National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for aluminum process flow

  1. PROCESS FOR REMOVING ALUMINUM COATINGS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flox, J.

    1959-07-01

    A process is presented for removing aluminum jackets or cans from uranium slugs. This is accomplished by immersing the aluminum coated uranium slugs in an aqueous solution of 9 to 20% sodium hydroxide and 35 to 12% sodium nitrate to selectively dissolve the aluminum coating, the amount of solution being such as to obtain a molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to aluminum of at least

  2. Aluminum processing energy benchmark report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2007-02-01

    Substantial energy efficiency gains have been made in the aluminum industry over the past forty years, resulting in a 58 percent decrease in energy utilization.

  3. PROCESS OF ELECTROPLATING METALS WITH ALUMINUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schickner, W.C.

    1960-04-26

    A process of electroplating aluminum on metals from a nonaqueous bath and a novel method of pretreating or conditioning the metal prior to electrodeposition of the aluminum are given. The process of this invention, as applied by way of example to the plating of uranium, comprises the steps of plating the uranium with the barrier inetal, immersing the barrier-coated uranium in fatty acid, and electrolyzing a water-free diethyl ether solution of aluminum chloride and lithium hydride while making the uranium the cathode until an aluminum deposit of the desired thickness has been formed. According to another preferred embodiment the barrier-coated uranium is immersed in an isopropyl alcohol solution of sterato chromic chloride prior to the fatty acid treatment of this invention.

  4. Decarbonization process for carbothermically produced aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruno, Marshall J.; Carkin, Gerald E.; DeYoung, David H.; Dunlap, Sr., Ronald M.

    2015-06-30

    A method of recovering aluminum is provided. An alloy melt having Al.sub.4C.sub.3 and aluminum is provided. This mixture is cooled and then a sufficient amount of a finely dispersed gas is added to the alloy melt at a temperature of about 700.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. The aluminum recovered is a decarbonized carbothermically produced aluminum where the step of adding a sufficient amount of the finely dispersed gas effects separation of the aluminum from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates by flotation, resulting in two phases with the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates being the upper layer and the decarbonized aluminum being the lower layer. The aluminum is then recovered from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates through decanting.

  5. Process for the synthesis of nanophase dispersion-strengthened aluminum alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbour, John C.; Knapp, James Arthur; Follstaedt, David Martin; Myers, Samuel Maxwell

    1998-12-15

    A process for fabricating dispersion-strengthened ceramic-metal composites is claimed. The process comprises in-situ interaction and chemical reaction of a metal in gaseous form with a ceramic producer in plasma form. Such composites can be fabricated with macroscopic dimensions. Special emphasis is placed on fabrication of dispersion-strengthened aluminum oxide-aluminum composites, which can exhibit flow stresses more characteristic of high strength steel.

  6. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  7. Process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J.; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2000-01-01

    A process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics is provided. A gaseous atmosphere consisting essentially of silicon monoxide gas is formed by exposing a source of silicon to an atmosphere consisting essentially of hydrogen and a sufficient amount of water vapor. The aluminum based ceramic is exposed to the gaseous silicon monoxide atmosphere for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to produce a continuous, stable silicon-containing film on the surface of the aluminum based ceramic that increases the strength of the ceramic.

  8. TEP process flow diagram

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan; Coons, James; Kubic, William

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  9. Efficient Process Heating in the Aluminum Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-01-01

    This 8-page brochure (PDF 300 KB) provides pointers for enhancing the efficiency of melters and furnaces to cut process heating costs by 10 to 30 percent.

  10. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition and process for electrolysis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandegrift, George F.; Krumpelt, Michael; Horwitz, E. Philip

    1983-01-01

    A process for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  11. Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels The ...

  12. Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels You are ...

  13. One step process for producing dense aluminum nitride and composites thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J. Birch; Kingman, Donald D.; Bianchini, Gregory M.

    1989-01-01

    A one step combustion process for the synthesis of dense aluminum nitride compositions is disclosed. The process comprises igniting pure aluminum powder in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of about 1000 atmospheres or higher. The process enables the production of aluminum nitride bodies to be formed directly in a mold of any desired shape.

  14. One step process for producing dense aluminum nitride and composites thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J.B.; Kingman, D.D.; Bianchini, G.M.

    1989-10-31

    A one step combustion process for the synthesis of dense aluminum nitride compositions is disclosed. The process comprises igniting pure aluminum powder in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of about 1,000 atmospheres or higher. The process enables the production of aluminum nitride bodies to be formed directly in a mold of any desired shape.

  15. Boron-doped back-surface fields using an aluminum-alloy process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, J.M.; Bode, M.D.; Silva, B.L.

    1997-10-01

    Boron-doped back-surface fields (BSF`s) have potentially superior performance compared to aluminum-doped BSF`s due to the higher solid solubility of boron compared to aluminum. However, conventional boron diffusions require a long, high temperature step that is both costly and incompatible with many photovoltaic-grade crystalline-silicon materials. We examined a process that uses a relatively low-temperature aluminum-alloy process to obtain a boron-doped BSF by doping the aluminum with boron. In agreement with theoretical expectations, we found that thicker aluminum layers and higher boron doping levels improved the performance of aluminum-alloyed BSF`s.

  16. Financing Program Implementation Process Flow

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The implementation process flow for financing with two models: a generic option for primary markets and a conceptual option for secondary markets.

  17. The Effect of Impurities on the Processing of Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zi-Kui Liu; Shengjun Zhang; Qingyou Han; Vinod Sikka

    2007-04-23

    For this Aluminum Industry of the Future (IOF) project, the effect of impurities on the processing of aluminum alloys was systematically investigated. The work was carried out as a collaborative effort between the Pennsylvania State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Industrial support was provided by ALCOA and ThermoCalc, Inc. The achievements described below were made. A method that combines first-principles calculation and calculation of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) was used to develop the multicomponent database Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na. This method was extensively used in this project for the development of a thermodynamic database. The first-principles approach provided some thermodynamic property data that are not available in the open literature. These calculated results were used in the thermodynamic modeling as experimental data. Some of the thermodynamic property data are difficult, if not impossible, to measure. The method developed and used in this project allows the estimation of these data for thermodynamic database development. The multicomponent database Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na was developed. Elements such as Ca, Li, Na, and K are impurities that strongly affect the formability and corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys. However, these impurity elements are not included in the commercial aluminum alloy database. The process of thermodynamic modeling began from Al-Na, Ca-Li, Li-Na, K-Na, and Li-K sub-binary systems. Then ternary and higher systems were extrapolated because of the lack of experimental information. Databases for five binary alloy systems and two ternary systems were developed. Along with other existing binary and ternary databases, the full database of the multicomponent Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na system was completed in this project. The methodology in integrating with commercial or other aluminum alloy databases can be developed. The mechanism of sodium-induced high-temperature embrittlement (HTE) of Al-Mg is now understood. Using the thermodynamic

  18. Process of electrolysis and fractional crystallization for aluminum purification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, Robert K.; Bowman, Kenneth A.; Mazgaj, Robert M.; Cochran, C. Norman

    1983-10-25

    A method for purifying aluminum that contains impurities, the method including the step of introducing such aluminum containing impurities to a charging and melting chamber located in an electrolytic cell of the type having a porous diaphragm permeable by the electrolyte of the cell and impermeable to molten aluminum. The method includes further the steps of supplying impure aluminum from the chamber to the anode area of the cell and electrolytically transferring aluminum from the anode area to the cathode through the diaphragm while leaving impurities in the anode area, thereby purifying the aluminum introduced into the chamber. The method includes the further steps of collecting the purified aluminum at the cathode, and lowering the level of impurities concentrated in the anode area by subjecting molten aluminum and impurities in said chamber to a fractional crystallization treatment wherein eutectic-type impurities crystallize and precipitate out of the aluminum. The eutectic impurities that have crystallized are physically removed from the chamber. The aluminum in the chamber is now suited for further purification as provided in the above step of electrolytically transferring aluminum through the diaphragm.

  19. Process of electrolysis and fractional crystallization for aluminum purification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dawless, R.K.; Bowman, K.A.; Mazgaj, R.M.; Cochran, C.N.

    1983-10-25

    A method is described for purifying aluminum that contains impurities, the method including the step of introducing such aluminum containing impurities to a charging and melting chamber located in an electrolytic cell of the type having a porous diaphragm permeable by the electrolyte of the cell and impermeable to molten aluminum. The method includes further the steps of supplying impure aluminum from the chamber to the anode area of the cell and electrolytically transferring aluminum from the anode area to the cathode through the diaphragm while leaving impurities in the anode area, thereby purifying the aluminum introduced into the chamber. The method includes the further steps of collecting the purified aluminum at the cathode, and lowering the level of impurities concentrated in the anode area by subjecting molten aluminum and impurities in said chamber to a fractional crystallization treatment wherein eutectic-type impurities crystallize and precipitate out of the aluminum. The eutectic impurities that have crystallized are physically removed from the chamber. The aluminum in the chamber is now suited for further purification as provided in the above step of electrolytically transferring aluminum through the diaphragm. 2 figs.

  20. Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ preparation and use in electrolysis process for aluminum production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, C.C.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    A continuous process for producing aluminum sulfide and for electrolyzing the aluminum sulfide to form metallic aluminum in which the aluminum sulfide is produced from aluminum oxide and COS or CS/sub 2/ in the presence of a chloride melt which also serves as the electrolysis bath. Circulation between the reactor and electrolysis cell is carried out to maintain the desired concentration of aluminum sulfide in the bath.

  1. Understanding composite explosive energetics: 3, Reactive flow modeling of aluminum reaction kinetics in PETN and TNT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, W.C.; Tarver, C.M.; Ornellas, D.L.

    1991-12-06

    Using Fabry-Perot interferometry techniques, we have determined that early time rate of energy release from detonating PETN and TNT explosives filled with 5 and 10 wt % of either 5 {mu}m of 18 {mu}m spherical aluminum (Al) particles. From the measured particle velocity data, we are able to infer the reaction rate of aluminum with the detonation products, and calculate the extent of reaction 1--3 {mu}s after the detonation. We observed that a substantional portion of the aluminum metal in all of the PETN and TNE formulations reacted within the timeframe of the one-dimensional experiment. In the PETN formulation filed with 5 wt % of 5 {mu}m aluminum, all of the metal reacted within 1.5 {mu}s, resulting in an increase of 22% in energy compared to pure PETN. A reactive-flow hydrodynamic model based on the Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) description of the reaction zone and subsequent reaction produce expansion (Taylor wave) is used to interpret the reaction rate of the aluminum particles with detonation product gases. The diffusion-controlled reaction mechanism for aluminum and the global kinetic parameters used in the model have been found to be consistent for all the PETN and TNT formulations.

  2. Flow and fracture of aluminum alloys and of iron and steel within and outside the range of inhomogeneous flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pink, E.; Bernt, W.; Fellner, M. )

    1993-05-01

    It is well known that aluminum alloys exhibit shear fractures when they are deformed at conventional strain rates in tensile tests at room temperature. Most of the common aluminum alloys deform inhomogeneously under these testing conditions due to an effect arising from the substitutionally dissolved alloying atoms; their load-extension curves are serrated in constant-strain-rate tests. This coincidence of fracture by shear and serrated flow has supported the conception that both are interrelated. An investigation of materials with strong tendencies to serrated flow, obtained for temperature ranges exceeding those where serrations exist, sheds new light on this question. The materials tested were aluminum alloys with 5 wt.% zinc and 1 wt.% magnesium (AlZn5Mg1), and with 4.8 wt.% magnesium (AlMg5). AlMg5 exhibits shearing within part of the serrated-flow range. AlZn5Mg1 which is deformed at temperatures below and within the range of serrated flow breaks by shearing. During the deformation the cross section of the specimen becomes oval. At the highest test temperatures where serrated flow has ceased to occur, a tendency to normal' isotropic reduction of the cross section and cup-and-cone fractures were observed in both aluminium alloys. Armco iron and steel deform and break normally'.

  3. Process Development for Stamping Á-Pillar Covers with Aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Jung-Pyung; Rohatgi, Aashish; Smith, Mark T.; Lavender, Curt A.

    2015-02-20

    In this work, performed in close collaboration with PACCAR and Magna International, a 6XXX series aluminum alloy was used for the development of A-Pillar cover for the cab of a typical heavy-duty Class-8 truck. The use of Al alloy for the A-pillar cover represents an approximately 40% weight savings over its steel or molded fiberglass composite counterpart. For the selected Al alloy, a small amount of cold work (5% tensile strain), following prior hot-forming, was found to significantly improve the subsequent age-hardening response. The role of solutionizing temperature and rate of cooling on the age-hardening response after paint-bake treatment were investigated. For the temperature range selected in this work, higher solutionizing temperature correlated with greater subsequent age-hardening and vice-versa. However, the age-hardening response was insensitive to the mode of cooling (water quench vs. air cooling). Finally, a two-step forming process was developed where, in the first step, the blank was heated to solutionizing temperature, quenched, and then partially formed at room temperature. For the second step, the pre-form was re-heated and quenched as in the first step, and the forming was completed at room temperature. The resulting A-pillars had sufficient residual ductility to be compatible with hemming and riveting

  4. Continuous Severe Plastic Deformation Processing of Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raghavan Srinivasan; Prabir K. Chaudhury; Balakrishna Cherukuri; Qingyou Han; David Swenson; Percy Gros

    2006-06-30

    by SPD techniques. This combination of properties makes UFG metals produced by SPD very attractive as machining, forging or extrusion stock, both from the point of view of formability as well as energy and cost saving. However, prior to this work there had been no attempt to transfer these potential benefits observed in the laboratory scale to industrial shop floor. The primary reason for this was that the laboratory scale studies had been conducted to develop a scientific understanding of the processes that result in grain refinement during SPD. Samples that had been prepared in the laboratory scale were typically only about 10-mm diameter and 50-mm long (about 0.5-inch diameter and 2-inches long). The thrust of this project was three-fold: (i) to show that the ECAE/P process can be scaled up to produce long samples, i.e., a continuous severe plastic deformation (CSPD) process, (ii) show the process can be scaled up to produce large cross section samples that could be used as forging stock, and (iii) use the large cross-section samples to produce industrial size forgings and demonstrate the potential energy and cost savings that can be realized if SPD processed stock is adopted by the forging industry. Aluminum alloy AA-6061 was chosen to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach used. The CSPD process developed using the principles of chamber-less extrusion and drawing, and was demonstrated using rolling and wire drawing equipment that was available at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In a parallel effort, ECAE/P dies were developed for producing 100-mm square cross section SPD billets for subsequent forging. This work was carried out at Intercontinental Manufacturing Co. (IMCO), Garland TX. Forging studies conducted with the ECAE/P billets showed that many of the potential benefits of using UFG material can be realized. In particular, the material yield can be increased, and the amount of material that is lost as scrap can be reduced by as much as 50%. Forging

  5. Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Arora, Ravi; Kilanowski, David

    2014-10-28

    The invention describes features that can be used to control flow to an array of microchannels. The invention also describes methods in which a process stream is distributed to plural microchannels.

  6. Cleaning process for corrugated aluminum electrical transmission line enclosure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowman, Gary K.

    1984-07-24

    A process for preparing the interior of a corrugated pipe or sheath comprises the steps of placing a predetermined amount of a tumbling abrasive material into the sheath, and then rotating the sheath.

  7. DOWNSTREAM IMPACTS OF SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION VIA ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION ON DWPF PROCESSING OF SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE - 9382

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Hay, M; Daniel McCabe, D

    2009-01-14

    The SRS sludge that was to become a major fraction of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) contained a large fraction of H-Modified PUREX (HM) sludge, containing a large fraction of aluminum compounds that could adversely impact the processing and increase the vitrified waste volume. It is beneficial to reduce the non-radioactive fraction of the sludge to minimize the number of glass waste canisters that must be sent to a Federal Repository. Removal of aluminum compounds, such as boehmite and gibbsite, from sludge can be performed with the addition of NaOH solution and heating the sludge for several days. Preparation of SB5 involved adding sodium hydroxide directly to the waste tank and heating the contents to a moderate temperature through slurry pump operation to remove a fraction of this aluminum. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with demonstrating this process on actual tank waste sludge in our Shielded Cells Facility. This paper evaluates some of the impacts of aluminum dissolution on sludge washing and DWPF processing by comparing sludge processing with and without aluminum dissolution. It was necessary to demonstrate these steps to ensure that the aluminum removal process would not adversely impact the chemical and physical properties of the sludge which could result in slower processing or process upsets in the DWPF.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 11H AND TANK 51H POST ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION PROCESS SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, M; Daniel McCabe, D

    2008-05-16

    A dip sample of the liquid phase from Tank 11H and a 3-L slurry sample from Tank 51H were obtained and sent to Savannah River National Laboratory for characterization. These samples provide data to verify the amount of aluminum dissolved from the sludge as a result of the low temperature aluminum dissolution process conducted in Tank 51H. The characterization results for the as-received Tank 11H and Tank 51H supernate samples and the total dried solids of the Tank 51H sludge slurry sample appear quite good with respect to the precision of the sample replicates and minimal contamination present in the blank. The two supernate samples show similar concentrations for the major components as expected.

  9. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, G.W.

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spend aluminum pot liner is crushed, iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine, and CO.

  10. Method for processing aluminum spent potliner in a graphite electrode ARC furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Connor, William K.; Turner, Paul C.; Addison, Gerald W.

    2002-12-24

    A method of processing spent aluminum pot liner containing carbon, cyanide compositions, fluorides and inorganic oxides. The spent aluminum pot liner is crushed iron oxide is added to form an agglomerated material. The agglomerated material is melted in an electric arc furnace having the electrodes submerged in the molten material to provide a reducing environment during the furnace operation. In the reducing environment, pot liner is oxidized while the iron oxides are reduced to produce iron and a slag substantially free of cyanide compositions and fluorides. An off-gas including carbon oxides and fluorine is treated in an air pollution control system with an afterburner and a scrubber to produce NaF, water and a gas vented to the atmosphere free of cyanide compositions, fluorine and CO.

  11. Simulations of ductile flow in brittle material processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luh, M.H.; Strenkowski, J.S.

    1988-12-01

    Research is continuing on the effects of thermal properties of the cutting tool and workpiece on the overall temperature distribution. Using an Eulerian finite element model, diamond and steel tools cutting aluminum have been simulated at various, speeds, and depths of cut. The relative magnitude of the thermal conductivity of the tool and the workpiece is believed to be a primary factor in the resulting temperature distribution in the workpiece. This effect is demonstrated in the change of maximum surface temperatures for diamond on aluminum vs. steel on aluminum. As a preliminary step toward the study of ductile flow in brittle materials, the relative thermal conductivities of diamond on polycarbonate is simulated. In this case, the maximum temperature shifts from the rake face of the tool to the surface of the machined workpiece, thus promoting ductile flow in the workpiece surface.

  12. Computer-assisted Rheo-forging Processing of A356 Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, H. H. [Department of Mechanical and Precision Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, C. G. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Die casting process has been used widely for complex automotive products such as the knuckle, arm and etc. Generally, a part fabricated by casting has limited strength due to manufacturing defects by origin such as the dendrite structure and segregation. As an attempt to offer a solution to these problems, forging has been used as an alternative process. However, the forging process provides limited formability for complex shape products. Rheo-forging of metal offers not only superior mechanical strength but also requires significantly lower machine loads than solid forming processes. In order to produce semi-solid materials of the desired microstructure, a stirring process is applied during solidification of A356 aluminum molten state. This paper presents the results of an A356 aluminum alloy sample, which were obtained by experiment and by simulation using DEFORM 3D V6.1. Samples of metal parts were subsequently fabricated by using hydraulic press machinery. In order to compare the influence of loading method, two types of samples were fabricated: (1) samples fabricated under direct loading die sets (2) those fabricated under indirect loading die sets. The formability and defects, which were predicted by FEM simulation, were similar to those of samples used in practice.

  13. Use of aluminum phosphate as the dehydration catalyst in single step dimethyl ether process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Xiang-Dong; Parris, Gene E.; Toseland, Bernard A.; Battavio, Paula J.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a process for the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) directly from a synthesis gas in a single step (hereafter, the "single step DME process"). In this process, the synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides is contacted with a dual catalyst system comprising a physical mixture of a methanol synthesis catalyst and a methanol dehydration catalyst. The present invention is an improvement to this process for providing an active and stable catalyst system. The improvement comprises the use of an aluminum phosphate based catalyst as the methanol dehydration catalyst. Due to its moderate acidity, such a catalyst avoids the coke formation and catalyst interaction problems associated with the conventional dual catalyst systems taught for the single step DME process.

  14. Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christian, J.D.; Anderson, P.A.

    1994-11-15

    A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed. 5 figs.

  15. Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christian, Jerry D.; Anderson, Philip A.

    1994-01-01

    A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed.

  16. Microstructure characterization of the stir zone of submerged friction stir processed aluminum alloy 2219

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Xiuli, E-mail: feng.97@osu.edu [Welding Engineering Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Huijie, E-mail: liuhj@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Lippold, John C., E-mail: lippold.1@osu.edu [Welding Engineering Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Aluminum alloy 2219-T6 was friction stir processed using a novel submerged processing technique to facilitate cooling. Processing was conducted at a constant tool traverse speed of 200 mm/min and spindle rotation speeds in the range from 600 to 800 rpm. The microstructural characteristics of the base metal and processed zone, including grain structure and precipitation behavior, were studied using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Microhardness maps were constructed on polished cross sections of as-processed samples. The effect of tool rotation speed on the microstructure and hardness of the stir zone was investigated. The average grain size of the stir zone was much smaller than that of the base metal, but the hardness was also lower due to the formation of equilibrium ? precipitates from the base metal ?? precipitates. Stir zone hardness was found to decrease with increasing rotation speed (heat input). The effect of processing conditions on strength (hardness) was rationalized based on the competition between grain refinement strengthening and softening due to precipitate overaging. - Highlights: SZ grain size (? 1 ?m) is reduced by over one order of magnitude relative to the BM. Hardness in the SZ is lower than that of the precipitation strengthened BM. Metastable ?? in the base metal transforms to equilibrium ? in the stir zone. Softening in the SZ results from a decrease of precipitation strengthening.

  17. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Characterization of a Binary Aluminum Alloy Spray - Application to the Spray Rolling Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. B. Johnson; J.-P. Delplanque; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; K. M. McHugh

    2005-02-01

    A stochastic, droplet-resolved model has been developed to describe the behavior of a binary aluminum alloy spray during the spray-rolling process. In this process, a molten aluminum alloy is atomized and the resulting spray is depostied on the rolls of a twin-roll caster to produce aluminum strip. The one-way coupled spray model allows the prediction of spray characteristics such as enthalph and solid fraction, and their distribution between the nozzle and the depostion surface. This paper outlines the model development and compares the predicted spray dynamics to PDI measurements performed in a controlled configuration. Predicted and measured droplet velocity and size distributions are presented for two points along the spray centerline along with predicted spray averaged specific enthalph and solid fraction curves.

  18. Carbothermic Aluminum Production Using Scrap Aluminum As A Coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2002-11-05

    A process for producing aluminum metal by carbothermic reduction of alumina ore. Alumina ore is heated in the presence of carbon at an elevated temperature to produce an aluminum metal body contaminated with about 10-30% by wt. aluminum carbide. Aluminum metal or aluminum alloy scrap then is added to bring the temperature to about 900-1000.degree. C. and precipitate out aluminum carbide. The precipitated aluminum carbide is filtered, decanted, or fluxed with salt to form a molten body having reduced aluminum carbide content.

  19. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ to a temperature in the range 700/sup 0/ to 900/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acidsoluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  20. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J.; Seeley, Forest G.

    1981-01-01

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 to a temperature in the range 700.degree.-900.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  1. Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcdowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1981-03-03

    A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na2CO3 to a temperature in the range 700*-900* C for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

  2. Fatigue-crack propagation in aluminum-lithium alloys processed by power and ingot metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkateswara Rao, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O. ); Kim, N.J. ); Pizzo, P.P. )

    1990-04-01

    Fatigue-crack propagation behavior in powder-metallurgy (P/M) aluminum-lithium alloys, namely, mechanically-alloyed (MA) Al-4.0Mg-1.5Li-1.1C-0.80{sub 2} (Inco 905-XL) and rapid-solidification-processed (RSP) Al-2.6Li-1.0Cu-0.5Mg-0.5Zr (Allied 644-B) extrusions, has been studied, and results compared with data on an equivalent ingot-metallurgy (I/M) Al-Li alloy, 2090-T81 plate. Fatigue-crack growth resistance of the RSP Al-Li alloy is found to be comparable to the I/M Al-Li alloy; in contrast, crack velocities in MA 905-XL extrusions are nearly three orders of magnitude faster. Growth-rate response in both P/M Al-Li alloys, however, is high anisotropic. Results are interpreted in terms of the microstructural influence of strengthening mechanism, slip mode, grain morphology and texture on the development of crack-tip shielding from crack-path deflection and crack closure. 14 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Substrate-dependent thermal conductivity of aluminum nitride thin-films processed at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belkerk, B. E.; Bensalem, S.; Soussou, A.; Carette, M.; Djouadi, M. A.; Scudeller, Y.; Al Brithen, H.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report on investigation concerning the substrate-dependent thermal conductivity (k) of Aluminum Nitride (AlN) thin-films processed at low temperature by reactive magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity of AlN films grown at low temperature (<200 °C) on single-crystal silicon (Si) and amorphous silicon nitride (SiN) with thicknesses ranging from 100 nm to 4000 nm was measured with the transient hot-strip technique. The k values for AlN films on SiN were found significantly lower than those on Silicon consistently with their microstructures revealed by X-ray diffraction, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The change in k was due to the thermal boundary resistance found to be equal to 10 × 10{sup −9} Km{sup 2}W{sup −1} on SiN against 3.5 × 10{sup −9} Km{sup 2}W{sup −1} on Si. However, the intrinsic thermal conductivity was determined with a value as high as 200 Wm{sup −1}K{sup −1} whatever the substrate.

  4. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  5. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald R.

    1988-01-01

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  6. Recovery of aluminum oxide by the Ames lime-soda sinter process: scale-up using a rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murtha, M.J.; Burnet, G.; Harnby, N.

    1985-01-01

    The Ames Lime-Soda Sinter Process provides a means for recovering aluminum oxide from power plant fly ash while producing a residue that can be used in the manufacture of sulfate resistant (Type V) portland cement. The process has been fully researched and its feasibility is now being demonstrated through pilot plant scale investigation. This paper reports results of the pelletized feed preparation by agglomeration in a rotary pan granulator, continuous feed sintering in an electrically heated rotary kiln, and product recovery from the clinker by aqueous extraction, desilication of the filtrate, and precipitation of a hydrated aluminum oxide. Results from earlier bench-scale research have been found to apply consistently to the pilot plant scale work.

  7. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M. )

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ignition-type'' steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that triggers'' the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  8. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M.

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ``ignition-type`` steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that ``triggers`` the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  9. Part A - low-aluminum-content iron-aluminum alloys. Part B - commercial-scale melting and processing of FAPY alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikka, V.K.; Howell, C.R.; Hall, F.; Valykeo, J.

    1996-06-01

    The FAPY is a Fe-16 at. % Al alloy of nominal composition. The aluminum content of the alloy is such that it remains single phase ({alpha}) without the formation of an ordered phase (DO{sub 3}). The alloy has good oxidation resistance at temperatures up to 1000{degrees}C and has shown significantly superior performance as heating elements as compared to the commonly used nickel-based alloy, Nichrome. Although wire for the heating elements has been fabricated from small (15-1b) laboratory heats, for its commercial applications, the wire needs to be producible from large (1200 to 1500-1b) air-melted heats. The purpose of this study was to produce commercial size heats and investigate their mechanical properties and microstructure in the as-cast, hot-worked, and cold-worked conditions. The results of this study are expected to provide: (1) insight into processing steps for large heats into wire under commercial conditions, and (2) the mechanical properties data on commercial size heats in various product forms.

  10. Oxidation Behavior of In-Flight Molten Aluminum Droplets in the Twin-Wire Electric Arc Thermal Spray Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; Brian G. Williams

    2005-05-01

    This paper examines the in-flight oxidation of molten aluminum sprayed in air using the twin-wire electric arc (TWEA) thermal spray process. The oxidation reaction of aluminum in air is highly exothermic and is represented by a heat generation term in the energy balance. Aerodynamic shear at the droplet surface enhances the amount of in-flight oxidation by: (1) promoting entrainment and mixing of the surface oxides within the droplet, and (2) causing a continuous heat generation effect that increases droplet temperature over that of a droplet without internal circulation. This continual source of heat input keeps the droplets in a liquid state during flight. A linear rate law based on the Mott-Cabrera theory was used to estimate the growth of the surface oxide layer formed during droplet flight. The calculated oxide volume fraction of an average droplet at impact agrees well with the experimentally determined oxide content for a typical TWEA-sprayed aluminum coating, which ranges from 3.3 to 12.7%. An explanation is provided for the elevated, nearly constant surface temperature (~ 2000 oC) of the droplets during flight to the substrate and shows that the majority of oxide content in the coating is produced during flight, rather than after deposition.

