technical report for the project, covering the entire award period and representing the final results compared to project goals. NeuCo shouldered 61% of the total project cost; while DOE shouldered the remaining 39%. The DOE requires repayment of its investment. This repayment will result from commercial sales of the products developed under the project. NRG's Limestone power plant (formerly owned by Texas Genco) contributed the host site, human resources, and engineering support to ensure the project's success.

  3. Multiple Species of Bacteria Convert Elemental Mercury to Toxic...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Researchers are studying how bacteria transform mercury into a toxic form in the environment that can accumulate in the food web, posing a threat to wildlife and people. The ...

  4. Mercury levels in muscle of some fish species from the Dique Channel, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivero, J.; Navas, V.; Perez, A.

    1997-06-01

    Gold mining is an activity that has been increasing during the last ten years in Colombia. Most mining activities are carried out using mercury for gold amalgamation. In a recent publication we stated that in the Sur de Bolivar, the main gold mining zone in Colombia, the highest mercury concentration in hair was observed in fishermen. The Magdalena River, the largest and most important river in Colombia, receives all this contamination and carries it to the Atlantic Ocean through two means: The main river course and the Dique Channel. The Dique Channel is surrounded by many marshes, which are a major source of fish for nearly two hundred thousands people in northwestern Colombia. The goal of the present study was to determine, for the first time, the content of mercury in muscle tissue of the four most popular fish species purchased in some towns along the Dique Channel, to establish whether these concentrations fall within the WHO guidelines, and to identify those species which can be consumed with less risk. 11 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. High Throughput Ambient Mass Spectrometric Approach to Species Identification and Classification from Chemical Fingerprint Signatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musah, Rabi A.; Espinoza, Edgard O.; Cody, Robert B.; Lesiak, Ashton D.; Christensen, Earl D.; Moore, Hannah E.; Maleknia, Simin; Drijhout, Falko P.

    2015-07-09

    A high throughput method for species identification and classification through chemometric processing of direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry-derived fingerprint signatures has been developed. The method entails introduction of samples to the open air space between the DART ion source and the mass spectrometer inlet, with the entire observed mass spectral fingerprint subjected to unsupervised hierarchical clustering processing. Moreover, a range of both polar and non-polar chemotypes are instantaneously detected. The result is identification and species level classification based on the entire DART-MS spectrum. In this paper, we illustrate how the method can be used to: (1) distinguish between endangered woods regulated by the Convention for the International Trade of Endangered Flora and Fauna (CITES) treaty; (2) assess the origin and by extension the properties of biodiesel feedstocks; (3) determine insect species from analysis of puparial casings; (4) distinguish between psychoactive plants products; and (5) differentiate between Eucalyptus species. An advantage of the hierarchical clustering approach to processing of the DART-MS derived fingerprint is that it shows both similarities and differences between species based on their chemotypes. Furthermore, full knowledge of the identities of the constituents contained within the small molecule profile of analyzed samples is not required.

  6. High Throughput Ambient Mass Spectrometric Approach to Species Identification and Classification from Chemical Fingerprint Signatures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Musah, Rabi A.; Espinoza, Edgard O.; Cody, Robert B.; Lesiak, Ashton D.; Christensen, Earl D.; Moore, Hannah E.; Maleknia, Simin; Drijhout, Falko P.

    2015-07-09

    A high throughput method for species identification and classification through chemometric processing of direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry-derived fingerprint signatures has been developed. The method entails introduction of samples to the open air space between the DART ion source and the mass spectrometer inlet, with the entire observed mass spectral fingerprint subjected to unsupervised hierarchical clustering processing. Moreover, a range of both polar and non-polar chemotypes are instantaneously detected. The result is identification and species level classification based on the entire DART-MS spectrum. In this paper, we illustrate how the method can be used to: (1) distinguishmore » between endangered woods regulated by the Convention for the International Trade of Endangered Flora and Fauna (CITES) treaty; (2) assess the origin and by extension the properties of biodiesel feedstocks; (3) determine insect species from analysis of puparial casings; (4) distinguish between psychoactive plants products; and (5) differentiate between Eucalyptus species. An advantage of the hierarchical clustering approach to processing of the DART-MS derived fingerprint is that it shows both similarities and differences between species based on their chemotypes. Furthermore, full knowledge of the identities of the constituents contained within the small molecule profile of analyzed samples is not required.« less

  7. Method for high temperature mercury capture from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2006-04-25

    A process to facilitate mercury extraction from high temperature flue/fuel gas via the use of metal sorbents which capture mercury at ambient and high temperatures. The spent sorbents can be regenerated after exposure to mercury. The metal sorbents can be used as pure metals (or combinations of metals) or dispersed on an inert support to increase surface area per gram of metal sorbent. Iridium and ruthenium are effective for mercury removal from flue and smelter gases. Palladium and platinum are effective for mercury removal from fuel gas (syngas). An iridium-platinum alloy is suitable for metal capture in many industrial effluent gas streams including highly corrosive gas streams.

  8. ccpi_mercury | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control Project - Project Brief [PDF-131KB] NeuCo, Inc., Boston, MA (acquired original participant, Pegasus Technologies) PROJECT FACT SHEET Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control Project (Completed May 31, 2010) [PDF-815KB] (June 2011) PROGRAM PUBLICATIONS Final Report Mercury Specie and Multi-Pollutant Control [PDF-14MB] (May 2011) Quarterly Progress Reports April - June 2007 [PDF- 6.1MB] (July 2007) January - March 2007 [PDF-6.1MB] (Apr 2007) October -

  9. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borole, Abhijeet P.; Hamilton, Choo Y.

    2011-08-16

    A process for the removal of mercury from coal prior to combustion is disclosed. The process is based on use of microorganisms to oxidize iron, sulfur and other species binding mercury within the coal, followed by volatilization of mercury by the microorganisms. The microorganisms are from a class of iron and/or sulfur oxidizing bacteria. The process involves contacting coal with the bacteria in a batch or continuous manner. The mercury is first solubilized from the coal, followed by microbial reduction to elemental mercury, which is stripped off by sparging gas and captured by a mercury recovery unit, giving mercury-free coal. The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing.

  10. Mercury contamination extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fuhrmann, Mark; Heiser, John; Kalb, Paul

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  11. Utility flue gas mercury control via sorbent injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, R.; Carey, T.; Hargrove, B.

    1996-12-31

    The potential for power plant mercury control under Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments generated significant interest in assessing whether cost effective technologies are available for removing the mercury present in fossil-fired power plant flue gas. One promising approach is the direct injection of mercury sorbents such as activated carbon into flue gas. This approach has been shown to be effective for mercury control from municipal waste incinerators. However, tests conducted to date on utility fossil-fired boilers show that it is much more difficult to remove the trace species of mercury present in flue gas. EPRI is conducting research in sorbent mercury control including bench-scale evaluation of mercury sorbent activity and capacity with simulated flue gas, pilot testing under actual flue gas conditions, evaluation of sorbent regeneration and recycle options, and the development of novel sorbents. A theoretical model that predicts maximum mercury removals achievable with sorbent injection under different operating conditions is also being developed. This paper presents initial bench-scale and model results. The results to date show that very fine and large amounts of sorbents are needed for mercury control unless long residence times are available for sorbent-mercury contact. Also, sorbent activity and capacity are highly dependent on flue gas composition, temperature, mercury species, and sorbent properties. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. In situ remediation technologies for mercury-contaminated soil

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Feng; Gao, Jie; Pierce, Eric; Strong, P. J.; Wang, Hailong; Liang, Liyuan

    2015-04-09

    A pollutant that poses significant risks to humans and the environment is mercury from anthropogenic activities. In soils, mercury remediation can be technically challenging and costly, depending on the subsurface mercury distribution, the types of mercury species, and the regulatory requirements. Our paper introduces the chemistry of mercury and its implications for in situ mercury remediation, which is followed by a detailed discussion of several in situ Hg remediation technologies in terms of applicability, cost, advantages, and disadvantages. The effect of Hg speciation on remediation performance, as well as Hg transformation during different remediation processes, was detailed. Thermal desorption, electrokinetic,more » and soil flushing/washing treatments are removal technologies that mobilize and capture insoluble Hg species, while containment, solidification/stabilization, and vitrification immobilize Hg by converting it to less soluble forms. We also discussed two emerging technologies, phytoremediation and nanotechnology, in this review.« less

  13. In situ remediation technologies for mercury-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Feng; Gao, Jie; Pierce, Eric; Strong, P. J.; Wang, Hailong; Liang, Liyuan

    2015-04-09

    A pollutant that poses significant risks to humans and the environment is mercury from anthropogenic activities. In soils, mercury remediation can be technically challenging and costly, depending on the subsurface mercury distribution, the types of mercury species, and the regulatory requirements. Our paper introduces the chemistry of mercury and its implications for in situ mercury remediation, which is followed by a detailed discussion of several in situ Hg remediation technologies in terms of applicability, cost, advantages, and disadvantages. The effect of Hg speciation on remediation performance, as well as Hg transformation during different remediation processes, was detailed. Thermal desorption, electrokinetic, and soil flushing/washing treatments are removal technologies that mobilize and capture insoluble Hg species, while containment, solidification/stabilization, and vitrification immobilize Hg by converting it to less soluble forms. We also discussed two emerging technologies, phytoremediation and nanotechnology, in this review.

  14. Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Morton, A.; Bennetts, R.E.

    1997-05-01

    Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century. Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem`s food web. Recent research by Malley et al. has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  16. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  17. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  18. Process for low mercury coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  19. Atmospheric mercury (Hg) in the Adirondacks: Concentrations and sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyun-Deok Choi; Thomas M. Holsen; Philip K. Hopke

    2008-08-15

    Hourly averaged gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) concentrations and hourly integrated reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and particulate Hg (HgP) concentrations in the ambient air were measured at Huntington Forest in the Adirondacks, New York from June 2006 to May 2007. The average concentrations of GEM, RGM, and HgP were 1.4 {+-} 0.4 ng m{sup -3}, 1.8 {+-} 2.2 pg m{sup -3}, and 3.2 {+-} 3.7 pg m{sup -3}, respectively. RGM represents <3.5% of total atmospheric Hg or total gaseous Hg (TGM: GEM + RGM) and HgP represents <3.0% of the total atmospheric Hg. The highest mean concentrations of GEM, RGM, and HgP were measured during winter and summer whereas the lowest mean concentrations were measured during spring and fall. Significant diurnal patterns were apparent in warm seasons for all species whereas diurnal patterns were weak in cold seasons. RGM was better correlated with ozone concentration and temperature in both warm than the other species. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis was applied to identify possible Hg sources. This method identified areas in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Kentucky, Texas, Indiana, and Missouri, which coincided well with sources reported in a 2002 U.S. mercury emissions inventory. 51 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Retention of elemental mercury in fly ashes in different atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Lopez-Anton; M. Diaz-Somoano; M.R. Martinez-Tarazona

    2007-01-15

    Mercury is an extremely volatile element, which is emitted from coal combustion to the environment mostly in the vapor phase. To avoid the environmental problems that the toxic species of this element may cause, control technologies for the removal of mercury are necessary. Recent research has shown that certain fly ash materials have an affinity for mercury. Moreover, it has been observed that fly ashes may catalyze the oxidation of elemental mercury and facilitate its capture. However, the exact nature of Hg-fly ash interactions is still unknown, and mercury oxidation through fly ash needs to be investigated more thoroughly. In this work, the influence of a gas atmosphere on the retention of elemental mercury on fly ashes of different characteristics was evaluated. The retention capacity was estimated comparatively in inert and two gas atmospheres containing species present in coal gasification and coal combustion. Fly ashes produced in two pulverized coal combustion (PCC) plants, produced from coals of different rank (CTA and CTSR), and a fly ash (CTP) produced in a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) plant were used as raw materials. The mercury retention capacity of these fly ashes was compared to the retention obtained in different activated carbons. Although the capture of mercury is very similar in the gasification atmosphere and N{sub 2}, it is much more efficient in a coal combustion retention, being greater in fly ashes from PCC than those from FBC plants. 22 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. EM Mercury Challenge

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Plan to Address the EM Mercury Challenge FEBRUARY 2016 Table of Contents SUMMARY 1 1. BACKGROUND 2 1.1 OAK RIDGE RESERVATION'S MERCURY CHALLENGE 2 1.2 SAVANNAH RIVER SITE'S MERCURY CHALLENGE 3 2. APPROACH 4 3. OREM'S 2014 TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PLAN 5 4. RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AREAS FOR OAK RIDGE 6 4.1 MERCURY DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT 6 4.2 Y-12 SITE CLEANUP 7 4.3 EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK REMEDIATION 9 4.4 MODELING 10 5. RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AREAS FOR THE

  2. Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

    2010-01-01

    Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation

  3. A study of the effect of chloride on mercury removal in a fluidized bed combustion (FBC) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, K.; Gao, Y.; Li, F.; Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Mehta, A.K.; Ho, K.K.; Smith, S.R.

    2000-07-01

    Mercury exists in three forms, which are elemental mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury. Each form of mercury has a very different exposure potential. Oxidized mercury is soluble and has a tendency to associate with particles. Nearly all the post-combustion flue gas cleaning systems proposed to remove mercury may be categorized as either scrubbers or adsorbers. Therefore, the mercury sink in the cleaning system will be either the excess water of a wet scrubber or the mercury laden sorbent from an absorber. The major problem for post-combustion mercury capture systems is capturing the practically water-insoluble elemental mercury. Co-firing with high chlorine coal or RDF in utility boiler systems can provide an HCI atmosphere for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas at relatively low temperatures (500--600 C). The objective of this study is to increase the efficiency of mercury emission cleaning methods by using HCl to convert elemental mercury to oxidized mercury species at low monetary costs and lower other toxic air emissions. When high chlorine (0.3--0.5%) coals were burned and a high intensity vortex flow (from secondary air) was used, around 70% of the total mercury in the fuel was condensed and absorbed by the fly ash (including calcium compounds). The remaining 30% of total fuel mercury was emitted in the gas phase in the flue gas. As for the gas phase mercury, about 98% of it exists in an oxidized form with a higher boiling temperature than elemental mercury and can be easily captured by an ESP or FGP apparatus. Only about 0.5% of the total fuel mercury was released to the atmosphere in elemental form.

  4. Mercury in the environment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory - Mike Abbott

    2010-01-08

    Abbott works for Idaho National Laboratory as an environmental scientist. Using state-of-thescienceequipment, he continuously samples the air, looking for mercury. In turn, he'll analyzethis long-term data and try to figure out the mercury's point of or

  5. Mercury and Air Toxic Element Impacts of Coal Combustion By-Product Disposal and Utilizaton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Hassett; Loreal Heebink; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Tera Buckley; Erick Zacher; Mei Xin; Mae Sexauer Gustin; Rob Jung

    2007-03-31

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted a multiyear study to evaluate the impact of mercury and other air toxic elements (ATEs) on the management of coal combustion by-products (CCBs). The ATEs evaluated in this project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. The study included laboratory tasks to develop measurement techniques for mercury and ATE releases, sample characterization, and release experiments. A field task was also performed to measure mercury releases at a field site. Samples of fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials were collected preferentially from full-scale coal-fired power plants operating both without and with mercury control technologies in place. In some cases, samples from pilot- and bench-scale emission control tests were included in the laboratory studies. Several sets of 'paired' baseline and test fly ash and FGD materials collected during full-scale mercury emission control tests were also included in laboratory evaluations. Samples from mercury emission control tests all contained activated carbon (AC) and some also incorporated a sorbent-enhancing agent (EA). Laboratory release experiments focused on measuring releases of mercury under conditions designed to simulate CCB exposure to water, ambient-temperature air, elevated temperatures, and microbes in both wet and dry conditions. Results of laboratory evaluations indicated that: (1) Mercury and sometimes selenium are collected with AC used for mercury emission control and, therefore, present at higher concentrations than samples collected without mercury emission controls present. (2) Mercury is stable on CCBs collected from systems both without and with mercury emission controls present under most conditions tested, with the exception of vapor-phase releases of mercury exposed to elevated temperatures. (3) The presence of carbon either from added AC or from unburned coal can result in mercury being

  6. Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Mercury Vapor page? For detailed information on Mercury Vapor as...

