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Sample records for amazonia lba lba-eco

  1. The Green Cathedral: Sustainable Development of Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobin, R. James

    1994-01-01

    The Green Cathedral: Sustainable Development of Amazonia R.The Green Cathedral: Sustainable Development of Amazonia. (Ais between sustainable and unsustainable development of the

  2. Atmospheric aerosols in Amazonia and land use change: from natural biogenic to biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atmospheric aerosols in Amazonia and land use change: from natural biogenic to biomass burning in Central Amazonia (TT34 North of Manaus) and at a heavily biomass burning impacted site in south-refractory PM1 aerosol loading at TT34, while biomass burning aerosols at PVH shows a 93% content of organic

  3. Beta diversity of frogs in the forests of New Guinea, Amazonia and Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Beta diversity of frogs in the forests of New Guinea, Amazonia and Europe site) and Amazonia (24 ± 1.7 species), but was significantly lower in Europe (8 ± 0.8 species dominated in Europe, whereas New Guinea exhibited an intermediate pattern with both local and widespread

  4. Organic Constituents on the Surfaces of Aerosol Particles from Southern Finland, Amazonia, and California Studied by Vibrational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Organic Constituents on the Surfaces of Aerosol Particles from Southern Finland, Amazonia of Physics, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

  5. Do the recent severe droughts in the Amazonia have the same period of length?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zou, Yong; Sampaio, Gilvan; Mário, Antônio; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new measure based on drought period length to assess the temporal difference between the recent two severe droughts of 2005 and 2010 in the Amazonia. The sensitivity of the measure is demonstrated by disclosing the distinct spatial responding mechanisms of the Northeastern and Southwestern Amazon (NA, SA) to the surrounding sea surface temperature (SST) variabilities. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans have different roles on the precipitation patterns in Amazonia. More specifically, the very dry periods in the NA are influenced by El Ni\\~no events, while the very dry periods in the SA are affected by the anomalously warming of the SST in the North Atlantic. We show convincingly that the drought 2005 hit SA, which is caused by the North Atlantic only. There are two phases in the drought 2010: (i) it was started in the NA in August 2009 affected by the El Ni\\~no event, and (ii) later shifted the center of action to SA resulted from anomalously high SST in North Atlantic, which further intensifies the...

  6. Radon fluxes in tropical forest ecosystems of Brazilian Amazonia: night-time CO2 net ecosystem exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saleska, Scott

    Radon fluxes in tropical forest ecosystems of Brazilian Amazonia: night-time CO2 net ecosystem exchange derived from radon and eddy covariance methods C H R I S T O P H E R S . M A R T E N S *, T H O M 97119.900, Brazil Abstract Radon-222 (Rn-222) is used as a transport tracer of forest canopy

  7. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Calibrated Radiance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ]· International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) B3 data product· First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE Visible, Infrared, and Water Vapor Images· SAFARI 2000: Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer Data, Southern Africa· LBA: Radiance data 1998-2001, and gridded surface radiation and rain rates 1999 for Amazonia

  8. Deforestation Deforestation predictions for Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camara, Gilberto

    , agrarian structure differences, and technology access. Simplistic models such as that of Laurance et al. (1

  9. The ecological biogeography of Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhado, Ana C M; Ladle, Richard; Whittaker, Robert; Neto, Atanásio; Malhi, Yadvinder; ter Steege, Hans

    2013-01-01

    flora, origins, paleoecology, Amazon, contemporary et al.  2012),  paleoecology (reviewed by Colinvaux 2007, processes  and  Amazonian  paleoecology—these  fascinating, 

  10. An empirical approach to retrieving monthly evapotranspiration over Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negron Juarez, RI; Goulden, ML; Myneni, RB; Fu, R; Bernardes, S; Gao, H

    2008-01-01

    variations in energy and carbon exchange over forest andEnergy and water dynamics of a central Amazonian rain forest.energy exchange of a pasture and a mature transitional tropical forest

  11. Navigating Amazonia under uncertainty: past, present and future environmental governance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by extensive forest fires. The cause appears to have been warmer global tempera- tures, which led to hotter and contend with the intense forest fires in Brazil's western state of Acre (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi

  12. Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: History, Rates, and Consequences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gottgens, Hans