  11. Understanding composite explosive energetics: 4. Reactive flow modeling of aluminum reaction kinetics in PETN and TNT using normalized product equation of state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, W.C.; Tarver, C.M.; Kury, J.W.; Lee, C.G.; Ornellas, D.L.

    1993-07-01

    Using Fabry-Perot interferometry techniques, we have determined the early time rate of energy release from detonating PETN and TNT explosives filled with 5 to 20 wt % of either 5 {mu}m or 18 {mu}m spherical aluminum with the detonation products, and calculate the extent of reaction at 1--3 {mu}s after the detonation. All of the metal in PETN formulations filled with 5 wt % and 10 wt % of either 5 {mu}m or 18 {mu}m aluminum reacted within 1.5 {mu}s, resulting in an increase of 18--22% in energy compared to pure PETN. For TNT formulations, between 5 to 10 wt % aluminum reacts completely with the same timeframe. A reactive flow hydrodynamic code model based on the Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) description of the reaction zone and subsequent reaction product expansion (Taylor wave) is used to address the reaction rate of the aluminum particles with detonation product gases. The detonation product JWL equation of state is derived from that of pure PETN using a parametric normalization methodology.

  12. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Transportation Process & Flow

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Process and Flow About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates Transportation Process and Flow Overview | Gathering System | Processing Plant | Transmission Grid | Market Centers/Hubs | Underground Storage | Peak Shaving Overview Transporting natural gas from the wellhead to the final customer involves several physical transfers of custody and multiple processing steps. A natural gas pipeline system begins at the natural gas

  13. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  14. Chloride-free processing of aluminum scrap to recover by-product materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1995-12-31

    The US Bureau of Mines has developed technology to recover by-product materials from aluminum scrap using engineered scavenger compounds (ESC). ESCs are structural oxides with a channel or tunnel structure that allows them to hold ions of a specific sizes and charges. The scavenging reaction is easily reversible allowing the ESC to be recharged for continued use and the ion is recovered as an electrodeposit. Key features of this novel technology are: (a) ESC systems are designed to have a high degree of selectivity for a desired ionic species. (b) The recovered material requires little or no additional reprocessing prior to reuse. Two current uses for the ESC technology that are described in this paper are the removal and recycle of lithium (Li) from lithium aluminum (Li-Al) alloys; and, using ESCs as a replacement for the conventional demaging (magnesium removal) technology used by the secondary casting industry. Research indicates that the ESC technology proposed for both these applications has either distinct economic and/or environmental advantages over previously employed methods of recovering metal values from aluminum scrap.

  15. Process for the fabrication of aluminum metallized pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Ramsey, Philip B.; Juntz, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    An improved method for fabricating pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets with superior heat transfer ability, longer life, and maximum energy transmission. Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite is contoured and/or segmented to match the erosion profile of the sputter target and then oriented such that the graphite's high thermal conductivity planes are in maximum contact with a thermally conductive metal backing. The graphite contact surface is metallized, using high rate physical vapor deposition (HRPVD), with an aluminum coating and the thermally conductive metal backing is joined to the metallized graphite target by one of four low-temperature bonding methods; liquid-metal casting, powder metallurgy compaction, eutectic brazing, and laser welding.

  16. Solar thermal aerosol flow reaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weimer, Alan W.; Dahl, Jaimee K.; Pitts, J. Roland; Lewandowski, Allan A.; Bingham, Carl; Tamburini, Joseph R.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention provides an environmentally beneficial process using concentrated sunlight to heat radiation absorbing particles to carry out highly endothermic gas phase chemical reactions ultimately resulting in the production of hydrogen or hydrogen synthesis gases.

  17. Process for mitigating corrosion and increasing the conductivity of steel studs in soderberg anodes of aluminum reduction cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L.; White, Jack C.; Ramsey, James A.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion resistant electrically conductive coating on steel anode studs used in the production of aluminum by electrolysis.

  18. Multiphase Flow Modeling of Biofuel Production Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Gaston; D. P. Guillen; J. Tester

    2011-06-01

    As part of the Idaho National Laboratory's (INL's) Secure Energy Initiative, the INL is performing research in areas that are vital to ensuring clean, secure energy supplies for the future. The INL Hybrid Energy Systems Testing (HYTEST) Laboratory is being established to develop and test hybrid energy systems with the principal objective to safeguard U.S. Energy Security by reducing dependence on foreign petroleum. HYTEST involves producing liquid fuels in a Hybrid Energy System (HES) by integrating carbon-based (i.e., bio-mass, oil-shale, etc.) with non-carbon based energy sources (i.e., wind energy, hydro, geothermal, nuclear, etc.). Advances in process development, control and modeling are the unifying vision for HES. This paper describes new modeling tools and methodologies to simulate advanced energy processes. Needs are emerging that require advanced computational modeling of multiphase reacting systems in the energy arena, driven by the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, which requires production of 36 billion gal/yr of biofuels by 2022, with 21 billion gal of this as advanced biofuels. Advanced biofuels derived from microalgal biomass have the potential to help achieve the 21 billion gal mandate, as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Production of biofuels from microalgae is receiving considerable interest due to their potentially high oil yields (around 600 gal/acre). Microalgae have a high lipid content (up to 50%) and grow 10 to 100 times faster than terrestrial plants. The use of environmentally friendly alternatives to solvents and reagents commonly employed in reaction and phase separation processes is being explored. This is accomplished through the use of hydrothermal technologies, which are chemical and physical transformations in high-temperature (200-600 C), high-pressure (5-40 MPa) liquid or supercritical water. Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram of the production of biofuels from algae. Hydrothermal processing has significant

  19. Process for the fabrication of aluminum metallized pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Ramsey, P.B.; Juntz, R.S.

    1995-07-04

    An improved method is disclosed for fabricating pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets with superior heat transfer ability, longer life, and maximum energy transmission. Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite is contoured and/or segmented to match the erosion profile of the sputter target and then oriented such that the graphite`s high thermal conductivity planes are in maximum contact with a thermally conductive metal backing. The graphite contact surface is metallized, using high rate physical vapor deposition (HRPVD), with an aluminum coating and the thermally conductive metal backing is joined to the metallized graphite target by one of four low-temperature bonding methods; liquid-metal casting, powder metallurgy compaction, eutectic brazing, and laser welding. 11 figs.

  20. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and

  1. A Conductivity Relationship for Steady-state Unsaturated Flow Processes under Optimal Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H. H.

    2010-09-15

    Optimality principles have been used for investigating physical processes in different areas. This work attempts to apply an optimal principle (that water flow resistance is minimized on global scale) to steady-state unsaturated flow processes. Based on the calculus of variations, we show that under optimal conditions, hydraulic conductivity for steady-state unsaturated flow is proportional to a power function of the magnitude of water flux. This relationship is consistent with an intuitive expectation that for an optimal water flow system, locations where relatively large water fluxes occur should correspond to relatively small resistance (or large conductance). Similar results were also obtained for hydraulic structures in river basins and tree leaves, as reported in other studies. Consistence of this theoretical result with observed fingering-flow behavior in unsaturated soils and an existing model is also demonstrated.

  2. Environmental Data Flow Six Sigma Process Improvement Savings Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paige, Karen S

    2015-05-20

    An overview of the Environmental Data Flow Six Sigma improvement project covers LANL’s environmental data processing following receipt from the analytical laboratories. The Six Sigma project identified thirty-three process improvements, many of which focused on cutting costs or reducing the time it took to deliver data to clients.

  3. PREPARATION OF URANIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    A process is given for preparing uranium--aluminum alloys from a solution of uranium halide in an about equimolar molten alkali metal halide-- aluminum halide mixture and excess aluminum. The uranium halide is reduced and the uranium is alloyed with the excess aluminum. The alloy and salt are separated from each other. (AEC)

  4. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World alumvision.pdf (938.86 KB) ...

  5. Application of the metal compression forming process for the production of an aluminum alloy component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, S.; Porter, W.D.; Ren, W.; Purgert, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Metal Compression Forming (MCF) is a variant of the squeeze casting process, in which molten metal is allowed to solidify under pressure in order to close porosity and form a sound part. MCF applies pressure on the entire mold face, thereby directing pressure on all regions of the casting. It also enhances the solidification rate of the metal, promoting a very fine grain structure which results in improved properties. Consequently, the process is capable of producing parts with properties close to that of forgings, while retaining the near net shape, complex geometry, and relatively low cost of the casting process.

  6. Features, Events, and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.E. Houseworth

    2001-04-10

    Unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and radionuclide transport is a component of the natural barriers that affects potential repository performance. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) model, and underlying process models, of this natural barrier component capture some, but not all, of the associated features, events, and processes (FEPs) as identified in the FEPs Database (Freeze, et al. 2001 [154365]). This analysis and model report (AMR) discusses all FEPs identified as associated with UZ flow and radionuclide transport. The purpose of this analysis is to give a comprehensive summary of all UZ flow and radionuclide transport FEPs and their treatment in, or exclusion from, TSPA models. The scope of this analysis is to provide a summary of the FEPs associated with the UZ flow and radionuclide transport and to provide a reference roadmap to other documentation where detailed discussions of these FEPs, treated explicitly in TSPA models, are offered. Other FEPs may be screened out from treatment in TSPA by direct regulatory exclusion or through arguments concerning low probability and/or low consequence of the FEPs on potential repository performance. Arguments for exclusion of FEPs are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from the UZ flow and transport models does not necessarily imply that the FEP is excluded from the TSPA. Similarly, in the treatment of included FEPs, only the way in which the FEPs are included in the UZ flow and transport models is discussed in this document. This report has been prepared in accordance with the technical work plan for the unsaturated zone subproduct element (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). The purpose of this report is to document that all FEPs are either included in UZ flow and transport models for TSPA, or can be excluded from UZ flow and transport models for TSPA on the basis of low probability or low consequence. Arguments for exclusion are presented in this analysis. Exclusion of specific FEPs from UZ flow and

  7. Effect of tool pin features on process response variables during friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rabby, Reza; Tang, Wei; Reynolds, A. P.

    2015-05-13

    In this article, the effect of pin features and orientation/placement of the materials on advancing side were investigated for friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar aluminum alloys AA2050 and AA6061. Pins for FSW were produced with a 2.12 mm pitch thread having three flats/flutes. Three sets of rotational speed/welding speed were used to perform a series of welds in a butt joint arrangement. The results show that, joint quality, process response variables and welding temperature are highly affected by pin features and material orientation in FSW. Defect free joints with effective material transportation in the weld nugget zone were obtainedmore » when welding was performed with AA2050 on the advancing side. The tool also encounters less in-plane reaction force for welding with 2050 on the advancing side. Pin with thread+3 flats produces quality welds at low rotational and travel speed regardless of the location of alloys on advancing or retreating side.« less

  8. Effect of tool pin features on process response variables during friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabby, Reza; Tang, Wei; Reynolds, A. P.

    2015-05-13

    In this article, the effect of pin features and orientation/placement of the materials on advancing side were investigated for friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar aluminum alloys AA2050 and AA6061. Pins for FSW were produced with a 2.12 mm pitch thread having three flats/flutes. Three sets of rotational speed/welding speed were used to perform a series of welds in a butt joint arrangement. The results show that, joint quality, process response variables and welding temperature are highly affected by pin features and material orientation in FSW. Defect free joints with effective material transportation in the weld nugget zone were obtained when welding was performed with AA2050 on the advancing side. The tool also encounters less in-plane reaction force for welding with 2050 on the advancing side. Pin with thread+3 flats produces quality welds at low rotational and travel speed regardless of the location of alloys on advancing or retreating side.

  9. Effect of tool pin features on process response variables during friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabby, Reza; Tang, Wei; Reynolds, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of pin features and orientation/placement of the materials on advancing side were investigated for friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar aluminum alloys AA2050 and AA6061. Pins for FSW were produced with a 2.12 mm pitch thread having three flats/flutes. Three sets of rotational speed/welding speed were used to perform a series of welds in a butt joint arrangement. The results show that, joint quality, process response variables and welding temperature are highly affected by pin features and material orientation in FSW. Defect free joints with effective material transportation in the weld nugget zone were obtained when welding was performed with AA2050 on the advancing side. The tool also encounters less in-plane reaction force for welding with 2050 on the advancing side. Pin with thread+3 flats produces quality welds at low rotational and travel speed regardless of the location of alloys on advancing or retreating side.

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport, and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGrail, Bernard P.; Martin, Paul F.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method and apparatus for measuring coupled flow, transport and reaction processes under liquid unsaturated flow conditions. The method and apparatus of the present invention permit distinguishing individual precipitation events and their effect on dissolution behavior isolated to the specific event. The present invention is especially useful for dynamically measuring hydraulic parameters when a chemical reaction occurs between a particulate material and either liquid or gas (e.g. air) or both, causing precipitation that changes the pore structure of the test material.

  11. Hydrothermal Processing of Macroalgal Feedstocks in Continuous-Flow Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Roesijadi, Guritno; Zacher, Alan H.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2014-02-18

    Wet macroalgal slurries can be converted into a biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable oil product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 C) in a pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace mineral components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause processing difficulties. In addition, catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics. As a result, high conversion of macroalgae to liquid and gas fuel products was found with low levels of organic contamination in byproduct water. Both process steps were accomplished in continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  12. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1982-04-01

    Metallic aluminum may be produced by the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ at 700 to 800/sup 0/C in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  13. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, Nguyen Q.; Loutfy, Raouf O.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1984-01-01

    Production of metallic aluminum by the electrolysis of Al.sub.2 S.sub.3 at 700.degree.-800.degree. C. in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  14. Nondestructive detection of an undesirable metallic phase, T.sub.1, during processing of aluminum-lithium alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buck, Otto; Bracci, David J.; Jiles, David C.; Brasche, Lisa J. H.; Shield, Jeffrey E.; Chumbley, Leonard S.

    1990-08-07

    A method is disclosed for detecting the T.sub.1 phase in aluminum-lithium alloys through simultaneous measurement of conductivity and hardness. In employing eddy current to measure conductivity, when the eddy current decreases with aging of the alloy, while the hardness of the material continues to increase, the presence of the T.sub.1 phase may be detected.

  15. Features, Events and Processes in UZ Flow and Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Persoff

    2005-08-04

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the unsaturated zone (UZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling that supports the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) for a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for the screening decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 173273]. The FEPs deal with UZ flow and radionuclide transport, including climate, surface water infiltration, percolation, drift seepage, and thermally coupled processes. This analysis summarizes the implementation of each FEP in TSPA-LA (that is, how the FEP is included) and also provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (that is, why the FEP is excluded). This report supports TSPA-LA.

  16. Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

    2011-11-29

    on membrane purification cell process has demonstrated technological advantages and substantial energy and investment savings against other electrolytic processes. However, in order to realize commercial reality, the following items need to be fully investigated: 1. Further evaluation of a pure fluoride electrolyte. 2. Investigate alternative non conductive, more mechanically robust and chemically inert membrane candidates. 3. Optimized membrane cell design to understand contribution of fluid flow patterns and the mass transfer conditions. 4. Improve current efficiency and total metallic aluminum recovery from the cell. All Tasks and Milestones were completed successfully.

  17. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.L. Hardin

    2000-07-17

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II).

  18. Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Economy

    2004-11-16

    This analysis report evaluates and documents the inclusion or exclusion of the saturated zone (SZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded'', is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for the decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), (f) (DIRS 156605). This scientific report focuses on FEP analysis of flow and transport issues relevant to the SZ (e.g., fracture flow in volcanic units, anisotropy, radionuclide transport on colloids, etc.) to be considered in the TSPA model for the LA. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded).

  19. Features, Events, and Processes in SZ Flow and Transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Kuzio

    2005-08-20

    This analysis report evaluates and documents the inclusion or exclusion of the saturated zone (SZ) features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for the decision. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.11(d), (e), (f) [DIRS 173273]. This scientific report focuses on FEP analysis of flow and transport issues relevant to the SZ (e.g., fracture flow in volcanic units, anisotropy, radionuclide transport on colloids, etc.) to be considered in the TSPA model for the LA. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded).

  20. Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum is an indispensable metal in modern manufactur- ing. Its lightweight, low density, corrosion resistance, and easy processing possibilities, coupled with its suitability ...

  1. Microstructure Development and Characteristics of Semisolid Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merton Flemings; srinath Viswanathan

    2001-05-15

    A drop forge viscometer was employed to investigate the flow behavior under very rapid compression rates of A357, A356 diluted with pure aluminum and Al-4.5%Cu alloys. The A357 alloys were of commercial origin (MHD and SIMA) and the rheocast, modified A356 and Al-4.5Cu alloys were produced by a process developed at the solidification laboratory of MIT.

  2. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  3. Aluminum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum Industry Vision (2001) Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies (1999) Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (1999) Inert Anode Roadmap (1998) ...

  4. Aluminum Leaching of ''Archived'' Sludge from Tanks 8F, 11H, and 12H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FONDEUR, FERNANDOF.

    2004-03-12

    Aluminum can promote formation or dissolution of networks in hydroxide solid solutions. When present in large amounts it will act as a network former increasing both the viscosity and the surface tension of melts. This translates into poor free flow properties that affect pour rate of glass production in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To mitigate this situation, DWPF operations limit the amount of aluminum contained in sludge. This study investigated the leaching of aluminum compounds from archived sludge samples. The conclusions found boehmite present as the predominant aluminum compound in sludge from two tanks. We did not identify an aluminum compound in sludge from the third tank. We did not detect any amorphous aluminum hydroxide in the samples. The amount of goethite measured 4.2 percentage weight while hematite measured 3.7 percentage weight in Tank 11H sludge. The recommended recipe for removing gibbsite in sludge proved inefficient for digesting boehmite, removing less than 50 per cent of the compound within 48 hours. The recipe did remove boehmite when the test ran for 10 days (i.e., 7 more days than the recommended baseline leaching period). Additions of fluoride and phosphate to Tank 12H archived sludge did not improve the aluminum leaching efficiency of the baseline recipe.

  5. ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum Industry

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This detailed report benchmarks the energy and environmental characteristics of the key technologies used in the major processes of the aluminum industry.

  6. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  7. Aluminum industry applications for OTEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, M.S.; Leshaw, D.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Sprouse, A.M.; Thiagarajan, V.

    1980-12-01

    The objective of the program is to study the integration issues which must be resolved to realize the market potential of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power for the aluminum industry. The study established, as a baseline, an OTEC plant with an electrical output of 100 MWe which would power an aluminum reduction plant. The reduction plant would have a nominal annual output of about 60,000 metric tons of aluminum metal. Three modes of operation were studied, viz: 1. A reduction plant on shore and a floating OTEC power plant moored offshore supplying energy by cable. 2. A reduction plant on shore and a floating OTEC power plant at sea supplying energy by means of an ''energy bridge.'' 3. A floating reduction plant on the same platform as the OTEC power plant. For the floating OTEC/aluminum plantship, three reduction processes were examined. 1. The conventional Hall process with prebaked anodes. 2. The drained cathode Hall cell process. 3. The aluminum chloride reduction process.

  8. Investigation of Aluminum Site Changes of Dehydrated Zeolite...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aluminum Site Changes of Dehydrated Zeolite H-Beta during a Rehydration Process by High Field Solid State NMR Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigation of Aluminum ...

  9. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) autoroadmap.pdf (481.39 KB) More ...

  10. Aluminum-stabilized NB3SN superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scanlan, Ronald M.

    1988-01-01

    An aluminum-stabilized Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

  11. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Expansion Process Flow Diagram

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Development & Expansion > Development and Expansion Process Figure About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates ...

  12. Gating of Permanent Molds for Aluminum Casting (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings. Equipment and procedure for real time X-Ray radiography of molten aluminum flow into permanent molds have been developed. ...

  13. Aluminum Carbothermic Technology (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    producing commercial grade aluminum, designated as the ''Advanced Reactor Process'' (ARP). ... The tasks included work on four components of the process, Stages 1 and 2 of the reactor, ...

  14. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Roadmap ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap al_roadmap.pdf (1.02 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) Overview of Recycling Technology R&D

  15. Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles Addthis Description In this video, a researcher from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory describes a new aluminum joining process and the industry partnership that enabled its use for mass auto production

  16. Multilayer roll bonded aluminium foil: processing, microstructure and flow stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barlow, C.Y.; Nielsen, P.; Hansen, N

    2004-08-02

    Bulk aluminium has been produced by warm-rolling followed by cold-rolling of commercial purity (99% purity) aluminium foil. The bonding appeared perfect from observation with the naked eye, light and transmission electron microscopy. By comparison with bulk aluminium of similar purity (AA1200) rolled to a similar strain (90%RA), the roll-bonded metal showed a much higher density of high-angle grain boundaries, similar strength and improved thermal stability. This study has implications for a number of applications in relation to the processing of aluminium. Roll bonding is of interest as a method for grain size refinement; oxide-containing materials have increased strength, enhanced work-hardening behaviour, and exhibit alterations in recrystallisation behaviour. The behaviour of the hard oxide film is of interest in aluminium processing, and has been investigated by characterising the size and distribution of oxide particles in the roll-bonded samples.

  17. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2002-10-08

    In this report, the thrust areas include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  18. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  19. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Elevated Temperature Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) Alloy and Its Processing Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, David C.; Gegal, Gerald A.

    2014-04-15

    The objective of this project was to provide a production capable cast aluminum metal matrix composite (MMC) alloy with an operating temperature capability of 250-300°C. Important industrial sectors as well as the military now seek lightweight aluminum alloy castings that can operate in temperature ranges of 250-300°C. Current needs in this temperature range are being satisfied by the use of titanium alloy castings. These have the desired strength properties but the end components are heavier and significantly more costly. Also, the energy requirements for production of titanium alloy castings are significantly higher than those required for production of aluminum alloys and aluminum alloy castings.

  20. CATALYST ACTIVITY MAINTENANCE FOR THE LIQUID PHASE SYNTHESIS GAS-TO-DIMETHYL ETHER PROCESS PART II: DEVELOPMENT OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE AS THE DEHYDRATION CATALYST FOR THE SINGLE-STEP LIQUID PHASE SYNGAS-TO-DME PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang-Dong Peng

    2002-05-01

    At the heart of the single-step liquid phase syngas-to-DME process (LPDME{trademark}) is a catalyst system that can be active as well as stable. In the Alternative Fuels I program, a dual-catalyst system containing a Cu-based commercial methanol synthesis catalyst (BASF S3-86) and a commercial dehydration material ({gamma}-alumina) was demonstrated. It provided the productivity and selectivity expected from the LPDME process. However, the catalyst system deactivated too rapidly to warrant a viable commercial process [1]. The mechanistic investigation in the early part of the DOE's Alternative Fuels II program revealed that the accelerated catalyst deactivation under LPDME conditions is due to detrimental interaction between the methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst [2,3]. The interaction was attributed to migration of Cu- and/or Zn-containing species from the synthesis catalyst to the dehydration catalyst. Identification of a dehydration catalyst that did not lead to this detrimental interaction while retaining adequate dehydration activity was elusive. Twenty-nine different dehydration materials were tested, but none showed the desired performance [2]. The search came to a turning point when aluminum phosphate was tested. This amorphous material is prepared by precipitating a solution containing Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} with NH{sub 4}OH, followed by washing, drying and calcination. The aluminum phosphate catalyst has adequate dehydration activity and good stability. It can co-exist with the Cu-based methanol synthesis catalyst without negatively affecting the latter catalyst's stability. This report documents the details of the development of this catalyst. These include initial leads, efforts in improving activity and stability, investigation and development of the best preparation parameters and procedures, mechanistic understanding and resulting preparation guidelines, and the accomplishments of this work.

  1. Cast B2-phase iron-aluminum alloys with improved fluidity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Philip J.; Paris, Alan M.; Vought, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for iron aluminum alloys. A composition includes iron, aluminum and manganese. A method includes providing an alloy including iron, aluminum and manganese; and processing the alloy. The systems and methods provide advantages because additions of manganese to iron aluminum alloys dramatically increase the fluidity of the alloys prior to solidification during casting.

  2. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    2001-05-29

    This report is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  3. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2001-08-07

    This project is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  4. Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF{sub 6}. This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible.

  5. Virtual Aluminum Castings An Industrial Application of Integrated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and cost challenges. Nowhere is this more evident than in the development of designs and manufacturing processes for cast aluminum engine blocks and cylinder heads. Increasing...

  6. Aluminum Bronze Alloys to Improve Furnace Component Life | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additionally, slag from the steel making process does not adhere to the aluminum bronze ... and operational difficulties associated with the accumulation of slag on the skirt. ...

  7. Energy and Environmental Profile of the Aluminum Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margolis, Nancy

    1997-07-01

    This detailed report (PDF 2.5 MB) benchmarks the energy and environmental characteristics of the key technologies used in the major processes of the aluminum industry.

  8. Enhancement of Aluminum Alloy Forgings Using Rapid Infrared Heating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and industry partners, Queen City Forging Company and Infra Red Heating Technologies LLC, have developed a process for forging aluminum parts using infrared (IR) technology. ...

  9. Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kaiser Aluminum plant in Sherman, Texas, improved its annual furnace energy intensity by ... Adopted as Standard for Analyzing Plant Process Heating Systems Company-Wide ...

  10. FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pike, J; Jeffrey Gillam, J

    2008-12-17

    Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved

  11. Study of an ammonia-based wet scrubbing process in a continuous flow system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, James X.; Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.; Nulwala, Hunaid B.; Luebke, David R.; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    A continuous gas and liquid flow, regenerative scrubbing process for CO{sub 2} capture was demonstrated at the bench-scale level. An aqueous ammonia-based solution captures CO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas in an absorber and releases a nearly pure stream of CO{sub 2} in the regenerator. After the regeneration, the solution of ammonium compounds is recycled to the absorber. The design of a continuous flow unit was based on earlier exploratory results from a semi-batch reactor, where a CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} simulated flue gas mixture flowed through a well-mixed batch of ammonia-based solution. During the semi-batch tests, the solution was cycled between absorption and regeneration steps to measure the carrying capacity of the solution at various initial ammonia concentrations and temperatures. Consequentially, a series of tests were conducted on the continuous unit to observe the effect of various parameters on CO{sub 2} removal efficiency and regenerator effectiveness within the flow system. The parameters that were studied included absorber temperature, regenerator temperature, initial NH{sub 3} concentration, simulated flue gas flow rate, liquid solvent inventory in the flow system, and height of the packed-bed absorber. From this testing and subsequent testing, ammonia losses from both the absorption and regeneration steps were quantified, and attempts were made to maintain steady state during operations. Implications of experimental results with respect to process design are discussed.

  12. Aqueous recovery of actinides from aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.H.; Chostner, D.F.; Gray, L.W.

    1989-01-01

    Early in the 1980's, a joint Rocky Flats/Savannah River program was established to recover actinides from scraps and residues generated during Rocky Flats purification operations. The initial program involved pyrochemical treatment of Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) chloride salts and Electrorefining (ER) anode heel metal to form aluminum alloys suitable for aqueous processing at Savannah River. Recently Rocky Flats has expressed interest in expanding the aluminum alloy program to include treatment of chloride salt residues from a modified Molten Salt Extraction process and from the Electrorefining purification operations. Samples of the current aluminum alloy buttons were prepared at Rocky Flats and sent to Savannah River Laboratory for flowsheet development and characterization of the alloys. A summary of the scrub alloy-anode heel alloy program will be presented along with recent results from aqueous dissolution studies of the new aluminum alloys. 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Carbonate gravity-flow processes on the Lower Permian slope, northwest Delaware basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loucks, R.G.; Brown, A.A.; Achauer, C.W. )

    1991-03-01

    Wolfcampian carbonate gravity-flow deposits accumulated on a low-angle slope in front of a platform of relatively low relief ({approximately}220 m). A 25 m core, located approximately 15 km basinward of the self margin, was examined to determine processes of carbonate deposition in the middle to distal slope environments. The majority of the deposits are cohesive debris-flows composed of clast-supported conglomerates with a calcareous siliciclastic mudstone matrix. Other deposits include high- and low-density turbidites of lime packstones (sand- to boulder-size range), lime grainstones, and siliclastic muddy silstones and suspension deposits of calcareous siliciclastic mudstones. Cohesive debris flows are generally massive and structureless, although several flows show an inverse-graded zone at their base indicating dispersive pressure forces that developed in a traction carpet. Other flows display coarse-tail fining-upward sequences indicating deposition by suspension settling from liquefied flow. At the base of each high-density, gravelly turbidite is one to several inversely graded zones of carbonated clasts indicating a traction carpet zone. These traction carpets are overlain by normal-graded units of shell and clast material. The upper units appear to be deposited directly out of suspension. The low-density turbidites are interpreted to be the residual products of more shelfward-deposited debris flows and high-density turbidity currents. Many of the depositional features described here for carbonate gravity-flow deposits are identical to those in siliclastic deposits, therefore the depositional processes controlling these features are probably similar.