  7. Mercury Metadata Toolset

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-09-08

    Mercury is a federated metadata harvesting, search and retrieval tool based on both open source software and software developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was originally developed for NASA, and the Mercury development consortium now includes funding from NASA, USGS, and DOE. A major new version of Mercury (version 3.0) was developed during 2007 and released in early 2008. This Mercury 3.0 version provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additionalmore » metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS delivery of search results, and ready customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects which use Mercury. For the end users, Mercury provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems. It collects metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The Mercury search interfaces then allow the users to perform simple, fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data.« less

  8. Removal of Elemental Mercury from a Gas Stream Facilitated by a Non-Thermal Plasma Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mones

    2006-12-01

    Mercury generated from anthropogenic sources presents a difficult environmental problem. In comparison to other toxic metals, mercury has a low vaporization temperature. Mercury and mercury compounds are highly toxic, and organic forms such as methyl mercury can be bio-accumulated. Exposure pathways include inhalation and transport to surface waters. Mercury poisoning can result in both acute and chronic effects. Most commonly, chronic exposure to mercury vapor affects the central nervous system and brain, resulting in neurological damage. The CRE technology employs a series of non-thermal, plasma-jet devices to provide a method for elemental mercury removal from a gas phase by targeting relevant chemical reactions. The technology couples the known chemistry of converting elemental mercury to ionic compounds by mercury-chlorine-oxygen reactions with the generation of highly reactive species in a non-thermal, atmospheric, plasma device. The generation of highly reactive metastable species in a non-thermal plasma device is well known. The introduction of plasma using a jet-injection device provides a means to contact highly reactive species with elemental mercury in a manner to overcome the kinetic and mass-transfer limitations encountered by previous researchers. To demonstrate this technology, WRI has constructed a plasma test facility that includes plasma reactors capable of using up to four plasma jets, flow control instrumentation, an integrated control panel to operate the facility, a mercury generation system that employs a temperature controlled oven and permeation tube, combustible and mercury gas analyzers, and a ductless fume hood designed to capture fugitive mercury emissions. Continental Research and Engineering (CR&E) and Western Research Institute (WRI) successfully demonstrated that non-thermal plasma containing oxygen and chlorine-oxygen reagents could completely convert elemental mercury to an ionic form. These results demonstrate potential the

  9. Ambiental PV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ambiental PV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ambiental PV Place: Bahia, Brazil Zip: 40140-380 Sector: Carbon Product: Bahia-based carbon consultancy firm. References: Ambiental...

  10. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  11. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  12. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  13. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-11-07

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figs.

  14. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1991-06-18

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figures.

  15. Mercury emissions from German fluidized bed sludge incinerators -- A status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saenger, M.; Werther, J.; Lungwitz, H.

    1999-07-01

    In 1996 19% of the 2.7 million tons dry matter of sewage sludge produced in Germany were disposed by incineration. Incineration of the sludge is carried out mainly in fluidized bed combustors. German emission regulations set a limit to the mercury emission of 0.05 mg/m{sup 3} (under standard condition, dry basis) the observance of which requires special flue gas cleaning installations. In the present paper, an overview is given on the state of the art of flue gas cleaning with respect to mercury emissions from sewage sludge incineration in Germany. A total of 13 plants were examined. Because of the thermochemical instability of the mercury compounds only elemental mercury will exist inside the combustion chamber. During the cooling of the flue gas the elemental mercury reacts depending on the presence of other flue gas components to several mercurous and mercuric compounds. Measurements in the plants investigated indicate that the ratio of elemental to chemically bound mercury decreases with increasing chlorine content in the sludge feed. Different types of gas cleaning systems are used to remove the mercury from the flue gas which may be grouped into two categories, namely scrubbers and adsorbers, respectively. The mercury sink in the cleaning system will therefore be either the excess water of a wet scrubber or the laden adsorbent from an adsorber. If the amount of the practically water-insoluble elemental mercury is below the emission limit wet scrubbers will be sufficient to remove the mercuric and mercurous species. Otherwise elemental mercury has to be additionally removed by adding agents to oxidize the mercury for capture in a scrubber or by an adsorbent. Only 1--6% of the mercury supplied with the sludge is found in the fly ash separated with electrostatic precipitators. The different kinds of mercury capture systems used in German fluidized bed sludge incineration plants, the mercury concentrations in the cleaned flue gas and the removal efficiencies with

  16. Phytoremediation of ionic and methyl mercury pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, R.B.

    1998-06-01

    'The long-term objective of the research is to manipulate single-gene traits into plants, enabling them to process heavy metals and remediate heavy-metal pollution by resistance, sequestration, removal, and management of these contaminants. The authors are focused on mercury pollution as a case study of this plant genetic engineering approach. The working hypothesis behind this proposal was that transgenic plants expressing both the bacterial organo mercury lyase (merB) and the mercuric ion reductase gene (merA) will: (A) remove the mercury from polluted sites and (B) prevent methyl mercury from entering the food chain. The results from the research are so positive that the technology will undoubtedly be applied in the very near future to cleaning large mercury contaminates sites. Many such sites were not remediable previously due to the excessive costs and the negative environmental impact of conventional mechanical-chemical technologies. At the time this grant was awarded 20 months ago, the authors had successfully engineered a small model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, to use a highly modified bacterial mercuric ion reductase gene, merA9, to detoxify ionic mercury (Hg(II)), reducing it to much less toxic and volatile metallic Hg(0) (Rugh et al., 1996). Seeds from these plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of Hg(II) that are lethal to normal plants. In assays on transgenic seedlings suspended in a solution of Hg(II), 10 ng of Hg(0) was evolved per min per mg wet weight of plant tissue. At that time, the authors had no information on expression of merA in any other plant species, nor had the authors tested merB in any plant. However, the results were so startlingly positive and well received that they clearly presaged a paradigm shift in the field of environmental remediation.'

  17. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Wilson, K.G.

    1997-10-21

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber. 15 figs.

  18. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  19. SPS emissions and comparison with ambient loadings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, E.; Brubaker, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of propulsion injections into the atmosphere due to Satellite Power System (SPS) transportation vehicles, and relates the magnitudes of these injections to the ambient burdens of the different chemical species. The significance of the different injections is discussed in terms of a dimensionless perturbation factor, the magnitude of which is a measure of the expected concentration change relative to the existing ambient concentration.

  20. Mercury Strategic Plan Outfall 200 Mercury Treatment Facility

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    more than 20 million pounds of mercury were used at Y-12 in a process that separated lithium isotopes for weapons production *Approximately 2 million pounds of mercury were ...

  1. Ambient temperature thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, A. N.; Bliss, D. E.; McManis III

    1985-11-26

    An ambient temperature thermal battery having two relatively high temperature melting electrolytes which form a low melting temperature electrolyte upon activation.

  2. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest F. Stine Jr; Steven T. Downey

    2002-08-14

    contamination and to increase the TCLP mercury values. IT/NFS investigated ambient temperature amalgamation/stabilization/fixation of mercury-contaminated soils to meet these objectives. Treatment ranged in size from a few ounces to 10 pounds. The treatability study philosophy was to develop working envelops of formulations where reasonable minimum and maximum amounts of each reagent that would successfully treat the contaminated soil were determined. The dosages investigated were based on ratios of stoichiometric reactions and applications of standard sets of formulations. The approach purposely identified formulations that failed short or longer cure-time performance criteria to define the limits of the envelope. Reagent envelops successfully met the project requirements one day after treatment and after greater than 30-day cures. The use of multiple levels of spikes allowed the establishment of reagent dosages that were successful across a broad range of mercury values, e.g., 50 to 6000 mg/kg mercury. The treatment products were damp to slightly wet material. Enough drying reagent, e.g., Portland cement or lime by-product, were added to some formulations to control the leachability of uranium and other hazardous metals and to ensure the product passed the paint filter test. Cost analyzes and conceptual designs for four alternatives for full-scale treatments were prepared. The alternatives included two in-situ treatments and two ex-situ treatments. The cost estimates were based on the results from the bench-scale study. All four alternatives treatment costs were well below the baseline costs.

  3. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Marshall G.

    1985-01-01

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  4. Follow that mercury!

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linero, A.A.

    2008-07-01

    The article discusses one technology option for avoiding release of mercury captured by power plant pollution control equipment in order to render it usable in concrete. This is the use of selective catalytic reduction for NOx control and lime spray dryer absorbers (SDA) for SO{sub 2} control prior to particulate collection by fabric filters. In this scenario all mercury removed is trapped in the fabric filter baghouse. The US EPA did not establish mercury emission limits for existing cement plants in the latest regulation 40 CFR 63, Subpart LLL (December 2006) and was sued by the Portland Cement Association because of the Hg limits established for new kilns and by several states and environmental groups for the lack of limits on existing ones. A full version of this article is available on www.acaa-usa.org/AshatWork.htm. 2 figs.

  5. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  6. Investigation of a mercury speciation technique for flue gas desulfurization materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.Y.; Cho K.; Cheng L.; Keener, T.C.; Jegadeesan G.; Al-Abed, S.R.

    2009-08-15

    Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to benefit from the partial mercury control that these systems provide, some mercury is likely to be bound in with the FGD gypsum and wallboard. In this study, the feasibility of identifying mercury species in the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples was investigated using a large sample size thermal desorption method and samples from power plants in Pennsylvania. Potential candidates of pure mercury standards including mercuric chloride, mercurous chloride, mercury oxide, mercury sulfide, and mercuric sulfate were analyzed to compare their results with those obtained from FGD gypsum and dry wallboard samples. Although any of the thermal evolutionary curves obtained from these pure mercury standards did not exactly match with those of the FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, it was identified that Hg{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and HgCl{sub 2} could be candidates. An additional chlorine analysis from the gypsum and wallboard samples indicated that the chlorine concentrations were approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than the mercury concentrations, suggesting possible chlorine association with mercury. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. FINAL REPORT ON THE AQUATIC MERCURY ASSESSMENT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halverson, N

    2008-09-30

    . Methylmercury ranged from 0.002 ng/l in Upper Three Runs to 2.60 ng/l in Tims Branch. Total mercury in the Savannah River ranged from 0.62 ng/l to 43.9 ng/l, and methylmercury ranged from 0.036 ng/l to 7.54 ng/l. Both total and methylmercury concentrations were consistently high in the river near the mouth of Steel Creek. Total mercury was positively correlated with methylmercury (r = 0.88). Total mercury bound to particulates ranged from 41% to 57% in the river and from 28% to 90% in the streams. Particulate methylmercury varied from 9% to 37% in the river and from 6% to 79% in the streams. Small temporary pools in the Savannah River swamp area near and around Fourmile Branch had the highest concentrations observed in the Savannah River watershed, reaching 1,890 ng/l for total mercury and 34.0 ng/l for methylmercury. The second study developed a mercury bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for the Savannah River near SRS. A BAF is the ratio of the concentration of mercury in fish flesh to the concentration of mercury in the water. BAFs are important in the TMDL process because target concentrations for mercury in water are computed from BAFs. Mercury BAFs are known to differ substantially among fish species, water bodies, and possibly seasons. Knowledge of such variation is needed to determine a BAF that accurately represents average and extreme conditions in the water body under study. Analysis of fish tissue and aqueous methylmercury samples collected at a number of locations and over several seasons in a 110 km (68 mile) reach of the Savannah River demonstrated that BAFs for each species under study varied by factors of three to eight. Influences on BAF variability were location, habitat and season-related differences in fish mercury levels and seasonal differences in methylmercury levels in the water. Overall (all locations, habitats, and seasons) average BAFs were 3.7 x 10{sup 6} for largemouth bass, 1.4 x 10{sup 6} for sunfishes, and 2.5 x 10{sup 6} for white catfish. This study

  8. Method and apparatus for sampling atmospheric mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trujillo, Patricio E.; Campbell, Evan E.; Eutsler, Bernard C.

    1976-01-20

    A method of simultaneously sampling particulate mercury, organic mercurial vapors, and metallic mercury vapor in the working and occupational environment and determining the amount of mercury derived from each such source in the sampled air. A known volume of air is passed through a sampling tube containing a filter for particulate mercury collection, a first adsorber for the selective adsorption of organic mercurial vapors, and a second adsorber for the adsorption of metallic mercury vapor. Carbon black molecular sieves are particularly useful as the selective adsorber for organic mercurial vapors. The amount of mercury adsorbed or collected in each section of the sampling tube is readily quantitatively determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  9. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  10. Mercury control in 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjostrom, S.; Durham, M.; Bustard, J.; Martin, C.

    2009-07-15

    Although activated carbon injection (ACI) has been proven to be effective for many configurations and is a preferred option at many plants sufficient quantities of powdered activated coking (PAC) must be available to meet future needs. The authors estimate that upcoming federal and state regulations will result in tripling the annual US demand for activated carbon to nearly 1.5 billion lb from approximately 450 million lb. Rapid expansion of US production capacity is required. Many PAC manufacturers are discussing expansion of their existing production capabilities. One company, ADA Carbon Solutions, is in the process of constructing the largest activated carbon facility in North America to meet the future demand for PAC as a sorbent for mercury control. Emission control technology development and commercialization is driven by regulation and legislation. Although ACI will not achieve > 90% mercury control at every plant, the expected required MACT legislation level, it offers promise as a low-cost primary mercury control technology option for many configurations and an important trim technology for others. ACI has emerged as the clear mercury-specific control option of choice, representing over 98% of the commercial mercury control system orders to date. As state regulations are implemented and the potential for a federal rule becomes more imminent, suppliers are continuing to develop technologies to improve the cost effectiveness and limit the balance of plant impacts associated with ACI and are developing additional PAC production capabilities to ensure that the industry's needs are met. The commercialisation of ACI is a clear example of industry, through the dedication of many individuals and companies with support from the DOE and EPRI, meeting the challenge of developing cost-effectively reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Mercury contamination of terrestrial vegetation near a caustic soda factory in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suckcharoen, S.

    1980-03-01

    The present study is concerned with the fall-out of mercury on some terrestrial plants and one species of aquatic plant growing in the vicinity of the TACSCO factory.

  12. Ambient Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: Ambient develops open standards-based technologies for creating smart grid communication platforms and technologies. References: Ambient Corp1 This article is a stub....

  13. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-12-05

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  14. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1987-02-27

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and thence quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal. 1 fig.

  15. Recovery of mercury from acid waste residues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenhalgh, Wilbur O.

    1989-01-01

    Mercury can be recovered from nitric acid-containing fluids by reacting the fluid with aluminum metal to produce mercury metal, and then quenching the reactivity of the nitric acid prior to nitration of the mercury metal.

  16. Mercury Vapor (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown Notes Surface soil-mercury surveys are an inexpensive and useful exploration tool for geothermal resources. ---- Surface geochemical surveys for mercury...

  17. Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Surface Mercury Geochemistry Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Geothermal Exploration Using Surface Mercury Geochemistry Abstract...

  18. Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    hydrothermal system. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Introduction Mercury is a natural byproduct of mantle or deep-crustal derived fluids, high concentrations can be...

  19. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  20. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, Shou-Heng; Liu, Zhao-Rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2011-08-30

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  1. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-07-16

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  2. Method for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

  3. Apparatus for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the .sup.196 Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering.

  4. Method for mercury refinement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; Speer, R.; George, W.A.

    1991-04-09

    The effluent from mercury collected during the photochemical separation of the [sup 196]Hg isotope is often contaminated with particulate mercurous chloride, Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2]. The use of mechanical filtering via thin glass tubes, ultrasonic rinsing with acetone (dimethyl ketone) and a specially designed cold trap have been found effective in removing the particulate (i.e., solid) Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] contaminant. The present invention is particularly directed to such filtering. 5 figures.

  5. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2010-07-13

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  6. Mercury removal sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  7. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  8. Mercury reduction studies to facilitate the thermal decontamination of phosphor powder residues from spent fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alves Durao, Walter; Andreva de Castro, Camila; Carvalhinho Windmoeller, Claudia

    2008-11-15

    This work investigates the thermal release of mercury from phosphor powder of spent fluorescent lamps. The treatment conditions and the ability of various reducing agents (primarily sodium borohydride) to lower the overall heating temperature required to improve the release of Hg have been evaluated. Hg species in samples were monitored in a thermal desorption atomic absorption spectrometer system, and total mercury was analyzed in a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometer. Sodium borohydride was the best reducing agent among the ones studied. However, citric acid presented a high capacity to weaken mercury bonds with the matrix. When the sample was crushed with sodium borohydride for 40 min in a mass ratio of 10:1 (sample:reducing agent) and submitted to thermal treatment at 300 deg. C for 2 h, the concentration of mercury in a phosphor powder sample with 103 mg kg{sup -1} of mercury reached 6.6 mg kg{sup -1}.

  9. Assessment of mercury emissions from the Afton copper smelter, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, J.D.; Price, C.J.