    . The impacts of deforestation include loss of biodiversity, reduced water cycling (and rainfall is dramatic, especially in the "arc of deforestation" along the southern and eastern edges. Biodiversity loss forests are cut for various reasons, cattle ranching predominates. The large and medium-sized ranches

  13. Soils of Amazonia with particular reference to the RAINFOR sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quesada, C. A; Lloyd, J.; Anderson, L. O; Fyllas, N. M; Schwarz, M.; Czimczik, C. I

    2011-01-01

    iron/aluminium oxides as goethite, hematite and gibbsite (along with hematite, goethite and gibbsite. These soils areeventually turning into goethite. Eventually, Andosols may

  14. Soils of Amazonia with particular reference to the RAINFOR sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quesada, C. A; Lloyd, J.; Anderson, L. O; Fyllas, N. M; Schwarz, M.; Czimczik, C. I

    2011-01-01

    S. R. : A single-extraction method us- ing silver-thioureamore common 1M KCl extraction method (Van Reeuwijk, 2002).Fig. 2. Cation extraction methods compared: (a) relationship

  15. Soils of Amazonia with particular reference to the RAINFOR sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quesada, C. A; Lloyd, J.; Anderson, L. O; Fyllas, N. M; Schwarz, M.; Czimczik, C. I

    2011-01-01

    in S. Paulo State, Brazil, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. , 38, Lima,G. : Variable Charge Soils: Their Mineralogy, Chemistry andV. S. : Edaphic controls on soil organic carbon retention in

  16. Soils of Amazonia with particular reference to the RAINFOR sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quesada, C. A; Lloyd, J.; Anderson, L. O; Fyllas, N. M; Schwarz, M.; Czimczik, C. I

    2011-01-01

    Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Venezuela. A subset of 18 soilabove a Leptosol in Venezuela (ELD-34). Fig. 5 to have givenzone of Guyana, Brazil, Venezuela and Colombia, as well as

  17. LBA-MIP driver data gap filling algorithms by Reto Stockli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saleska, Scott

    -welling short-wave radiation; W m-2), LWd (down-welling long-wave radiation; W m-2), Ta (air temperature; K), Qa = 8; for u where n = 20 and for LWd where n = 16). Up to two month long successive gaps were filled.314 J K-1 mol-1). 4. For sites with no LWd (most sites), it was estimated from the surface radiation

  18. Reduced Rank Models for Contingency Tables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan de Leeuw; Peter van der Heijden

    2011-01-01

    place the latent class model LCA P , mentioned by Good (2. We have that R*, LBA P and LCA P are equivalent. Proof.1 . These quantities satisfy LCA P . Thus R* implies LBA P ,

  19. Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    and production of commodities such as soya and palm oil.production, including soya in Latin America [Morton et al. , 2006] and palm oil

  20. Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    doi:10.1029/2008GL035689, 2008 Fire-related carbon emissionssources of emissions from fires in this region. Citation:and Y. Shimabukuro (2008), Fire-related carbon emissions

  1. Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    2008 Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitionsto atmospheric carbon emissions, including forest conversionthe major sources of emissions from fires in this region.

  2. Land conversion in Amazonia and Northern South America : influences on regional hydrology and ecosystem response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knox, Ryan Gary

    2013-01-01

    A numerical model of the terrestrial biosphere (Ecosystem Demography Model) is compbined with an atmospheric model (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) to investigate how land conversion in the Amazon and ...

  3. Fire-related carbon emissions from land use transitions in southern Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    emissions from accidental forest fires, and forest damageof non-forest and pasture maintenance fires), and 3) high-of fires and biomass removal through combustion than forest

  4. A Multisensor satellite-based assessment of biomass burning aerosol radiative impact over Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher, Sundar A.

    ]. While most of the biomass burning (BB) activities occur in Africa, South America is responsible [Christopher et al., 2000] by scattering and absorbing solar radiation. Since biomass burning has a strong projections. Robust observational constraints on the response of a climate model [Stott and Kettleborough

  5. Social Memory and the Politics of Place-Making in Northeastern Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffles, Hugh

    2000-01-01

    Without Fear of Being Happy: Lula, the Workers Party and1991) suggest that Lula’s unwillingness to embody such

  6. Social Memory and the Politics of Place-making in Northeastern Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffles, Hugh

    2004-01-01

    Without Fear of Being Happy: Lula, the Workers Party and1991) suggest that Lula’s unwillingness to embody such