  14. Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Wayne A.; Heaton, Richard C.; Jamriska, David J.

    1996-01-01

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

  15. Aluminum Target Dissolution in Support of the Pu-238 Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H

    2014-09-01

    Selection of an aluminum alloy for target cladding affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the caustic dissolution step, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. We present a study to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal alloy, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as a function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. These data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Temperature logging during the transients has been investigated as a means to generate kinetic and mass transport data on the dissolution process. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.

  16. FABRICATION OF URANIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saller, H.A.

    1959-12-15

    A process is presented for producing a workable article of a uranium- aluminum alloy in which the uranium content is between 14 and 70% by weight; aluminum powder and powdered UAl/sub 2/, UAl/sub 3/, UAl/sub 5/, or UBe/sub 9/ are mixed, and the mixture is compressed into the shape desired and sintered at between 450 and 600 deg C.

  17. Effects Of Thermal Exchange On Material Flow During Steel Thixoextrusion Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, Eric; Gu Guochao; Langlois, Laurent; Bigot, Regis; Pesci, Raphael

    2011-01-17

    Semisolid processing is an innovative technology for near net-shape production of components, where the metallic alloys are processed in the semisolid state. Taking advantage of the thixotropic behavior of alloys in the semisolid state, significant progress has been made in semisolid processing. However, the consequences of such behavior on the flow during thixoforming are still not completely understood. To explore and better understand the influence of the different parameters on material flow during thixoextrusion process, thixoextrusion experiments were performed using the low carbon steel C38. The billet was partially melted at high solid fraction. Effects of various process parameters including the initial billet temperature, the temperature of die, the punch speed during process and the presence of a Ceraspray layer at the interface of tool and billet were investigated through experiments and simulation. After analyzing the results thus obtained, it was identified that the aforementioned parameters mainly affect thermal exchanges between die and part. The Ceraspray layer not only plays a lubricant role, but also acts as a thermal barrier at the interface of tool and billet. Furthermore, the thermal effects can affect the material flow which is composed of various distinct zones.

  18. Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy Assessments at Two Aluminum Sheet Production Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study describes how Commonwealth Industries (now Aleris Rolled Products) conducted plant-wide energy assessments at its aluminum sheet rolling mills in Lewisport, Kentucky, and Uhrichsville, Ohio, to improve process and energy efficiency.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Matrix Composite Reinforced by Carbothermally Reduced of Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamasri; Wildan, M. W.; Sulardjaka; Kusnanto

    2011-01-17

    The addition of fly ash into aluminum as reinforcement can potentially reduce the production cost and density of aluminum. However, mechanical properties of aluminum matrix composite reinforced by fly ash (MMC ALFA) have some limitations due to the characteristic of fly ash. In this study, a carbothermal reduction process of fly ash and activated carbon powder with particle size <32 {mu}m was performed prior to produce MMC ALFA.The process was carried out in a furnace at 1300 deg. C in vacuum condition under argon flow. Synthesis product was analyzed by XRD with Cu-K{sub {alpha}} radiation. From XRD analysis, it shows that the synthesis process can produce SiC powder. The synthesis product was subsequently used as reinforcement particle. Aluminum powder was mixed with 5, 10 and 15% of the synthesized powder, and then uni-axially compacted at pressure of 300 MPa. The compacted product was sintered for 2 hours in argon atmosphere at temperature variation of 550 and 600 deg. C. Flexural strength, hardness and density of MMC ALFA's product were respectively evaluated using a four point bending test method based on ASTM C1161 standard, Brinell hardness scale and Archimedes method. The result of this study shows that the increase of weight of reinforcement can significantly increase the hardness and flexural strength of MMCs. The highest hardness and flexural strength of the MMC product are 300 kg/mm{sup 2} and 107.5 MPa, respectively.

  20. Study of constitution diagram aluminum-tantalum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glazov, V.M.; Mal'tsev, M.V.; Chistyakov, Y.D.

    1988-10-20

    Alloys of aluminum with tantalum were for the first time obtained by aluminothermic method in 1868 by Moriniak. Later these alloys were studied in the works of Schirmeister (1915) and Brouwer (1938), moreover Brouwer established that tantalum with aluminum forms the chemical compound TaA1, which has tetragonal crystal lattice with parameters a=5.422 angstroms and c=8.536 angstroms (1). However despite the fact that alloys of aluminum with tantalum long ago are obtained already, constitution diagram of this system is not studied until recently. In connection with the application of tantalum as the modifying additive in aluminum alloys an emergency in the construction of this diagram, without the knowledge by which it is not possible to give the correct explanation of the mechanism of the very process of the modification of primary grain. For this purpose was undertaken this work. Russian translations.

  1. Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-based fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willit, J. L.

    1998-07-29

    We have successfully demonstrated aluminum electrorefining from a U-Al-Si alloy that simulates spent aluminum-based reactor fuel. The aluminum product contains less than 200 ppm uranium. All the results obtained have been in agreement with predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics. We have also demonstrated the need for adequate stirring to achieve a low-uranium product. Most of the other process steps have been demonstrated in other programs. These include uranium electrorefining, transuranic fission product scrubbing, fission product oxidation, and product consolidation by melting. Future work will focus on the extraction of active metal and rare earth fission products by a molten flux salt and scale-up of the aluminum electrorefining.

  2. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Anton

    1988-01-01

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  3. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  4. Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution Of Sludge Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keefer, M.T.; Hamm, B.A.; Pike, J.A. [Washington Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored in aging underground storage tanks. This waste is a complex mixture of insoluble solids, referred to as sludge, and soluble salts. Continued long-term storage of these radioactive wastes poses an environmental risk. The sludge is currently being stabilized in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) through a vitrification process immobilizing the waste in a borosilicate glass matrix for long-term storage in a federal repository. Without additional treatment, the existing volume of sludge would produce nearly 8000 canisters of vitrified waste. Aluminum compounds, along with other non-radioactive components, represent a significant portion of the sludge mass currently planned for vitrification processing in DWPF. Removing the aluminum from the waste stream reduces the volume of sludge requiring vitrification and improves production rates. Treating the sludge with a concentrated sodium hydroxide (caustic) solution at elevated temperatures (>90 deg. C) to remove aluminum is part of an overall sludge mass reduction effort to reduce the number of vitrified canisters, shorten the life cycle for the HLW system, and reduce the risk associated with the long term storage of radioactive wastes at SRS. A projected reduction of nearly 900 canisters will be achieved by performing aluminum dissolution on six targeted sludge batches; however, a project to develop and install equipment will not be ready for operation until 2013. The associated upgrades necessary to implement a high temperature process in existing facilities are costly and present many technical challenges. Efforts to better understand the characteristics of the sludge mass and dissolution kinetics are warranted to overcome these challenges. Opportunities to further reduce the amount of vitrified waste and increase production rates should also be pursued. Sludge staged in Tank 51 as the next sludge batch for feed to DWPF consisted

  5. Lightweight Aluminum/Nano composites for Automotive Drive Train Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Knoth, Edward A.; Schumaker, Edward J.

    2012-12-14

    During Phase I, we successfully processed air atomized aluminum powders via Dynamic Magnetic Compaction (DMC) pressing and subsequent sintering to produce parts with properties similar to wrought aluminum. We have also showed for the first time that aluminum powders can be processed without lubes via press and sintering to 100 % density. This will preclude a delube cycle in sintering and promote environmentally friendly P/M processing. Processing aluminum powders via press and sintering with minimum shrinkage will enable net shape fabrication. Aluminum powders processed via a conventional powder metallurgy process produce too large a shrinkage. Because of this, sinter parts have to be machined into specific net shape. This results in increased scrap and cost. Fully sintered aluminum alloy under this Phase I project has shown good particle-to-particle bonding and mechanical properties. We have also shown the feasibility of preparing nano composite powders and processing via pressing and sintering. This was accomplished by dispersing nano silicon carbide (SiC) powders into aluminum matrix comprising micron-sized powders (<100 microns) using a proprietary process. These composite powders of Al with nano SiC were processed using DMC press and sinter process to sinter density of 85-90%. The process optimization along with sintering needs to be carried out to produce full density composites.

  6. Morphological development and oxidation mechanisms of aluminum nitride whiskers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou Xinmei; Yue Changsheng; Kumar Singh, Ankit; Zhang Mei; Chou Kuochih

    2010-04-15

    Hexagonal aluminum nitride (AlN) whiskers have been synthesized at 1873 K under a flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The synthesized whiskers are long straight filaments with diameters between 1 and 5 {mu}m and length in the cm range. In order to investigate its 'oxidation resistance', a series of experiments have been performed. The oxidation behavior was quite different in the experimental temperature range assigned, which can be attributed to the kinetic factor and the morphological development during oxidation process. It was chemical controlled at lower temperature while both chemical reaction and diffusion controlled at medium temperature. Further accelerating of temperature to 1473 K, AlN whiskers was peeled into smaller parts, which increased the oxidation rate and hence showed powder-like oxidation behavior. Our new kinetic theory has been applied to study the oxidation behavior of AlN whiskers. The comparison of the experimental data with the theoretical ones validates the applicability of the new model. - Hexagonal aluminum nitride (AlN) whiskers have been synthesized at 1873 K under a flowing nitrogen atmosphere. The synthesized whiskers are long straight filaments with diameters between 1 and 5 {mu}m and length in the cm range.

  7. ALUMINUM CLADDING DISSOLUTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, W.W.

    1964-01-28

    This patent shows a method of moderating the chemical reaction when aluminum is dissolved in 2 to 7 molar nitric acid with a mercury catalyst. Nickelous nitrate is added as a negative promoter. (AEC)

  8. CORROSION PROTECTION OF ALUMINUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalrymple, R.S.; Nelson, W.B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred. (D.C.W.)

  9. Corrosion Protection of Aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalrymple, R. S.; Nelson, W. B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred.

  10. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  11. HIGH ALUMINUM HLW GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; JOSEPH I; BOWMAN BW; GAN H; KOT W; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

    2009-08-19

    The world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility is now under construction at the United State Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is designed to treat nearly 53 million gallons of mixed hazardous and radioactive waste now residing in 177 underground storage tanks. This multi-decade processing campaign will be one of the most complex ever undertaken because of the wide chemical and physical variability of the waste compositions generated during the cold war era that are stored at Hanford. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated a program to improve the long-term operating efficiency of the WTP vitrification plants with the objective of reducing the overall cost of tank waste treatment and disposal and shortening the duration of plant operations. Due to the size, complexity and duration of the WTP mission, the lifecycle operating and waste disposal costs are substantial. As a result, gains in High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) waste loadings, as well as increases in glass production rate, which can reduce mission duration and glass volumes for disposal, can yield substantial overall cost savings. EnergySolutions and its long-term research partner, the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America, have been involved in a multi-year ORP program directed at optimizing various aspects of the HLW and LAW vitrification flow sheets. A number of Hanford HLW streams contain high concentrations of aluminum, which is challenging with respect to both waste loading and processing rate. Therefore, a key focus area of the ORP vitrification process optimization program at EnergySolutions and VSL has been development of HLW glass compositions that can accommodate high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations while maintaining high processing rates in the Joule Heated Ceramic Melters (JHCMs) used for waste vitrification at the WTP. This paper, reviews

  12. Aluminum-stabilized Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scanlan, R.M.

    1984-02-10

    This patent discloses an aluminum-stabilized Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

  13. Aluminum-stabilized Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scanlan, R.M.

    1988-05-10

    Disclosed are an aluminum-stabilized Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials. 4 figs.

  14. ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-04-25

    A workshop was held on January 23-24, 2007 to discuss the status of processes to leach constituents from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. The objective of the workshop was to examine the needs and requirements for the HLW flowsheet for each site, discuss the status of knowledge of the leaching processes, communicate the research plans, and identify opportunities for synergy to address knowledge gaps. The purpose of leaching of non-radioactive constituents from the sludge waste is to reduce the burden of material that must be vitrified in the HLW melter systems, resulting in reduced HLW glass waste volume, reduced disposal costs, shorter process schedules, and higher facility throughput rates. The leaching process is estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of SRS by seven years and decrease the number of HLW canisters to be disposed in the Repository by 1000 [Gillam et al., 2006]. Comparably at Hanford, the aluminum and chromium leaching processes are estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of the Waste Treatment Plant by 20 years and decrease the number of canisters to the Repository by 15,000-30,000 [Gilbert, 2007]. These leaching processes will save the Department of Energy (DOE) billions of dollars in clean up and disposal costs. The primary constituents targeted for removal by leaching are aluminum and chromium. It is desirable to have some aluminum in glass to improve its durability; however, too much aluminum can increase the sludge viscosity, glass viscosity, and reduce overall process throughput. Chromium leaching is necessary to prevent formation of crystalline compounds in the glass, but is only needed at Hanford because of differences in the sludge waste chemistry at the two sites. Improving glass formulations to increase tolerance of aluminum and chromium is another approach to decrease HLW glass volume. It is likely that an optimum condition can be found by both performing leaching and improving

  15. Development of an entrained flow gasifier model for process optimization study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biagini, E.; Bardi, A.; Pannocchia, G.; Tognotti, L.

    2009-10-15

    Coal gasification is a versatile process to convert a solid fuel in syngas, which can be further converted and separated in hydrogen, which is a valuable and environmentally acceptable energy carrier. Different technologies (fixed beds, fluidized beds, entrained flow reactors) are used, operating under different conditions of temperature, pressure, and residence time. Process studies should be performed for defining the best plant configurations and operating conditions. Although 'gasification models' can be found in the literature simulating equilibrium reactors, a more detailed approach is required for process analysis and optimization procedures. In this work, a gasifier model is developed by using AspenPlus as a tool to be implemented in a comprehensive process model for the production of hydrogen via coal gasification. It is developed as a multizonal model by interconnecting each step of gasification (preheating, devolatilization, combustion, gasification, quench) according to the reactor configuration, that is in entrained flow reactor. The model removes the hypothesis of equilibrium by introducing the kinetics of all steps and solves the heat balance by relating the gasification temperature to the operating conditions. The model allows to predict the syngas composition as well as quantity the heat recovery (for calculating the plant efficiency), 'byproducts', and residual char. Finally, in view of future works, the development of a 'gasifier model' instead of a 'gasification model' will allow different reactor configurations to be compared.

  16. Process Development for Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae Feedstocks in a Continuous-Flow Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hart, Todd R.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.; Holladay, Johnathan E.

    2013-10-01

    Wet algae slurries can be converted into an upgradeable biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). High levels of carbon conversion to gravity-separable biocrude product were accomplished at relatively low temperature (350 °C) in a continuous-flow, pressurized (sub-critical liquid water) environment (20 MPa). As opposed to earlier work in batch reactors reported by others, direct oil recovery was achieved without the use of a solvent and biomass trace components were removed by processing steps so that they did not cause process difficulties. High conversions were obtained even with high slurry concentrations of up to 35 wt% of dry solids. Catalytic hydrotreating was effectively applied for hydrodeoxygenation, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodesulfurization of the biocrude to form liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification was effectively applied for HTL byproduct water cleanup and fuel gas production from water soluble organics, allowing the water to be considered for recycle of nutrients to the algae growth ponds. As a result, high conversion of algae to liquid hydrocarbon and gas products was found with low levels of organic contamination in the byproduct water. All three process steps were accomplished in bench-scale, continuous-flow reactor systems such that design data for process scale-up was generated.

  17. Production of aluminum-silicon alloy and ferrosilicon and commercial purity aluminum by the direct reduction process. Second annual technical report for the period 1978 September 1-1979 December 31

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, M.J.

    1980-10-01

    A new computer program was developed for simultaneously solving heat and mass balance at steady state for a flowing one-dimensional chemical reactor. Bench scale reactor results confirmed that minimum final stage reaction temperature is 1950 to 2000/sup 0/C, depending on the Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ concentration in the burden. Additions of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ to the charge produced significant increase in metallic yield. A new bench reactor was designed, built, and operated to facilitate semi-continuous operation, using O/sub 2/ injection to burn coke supporting the burden, resulting in burden movement. Validity of the equipment and test procedures was demonstrated by successfully operating the reactor as an iron blast furnace at 1500/sup 0/C. Bench scale fractional crystallizer runs were continued to determine the impurity effects of Fe up to 6.9% and Ti up to 1.25% on alloy product purity and yield. High initial impurity concentrations resulted in less pure Al-Si product and product yield below 50% due to Al and Si losses as Fe-Si-Al and Ti-Si-Al intermetallics. Long term testing was continued in the large bench scale membrane cell to evaluate woven cloth membrane and other construction materials, operating procedures, and effects of operating parameters on cell performance. Included in the latter were starting alloy composition, current density, anode-cathode spacing, and electrolyte composition.

  18. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using ceramic inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Douglas A.; DiMilia, Robert A.; Dynys, Joseph M.; Phelps, Frankie E.; LaCamera, Alfred F.

    2002-01-01

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising ceramic inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The ceramic inert anodes used in the process may comprise oxides containing Fe and Ni, as well as other oxides, metals and/or dopants.

  19. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The inert anodes used in the process preferably comprise a cermet material comprising ceramic oxide phase portions and metal phase portions.

  20. ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum Industry ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum Industry aluminum.pdf (1.12 MB) ...

  1. MODELING COUPLED PROCESSES OF MULTIPHASE FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER IN UNSATURATED FRACTURED ROCK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Wu; S. Mukhopadhyay; K. Zhang; G.S. Bodvarsson

    2006-02-28

    A mountain-scale, thermal-hydrologic (TH) numerical model is developed for investigating unsaturated flow behavior in response to decay heat from the radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA. The TH model, consisting of three-dimensional (3-D) representations of the unsaturated zone, is based on the current repository design, drift layout, and thermal loading scenario under estimated current and future climate conditions. More specifically, the TH model implements the current geological framework and hydrogeological conceptual models, and incorporates the most updated, best-estimated input parameters. This mountain-scale TH model simulates the coupled TH processes related to mountain-scale multiphase fluid flow, and evaluates the impact of radioactive waste heat on the hydrogeological system, including thermally perturbed liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature elevations, as well as the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes and drainage between drifts. For a better description of the ambient geothermal condition of the unsaturated zone system, the TH model is first calibrated against measured borehole temperature data. The ambient temperature calibration provides the necessary surface and water table boundary as well as initial conditions. Then, the TH model is used to obtain scientific understanding of TH processes in the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone under the designed schedule of repository thermal load.

  2. Parallel pulse processing and data acquisition for high speed, low error flow cytometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engh, G.J. van den; Stokdijk, W.

    1992-09-22

    A digitally synchronized parallel pulse processing and data acquisition system for a flow cytometer has multiple parallel input channels with independent pulse digitization and FIFO storage buffer. A trigger circuit controls the pulse digitization on all channels. After an event has been stored in each FIFO, a bus controller moves the oldest entry from each FIFO buffer onto a common data bus. The trigger circuit generates an ID number for each FIFO entry, which is checked by an error detection circuit. The system has high speed and low error rate. 17 figs.

  3. Parallel pulse processing and data acquisition for high speed, low error flow cytometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van den Engh, Gerrit J.; Stokdijk, Willem

    1992-01-01

    A digitally synchronized parallel pulse processing and data acquisition system for a flow cytometer has multiple parallel input channels with independent pulse digitization and FIFO storage buffer. A trigger circuit controls the pulse digitization on all channels. After an event has been stored in each FIFO, a bus controller moves the oldest entry from each FIFO buffer onto a common data bus. The trigger circuit generates an ID number for each FIFO entry, which is checked by an error detection circuit. The system has high speed and low error rate.

  4. Impact of polymer film thickness and cavity size on polymer flow during embossing : towards process design rules for nanoimprint lithography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schunk, Peter Randall; King, William P. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Rowland, Harry D.

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents continuum simulations of polymer flow during nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The simulations capture the underlying physics of polymer flow from the nanometer to millimeter length scale and examine geometry and thermophysical process quantities affecting cavity filling. Variations in embossing tool geometry and polymer film thickness during viscous flow distinguish different flow driving mechanisms. Three parameters can predict polymer deformation mode: cavity width to polymer thickness ratio, polymer supply ratio, and Capillary number. The ratio of cavity width to initial polymer film thickness determines vertically or laterally dominant deformation. The ratio of indenter width to residual film thickness measures polymer supply beneath the indenter which determines Stokes or squeeze flow. The local geometry ratios can predict a fill time based on laminar flow between plates, Stokes flow, or squeeze flow. Characteristic NIL capillary number based on geometry-dependent fill time distinguishes between capillary or viscous driven flows. The three parameters predict filling modes observed in published studies of NIL deformation over nanometer to millimeter length scales. The work seeks to establish process design rules for NIL and to provide tools for the rational design of NIL master templates, resist polymers, and process parameters.

  5. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J.

    2009-04-21

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  6. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  7. MECS 2006- Alumina and Aluminum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Alumina and Aluminum Sector (NAICS 3313) with Total Energy Input, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

  8. Scientists ignite aluminum water mix

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Don't worry, that beer can you're holding is not going to spontaneously burst into flames. June 30, 2014 Los Alamos National Laboratory chemist Bryce Tappan ignites a small quantity of aluminum nanoparticle water mixture. In open air, the compound burns like a Fourth of July sparkler. Los Alamos National Laboratory chemist Bryce Tappan ignites a small quantity of aluminum nanoparticle water mixture. In open air, the

  9. ITP Aluminum: Inert Anodes Roadmap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Aluminum is one of the most versatile materials available today that can meet the demanding requirements of tomorrow's products.

  10. Designing aluminum sealing glasses for manufacturability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovacic, L.; Crowder, S.V.; Brow, R.K.; Bencoe, D.N.

    1993-12-31

    Manufacturability issues involved in the development of new sealing glasses include tailoring glass compositions to meet material and component requirements and determining the optimum seal processing parameters. For each of these issues, statistical analysis can be used to shorten the time between concept and product in the development of what is essentially a new manufacturing technology. We use the development of our new family of phosphate-based glasses for aluminum/stainless steel and aluminum/CuBe hermetic sealing, the ALSG family, to illustrate the statistical approach.

  11. Assessment of Controlling Processes for Field-Scale Uranium Reactive Transport under Highly Transient Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Liu, Chongxuan; Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Zachara, John M.

    2014-02-13

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive model-based analysis of a uranium tracer test conducted at the U.S Department of Energy Hanford 300 Area (300A) IFRC site. A three-dimensional multi-component reactive transport model was employed to assess the key factors and processes that control the field-scale uranium reactive transport. Taking into consideration of relevant physical and chemical processes, the selected conceptual/numerical model replicates the spatial and temporal variations of the observed U(VI) concentrations reasonably well in spite of the highly complex field conditions. A sensitivity analysis was performed to interrogate the relative importance of various processes and factors for reactive transport of U(VI) at the field-scale. The results indicate that multi-rate U(VI) sorption/desorption, U(VI) surface complexation reactions, and initial U(VI) concentrations were the most important processes and factors controlling U(VI) migration. On the other hand, cation exchange reactions, the choice of the surface complexation model, and dual-domain mass transfer processes, which were previously identified to be important in laboratory experiments, played less important roles under the field-scale experimental condition at the 300A site. However, the model simulations also revealed that the groundwater chemistry was relatively stable during the uranium tracer experiment and therefore presumably not dynamic enough to appropriately assess the effects of ion exchange reaction and the choice of surface complexation models on U(VI) sorption and desorption. Furthermore, it also showed that the field experimental duration (16 days) was not sufficiently long to precisely assess the role of a majority of the sorption sites that were accessed by slow kinetic processes within the dual domain model. The sensitivity analysis revealed the crucial role of the intraborehole flow that occurred within the long-screened monitoring wells and thus significantly

  12. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, D.S.; Scott, D.H.

    1984-09-28

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cells are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  13. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, David S.; Scott, Darwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  14. Fluxless aluminum brazing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werner, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    This invention relates to a fluxless brazing alloy for use in forming brazed composites made from members of aluminum and its alloys. The brazing alloy consists of 35-55% Al, 10--20% Si, 25-60% Ge; 65-88% Al, 2-20% Si, 2--18% In; 65--80% Al, 15-- 25% Si, 5- 15% Y. (0fficial Gazette)

  15. SOLDERING OF ALUMINUM BASE METALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, G.F.

    1958-02-25

    This patent deals with the soldering of aluminum to metals of different types, such as copper, brass, and iron. This is accomplished by heating the aluminum metal to be soldered to slightly above 30 deg C, rubbing a small amount of metallic gallium into the part of the surface to be soldered, whereby an aluminum--gallium alloy forms on the surface, and then heating the aluminum piece to the melting point of lead--tin soft solder, applying lead--tin soft solder to this alloyed surface, and combining the aluminum with the other metal to which it is to be soldered.

  16. Numerical study on coupled fluid flow and heat transfer process in parabolic trough solar collector tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Y.B.; He, Y.L.

    2010-10-15

    A unified two-dimensional numerical model was developed for the coupled heat transfer process in parabolic solar collector tube, which includes nature convection, forced convection, heat conduction and fluid-solid conjugate problem. The effects of Rayleigh number (Ra), tube diameter ratio and thermal conductivity of the tube wall on the heat transfer and fluid flow performance were numerically analyzed. The distributions of flow field, temperature field, local Nu and local temperature gradient were examined. The results show that when Ra is larger than 10{sup 5}, the effects of nature convection must be taken into account. With the increase of tube diameter ratio, the Nusselt number in inner tube (Nu{sub 1}) increases and the Nusselt number in annuli space (Nu{sub 2}) decreases. With the increase of tube wall thermal conductivity, Nu{sub 1} decreases and Nu{sub 2} increases. When thermal conductivity is larger than 200 W/(m K), it would have little effects on Nu and average temperatures. Due to the effect of the nature convection, along the circumferential direction (from top to down), the temperature in the cross-section decreases and the temperature gradient on inner tube surface increases at first. Then, the temperature and temperature gradients would present a converse variation at {theta} near {pi}. The local Nu on inner tube outer surface increases along circumferential direction until it reaches a maximum value then it decreases again. (author)

  17. Aluminum for bonding Si-Ge alloys to graphite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eggemann, Robert V.

    1976-01-13

    Improved thermoelectric device and process, comprising the high-temperature, vacuum bonding of a graphite contact and silicon-germanium thermoelectric element by the use of a low void, aluminum, metallurgical shim with low electrical resistance sandwiched therebetween.

  18. Simulation of Coupled Processes of Flow, Transport, and Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Chen, Zizhong; Kazemi, Hossein; Yin, Xiaolong; Pruess, Karsten; Oldenburg, Curt; Winterfeld, Philip; Zhang, Ronglei

    2014-09-30

    This report is the final scientific one for the award DE- FE0000988 entitled “Simulation of Coupled Processes of Flow, Transport, and Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers.” The work has been divided into six tasks. In task, “Development of a Three-Phase Non-Isothermal CO2 Flow Module,” we developed a fluid property module for brine-CO2 mixtures designed to handle all possible phase combinations of aqueous phase, sub-critical liquid and gaseous CO2, supercritical CO2, and solid salt. The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of brine-CO2 mixtures (density, viscosity, and specific enthalpy of fluid phases; partitioning of mass components among the different phases) use the same correlations as an earlier fluid property module that does not distinguish between gaseous and liquid CO2-rich phases. We verified the fluid property module using two leakage scenarios, one that involves CO2 migration up a blind fault and subsequent accumulation in a secondary “parasitic” reservoir at shallower depth, and another investigating leakage of CO2 from a deep storage reservoir along a vertical fault zone. In task, “Development of a Rock Mechanical Module,” we developed a massively parallel reservoir simulator for modeling THM processes in porous media brine aquifers. We derived, from the fundamental equations describing deformation of porous elastic media, a momentum conservation equation relating mean stress, pressure, and temperature, and incorporated it alongside the mass and energy conservation equations from the TOUGH2 formulation, the starting point for the simulator. In addition, rock properties, namely permeability and porosity, are functions of effective stress and other variables that are obtained from the literature. We verified the simulator formulation and numerical implementation using analytical solutions and example problems from the literature. For the former, we matched a one-dimensional consolidation problem and a two-dimensional simulation of

  19. IWTU Construction Workers Set Largest Process Vessel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry | Department of Energy ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum Industry ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum Industry aluminum.pdf (1.12 MB) More Documents & Publications ITP Aluminum: Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies EIS-0333: Draft Environmental Impact Statement Considering Cumulative Effects Under the National Environmental Policy Act (CEQ, 1997)

    IWTU Construction Workers Set Largest Process

  20. Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-matrix fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willit, J.L.; Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; McPheeters, C.C.; Laidler, J.J.