    1986-07-01

    The afton Copper Smelter adjacent to Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada commenced operation in 1978 and employed a mercury scrubbing system. Two years of preproduction studies, which included monitoring for mercury in ambient air, water, soil, and vegetation were performed. The results from similar studies conducted during four full years (1978-81) and two partial years (1982-83) of production are presented in the data analysis. These programs illustrated that the most frequent ground impingement occurred within a 1.6-3.2-km radius of the source, and that the levels decreased with increasing distance from the source to a maximum radius of 8 km. The results of a comprehensive source monitoring program illustrated that the average mercury emission levels ranged from 3.2 to 6.8 kg/calendar day during 1979-81, and that the majority of the emissions were in a vapor form. The ambient monitoring data acquired when smelter operations were significantly reduced indicate a quick recovery to preproduction levels in virtually all monitored parameters and at most monitored sites. The integrated results from all mercury monitoring programs illustrate the environmental impact from mercury emissions which were two to four times the permit standard of 1.8 kg/day.

  10. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1987-04-28

    A process for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury.

  11. Methods for dispensing mercury into devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for dispensing mercury into devices which requires mercury. Mercury is first electrolytically separated from either HgO or Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] and plated onto a cathode wire. The cathode wire is then placed into a device requiring mercury. 2 figs.

  12. Fluorescent sensor for mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Zidong; Lee, Jung Heon; Lu, Yi

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides a sensor for detecting mercury, comprising: a first polynucleotide, comprising a first region, and a second region, a second polynucleotide, a third polynucleotide, a fluorophore, and a quencher, wherein the third polynucleotide is optionally linked to the second region; the fluorophore is linked to the first polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the second polynucleotide, or the fluorophore is linked to the second polynucleotide and the quencher is linked to the first polynucleotide; the first region and the second region hybridize to the second polynucleotide; and the second region binds to the third polynucleotide in the presence of Hg.sup.2+ ions.

  13. Method for removal and stabilization of mercury in mercury-containing gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Broderick, Thomas E.

    2005-09-13

    The present invention is directed to a process and apparatus for removing and stabilizing mercury from mercury-containing gas streams. A gas stream containing vapor phase elemental and/or speciated mercury is contacted with reagent, such as an oxygen-containing oxidant, in a liquid environment to form a mercury-containing precipitate. The mercury-containing precipitate is kept or placed in solution and reacts with one or more additional reagents to form a solid, stable mercury-containing compound.

  14. Potential Moderating Effects of Selenium on Mercury Uptake and Selenium:Mercury Molar Ratios in Fish From Oak Ridge and Savannah River Site - 12086

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Donio, Mark; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn

    2012-07-01

    Mercury contamination is an important remediation issue at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and to a lesser extent at other DOE sites because of the hazard it presents, potential consequences to humans and eco-receptors, and completed pathways, to offsite receptors. Recent work has emphasized that selenium might ameliorate the toxicity of mercury, and we examine the selenium:mercury (Se:Hg) molar ratios in fish from Oak Ridge, and compare them to Se:Hg molar ratios in fish from the Savannah River. Selenium/mercury molar ratios varied considerably among and within fish species. There was considerable variation in the molar ratios for individual fish (as opposed to mean ratios by species) for freshwater fish from both sites. The inter-individual variation in molar ratios indicates that such that the molar ratios of mean Se and Hg concentrations may not be representative. Even for fish species with relatively low mercury levels, some individual fish have molar ratios less than unity, the value sometime thought to be protective. Selenium levels varied narrowly regardless of fish size, consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential trace element. The data indicate that considerable attention will need to be directed toward variations and variances, as well as the mechanisms of the interaction of selenium and mercury, before risk assessment and risk management policies can use this information to manage mercury pollution and risk. Even so, if there are high levels of selenium in the fish from Poplar Creek on Oak Ridge, then the potential exists for some amelioration of adverse health effects, on the fish themselves, predators that eat them, and people who consume them. This work will aid DOE because it will allow managers and scientists to understand another aspect that affects fate and transport of mercury, as well as the potential effects of methylmercury in fish for human and ecological receptors. The variability within fish

  15. Localized surface plasmon resonance mercury detection system and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Jay; Lucas, Donald; Crosby, Jeffrey Scott; Koshland, Catherine P.

    2016-03-22

    A mercury detection system that includes a flow cell having a mercury sensor, a light source and a light detector is provided. The mercury sensor includes a transparent substrate and a submonolayer of mercury absorbing nanoparticles, e.g., gold nanoparticles, on a surface of the substrate. Methods of determining whether mercury is present in a sample using the mercury sensors are also provided. The subject mercury detection systems and methods find use in a variety of different applications, including mercury detecting applications.

  16. Mercury switch with non-wettable electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karnowsky, Maurice M.; Yost, Frederick G.

    1987-01-01

    A mercury switch device comprising a pool of mercury and a plurality of electrical contacts made of or coated with a non-wettable material such as titanium diboride.

  17. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Easterly, C.E.; Vass, A.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-01-28

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  18. Method for the removal and recovery of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Easterly, Clay E.; Vass, Arpad A.; Tyndall, Richard L.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is an enhanced method for the removal and recovery of mercury from mercury-contaminated matrices. The method involves contacting a mercury-contaminated matrix with an aqueous dispersant solution derived from specific intra-amoebic isolates to release the mercury from the mercury-contaminated matrix and emulsify the mercury; then, contacting the matrix with an amalgamating metal from a metal source to amalgamate the mercury to the amalgamating metal; removing the metallic source from the mercury-contaminated matrix; and heating the metallic source to vaporize the mercury in a closed system to capture the mercury vapors.

  19. Enhanced control of mercury emissions through modified speciation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    In anticipation of possible regulations regarding mercury emissions, research efforts sponsored by DOE, EPRI, and others are investigating the risks posed by mercury emissions, improved techniques for measuring those emissions, and possible control measures. The focus in the control research is on techniques that can be used in conjunction with existing flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems in order to minimize additional capital costs and operational complexity. Argonne National Laboratory has supported the DOE Fossil Energy Program for over 15 years with research on advanced environmental control technologies. The emphasis in Argonne`s work has been on integrated systems that combine control of several pollutants. Specific topics have included spray drying for sulfur dioxide and particulate-matter control with high-sulfur coal, combined sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides control technologies, and techniques to enhance mercury control in existing FGC systems. The latter area has focused on low-cost dry sorbents for use with fabric filters or electrostatic precipitators and techniques for improving the capture of mercury in wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This paper presents results from recent work that has studied the effects of several oxidizing agents in combination with typical flue-gas species (e.g., nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide) on the oxidation of Hg{sup 0}.

  20. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  1. Coping with uncertainties of mercury regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reich, K.

    2006-09-15

    The thermometer is rising as coal-fired plants cope with the uncertainties of mercury regulation. The paper deals with a diagnosis and a suggested cure. It describes the state of mercury emission rules in the different US states, many of which had laws or rules in place before the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was promulgated.

  2. Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

    2008-10-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

  3. Apparatus for control of mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing mercury in industrial gases such as the flue gas produced by the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal adds hydrogen sulfide to the flue gas in or just before a scrubber of the industrial process which contains the wet scrubber. The method and apparatus of the present invention is applicable to installations employing either wet or dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization systems. The present invention uses kraft green liquor as a source for hydrogen sulfide and/or the injection of mineral acids into the green liquor to release vaporous hydrogen sulfide in order to form mercury sulfide solids.

  4. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01

    across the APCDs are 2.1% and 39.4% with standard deviations (STDs) of 1990 and 75%, respectively for the ICR and SEC tests. This clearly demonstrates that variability is an issue irrespective of using 'similar' fuels at the plants and the same source sampling team measuring the species. The study also concluded that elemental mercury is the main Hg specie that needs to be controlled. 2004 technologies such as activated carbon injection (ACI) may capture up to 60% with double digit lb/MMacf addition of sorbent. PRB coal-fired units have an Hg input of 7-15 lb/TBtu; hence, these units must operate at over 60% mercury efficiency in order to bring the emission level below 5.8 lb/TBtu. This was non-achievable with the best technology available as of 2004. Other key findings include: (1) Conventional particulate collectors, such as Cold-side Electro-Static Precipitators (CESPs), Hot-side Electro-Static Precipitator (HESP), and Fabric Filter (FF) remove nearly all of the particulate bound mercury; (2) CESPs perform better highlighting the flue gas temperature effect on the mercury removal. Impact of speciation with flue gas cooling is apparent; (3) SDA's do not help in enhancing adsorption of mercury vapor species; and (4) Due to consistently low chlorine values in fuels, it was not possible to analyze the impact of chlorine. In summary, it is difficult to predict the speciation at two plants that burn the same fuel. Non-fuel issues, such as flue gas cooling, impact the speciation and consequently mercury capture potential.

  5. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-?g/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine and

  6. Development Of Chemical Reduction And Air Stripping Processes To Remove Mercury From Wastewater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Looney, Brian B.; Craig, Robert R.; Thompson, Martha C.; Kmetz, Thomas F.

    2013-07-10

    This study evaluates the removal of mercury from wastewater using chemical reduction and air stripping using a full-scale treatment system at the Savannah River Site. The existing water treatment system utilizes air stripping as the unit operation to remove organic compounds from groundwater that also contains mercury (C ~ 250 ng/L). The baseline air stripping process was ineffective in removing mercury and the water exceeded a proposed limit of 51 ng/L. To test an enhancement to the existing treatment modality a continuous dose of reducing agent was injected for 6-hours at the inlet of the air stripper. This action resulted in the chemical reduction of mercury to Hg(0), a species that is removable with the existing unit operation. During the injection period a 94% decrease in concentration was observed and the effluent satisfied proposed limits. The process was optimized over a 2-day period by sequentially evaluating dose rates ranging from 0.64X to 297X stoichiometry. A minimum dose of 16X stoichiometry was necessary to initiate the reduction reaction that facilitated the mercury removal. Competing electron acceptors likely inhibited the reaction at the lower 1 doses, which prevented removal by air stripping. These results indicate that chemical reduction coupled with air stripping can effectively treat large-volumes of water to emerging part per trillion regulatory standards for mercury.

  7. Max Ambiental S A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ambiental S A Jump to: navigation, search Name: Max Ambiental S.A. Place: Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 01452-938 Sector: Carbon Product: Max Ambiental is a company involved in the...

  8. Ambient Corporation's response to NBP RFI: Communications Requirements...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ambient Corporation's response to NBP RFI: Communications Requirements Ambient Corporation's response to NBP RFI: Communications Requirements Ambient Corporation's comments on ...

  9. Mercury exposure from interior latex paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agocs, M.M.; Etzel, R.A.; Parrish, R.G.; Paschal, D.C.; Campagna, P.R.; Cohen, D.S.; Kilbourne, E.M.; Hesse, J.L. )

    1990-10-18

    Many paint companies have used phenylmercuric acetate as a preservative to prolong the shelf life of interior latex paint. In August 1989, acrodynia, a form of mercury poisoning, occurred in a child exposed to paint fumes in a home recently painted with a brand containing 4.7 mmol of mercury per liter (at that time the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit was 1.5 mmol or less per liter). To determine whether the recent use of that brand of paint containing phenylmercuric acetate was associated with elevated indoor-air and urinary mercury concentrations, we studied 74 exposed persons living in 19 homes recently painted with the brand and 28 unexposed persons living in 10 homes not recently painted with paint containing mercury. The paint samples from the homes of exposed persons contained a median of 3.8 mmol of mercury per liter, and air samples from the homes had a median mercury content of 10.0 nmol per cubic meter (range, less than 0.5 to 49.9). No mercury was detected in paint or air samples from the homes of unexposed persons. The median urinary mercury concentration was higher in the exposed persons (4.7 nmol of mercury per millimole of creatinine; range, 1.4 to 66.5) than in the unexposed persons (1.1 nmol per millimole; range, 0.02 to 3.9; P less than 0.001). Urinary mercury concentrations within the range that we found in exposed persons have been associated with symptomatic mercury poisoning. We found that potentially hazardous exposure to mercury had occurred among persons whose homes were painted with a brand of paint containing mercury at concentrations approximately 2 1/2 times the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit.

  10. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS FOR THE RE-EVOLUTION OF MERCURY INTO ECOSYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A. Withum; J.E. Locke; S.C. Tseng

    2005-03-01

    absorption from ambient surroundings. Mercury loss of 18-26% was detected after 3 and 6 months at 100 F and 140 F from samples of the fixated FGD sludge. Water samples were collected from existing ground water monitoring wells around an active FGD disposal site (8 wells) and an active fly ash slurry impoundment (14 wells). These were wells that the plants have installed to comply with ground water monitoring requirements of their permits. Mercury was not detected in any of the water samples collected from monitoring wells at either site. A literature review concluded that coal combustion byproducts can be disposed of in properly designed landfills that minimize the potentially negative impacts of water intrusion that carries dissolved organic matter (DOM). Dissolved organic matter and sulfate-reducing bacteria can promote the transformation of elemental or oxidized mercury into methyl mercury. The landfill should be properly designed and capped with clays or similar materials to minimize the wet-dry cycles that promote the release of methylmercury.

  12. Trama Tecno Ambiental | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Trama Tecno Ambiental Jump to: navigation, search Name: Trama Tecno-Ambiental Place: Barcelona, Spain Zip: 8026 Sector: Solar Product: Spanish solar engineering firm. References:...

  13. Arquip lago Engenharia Ambiental | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Arquip lago Engenharia Ambiental Jump to: navigation, search Name: Arquiplago Engenharia Ambiental Place: Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 04601-000 Product: Sao Paulo-based...

  14. JMalucelli CMC Ambiental | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CMC Ambiental Jump to: navigation, search Name: JMalucelli & CMC Ambiental Place: Curitiba, Parana, Brazil Zip: 80410-201 Sector: Carbon Product: JV company between Brazilian Grupo...

  15. MDL Ambiente Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MDL Ambiente Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: MDL Ambiente Ltd. Place: Leeds, England, United Kingdom Zip: LS1 2DS Product: The organisation prepares project design documents...

  16. Ambient Control Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Control Systems Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Ambient Control Systems Name: Ambient Control Systems Address: 1810 Gillespie Way Place: El Cajon, California Zip: 92020 Region:...

  17. Final Technical Report: Mercury Release from Organic Matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2015-08-18

    Chemical reactions between mercury, a neurotoxin, and sulfur, an essential nutrient, in the environment control to a large extent the distribution and amount of mercury available for uptake by living organisms. The largest reservoir of sulfur in soils is in living, decaying, and dissolved natural organic matter. The decaying and dissolved organic matter can also coat the surfaces of minerals in the soil. Mercury (as a divalent cation) can bind to the sulfur species in the organic matter as well as to the bare mineral surfaces, but the extent of binding and release of this mercury is not well understood. The goals of the research were to investigate fundamental relationships among mercury, natural organic matter, and selected minerals to better understand specifically the fate and transport of mercury in contaminated soils downstream from the Y-12 plant along East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee, and more generally in any contaminated soil. The research focused on (1) experiments to quantify the uptake and release of mercury from two clay minerals in the soil, kaolinite and vermiculite, in the presence and absence of dissolved organic matter; (2) release of mercury from cinnabar under oxic and anoxic conditions; (3) characterization of the forms of mercury in the soil using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopic techniques; and, (4) determination of molecular forms of mercury in the presence of natural organic matter. We also leveraged funding from the National Science Foundation to (5) evaluate published approaches for determining sulfur speciation in natural organic matter by fitting X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra obtained at the sulfur K-edge and apply optimized fitting schemes to new measurements of sulfur speciation in a suite of dissolved organic matter samples from the International Humic Substances Society. Lastly, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Colorado and the U.S. Geological Survey in Boulder, Colorado, (6

  18. Improved Ex-Situ Mercury Remediation - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Improved Ex-Situ Mercury Remediation Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The present invention provides a process for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel. The process is effective in treating various types of mercury contaminated waste; such as elemental mercury or mercury compounds, mercury contaminated bulk material, or

  19. In-Situ Mercury Remediation - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In-Situ Mercury Remediation Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary In Situ Mercury Stabilization (ISMS) is a method that can remove toxic mercury from soil, sediment, sludge, and other industrial waste. Description ISMS includes a device and method for remediation of mercury contamination in which mercury is first concentrated by inserting rods of sulfur reagent into the waste. Mercury is drawn to specially designed treatment rods, which

  20. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Makarewicz, M.A.; Meredith, P.F.

    1985-03-04

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  1. Process for removing mercury from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Googin, John M.; Napier, John M.; Makarewicz, Mark A.; Meredith, Paul F.

    1986-01-01

    A process for removing mercury from water to a level not greater than two parts per billion wherein an anion exchange material that is insoluble in water is contacted first with a sulfide containing compound and second with a compound containing a bivalent metal ion forming an insoluble metal sulfide. To this treated exchange material is contacted water containing mercury. The water containing not more than two parts per billion of mercury is separated from the exchange material.