  7. Influence of soil texture on carbon dynamics and storage potential in tropical forest soils of Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-01-01

    Isoto´pica, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA),Isoto´pica, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA),

  8. Belowground cycling of carbon in forests and pastures of eastern Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trumbore, Susan E; Davidson, Eric A; Barbosa de Camargo, Pli­nio; Nepstad, Daniel C; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    1995-01-01

    A. Martinelli, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Av.Furthermore, the 3Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura,were made at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura in

  9. Precipitation Variability over the Forest-to-Nonforest Transition in Southwestern Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knox, Ryan Gary

    Prior research has shown that deforestation in the southwestern Amazon enhances the formation of nonprecipitating shallow cumulus clouds, while deep cumulus convection was favored over forested land. The research presented ...

  10. Actuar en asociacin Regin del Gran Atlas, Marruecos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jóvenes equipos «del Sur» apoyados por el Instituto América Latina · Desarrollo sustentable en Amazonia

  11. Aerosol properties, in-canopy gradients, turbulent fluxes and VOC concentrations at a pristine forest site in Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rizzo, LV; Artaxo, P; Karl, T; Guenther, AB; Greenberg, J

    2010-01-01

    wet season. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 9,carbonaceous aerosols. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 6,of the EU project OSOA. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 4,

  12. The Ecological Society of America wwwwww..ffrroonnttiieerrssiinneeccoollooggyy..oorrgg The first scientists to enter Amazonia encountered a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silman, Miles R.

    - ture is evident for the past several thousand years. As anthropological and paleoecological knowledge endemicity and diversity used to identify "refugia" also formed effec- PALEOECOLOGY PALEOECOLOGY PALEOECOLOGY-lasting ecological damage. We present paleoecological data suggesting a middle path, in which some areas were heavily

  13. Coalescent Methods Are Robust to the Simultaneous Effects of Long Branches and Incomplete Lineage Sorting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Charles

    and Thornton 2009; Kuck et al. 2012). These studies have shown that LBA may occur when the model used in gene

  14. Wood density in forests of Brazil's `arc of deforestation': Implications for biomass and flux of carbon from land-use change in Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camara, Gilberto

    Wood density in forests of Brazil's `arc of deforestation': Implications for biomass and flux form 25 April 2007; accepted 29 April 2007 Abstract Wood density is an important variable in estimates of forest biomass and greenhouse-gas emissions from land-use change. The mean wood density used in estimates

  15. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 375402, 2006 www.atmos-chem-phys.org/acp/6/375/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    techniques. The period of most intense biomass burning was characterized by high concen- trations analy- sis deployed during the LBA-SMOCC experiment. Model compounds reproduce quantitatively involving organic aerosol particles over tropical areas affected by biomass burning. 1 Introduction

  16. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE published: 05 August 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmes, Philip

    the LCA under certain conditions (Bogacz et al., 2006)]. It is therefore of interest to compare to simulated data from LBA, DDM, and LCA found that DDM and LCA parameters correlated in a one-to-one manner

  17. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 52(3), 1998, 318-327

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott

    . Strymon istapa ranges from the southern United States to Peru and Brazil, but is allopatric with S. col Amazonia, Amazonas, Brazil; MCZ, Museum of Com- parative Zool

  18. Narratives on narratives, from utterance to stories : finding a context for the speaking percussionist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whiting Smith, Bonnie Anne; Whiting Smith, Bonnie Anne

    2012-01-01

    Commis- sioned by Steven Schick. Globokar, Vinko. Toucher,Commissioned by Steven Schick. Leak, Graeme. And now for theCommissioned by Steven Schick. Lockwood, Annea. Amazonia

  19. Population growth, distribution, and size in Latin America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez-Carr, David

    timber harvesting oil exploration/extraction population growth? degradation of lands in source areas history in Amazonia · Early extractive uses Rubber Forestry #12;Development history in Amazonia forests in the world 2) 45% of all the fresh water on the Earth 3) the planet's largest carbon sink 4

  20. First VLBI observations of methanol maser polarisation, in G339.88-1.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Dodson

    2008-04-14

    We investigate class II methanol masers and the environment in which they form with the Long Baseline Array (LBA). Using full polarisation VLBI, we're able to measure the magnetic field directions so as to distinguish between the two main models of the environment in which methanol masers form: disks or shocks. We present polarised images of the methanol maser source G339.88-1.2, made with the LBA at 6.7-GHz. With these first polarisation maps made with the LBA, which successfully reproduce observations with the ATCA confirming the new AIPS code, a new technique for Southern VLBI is opened. The magnetic field directions found are inconstant with methanol masers arising in disks for the majority of the emission.