    1996-08-01

    The electrometallurgical treatment process described in this paper builds on our experience in treating spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). The work is also to some degree, a spin-off from applying electrometallurgical treatment to spent fuel from the Hanford single pass reactors (SPRs) and fuel and flush salt from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) in treating EBR-II fuel, we recover the actinides from a uranium-zirconium fuel by electrorefining the uranium out of the chopped fuel. With SPR fuel, uranium is electrorefined out of the aluminum cladding. Both of these processes are conducted in a LiCl-KCl molten-salt electrolyte. In the case of the MSRE, which used a fluoride salt-based fuel, uranium in this salt is recovered through a series of electrochemical reductions. Recovering high-purity uranium from an aluminum-matrix fuel is more challenging than treating SPR or EBR-II fuel because the aluminum- matrix fuel is typically -90% (volume basis) aluminum.

  1. Cost-Effective Consolidation of Fine Aluminum Scrap for Increased Remelting Effieciency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Van Geertruyden

    2005-09-22

    The main objective of this research was to develop a new re-melting process for fine or light gauge aluminum scrap products that exhibits dramatic improvements in energy efficiency. Light gauge aluminum scrap in the form of chips, turnings, and borings has historically been underutilized in the aluminum recycling process due to its high surface area to volume ratio resulting in low melt recovery. Laboratory scale consolidation experiments were performed using loose aluminum powder as a modeling material as well as shredded aluminum wire scrap. The processing parameters necessary to create consolidated aluminum material were determined. Additionally, re-melting experiments using consolidated and unconsolidated aluminum powder confirmed the hypothesis that metal recovery using consolidated material will significantly improve by as much as 20%. Based on this research, it is estimated that approximately 495 billion Btu/year can be saved by implementation of this technology in one domestic aluminum rolling plant alone. The energy savings are realized by substituting aluminum scrap for primary aluminum, which requires large amounts of energy to produce. While there will be an initial capital investment, companies will benefit from the reduction of dependence on primary aluminum thus saving considerable costs. Additionally, the technology will allow companies to maintain in-house alloy scrap, rather than purchasing from other vendors and eliminate the need to discard the light gauge scrap to landfills.

  2. A Computer Program for Processing In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor Data

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-15

    FLOW4.02 is used to interpret data from In Situ Permeable Flow Sensors which are instruments that directly measure groundwater flow velocity in saturated, unconsolidated geologic formations (Ballard, 1994, 1996: Ballard et al., 1994: Ballard et al., in press). The program accepts as input the electrical resistance measurements from the thermistors incorporated within the flow sensors, converts the resistance data to temperatures and then uses the temperature information to calculate the groundwater flow velocity and associatedmore » uncertainty. The software includes many capabilities for manipulating, graphically displaying and writing to disk the raw resistance data, the temperature data and the calculated flow velocity information. This version is a major revision of a previously copyrighted version (FLOW1.0).« less

  3. Investigation of Opportunities for High-Temperature Solar Energy in the Aluminum Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, J.

    2006-05-01

    This report gives the conclusions drawn from a study of the potential application of high-temperature solar process heat for production of aluminum.

  4. Process For Controlling Flow Rate Of Viscous Materials Including Use Of Nozzle With Changeable Openings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellingson, William A.; Forster, George A.

    1999-11-02

    Apparatus and a method for controlling the flow rate of viscous materials through a nozzle includes an apertured main body and an apertured end cap coupled together and having an elongated, linear flow channel extending the length thereof. An end of the main body is disposed within the end cap and includes a plurality of elongated slots concentrically disposed about and aligned with the flow channel. A generally flat cam plate having a center aperture is disposed between the main body and end cap and is rotatable about the flow channel. A plurality of flow control vane assemblies are concentrically disposed about the flow channel and are coupled to the cam plate. Each vane assembly includes a vane element disposed adjacent the end of the flow channel. Rotation of the cam plate in a first direction causes a corresponding rotation of each of the vane elements for positioning the individual vane elements over the aperture in the end cap blocking flow through the flow channel, while rotation in an opposite direction removes the vane elements from the aperture and positions them about the flow channel in a nested configuration in the full open position, with a continuous range of vane element positions available between the full open and closed positions.

  5. Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Alumina and Aluminum Sector (NAICS 3313) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014

  6. Scientists ignite aluminum water mix

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a chemical reaction - is a primary function in determining nanoaluminum combustion burn rates. "It's been long understood that nanoscale aluminum particles, 110 nanometers and...

  7. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue

    2014-06-16

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150 °C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100 °C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

  8. On the dissolution of iridium by aluminum.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hewson, John C.

    2009-08-01

    The potential for liquid aluminum to dissolve an iridium solid is examined. Substantial uncertainties exist in material properties, and the available data for the iridium solubility and iridium diffusivity are discussed. The dissolution rate is expressed in terms of the regression velocity of the solid iridium when exposed to the solvent (aluminum). The temperature has the strongest influence in the dissolution rate. This dependence comes primarily from the solubility of iridium in aluminum and secondarily from the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient. This dissolution mass flux is geometry dependent and results are provided for simplified geometries at constant temperatures. For situations where there is negligible convective flow, simple time-dependent diffusion solutions are provided. Correlations for mass transfer are also given for natural convection and forced convection. These estimates suggest that dissolution of iridium can be significant for temperatures well below the melting temperature of iridium, but the uncertainties in actual rates are large because of uncertainties in the physical parameters and in the details of the relevant geometries.

  9. Degassing of Aluminum Alloys Using Ultrasonic Vibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meek, T. T.; Han, Q.; Xu, H.

    2006-06-01

    The research was intended to lead to a better fundamental understanding of the effect of ultrasonic energy on the degassing of liquid metals and to develop practical approaches for the ultrasonic degassing of alloys. The goals of the project described here were to evaluate core principles, establish a quantitative basis for the ultrasonic degassing of aluminum alloy melts, and demonstrate the application of ultrsaonic processing during ingot casting and foundry shape casting.

  10. A Programmable Bandwidth Aluminum Nitride Microresonator Filter...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Programmable Bandwidth Aluminum Nitride Microresonator Filter. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Programmable Bandwidth Aluminum Nitride Microresonator Filter. Abstract ...

  11. Aluminum alloys for satellite boxes : engineering guidelines...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aluminum alloys for satellite boxes : engineering guidelines for obtaining adequate ... Title: Aluminum alloys for satellite boxes : engineering guidelines for obtaining adequate ...

  12. Direct match data flow machine apparatus and process for data driven computing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, G.S.; Grafe, V.G.

    1997-08-12

    A data flow computer and method of computing are disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status but to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a ``fire`` signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor. 11 figs.

  13. Direct match data flow machine apparatus and process for data driven computing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davidson, George S.; Grafe, Victor Gerald

    1997-01-01

    A data flow computer and method of computing is disclosed which utilizes a data driven processor node architecture. The apparatus in a preferred embodiment includes a plurality of First-In-First-Out (FIFO) registers, a plurality of related data flow memories, and a processor. The processor makes the necessary calculations and includes a control unit to generate signals to enable the appropriate FIFO register receiving the result. In a particular embodiment, there are three FIFO registers per node: an input FIFO register to receive input information form an outside source and provide it to the data flow memories; an output FIFO register to provide output information from the processor to an outside recipient; and an internal FIFO register to provide information from the processor back to the data flow memories. The data flow memories are comprised of four commonly addressed memories. A parameter memory holds the A and B parameters used in the calculations; an opcode memory holds the instruction; a target memory holds the output address; and a tag memory contains status bits for each parameter. One status bit indicates whether the corresponding parameter is in the parameter memory and one status but to indicate whether the stored information in the corresponding data parameter is to be reused. The tag memory outputs a "fire" signal (signal R VALID) when all of the necessary information has been stored in the data flow memories, and thus when the instruction is ready to be fired to the processor.

  14. Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

    2000-02-02

    Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

  15. High adherence copper plating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nignardot, Henry

    1993-01-01

    A process for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

  16. ORNL ADV POST-PROCESSING GUIDE AND MATLAB ALGORITHMS FOR MHK SITE FLOW AND TURBULENCE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S; McNutt, James R

    2011-10-01

    This report details standard protocols for post-processing acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) measurements, including guidance on using a MATLAB code for such processing.

  17. Effects of non-homogeneous flow on ADCP data processing in a hydroturbine forebay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harding, S. F.; Richmond, M. C.; Romero-Gomez, P.; Serkowski, J. A.

    2016-01-02

    Accurate modeling of the velocity field in the forebay of a hydroelectric power station is important for both power generation and fish passage, and is able to be increasingly well represented by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) are investigated herein as a method of validating the numerical flow solutions, particularly in observed and calculated regions of non-homogeneous flow velocity. By using a numerical model of an ADCP operating in a velocity field calculated using CFD, the errors due to the spatial variation of the flow velocity are quantified. Furthermore, the numerical model of the ADCPmore » is referred to herein as a Virtual ADCP (VADCP).« less

  18. Indirect-Fired Kiln Conserves Scrap Aluminum and Cuts Costs | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Indirect-Fired Kiln Conserves Scrap Aluminum and Cuts Costs Indirect-Fired Kiln Conserves Scrap Aluminum and Cuts Costs This case study examines a succesful process heating technology improvement implemented by Wabash Alloys at its East Syracuse, New York, facility. A demonstration project conducted at this plant by Energy Research Company (ERCo), of Staten Island, New York, involves a new energy-efficient kiln that heats scrap aluminum for reuse. This kiln has enabled Wabash to

  19. Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-11-01

    Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

  20. Electrolyte treatment for aluminum reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.; Brooks, Richard J.; Frizzle, Patrick B.; Juric, Drago D.

    2002-01-01

    A method of treating an electrolyte for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum employing an anode and a cathode, the alumina dissolved in the electrolyte, the treating improving wetting of the cathode with molten aluminum during electrolysis. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte comprised of ALF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF and LiF, and treating the electrolyte by providing therein 0.004 to 0.2 wt. % of a transition metal or transition metal compound for improved wettability of the cathode with molten aluminum during subsequent electrolysis to reduce alumina to aluminum.

  1. Rapid processing of carbon-carbon composites by forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaidyaraman, S.; Lackey, W.J.; Agrawal, P.K.; Freeman, G.B.; Langman, M.D.

    1995-10-01

    Carbon fiber-carbon matrix composites were fabricated using the forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) process. Preforms were prepared by stacking 40 layers of plain weave carbon cloth in a graphite holder. The preforms were infiltrated using propylene, propane, and methane. The present work showed that the FCVI process is well suited for fabricating carbon-carbon composites; without optimization of the process, the authors have achieved uniform and thorough densification. Composites with porosities as low as 7% were fabricated in 8--12 h. The highest deposition rate obtained in the present study was {approximately}3 {micro}m/h which is more than an order of magnitude faster than the typical value of 0.1--0.25 {micro}m/h for the isothermal process. It was also found that the use of propylene and propane as reagents resulted in faster infiltration compared to methane.

  2. Aluminum Formability Extension through Superior Blank Processing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  3. Updated Life-Cycle Assessment of Aluminum Production and Semi-fabrication for the GREET Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Qiang; Kelly, Jarod C.; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-09-01

    This report serves as an update for the life-cycle analysis (LCA) of aluminum production based on the most recent data representing the state-of-the-art of the industry in North America. The 2013 Aluminum Association (AA) LCA report on the environmental footprint of semifinished aluminum products in North America provides the basis for the update (The Aluminum Association, 2013). The scope of this study covers primary aluminum production, secondary aluminum production, as well as aluminum semi-fabrication processes including hot rolling, cold rolling, extrusion and shape casting. This report focuses on energy consumptions, material inputs and criteria air pollutant emissions for each process from the cradle-to-gate of aluminum, which starts from bauxite extraction, and ends with manufacturing of semi-fabricated aluminum products. The life-cycle inventory (LCI) tables compiled are to be incorporated into the vehicle cycle model of Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model for the release of its 2015 version.

  4. Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy Assessments at Two Aluminum Sheet Production Operations Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide ...

  5. Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkitbayev, M.; Omarova, K.; Tolebayev, T.; Galkin, A.; Bachilova, N.; Blynskiy, A.; Maev, V.; Wells, D.; Herrick, A.; Michelbacher, J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

  6. Precipitation and Deposition of Aluminum-Containing Phases in Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel M. Dabbs; Ilhan A. Aksay

    2005-01-12

    Aluminum-containing phases compose the bulk of solids precipitating during the processing of radioactive tank wastes. Processes designed to minimize the volume of high-level waste through conversion to glassy phases require transporting waste solutions near-saturated with aluminum-containing species from holding tank to processing center. The uncontrolled precipitation within transfer lines results in clogged pipes and lines and fouled ion exchangers, with the potential to shut down processing operations.

  7. Electrochemical separation of aluminum from uranium for research reactor spent nuclear fuel applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, S. A.; Willit, J. L.; Gay, E. C.; Chemical Engineering

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) are developing an electrorefining process to treat aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel by electrochemically separating aluminum from uranium. The aluminum electrorefiner is modeled after the high-throughput electrorefiner developed at ANL. Aluminum is electrorefined, using a fluoride salt electrolyte, in a potential range of -0.1 V to -0.2 V, while uranium is electrorefined in a potential range of -0.3 V to -0.4 V; therefore, aluminum can be selectively separated electrochemically from uranium. A series of laboratory-scale experiments was performed to demonstrate the aluminum electrorefining concept. These experiments involved selecting an electrolyte (determining a suitable fluoride salt composition); selecting a crucible material for the electrochemical cell; optimizing the operating conditions; determining the effect of adding alkaline and rare earth elements to the electrolyte; and demonstrating the electrochemical separation of aluminum from uranium, using a U-Al-Si alloy as a simulant for aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel. Results of the laboratory-scale experiments indicate that aluminum can be selectively electrotransported from the anode to the cathode, while uranium remains in the anode basket.

  8. PREPARATION OF DIBASIC ALUMINUM NITRATE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gresky, A.T.; Nurmi, E.O.; Foster, D.L.; Wischow, R.P.; Savolainen, J.E.

    1960-04-01

    A method is given for the preparation and recovery of basic aluminum nltrates having an OH: Al ratio of at least two, comprising two steps. First, metallic aluminum is dissolved in aqueous Al(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/, in the presence of a small quantity of elemental or ionic mercury, to increase its Al: NO/sub 3/ ratio into the range 1 to 1.2. The resulting aqueous solution is then added to an excess of a special organic solvent, typically a mixture of five parts methanol and six parts diethyl ether, whereupon the basic aluminum nitrate, e.g. Al/sub 6/(OH)/sub 13/-(NO/sub 3/)/sub 5/, recoverably precipitates.

  9. Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Liu, Hansan; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reports on the development of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries. A possible concept of rechargeable aluminum/aluminum-ion battery based on low-cost, earth-abundant Al anode, ionic liquid EMImCl:AlCl3 (1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloroaluminate) electrolytes and MnO2 cathode has been proposed. Al anode has been reported to show good reversibility in acid melts. However, due to the problems in demonstrating the reversibility in cathodes, alternate battery cathodes and battery concepts have also been presented. New ionic liquid electrolytes for reversible Al dissolution and deposition are needed in the future for replacing corrosive EMImCl:AlCl3 electrolytes.

  10. Time cycle analysis and simulation of material flow in MOX process layout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, S.; Saraswat, A.; Danny, K.M.; Somayajulu, P.S.; Kumar, A.

    2013-07-01

    The (U,Pu)O{sub 2} MOX fuel is the driver fuel for the upcoming PFBR (Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor). The fuel has around 30% PuO{sub 2}. The presence of high percentages of reprocessed PuO{sub 2} necessitates the design of optimized fuel fabrication process line which will address both production need as well as meet regulatory norms regarding radiological safety criteria. The powder pellet route has highly unbalanced time cycle. This difficulty can be overcome by optimizing process layout in terms of equipment redundancy and scheduling of input powder batches. Different schemes are tested before implementing in the process line with the help of a software. This software simulates the material movement through the optimized process layout. The different material processing schemes have been devised and validity of the schemes are tested with the software. Schemes in which production batches are meeting at any glove box location are considered invalid. A valid scheme ensures adequate spacing between the production batches and at the same time it meets the production target. This software can be further improved by accurately calculating material movement time through glove box train. One important factor is considering material handling time with automation systems in place.

  11. Titanium Matrix Composite Tooling Material for Aluminum Die Castings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In aluminum die-casting, molten aluminum is forced under high pressure into a die cavity. First a "shot" of molten aluminum is ladled into a shot sleeve and the shot of molten aluminum is forced by...

  12. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  13. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C.J.; Dispennette, J.M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg. 3 figs.

  14. Dissolution and Separation of Aluminum and Aluminosilicates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H.

    2015-12-19

    The selection of an aluminum alloy for target irradiation affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the dissolver, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. Aluminosilicate dissolution presents challenges in a number of different areas, metals extraction from minerals, flyash treatment, and separations from aluminum alloys. We present experimental work that attempts to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as amore » function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. Our data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.« less

  15. Dissolution and Separation of Aluminum and Aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Benker, Dennis; DePaoli, David W.; Felker, Leslie Kevin; Mattus, Catherine H.

    2015-12-19

    The selection of an aluminum alloy for target irradiation affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the dissolver, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. Aluminosilicate dissolution presents challenges in a number of different areas, metals extraction from minerals, flyash treatment, and separations from aluminum alloys. We present experimental work that attempts to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as a function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. Our data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.

  16. ORNL ADCP POST-PROCESSING GUIDE AND MATLAB ALGORITHMS FOR MHK SITE FLOW AND TURBULENCE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S

    2011-09-01

    Standard methods, along with guidance for post-processing the ADCP stationary measurements using MATLAB algorithms that were evaluated and tested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), are presented following an overview of the ADCP operating principles, deployment methods, error sources and recommended protocols for removing and replacing spurious data.

  17. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum From Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2004-11-02

    An electrolytic cell for producing aluminum from alumina having a reservoir for collecting molten aluminum remote from the electrolysis.

  18. RECOVERY OF ALUMINUM FROM FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blanco, R.E.; Higgins, I.R.

    1962-11-20

    A method is given for recovertng aluminum values from aqueous solutions containing said values together with fission products. A mixture of Fe/sub 2/O/ sub 3/ and MnO/sub 2/ is added to a solution containing aluminum and fission products. The resulting aluminum-containing supernatant is then separated from the fission product-bearing metal oxide precipitate and is contacted with a cation exchange resin. The aluminum sorbed on the resin is then eluted and recovered. (AEC)

  19. Improvement of the Lost Foam Casting Process

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Casting is an energy-intensive manufacturing process within the metal casting and aluminum industries, requiring natural gas to melt aluminum and electricity to run equipment. The higher-than...

  20. The influence of aluminum grain size on alumina nanoporous structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feil, A. F.; Costa, M. V. da; Amaral, L.; Teixeira, S. R.; Migowski, P.; Dupont, J.; Machado, G.; Peripolli, S. B.

    2010-01-15

    An approach to control the interpore distances and nanopore diameters of 150-nm-thick thin aluminum films is reported here. The Al thin films were grown by sputtering on p-type silicon substrate and anodized with a conventional anodization process in a phosphoric acid solution. It was found that interpore distance and pore diameter are related to the aluminum grain size and can be controlled by annealing. The grain contours limit the sizes of alumina cells. This mechanism is valid for grain sizes supporting only one alumina cell and consequently only one pore.

  1. Extended Sleeve Products Allow Control and Monitoring of Process Fluid Flows Inside Shielding, Behind Walls and Beneath Floors - 13041

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, Mark W.

    2013-07-01

    Throughout power generation, delivery and waste remediation, the ability to control process streams in difficult or impossible locations becomes increasingly necessary as the complexity of processes increases. Example applications include radioactive environments, inside concrete installations, buried in dirt, or inside a shielded or insulated pipe. In these situations, it is necessary to implement innovative solutions to tackle such issues as valve maintenance, valve control from remote locations, equipment cleaning in hazardous environments, and flow stream analysis. The Extended Sleeve family of products provides a scalable solution to tackle some of the most challenging applications in hazardous environments which require flow stream control and monitoring. The Extended Sleeve family of products is defined in three groups: Extended Sleeve (ESV), Extended Bonnet (EBV) and Instrument Enclosure (IE). Each of the products provides a variation on the same requirements: to provide access to the internals of a valve, or to monitor the fluid passing through the pipeline through shielding around the process pipe. The shielding can be as simple as a grout filled pipe covering a process pipe or as complex as a concrete deck protecting a room in which the valves and pipes pass through at varying elevations. Extended Sleeves are available between roughly 30 inches and 18 feet of distance between the pipeline centerline and the top of the surface to which it mounts. The Extended Sleeve provides features such as ± 1.5 inches of adjustment between the pipeline and deck location, internal flush capabilities, automatic alignment of the internal components during assembly and integrated actuator mounting pads. The Extended Bonnet is a shorter fixed height version of the Extended Sleeve which has a removable deck flange to facilitate installation through walls, and is delivered fully assembled. The Instrument Enclosure utilizes many of the same components as an Extended Sleeve

  2. Reduction of Annealing Times for Energy Conservation in Aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony D. Rollett; Hasso Weiland; Mohammed Alvi; Abhijit Brahme

    2005-08-31

    Carnegie Mellon University was teamed with the Alcoa Technical Center with support from the US Dept. of Energy (Office of Industrial Technology) and the Pennsylvania Technology Investment Authority (PTIA) to make processing of aluminum less costly and more energy efficient. Researchers in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering have investigated how annealing processes in the early stages of aluminum processing affect the structure and properties of the material. Annealing at high temperatures consumes significant amounts of time and energy. By making detailed measurements of the crystallography and morphology of internal structural changes they have generated new information that will provide a scientific basis for shortening processing times and consuming less energy during annealing.

  3. Method of Preparing Hydrous Hafnium, Cerium, or Aluminum Oxide Gels and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spherules - Energy Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Method of Preparing Hydrous Hafnium, Cerium, or Aluminum Oxide Gels and Spherules Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary An internal gelatin process for preparing hydrous hafnium, cerium, or aluminum oxide microspheres was invented at ORNL. The invention is a type of sol-gel process that solidifies droplets of solution as they

  4. TANK 12 SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION AND ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboul, S; Michael Hay, M; Kristine Zeigler, K; Michael Stone, M

    2009-03-25

    A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40

  5. Tank 12 Sludge Characterization and Aluminum Dissolution Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboul, S.; Hay, M.; Zeigler, K; Stone, M.

    2010-05-05

    A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40

  6. A numerical investigation of the scale-up effects on flow, heat transfer, and kinetics processes of FCC units.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S. L.

    1998-08-25

    Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) technology is the most important process used by the refinery industry to convert crude oil to valuable lighter products such as gasoline. Process development is generally very time consuming especially when a small pilot unit is being scaled-up to a large commercial unit because of the lack of information to aide in the design of scaled-up units. Such information can now be obtained by analysis based on the pilot scale measurements and computer simulation that includes controlling physics of the FCC system. A Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code, ICRKFLO, has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and has been successfully applied to the simulation of catalytic petroleum cracking risers. It employs hybrid hydrodynamic-chemical kinetic coupling techniques, enabling the analysis of an FCC unit with complex chemical reaction sets containing tens or hundreds of subspecies. The code has been continuously validated based on pilot-scale experimental data. It is now being used to investigate the effects of scaled-up FCC units. Among FCC operating conditions, the feed injection conditions are found to have a strong impact on the product yields of scaled-up FCC units. The feed injection conditions appear to affect flow and heat transfer patterns and the interaction of hydrodynamics and cracking kinetics causes the product yields to change accordingly.

  7. Final Report: Wetted Cathodes for Low-Temperature Aluminum Smelting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Craig W

    2002-09-30

    A low-temperature aluminum smelting process being developed differs from the Hall-Heroult process in several significant ways. The low-temperature process employs a more acidic electrolyte than cryolite, an alumina slurry, oxygen-generating metal anodes, and vertically suspended electrodes. Wetted and drained vertical cathodes are crucial to the new process. Such cathodes represent a significant portion of the capital costs projected for the new technology. Although studies exist of wetted cathode technology with Hall-Heoult cells, the differences make such a study desirable with the new process.

  8. Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells ultrahi-eff_aluminum.pdf (512.14 KB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production WA_98_001_REYNOLDS_METALS_COMPANY_Waiver_of_Domestic_and_For.pdf ITP Aluminum: Inert Anodes Roadmap

  9. Could Aluminum Nitride Produce Quantum Bits?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home » News & Publications » News » Science News » Could Aluminum Nitride Produce Quantum Bits? Could Aluminum Nitride Produce Quantum Bits? After running simulations at NERSC researchers believe it's possible May 2, 2016 Linda Vu, lvu@lbl.gov, 510.495.2402 Graphical Abstract AlN Sci Rep no logo cropped This graphic illustrates an engineered nitrogen vacancy in aluminum nitride. Quantum computers have the potential to break common cryptography techniques, search huge datasets and

  10. Comparing Laser Welding Technologies with Friction Stir Welding for Production of Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Carsley, John; Carlson, Blair; Hartfield-Wunsch, Susan; Pilli, Siva Prasad

    2014-01-15

    A comparison of welding techniques was performed to determine the most effective method for producing aluminum tailor-welded blanks for high volume automotive applications. Aluminum sheet was joined with an emphasis on post weld formability, surface quality and weld speed. Comparative results from several laser based welding techniques along with friction stir welding are presented. The results of this study demonstrate a quantitative comparison of weld methodologies in preparing tailor-welded aluminum stampings for high volume production in the automotive industry. Evaluation of nearly a dozen welding variations ultimately led to down selecting a single process based on post-weld quality and performance.

  11. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal ... Return to Search Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof ...

  12. High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W.; Coombs, III, Arthur W.; Yee, Jick H.

    2005-05-03

    Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

  13. High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W.; Coombs, III, Arthur W.; Yee, Jick H.

    2007-12-18

    Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

  14. Electricity in the production of metals: From aluminum to zinc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J.W.

    1995-04-01

    This article treats some electrometallurgical and electromagnetic metals. but it opens with an examination of whether there is ``electricity`` (i.e., vitality) in the primary metals industries, particularly within the United States of America. That question is examined in terms of the economics of two examples: aluminum and zinc. Then, three examples are provided of potential improvements in the production of metals arising front industrial and university research: use of new electrode materials in Hall-Heroult cells to reduce energy consumption in aluminum smelting, the fluidized bed electrowinning of copper and other metals, and the employment of electromagnetic forces in metals processing, particularly electromagnetic casting. The article concludes with observations on the paucity of United States support for research and development (R and D) in primary metals production, compared with that of the industrial activities and of other nations. and suggests a prognosis for the future of arcade research and teaching in extractive and process metallurgy.

  15. Welding high-strength aluminum alloys at the Paton Institute

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuchuk, Yatsenko, S.I.; Cherednichok, V.T.; Semenov, L.A. )

    1993-07-01

    The choice of the flash method for welding aluminum-alloy sections was governed first of all by the possibility of producing homogeneous-structure joints with the minimum amount of possible discontinuities and an insignificant metal strength loss in the welding zone. The aluminum alloy welding technology under consideration relies on the method of flash welding without using any protective atmospheres. The reason is first of all that a complex cross-sectional shape of workpieces being joined, their configuration and considerable overall dimensions make it difficult to use chambers of any type. Besides, conducted studies ascertained that in flash welding, in contrast to various fusion welding processes, the use of protective atmospheres or a vacuum is of little benefit. Here are the results of studying the specifics of thermal and electric processes in flashing, the physical features of weld joint formation, the basics of the welding technology, and the characteristics of the equipment.

  16. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage. Version 2, 2010. Reaction of Aluminum ...

  17. Ionic Current Mapping Techniques and Applications to Aluminum-Copper Corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaacs, H. S.; Jeffcoate, C. S.; Missert, N. A.; Barbour, J. C.

    1999-10-17

    Measurements have been made of the aluminum/metal galvanic couple. A wide range of geometries were investigated varying the areas of anodic and cathodic surfaces and employing specially designed galvanic cells with crevices. In situ ionic current density mapping was used to monitor galvanic corrosion and currents flowing between separated metals was measured.

  18. FRICTION STIR SPOT WELDING OF 6016 ALUMINUM ALLOY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Rajiv S.; Webb, S.; Freeney, T. A.; Chen, Y. L.; Gayden, X.; Grant, Glenn J.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2007-01-08

    Friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of 6016 aluminum alloy was evaluated with conventional pin tool and new off-center feature tools. The off-center feature tool provides significant control over the joint area. The tool rotation rate was varied between 1000 and 2500 rpm. Maximum failure strength was observed in the tool rotation range of 1200-1500 rpm. The results are interpreted in the context of material flow in the joint and influence of thermal input on microstructural changes. The off-center feature tool concept opens up new possibilities for plunge-type friction stir spot welding.