  2. CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE ...

  3. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury A promoted activated carbon ... the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance andor mercury capture. ...

  4. Evaluation of the Mercury Soil Mapping Geothermal Exploration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the Mercury Soil Mapping Geothermal Exploration Techniques Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Evaluation of the Mercury Soil...

  5. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Fossil Energy Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; Flue Gas; Flue Gas; Mercury; Mercury; ...

  6. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  7. Apparatus for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Marcucci, Rudolph V.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for enriching the isotopic Hg content of mercury is provided. The apparatus includes a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill including mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. In a preferred embodiment, constant mercury pressure is maintained in the filter by means of a water-cooled tube that depends from it, the tube having a drop of mercury disposed in it. The reactor is arranged around the filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of a material which is transparent to ultraviolet light.

  8. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  9. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  10. Identification of elemental mercury in the subsurface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Dennis G

    2015-01-06

    An apparatus and process is provided for detecting elemental mercury in soil. A sacrificial electrode of aluminum is inserted below ground to a desired location using direct-push/cone-penetrometer based equipment. The insertion process removes any oxides or previously found mercury from the electrode surface. Any mercury present adjacent the electrode can be detected using a voltmeter which indicates the presence or absence of mercury. Upon repositioning the electrode within the soil, a fresh surface of the aluminum electrode is created allowing additional new measurements.

  11. Mercury Emission Measurement at a CFB Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-02-28

    In response to pending regulation to control mercury emissions in the United States and Canada, several projects have been conducted to perform accurate mass balances at pulverized coal (pc)-fired utilities. Part of the mercury mass balance always includes total gaseous mercury as well as a determination of the speciation of the mercury emissions and a concentration bound to the particulate matter. This information then becomes useful in applying mercury control strategies, since the elemental mercury has traditionally been difficult to control by most technologies. In this instance, oxidation technologies have proven most beneficial for increased capture. Despite many years of mercury measurement and control projects at pc-fired units, far less work has been done on circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) units, which are able to combust a variety of feedstocks, including cofiring coal with biomass. Indeed, these units have proven to be more problematic because it is very difficult to obtain a reliable mercury mass balance. These units tend to have very different temperature profiles than pc-fired utility boilers. The flexibility of CFB units also tends to be an issue when a mercury balance is determined, since the mercury inputs to the system come from the bed material and a variety of fuels, which can have quite variable chemistry, especially for mercury. In addition, as an integral part of the CFB operation, the system employs a feedback loop to circulate the bed material through the combustor and the solids collection system (the primary cyclone), thereby subjecting particulate-bound metals to higher temperatures again. Despite these issues, CFB boilers generally emit very little mercury and show good native capture. The Energy & Environmental Research Center is carrying out this project for Metso Power in order to characterize the fate of mercury across the unit at Rosebud Plant, an industrial user of CFB technology from Metso. Appropriate solids were collected, and

  12. Environmental Remediation program completes legacy mercury cleanup...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stories Legacy slope-side cleanup Environmental Remediation program completes legacy mercury cleanup near Smith's Marketplace Los Alamos National Laboratory performed a ...

  13. Modeling and Experimental Studies of Mercury Oxidation and Adsorption in a Fixed-Bed and Entrained-Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buitrago, Paula A; Morrill, Mike; Lighty, JoAnn S; Silcox, Geoffrey D

    2014-08-20

    This report presents experimental and modeling mercury oxidation and adsorption data. Fixed-bed and single-particle models of mercury adsorption were developed. The experimental data were obtained with two reactors: a 300-W, methane-fired, tubular, quartz-lined reactor for studying homogeneous oxidation reactions and a fixed-bed reactor, also of quartz, for studying heterogeneous reactions. The latter was attached to the exit of the former to provide realistic combustion gases. The fixed-bed reactor contained one gram of coconut-shell carbon and remained at a temperature of 150oC. All methane, air, SO2, and halogen species were introduced through the burner to produce a radical pool representative of real combustion systems. A Tekran 2537A Analyzer coupled with a wet conditioning system provided speciated mercury concentrations. At 150?C and in the absence of HCl or HBr, the mercury uptake was about 20%. The addition of 50 ppm HCl caused complete capture of all elemental and oxidized mercury species. In the absence of halogens, SO2 increased the mercury adsorption efficiency to up to 30 percent. The extent of adsorption decreased with increasing SO2 concentration when halogens were present. Increasing the HCl concentration to 100 ppm lessened the effect of SO2. The fixed-bed model incorporates Langmuir adsorption kinetics and was developed to predict adsorption of elemental mercury and the effect of multiple flue gas components. This model neglects intraparticle diffusional resistances and is only applicable to pulverized carbon sorbents. It roughly describes experimental data from the literature. The current version includes the ability to account for competitive adsorption between mercury, SO2, and NO2. The single particle model simulates in-flight sorbent capture of elemental mercury. This model was developed to include Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, rate equations, sorbent feed rate, and intraparticle diffusion. The Freundlich isotherm more accurately

  14. Fly ash properties and mercury sorbent affect mercury release from curing concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danold W. Golightly; Chin-Min Cheng; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker; William E. Wolfe

    2009-04-15

    The release of mercury from concrete containing fly ashes from various generator boilers and powdered activated carbon sorbent used to capture mercury was measured in laboratory experiments. Release of gaseous mercury from these concretes was less than 0.31% of the total quantity of mercury present. The observed gaseous emissions of mercury during the curing process demonstrated a dependency on the organic carbon content of the fly ash, with mercury release decreasing with increasing carbon content. Further, lower gaseous emissions of mercury were observed for concretes incorporating ash containing activated carbon sorbent than would be expected based on the observed association with organic carbon, suggesting that the powdered activated carbon more tightly binds the mercury as compared to unburned carbon in the ash. Following the initial 28-day curing interval, mercury release diminished with time. In separate leaching experiments, average mercury concentrations leached from fly ash concretes were less than 4.1 ng/L after 18 h and 7 days, demonstrating that less than 0.02% of the mercury was released during leaching. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Cavitation as a Mechanism to Enhance Wetting in a Mercury Thermal Convection Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawel, SJ

    2001-07-17

    Type 316L stainless steel was statically tested under cavitation conditions via an ultrasonic transducer externally mounted on a tube filled with ambient mercury. During the preliminary exposure (24 h, 20 kHz, 1.5 MPa), cavitation resulted in apparent wetting of the specimens by mercury as well as general surface roughening and wastage similar to erosion damage. Subsequently, a thermal convection loop identical to those used previously to study thermal gradient mass transfer was modified to include an externally-mounted donut-shaped transducer in order to similarly produce cavitation and wetting at temperatures prototypic of those expected in the SNS target. However, a series of attempts to develop cavitation and wetting on 316L specimens in the thermal convection loop was unsuccessful.

  16. Oak Ridge Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ridge Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup Oak Ridge Moves Forward in Mercury Cleanup March 28, 2013 - 12:00pm Addthis Workers recently removed five large mercury-contaminated tanks from Y-12. Workers recently removed five large mercury-contaminated tanks from Y-12. Removing these tanks is part of the steps to reduce potential risk from mercury at Y-12. Removing these tanks is part of the steps to reduce potential risk from mercury at Y-12. Workers recently removed five large mercury-contaminated

  17. Treatment of mercury containing waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalb, Paul D.; Melamed, Dan; Patel, Bhavesh R; Fuhrmann, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

  18. Biogas Energia Ambiental SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ambiental SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biogas Energia Ambiental SA Place: Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 04561-004 Product: Sao Paulo-based landfill biogas-to-energy...

  19. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  20. Mercury Solar Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of PV products and systems for commercial and residential clients in the New York metrotri-state area. References: Mercury Solar Systems1 This article is a stub. You can...

  1. Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A filter for enriching the .sup.196 Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The .sup.196 Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter.

  2. Filter for isotopic alteration of mercury vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-06-13

    A filter is described for enriching the [sup 196]Hg content of mercury, including a reactor, a low pressure electric discharge lamp containing a fill of mercury and an inert gas. A filter is arranged concentrically around the lamp. The reactor is arranged around said filter, whereby radiation from said lamp passes through the filter and into said reactor. The lamp, the filter and the reactor are formed of quartz, and are transparent to ultraviolet light. The [sup 196]Hg concentration in the mercury fill is less than that which is present in naturally occurring mercury, that is, less than about 0.146 atomic weight percent. Hydrogen is also included in the fill and serves as a quenching gas in the filter, the hydrogen also serving to prevent disposition of a dark coating on the interior of the filter. 9 figs.

  3. Removal of mercury from waste gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muster, U.; Marr, R.; Pichler, G.; Kremshofer, S.; Wilferl, R.; Draxler, J.

    1996-12-31

    Waste and process gases from thermal power, incineration and metallurgical plants or those from cement and alkali chloride industries contain metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Widespread processes to remove the major amount of mercury are absorption and adsorption. Caused by the lowering of the emission limit from 200 to 50 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] by national and European legislators, considerable efforts were made to enhance the efficiency of the main separation units of flue gas cleaning plants. Specially impregnated ceramic carriers can be used for the selective separation of metallic, inorganic and organic mercury. Using the ceramic reactor removal rates lower than 5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} [STP] of gaseous mercury and its compounds can be achieved. The ceramic reactor is active, regenerable and stable for a long term operation. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klunder; ,Edgar B.

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  5. Summary - Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for adequacy in reducing Hg levels in the fish and to indentify opportunities to achieve ... contamination in the East Fork Popular Creek and how to reduce mercury levels in the fish. ...

  6. Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The mission of the Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative is to control the flux of contaminants in soil and water environments for the purpose of...

  7. Analysis of Alternative Mercury Control Strategies

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    This analysis responds to a September 14, 2004, request from Chairmen James M. Inhofe and George V. Voinovich asking the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to analyze the impacts of different approaches for removing mercury from coal-fired power plants.

  8. The Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Statement (Mercury Storage EIS) DOE Grand Junction Disposal Site, CO The Grand Junction Disposal Site is located on DOE-owned land, 18 miles southeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. ...

  9. Innovative Mercury Treatment Benefits Stream, Fish

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    AIKEN, S.C. – A team of scientists is working at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to evaluate the impact of an innovative, inexpensive treatment system that removes mercury from water.

  10. Mercury-metadata data management system

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-03

    Mercury is a federated metadata harvesting, search and retrieval tool based on both open source software and software developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was originally developed for NASA, USGS, and DOE. A major new version of Mercury (version 3.0) was developed during 2007 and released in early 2008. This Mercury 3.0 version provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facettedmore » type search, support for RSS delivery of search results, and ready customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects which use Mercury. For the end users, Mercury provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems. It collects metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The Mercury search interfaces then allow the users to perform simple, fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data.« less

  11. Mercury cleanup efforts intensify | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury cleanup efforts ... Mercury cleanup efforts intensify Posted: February 11, 2013 - 3:31pm | Y-12 Report | Volume 9, Issue 2 | 2013 Millions of pounds of mercury were required to support Y-12's post-World War II mission of separating lithium isotopes. Cleaning up the toxic heavy metal poses many challenges, but what Y-12 is learning could help conquer mercury pollution worldwide. There's a reason you won't find mercury in many thermometers these days. Mercury is a heavy metal that occurs

  12. Statute - Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » Waste Management » Waste Disposition » Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury is in the Planning Stages » Statute - Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 Statute - Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 Public Law 110-414, 110th Congress - Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 to prohibit the sale, distribution, transfer, and export of elemental mercury, and for other purposes. Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (166.11 KB) More Documents & Publications Section 129 of the Consolidated

  13. Formation of soluble mercury oxide coatings: Transformation of elemental mercury in soils

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miller, Carrie L.; Watson, David B.; Lester, Brian P.; Howe, Jane Y.; Phillips, Debra H.; He, Feng; Liang, Liyuan; Pierce, Eric M.

    2015-09-21

    In this study, the impact of mercury (Hg) on human and ecological health has been known for decades. Although a treaty signed in 2013 by 147 nations regulates future large-scale mercury emissions, legacy Hg contamination exists worldwide and small-scale releases will continue. The fate of elemental mercury, Hg(0), lost to the subsurface and its potential chemical transformation that can lead to changes in speciation and mobility are poorly understood. Here, we show that Hg(0) beads interact with soil or manganese oxide solids and X-ray spectroscopic analysis indicates that the soluble mercury coatings are HgO. Dissolution studies show that, after reactingmore » with a composite soil, >20 times more Hg is released into water from the coated beads than from a pure liquid mercury bead. An even larger, >700 times, release occurs from coated Hg(0) beads that have been reacted with manganese oxide, suggesting that manganese oxides are involved in the transformation of the Hg(0) beads and creation of the soluble mercury coatings. Although the coatings may inhibit Hg(0) evaporation, the high solubility of the coatings can enhance Hg(II) migration away from the Hg(0)-spill site and result in potential changes in mercury speciation in the soil and increased mercury mobility.« less

  14. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2005-12-30

    The power industry in the U.S. is faced with meeting new regulations to reduce the emissions of mercury compounds from coal-fired plants. These regulations are directed at the existing fleet of nearly 1,100 boilers. These plants are relatively old with an average age of over 40 years. Although most of these units are capable of operating for many additional years, there is a desire to minimize large capital expenditures because of the reduced (and unknown) remaining life of the plant to amortize the project. Injecting a sorbent such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. This is the final site report for tests conducted at Laramie River Station Unit 3, one of five sites evaluated in this DOE/NETL program. The overall objective of the test program is to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at five plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, and AEP's Conesville Station Unit 6. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The goals for the program established by DOE/NETL are to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the benchmark established by DOE of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The goals of the program were exceeded at Laramie River Station by achieving over 90% mercury removal at a sorbent cost of $3,980/lb ($660/oz) mercury removed for a coal mercury content of 7.9 lb/TBtu.

  15. Nucleotide sequence of a chromosomal mercury resistance determinant from a Bacillus sp. with broad-spectrum mercury resistance. [Mercury reductase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.; Levinson, H.S.; Mahler, I. ); Moore, M.; Walsh, C. ); Silver, S. )

    1989-01-01

    A 13.5-kilobase HindIII fragment, bearing an intact mercury resistance (mer) operon, was isolated from chromosomal DNA of broad-spectrum mercury-resistant Bacillus sp. strain RC607 by using as a probe a clone containing the mercury reductase (merA) gene. The new clone, pYW33, expressed broad-spectrum mercury resistance both in Escherichia coli and in Bacillus subtilis, but only in B. subtilis was the mercuric reductase activity inducible. Sequencing of a 1.8-kilobase mercury hypersensitivity-producing fragment revealed four open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 may code for a regulatory protein (MerR). ORF2 and ORF4 were associated with cellular transport function and the hypersensitivity phenotype. DNA fragments encompassing the merA and the merB genes were sequenced. The predicted Bacillus sp. strain RC607 MerA (mercuric reductase) and MerB (organomercurial lyase) were similar to those predicted from Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 (67 and 73% amino acid identities, respectively); however, only 40% of the amino acid residues of RC607 MerA were identical to those of the mercuric reductase from gram-negative bacteria. A 69-kilodalton polypeptide was isolated and identified as the merA gene product by examination of its amino-terminal sequence.

  16. Sensitive Species

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sensitive Species Sensitive Species By avoiding or minimizing the impact of Laboratory activities on sensitive species, LANL can potentially reduce the possibility of these species being upgraded to federal protection. February 2, 2015 sensitive species The bald eagle is one of our sensitive species. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email Sensitive species are plants and animals that are protected at the state

  17. Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from the United States as of January 1, 2013, the Mercury Export Ban Act of 2008 (MEBA) ... and 2 it will not sell, or otherwise place the elemental mercury into commerce. ...

  18. Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge Full Document and ...

  19. VEE-0020- In the Matter of Mercury Fuel Service, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On April 9, 1996, Mercury Fuel Service, Inc. (Mercury) of Waterbury, Connecticut, filed an Application for Exception with the Office of Hearings and Appeals (OHA) of the Department of Energy (DOE)....

  20. Operating Experience Level 3, Safe Management of Mercury | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    to raise awareness about mercury hazards and to reinforce the informaiton in Safety and Health Bulleting 2005-08, Safe Management of Mercury. OE-3 2012-03: Safe Management of...