  1. Hydrometeorology of the Amazon in ERA-40 ALAN K. BETTS AND JOHN H. BALL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    MARENGO CPTEC-INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, Sa~o Paulo, Brazil (Manuscript received 24 November 2004, in final and to quantify the energy and water cycle. LBA is a component of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), which has the aim of improving our ability to simulate both water and energy exchange processes

  2. J. Zool., Lond. (2003) 259, 245260 C 2003 The Zoological Society of London Printed in the United Kingdom DOI:10.1017/S0952836902003205 Orofacial morphology and feeding behaviour of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    J. Zool., Lond. (2003) 259, 245­260 C 2003 The Zoological Society of London Printed in the United Amazonia (INPA), Alameda Cosme Ferreira 1767 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil 5 Department of Physiological

  3. Reducing uncertainty in predictions of the response of Amazonian forests to climate change 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowland, Lucy Miranda

    2013-07-01

    Amazonia contains the largest expanse of tropical forest in the world and is globally significant as a store of carbon, a regulator of climate and an area of high species diversity. The ability of the Amazonian forests ...

  4. Amazonian Dark Earths: a case study in the Central Amazon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebellato, Lilian

    2011-12-31

    This investigation derives from research conducted over several years and contributes to the understanding of the differential occupational dynamics and use of space in pre-Colonial Amazonia. The goal of this study is to use traditional chemical...

  5. Phylogeography of the neotropical Anopheles triannulatus complex (Diptera: Culicidae) supports deep structure and complex patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    triannulatus C; trans-Andean Venezuela; central Amazonia +Colombia; and cis- Venezuela. The Amazon delta specimens areTRI) 10°39’N/61°09’W RCW Venezuela Trinidad-Tobago Salobra (

  6. ARM - Blog Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rack on the G-1. More blinky lights than a Toyota at midnight From Manaus, Amazonia, Brazil, to Pasco, Washington, to Long Island, New York, in 4 days, a day in the life of a...

  7. The Halo, Hot Spots and Jet/Cloud Interaction of PKS 2153--69

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. J. Young; A. S. Wilson; S. J. Tingay; S. Heinz

    2004-12-21

    We report Chandra X-ray Observatory and 1.4 GHz Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) observations of the radio galaxy PKS 2153--69 and its environment. The Chandra image reveals a roughly spherical halo of hot gas extending out to 30 kpc around PKS 2153--69. Two depressions in the surface brightness of the X-ray halo correspond to the large scale radio lobes, and interpreting these as cavities inflated with radio plasma we infer a jet power of 4x10^42 erg/s. Both radio lobes contain hot spots that are detected by Chandra. In addition, the southern hot spot is detected in the 1.4 GHz LBA observation, providing the highest linear resolution image of a radio lobe hot spot to date. The northern hot spot was not detected in the LBA observation. The radio to X-ray spectra of the hot spots are consistent with a simple power law emission model. The nucleus has an X-ray spectrum typical of a type 1 active galactic nucleus, and the LBA observation shows a one-sided nuclear jet on 0.1" scales. Approximately 10" northeast of the nucleus, X-ray emission is associated with an extra-nuclear cloud. The X-ray emission from the cloud can be divided into two regions, an unresolved western component associated with a knot of radio emission (in a low resolution map), and a spatially extended eastern component aligned with the pc-scale jet and associated with highly ionized optical line-emitting clouds. The X-ray spectrum of the eastern component is very soft (Gamma > 4.0 for a power law model or kT ~0.22 keV for a thermal plasma). The LBA observation did not detect compact radio emission from the extra-nuclear cloud. (Abstract truncated).