  19. Red-emitting manganese-doped aluminum nitride phosphor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Harvey, Nicholas M.; Aberg, Daniel; Seeley, Zachary M.; Holliday, Kiel S.; Tran, Ich C.; Zhou, Fei; Martinez, H. Paul; Demeyer, Jessica M.; et al

    2016-02-10

    Here, we report high efficiency luminescence with a manganese-doped aluminum nitride red-emitting phosphor under 254 nm excitation, as well as its excellent lumen maintenance in fluorescent lamp conditions, making it a candidate replacement for the widely deployed europium-doped yttria red phosphor. Solid-state reaction of aluminum nitride powders with manganese metal at 1900 °C, 10 atm N2 in a reducing environment results in nitrogen deficiency, as revealed diffuse reflectance spectra. When these powders are subsequently annealed in flowing nitrogen at 1650 °C, higher nitrogen content is recovered, resulting in white powders. Silicon was added to samples as an oxygen getter tomore » improve emission efficiency. NEXAFS spectra and DFT calculations indicate that the Mn dopant is divalent. From DFT calculations, the UV absorption band is proposed to be due to an aluminum vacancy coupled with oxygen impurity dopants, and Mn2+ is assumed to be closely associated with this site. In contrast with some previous reports, we find that the highest quantum efficiency with 254 nm excitation (Q.E. = 0.86 ± 0.14) is obtained in aluminum nitride with a low manganese doping level of 0.06 mol.%. The principal Mn2+ decay of 1.25 ms is assigned to non-interacting Mn sites, while additional components in the microsecond range appear with higher Mn doping, consistent with Mn clustering and resultant exchange coupling. Slower components are present in samples with low Mn doping, as well as strong afterglow, assigned to trapping on shallow traps followed by detrapping and subsequent trapping on Mn.« less

  20. Precursor detonation wave development in ANFO due to aluminum confinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Scott I; Klyanda, Charles B; Short, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Detonations in explosive mixtures of ammonium-nitrate-fuel-oil (ANFO) confined by aluminum allow for transport of detonation energy ahead of the detonation front due to the aluminum sound speed exceeding the detonation velocity. The net effect of this energy transport on the detonation is unclear. It could enhance the detonation by precompressing the explosive near the wall. Alternatively, it could decrease the explosive performance by crushing porosity required for initiation by shock compression or destroying confinement ahead of the detonation. At present, these phenomena are not well understood. But with slowly detonating, non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) systems becoming increasing prevalent, proper understanding and prediction of the performance of these metal-confined NIHE systems is desirable. Experiments are discussed that measured the effect of this ANFO detonation energy transported upstream of the front by a 76-mm-inner-diameter aluminum confining tube. Detonation velocity, detonation-front shape, and aluminum response are recorded as a function of confiner wall thickness and length. Detonation shape profiles display little curvature near the confining surface, which is attributed to energy transported upstream modifying the flow. Average detonation velocities were seen to increase with increasing confiner thickness, while wavefront curvature decreased due to the stiffer, subsonic confinement. Significant radial sidewall tube motion was observed immediately ahead of the detonation. Axial motion was also detected, which interfered with the front shape measurements in some cases. It was concluded that the confiner was able to transport energy ahead of the detonation and that this transport has a definite effect on the detonation by modifying its characteristic shape.

  1. SOLID STATE BONDING OF THORIUM WITH ALUMINUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Storchhelm, S.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for bonding thorium and aluminum by placing clean surfaces of thorium and aluminum in contact with each other and hot pressing the metals together in a protective atmosphere at a temperature of about 375 to 575 deg C and at a pressure of at least 10 tsi to effect a bond.

  2. METHOD FOR JOINING ALUMINUM TO STAINLESS STEEL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemon, L.C.

    1960-05-24

    Aluminum may be joined to stainless steel without the use of flux by tinning the aluminum with a tin solder containing 1% silver and 1% lead, tinning the stainless steel with a 50% lead 50% tin solder, and then sweating the tinned surfaces together.

  3. Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brown, Craig W.

    2002-07-16

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

  4. Liquid Salts as Media for Process Heat Transfer from VHTR's: Forced Convective Channel Flow Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, and Coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd; Corradini, Michael

    2012-01-30

    The goal of this NERI project was to perform research on high temperature fluoride and chloride molten salts towards the long-term goal of using these salts for transferring process heat from high temperature nuclear reactor to operation of hydrogen production and chemical plants. Specifically, the research focuses on corrosion of materials in molten salts, which continues to be one of the most significant challenges in molten salts systems. Based on the earlier work performed at ORNL on salt properties for heat transfer applications, a eutectic fluoride salt FLiNaK (46.5% LiF-11.5%NaF-42.0%KF, mol.%) and a eutectic chloride salt (32%MgCl2-68%KCl, mole %) were selected for this study. Several high temperature candidate Fe-Ni-Cr and Ni-Cr alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, were exposed to molten FLiNaK with the goal of understanding corrosion mechanisms and ranking these alloys for their suitability for molten fluoride salt heat exchanger and thermal storage applications. The tests were performed at 850C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion was noted to occur predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries Alloy weight-loss due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys weight-loss was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present for the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. Experiments involving molten salt exposures of Incoloy-800H in Incoloy-800H crucibles under an argon cover gas showed a significantly lower corrosion for this alloy than when tested in a graphite crucible. Graphite significantly accelerated alloy corrosion due to the reduction of Cr from solution by graphite and formation

  5. Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve Productivity Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve Productivity This case study describes how a DOE energy ...

  6. Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles Friction Stir Welding Aluminum for Lightweight Vehicles Addthis Description In this video, a researcher from Pacific ...

  7. XUV Absorption by Solid Density Aluminum (Journal Article) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    XUV Absorption by Solid Density Aluminum Citation Details In-Document Search Title: XUV Absorption by Solid Density Aluminum An inverse bremsstrahlung model for plasmas and simple ...

  8. Composite-Reinforced Aluminum Conductor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    annealed trapezoidal-shaped conductive aluminum wires. Compared with a conventional steel core cable, the new core allows for up to 28% more conductive aluminum to be wrapped...

  9. Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Positive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Positive Electrodes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with ...

  10. Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Rechargeable aluminum batteries with conducting polymers as positive electrodes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rechargeable aluminum batteries with ...

  11. Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with Conducting Polymers as Active Cathode Materials. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rechargeable Aluminum Batteries with ...

  12. Adsorption of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum molecules on cobalt...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Adsorption of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum molecules on cobalt surfaces Prev Next Title: Adsorption of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum molecules on cobalt surfaces ...

  13. High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program ...

  14. ITP Aluminum: Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ITP Aluminum: Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies ITP Aluminum: Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies inertech.pdf (8.16 MB) More Documents & ...

  15. ITP Aluminum: Alumina Technology Roadmap | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alumina Technology Roadmap ITP Aluminum: Alumina Technology Roadmap alumina.pdf (223.3 KB) More Documents & Publications U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production ITP ...

  16. U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production Historical Perspective, Theoretical Limits, and Current Practices. U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production (February 2007) (3.04 MB) More Documents & Publications Ultrahigh-Efficiency Aluminum Production Cells ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World

  17. Aluminum-based metal-air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friesen, Cody A.; Martinez, Jose Antonio Bautista

    2016-01-12

    Provided in one embodiment is an electrochemical cell, comprising: (i) a plurality of electrodes, comprising a fuel electrode that comprises aluminum and an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the aluminum is oxidized at the fuel electrode and oxygen is reduced at the air electrode, and (ii) an ionically conductive medium, comprising an organic solvent; wherein during non-use of the cell, the organic solvent promotes formation of a protective interface between the aluminum of the fuel electrode and the ionically conductive medium, and wherein at an onset of the discharge mode, at least some of the protective interface is removed from the aluminum to thereafter permit oxidation of the aluminum during the discharge mode.

  18. Processes, mechanisms, parameters, and modeling approaches for partially saturated flow in soil and rock media; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Narasimhan, T.N.

    1993-06-01

    This report discusses conceptual models and mathematical equations, analyzes distributions and correlations among hydrological parameters of soils and tuff, introduces new path integration approaches, and outlines scaling procedures to model potential-driven fluid flow in heterogeneous media. To properly model the transition from fracture-dominated flow under saturated conditions to matrix-dominated flow under partially saturated conditions, characteristic curves and permeability functions for fractures and matrix need to be improved and validated. Couplings from two-phase flow, heat transfer, solute transport, and rock deformation to liquid flow are also important. For stochastic modeling of alternating units of welded and nonwelded tuff or formations bounded by fault zones, correlations and constraints on average values of saturated permeability and air entry scaling factor between different units need to be imposed to avoid unlikely combinations of parameters and predictions. Large-scale simulations require efficient and verifiable numerical algorithms. New path integration approaches based on postulates of minimum work and mass conservation to solve flow geometry and potential distribution simultaneously are introduced. This verifiable integral approach, together with fractal scaling procedures to generate statistical realizations with parameter distribution, correlation, and scaling taken into account, can be used to quantify uncertainties and generate the cumulative distribution function for groundwater travel times.

  19. Drying studies for corroded DOE aluminum plate fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lords, R.E.; Windes, W.E.; Crepeau, J.C.; Sidwell, R.W.

    1996-05-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) currently stores a wide variety of spent nuclear fuel. The fuel was originally intended to be stored underwater for a short period of thermal cooling, then removed and reprocessed. However, it has been stored underwater for much longer thank originally anticipated. During this time dust and airborne desert soil have entered the oldest INEL pool, accumulating on the fuel. Also, the aluminum fuel cladding has corroded compromising the exposed surfaces of the fuel. Plans are now underway to move some the the more vulnerable aluminum plate type fuels into dry storage in an existing vented and filtered fuel storage facility. In preparation for dry storage of the fuel a drying and canning station is being built at the INEL. The two primary objectives of this facility are to determine the influence of corrosion products on the drying process and to establish temperature distribution inside the canister during heating.

  20. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Scott, Donald G.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  1. Electrically conductive containment vessel for molten aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Scott, D.G.

    1984-06-25

    The present invention is directed to a containment vessel which is particularly useful in melting aluminum. The vessel of the present invention is a multilayered vessel characterized by being electrically conductive, essentially nonwettable by and nonreactive with molten aluminum. The vessel is formed by coating a tantalum substrate of a suitable configuration with a mixture of yttria and particulate metal 10 borides. The yttria in the coating inhibits the wetting of the coating while the boride particulate material provides the electrical conductivity through the vessel. The vessel of the present invention is particularly suitable for use in melting aluminum by ion bombardment.

  2. Cathode for aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell comprising the steps of providing an anode in a cell, preferably a non-reactive anode, and also providing a cathode in the cell, the cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity reactive with molten aluminum to provide a highly electrically conductive layer on the base material. Electric current is passed from the anode to the cathode and alumina is reduced and aluminum is deposited at the cathode. The cathode base material is selected from boron carbide, and zirconium oxide.

  3. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  4. A simple aluminum gasket for use with both stainless steel and aluminum flanges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langley, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for making aluminum wire seal gaskets of various sizes and shapes for use with both stainless steel and aluminum alloy flanges. The gasket material used is 0.9999 pure aluminum, drawn to a diameter of 3 mm. This material can be easily welded and formed into various shapes. A single gasket has been successfully used up to five times without baking. The largest gasket tested to date is 3.5 m long and was used in the shape of a parallelogram. Previous use of aluminum wire gaskets, including results for bakeout at temperatures from 20 to 660{degree}C, is reviewed. A search of the literature indicates that this is the first reported use of aluminum wire gaskets for aluminum alloy flanges. The technique is described in detail, and the results are summarized. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Dynamic consolidation of aluminum-silicon carbide composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabin, B.H.; Korth, G.E.; Williamson, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic consolidation was investigated as a potential method for producing P/M metal matrix composites. In this study, 2124 aluminum powders were mixed with silicon carbide particulate and consolidated using explosives. Numerical simulations were performed to provide insight into the consolidation process and to aid in the selection of experimental conditions. The microstructure of the as-consolidated product was dependent upon processing variables. Careful control of the shock parameters allowed full density, crack free composites to be achieved in cylindrical geometries. Although full density was obtained, low fracture strengths suggested a lack of interparticle bonding, probably resulting from the limited ability to redistribute surface oxides during consolidation. 10 refs., 9 figs.

  6. A scanning Kelvin probe analysis of aluminum and aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, D.C.; Grecsek, G.E.; Roberts, R.O.

    1999-07-01

    A scanning Kelvin probe was used to determine a correlation between work function measurements in air and corrosion potential measurements in solution of pure metals. Test panels of AA2024-T3 treated with various surface preparations and primer/coatings were also analyzed using this technique. Filiform corrosion was observed on a scribed panel that had been exposed to a humid environment, whereas on a non-scribed and non-exposed test panel, holidays in the coating were observed and clearly defined. Work function (wf) analysis yielded more noble values for areas within the scribe mark and more active values were observed for areas adjacent to the scribe mark where delamination of the coating and filiform corrosion was observed. The tips of corrosion filaments were found to be anodic in relation to the body of the filament, with areas of activity extending away from the filaments themselves. Measurements made on an aircraft access panel resulted in the detection of a potential gradient within the repair area. These results indicate that the scanning Kelvin probe is a useful non-destructive technique for the detection of delamination and disbanding of coatings, coating anomalies and corrosion susceptibility of coatings on aluminum aircraft alloys.

  7. ITP Aluminum: Energy Requirements for the U.S. Aluminum Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Energy Requirements for Aluminum Production Historical Perspective, Theoretical Limits and Current Practices Prepared for Industrial Technologies Program Energy Efficiency and ...

  8. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Aluminum Vision is intended to stimulate a wide variety of R&D activities to accelerate technology development throughout industry.

  9. High adherence copper plating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nignardot, H.

    1993-09-21

    A process is described for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing the surface of an aluminum or steel substrate for the electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to either substrate.

  10. Aluminum electroplating on steel from a fused bromide electrolyte - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint for Alumina and Aluminum Sector (NAICS 3313) Energy use data source: 2010 EIA MECS (with adjustments) Footprint Last Revised: February 2014 View footprints for other sectors here. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Alumina and Aluminum (122.75 KB) More Documents & Publications MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum Cement (2010 MECS) Glass and Glass Products Innovation Portal

  11. Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Regeneration of Lithium Aluminum Hydride (919 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Alane is one of the most promising solutions to storing hydrogen for use in hydrogen fuel cells. This technology provides exceptional improvement in solving the difficult problem of economically preparing the material. Description Describes methods and materials required for the

  12. Fatigue response of repaired thick aluminum panels with bondline flaws

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conley, D.S.

    1999-03-01

    This research investigated the fatigue response of precracked 558 x 177.8 x 6.35 mm (22.0 x 7.0 x 0.25 in) 2024-T351 aluminum panels repaired with single-sided partially bonded, unidirectional, eighteen ply boron/epoxy reinforcements. Disbonds were introduced into the bondline of each repair during the adhesion process using teflon inserts. Five different disbond configurations, with varying disbond locations and sizes, were tested. Each repaired panel was subjected to constant amplitude cyclic fatigue loading with a maximum stress of 120MPa. Results from the different configurations were compared against one another and against repaired panels with no debonds to assess the effect of disbonds on repair life. Results from the experimentation showed that even in the case of very large disbonds (20% of total bond area), the bonded repairs significantly extended the lives of the cracked panels. Disbond configurations with disbonds located away from the crack in the aluminum panel, performed comparably to the repaired panel with no disbonds. Disbond configurations with disbonds covering the crack in the aluminum panel yielded slightly lower lives than those obtained from repaired panels with no disbonds. Cyclic fatigue loading caused no increase in size of the artificially induced disbonds. Cyclic disbond growth was observed in the immediate vicinity of the crack. Finite element analysis using the Three Layer Technique was performed to assess the ability of current modeling techniques in predicting the life of cracked thick aluminum panels repaired with composite patches. Results from the finite element analysis were shown to very closely match experimental data.

  13. Optimization of Squeeze Casting for Aluminum Alloy Parts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Qingming Chang; Yulong Zhu

    2002-07-30

    This study was initiated with the installation of a new production size UBE 350 Ton VSC Squeeze Casting system in the Metal Casting Laboratory at Case Western University. A Lindberg 75k W electrical melting furnace was installed alongside. The challenge of installation and operation of such industrial-size equipment in an academic environment was met successfully. Subsequently, a Sterling oil die heater and a Visi-Track shot monitoring system were added. A significant number of inserts were designed and fabricated over the span of the project, primarily for squeeze casting different configurations of test bars and plates. A spiral ''ribbon insert'' for evaluation of molten metal fluidity was also fabricated. These inserts were used to generate a broad range of processing conditions and determine their effect on the quality of the squeeze cast parts. This investigation has studied the influence of the various casting variables on the quality of indirect squeeze castings primarily of aluminum alloys. The variables studied include gating design, fill time and fill patter, metal pressure and die temperature variations. The quality of the die casting was assessed by an analysis of both their surface condition and internal soundness. The primary metal tested was an aluminum 356 alloy. In addition to determining the effect of these casting variables on casting quality as measured by a flat plate die of various thickness, a number of test bar inserts with different gating designs have been inserted in the squeeze casting machine. The mechanical properties of these test bars produced under different squeeze casting conditions were measured and reported. The investigation of the resulting properties also included an analysis of the microstructure of the squeeze castings and the effect of the various structural constituents on the resulting properties. The main conclusions from this investigation are as follows: The ingate size and shape are very important since it must

  14. THE APPLICATION OF A STATISTICAL DOWNSCALING PROCESS TO DERIVE 21{sup ST} CENTURY RIVER FLOW PREDICTIONS USING A GLOBAL CLIMATE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werth, D.; Chen, K. F.

    2013-08-22

    The ability of water managers to maintain adequate supplies in coming decades depends, in part, on future weather conditions, as climate change has the potential to alter river flows from their current values, possibly rendering them unable to meet demand. Reliable climate projections are therefore critical to predicting the future water supply for the United States. These projections cannot be provided solely by global climate models (GCMs), however, as their resolution is too coarse to resolve the small-scale climate changes that can affect hydrology, and hence water supply, at regional to local scales. A process is needed to ‘downscale’ the GCM results to the smaller scales and feed this into a surface hydrology model to help determine the ability of rivers to provide adequate flow to meet future needs. We apply a statistical downscaling to GCM projections of precipitation and temperature through the use of a scaling method. This technique involves the correction of the cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of the GCM-derived temperature and precipitation results for the 20{sup th} century, and the application of the same correction to 21{sup st} century GCM projections. This is done for three meteorological stations located within the Coosa River basin in northern Georgia, and is used to calculate future river flow statistics for the upper Coosa River. Results are compared to the historical Coosa River flow upstream from Georgia Power Company’s Hammond coal-fired power plant and to flows calculated with the original, unscaled GCM results to determine the impact of potential changes in meteorology on future flows.

  15. (Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2002-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  16. (Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2001-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  17. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-15

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached −225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ∼22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  18. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloymore » (Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ~22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.« less

  19. TiN coated aluminum electrodes for DC high voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.; Taus, Rhys; Forman, Eric; Poelker, Matthew

    2015-05-01

    Preparing electrodes made of metals like stainless steel, for use inside DC high voltage electron guns, is a labor-intensive and time-consuming process. In this paper, the authors report the exceptional high voltage performance of aluminum electrodes coated with hard titanium nitride (TiN). The aluminum electrodes were comparatively easy to manufacture and required only hours of mechanical polishing using silicon carbide paper, prior to coating with TiN by a commercial vendor. The high voltage performance of three TiN-coated aluminum electrodes, before and after gas conditioning with helium, was compared to that of bare aluminum electrodes, and electrodes manufactured from titanium alloy (Ti-6AI-4V). Following gas conditioning, each TiN-coated aluminum electrode reached -225 kV bias voltage while generating less than 100 pA of field emission (<10 pA) using a 40 mm cathode/anode gap, corresponding to field strength of 13.7 MV/m. Smaller gaps were studied to evaluate electrode performance at higher field strength with the best performing TiN-coated aluminum electrode reaching ~22.5 MV/m with field emission less than 100 pA. These results were comparable to those obtained from our best-performing electrodes manufactured from stainless steel, titanium alloy and niobium, as reported in references cited below. The TiN coating provided a very smooth surface and with mechanical properties of the coating (hardness and modulus) superior to those of stainless steel, titanium-alloy, and niobium electrodes. These features likely contributed to the improved high voltage performance of the TiN-coated aluminum electrodes.

  20. Prediction and measurement of entrained flow coal gasification processes. Interim report, September 8, 1981-September 7, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Fletcher, T.H.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1984-01-31

    This volume reports interim experimental and theoretical results of the first two years of a three year study of entrained coal gasification with steam and oxygen. The gasifier facility and testing methods were revised and improved. The gasifier was also modified for high pressure operation. Six successful check-out tests at elevated pressure were performed (55, 75, 100, 130, 170, and 215 psig), and 8 successful mapping tests were performed with the Utah bituminous coal at an elevated pressure of 137.5 psig. Also, mapping tests were performed at atmospheric pressure with a Utah bituminous coal (9 tests) and with a Wyoming subbituminous coal (14 tests). The LDV system was used on the cold-flow facility to make additional nonreactive jets mixing measurements (local mean and turbulent velocity) that could be used to help validate the two-dimensional code. The previously completed two-dimensional entrained coal gasification code, PCGC-2, was evaluated through rigorous comparison with cold-flow, pulverized coal combustion, and entrained coal gasification data. Data from this laboratory were primarily used but data from other laboratories were used when available. A complete set of the data used has been compiled into a Data Book which is included as a supplemental volume of this interim report. A revised user's manual for the two-dimensional code has been prepared and is also included as a part of this interim report. Three technical papers based on the results of this study were published or prepared. 107 references, 57 figures, 35 tables.

  1. Roll Casting of Aluminum Alloy Clad Strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, R.; Tsuge, H. [Graduate School of Osaka Institute of Technology (Japan); Haga, T. [Osaka Institute of Technology, 5-16-1 Omiya Asahiku Osaka city 535-8585 (Japan); Watari, H. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuda Midoriku Yokohama city 226-8502 (Japan); Kumai, S. [Gunma University, 1-5-1 tenjin cho Kiryu city 376-8515 (Japan)

    2011-01-17

    Casting of aluminum alloy three layers of clad strip was tried using the two sets of twin roll casters, and effects of the casting parameters on the cladding conditions were investigated. One twin roll caster was mounted on the other twin roll caster. Base strip was 8079 aluminum alloy and overlay strips were 6022 aluminum alloy. Effects of roll-load of upper and lower casters and melt temperature of the lower caster were investigated. When the roll-load of the upper and lower caster was large enough, the overlay strip could be solidified and be connected. The overlay strip could be connected when the melt of the overlay strip cast by the lower caster was low enough. Sound three layers of clad strip could be cast by proper conditions.

  2. Lithium-aluminum-magnesium electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melendres, Carlos A.; Siegel, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell. The cell also includes a molten salt electrolyte of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides and a positive electrode including a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent and a magnesium-aluminum alloy as a structural matrix. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are formed but the electrode composition in both its charged and discharged state remains substantially free of the alpha lithium-aluminum phase and exhibits good structural integrity.

  3. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  4. ALUMINUM READINESS EVALUATION FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENRATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAMS TL; MASSIE HL

    2011-01-27

    A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

  5. Aluminum plasmonic metamaterials for structural color printing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Fei; Gao, Jie; Stan, Liliana; Rosenmann, Daniel; Czaplewski, David; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-05-26

    We report a structural color printing platform based on aluminum plasmonic metamaterials supporting near perfect light absorption and narrow-band spectral response tunable across the visible spectrum to realize high-resolution, angle-insensitive color printing with high color purity and saturation. Additionally, the fabricated metamaterials can be protected by a transparent polymer thin layer for ambient use with further improved color performance. The demonstrated structural color printing with aluminum plasmonic metamaterials offers great potential for relevant applications such as security marking and information storage.

  6. Method of winning aluminum metal from aluminous ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loutfy, Raouf O.; Keller, Rudolf; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1981-01-01

    Aluminous ore such as bauxite containing alumina is blended with coke or other suitable form of carbon and reacted with sulfur gas at an elevated temperature. For handling, the ore and coke can be extruded into conveniently sized pellets. The reaction with sulfur gas produces molten aluminum sulfide which is separated from residual solid reactants and impurities. The aluminum sulfide is further increased in temperature to cause its decomposition or sublimation, yielding aluminum subsulfide liquid (AlS) and sulfur gas that is recycled. The aluminum monosulfide is then cooled to below its disproportionation temperature to again form molten aluminum sulfide and aluminum metal. A liquid-liquid or liquid-solid separation, depending on the separation temperature, provides product aluminum and aluminum sulfide for recycle to the disproportionation step.

  7. Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production V6 Engine to Effect Cost-Effective Mass Reduction Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production V6 ...

  8. Method of winning aluminum metal from aluminous ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loutfy, R.O.; Keller, R.; Yao, N.P.

    Aluminous ore such as bauxite containing alumina is blended with coke or other suitable form of carbon and reacted with sulfur gas at an elevated temperature. For handling, the ore and coke can be extruded into conveniently sized pellets. The reaction with sulfur gas produces molten aluminum sulfide which is separated from residual solid reactants and impurities. The aluminum sulfide is further increased in temperature to cause its decomposition or sublimation, yielding aluminum subsulfide liquid (A1S) and sulfur gas that is recycled. The aluminum monosulfide is then cooled to below its disproportionation temperature to again form molten aluminum sulfide and aluminum metal. A liquid-liquid or liquid-solid separation, depending on the separation temperature, provides product aluminum and aluminum sulfide for recycle to the disproportionation step.

  9. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen - 2010 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage The purpose of this White Paper is to describe and evaluate the potential of aluminum-water reactions for the

  10. Dual nitrate isotopes clarify the role of biological processing and hydrologic flow paths on nitrogen cycling in subtropical low-gradient watersheds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Griffiths, Natalie A.; Jackson, C. Rhett; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Klaus, Julian; Du, Enhao; Bitew, Menberu M.

    2016-02-08

    Nitrogen (N) is an important nutrient as it often limits productivity but in excess can impair water quality. Most studies on watershed N cycling have occurred in upland forested catchments where snowmelt dominates N export; fewer studies have focused on low-relief watersheds that lack snow. We examined watershed N cycling in three adjacent, low-relief watersheds in the Upper Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States to better understand the role of hydrological flow paths and biological transformations of N at the watershed scale. Groundwater was the dominant source of nitrified N to stream water in two of the three watersheds,more » while atmospheric deposition comprised 28% of stream water nitrate in one watershed. The greater atmospheric contribution may have been due to the larger stream channel area relative to total watershed area or the dominance of shallow subsurface flow paths contributing to stream flow in this watershed. There was a positive relationship between temperature and stream water ammonium concentrations and a negative relationship between temperature and stream water nitrate concentrations in each watershed suggesting that N cycling processes (i.e., nitrification and denitrification) varied seasonally. However, there were no clear patterns in the importance of denitrification in different water pools possibly because a variety of factors (i.e., assimilatory uptake, dissimilatory uptake, and mixing) affected nitrate concentrations. In conclusion, together, these results highlight the hydrological and biological controls on N cycling in low-gradient watersheds and variability in N delivery flow paths among adjacent watersheds with similar physical characteristics.« less

  11. Cathode Connector For Aluminum Low Temperature Smelting Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.; Beck, Theodore R.; Frizzle, Patrick B.

    2003-07-16

    Cathode connector means for low temperature aluminum smelting cell for connecting titanium diboride cathode or the like to bus bars.

  12. Method And Reactor For Production Of Aluminum By Carbothermic Reduction Of Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aune, Jan Arthur; Johansen, Kai

    2004-10-19

    A hollow partition wall is employed to feed carbon material to an underflow of a carbothermic reduction furnace used to make aluminum. The partition wall divides a low temperature reaction zone where aluminum oxide is reacted with carbon to form aluminum carbide and a high temperature reaction zone where the aluminum carbide and remaining aluminum oxide are reacted to form aluminum and carbon monoxide.

  13. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandrock, Gary; Reilly, James; Graetz, Jason; Wegrzyn, James E.

    2010-11-23

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  14. Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy; Kramer, Keith; Liu, Xinye

    2000-01-01

    An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

  15. Superconducting transition temperature in anodized aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leemann, C.; Elliott, J.H.; Deutscher, G.; Orbach, R.; Wolf, S.A.