  1. DOE Interim Guidance on Mercury Management Procedures and Standards |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Services » Waste Management » Waste Disposition » Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury is in the Planning Stages » DOE Interim Guidance on Mercury Management Procedures and Standards DOE Interim Guidance on Mercury Management Procedures and Standards DOE, in consultation with the USEPA and State agencies, prepared this guidance on packaging, transportation, receipt, management, and long-term storage of elemental mercury at a DOE facility or

  2. Turbine airfoil with ambient cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Jr, Christian X.; Marra, John J.; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-06-07

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one ambient air cooling system is disclosed. At least a portion of the cooling system may include one or more cooling channels configured to receive ambient air at about atmospheric pressure. The ambient air cooling system may have a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of at least 0.5, and in at least one embodiment, may include a tip static pressure to ambient pressure ratio of between about 0.5 and about 3.0. The cooling system may also be configured such that an under root slot chamber in the root is large to minimize supply air velocity. One or more cooling channels of the ambient air cooling system may terminate at an outlet at the tip such that the outlet is aligned with inner surfaces forming the at least one cooling channel in the airfoil to facilitate high mass flow.

  3. CFD Modeling for Mercury Control Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madsen, J.I.

    2006-12-01

    Compliance with the Clean Air Mercury Rule will require implementation of dedicated mercury control solutions at a significant portion of the U.S. coal-fired utility fleet. Activated Carbon Injection (ACI) upstream of a particulate control device (ESP or baghouse) remains one of the most promising near-term mercury control technologies. The DOE/NETL field testing program has advanced the understanding of mercury control by ACI, but a persistent need remains to develop predictive models that may improve the understanding and practical implementation of this technology. This presentation describes the development of an advanced model of in-flight mercury capture based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The model makes detailed predictions of the induct spatial distribution and residence time of sorbent, as well as predictions of mercury capture efficiency for particular sorbent flow rates and injection grid configurations. Hence, CFD enables cost efficient optimization of sorbent injection systems for mercury control to a degree that would otherwise be impractical both for new and existing plants. In this way, modeling tools may directly address the main cost component of operating an ACI system the sorbent expense. A typical 300 MW system is expected to require between $1 and $2 million of sorbent per year, and so even modest reductions (say 10-20%) in necessary sorbent feed injection rates will quickly make any optimization effort very worthwhile. There are few existing models of mercury capture, and these typically make gross assumptions of plug gas flow, zero velocity slip between particle and gas phase, and uniform sorbent dispersion. All of these assumptions are overcome with the current model, which is based on first principles and includes mass transfer processes occurring at multiple scales, ranging from the large-scale transport in the duct to transport within the porous structure of a sorbent particle. In principle any single one of these processes

  4. DOE Issues Final Mercury Storage Environmental Impact Statement: Texas Site Is Preferred for Long-Term Mercury Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    WASHINGTON – The Department of Energy has prepared a Final Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Environmental Impact Statement to analyze the potential environmental, human health, and socioeconomic impacts of elemental mercury storage at seven locations

  5. Greenvision Ambiente Spa | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Greenvision Ambiente Spa Place: Reggio Emilia, Italy Zip: 42020 Sector: Solar Product: Italian engineering company focussed on building waste-to-energy plants, as well as solar PV...

  6. Endangered Species

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Endangered Species Protecting our Endangered Species The Endangered Species Act requires that endangered species be protected at the individual level. February 2, 2015 Adult Mexican Spotted Owl Adult Mexican Spotted Owl recorded in 2010. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email The Habitat Management Plan details how threatened and endangered species and their habitats are managed at LANL. Endangered species on

  7. Preliminary study on mercury uptake by Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) in a mining area (Mt. Amiata, Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barghigiani, C.; Ristori, T.

    1995-04-01

    Among the different plants analyzed to assess environmental mercury contamination of mining areas, lichens are those most studied, followed by brooms together with pine, which was also used in other areas, and spruce. Other species, both naturally occurring and cultivated, have also been studied. This work reports on the results of mercury uptake and accumulation in rosemary in relation to metal concentrations in both air and soil. R. officinalis is a widespread endemic Mediterranean evergreen shrub, which in Italy grows naturally and is also cultivated as a culinary herb. This research was carried out in Tuscany (Italy), in the Mt. Amiata area, which is characterized by the presence of cinnabar (HgS) deposits and has been used for mercury extraction and smelting from Etruscan times until 1980, and in the country near the town of Pisa, 140 km away from Mt. Amiata. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Geochemical, Genetic, and Community Controls on Mercury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2014-11-10

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are soil bacteria that share two common characteristics, strict anaerobiosis and the ability to respire sulfate. The metabolic activities of these bacteria play significant roles in the global sulfur cycle, anaerobic degradation of biomass, biological metal corrosion in the environment and, recently, degradation of toxic compounds. The accumulation of evidence suggests these bacteria are also key to the production of the neurotoxin methylmercury in environmental settings. We propose to use our experience with the development of genetics in sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio to create mutations that will eliminate the methylation of mercury, thereby identifying the genes essential for this process. This information may allow the environmental monitoring of the mercury methylation potential to learn the location and quantity of the production this toxin. From these data, more accurate predictive models of mercury cycling can be generated.

  9. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John H.

    2008-10-14

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  10. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John Henry

    2014-09-02

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  11. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Edwin S.; Holmes, Michael J.; Pavlish, John H.

    2012-05-01

    A promoted activated carbon sorbent is described that is highly effective for the removal of mercury from flue gas streams. The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. These may be added directly with the sorbent, or to the flue gas to enhance sorbent performance and/or mercury capture. Mercury removal efficiencies obtained exceed conventional methods. The sorbent can be regenerated and reused. Sorbent treatment and preparation methods are also described. New methods for in-flight preparation, introduction, and control of the active sorbent into the mercury contaminated gas stream are described.

  12. ZZ Mercury Storage Book.indb

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Z:\ENROLL\H1.ENR Z:\ENROLL\H1.ENR Z:\ENROLL\H1.ENR (89.89 KB) More Documents & Publications Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 E:\BILLS\H6.PP Energy Policy Act of 2005

    2 Comment Response Document Environmental Impact Statement Final Final Environmental Impact Statement DOE/EIS-0423 January 2011 Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury Long-Term Management and Storage of Elemental Mercury For additional information on this Final

  13. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  14. Phytoremediation of ionic and methyl mercury pollution. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meagher, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    'The long-term goal of this research is to manipulate single-gene traits into plants, enabling them to process heavy metals and remediate heavy-metal pollution by resistance, sequestration, removal, and management of these contaminants (Meagher and Rugh, 1996; Meagher et al., 1997). The working hypothesis behind this proposal was that transgenic plants expressing both the bacterial organo mercury lyase (merB) and the mercuric ion reductase gene (merA) will (A) remove the mercury from polluted sites and (B) prevent methyl mercury from entering the food chain. The authors have had a very successful first year either testing aspects of this hypothesis directly or preparing material needed for future experiments. The results are outlined below under goals A and B, which are explicit in this hypothesis. There were less than 10% of the funds remaining in any category as projected in the first 12 month budget at the end of the first year, with the exception of the equipment category which had 25% of the funds remaining ({approximately} $8,000). Much of this remaining equipment money is being spent this week on a mercury vapor analyzer. It might be useful to remember that at the time this grant was awarded, the authors had successfully engineered a small model plant, Arabidopsis thalianat to use a highly modified bacterial mercuric ion reductase gene, merA9, to detoxify ionic mercury (Hg(II)), reducing it to Hg(0) (Rugh et al., 1996). Seeds from these plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of Hg(II) that are lethal to normal plants. In assays on transgenic seedlings suspended in a solution of Hg(II), 10 ng of Hg(0) was evolved per min per mg wet weight of plant tissue. However, at that time, they had no information on expression of merA in any other plant species, nor had they expressed merB in any plant.'

  15. FY09 assessment of mercury reduction at SNL/NM.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCord, Samuel Adam

    2010-02-01

    This assessment takes the result of the FY08 performance target baseline of mercury at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico, and records the steps taken in FY09 to collect additional data, encourage the voluntary reduction of mercury, and measure success. Elemental (metallic) mercury and all of its compounds are toxic, and exposure to excessive levels can permanently damage or fatally injure the brain and kidneys. Elemental mercury can also be absorbed through the skin and cause allergic reactions. Ingestion of inorganic mercury compounds can cause severe renal and gastrointestinal damage. Organic compounds of mercury such as methyl mercury, created when elemental mercury enters the environment, are considered the most toxic forms of the element. Exposures to very small amounts of these compounds can result in devastating neurological damage and death.1 SNL/NM is required to report annually on the site wide inventory of mercury for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Program, as the site's inventory is excess of the ten pound reportable threshold quantity. In the fiscal year 2008 (FY08) Pollution Prevention Program Plan, Section 5.3 Reduction of Environmental Releases, a performance target stated was to establish a baseline of mercury, its principle uses, and annual quantity or inventory. This was accomplished on July 29, 2008 by recording the current status of mercury in the Chemical Information System (CIS).

  16. Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

    2008-08-17

    The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of <$30,000/lb of Hg removed. WRI has teamed with Etaa Energy, Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (FWNA), and Washington Division of URS (WD-URS), and with project co-sponsors including Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern Company, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC), Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU), North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), Detroit Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods. As such, further

  17. Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Helfritch, Dennis J.

    1998-07-28

    A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

  18. Conceptual studies for a mercury target circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sigg, B.

    1996-06-01

    For the now favored target design of the European Spallation Source project, i.e. the version using mercury as target material, a basic concept of the primary system has been worked out. It does not include a detailed design of the various components of the target circuit, but tries to outline a feasible solution for the system. Besides the removal of the thermal power of about 3MW produced in the target by the proton beam, the primary system has to satisfy a number of other requirements related to processing, safety, and operation. The basic proposal uses an electromagnetic pump and a mercury-water intermediate heat excanger, but other alternatives are also being discussed. Basic safety requirements, i.e. protection against radiation and toxic mercury vapours, are satisfied by a design using an air-tight primary system containment, double-walled tubes in the intermediate heat exchanger, a fail-safe system for decay heat removal, and a remote handling facility for the active part of the system. Much engineering work has still to be done, because many details of the design of the mercury and gas processing systems remain to be clarified, the thermal-hydraulic components need further optimisation, the system for control and instrumentation is only known in outline and a through safety analysis will be required.

  19. Evaluation of Sorbent Injection for Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2008-06-30

    ADA-ES, Inc., with support from DOE/NETL, EPRI, and industry partners, studied mercury control options at six coal-fired power plants. The overall objective of the this test program was to evaluate the capabilities of activated carbon injection at six plants: Sunflower Electric's Holcomb Station Unit 1, AmerenUE's Meramec Station Unit 2, Missouri Basin Power Project's Laramie River Station Unit 3, Detroit Edison's Monroe Power Plant Unit 4, American Electric Power's Conesville Station Unit 6, and Labadie Power Plant Unit 2. These plants have configurations that together represent 78% of the existing coal-fired generation plants. The financial goals for the program established by DOE/NETL were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 50 to 70% at a cost 25 to 50% lower than the target established by DOE of $60,000 per pound of mercury removed. Results from testing at Holcomb, Laramie, Meramec, Labadie, and Monroe indicate the DOE goal was successfully achieved. However, further improvements for plants with conditions similar to Conesville are recommended that would improve both mercury removal performance and economics.

  20. Removal of Mercury from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-29

    A paper study was completed to survey literature, patents, and companies for mercury removal technologies applicable to gasification technologies. The objective was to determine if mercury emissions from gasification of coal are more or less difficult to manage than those from a combustion system. The purpose of the study was to define the extent of the mercury problem for gasification-based coal utilization and conversion systems. It is clear that in coal combustion systems, the speciation of mercury between elemental vapor and oxidized forms depends on a number of factors. The most important speciation factors are the concentration of chlorides in the coal, the temperatures in the ducting, and residence times. The collection of all the mercury was most dependent upon the extent of carbon in the fly ash, and the presence of a wet gas desulfurization system. In combustion, high chloride content plus long residence times at intermediate temperatures leads to oxidation of the mercury. The mercury is then captured in the wet gas desulfurization system and in the fly ash as HgCl{sub 2}. Without chloride, the mercury oxidizes much slower, but still may be trapped on thick bag house deposits. Addition of limestone to remove sulfur may trap additional mercury in the slag. In gasification where the mercury is expected to be elemental, activated carbon injection has been the most effective method of mercury removal. The carbon is best injected downstream where temperatures have moderated and an independent collector can be established. Concentrations of mercury sorbent need to be 10,000 to 20,000 the concentrations of the mercury. Pretreatment of the activated carbon may include acidification or promotion by sulfur.

  1. Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2005-07-01

    This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including

  2. Solaria Energia y Medio Ambiente SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Medio Ambiente SA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solaria Energia y Medio Ambiente SA Place: Puertollano, Spain Zip: 13500 Product: Spanish PV module and passive system...

  3. Emte Medio Ambiente y Energia | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Medio Ambiente y Energia Jump to: navigation, search Name: Emte Medio Ambiente y Energia Place: Spain Product: EMTE is structured into five business units providing the backbone...

  4. San Jose Energia y Medio Ambiente | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energia y Medio Ambiente Jump to: navigation, search Name: San Jose Energia y Medio Ambiente Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28760 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Madrid based...

  5. Ecogeo Meio Ambiente e Energias Renov veis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ecogeo Meio Ambiente e Energias Renov veis Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ecogeo - Meio Ambiente e Energias Renovveis Place: So Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 04794-000...

  6. Age Inversiones in Media Ambiente AIMA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Inversiones in Media Ambiente AIMA Jump to: navigation, search Name: Age Inversiones in Media Ambiente (AIMA) Place: Spain Product: Invests in projects that aim to generate energy...

  7. In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: In Situ Ambient Pressure X-ray ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In Situ Ambient ... Resource Relation: Journal Name: Scientific Reports; Journal ...

  8. Arauna Energia e Gest o Ambiental | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Arauna Energia e Gest o Ambiental Jump to: navigation, search Name: Arauna Energia e Gesto Ambiental Place: So Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 01420-002 Product: Brazilian...

  9. Oxidation of Mercury in Products of Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Walsh; Giang Tong; Neeles Bhopatkar; Thomas Gale; George Blankenship; Conrad Ingram; Selasi Blavo Tesfamariam Mehreteab; Victor Banjoko; Yohannes Ghirmazion; Heng Ban; April Sibley

    2009-09-14

    Laboratory measurements of mercury oxidation during selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of nitric oxide, simulation of pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash, and synthesis of new materials for simultaneous oxidation and adsorption of mercury, were performed in support of the development of technology for control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers and furnaces. Conversion of gas-phase mercury from the elemental state to water-soluble oxidized form (HgCl{sub 2}) enables removal of mercury during wet flue gas desulfurization. The increase in mercury oxidation in a monolithic V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} SCR catalyst with increasing HCl at low levels of HCl (< 10 ppmv) and decrease in mercury oxidation with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio during SCR were consistent with results of previous work by others. The most significant finding of the present work was the inhibition of mercury oxidation in the presence of CO during SCR of NO at low levels of HCl. In the presence of 2 ppmv HCl, expected in combustion products from some Powder River Basin coals, an increase in CO from 0 to 50 ppmv reduced the extent of mercury oxidation from 24 {+-} 3 to 1 {+-} 4%. Further increase in CO to 100 ppmv completely suppressed mercury oxidation. In the presence of 11-12 ppmv HCl, increasing CO from 0 to {approx}120 ppmv reduced mercury oxidation from {approx}70% to 50%. Conversion of SO{sub 2} to sulfate also decreased with increasing NH{sub 3}/NO ratio, but the effects of HCl and CO in flue gas on SO{sub 2} oxidation were unclear. Oxidation and adsorption of mercury by unburned carbon and fly ash enables mercury removal in a particulate control device. A chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of nine homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions for mercury oxidation and removal was developed to interpret pilot-scale measurements of mercury oxidation and adsorption by unburned carbon and fly ash in experiments at pilot

  10. Mercury Emissions Control Technologies (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 reference case assumes that states will comply with the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency's new Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) regulation. CAMR is a two-phase program, with a Phase I cap of 38 tons of mercury emitted from all U.S. power plants in 2010 and a Phase II cap of 15 tons in 2018. Mercury emissions in the electricity generation sector in 2003 are estimated at around 50 tons. Generators have a variety of options to meet the mercury limits, such as: switching to coal with a lower mercury content, relying on flue gas desulfurization or selective catalytic reduction equipment to reduce mercury emissions, or installing conventional activated carbon injection (ACI) technology.

  11. Evaluation of mercury in the liquid waste processing facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Vijay; Shah, Hasmukh; Occhipinti, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Edwards, Richard E.