  8. The landatmosphere water flux in the tropics J O S H U A B . F I S H E R *, YA D V I N D E R M A L H I *, D A M I E N B O N A L w , H U M B E R T O R . D A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Kevin

    University, Miami, FL, USA, zzzNational Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Thailand for the test region of Amazonia. Net radiation was the strongest determinant of evapotranspiration (mean difference vegeta- tion index (9%), precipitation (6%) and wind speed (4%). The radiation

  9. 1. Cover Sheet Proposal Title: The ARM Climate Research Facility in the Amazon Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , will be formed once the ACRF deployment is approved. The list of co-investigators will be broadened multi-fold as the deployment develops toward 2013-4. #12;-- continued from previous page -- Brazilian-Side Scientists Co Activities Jun 2013 ­ Dec 2013, dry season, southern Amazonia in biomass-burning region, Porto Velho, Brazil

  10. Influence of soils and topography on Amazonian tree diversity: a landscape-scale study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harms, Kyle E.

    Influence of soils and topography on Amazonian tree diversity: a landscape-scale study Susan G. W C. C. Luiza~ o Abstract Question: How do soils and topography influence Amazonian tree diversity diversity; Species richness; Topography; Tropical trees. Introduction Central Amazonia sustains some

  11. Evaluation of yield regulation options for primary forest in Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaluation of yield regulation options for primary forest in Tapajo´s National Forest, Brazil PaulJN, Scotland b Instituto do Homem e Meio Ambiente da Amazo^nia (IMAZON), CEP 66060-160 Bele´m, Brazil c Projeto Dendrogene, EMBRAPA, CEP 66095-100 Bele´m, Brazil Received 23 November 2005; received

  12. Author's personal copy ecological modelling 2 0 9 ( 2 0 0 7 ) 169188

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camara, Gilberto

    September 2007 Keywords: Brazilian Amazonia Deforestation and land-use drivers Agrarian structure, such as connection to national markets and more favorable climatic conditions in the Arch. Agrarian structure results, such as favorable environmental conditions and access to local and national markets. Agrarian structure and land

  13. Rev, per. Ent. 39 63-74. Diciembre 1996 Mariposas del alto RIo Napo, Loreto, FenI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Scott

    , Hesperioidea, Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea, Peril. Introducción La biodiversidad en Ia cuenca del alto Rio Napo Universidad Nacio nal Mayor de San Marcos, se llevó a cabo una evaluación preliminar de Ia biodiversidad en di Biodiversidad de Ia Amazonia, establecido por Ia sede del IVITA en Iquitos Loreto, bajo Ia coordinación del Prof

  14. Advances in Geosciences, 6, 189193, 2006 SRef-ID: 1680-7359/adgeo/2006-6-189

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such as the Brazilian Northeast, Amazonia, South of Brazil and Uruguay. Over 80% of Brazil's energy comes from America. More than 80% of Brazil's energy is provided from hydropower generation. Decisions relating, South of Brazil, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina. Sea surface temperature (SST) positive anoma- lies

  15. Presentedatthe 2014 ASHRAE Winter Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

    Cheriyadat ­ Amy Rose ­ Marie Urban ­ Steve Fernandez ­ Mark Tuttle ­ Devin White ­ ... and many others data driven computing ­ Modeling population distribution and dynamics · Energy and transportation-Battelle for the Department of Energy Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia * Wind turbines and energy policy ** Vehicular

  16. Salvia sp.? 3 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hugh D. Wilson

    2011-08-10

    de analisis para Ilegar al fondo de las discusiones teologicas. Dando por supuesta la fe corno sine qua non de la condicion cristiana, Abelardo cree necesario que el hombre vea apoyada su fe por la razon humana (McCallum 104, 105); Quiere conciliar... de Cristo" y la volveremos a encontrar en el LBA. A partir del siglo doce y durante los siglos trece y catorce observamos una intelectualidad que lucha entre su apego a la fe recibida y el deseo de algunos de cumplir con el mandato de San Pablo de...

  17. i i 'i i WWW--i i http://www.icmp.lviv.ua/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    + KAB (0) cos A cos B , ( = ) . (5) i i i, x,y,z l , i x lA|x lA = iEA y lA|x lA - i z A n JAB ln + JBA nl y nB|x lA , y lA|x lA = -i 2 ll z A - iEA y lA|x lA + i z A n LAB ln + LBA nl x nB|x l

  18. The use of low volatile carriers to increase the effectiveness of (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) acetic acid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyzak, Daniel Louis

    1969-01-01

    . The absorption of 2, 4, 5-T was highest with diesel o11, followed by paraffin oil, glycerol:water ( I: I), and water. Dwarf yaupon (zIes uomi to~a cv. 'Dwarf') was treated at rates of 0. 5 and 2 . 0 lb/A 1n 8 gpa of carrier . Again, absorpt1on was highest... with diesel o11, followed by glycerol:water (1:1), paraff1n o11, and water. Percent defoliation and leaf harvest data taken after treatment 1ndicate that paraffin o11 is more effective as a carrier than diesel oil, glycerol:water ( 1: 1), or water. Final...