    1983-08-01

    We have measured the superconducting transition temperature of anodized aluminum films of grain sizes ranging from less than 100 to 3000 A. The transition temperature is 1.8 K for films of grain size 100 A and decreases monotonically with increasing grain size to 1.2 K for 3000-A grains. The effect depends only on the volume of the grains.

  16. Ultrasonic Processing of Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meek, Thomas T.; Han, Qingyou; Jian, Xiaogang; Xu, Hanbing

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of a new breakthrough technology, ultrasonic processing, on various industries, including steel, aluminum, metal casting, and forging. The specific goals of the project were to evaluate core principles and establish quantitative bases for the ultrasonc processing of materials, and to demonstrate key applications in the areas of grain refinement of alloys during solidification and degassing of alloy melts. This study focussed on two classes of materials - aluminum alloys and steels - and demonstrated the application of ultrasonic processing during ingot casting.

  17. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-22

    Polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as functional monomer and ionic liquids based on acidic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 as plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time by free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully obtained with a polymer gel membrane contianing 80 wt% ionic liquid. As a result, the polymer gel membranes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

  18. Polymer gel electrolytes for application in aluminum deposition and rechargeable aluminum ion batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Fang, Youxing; Jiang, Xueguang; Yoshii, Kazuki; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Dai, Sheng

    2015-10-22

    Polymer gel electrolyte using AlCl3 complexed acrylamide as functional monomer and ionic liquids based on acidic mixture of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMImCl) and AlCl3 as plasticizer has been successfully prepared for the first time by free radical polymerization. Aluminum deposition is successfully obtained with a polymer gel membrane contianing 80 wt% ionic liquid. As a result, the polymer gel membranes are also good candidates for rechargeable aluminum ion batteries.

  19. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

    1983-09-21

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus are disclosed in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  20. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.; Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.

    1986-01-01

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  1. Issues for conversion coating of aluminum alloys with hydrotalcite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drewien, C.A.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1993-12-01

    Hydrotalcite coatings on aluminum alloys are being developed for corrosion protection of aluminum in aggressive saline environments. Coating bath composition, surface pretreatment, and alloying elements in aluminum all influence the performance of these coatings during salt spray testing. The coating bath, comprised of lithium carbonate, requires aging by dissolution of aluminum into the bath in order to grow corrosion resistant coatings. Coatings formed in non- aged baths do not perform well in salt spray testing. The alloying elements in aluminum alloys, especially copper, influence the coating growth and formation leading to thin coatings. The effect of the alloy elements is to limit the supply of aluminum to the coating/electrolyte interface and hinder growth of hydrotalcite upon aluminum alloys.

  2. Formability Prediction Of Aluminum Sheet In Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leppin, Christian; Daniel, Dominique; Shahani, Ravi; Gese, Helmut; Dell, Harry

    2007-05-17

    In the following paper, a full mechanical characterization of the AA6016 T4 aluminum alloy car body sheet DR100 is presented. A comprehensive experimental program was performed to identify and model the orthotopic elasto-plastic deformation behavior of the material and its fracture characteristics including criteria for localized necking, ductile fracture and shear fracture. The commercial software package MF GenYld + CrachFEM in combination with the explicit finite element code Ls-Dyna is used to validate the quality of the material model with experiments, namely, prediction of the FLD, deep drawing with a cross-shaped punch and finally, analysis of a simplified hemming process using a solid discretization of the problem. The focus is on the correct prediction of the limits of the material in such processes.

  3. Study of integration issues to realize the market potential of OTEC energy in the aluminum industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Jr., M. S.; Thiagarajan, V.; Sathyanarayana, K.; Markel, A. L.; Snyder, III, J. E.; Sprouse, A. M.; Leshaw, D.

    1980-09-01

    The various integration issues are studied which must be considered to realize the market potential for the use of OTEC by the aluminum industry. The chloride reduction process has been identified as an attractive candidate for use with OTEC systems, and drained-cathode Hall cells and two alternative chloride reduction processes are considered. OTEC power system and plantships for the different processes are described. Aluminum industry characteristics important for OTEC considerations are given, including economic models and case history analyses. Appended are supporting cost estimates and energy bridge concepts for getting OTEC energy to shore. (LEW)

  4. X-ray diffractometry of lanthanum-nickel-aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosley, W.C.

    1988-08-08

    X-ray diffractometry provides much useful information on LANA alloys that complements data obtained by SEM and Electron Microprobe Analysis. Accurate measurements of the hexagonal lattice parameters of the primary LaNi{sub 5-y}Aly phase reveal the aluminum content (y) and allow the prediction of desorption pressures for the hydrogen isotopes. A study of the broadening of x-ray diffraction lines of the LaNi{sub 5-y}Aly primary phase caused by cyclic absorption and desorption of hydrogen suggests that substitution of aluminum for nickel stabilizes the primary phase with respect to formation of antistructure defects that could cause undesirable trapping of hydrogen isotopes. Correlation of XRD with SEM and EMPA results has helped identify secondary phases, determine their abundances in volume percent, and reveal how they react with hydrogen and the atmosphere. Characterizations of LANA alloys used in process development has provided the bases for development of specifications for alloys to be used in the Replacement Trittium Facility. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  5. PROCESSING OF URANIUM-METAL-CONTAINING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-10-01

    A process is given for recovering uranium from neutronbombarded uranium- aluminum alloys. The alloy is dissolved in an aluminum halide--alkali metal halide mixture in which the halide is a mixture of chloride and bromide, the aluminum halide is present in about stoichiometric quantity as to uranium and fission products and the alkali metal halide in a predominant quantity; the uranium- and electropositive fission-products-containing salt phase is separated from the electronegative-containing metal phase; more aluminum halide is added to the salt phase to obtain equimolarity as to the alkali metal halide; adding an excess of aluminum metal whereby uranium metal is formed and alloyed with the excess aluminum; and separating the uranium-aluminum alloy from the fission- productscontaining salt phase. (AEC)

  6. Extensible packet processing architecture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Perry J.; Hamlet, Jason R.; Pierson, Lyndon G.; Olsberg, Ronald R.; Chun, Guy D.

    2013-08-20

    A technique for distributed packet processing includes sequentially passing packets associated with packet flows between a plurality of processing engines along a flow through data bus linking the plurality of processing engines in series. At least one packet within a given packet flow is marked by a given processing engine to signify by the given processing engine to the other processing engines that the given processing engine has claimed the given packet flow for processing. A processing function is applied to each of the packet flows within the processing engines and the processed packets are output on a time-shared, arbitered data bus coupled to the plurality of processing engines.

  7. Hyperveolcity impacts on aluminum from 6 to 11 km/s for hydrocode benchmarking.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saul, W. Venner; Reinhart, William Dodd; Thornhill, Tom Finley, III; Lawrence, Raymond Jeffery Jr.; Chhabildas, Lalit Chandra; Bessette, Gregory Carl; Kipp, Marlin E.

    2003-04-01

    A systematic computational and experimental study is presented on impact generated debris resulting from record-high impact speeds recently achieved on the Sandia three-stage light-gas gun. In these experiments, a target plate of aluminum is impacted by a titanium-alloy flyer plate at speeds ranging from 6.5 to 11 km/s, producing pressures from 1 Mb to over 2.3 Mb, and temperatures as high as 15000 K (>1 eV). The aluminum plate is totally melted at stresses above 1.6 Mb. Upon release, the thermodynamic release isentropes will interact with the vapor dome. The amount of vapor generated in the debris cloud will depend on many factors such as the thickness of the aluminum plate, super-cooling, vaporization kinetics, the distance, and therefore time, over which the impact-generated debris is allowed to expand. To characterize the debris cloud, the velocity history produced by stagnation of the aluminum expansion products against a witness plate is measured using velocity interferometry. X-ray measurements of the debris cloud are also recorded prior to stagnation against an aluminum witness plate. Both radiographs and witness-plate velocity measurements suggest that the vaporization process is both time-dependent and heterogeneous when the material is released from shocked states around 230 GPa. Experiments suggest that the threshold for vaporization kinetics in aluminum should become significant when expanded from shocked states over 230 GPa. Numerical simulations are conducted to compare the measured x-ray radiographs of the debris cloud and the time-resolved experimental interferometer record with calculational results using the 3-D hydrodynamic wavecode, CTH. Results of these experiments and calculations are discussed in this paper.

  8. Cu--Ni--Fe anode for use in aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.; Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2006-07-18

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte at a temperature of less than 900.degree. C. having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell having a liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having a bottom and walls extending upwardly from said bottom. A plurality of non-consumable Cu--Ni--Fe anodes and cathodes are disposed in a vertical direction in the electrolyte, the cathodes having a plate configuration and the anodes having a flat configuration to compliment the cathodes. The anodes contain apertures therethrough to permit flow of electrolyte through the apertures to provide alumina-enriched electrolyte between the anodes and the cathodes. Electrical current is passed through the anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes, depositing aluminum at the cathodes and producing gas at the anodes.

  9. Process for recovery of aluminum from carbonaceous waste products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapolyi, L.

    1984-03-13

    A carbonaceous waste product, preferably containing 30 to 60% mineral substances, 35 to 55% carbonaceous materials, 5 to 20% water, and having a calorific value of 2,000 to 3,500 k cal/kg is fired to produce thermal energy and a combustion residue. The residue is adjusted, if necessary, by addition of mineral containing additives so that it contains 15 to 50% alumina, 15 to 20% silica and 13 to 45% other oxides (mainly iron oxide, manganese oxide and calcium oxide). Sufficient limestone is added to produce a mixture containing 1.8 to 2.2 moles of calcium oxide per mole of silica and 1.1 to 1.3 moles of calcium oxide per mole of alumina. The mixture is then sintered. The total energy requirements of the sintering step are supplied by the energy generated in the firing step. Useful products such as cement and cast stone can be produced from the sintered product.

  10. Process for production of an aluminum hydride compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Miller, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2013-08-06

    A compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl substituted by at least one of: (i) an alkoxy group having from one to six carbon atoms; and (ii) an alkyl group having from three to twelve carbon atoms; wherein M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two.

  11. Ignition of Aluminum Particles and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Boiko, V M

    2010-04-07

    Here we review experimental data and models of the ignition of aluminum (Al) particles and clouds in explosion fields. The review considers: (i) ignition temperatures measured for single Al particles in torch experiments; (ii) thermal explosion models of the ignition of single Al particles; and (iii) the unsteady ignition Al particles clouds in reflected shock environments. These are used to develop an empirical ignition model appropriate for numerical simulations of Al particle combustion in shock dispersed fuel explosions.

  12. Mr. Mark Jackson Aluminum Company of America

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    _ of Energy Washington, DC 20565 Mr. Mark Jackson Aluminum Company of America 100 Technical Drive Alcoa Center, Pennsylvania 15069-0001 Dear Mr. Jackson: At,the request of the U.S. Department of Energy and with the consent of your company, Oak Ridge National Laboratory performed a radiological survey of the former ALCOA Research Labo,ratory at 600 Freeport Road in New Kensington, Pennsylvania. Three copies of the radiological survey report are enclosed for your information and use. An additional

  13. Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Startup America Startup America Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Alane for Hydrogen Storage and Delivery - Accelerating Innovation Webinar Presentation - June 2012 (7,079 KB) <p> Schematic representation of &nbsp;mechanical alloying reaction during ball

  14. Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2014-08-15

    Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method for fabricating conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals that provide a lower cost, less toxic, earth-abundant alternative to the widely used transparent conductive oxide (TCO) indium tin oxide while offering comparable optical and electronic properties. TCOs are used in devices such as flat screen displays, photovoltaic cells, photochromic windows, chemical sensors, and biosensors....

  15. Regeneration of aluminum hydride - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    268,288 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Find More Like This Return to Search Regeneration of aluminum hydride United

  16. Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murdoch, G. B.; Hinds, S.; Sargent, E. H.; Tsang, S. W.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Lu, Z. H.

    2009-05-25

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) was grown via magnetron sputtering as a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Postdeposition ozone treatment resulted in devices with lower series resistance, increased open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency double that of devices fabricated on untreated AZO. Furthermore, cells fabricated using ozone treated AZO and standard ITO displayed comparable performance.

  17. Speciation of aluminum in acidic freshwaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, P.G.C.; Bisson, M.; Bougie, R.; Tessier, A.; Villeneuve, J.P.

    1983-12-01

    The determination of the physical speciation of aluminum in water samples by filtration through polycarbonate membranes proved feasible; control experiments revealed neither contamination nor analyte loss. Treatment of sample filtrates with a fractionally loaded Chelex 100 ion-exchange resin (>75% H/sup +/-form) allows one to distinguish between different forms of aluminum on the basis of their kinetic and thermodynamic properties. Monomeric hydroxo- and fluoroaluminum complexes exchanged readily (>85% after 30 min), as did low molecular weight polynuclear species. Under similar conditions, forms of Al associated with fulvic and humic acids of natural origin exchanged much more slowly (<5% after 30 min, at an Al:dissolved organic carbon atomic ratio of approx. 1:155). Before photooxidation, the filterable aluminum present in natural waters exhibited intermediate behavior (0-50% exchange after 30 min); after UV irradiation the nonexchangeable Al fraction had practically disappeared (90-96% exchange after 30 min), suggesting that the major portion of the nonexchangeable Al initially present was associated with organic matter.

  18. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2001-01-01

    The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interefere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

  19. Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve Productivity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This case study describes how a DOE energy assessment at Kaiser Aluminum's extrusion plant in Sherman, Texas, identified significant potential energy savings in its process heating systems. Employees at the Sherman plant wasted no time moving forward with assessment recommendations. First, they adjusted burner controls on one of the main reverberatory melting furnaces to lower excess oxygen levels. They also made some repairs to the furnace’s door sill and jamb to prevent cold air from seeping into it. By implementing these measures the plant achieved annual energy savings of approximately 45,000 MMBtu and improved the furnace’s energy intensity by 11.1% between 2006 and 2007. With project costs of approximately $28,000 and energy cost savings of $360,000, the simple payback was under 1 month.

  20. Laser assisted high entropy alloy coating on aluminum: Microstructural evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katakam, Shravana; Joshi, Sameehan S.; Mridha, Sanghita; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Dahotre, Narendra B.

    2014-09-14

    High entropy alloy (Al-Fe-Co-Cr-Ni) coatings were synthesized using laser surface engineering on aluminum substrate. Electron diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of solid solution of body centered cubic high entropy alloy phase along with phases with long range periodic structures within the coating. Evolution of such type of microstructure was a result of kinetics associated with laser process, which generates higher temperatures and rapid cooling resulting in retention of high entropy alloy phase followed by reheating and/or annealing in subsequent passes of the laser track giving rise to partial decomposition. The partial decomposition resulted in formation of precipitates having layered morphology with a mixture of high entropy alloy rich phases, compounds, and long range ordered phases.

  1. High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting lm075_hovanski_2013_o.pdf (3.29 MB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks Vehicle Technologies Office

  2. Calorimetric study on mechanically milled aluminum and multiwall carbon nanotube composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nayan, Niraj Murty, S.V.S.N.; Sharma, S.C.; Kumar, K. Sree; Sinha, P.P.

    2011-11-15

    Pure aluminum reinforced with carbon nanotube (CNT) composites have been prepared by high energy attritor milling up to 48 hrs. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) has been carried out to investigate apparent activation energy and order of the reaction between carbon nanotubes and aluminum by Kissinger equation and Crane equation under non-isothermal conditions. The DSC results clearly reveal that an exothermic reaction occurs before the melting of aluminum. The effect of milling time on the initiation of this exothermic reaction has been studied. The peak temperature of the reaction of carbon nanotubes and aluminum is found to depend on the heating rate during the continuous heating. Apparent activation energy was found to get doubled after milling for 36 hrs compared to 24 hrs milled samples. The mechanism of the reaction kinetics which depends on reaction order is instantaneous nucleation and one dimensional growth for both samples. Formation of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) of as-milled powders and after performing DSC of the milled powders. Highlights: {yields} Attritor milling used for processing Al-CNT composites. {yields} Powder morphology as a function of time studied. {yields} Apparent activation energy and order of the reaction calculated for Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} formation. {yields} Apparent activation energy increases two fold with increase in milling time from 24 to 36 hours.

  3. Design of defect spins in piezoelectric aluminum nitride for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design of defect spins in piezoelectric aluminum nitride for solid-state hybrid quantum ... To date, defect qubits have only been realized in materials with strong covalent bonds. ...

  4. Joining of parts via magnetic heating of metal aluminum powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Ian

    2013-05-21

    A method of joining at least two parts includes steps of dispersing a joining material comprising a multi-phase magnetic metal-aluminum powder at an interface between the at least two parts to be joined and applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The AMF has a magnetic field strength and frequency suitable for inducing magnetic hysteresis losses in the metal-aluminum powder and is applied for a period that raises temperature of the metal-aluminum powder to an exothermic transformation temperature. At the exothermic transformation temperature, the metal-aluminum powder melts and resolidifies as a metal aluminide solid having a non-magnetic configuration.

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Hunter Douglas Aluminum...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Hunter Douglas Aluminum Corporation CA.11-1 Location: 3016 Kansas Avenue , Riverside , California CA.11-1 Evaluation Year: 1995 ...

  6. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Felipe Gndara, Hiroyasu Furukawa, Seungkyu Lee, and Omar M. Yaghi, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 136,...

  7. Design of defect spins in piezoelectric aluminum nitride for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design of defect spins in piezoelectric aluminum nitride for solid-state hybrid quantum ... Language: English Subject: 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS electronic ...

  8. Microsoft PowerPoint - Aluminum Concentrations in Storm Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Title: Solid and Dissolved Phase Aluminum in Storm Water Runoff on the Pajarito Plateau, Poster, Individual Permit for Storm Water, NPDES Permit No. NM0030759 Author(s): ...

  9. Mold Materials For Permanent Molding of Aluminum Alloys (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Mold Materials For Permanent Molding of Aluminum Alloys A test that involves ... This test has been employed to determine the relative thermal fatigue resistance of ...

  10. A hot-cracking mitigation technique for welding high-strength aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.P.; Dong, P.; Zhang, J.; Tian, X.

    2000-01-01

    A hot-cracking mitigation technique for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) of high-strength aluminum alloy 2024 is presented. The proposed welding technique incorporates a trailing heat sink (an intense cooling source) with respect to the welding torch. The development of the mitigation technique was based on both detailed welding process simulation using advanced finite element techniques and systematic laboratory experiments. The finite element methods were used to investigate the detailed thermomechanical behavior of the weld metal that undergoes the brittle temperature range (BTR) during welding. As expected, a tensile deformation zone within the material BTR region was identified behind the weld pool under conventional GTA welding process conventional GTA welding process conditions for the aluminum alloy studied. To mitigate hot cracking, the tensile zone behind the weld pool must be eliminated or reduce to a satisfactory level if the weld metal hot ductility cannot be further improved. With detailed computational modeling, it was found that by the introduction of a trailing heat sink at some distance behind the welding arc, the tensile strain rate with respect to temperature in the zone encompassing the BTR region can be significantly reduced. A series of parametric studies were also conducted to derive optimal process parameters for the trailing heat sink. The experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the trailing heat sink technique. With a proper implementation of the trailing heat sink method, hot cracking can be completely eliminated in welding aluminum alloy 2024 (AA 2024).

  11. Control of back surface reflectance from aluminum alloyed contacts on silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cudzinovic, M.; Sopori, B.

    1996-05-01

    A process for forming highly reflective aluminum back contacts with low contact resistance to silicon solar cells is described. By controlling the process conditions, it is possible to vary the silicon/aluminum interface from a specular to a diffuse reflector while maintaining a high interface reflectance. The specular interface is found to be a uniform silicon/aluminum alloy layer a few angstroms thick that has epitaxially regrown on the silicon. The diffuse interface consists of randomly distributed (111) pyramids produced by crystallographic out-diffusion of the bulk silicon. The light trapping ability of the diffuse contact is found to be close to the theoretical limit. Both types of contacts are found to have specific contact resistivities of 10{sup {minus}5} {Omega}-cm{sup 2}. The process for forming the contacts involves illuminating the devices with tungsten halogen lamps. The process is rapid (under 100 s) and low temperature (peak temperature < 580{degrees}C), making it favorable for commercial solar cell fabrication.

  12. Welding the four most popular aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irving, B.

    1994-02-01

    The fact that business is good in aluminum welding is a sure sign that more manufacturers and fabricators are using GMA and GTA welding to build new products out of this lightweight nonferrous metal. Among the most widely specified weldable grades are Alloys 6061, 5083, 5052 and 5454. A rundown on these four alloys, including properties and selected applications, is provided. Any company working with aluminum for the first time needs to know something about these four alloys. Alloys of copper-magnesium-silicon combination, of which 6061 is one, are heat-treatable. The three 5XXX series alloys, on the other hand, are nonheat-treatable. According to P.B. Dickerson, consultant, Lower Burrell, Pa., 5083, because of its high magnesium content, is the easiest of the four alloys to arc weld. Dickerson put the cut-off point in weldability at 3.5% magnesium. To prevent cracking, he added, both 6061 and 5052 require much more filler metal than do the other two alloys. Alloy 6061 consists of 0.25Cu, 0.6Si, 1.0Mg, and 0.20Cr. The main applications for 6061 aluminum are structural, architectural, automotive, railway, marine and pipe. It has good formability, weldability, corrosion resistance and strength. Although the 6XXX series alloys are prone to hot cracking, this condition can be readily overcome by correct choice of joint design and electrode. The most popular temper for 6061 is T6, although the -T651, -T4, and -F temper are also popular. The -T651 temper is like a -T6 temper, only it has received some final stretch hardening. The -T4 temper has been solution heat-treated and quenched. The -F temper is in the as-fabricated condition.

  13. Lithium aluminum/iron sulfide battery having lithium aluminum and silicon as negative electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Marian; Kaun, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Silicon powder is mixed with powdered electroactive material, such as the lithium-aluminum eutectic, to provide an improved electrode and cell.

  14. URANIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, D.

    1958-04-15

    A process of recovering uranium from very low-grade ore residues is described. These low-grade uraniumcontaining hydroxide precipitates, which also contain hydrated silica and iron and aluminum hydroxides, are subjected to multiple leachings with aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate at a pH of at least 9. This leaching serves to selectively extract the uranium from the precipitate, but to leave the greater part of the silica, iron, and aluminum with the residue. The uranium is then separated from the leach liquor by the addition of an acid in sufficient amount to destroy the carbonate followed by the addition of ammonia to precipitate uranium as ammonium diuranate.

  15. ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION - LABORATORY SCALE VALIDATION ON WASTE SIMULANTS TEST REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAMS T; HAGERTY K

    2011-01-27

    To reduce the additional sodium hydroxide and ease processing of aluminum bearing sludge, the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process has been invented by AREV A and demonstrated on a laboratory scale to remove alumina and regenerate/recycle sodium hydroxide prior to processing in the WTP. The method uses lithium hydroxide (LiOH) to precipitate sodium aluminate (NaAI(OH){sub 4}) as lithium hydrotalcite (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.4Al(OH){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O) while generating sodium hydroxide (NaOH). In addition, phosphate substitutes in the reaction to a high degree, also as a filterable solid. The sodium hydroxide enriched leachate is depleted in aluminum and phosphate, and is recycled to double-shell tanks (DSTs) to leach aluminum bearing sludges. This method eliminates importing sodium hydroxide to leach alumina sludge and eliminates a large fraction of the total sludge mass to be treated by the WTP. Plugging of process equipment is reduced by removal of both aluminum and phosphate in the tank wastes. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify the efficacy of the process and confirm the results of previous tests. These tests used both single-shell tank (SST) and DST simulants.

  16. Refining of solid ferrous scrap intermingled with copper by using molten aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwase, M.

    1996-12-31

    A new approach for the removal of copper from solid ferrous scrap has been proposed by the present authors. With this process, solid ferrous scrap intermingled with pure copper is brought into contact with molten aluminum, which dissolved copper preferentially, and is recovered as {l_brace}Al + Cu{r_brace} alloys. After a duration of 30 minutes at temperatures between 963 K and 1,223 K, steel scrap is removed from the bath, resulting in being free of copper contamination.

  17. Pulsed laser weldability of aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weeter, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the weldability of six aluminum alloys (1100, 3003, 4043, 4047, 5356, and 6061) in similar alloy, dissimilar alloy, and similar alloy with a 4047 filler metal addition combinations. The Pulsed Laser Weldability Test was used to evaluate the weldability of the various alloy combinations. The Pulsed Laser Weldability Test rated the weldability of the six aluminum alloys from least crack sensitive to most crack sensitive as: 1100, 4047, 4043, 3003, 5356, 6061. The results of joining 1100, 3003, 5356, or 6061 to either 4043 or 4047 in an approximately 50% mixture revealed that all of these combinations were very crack sensitive. The addition of smaller amounts of 4047 to either 5356 or 6061 revealed the same phenomenon. 0.08, 0.13, and 0.25 millimeter thick sheets of 4047 were placed between two pieces of either 5356 or 6061 and the weldability test was performed. All of the filler metal additions made crack sensitive joints. A 0.38 mm thick sheet of 4047 was also tested between 5356 or 6061. However, this sheet was too thick for the Pulsed Laser Weldability Test to accurately evaluate.

  18. Brazed aluminum, Plate-fin heat exchangers for OTEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foust, H.D.

    1980-12-01

    Brazed aluminum plate-fin heat exchangers have been available for special applications for over thirty years. The performance, compactness, versatility, and low cost of these heat exchangers has been unequaled by other heat exchanger configuration. The application of brazed aluminum has been highly limited because of necessary restrictions for clean non-corrosive atmospheres. Air and gas separation have provided ideal conditions for accepting brazed aluminum and in turn have benefited by the salient features of these plate-fin heat exchangers. In fact, brazed aluminum and cryogenic gas and air separation have become nearly synonymous. Brazed aluminum in its historic form could not be considered for a seawater atmosphere. However, technology presents a new look of significant importance to OTEC in terms of compactness and cost. The significant technological variation made was to include one-piece hollow extensions for the seawater passages. Crevice corrosion sites are thereby entirely eliminated and pitting corrosion attack will be controlled by an integral and sacrificial layer of a zinc-aluminum alloy. This paper on brazed aluminum plate-fin heat exchangers for OTEC will aquaint the reader with the state-of-art and variations suggested to qualify this form of aluminum for seawater use. In order to verify the desirable cost potential for OTEC, Trane teamed with Westinghouse to perform an OTEC system analysis with this heat exchanger. These results are very promising and reported in detail elsewhere.

  19. Method of forming aluminum oxynitride material and bodies formed by such methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakas, Michael P. [Ammon, ID; Lillo, Thomas M. [Idaho Falls, ID; Chu, Henry S. [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-11-16

    Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering green bodies comprising aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material therein. Such green bodies may comprise aluminum, oxygen, and nitrogen in addition to the aluminum orthophosphate. For example, the green bodies may include a mixture of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material. Additional methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering a green body including a sacrificial material therein, using the sacrificial material to form pores in the green body during sintering, and infiltrating the pores formed in the green body with a liquid infiltrant during sintering. Bodies are formed using such methods.

  20. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murduck, James M.; Lepetre, Yves J.; Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.

    1989-01-01

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources.

  1. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-07-04

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs.

  2. Role of stoichiometric ratio of components during the formation of oxide and hydroxide layers on aluminum in oxoanion solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikhailovskii, Y.N.; Derdzenishvili, G.A.

    1986-07-01

    This paper investigates the corrosion-electrochemical behavior of aluminum in chloride-fluoride solutions containing oxoanions of the oxidizing type (CrO/sup 2 -//sub 4/, MnO/sup -//sub 4/, MoO/sup 2 -//sub 4/, VO/sup 3 -//sub 4/, WO/sup 2 -//sub 4/). It is shown that, depending on the ratio of the concentrations of the oxoanions and hydroxonium ions, the oxidizing agent may activate or inhibit the corrosion process on the metal. The conditions of formation of surface phases is studied, which can impart good protective properties (conversion coatings), on aluminum during its self-solution.

  3. Pechiney Rolled Products: Plant-Wide Energy Assessment Identifies Opportunities to Optimize Aluminum Casting and Rolled Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-07-01

    A Pechiney Rolled Products plant focused on various aluminum casting processes during a PWA. The assessment revealed potential annual savings of 460,000 MMBtu in natural gas, 9.6 million kWh in electricity, 69 million pounds in CO2, and $2.5 million.

  4. Energy conservation in the primary aluminum and chlor-alkali industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The primary aluminum and chlor-alkali industries together use nearly 13% of the electrical energy consumed by US industry. As part of its mission to promote energy conservation in basic US industries, the DOE surveys the present technological status of the major electrochemical industries and evaluates promising technological innovations that may lead to reduced energy requirements. This study provides technical and economic analyses in support of a government program of research and development in advanced electrolytic technology. This program is intended to supplement the development efforts directed toward energy savings by private industry. Sections II and III of this report cover aluminum and chlorine production processes only, since these two industries represent over 90% of the electrical energy requirements of all electrolytic industries in the United States. Section IV examines barriers to accelerated research and development by the electrolytic industries, and makes suggestions for government actions to overcome these barriers.