    2015-08-13

    This report provides a summary of Phase I activities conducted to support an Integrated Evaluation of Mercury in Liquid Waste System (LWS) Processing Facilities. Phase I activities included a review and assessment of the liquid waste inventory and chemical processing behavior of mercury using a system by system review methodology approach. Gaps in understanding mercury behavior as well as action items from the structured reviews are being tracked. 64% of the gaps and actions have been resolved.

  12. Microsoft PowerPoint - DOELM_Mercury_Storage.ppt

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Mercury Storage Concept Pre-Environmental Impact Statement Grand Junction, Colorado, Scoping Meeting Information 2 Mercury Export Ban Act Passed into law in October 2008 Purpose is to prohibit the export of mercury Identifies the Department of Energy (DOE) as the agency to provide long-term storage with collaboration from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Requires: * Guidance on standards and procedures by October 1, 2009 * Facility will be constructed and operated to hazardous waste

  13. Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2011-12-06

    A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

  14. Argonne/EPA system captures mercury from air in gold shops |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Typical gold shop hood used to purify gold by superheating the goldmercury amalgam until the mercury vaporizes. The vaporized mercury is directed outside the shop into the open...

  15. Mercury Vapor At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  16. Thermally Speciated Mercury in Mineral Exploration | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Speciated Mercury in Mineral Exploration Abstract Abstract unavailable. Author S.C. Smith Conference IGES; Dublin, CA; 20030901 Published IGES, 2003 DOI Not Provided Check...

  17. Sorbents for the oxidation and removal of mercury (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The sorbent comprises a new modified carbon form containing reactive forms of halogen and halides. Optional components may be added to increase reactivity and mercury capacity. ...

  18. Mercury Vapor At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Hualalai lower northwest rift and southern flank were sampled for soil mercury concentration and radon emanation rates (Cox and Cuff, 1981d). The data generated by these...

  19. Mercury Vapor At Olowalu-Ukumehame Canyon Area (Thomas, 1986...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes Soil mercury concentration and radon emanometry surveys were conducted along the stream beds in both Olowalu...

  20. Mercury Vapor At Lahaina-Kaanapali Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The soil mercury concentration and radon emanometry patterns observed for the Lahaina prospect were similar to...

  1. Removal of mercury from coal via a microbial pretreatment process...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The mercury can be recovered in pure form from the sorbents via additional processing. Inventors: Borole, Abhijeet P. 1 ; Hamilton, Choo Y. 1 + Show Author Affiliations ...

  2. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center ...

  3. Soil mercury investigations, Waunita Hot Springs | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Report: Soil mercury investigations, Waunita Hot Springs Authors C. D. Ringrose and R. H. Pearl Organization Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation with the U.S. Department...

  4. The mission of the Remediation of Mercury and Industrial

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Remediation of Mercury and Industrial Contaminants Applied Field Research Initiative Technical Working Group DOE End-Users ITRC, CABs, regulators and stakeholders Universities, ...

  5. Mercury Vapor At Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Medicine Lake Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration...

  6. Mercury Energy formerly Aquus Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy formerly Aquus Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Mercury Energy (formerly Aquus Energy) Place: New Rochelle, New York Zip: 10801 Sector: Solar Product: Integrator of...

  7. Mercury Vapor At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mokapu Penninsula Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  8. Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Lualualei Valley Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  9. Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Kawaihae Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Kawaihae...

  10. Mercury Vapor At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area (Thomas, 1986...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Mauna Loa Northeast Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details...

  11. Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Mercury Vapor At Socorro Mountain Area (Kooten, 1987) Exploration Activity Details Location...

  12. Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging Using Direct Liquid Extraction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laskin, Julia; Lanekoff, Ingela

    2015-11-13

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful analytical technique that enables label-free spatial localization and identification of molecules in complex samples.1-4 MSI applications range from forensics5 to clinical research6 and from understanding microbial communication7-8 to imaging biomolecules in tissues.1, 9-10 Recently, MSI protocols have been reviewed.11 Ambient ionization techniques enable direct analysis of complex samples under atmospheric pressure without special sample pretreatment.3, 12-16 In fact, in ambient ionization mass spectrometry, sample processing (e.g., extraction, dilution, preconcentration, or desorption) occurs during the analysis.17 This substantially speeds up analysis and eliminates any possible effects of sample preparation on the localization of molecules in the sample.3, 8, 12-14, 18-20 Venter and co-workers have classified ambient ionization techniques into three major categories based on the sample processing steps involved: 1) liquid extraction techniques, in which analyte molecules are removed from the sample and extracted into a solvent prior to ionization; 2) desorption techniques capable of generating free ions directly from substrates; and 3) desorption techniques that produce larger particles subsequently captured by an electrospray plume and ionized.17 This review focuses on localized analysis and ambient imaging of complex samples using a subset of ambient ionization methods broadly defined as “liquid extraction techniques” based on the classification introduced by Venter and co-workers.17 Specifically, we include techniques where analyte molecules are desorbed from solid or liquid samples using charged droplet bombardment, liquid extraction, physisorption, chemisorption, mechanical force, laser ablation, or laser capture microdissection. Analyte extraction is followed by soft ionization that generates ions corresponding to intact species. Some of the key advantages of liquid extraction techniques include the ease

  13. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JoAnn Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this project was to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involved both experimental and modeling efforts. The team was comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective was to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. The results suggested that homogeneous mercury oxidation is below 10% which is not consistent with previous data of others and work which was completed early in this research program. Previous data showed oxidation above 10% and up to 100%. However, the previous data are suspect due to apparent oxidation occurring within the sampling system where hypochlorite ion forms in the KCl impinger, which in turn oxidized mercury. Initial tests with entrained iron oxide particles injected into a flame reactor suggest that iron present on fly ash particle surfaces can promote heterogeneous oxidation of mercury in the presence of HCl under entrained flow conditions. Using the data generated above, with homogeneous reactions accounting for less than 10% of the oxidation, comparisons were made to pilot- and full-scale data. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions, as with the case of iron oxide, and adsorption on solid carbon must be taking place in the full-scale system. Modeling of mercury oxidation using parameters from the literature was conducted to further study the contribution of homogeneous pathways to Hg oxidation in coal combustion systems. Calculations from the literature used rate parameters developed in different studies, in some cases using transition state theory with a range of approaches and basis sets, and in other cases

  14. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  15. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  16. Interim Results from a Study of the Impacts of Tin (II) Based Mercury Treatment in a Small Stream Ecosystem: Tims Branch, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, Brian; BryanJr., Larry; Mathews, Teresa J; Peterson, Mark J; Roy, W Kelly; Jett, Robert T; Smith, John G

    2012-03-01

    A research team is assessing the impacts of an innovative mercury treatment system in Tims Branch, a small southeastern stream. The treatment system, installed in 2007, reduces and removes inorganic mercury from water using tin(II) (stannous) chloride addition followed by air stripping. The system results in discharge of inorganic tin to the ecosystem. This screening study is based on historical information combined with measurements of contaminant concentrations in water, fish, sediment, biofilms and invertebrates. Initial mercury data indicate that first few years of mercury treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mercury concentration in an upper trophic level fish, redfin pickerel, at all sampling locations in the impacted reach. For example, the whole body mercury concentration in redfin pickerel collected from the most impacted pond decreased approximately 72% between 2006 (pre-treatment) and 2010 (post-treatment). Over this same period, mercury concentrations in the fillet of redfin pickerel in this pond were estimated to have decreased from approximately 1.45 {micro}g/g (wet weight basis) to 0.45 {micro}g/g - a decrease from 4.8x to 1.5x the current EPA guideline concentration for mercury in fillet (0.3 {micro}g/g). Thermodynamic modeling, scanning electron microscopy, and other sampling data for tin suggest that particulate tin (IV) oxides are a significant geochemical species entering the ecosystem with elevated levels of tin measured in surficial sediments and biofilms. Detectable increases in tin in sediments and biofilms extended approximately 3km from the discharge location. Tin oxides are recalcitrant solids that are relatively non-toxic and resistant to dissolution. Work continues to develop and validate methods to analyze total tin in the collected biota samples. In general, the interim results of this screening study suggest that the treatment process has performed as predicted and that the concentration of mercury in upper trophic level

  17. Activated carbon injection - a mercury control success story

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    Almost 100 full-scale activated carbon injection (ACI) systems have been ordered by US electric utilities. These systems have the potential to remove over 90% of the mercury in flue, at a cost below $10,000 per pound of mercury removal. Field trials of ACI systems arm outlined. 1 fig.

  18. Method for removal of mercury from various gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.

    2003-06-10

    The invention provides for a method for removing elemental mercury from a fluid, the method comprising irradiating the mercury with light having a wavelength of approximately 254 nm. The method is implemented in situ at various fuel combustion locations such as power plants and municipal incinerators.

  19. Mercury removal in utility wet scrubber using a chelating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amrhein, Gerald T.

    2001-01-01

    A method for capturing and reducing the mercury content of an industrial flue gas such as that produced in the combustion of a fossil fuel or solid waste adds a chelating agent, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other similar compounds like HEDTA, DTPA and/or NTA, to the flue gas being scrubbed in a wet scrubber used in the industrial process. The chelating agent prevents the reduction of oxidized mercury to elemental mercury, thereby increasing the mercury removal efficiency of the wet scrubber. Exemplary tests on inlet and outlet mercury concentration in an industrial flue gas were performed without and with EDTA addition. Without EDTA, mercury removal totaled 42%. With EDTA, mercury removal increased to 71%. The invention may be readily adapted to known wet scrubber systems and it specifically provides for the removal of unwanted mercury both by supplying S.sup.2- ions to convert Hg.sup.2+ ions into mercuric sulfide (HgS) and by supplying a chelating agent to sequester other ions, including but not limited to Fe.sup.2+ ions, which could otherwise induce the unwanted reduction of Hg.sup.2+ to the form, Hg.sup.0.

  20. PyMercury: Interactive Python for the Mercury Monte Carlo Particle Transport Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iandola, F N; O'Brien, M J; Procassini, R J

    2010-11-29

    Monte Carlo particle transport applications are often written in low-level languages (C/C++) for optimal performance on clusters and supercomputers. However, this development approach often sacrifices straightforward usability and testing in the interest of fast application performance. To improve usability, some high-performance computing applications employ mixed-language programming with high-level and low-level languages. In this study, we consider the benefits of incorporating an interactive Python interface into a Monte Carlo application. With PyMercury, a new Python extension to the Mercury general-purpose Monte Carlo particle transport code, we improve application usability without diminishing performance. In two case studies, we illustrate how PyMercury improves usability and simplifies testing and validation in a Monte Carlo application. In short, PyMercury demonstrates the value of interactive Python for Monte Carlo particle transport applications. In the future, we expect interactive Python to play an increasingly significant role in Monte Carlo usage and testing.

  1. Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1996-05-08

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been charactered by the Department of Enregy (DOE) - Office of Technology Development (OTD) to investigate vitrification technology for the treatment of Low Level Mixed Wastes (LLMW). In fiscal year 1995, LLW streams containing mercury and organics were targeted. This report will present the results of studies with mercury contaminated waste. In order to successfully apply vitrification technology to LLMW, the types and quantities of glass forming additives necessary for producing homogeneous glasses from the wastes had to be determined, and the treatment for the mercury portion had to also be determined. The selected additives had to ensure that a durable and leach resistant waste form was produced, while the mercury treatment had to ensure that hazardous amounts of mercury were not released into the environment.

  2. Apparatus and method for removing mercury vapor from a gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganesan, Kumar

    2008-01-01

    A metallic filter effectively removes mercury vapor from gas streams. The filter captures the mercury which then can be released and collected as product. The metallic filter is a copper mesh sponge plated with a six micrometer thickness of gold. The filter removes up to 90% of mercury vapor from a mercury contaminated gas stream.

  3. Volcanic gas emissions and their effect on ambient air character

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.

    1994-01-01

    This bibliography was assembled to service an agreement between Department of Energy and the USGS to provide a body of references and useful annotations for understanding background gas emissions from Kilauea volcano. The current East Rift Zone (ERZ) eruption of Kilauea releases as much as 500,000 metric tonnes of SO{sub 2} annually, along with lesser amounts of other chemically and radiatively active species including H{sub 2}S, HCl, and HF. Primary degassing locations on Kilauea are located in the summit caldera and along the middle ERZ. The effects of these emissions on ambient air character are a complex function of chemical reactivity, source geometry and effusivity, and local meteorology. Because of this complexity, we organized the bibliography into three main sections: (1) characterizing gases as they leave the edifice; (2) characterizing gases and chemical reaction products away from degassing sources; and (3) Hawaii Island meteorology.

  4. Environmental release of mercury from coal utilization by-products: will new mercury controls at power plants make a difference?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aljoe, W.W.; Feeley, T.J., III; Brickett, L.A.; Schroeder, K.T.; Murphy, J.T. [National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA (US)

    2005-09-30

    The US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) uses the term coal utilization by-products (CUBs) to describe the solid materials produced by the combustion or gasification of coal. The following general observations can be drawn from results of field tests that have been carried out thus far to determine whether new technologies for mercury emission control at coal power plants will affect the release of mercury from CUBs. There appears to be only minimal potential mercury release to the environment in typical disposal or utilization application for CUBs generated using ACI control technologies. There appears to be only minimal mercury release to the environment for CUBs generated using wet FGD control technologies. The amount of mercury leached from CUBs samples tested is significantly lower than the federal drinking water standards and water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. INTERIM RESULTS FROM A STUDY OF THE IMPACTS OF TIN(II) BASED MERCURY TREATMENT IN A SMALL STREAM ECOSYSTEM: TIMS BRANCH, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B.; Bryan, L.; Mathews, T.

    2012-03-30

    Mercury (Hg) has been identified as a 'persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic' pollutant with widespread impacts throughout North America and the world (EPA. 1997a, 1997b, 1998a, 1998b, 2000). Although most of the mercury in the environment is inorganic Hg, a small proportion of total Hg is transformed through the actions of aquatic microbes into methylmercury (MeHg). In contrast to virtually all other metals, MeHg biomagnifies or becomes increasingly concentrated as it is transferred through aquatic food chains so that the consumption of mercury contaminated fish is the primary route of this toxin to humans. For this reason, the ambient water quality criterion (AWQC) for mercury is based on a fish tissue endpoint rather than an aqueous Hg concentration, as the tissue concentration (e.g., < 0.3 {mu}g/g fillet) is considered to be a more consistent indicator of exposure and risk (EPA, 2001). Effective mercury remediation at point-source contaminated sites requires an understanding of the nature and magnitude of mercury inputs, and also knowledge of how these inputs must be controlled in order to achieve the desired reduction of mercury contamination in biota necessary for compliance with AWQC targets. One of the challenges to remediation is that mercury body burdens in fish are more closely linked to aqueous MeHg than to inorganic Hg concentrations (Sveinsdottir and Mason 2005), but MeHg production is not easily predicted or controlled. At point-source contaminated sites, mercury methylation is not only affected by the absolute mercury load, but also by the form of mercury loaded. In addition, once MeHg is formed, the hydrology, trophic structure, and water chemistry of a given system affect how it is transformed and transferred through the food chain to fish. Decreasing inorganic Hg concentrations and loading may often therefore be a more achievable remediation goal, but has led to mixed results in terms of responses in fish bioaccumulation. A number of source

  6. Release of Ammonium and Mercury from NOx Controlled Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, K.T.; Cardone, C.R.; Kim, A.G

    2007-07-01

    One of the goals of the Department of Energy is to increase the reuse of coal utilization byproducts (CUB) to 50% by 2010. This will require both developing new markets and maintaining traditional ones such as the use of fly ash in concrete. However, the addition of pollution control devices can introduce side-effects that affect the marketability of the CUB. Such can be the case when NOx control is achieved using selective catalytic or non-catalytic reduction (SCR or SNCR). Depending on site-specific details, the ammonia slip can cause elevated levels of NH3 in the fly ash. Disposal of ammoniated fly ash can present environmental concerns related to the amount of ammonia that might be released, the amount of water that might become contaminated, and the extent to which metals might be mobilized by the presence of the ammonia. Ammonia retained in fly ash appears to be present as either an ammonium salt or as a chemisorbed species. Mercury in the leachates correlated to neither the amount of leachable ammonium nor to the total amount of Hg in the ash. The strongest correlation was between the decreases in the amount of Hg leached with increased LOI.

  7. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  8. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2001-12-20

    The purpose of Revision 00 of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada.

  9. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweatt, William C.