  19. Phylogeography is not enough: The need for multiple lines of evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, A. Townsend

    2009-09-16

    -day niche models) permits development of explicit paleodistributional sce- narios to which phylogeographic patterns can be compared via coalescent simulations, potentially permitting testing explicit hypotheses of causation by particular climatic events....S., Steffensen, J.P., Sveinbjörnsdót- tir, A.E., Jouzel, J. & Bond, G.C. (1993) Evidence for general instability of past climate from a 250 kyr ice-core record. Nature, 264, 218-220. Haffer, J. 1997. Alternative models of vertebrate speci- ation in Amazonia...

  20. Nutrient Composition of Feeds. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gill, Ronald J.; Herd, Dennis B.

    1986-01-01

    .88-0.96 Figure 2. Variation In energy content of various forages relative to the requirements of various classes of caHie (values given on a dry maHer basis). D.E. Mcal./lba DDM%b 1.61 80 1.50 75 1.40 70 1.29 65 Weaned Heiler... Ingredient Ana~sls Tables (Adapted from NR , 1984). Forages (Dry MaHer Basis) Vit.A ME TDN CP Ca p Equiv./lb Feed Name Description* (Mcal/lb) (%) (%) (%) (%) 1000 IU Alfalfa SC- EB .98 60 18.0 1.41 .22 25.5 SC- MB .95 58 17.0 1.41 .24 6.0 SC- LB .85 52...

  1. First Parallax Measurements Towards a 6.7 GHz Methanol Maser with the Australian Long Baseline Array - Distance to G339.884-1.259

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, V; Reid, M J; Brunthaler, A; Sanna, A; McCallum, J; Reynolds, C; Bignall, H E; Phillips, C J; Dodson, R; Rioja, M; Caswell, J L; Chen, X; Dawson, J R; Fujisawa, K; Goedhart, S; Green, J A; Hachisuka, K; Honma, M; Menten, K; Shen, Z Q; Voronkov, M A; Walsh, A J; Xu, Y; Zhang, B; Zheng, X W

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted the first parallax and proper motion measurements of 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission using the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA). The parallax of G339.884$-$1.259 measured from five epochs of observations is 0.48$\\pm $0.08 mas, corresponding to a distance of $2.1^{+0.4}_{-0.3}$ kpc, placing it in the Scutum spiral arm. This is consistent (within the combined uncertainty) with the kinematic distance estimate for this source at 2.5$\\pm $0.5 kpc using the latest Solar and Galactic rotation parameters. We find from the Lyman continuum photon flux that the embedded core of the young star is of spectral type B1, demonstrating that luminous 6.7 GHz methanol masers can be associated with high-mass stars towards the lower end of the mass range.

  2. DiFX: A software correlator for very long baseline interferometry using multi-processor computing environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. T. Deller; S. J. Tingay; M. Bailes; C. West

    2007-02-06

    We describe the development of an FX style correlator for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), implemented in software and intended to run in multi-processor computing environments, such as large clusters of commodity machines (Beowulf clusters) or computers specifically designed for high performance computing, such as multi-processor shared-memory machines. We outline the scientific and practical benefits for VLBI correlation, these chiefly being due to the inherent flexibility of software and the fact that the highly parallel and scalable nature of the correlation task is well suited to a multi-processor computing environment. We suggest scientific applications where such an approach to VLBI correlation is most suited and will give the best returns. We report detailed results from the Distributed FX (DiFX) software correlator, running on the Swinburne supercomputer (a Beowulf cluster of approximately 300 commodity processors), including measures of the performance of the system. For example, to correlate all Stokes products for a 10 antenna array, with an aggregate bandwidth of 64 MHz per station and using typical time and frequency resolution presently requires of order 100 desktop-class compute nodes. Due to the effect of Moore's Law on commodity computing performance, the total number and cost of compute nodes required to meet a given correlation task continues to decrease rapidly with time. We show detailed comparisons between DiFX and two existing hardware-based correlators: the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) S2 correlator, and the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) correlator. In both cases, excellent agreement was found between the correlators. Finally, we describe plans for the future operation of DiFX on the Swinburne supercomputer, for both astrophysical and geodetic science.