  5. Boron-carbide-aluminum and boron-carbide-reactive metal cermets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halverson, Danny C.; Pyzik, Aleksander J.; Aksay, Ilhan A.

    1986-01-01

    Hard, tough, lightweight boron-carbide-reactive metal composites, particularly boron-carbide-aluminum composites, are produced. These composites have compositions with a plurality of phases. A method is provided, including the steps of wetting and reacting the starting materials, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected. Starting compositions, reaction temperatures, reaction times, and reaction atmospheres are parameters for controlling the process and resulting compositions. The ceramic phases are homogeneously distributed in the metal phases and adhesive forces at ceramic-metal interfaces are maximized. An initial consolidation step is used to achieve fully dense composites. Microstructures of boron-carbide-aluminum cermets have been produced with modulus of rupture exceeding 110 ksi and fracture toughness exceeding 12 ksi.sqroot.in. These composites and methods can be used to form a variety of structural elements.

  6. Nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya I.

    2015-12-31

    The present work summarizes recent progress in the investigation of nanoscale microstructure effects on hydrogen behavior in rapidly solidified aluminum alloys foils produced at exceptionally high cooling rates. We focus here on the potential of modification of hydrogen desorption kinetics in respect to weak and strong trapping sites that could serve as hydrogen sinks in Al materials. It is shown that it is important to elucidate the surface microstructure of the Al alloy foils at the submicrometer scale because rapidly solidified microstructural features affect hydrogen trapping at nanostructured defects. We discuss the profound influence of solute atoms on hydrogen−lattice defect interactions in the alloys. with emphasis on role of vacancies in hydrogen evolution; both rapidly solidified pure Al and conventionally processed aluminum samples are considered.

  7. Diode laser welding of aluminum to steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Trovalusci, Federica [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2011-05-04

    Laser welding of dissimilar materials was carried out by using a high power diode laser to join aluminum to steel in a butt-joint configuration. During testing, the laser scan rate was changed as well as the laser power: at low values of fluence (i.e. the ratio between laser power and scan rate), poor joining was observed; instead at high values of fluence, an excess in the material melting affected the joint integrity. Between these limiting values, a good aesthetics was obtained; further investigations were carried out by means of tensile tests and SEM analyses. Unfortunately, a brittle behavior was observed for all the joints and a maximum rupture stress about 40 MPa was measured. Apart from the formation of intermeltallic phases, poor mechanical performances also depended on the chosen joining configuration, particularly because of the thickness reduction of the seam in comparison with the base material.

  8. Technology maturation project on optimization of sheet metal forming of aluminum for use in transportation systems: Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, K.I.; Smith, M.T.; Lavender, C.A.; Khalell, M.A.

    1994-10-01

    Using aluminum instead of steel in transportation systems could dramatically reduce the weight of vehicles--an effective way of decreasing energy consumption and emissions. The current cost of SMF aluminum alloys (about $4 per pound) and the relatively long forming times of current materials are serious drawbacks to the widespread use of SMF in industry. The interdependence of materials testing and model development is critical to optimizing SMF since the current process is conducted in a heated, pressurized die where direct measurement of critical SMF parameters is extremely difficult. Numerical models provide a means of tracking the forming process, allowing the applied gas pressure to be adjusted to maintain the optimum SMF behavior throughout the forming process. Thus, models can help produce the optimum SMF component in the least amount of time. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is integrating SMF model development with research in improved aluminum alloys for SMF. The objectives of this research are: develop and characterize competitively priced aluminum alloys for SMF applications in industry; improve numerical models to accurately predict the optimum forming cycle for reduced forming time and improved quality; verify alloy performance and model accuracy with forming tests conducted in PNL`s Superplastic Forming User Facility. The activities performed in this technology maturation project represent a critical first step in achieving these objectives through cooperative research among industry, PNL, and universities.

  9. Process for the deposition of high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, V.K.

    1991-07-30

    A process is disclosed for depositing a high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coating on a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based substrate body. A gas mixture is passed over the substrate at about 900--1500 C and about 1 torr to about ambient pressure. The gas mixture includes one or more halide vapors with other suitable reactant gases. The partial pressure ratios, flow rates, and process times are sufficient to deposit a continuous, fully dense, adherent coating. The halide and other reactant gases are gradually varied during deposition so that the coating is a graded coating of at least two layers. Each layer is a graded layer changing in composition from the material over which it is deposited to the material of the layer and further to the material, if any, deposited thereon, so that no clearly defined compositional interfaces exist. The gases and their partial pressures are varied according to a predetermined time schedule and the halide and other reactant gases are selected so that the layers include (a) an adherent, continuous intermediate layer about 0.5-20 microns thick of an aluminum nitride or an aluminum oxynitride material, over and chemically bonded to the substrate body, and (b) an adherent, continuous first outer layer about 0.5-900 microns thick including an oxide of aluminum or zirconium over and chemically bonded to the intermediate layer.

  10. Process for the deposition of high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod K.

    1991-01-01

    A process for depositing a high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coating on a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based substrate body. A gas mixture is passed over the substrate at about 900.degree.-1500.degree. C. and about 1 torr to about ambient pressure. The gas mixture includes one or more halide vapors with other suitable reactant gases. The partial pressure ratios, flow rates, and process times are sufficient to deposit a continuous, fully dense, adherent coating. The halide and other reactant gases are gradually varied during deposition so that the coating is a graded coating of at least two layers. Each layer is a graded layer changing in composition from the material over which it is deposited to the material of the layer and further to the material, if any, deposited thereon, so that no clearly defined compositional interfaces exist. The gases and their partial pressures are varied according to a predetermined time schedule and the halide and other reactant gases are selected so that the layers include (a) an adherent, continuous intermediate layer about 0.5-20 microns thick of an aluminum nitride or an aluminum oxynitride material, over and chemically bonded to the substrate body, and (b) an adherent, continuous first outer layer about 0.5-900 microns thick including an oxide of aluminum or zirconium over and chemically bonded to the intermediate layer.

  11. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Task 1 Improved Materials and Operation of Recuperators for Aluminum Melting Furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Thekdi, Arvind; Meisner Roberta A.; Phelps, Tony; Willoughby, Adam W.; Gorog, J. Peter; Zeh, John; Ningileri, Shridas; Liu, Yansheng; Xiao, Chenghe

    2007-09-30

    Production of aluminum is a very energy intensive process which is increasingly more important in the USA. This project concentrated on the materials issues associated with recovery of energy from the flue gas stream in the secondary industry where scrap and recycled metal are melted in large furnaces using gas fired burners. Recuperators are one method used to transfer heat from the flue gas to the air intended for use in the gas burners. By preheating this combustion air, less fuel has to be used to raise the gas temperature to the desired level. Recuperators have been successfully used to preheat the air, however, in many cases the metallic recuperator tubes have a relatively limited lifetime – 6 to 9 months. The intent of this project was to determine the cause of the rapid tube degradation and then to recommend alternative materials or operating conditions to prolong life of the recuperator tubes. The first step to understanding degradation of the tubes was to examine exposed tubes to identify the corrosion products. Analyses of the surface scales showed primarily iron oxides rather than chromium oxide suggesting the tubes were probably cycled to relatively high temperatures to the extent that cycling and subsequent oxide spalling reduced the surface concentration of chromium below a critical level. To characterize the temperatures reached by the tubes, thermocouples were mounted on selected tubes and the temperatures measured. During the several hour furnace cycle, tube temperatures well above 1000°C were regularly recorded and, on some occasions, temperatures of more than 1100°C were measured. Further temperature characterization was done with an infrared camera, and this camera clearly showed the variations in temperature across the first row of tubes in the four recuperator modules. Computational fluid dynamics was used to model the flow of combustion air in the tubes and the flue gas around the outside of the tubes. This modeling showed the

  12. URANIUM PRECIPITATION PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Smith, H.W.; Simard, R.

    1957-12-01

    A method for the recovery of uranium from sulfuric acid solutions is described. In the present process, sulfuric acid is added to the uranium bearing solution to bring the pH to between 1 and 1.8, preferably to about 1.4, and aluminum metal is then used as a reducing agent to convert hexavalent uranium to the tetravalent state. As the reaction proceeds, the pH rises amd a selective precipitation of uranium occurs resulting in a high grade precipitate. This process is an improvement over the process using metallic iron, in that metallic aluminum reacts less readily than metallic iron with sulfuric acid, thus avoiding consumption of the reducing agent and a raising of the pH without accomplishing the desired reduction of the hexavalent uranium in the solution. Another disadvantage to the use of iron is that positive ferric ions will precipitate with negative phosphate and arsenate ions at the pH range employed.

  13. Aluminum Surface Texturing by Means of Laser Interference Metallurgy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    laser interferometry produced by two beams of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10Hz of frequency to clean aluminum surfaces, and meanwhile creating periodic and rough surface...

  14. Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, L.D.

    1982-03-25

    The present invention is directed to a gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to profice a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surface are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy continguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

  15. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. ... Publication Date: 2004-03-30 OSTI Identifier: 822451 DOE Contract Number: FC36-01ID13983 ...

  16. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Li-Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. You ...

  17. Ames Lab 101: BAM (Boron-Aluminum-Magnesium)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Bruce Cook

    2013-06-05

    Materials scientist, Bruce Cook, discusses the super hard, low friction, and lubricious alloy know as BAM (Boron-Aluminum-Magnesium). BAM was discovered by Bruce Cook and his team a

  18. Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Lowell D.

    1984-01-01

    A gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to provide a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surfaces are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy contiguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

  19. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Li-Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. ...

  20. Aluminum electroplating on steel from a fused bromide electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhat K. Tripathy; Laura A. Wurth; Eric J. Dufek; Toni Y. Gutknecht; Natalie J. Gese; Paula Hahn; Steven M. Frank; Guy L. Frederickson; J. Stephen Herring

    2014-08-01

    A quaternary bromide bath (LiBrKBrCsBrAlBr3) was used to electro-coat aluminum on steel substrates. The electrolytewas prepared by the addition of AlBr3 into the eutectic LiBrKBrCsBr melt. A smooth, thick, adherent and shiny aluminum coating could be obtained with 80 wt.% AlBr3 in the ternary melt. The SEM photographs of the coated surfaces suggest the formation of thick and dense coatings with good aluminum coverage. Both salt immersion and open circuit potential measurement suggested that the coatings did display a good corrosionresistance behavior. Annealing of the coated surfaces, prior to corrosion tests, suggested the robustness of the metallic aluminum coating in preventing the corrosion of the steel surfaces. Studies also indicated that the quaternary bromide plating bath can potentially provide a better aluminumcoating on both ferrous and non-ferrous metals, including complex surfaces/geometries.

  1. High-Temperature Aluminum Alloys | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting pm044smith2012o.pdf (4.99 MB) More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Aluminum Alloys ...

  2. Reconsideration of natural-gas immersion burners to melt recycled aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, John A., III; Thekdi, Arvind; Ningileri, S.; Han, Q.

    2005-09-01

    The best open flame reverberatory aluminum melting furnaces are approximately 45% efficient. Furnace efficiency can be increased by using immersed tube burners. Currently, recuperated tube burners with capacities to remelt aluminum are available. Tube burners would allow remelt furnaces to operate at lower temperatures, reduce dross formation, reduce particulate emissions, and provide clean flue gas to other energy intensive processes. Babcock and Wilcox, under GRI (now GTI – Gas Technology Institute) contract in the late-1980’s, demonstrated the technically feasibility of immersion melting of aluminum. However, tube reliability was problematic due to metal penetration, dross build-up, thermal shock, and mechanical failure. Also, the concept of “cold start” melting was not addressed. The Albany Research Center (U.S. DOE) is cooperating with Secat, E3M Inc., the University of Kentucky, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory in an ITP-sponsored program to combine emerging technologies in a retrofitable furnace package targeting improved remelt efficiency ranging from 55% to 75%.

  3. Two step novel hydrogen system using additives to enhance hydrogen release from the hydrolysis of alane and activated aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Motyka, Theodore

    2015-12-01

    A system for the generation of hydrogen for use in portable power systems is set forth utilizing a two-step process that involves the thermal decomposition of AlH.sub.3 (10 wt % H.sub.2) followed by the hydrolysis of the activated aluminum (Al*) byproduct to release additional H.sub.2. Additionally, a process in which water is added directly without prior history to the AlH.sub.3:PA composite is also disclosed.

  4. Process for fabricating device structures for real-time process control of silicon doping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    2001-01-01

    Silicon device structures designed to allow measurement of important doping process parameters immediately after the doping step has occurred. The test structures are processed through contact formation using standard semiconductor fabrication techniques. After the contacts have been formed, the structures are covered by an oxide layer and an aluminum layer. The aluminum layer is then patterned to expose the contact pads and selected regions of the silicon to be doped. Doping is then performed, and the whole structure is annealed with a pulsed excimer laser. But laser annealing, unlike standard annealing techniques, does not effect the aluminum contacts because the laser light is reflected by the aluminum. Once the annealing process is complete, the structures can be probed, using standard techniques, to ascertain data about the doping step. Analysis of the data can be used to determine probable yield reductions due to improper execution of the doping step and thus provide real-time feedback during integrated circuit fabrication.

  5. METHOD OF ALLOYING REACTIVE METALS WITH ALUMINUM OR BERYLLIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Runnalls, O.J.C.

    1957-10-15

    A halide of one or more of the reactive metals, neptunium, cerium and americium, is mixed with aluminum or beryllium. The mass is heated at 700 to 1200 deg C, while maintaining a substantial vacuum of above 10/sup -3/ mm of mercury or better, until the halide of the reactive metal is reduced and the metal itself alloys with the reducing metal. The reaction proceeds efficiently due to the volatilization of the halides of the reducing metal, aluminum or beryllium.

  6. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J.; Seeley, Forest G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention described herein relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  7. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1979-11-01

    The invention relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  8. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Kaiser Aluminum Corp - IL 19

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Kaiser Aluminum Corp - IL 19 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: KAISER ALUMINUM CORP. (IL.19 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Dolton , Illinois IL.19-2 Evaluation Year: 1987 IL.19-2 Site Operations: Performed limited duration work extruding uranium billets into three CP-5 fuel elements, circa 1959. IL.19-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote due to limited scope of activities

  9. Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a high strength, lightweight aluminum wire for high-voltage power transmission with reduced electrical resistance for overhead electrical lines. Description

  10. Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Researchers have developed a high strength, lightweight aluminum wire for high-voltage power transmission with reduced electrical resistance for overhead electrical lines. High-voltage electric power transmission cables based on pure

  11. Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method for fabricating conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals that provide a lower cost, less toxic, earth-abundant alternative

  12. Reactions of aluminum with uranium fluorides and oxyfluorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Nichols, R.W.; Lankford, B.S.

    1991-12-31

    Every 30 to 40 million operating hours a destructive reaction is observed in one of the {approximately}4000 large compressors that move UF{sub 6} through the gaseous diffusion plants. Despite its infrequency, such a reaction can be costly in terms of equipment and time. Laboratory experiments reveal that the presence of moderate pressures of UF{sub 6} actually cools heated aluminum, although thermodynamic calculations indicate the potential for a 3000-4000{degrees}C temperature rise. Within a narrow and rather low (<100 torr; 1 torr = 133.322 Pa) pressure range, however, the aluminum is seen to react with sufficient heat release to soften an alumina boat. Three things must occur in order for aluminum to react vigorously with either UF{sub 6} or UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}. 1. An initiating source of heat must be provided. In the compressors, this source can be friction, permitted by disruption of the balance of the large rotating part or by creep of the aluminum during a high-temperature treatment. In the absence of this heat source, compressors have operated for 40 years in UF{sub 6} without significant reaction. 2. The film protecting the aluminum must be breached. Melting (of UF{sub 5} at 620 K or aluminum at 930 K) can cause such a breach in laboratory experiments. In contrast, holding Al samples in UF{sub 6} at 870 K for several hours produces only moderate reaction. Rubbing in the cascade can undoubtedly breach the protective film. 3. Reaction products must not build up and smother the reaction. While uranium products tend to dissolve or dissipate in molten aluminum, AIF{sub 3} shows a remarkable tendency to surround and hence protect even molten aluminum. Hence the initial temperature rise must be rapid and sufficient to move reactants into a temperature region in which products are removed from the reaction site.

  13. THE APPARENT SOLUBILITY OF ALUMINUM(III) IN HANFORD HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REYNOLDS JG

    2012-06-20

    The solubility of aluminum in Hanford nuclear waste impacts on the process ability of the waste by a number of proposed treatment options. For many years, Hanford staff has anecdotally noted that aluminum appears to be considerably more soluble in Hanford waste than the simpler electrolyte solutions used as analogues. There has been minimal scientific study to confirm these anecdotal observations, however. The present study determines the apparent solubility product for gibbsite in 50 tank samples. The ratio of hydroxide to aluminum in the liquid phase for the samples is calculated and plotted as a function of total sodium molarity. Total sodium molarity is used as a surrogate for ionic strength, because the relative ratios of mono, di and trivalent anions are not available for all of the samples. These results were compared to the simple NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4})H{sub 2}O system, and the NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4})NaCl-H{sub 2}O system data retrieved from the literature. The results show that gibbsite is apparently more soluble in the samples than in the simple systems whenever the sodium molarity is greater than two. This apparent enhanced solubility cannot be explained solely by differences in ionic strength. The change in solubility with ionic strength in simple systems is small compared to the difference between aluminum solubility in Hanford waste and the simple systems. The reason for the apparent enhanced solubility is unknown, but could include. kinetic or thermodynamic factors that are not present in the simple electrolyte systems. Any kinetic explanation would have to explain why the samples are always supersaturated whenever the sodium molarity is above two. Real waste characterization data should not be used to validate thermodynamic solubility models until it can be confirmed that the apparent enhanced gibbsite solubility is a thermodynamic effect and not a kinetic effect.

  14. An economic and technical assessment of black-dross and salt-cake-recycling systems for application in the secondary aluminum industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karvelas, D.; Daniels, E.; Jody, B.; Bonsignore, P.

    1991-12-01

    The secondary aluminum industry annually disposes of large amounts of dross residues and salt cake, which are by-products from the processing of scrap aluminum for reuse. These wastes contain as much as 50% salts and are presently disposed of in conventional landfills. As the costs of landfill space increase and the availability of landfill space decreases, disposal of the residues will increasingly compromise the economics of recycling aluminum. Alternative processes exist by which the major constituents of the various drosses and salt cakes can be recovered for recycling. In this study, we review available recycling technologies and processes relevant to the recycling of black dross and salt cake and discuss new concepts that have the potential to improve the cost-effectiveness of recycling technologies.

  15. Thermal Management in Friction-Stir Welding of Precipitation-Hardening Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyay, Piyush; Reynolds, Anthony

    2015-05-25

    Process design and implementation in FSW is mostly dependent on empirical information gathered through experience. Basic science of friction stir welding and processing can only be complete when fundamental interrelationships between process control parameters and response variables and resulting weld microstructure and properties are established to a reasonable extent. It is known that primary process control parameters like tool rotation and translation rate and forge axis force have complicated and interactive relationships to the process response variables such as peak temperature, time at temperature etc. Of primary influence to the other process response parameters are temperature and its gradient at the deformation and heat affected zones. Through review of pertinent works in the literature and some experimental results from boundary condition work performed in precipitation hardening aluminum alloys this paper will partially elucidate the nature and effects of temperature transients caused by variation of thermal boundaries in Friction Stir Welding.

  16. Fluorescent lighting with aluminum nitride phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cherepy, Nerine J.; Payne, Stephen A.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Srivastava, Alok M.

    2016-05-10

    A fluorescent lamp includes a glass envelope; at least two electrodes connected to the glass envelope; mercury vapor and an inert gas within the glass envelope; and a phosphor within the glass envelope, wherein the phosphor blend includes aluminum nitride. The phosphor may be a wurtzite (hexagonal) crystalline structure Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN phosphor, where M may be drawn from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, zinc, scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, ytterbium, bismuth, manganese, silicon, germanium, tin, boron, or gallium is synthesized to include dopants to control its luminescence under ultraviolet excitation. The disclosed Al.sub.(1-x)M.sub.xN:Mn phosphor provides bright orange-red emission, comparable in efficiency and spectrum to that of the standard orange-red phosphor used in fluorescent lighting, Y.sub.2O.sub.3:Eu. Furthermore, it offers excellent lumen maintenance in a fluorescent lamp, and does not utilize "critical rare earths," minimizing sensitivity to fluctuating market prices for the rare earth elements.

  17. Method of particle trajectory recognition in particle flows of high particle concentration using a candidate trajectory tree process with variable search areas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaffer, Franklin D.

    2013-03-12

    The application relates to particle trajectory recognition from a Centroid Population comprised of Centroids having an (x, y, t) or (x, y, f) coordinate. The method is applicable to visualization and measurement of particle flow fields of high particle. In one embodiment, the centroids are generated from particle images recorded on camera frames. The application encompasses digital computer systems and distribution mediums implementing the method disclosed and is particularly applicable to recognizing trajectories of particles in particle flows of high particle concentration. The method accomplishes trajectory recognition by forming Candidate Trajectory Trees and repeated searches at varying Search Velocities, such that initial search areas are set to a minimum size in order to recognize only the slowest, least accelerating particles which produce higher local concentrations. When a trajectory is recognized, the centroids in that trajectory are removed from consideration in future searches.

  18. Flow chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morozov, Victor

    2011-01-18

    A flow chamber having a vacuum chamber and a specimen chamber. The specimen chamber may have an opening through which a fluid may be introduced and an opening through which the fluid may exit. The vacuum chamber may have an opening through which contents of the vacuum chamber may be evacuated. A portion of the flow chamber may be flexible, and a vacuum may be used to hold the components of the flow chamber together.

  19. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S.; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  20. Temperature and compression effects on electron heat capacity and electron-phonon coupling in aluminum and beryllium: Insights from ab initio simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zi; Li, Chuanying; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ping; Kang, Wei

    2015-11-15

    Ultrafast laser experiments on metals usually induce a high electron temperature and a low ion temperature and, thus, an energy relaxation process. The electron heat capacity and electron-phonon coupling factor are crucial thermal quantities to describe this process. We perform ab initio theoretical studies to determine these thermal quantities and their dependence on density and electron temperature for the metals aluminum and beryllium. The heat capacity shows an approximately linear dependence on the temperature, similar to free electron gas, and the compression only slightly affects the capacity. The electron-phonon coupling factor increases with both temperature and density, and the change observed for beryllium is more obvious than that for aluminum. The connections between thermal quantities and electronic/atomic structures are discussed in detail, and the different behaviors of aluminum and beryllium are well explained.

  1. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, M.I.; Gelbein, A.P.

    1984-10-16

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200 to 450 C and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  2. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, Marvin I.; Gelbein, Abraham P.

    1984-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  3. Manganese-Aluminum-Based Magnets: Nanocrystalline t-MnAI Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: Dartmouth is developing specialized alloys with magnetic properties superior to the rare earths used in todays best magnets. EVs and renewable power generators typically use rare earths to turn the axles in their electric motors due to the magnetic strength of these minerals. However, rare earths are difficult and expensive to refine. Dartmouth will swap rare earths for a manganese-aluminum alloy that could demonstrate better performance and cost significantly less. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop an easily scalable process that enables the widespread use of low-cost and abundant materials for the magnets used in EVs and renewable power generators.

  4. Hermetic aluminum radio frequency interconnection and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilgo, Riley D.; Kovacic, Larry; Brow, Richard K.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a light-weight, hermetic coaxial radio-frequency (RF) interconnection having an electrically conductive outer housing made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, a central electrical conductor made of ferrous or non-ferrous material, and a cylinder of dielectric material comprising a low-melting-temperature, high-thermal-expansion aluminophosphate glass composition for hermetically sealing between the aluminum-alloy outer housing and the ferrous or non-ferrous center conductor. The entire RF interconnection assembly is made permanently hermetic by thermally fusing the center conductor, glass, and housing concurrently by bringing the glass to the melt point by way of exposure to an atmospheric temperature sufficient to melt the glass, less than 540.degree. C., but that does not melt the center conductor or the outer aluminum or aluminum alloy housing. The composition of the glass used is controlled to provide a suitable low dielectric constant so that an appropriate electrical characteristic impedance, for example 50 ohms, can be achieved for an electrical interconnection that performs well at high radio frequencies and also provides an interconnection maintaining a relatively small physical size.

  5. REAL TIME ULTRASONIC ALUMINUM SPOT WELD MONITORING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regalado, W. Perez; Chertov, A. M.; Maev, R. Gr.

    2010-02-22

    Aluminum alloys pose several properties that make them one of the most popular engineering materials: they have excellent corrosion resistance, and high weight-to-strength ratio. Resistance spot welding of aluminum alloys is widely used today but oxide film and aluminum thermal and electrical properties make spot welding a difficult task. Electrode degradation due to pitting, alloying and mushrooming decreases the weld quality and adjustment of parameters like current and force is required. To realize these adjustments and ensure weld quality, a tool to measure weld quality in real time is required. In this paper, a real time ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation system for aluminum spot welds is presented. The system is able to monitor nugget growth while the spot weld is being made. This is achieved by interpreting the echoes of an ultrasound transducer located in one of the welding electrodes. The transducer receives and transmits an ultrasound signal at different times during the welding cycle. Valuable information of the weld quality is embedded in this signal. The system is able to determine the weld nugget diameter by measuring the delays of the ultrasound signals received during the complete welding cycle. The article presents the system performance on aluminum alloy AA6022.

  6. In-situ Condition Monitoring of Components in Small Modular Reactors Using Process and Electrical Signature Analysis. Final report, volume 1. Development of experimental flow control loop, data analysis and plant monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upadhyaya, Belle; Hines, J. Wesley; Damiano, Brian; Mehta, Chaitanya; Collins, Price; Lish, Matthew; Cady, Brian; Lollar, Victor; de Wet, Dane; Bayram, Duygu

    2015-12-15

    The research and development under this project was focused on the following three major objectives: Objective 1: Identification of critical in-vessel SMR components for remote monitoring and development of their low-order dynamic models, along with a simulation model of an integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR). Objective 2: Development of an experimental flow control loop with motor-driven valves and pumps, incorporating data acquisition and on-line monitoring interface. Objective 3: Development of stationary and transient signal processing methods for electrical signatures, machinery vibration, and for characterizing process variables for equipment monitoring. This objective includes the development of a data analysis toolbox. The following is a summary of the technical accomplishments under this project: - A detailed literature review of various SMR types and electrical signature analysis of motor-driven systems was completed. A bibliography of literature is provided at the end of this report. Assistance was provided by ORNL in identifying some key references. - A review of literature on pump-motor modeling and digital signal processing methods was performed. - An existing flow control loop was upgraded with new instrumentation, data acquisition hardware and software. The upgrading of the experimental loop included the installation of a new submersible pump driven by a three-phase induction motor. All the sensors were calibrated before full-scale experimental runs were performed. - MATLAB-Simulink model of a three-phase induction motor and pump system was completed. The model was used to simulate normal operation and fault conditions in the motor-pump system, and to identify changes in the electrical signatures. - A simulation model of an integral PWR (iPWR) was updated and the MATLAB-Simulink model was validated for known transients. The pump-motor model was interfaced with the iPWR model for testing the impact of primary flow perturbations (upsets) on

  7. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF CROSS-FLOW FILTRATION FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-01-12

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing cross-flow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was included in those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Cross-flow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate slurries. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the cross-flow filter axial flowrate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and cross-flow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed

  8. SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL BY ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE 12390

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keefer, M.

    2012-01-12

    High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored in aging underground storage tanks. This waste is a complex mixture of insoluble solids, referred to as sludge, and soluble salts. Continued long-term storage of these radioactive wastes poses an environmental risk. Operations are underway to remove and disposition the waste, clean the tanks and fill with grout for permanent closure. Heel removal is the intermediate phase of the waste retrieval and tank cleaning process at SRS, which is intended to reduce the volume of waste prior to treatment with oxalic acid. The goal of heel removal is to reduce the residual amount of radioactive sludge wastes to less than 37,900 liters (10,000 gallons) of wet solids. Reducing the quantity of residual waste solids in the tank prior to acid cleaning reduces the amount of acid required and reduces the amount of excess acid that could impact ongoing waste management processes. Mechanical heel removal campaigns in Tank 12 have relied solely on the use of mixing pumps that have not been effective at reducing the volume of remaining solids. The remaining waste in Tank 12 is known to have a high aluminum concentration. Aluminum dissolution by caustic leaching was identified as a treatment step to reduce the volume of remaining solids and prepare the tank for acid cleaning. Dissolution was performed in Tank 12 over a two month period in July and August, 2011. Sample results indicated that 16,440 kg of aluminum oxide (boehmite) had been dissolved representing 60% of the starting inventory. The evolution resulted in reducing the sludge solids volume by 22,300 liters (5900 gallons), preparing the tank for chemical cleaning with oxalic acid.