    2010-05-11

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  10. Technology Plan to Address the EM Mercury Challenge | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plan to Address the EM Mercury Challenge Technology Plan to Address the EM Mercury Challenge EM's Technology Plan to Address the EM Mercury Challenge addresses mercury contamination, and advocates for research and technology development to resolve key technical uncertainties with the pollutant in environmental remediation, facility deactivation and decommissioning, and tank waste processing. Technology Plan to Address the EM Mercury Challenge (5.55 MB) More Documents & Publications

  11. The Homogeneous Forcing of Mercury Oxidation to Provide Low-Cost Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Kramlich; Linda Castiglone

    2006-04-01

    Oxidized mercury formed in combustors (e.g., HgCl{sub 2}) is much more easily captured in existing pollution control equipment (e.g., wet scrubbers for SO{sub 2}) than elemental mercury. This is principally due to the high solubility of the oxidized form in water. Work over the last several years in our laboratory and elsewhere has identified the general outlines of the homogeneous chemistry of oxidation. The goal of the work reported here is to make use of this knowledge of the oxidation mechanism to devise simple and inexpensive ways to promote the oxidation. The hypothesis is that simple fuels such as hydrogen or CO can promote oxidation via the free radicals they generate during their decomposition. These free radicals then promote the formation of Cl from HCl via reactions such as OH+HCl {yields} H{sub 2}O+Cl. The Cl (and Cl{sub 2} derived from Cl recombination) are considered the principal oxidizing species. In our studies, mercury vapor is exposed to HCl under isothermal conditions in a gas containing N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O. The experiments systematically explore the influence of reaction temperature, HCl concentration, and H{sub 2}O concentration. These baseline conditions are then perturbed by the addition of varying amounts of H{sub 2}, CO, and H{sub 2}/CO added jointly. The following report presents the results of a literature review associated with the dissertation of the student supported by the program. This outlines the state-of-the-art in mercury behavior. It then describes the experimental facilities and the results of tests involving the promotion of the oxidation reaction by H{sub 2}, CO, and H{sub 2}/CO combinations. These results indicate a substantial enhancement of oxidation under isothermal conditions at 900-1000 K, while the additives inhibit oxidation at 1200 K. The next step is to determine whether the existing chemical kinetic models of mercury oxidation are capable of reproducing this behavior. These models can then be used

  12. BEHAVIOR OF MERCURY DURING DWPF CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamecnik, J.; Koopman, D.

    2012-04-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility has experienced significant issues with the stripping and recovery of mercury in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC). The stripping rate has been inconsistent, often resulting in extended processing times to remove mercury to the required endpoint concentration. The recovery of mercury in the Mercury Water Wash Tank has never been high, and has decreased significantly since the Mercury Water Wash Tank was replaced after the seventh batch of Sludge Batch 5. Since this time, essentially no recovery of mercury has been seen. Pertinent literature was reviewed, previous lab-scale data on mercury stripping and recovery was examined, and new lab-scale CPC Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were conducted. For previous lab-scale data, many of the runs with sufficient mercury recovery data were examined to determine what factors affect the stripping and recovery of mercury and to improve closure of the mercury material balance. Ten new lab-scale SRAT runs (HG runs) were performed to examine the effects of acid stoichiometry, sludge solids concentration, antifoam concentration, form of mercury added to simulant, presence of a SRAT heel, operation of the SRAT condenser at higher than prototypic temperature, varying noble metals from none to very high concentrations, and higher agitation rate. Data from simulant runs from SB6, SB7a, glycolic/formic, and the HG tests showed that a significant amount of Hg metal was found on the vessel bottom at the end of tests. Material balance closure improved from 12-71% to 48-93% when this segregated Hg was considered. The amount of Hg segregated as elemental Hg on the vessel bottom was 4-77% of the amount added. The highest recovery of mercury in the offgas system generally correlated with the highest retention of Hg in the slurry. Low retention in the slurry (high segregation on the vessel bottom) resulted in low recovery in the offgas system. High agitation rates appear to result in lower

  13. Demonstration of Mer-Cure Technology for Enhanced Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Marion; Dave O'Neill; Kevin Taugher; Shin Kang; Mark Johnson; Gerald Pargac; Jane Luedecke; Randy Gardiner; Mike Silvertooth; Jim Hicks; Carl Edberg; Ray Cournoyer; Stanley Bohdanowicz; Ken Peterson; Kurt Johnson; Steve Benson; Richard Schulz; Don McCollor; Mike Wuitshick

    2008-06-01

    Alstom Power Inc. has completed a DOE/NETL-sponsored program (under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. De-FC26-07NT42776) to demonstrate Mer-Cure{trademark}, one of Alstom's mercury control technologies for coal-fired boilers. The Mer-Cure{trademark}system utilizes a small amount of Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbent that is injected into the flue gas stream for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous mercury. Mer-Clean{trademark} sorbents are carbon-based and prepared with chemical additives that promote oxidation and capture of mercury. The Mer-Cure{trademark} system is unique in that the sorbent is injected into an environment where the mercury capture kinetics is accelerated. The full-scale demonstration program originally included test campaigns at two host sites: LCRA's 480-MW{sub e} Fayette Unit No.3 and Reliant Energy's 190-MW{sub e} Shawville Unit No.3. The only demonstration tests actually done were the short-term tests at LCRA due to budget constraints. This report gives a summary of the demonstration testing at Fayette Unit No.3. The goals for this Mercury Round 3 program, established by DOE/NETL under the original solicitation, were to reduce the uncontrolled mercury emissions by 90% at a cost significantly less than 50% of the previous target of $60,000/lb mercury removed. The results indicated that Mer-Cure{trademark} technology could achieve mercury removal of 90% based on uncontrolled stack emissions. The estimated costs for 90% mercury control, at a sorbent cost of $0.75 to $2.00/lb respectively, were $13,400 to $18,700/lb Hg removed. In summary, the results from demonstration testing show that the goals established by DOE/NETL were met during this test program. The goal of 90% mercury reduction was achieved. Estimated mercury removal costs were 69-78% lower than the benchmark of $60,000/lb mercury removed, significantly less than 50% of the baseline removal cost.

  14. Fluorescence dye tagging scheme for mercury quantification and speciation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiao, Hong; Catterall, Hannah

    2015-09-22

    A fluorescent dye or fluorophore capable of forming complexes with mercury comprises 6,8-difluoro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxylate amide, wherein the amide is formed by reacting the succinimidyl ester (Pacific Blue.TM.) with an amino acid containing a thiol group, such as cysteine or glutathione. Mercury complexes of the fluorophore fluoresce when excited by a UV or violet laser diode, and the detected intensity can be calibrated to quantify the concentration of mercury in a sample reacted with the fluorophore.

  15. Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Landreth

    2007-12-31

    This report summarizes the work conducted from September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007 on the project entitled Advanced Utility Mercury-Sorbent Field-Testing Program. The project covers the testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant and the Duke Power Cliffside and Buck Stations. The St. Clair Plant used a blend of subbituminous and bituminous coal and controlled the particulate emissions by means of a cold-side ESP. The Duke Power Stations used bituminous coals and controlled their particulate emissions by means of hot-side ESPs. The testing at the Detroit Edison St. Clair Plant demonstrated that mercury sorbents could be used to achieve high mercury removal rates with low injection rates at facilities that burn subbituminous coal. A mercury removal rate of 94% was achieved at an injection rate of 3 lb/MMacf over the thirty day long-term test. Prior to this test, it was believed that the mercury in flue gas of this type would be the most difficult to capture. This is not the case. The testing at the two Duke Power Stations proved that carbon- based mercury sorbents can be used to control the mercury emissions from boilers with hot-side ESPs. It was known that plain PACs did not have any mercury capacity at elevated temperatures but that brominated B-PAC did. The mercury removal rate varies with the operation but it appears that mercury removal rates equal to or greater than 50% are achievable in facilities equipped with hot-side ESPs. As part of the program, both sorbent injection equipment and sorbent production equipment was acquired and operated. This equipment performed very well during this program. In addition, mercury instruments were acquired for this program. These instruments worked well in the flue gas at the St. Clair Plant but not as well in the flue gas at the Duke Power Stations. It is believed that the difference in the amount of oxidized mercury, more at Duke Power, was the difference in instrument performance. Much of the equipment was

  16. Electric Power From Ambient Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSteese, John G.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2000-10-03

    This report summarizes research on opportunities to produce electric power from ambient sources as an alternative to using portable battery packs or hydrocarbon-fueled systems in remote areas. The work was an activity in the Advanced Concepts Project conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Office of Research and Development in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  17. Surface Mercury Geochemistry As A Guide To Volcanic Vent Structure...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mercury Geochemistry As A Guide To Volcanic Vent Structure And Zones Of High Heat Flow In The Valley Of Ten Thousand Smokes, Katmai National Park, Alaska Jump to: navigation,...

  18. Mercury Contents of Natural Thermal and Mineral Fluids, In- U...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Paper 713 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book Section: Mercury Contents of Natural Thermal and Mineral Fluids, In- U.S. Geological...

  19. Mercury Vapor At Kilauea East Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    located within the rift zone, but an analysis of the data showed that soil type and soil pH also had a marked impact on mercury concentration. Making corrections for these effects...

  20. Fly Ash and Mercury Oxidation/Chlorination Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukh Sidhu; Patanjali Varanasi

    2008-12-31

    Mercury is a known pollutant that has detrimental effect on human health and environment. The anthropogenic emissions of mercury account for 10 to 30% of worldwide mercury emissions. There is a need to control/reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions. Many mercury control technologies are available but their effectiveness is dependent on the chemical form of mercury, because different chemical forms of mercury have different physical and chemical properties. Mercury leaves the boiler in its elemental form but goes through various transformations in the post-combustion zone. There is a need to understand how fly ash and flue gas composition affect speciation, partitioning, and reactions of mercury under the full range of post-combustion zone conditions. This knowledge can then be used to predict the chemical transformation of mercury (elemental, oxidized or particulate) in the post combustion zone and thus help with the control of mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. To accomplish this goal present study was conducted using five coal fly ashes. These ashes were characterized and their catalytic activity was compared under selected reaction conditions in a fixed bed reactor. Based on the results from these fly ash experiments, three key components (carbon, iron oxide and calcium oxide) were chosen. These three components were then used to prepare model fly ashes. Silica/alumina was used as a base for these model fly ashes. One, two or three component model fly ashes were then prepared to investigate mercury transformation reactions. The third set of experiments was performed with CuO and CuCl2 catalysts to further understand the mercury oxidation process. Based on the results of these three studies the key components were predicted for different fly ash compositions under variety of flue gas conditions. A fixed bed reactor system was used to conduct this study. In all the experiments, the inlet concentration of Hg0(g) was maintained at 35 {micro}g/m3 using

  1. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400F and pressure of 600 ...

  2. Mitigation and Remediation of Mercury Contamination at the Y...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... of source inventory in terms of reducing mercury in the ... is entering, or could enter, the water column in, for ... One might search for such reaches by close-interval surface ...

  3. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  4. Thiacrown polymers for removal of mercury from waste streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Reynolds, John G.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2004-02-24

    Thiacrown polymers immobilized to a polystyrene-divinylbenzene matrix react with Hg.sup.2+ under a variety of conditions to efficiently and selectively remove Hg.sup.2+ ions from acidic aqueous solutions, even in the presence of a variety of other metal ions. The mercury can be recovered and the polymer regenerated. This mercury removal method has utility in the treatment of industrial wastewater, where a selective and cost-effective removal process is required.

  5. Electrolytic recovery of mercury enriched in isotopic abundance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of electrolytically extracting liquid mercury from HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2. Additionally there are disclosed two related techniques associated with the present invention, namely (1) a technique for selectively removing product from different regions of a long photochemical reactor (photoreactor) and (2) a method of accurately measuring the total quantity of mercury formed as either HgO or Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2.

  6. Mercury Speciation in Piscivorous Fish from Mining-impacted Reservoirs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury Speciation in Piscivorous Fish from Mining-impacted Reservoirs Mercury toxicity generates environmental concerns in diverse aquatic systems because methylmercury enters the water column in diverse ways then biomagnifies through food webs. At the apex of many freshwater food webs, piscivorous fish can then extend that trophic transfer and potential for neurotoxicity to wildlife and humans. Mining activities, particularly those associated with the San Francisco Bay region, can generate

  7. "Seeing" Mercury Methylation in Progress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury in the environment can easily reach toxic levels. In a process called methylation, Hg is transformed into a form that can be accumulated in the muscle and fatty tissue of fish. Accumulated levels of methylmercury become higher as the fish grow, and levels are magnified up the food web as larger fish eat smaller fish, a process called biomagnification. As a result, mercury concentrations in fish can be millions of times higher than in surrounding waters [1]. Fish advisories have been set

  8. Mercury: A Diode-Pumped Solid-State Laser

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stockpile Stewardship National Security National Competitiveness Fusion and Ignition Experiments Fast Ignition Energy for the Future How to Make a Star How ICF Works Discovery Science Lab Astrophysics Nuclear Astrophysics Planetary Physics Plasma Physics Photon Science Advanced Optical Technologies Fiber Lasers Laser-Compton Light Source Technology Short-Pulse Lasers High-Powered Lasers Journal Articles home / science / photon science / highpowered lasers / mercury Mercury: A Diode-Pumped

  9. Thiacrown polymers for removal of mercury from waste streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumann, Theodore F.; Reynolds, John G.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2002-01-01

    Thiacrown polymers immobilized to a polystyrene-divinylbenzene matrix react with Hg.sup.2+ under a variety of conditions to efficiently and selectively remove Hg.sup.2+ ions from acidic aqueous solutions, even in the presence of a variety of other metal ions. The mercury can be recovered and the polymer regenerated. This mercury removal method has utility in the treatment of industrial wastewater, where a selective and cost-effective removal process is required.

  10. Mercury control challenge for industrial boiler MACT affected facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-15

    An industrial coal-fired boiler facility conducted a test program to evaluate the effectiveness of sorbent injection on mercury removal ahead of a fabric filter with an inlet flue gas temperature of 375{sup o}F. The results of the sorbent injection testing are essentially inconclusive relative to providing the facility with enough data upon which to base the design and implementation of permanent sorbent injection system(s). The mercury removal performance of the sorbents was significantly less than expected. The data suggests that 50 percent mercury removal across a baghouse with flue gas temperatures at or above 375{sup o}F and containing moderate levels of SO{sub 3} may be very difficult to achieve with activated carbon sorbent injection alone. The challenge many coal-fired industrial facilities may face is the implementation of additional measures beyond sorbent injection to achieve high levels of mercury removal that will likely be required by the upcoming new Industrial Boiler MACT rule. To counter the negative effects of high flue gas temperature on mercury removal with sorbents, it may be necessary to retrofit additional boiler heat transfer surface or spray cooling of the flue gas upstream of the baghouse. Furthermore, to counter the negative effect of moderate or high SO{sub 3} levels in the flue gas on mercury removal, it may be necessary to also inject sorbents, such as trona or hydrated lime, to reduce the SO{sub 3} concentrations in the flue gas. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  11. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  12. Method and apparatus for controlling the flow rate of mercury in a flow system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard

    1991-01-01

    A method for increasing the mercury flow rate to a photochemical mercury enrichment utilizing an entrainment system comprises the steps of passing a carrier gas over a pool of mercury maintained at a first temperature T1, wherein the carrier gas entrains mercury vapor; passing said mercury vapor entrained carrier gas to a second temperature zone T2 having temperature less than T1 to condense said entrained mercury vapor, thereby producing a saturated Hg condition in the carrier gas; and passing said saturated Hg carrier gas to said photochemical enrichment reactor.

  13. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  14. Toxic effect of mercury on salmon larval, Oncorhynchus keta and O. kisutch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petukhov, S.A.; Storozhuk, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    Chum salmon and coho salmon eggs were obtained at the stage of commencement of organogenesis. Following acclimation for 2 days, eggs were placed in batches of 500 on frames and incubated in 1 l of water at a constant 8/sup 0/C. Coho eggs were incubated in mercuric chloride solutions for 25 days. An experiment with larvae lasted 140 days. Chum embryos were placed in the same mercuric chloride solutions after hatching and were used in the experiment for 90 days. Mortality of the chum occurred during the first 40 days of exposure; it was 15% in the variant in which the concentration of the toxicant was 1 micro g/l, 13% at 5 micro g/l and 30% at 25 micro g/l, 12% in the control. Mass mortality of coho larvae was noted from beginning to end of hatching and was 12% in the variants in which the concentration of the toxicant was 1 micro g/l, 11% at 5 and 25 micro g/l, and 3% in the control. Consequently, the coho was more tolerant of mercury. An appreciable percentage mortality of larvae of this species was noted at mercury concentrations of 25 micro g/l. It is suggested that when fish develop from the stage of embryogenesis under conditions of an increased content of toxicants of the heavy metal group the most resistant individuals survive. A reduction in the concentration of biologically active metals was noted in salmon larvae reared in an environment with an increased concentration of mercury. 9 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  15. Optical probe investigation of laser ablated carbon plasma plume in nitrogen ambient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Ravi Pratap; Gupta, Shyam L.; Thareja, Raj K.