  3. Detection of high molecular weight organic tracers in vegetation smoke samples by high-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elias, V.O.; Simoneit, B.R.T. ); Pereira, A.S.; Cardoso, J.N. ); Cabral, J.A. )

    1999-07-15

    High-temperature high-resolution gas chromatography (HTGC) is an established technique for the separation of complex mixtures of high molecular weight (HMW) compounds which do not elute when analyzed on conventional GC columns. The combination of this technique with mass spectrometry is not so common and application to aerosols is novel. The HTGC and HTGC-MS analyses of smoke samples taken by particle filtration from combustion of different species of plants provided the characterization of various classes of HMW compounds reported to occur for the first time in emissions from biomass burning. Among these components are a series of wax esters with up to 58 carbon numbers, aliphatic hydrocarbons, triglycerides, long chain methyl ketones, alkanols and a series of triterpenyl fatty acid esters which have been characterized as novel natural products. Long chain fatty acids with more than 32 carbon numbers are not present in the smoke samples analyzed. The HMW compounds in smoke samples from the burning of plants from Amazonia indicate the input of directly volatilized natural products in the original plants during their combustion. However, the major organic compounds extracted from smoke consist of a series of lower molecular weight polar components, which are not natural products but the result of the thermal breakdown of cellulose and lignin. In contrast, the HMW natural products may be suitable tracers for specific sources of vegetation combustion because they are emitted as particles without thermal alternation in the smoke and can thus be related directly to the original plant material.

  4. Primary and secondary organics in tropical Amazonian rainforest aerosols: Chiral analysis of 2-methyltetrols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, Nelida; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Artaxo, Paulo; Guenther, Alex B.; Krejci, R.; Noziere, Barbara; Noone, Kevin

    2014-06-01

    This work presents the application of a newly developed method to facilitate the distinction between primary and secondary organic compounds in ambient aerosols based on their chiral analysis. The organic constituents chosen for chiral analysis are the four stereomers of the 2-methyltetrols, (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)- methylerythritol and (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)- methylthreitol. Ambient PM10 aerosol samples were collected between June 2008 and June 2009 near Manaus, Brazil, in a remote tropical rainforest environment of central Amazonia. The samples were analyzed for the presence of these four stereomers because qualitatively, in a previous study, they have been demonstrated to have partly primary origins. Thus the origin of these compounds may be primary and secondary from the biosynthesis and oxidation processes of isoprene within plants and also in the atmosphere. Using authentic standards, the quantified concentrations were in average 78.2 and 72.8 ng m-3 for (2R,3S)- and (2S,3R)- methylerythritol and 3.1 and 3.3 ng m-3 for (2S,3S)- and (2R,3R)- methylthreitol during the dry season and 7.1, 6.5, 2.0, and 2.2 ng m-3 during the wet season, respectively. Furthermore, these compounds were found to be outside the confidence interval for racemic mixtures (enantiomeric fraction, Ef = 0.5 -0.01) in nearly all the samples, with deviations of up to 32 % (Ef = 0.61) for (2R,3S)-methylerythritol and 47 % (Ef = 0.65) for (2S,3S)-methylthreitol indicating (99% confidence level) biologically-produced 2-methyltetrols. The minimum primary origin contribution ranged between 0.19 and 29.67 ng m-3 for the 2-methylerythritols and between 0.15 and 1.2 ng m-3 for the 2-methylthreitols. The strong correlation of the diatereomers (racemic 2-methylerythritol and 2-methylthreitol) in the wet season implied a secondary origin. Assuming the maximum secondary contribution in the dry season, the secondary fraction in the wet season was 81-99 % and in the dry season, 10 - 95 %. Nevertheless, from the total 2-methyltetrol mass, the secondary mass represented 31 % whereas the primary 69 %. These results could have been expected for PM10 aerosols and might be different for fine particles at the same site. In addition, correlations with isoprene emission estimates for this site only showed an anti-correlation with 2-methylthreitol suggesting their direct emission from biological activity. The present study reinforces the importance of the analysis of chiral organic compounds to correctly assess the contribution of primary biogenic emissions and isoprene oxidation products to biogenic secondary organic aerosol.