    2013-12-15

    We report the study of carbon plasma produced using 1064 nm laser in nitrogen ambient at atmospheric pressure using 2-dimensional fast imaging of ablated plume, optical emission spectroscopy, and optical probe at 532 nm for interferometry and shadowgraphy. The dominance of C{sub 2} and CN molecules over ionic species at later stages of expanding carbon plasma plume is reported. The observed ring structure in shadowgrams and change in the direction of fringe shift from positive to negative in recorded interferograms are correlated with the relative abundance of different species in the plasma plume as function of time delay with respect to ablating pulse. An agreement in observed onset time of formation of clusters/atomic species or low ionic species using different diagnostic techniques has been reported.

  16. Direct Measurement of Mercury Reactions In Coal Power Plant Plumes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard Levin

    2005-12-31

    Recent field and pilot-scale results indicate that divalent mercury emitted from power plants may rapidly transform to elemental mercury within the power plant plumes. Simulations of mercury chemistry in plumes based on measured rates to date have improved regional model fits to Mercury Deposition Network wet deposition data for particular years, while not degrading model verification fits for remaining years of the ensemble. The years with improved fit are those with simulated deposition in grid cells in the State of Pennsylvania that have matching MDN station data significantly less than the model values. This project seeks to establish a full-scale data basis for whether or not significant reduction or oxidation reactions occur to mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants, and what numerical redox rate should apply for extension to other sources and for modeling of power plant mercury plumes locally, regionally, and nationally. Although in-stack mercury (Hg) speciation measurements are essential to the development of control technologies and to provide data for input into atmospheric fate and transport models, the determination of speciation in a cooling coal combustion plume is more relevant for use in estimating Hg fate and effects through the atmosphere. It is mercury transformations that may occur in the plume that determine the eventual rate and patterns of mercury deposited to the earth's surface. A necessary first step in developing a supportable approach to modeling any such transformations is to directly measure the forms and concentrations of mercury from the stack exit downwind to full dispersion in the atmosphere. As a result, a study was sponsored by EPRI and jointly funded by EPRI, the U.S Department of Energy (DOE), and the Wisconsin Department of Administration. The study was designed to further our understanding of plume chemistry. The study was carried out at the We Energies Pleasant Prairie Power Plant, Pleasant Prairie, Wisconsin, just

  17. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  18. Methods and sorbents for utilizing a hot-side electrostatic precipitator for removal of mercury from combustion gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Sidney

    2011-02-15

    Methods are provided for reducing emission of mercury from a gas stream by treating the gas with carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles to reduce the mercury content of the gas; collecting the carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles on collection plates of a hot-side ESP; periodically rapping the collection plates to release a substantial portion of the collected carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles into hoppers; and periodically emptying the hoppers, wherein such rapping and emptying are done at rates such that less than 70% of mercury adsorbed onto the mercury sorbent desorbs from the collected mercury sorbent into the gas stream.

  19. Ambient temperature modelling with soft computing techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertini, Ilaria; Ceravolo, Francesco; Citterio, Marco; Di Pietra, Biagio; Margiotta, Francesca; Pizzuti, Stefano; Puglisi, Giovanni; De Felice, Matteo

    2010-07-15

    This paper proposes a hybrid approach based on soft computing techniques in order to estimate monthly and daily ambient temperature. Indeed, we combine the back-propagation (BP) algorithm and the simple Genetic Algorithm (GA) in order to effectively train artificial neural networks (ANN) in such a way that the BP algorithm initialises a few individuals of the GA's population. Experiments concerned monthly temperature estimation of unknown places and daily temperature estimation for thermal load computation. Results have shown remarkable improvements in accuracy compared to traditional methods. (author)

  20. Effect of cadmium, mercury, and zinc on the hepatic microsomal enzymes of Channa punctatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalal, R.; Bhattacharya, S. )

    1994-06-01

    The increased use of heavy metals like cadmium and mercury in industry and agriculture, and their subsequent intrusion in indeterminate amounts into the environment has caused ecological and biological changes. In vivid contrast, zinc, one of the essential elements, and used in the cosmetic industry, is known to play a pivotal roles in various cellular processes. The seriousness and longevity of these metals in the environment are compounded by the fact that they are non-degradable with significant oxidizing capacity and substantial affinity for electronegative nucleophilic species in proteins and enzymes. Exposure of aquatic animals, especially fish, to these toxic metals for a prolonged period produces an intrinsic toxicity in relation to susceptible organs and/or tissues, although no serious morphological or anatomical changes in the animal or even their feeding behavior may occur. The p-hydroxylation of aniline by aniline hydroxylase (AH) and the N-demethylation of amines to generate formaldehyde (HCHO) by aminopyrine demethylase (APD) are the two oxygen-dependent reactions of microsomal mixed-function oxidase (MFOs) which control the pharmacological and toxicological activities of xenobiotics in mammalian and other species. While both these classical enzymes in fish are reported to demonstrate relatively low specific activity, they are used as criteria for delineating polluted areas. Unlike mammalian species, however, intoxication and interference of MFO enzymes by metal toxicants, especially during prolonged exposure, has not been investigated. The present report describes the results of studies from the concurrent exposure for 28 d to cadmium (CdCl[sub 2]), mercury (HgCl[sub 2]) or zinc (ZnCl[sub 2]) individually, on the AH and APD activities and microsomal protein content in liver of freshwater teleost Channa punctatus.

  1. Photochemical Oxidation of Dissolved Elemental Mercury by Carbonate Radicals in Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Feng; Zhao, Wenrong; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury [Hg(0)] affects mercury chemical speciation and its transfer at the water-air interface in the aquatic environment. The mechanisms and factors that control Hg(0) photooxidation, however, are not completely understood, especially in natural freshwaters containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) and carbonate. Here, we evaluate Hg(0) photooxidation rates affected by various reactive ionic species [e.g., DOM, HCO3-, NO3-] and free radicals in a creek water and a phosphate buffer solution (pH=8) under simulated solar irradiation. We report a high Hg(0) photooxidation rate (k = 1.44 h-1) in the presence of both HCO3- and NO3-, whereas HCO3-, NO3-, or DOM alone increased the oxidation rate slightly (k = 0.1 0.17 h-1). Using scavengers and enhancers for singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydroxyl (HO ) radicals, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identify that carbonate radicals (CO3 -) primarily drive the Hg(0) photooxidation, whereas addition of DOM resulted in a 2-fold decrease in Hg(0) oxidation. This study identifies an unrecognized pathway of Hg(0) photooxidation by CO3 - radicals and the inhibitory effect of DOM, which could be important in assessing Hg transformation and fate in water containing carbonate such as hard water and seawater.

  2. Photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury by carbonate radicals in water

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Feng; Gu, Baohua; Zhao, Weirong; Liang, Liyuan

    2014-11-11

    In this study, photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury, Hg(0), affects mercury chemical speciation and its transfer at the water-air interface in the aquatic environment. The mechanisms and factors that control Hg(0) photooxidation, however, are not completely understood, especially concerning the role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and carbonate (CO32-) in natural freshwaters. Here, we evaluate Hg(0) photooxidation rates affected by reactive ionic species (e.g., DOM, CO32-, and NO3–) and free radicals in creek water and a phosphate buffer solution (pH 8) under simulated solar irradiation. The Hg(0) photooxidation rate (k = 1.44 h-1) is much higher in the presencemore » of both CO32- and NO3- than in the presence of CO32-, NO3-, or DOM alone (k = 0.1–0.17 h-1). Using scavengers and enhancers for singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydroxyl (HO•) radicals, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found that carbonate radicals (CO3•-) primarily drive Hg(0) photooxidation. The addition of DOM to the solution of CO32- and NO3- decreased the oxidation rate by half. This study identifies an unrecognized pathway of Hg(0) photooxidation by CO3•- radicals and the inhibitory effect of DOM, which could be important in assessing Hg transformation and the fate of Hg in water containing carbonate such as hard water and seawater.« less

  3. Photochemical Oxidation of Dissolved Elemental Mercury by Carbonate Radicals in Water

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Feng; Zhao, Weirong; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-11-11

    Photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury [Hg(0)] affects mercury chemical speciation and its transfer at the water-air interface in the aquatic environment. The mechanisms and factors that control Hg(0) photooxidation, however, are not completely understood, especially in natural freshwaters containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) and carbonate. Here, we evaluate Hg(0) photooxidation rates affected by various reactive ionic species [e.g., DOM, CO32-, NO3-] and free radicals in a creek water and a phosphate buffer solution (pH=8) under simulated solar irradiation. We report a high Hg(0) photooxidation rate (k = 1.44 h-1) in the presence of both HCO32- and NO3-, whereas HCO32-,more » NO3-, or DOM alone increased the oxidation rate slightly (k = 0.1 0.17 h-1). Using scavengers and enhancers for singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydroxyl (HO∙ ) radicals, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identify that carbonate radicals (CO3 ∙-) primarily drive the Hg(0) photooxidation, whereas addition of DOM resulted in a 2-fold decrease in Hg(0) oxidation. This study identifies an unrecognized pathway of Hg(0) photooxidation by CO3 ∙- radicals and the inhibitory effect of DOM, which could be important in assessing Hg transformation and fate in water containing carbonate such as hard water and seawater.« less

  4. Elimination of mercury and organomercurials by nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, S.; Sadhukhan, P.C.; Ghosh, D.K.

    1997-06-01

    Bacteria isolated from mercury-polluted environments are often resistant to mercuric ions (Hg{sup 2+}) and organomercurials. Plasmids determining mercury resistance have been well characterized in gram-negative system. However, in Staphylococcus aureus mercury resistance has been found to be chromosomally determined. The known mechanism of bacterial Hg{sup 2+}-resistance is detoxification of the toxic Hg{sup 2+} by its enzymatic transformation by mercuric reductase to Hg (o). Organomercurial lyase mediates the degradation of organomercurial compounds to Hg{sup 2+}. Mercury and organomercurial resistances have been studied in different bacterial genera. There is little information on Hg-resistance in N{sub 2}-fixing soil bacteria, however, in many developing countries, including India, mercury pollution is still a problem because Hg-based pesticides and fungicides are still used routinely as seed-dressers in agriculture to control soil-borne and seed-borne fungal diseases. Volatilization of Hg from laboratory media by mercury-resistant bacteria containing low levels of mercury has been reported by several workers. It is interesting to note that N{sub 2}-fixing, Hg-resistant soil isolates could volatilize Hg from medium containing very high amounts of HgCl{sub 2}. In the present paper we report the volatilization patterns of five N{sub 2}-fixing bacterial strains, the effect of different inducers on mercuric reductase, and the pattern of substrate utilization by organomercurial lyase. In the presence of a low concentration of HgCl{sub 2}. enzymatic detoxification is sufficient to combat the adverse situation created by the presence of Hg{sup 2+} ions. In the presence of a high concentration of HgCl{sub 2}, intracellular sequestration by Hg{sup 2+} binding components may play an additional role in counteracting Hg-toxicity.

  5. New EM Plan Calls for Research, Technology to Help Fight Mercury...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EM Plan Calls for Research, Technology to Help Fight Mercury Contamination New EM Plan ... WASHINGTON, D.C. - EM has released a new plan to address mercury contamination that ...

  6. Lead, mercury, cadmium, chromium, and arsenic levels in eggs, feathers, and tissues of Canada geese of the New Jersey Meadowlands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsipoura, Nellie; Burger, Joanna; Newhouse, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gochfeld, Michael; Mizrahi, David

    2011-08-15

    The New Jersey Meadowlands are located within the heavily urbanized New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary and have been subject to contamination due to effluent and runoff from industry, traffic, and homes along the Hackensack River and nearby waterways. These extensive wetlands, though heavily impacted by development and pollution, support a wide array of bird and other wildlife species. Persistent contaminants may pose threats to birds in these habitats, affecting reproduction, egg hatchability, nestling survival, and neurobehavioral development. Metals of concern in the Meadowlands include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. These metals were analyzed in eggs, feathers, muscle, and liver of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) breeding in four wetland sites. We sampled geese collected during control culling (n=26) and collected eggs from goose nests (n=34). Levels of arsenic were below the minimum quantification level (MQL) in most samples, and cadmium and mercury were low in all tissues sampled. Chromium levels were high in feather samples. Mercury levels in eggs of Canada geese, an almost exclusively herbivorous species, were lower (mean {+-}SE 4.29{+-}0.30 {mu}g/g wet weight) than in eggs of omnivorous mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and insectivorous red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) from the Meadowlands, consistent with trophic level differences. However, lead levels were higher in the goose eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) than in the other species. Geese also had higher levels of lead in feathers (1910{+-}386 ng/g) than those seen in Meadowlands passerines. By contrast, muscle and liver lead levels were within the range reported in waterfowl elsewhere, possibly a reflection of metal sequestration in eggs and feathers. Elevated lead levels may be the result of sediment ingestion or ingestion of lead shot and sinkers. Finally, lead levels in goose liver (249{+-}44.7 ng/g) and eggs (161{+-}36.7 ng/g) may pose a

  7. ALTERNATIVE FIELD METHODS TO TREAT MERCURY IN SOIL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernie F. Stine

    2002-08-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has mercury (Hg) contaminated materials and soils at the various sites. Figure 1-1 (from http://www.ct.ornl.gov/stcg.hg/) shows the estimated distribution of mercury contaminated waste at the various DOE sites. Oak Ridge and Idaho sites have the largest deposits of contaminated materials. The majorities of these contaminated materials are soils, sludges, debris, and waste waters. This project concerns treatment of mercury contaminated soils. The technology is applicable to many DOE sites, in-particular, the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge Tennessee and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These sites have the majority of the soils and sediments contaminated with mercury. The soils may also be contaminated with other hazardous metals and radionuclides. At the Y12 plant, the baseline treatment method for mercury contaminated soil is low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD), followed by on-site landfill disposal. LTTD is relatively expensive (estimated cost of treatment which exclude disposal cost for the collect mercury is greater than $740/per cubic yard [cy] at Y-12), does not treat any of the metal or radionuclides. DOE is seeking a less costly alternative to the baseline technology. As described in the solicitation (DE-RA-01NT41030), this project initially focused on evaluating cost-effective in-situ alternatives to stabilize or remove the mercury (Hg) contamination from high-clay content soil. It was believed that ex-situ treatment of soil contaminated with significant quantities of free-liquid mercury might pose challenges during excavation and handling. Such challenges may include controlling potential mercury vapors and containing liquid mercury beads. As described below, the focus of this project was expanded to include consideration of ex-situ treatment after award of the contract to International Technology Corporation (IT). After award of the contract, IT became part of Shaw

  8. Critical review of mercury chemistry in flue gas.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendelsohn, M. H.; Livengood, C. D.

    2006-11-27

    Mercury (Hg) and its compounds have long been recognized as potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. Many man-made sources of mercury have been reduced in recent years through process changes and control measures. However, emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants, while exceedingly dilute by the usual pollution standards, still constitute a major source when considered in the aggregate. Concerns over those emissions and the prospect of impending emissions regulations have led to a wide range of research projects dealing with the measurement and control of mercury in flue gas. This work has made considerable progress in improving the understanding of mercury emissions and their behavior, but inconsistencies and unexpected results have also shown that a better understanding of mercury chemistry is needed. To develop a more complete understanding of where additional research on mercury chemistry is needed, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a critical review of the available information as reported in the technical literature. The objectives were to summarize the current state of the art of chemistry knowledge, identify significant knowledge gaps, and recommend future research to resolve those gaps. An initial evaluation of potential review topics indicated that the scope of the review would need to be limited and focused on the most important topics relative to mercury control. To aid in this process, Argonne developed a brief survey that was circulated to researchers in the field who could help identify and prioritize the many aspects of the problem. The results of the survey were then used to design and guide a highly focused literature search that identified key papers for analysis. Each paper was reviewed, summarized, and evaluated for the relevance and quality of the information presented. The results of that work provided the basis for conclusions regarding the state of knowledge

  9. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  10. Method for combined removal of mercury and nitrogen oxides from off-gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Livengood, C. David

    2006-10-10

    A method for removing elemental Hg and nitric oxide simultaneously from a gas stream is provided whereby the gas stream is reacted with gaseous chlorinated compound to convert the elemental mercury to soluble mercury compounds and the nitric oxide to nitrogen dioxide. The method works to remove either mercury or nitrogen oxide in the absence or presence of each other.