  9. Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988. Fiscal year 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988 (Act), commonly referred to as the Metals Initiative, was signed into law on November 17, 1988 (Public Law 100-680). The Act, 15 U.S.C. 5101 et seq., has tile following purposes: (1) to {open_quotes}increase the energy efficiency and enhance the competitiveness of American steel, aluminum, and copper industries{close_quotes}; and (2) to continue the research and development efforts begun under the Department of Energy (DOE) program known as the Steel Initiative. Section 8 of tile Act requires the Secretary of Energy to prepare an annual report to Congress describing the activities carried out under the Act during each fiscal year. 15 U.S.C. 5107 In addition, with respect to reports on fiscal years 1993, 1995, and 1997, Section 8 requires a complete summary of activities under the management plan and research plan from inception with an analysis of extent of their success in accomplishing the purposes of the Act. Id. The Metals Initiative is currently supporting six steel industry research and development projects: (1) Superplastic Steel Processing with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; (2) Direct Steelmaking with the American Iron and Steel Institute; (3) Electrochemical Dezincing of Steel Scrap with Argonne National Laboratory and Metal Recovery Industries (U.S.), Inc.; (4) Rapid Analysis of Molten Metals Using Laser Produced Plasmas with Lehigh University; (5) Direct Strip Casting using a single wheel caster with Armco, Inc.; and (6) Advanced Process Control, also with the American Iron and Steel Institute. At the close of the fiscal year, a seventh project, Waste Oxide Recycling with the American Iron and Steel Institute, was selected for inclusion in the Direct Steelmaking project. There are three projects with the aluminum industry. The first, Wettable Cathodes for Alumina Reduction Cells with the Reynolds Metals Company, continues from the prior periods.

  10. Aluminum and polymeric coatings for protection of uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colmenares, C.; McCreary, T.; Monaco, S.; Walkup, C.; Gleeson, G.; Kervin, J.; Smith, R.L.; McCaffrey, C.

    1983-12-21

    Ion-plated aluminum films on uranium will not provide adequate protection for 25 years. Magnetron-plated aluminum films on uranium are much better than ion-plated ones. Kel-F 800 films on uranium can provide adequate protection for 25 years. Their use in production must be delayed until the following factors are sorted out: water permeability in Kel-F 800 must be determined between 30 and 60/sup 0/C; the effect of UF/sub 3/, at the Kel-F/metal interface, on the permeability of water must be assessed; and the effect of crystallinity on water permeability must be evaluated. Applying Kel-F films on aluminum ion-plated uranium provides a good interim solution for long term storage.

  11. Carbonaceous cathode with enhanced wettability for aluminum production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Rudolf; Gatty, David G.; Barca, Brian J.

    2003-09-09

    A method of preparing carbonaceous blocks or bodies for use in a cathode in an electrolytic cell for producing aluminum wherein the cell contains an electrolyte and has molten aluminum contacting the cathode, the cathode having improved wettability with molten aluminum. The method comprises the steps of providing a carbonaceous block and a boron oxide containing melt. The carbonaceous block is immersed in the melt and pressure is applied to the melt to impregnate the melt into pores in the block. Thereafter, the carbonaceous block is withdrawn from the melt, the block having boron oxide containing melt intruded into pores therein, the boron oxide capable of reacting with a source of titanium or zirconium or like metal to form titanium or zirconium diboride during heatup or operation of said cell.

  12. Evaluation of several corrosion protective coating systems on aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higgins, R.H.

    1981-02-01

    A study of several protective coating systems for use on aluminum in seawater/seacoast environments was conducted to review the developments made on protective coatings since early in the Space Shuttle program and to perform comparative studies on these coatings to determine their effectiveness for providing corrosion protection during exposure to seawater/seacoast environments. Panels of 2219-T87 aluminum were coated with 21 different systems and exposed to a 5 percent salt spray for 4000 h. Application properties, adhesion measurements, heat resistance and corrosion protection were evaluated. For comparative studies, the presently specified Bostik epoxy system used on the SRB structures was included. Results of these tests indicate four systems with outstanding performance and four additional systems with protection almost as good. These systems are based on a chromated pretreatment, a chromate epoxy primer, and a polyurethane topcoat. Consideration for one of these systems should be included for those applications where superior corrosion protection for aluminum surfaces is required.

  13. COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HARRINGTON SJ

    2011-01-06

    This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

  14. Stochastic models for turbulent reacting flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerstein, A.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop and apply stochastic models of various processes occurring within turbulent reacting flows in order to identify the fundamental mechanisms governing these flows, to support experimental studies of these flows, and to further the development of comprehensive turbulent reacting flow models.

  15. Module bay with directed flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torczynski, John R.

    2001-02-27

    A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

  16. Low temperature aluminum reduction cell using hollow cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.; Frizzle, Patrick B.

    2002-08-20

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes are disposed substantially vertically in the electrolyte along with a plurality of monolithic hollow cathodes. Each cathode has a top and bottom and the cathodes are disposed vertically in the electrolyte and the anodes and the cathodes are arranged in alternating relationship. Each of the cathodes is comprised of a first side facing a first opposing anode and a second side facing a second opposing anode. The first and second sides are joined by ends to form a reservoir in the hollow cathode for collecting aluminum therein deposited at the cathode.

  17. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2004-10-05

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  18. Aluminum Surface Texturing by Means of Laser Interference Metallurgy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jian; Sabau, Adrian S; Jones, Jonaaron F.; Hackett, Alexandra C.; Daniel, Claus; Warren, Charles David

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of lightweight materials, such as aluminum alloys, in auto body structures requires more effective surface cleaning and texturing techniques to improve the quality of the structural components. The present work introduces a novel surface treatment method using laser interferometry produced by two beams of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 10Hz of frequency to clean aluminum surfaces, and meanwhile creating periodic and rough surface structures. The influences of beam size, laser fluence, wavelength, and pulse number per spot are investigated. High resolution optical profiler images reveal the change of the peak-to-valley height on the laser-treated surface.

  19. Comment on Free-free opacity in warm aluminum by Vinko et al...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Comment on Free-free opacity in warm aluminum by Vinko et al Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comment on Free-free opacity in warm aluminum by Vinko et al Authors: ...

  20. Shock-ramp loading of tin and aluminum. (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Shock-ramp loading of tin and aluminum. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shock-ramp loading of tin and aluminum. Abstract not provided. Authors: Seagle, Christopher T ...

  1. Evaluation of Corrosion of Aluminum Based Reactor Fuel Cladding Materials During Dry Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.

    1999-10-21

    This report provides an evaluation of the corrosion behavior of aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium alloys at conditions relevant to dry storage. The details of the corrosion program are described and the results to date are discussed.

  2. Flow battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lipka, Stephen M.; Swartz, Christopher R.

    2016-02-23

    An electrolyte system for a flow battery has an anolyte including [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.3- and [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.4- and a catholyte including Fe.sup.2+ and Fe.sup.3+.

  3. Energy-Efficient Melting and Direct Delivery of High Quality Molten Aluminum

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fact Sheet About Complete Scrap-to-Caster System Will Save Energy and Reduce Costs in the Aluminum Industry

  4. UZ Flow Models and Submodels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Wu

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow models and submodels, as well as the flow fields that have been generated using the UZ flow model(s) of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this report, the term ''UZ model'' refers to the UZ flow model and the several submodels, which include tracer transport, temperature or ambient geothermal, pneumatic or gas flow, and geochemistry (chloride, calcite, and strontium) submodels. The term UZ flow model refers to the three-dimensional models used for calibration and simulation of UZ flow fields. This work was planned in the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.7). The table of included Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), Table 6.2-11, is different from the list of included FEPs assigned to this report in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Table 2.1.5-1), as discussed in Section 6.2.6. The UZ model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ model (BSC 2001 [DIRS 158726]) by incorporating the repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates, and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These three-dimensional UZ flow fields are used directly by Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales, and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, the limitations of the UZ model are discussed in Section 8.11.

  5. Boron-carbide-aluminum and boron-carbide-reactive metal cermets. [B/sub 4/C-Al

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halverson, D.C.; Pyzik, A.J.; Aksay, I.A.

    1985-05-06

    Hard, tough, lighweight boron-carbide-reactive metal composites, particularly boron-carbide-aluminum composites, are produced. These composites have compositions with a plurality of phases. A method is provided, including the steps of wetting and reacting the starting materials, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected. Starting compositions, reaction temperatures, reaction times, and reaction atmospheres are parameters for controlling the process and resulting compositions. The ceramic phases are homogeneously distributed in the metal phases and adhesive forces at ceramic-metal interfaces are maximized. An initial consolidated step is used to achieve fully dense composites. Microstructures of boron-carbide-aluminum cermets have been produced with modules of rupture exceeding 110 ksi and fracture toughness exceeding 12 ksi..sqrt..in. These composites and methods can be used to form a variety of structural elements.

  6. VOLATILE CHLORIDE PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanley, W.R.

    1959-01-01

    A process is presented for recovering uranium, iron, and aluminum from centain shale type ores which contain uranium in minute quantities. The ore is heated wiih a chlorinating agent. such as chlorine, to form a volatilized stream of metal chlorides. The chloride stream is then passed through granular alumina which preferentially absorbs the volatile uranium chloride and from which the uranium may later be recovered. The remaining volatilized chlorides, chiefly those of iron and aluminum, are further treated to recover chlorine gas for recycle, and to recover ferric oxide and aluminum oxide as valuable by-products.

  7. REPORT ON QUALITATIVE VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS USING LITHIUM-ALUMINUM LAYERED DOUBLE-HYDROXIDES FOR THE REDUCTION OF ALUMINUM FROM THE WASTE TREATMENT PLANT FEEDSTOCK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HUBER HJ; DUNCAN JB; COOKE GA

    2010-05-11

    A process for removing aluminum from tank waste simulants by adding lithium and precipitating Li-Al-dihydroxide (Lithiumhydrotalcite, [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]{sup +}X{sup -}) has been verified. The tests involved a double-shell tank (DST) simulant and a single-shell tank (SST) simulant. In the case of the DST simulant, the product was the anticipated Li-hydrotalcite. For the SST simulant, the product formed was primarily Li-phosphate. However, adding excess Li to the solution did result in the formation of traces of Li-hydrotalcite. The Li-hydrotalcite from the DST supernate was an easily filterable solid. After four water washes the filter cake was a fluffy white material made of < 100 {micro}m particles made of smaller spheres. These spheres are agglomerates of {approx} 5 {micro}m diameter platelets with < 1 {micro}m thickness. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the filtrate, filter cake, and wash waters indicate a removal of 90+ wt% of the dissolved Al for the DST simulant. For the SST simulant, the main competing reaction to the formation of lithium hydrotalcite appears to be the formation of lithium phosphate. In case of the DST simulant, phosphorus co-precipitated with the hydrotalcite. This would imply the added benefit of the removal of phosphorus along with aluminum in the pre-treatment part of the waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP). For this endeavor to be successful, a serious effort toward process parameter optimization is necessary. Among the major issues to be addressed are the dependency of the reaction yield on the solution chemistry, as well as residence times, temperatures, and an understanding of particle growth.

  8. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U. Tennessee Knoxville; U. Texas Austin; McGill U; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  9. Improved Irradiation Performance of Uranium-Molybdenum/Aluminum Dispersion Fuel by Silicon Addition in Aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeon Soo Kim; G. L. Hofman; A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs

    2013-10-01

    Uranium-molybdenum fuel particle dispersion in aluminum is a form of fuel under development for conversion of high-power research and test reactors from highly enriched to low-enriched uranium in the U.S. Global Threat Reduction Initiative program (also known as the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program). Extensive irradiation tests have been conducted to find a solution for problems caused by interaction layer growth and pore formation between U-Mo and Al. Adding a small amount of Si (up to [approximately]5 wt%) in the Al matrix was one of the proposed remedies. The effect of silicon addition in the Al matrix was examined using irradiation test results by comparing side-by-side samples with different Si additions. Interaction layer growth was progressively reduced with increasing Si addition to the matrix Al, up to 4.8 wt%. The Si addition also appeared to delay pore formation and growth between the U-Mo and Al.

  10. Flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van den Engh, Ger

    1995-01-01

    A Faraday cage enclosing the flow chamber of a cytometer and ground planes associated with each field deflection plate in concert therewith inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates and increases forces applied to a charged event passing therethrough for accurate focus thereof while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard.

  11. Flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, G.

    1995-11-07

    A Faraday cage is described which encloses the flow chamber of a cytometer. Ground planes associated with each field deflection plate inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates. They also increase forces applied to a passing charged event for accurate focus while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard. 4 figs.

  12. Joining aluminum to titanium alloy by friction stir lap welding with cutting pin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Yanni [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Li, Jinglong, E-mail: lijinglg@nwpu.edu.cn [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)] [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Xiong, Jiangtao [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Huang, Fu; Zhang, Fusheng; Raza, Syed Hamid [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)] [Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding Technologies, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Aluminum 1060 and titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V plates were lap joined by friction stir welding. A cutting pin of rotary burr made of tungsten carbide was employed. The microstructures of the joining interface were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Joint strength was evaluated by a tensile shear test. During the welding process, the surface layer of the titanium plate was cut off by the pin, and intensively mixed with aluminum situated on the titanium plate. The microstructures analysis showed that a visible swirl-like mixed region existed at the interface. In this region, the Al metal, Ti metal and the mixed layer of them were all presented. The ultimate tensile shear strength of joint reached 100% of 1060Al that underwent thermal cycle provided by the shoulder. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FSW with cutting pin was successfully employed to form Al/Ti lap joint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Swirl-like structures formed due to mechanical mixing were found at the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-strength joints fractured at Al suffered thermal cycle were produced.

  13. X-ray diffractometry of lanthanum-nickel-aluminum alloys. Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosley, W.C.

    1988-08-08

    X-ray diffractometry provides much useful information on LANA alloys that complements data obtained by SEM and Electron Microprobe Analysis. Accurate measurements of the hexagonal lattice parameters of the primary LaNi{sub 5-y}Aly phase reveal the aluminum content (y) and allow the prediction of desorption pressures for the hydrogen isotopes. A study of the broadening of x-ray diffraction lines of the LaNi{sub 5-y}Aly primary phase caused by cyclic absorption and desorption of hydrogen suggests that substitution of aluminum for nickel stabilizes the primary phase with respect to formation of antistructure defects that could cause undesirable trapping of hydrogen isotopes. Correlation of XRD with SEM and EMPA results has helped identify secondary phases, determine their abundances in volume percent, and reveal how they react with hydrogen and the atmosphere. Characterizations of LANA alloys used in process development has provided the bases for development of specifications for alloys to be used in the Replacement Trittium Facility. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  14. Surface characterization of carbon fiber polymer composites and aluminum alloys after laser interference structuring

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sabau, Adrian S.; Greer, Clayton M.; Chen, Jian; Warren, Charles David; Daniel, Claus

    2016-05-03

    Here, the increasing use of Carbon Fiber-reinforced Polymer matrix Composites (CFPC) and aluminum alloys as lightweight materials in the automotive and aerospace industries demands enhanced surface preparation and control of surface morphology prior to joining. In this study, surfaces of both composite and aluminum were prepared for joining using an Nd:YAG laser in a two-beam interference setup, enabling the (a) structuring of the AL 5182 surface, (b) removal of the resin layer on top of carbon fibers, and (c) structuring of the carbon fibers. CFPC specimens of T700S carbon fiber, Prepreg - T83 epoxy, 5 ply thick, 0/90o plaques weremore » used. The effect of laser fluence, scanning speed, and number of shots-per-spot was investigated on the removal rate of the resin without an excessive damage of the fibers. Optical micrographs, 3D imaging, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging were used to study the effect of the laser processing on surface morphology.« less

  15. Aluminum Footprint, October 2012 (MECS 2006)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-10-17

    Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption, for fifteen individual U.S. manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for the entire manufacturing sector. By providing energy consumption and emissions figures broken down by end use, the footprints allow for comparisons of energy use and emissions sources both within and across sectors. The footprints portray a large amount of information for each sector, including: * Comparison of the energy generated offsite and transferred to facilities versus that generated onsite * Nature and amount of energy consumed by end use within facilities * Magnitude of the energy lost both outside and inside facility boundaries * Magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions released as a result of manufacturing energy use. Energy losses indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, and developing new technologies. Footprints are available below for each sector. Data is presented in two levels of detail. The first page provides a high- level snapshot of the offsite and onsite energy flow, and the second page shows the detail for onsite generation and end use of energy. The principle energy use data source is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), for consumption in the year 2006, when the survey was last completed.

  16. Aluminum Footprint, December 2010 (MECS 2006)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2010-06-01

    Manufacturing energy and carbon footprints map fuel energy consumption and losses, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from fuel consumption, for fifteen individual U.S. manufacturing sectors (representing 94% of all manufacturing energy use) and for the entire manufacturing industry sector. By providing energy consumption and emissions figures broken down by end use, the footprints allow for comparisons of energy use and emissions sources both within and across sectors. The footprints portray a large amount of information for each sector, including: * Comparison of the energy generated offsite and transferred to facilities versus that generated onsite * Nature and amount of energy consumed by end use within facilities * Magnitude of the energy lost both outside and inside facility boundaries * Magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions released due to the combustion of fuel. Energy losses indicate opportunities to improve efficiency by implementing energy management best practices, upgrading energy systems, and developing new technologies. Footprints are available below for each sector. Data is presented in two levels of detail. The first page provides a high-level snapshot of the offsite and onsite energy flow, and the second page shows the detail for onsite generation and end use of energy. The energy data is primarily provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), and therefore reflects consumption in the year 2006, when the survey was last completed.

  17. Process for production of a metal hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-12

    A process for production of a metal hydride compound MH.sub.x, wherein x is one or two and M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg. The process comprises combining a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.xM with aluminum, hydrogen and at least one metal selected from among titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula MH.sub.x. R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group. A mole ratio of aluminum to (R.sup.1O).sub.xM is from 0.1:1 to 1:1. The catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum.

  18. Study of metallic powder behavior in very low pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS) — Application to the manufacturing of titanium–aluminum coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vautherin, B.; Planche, M.-P.; Montavon, G.; Lapostolle, F.; Quet, A.; Bianchi, L.

    2015-08-28

    In this study, metallic materials made of aluminum and titanium were manufactured implementing very low pressure plasma spraying (VLPPS). Aluminum was selected at first as a demonstrative material due to its rather low vaporization enthalpy (i.e., 381.9 kJ·mol⁻¹). Developments were then carried out with titanium which exhibits a higher vaporization enthalpy (i.e., 563.6 kJ·mol⁻¹). Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was implemented to analyze the behavior of each solid precursor (metallic powders) when it is injected into the plasma jet under very low pressure (i.e., in the 150 Pa range). Besides, aluminum, titanium and titanium–aluminum coatings were deposited in the same conditions implementing a stick-cathode plasma torch operated at 50 kW, maximum power. Coating phase compositions were identified by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Coating elementary compositions were quantified by Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analyses. The coating structures were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The coating void content was determined by Ultra-Small Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS). The coatings exhibit a two-scale structure corresponding to condensed vapors (smaller scale) and solidified areas (larger scale). Titanium–aluminum sprayed coatings, with various Ti/Al atomic ratios, are constituted of three phases: metastable α-Ti, Al and metastable α₂-Ti₃Al. This latter is formed at elevated temperature in the plasma flow, before being condensed. Its rather small fraction, impeded by the rather small amount of vaporized Ti, does not allow modifying however the coating hardness.

  19. Thermal oxidation of polycrystalline and single crystalline aluminum nitride wafers (Prop 2003-054)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speakman, Scott A; Gu, Z; Edgar, J H; Blom, Douglas Allen; Perrin, J; Chaudhuri, J

    2006-10-01

    Two types of aluminum nitride (AlN) samples were oxidized in flowing oxygen between 900 C and 1150 C for up to 6 h - highly (0001) textured polycrystalline AlN wafers and low defect density AlN single crystals. The N-face consistently oxidized at a faster rate than the Al-face. At 900 C and 1000 C after 6 h, the oxide was 15% thicker on the N-face than on the Al-face of polycrystalline AlN. At 1100 C and 1150 C, the oxide was only 5% thicker on the N-face, as the rate-limiting step changed from kinetically-controlled to diffusion-controlled with the oxide thickness. A linear parabolic model was established for the thermal oxidation of polycrystalline AlN on both the Al- and N-face. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of a thicker crystalline oxide film on the N-face than on the Al-face, and established the crystallographic relationship between the oxide film and substrate. The oxidation of high-quality AlN single crystals resulted in a more uniform colored oxide layer compared to polycrystalline AlN. The aluminum oxide layer was crystalline with a rough AlN/oxide interface. The orientation relationship between AlN and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was (0001) AlN//(10{bar 1}0) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and (1{bar 1}00) AlN//(01{bar 1}2) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  20. Influence of insulating coating on aluminum wire explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yang; Wu, Jian; Sheng, Liang; Zhao, Jizhen; Zhang, Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Bodong; Li, Xingwen

    2014-10-15

    Single wire explosions are widely used in understanding the early stages of z-pinch experiments. This paper presents a serial of experiments conducted on the pulse power generator with ?1?kA peak current and ?10?ns rising time in Xi'an Jiao Tong University. Polyimide coated aluminum wires and uncoated ones were tested under three different voltages to analyze the effect of insulating coating. Experimental results showed that insulating coating can increase the energy deposition 10%?30% in aluminum wires by delaying the voltage collapse and raising the maximum load resistance. The substantial energy deposition resulted in about 20% faster expansion rates for coated wires. Experimental evidence that plasma channel shunts the current from the wire core was observed by streak camera and schlieren graphs. This paper also briefly discussed the influence of nonuniform coating on the morphology of wire expansion.

  1. Formed HIP Can Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Kester Diederik

    2015-07-27

    The intent of this report is to document a procedure used at LANL for HIP bonding aluminum cladding to U-10Mo fuel foils using a formed HIP can for the Domestic Reactor Conversion program in the NNSA Office of Material, Management and Minimization, and provide some details that may not have been published elsewhere. The HIP process is based on the procedures that have been used to develop the formed HIP can process, including the baseline process developed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The HIP bonding cladding process development is summarized in the listed references. Further iterations with Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to refine the process to meet production and facility requirements is expected.

  2. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage. Version 2, 2010.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage U.S. Department of Energy Version 2 - 2010 1 CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................... 3 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................... 5 BACKGROUND ...................................................................................... 5

  3. Adiabatic release measurements in aluminum between 400 and 1200 GPa: Characterization of aluminum as a shock standard in the multimegabar regime

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Knudson, Marcus D.; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Pribram-Jones, Aurora

    2015-06-15

    Aluminum has been used prolifically as an impedance matching standard in the multimegabar regime (1 Mbar = 100 GPa), particularly in nuclear driven, early laser driven, and early magnetically driven flyer plate experiments. The accuracy of these impedance matching measurements depends upon the knowledge of both the Hugoniot and release or reshock response of aluminum. Here, we present the results of several adiabatic release measurements of aluminum from ~400–1200 GPa states along the principal Hugoniot using full density polymethylpentene (commonly known as TPX), and both ~190 and ~110 mg/cc silica aerogel standards. Additionally, these data were analyzed within the frameworkmore » of a simple, analytical model that was motivated by a first-principles molecular dynamics investigation into the release response of aluminum, as well as by a survey of the release response determined from several tabular equations of state for aluminum. Combined, this theoretical and experimental study provides a method to perform impedance matching calculations without the need to appeal to any tabular equation of state for aluminum. Furthermore, as an analytical model, this method allows for propagation of all uncertainty, including the random measurement uncertainties and the systematic uncertainties of the Hugoniot and release response of aluminum. This work establishes aluminum for use as a high-precision standard for impedance matching in the multimegabar regime.« less

  4. Adiabatic release measurements in aluminum between 400 and 1200 GPa: Characterization of aluminum as a shock standard in the multimegabar regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudson, Marcus D.; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Pribram-Jones, Aurora

    2015-06-15

    Aluminum has been used prolifically as an impedance matching standard in the multimegabar regime (1 Mbar = 100 GPa), particularly in nuclear driven, early laser driven, and early magnetically driven flyer plate experiments. The accuracy of these impedance matching measurements depends upon the knowledge of both the Hugoniot and release or reshock response of aluminum. Here, we present the results of several adiabatic release measurements of aluminum from ~400–1200 GPa states along the principal Hugoniot using full density polymethylpentene (commonly known as TPX), and both ~190 and ~110 mg/cc silica aerogel standards. Additionally, these data were analyzed within the framework of a simple, analytical model that was motivated by a first-principles molecular dynamics investigation into the release response of aluminum, as well as by a survey of the release response determined from several tabular equations of state for aluminum. Combined, this theoretical and experimental study provides a method to perform impedance matching calculations without the need to appeal to any tabular equation of state for aluminum. Furthermore, as an analytical model, this method allows for propagation of all uncertainty, including the random measurement uncertainties and the systematic uncertainties of the Hugoniot and release response of aluminum. This work establishes aluminum for use as a high-precision standard for impedance matching in the multimegabar regime.

  5. Adiabatic release measurements in aluminum between 400-1200 GPa. Characterization of aluminum as a shock standard in the multimegabar regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knudson, Marcus D.; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Pribram-Jones, Aurora

    2015-06-15

    Aluminum has been used prolifically as an impedance matching standard in the multimegabar regime (1 Mbar = 100 GPa), particularly in nuclear driven, early laser driven, and early magnetically driven flyer plate experiments. The accuracy of these impedance matching measurements depends upon the knowledge of both the Hugoniot and release or reshock response of aluminum. Here, we present the results of several adiabatic release measurements of aluminum from ~4001200 GPa states along the principal Hugoniot using full density polymethylpentene (commonly known as TPX), and both ~190 and ~110 mg/cc silica aerogel standards. Additionally, these data were analyzed within the framework of a simple, analytical model that was motivated by a first-principles molecular dynamics investigation into the release response of aluminum, as well as by a survey of the release response determined from several tabular equations of state for aluminum. Combined, this theoretical and experimental study provides a method to perform impedance matching calculations without the need to appeal to any tabular equation of state for aluminum. Furthermore, as an analytical model, this method allows for propagation of all uncertainty, including the random measurement uncertainties and the systematic uncertainties of the Hugoniot and release response of aluminum. This work establishes aluminum for use as a high-precision standard for impedance matching in the multimegabar regime.

  6. High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Merit Review High Speed Joining of Dissimilar Alloy Aluminum Tailor Welded Blanks YURI HOVANSKI This Presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Project ID #LM075 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory June 18, 2014 Project Overview OEM GM Tier I Supplier TWB Company LLC Material Provider Alcoa 2 2 Start: FY2012 Finish: FY2014 85% complete Capacity to rapidly join Al sheet in dissimilar thicknesses and alloys is not developed. Supply chain

  7. Natural Gas Processing Plants in the United States: 2010 Update...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3. Natural Gas Processing Plants Utilization Rates Based on 2008 Flows Figure 3. Natural Gas Processing Plants Utilization Rates Based on 2008 Flows Note: Average utilization rates...

  8. Attenuation of hydrogen radicals traveling under flowing gas conditions through tubes of different materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grubbs, R.K.; George, S.M.

    2006-05-15

    Hydrogen radical concentrations traveling under flowing gas conditions through tubes of different materials were measured using a dual thermocouple probe. The source of the hydrogen radicals was a toroidal radio frequency plasma source operating at 2.0 and 3.3 kW for H{sub 2} pressures of 250 and 500 mTorr, respectively. The dual thermocouple probe was comprised of exposed and covered Pt/Pt13%Rh thermocouples. Hydrogen radicals recombined efficiently on the exposed thermocouple and the energy of formation of H{sub 2} heated the thermocouple. The second thermocouple was covered by glass and was heated primarily by the ambient gas. The dual thermocouple probe was translated and measured temperatures at different distances from the hydrogen radical source. These temperature measurements were conducted at H{sub 2} flow rates of 35 and 75 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) inside cylindrical tubes made of stainless steel, aluminum, quartz, and Pyrex. The hydrogen radical concentrations were obtained from the temperatures of the exposed and covered thermocouples. The hydrogen concentration decreased versus distance from the plasma source. After correcting for the H{sub 2} gas flow using a reference frame transformation, the hydrogen radical concentration profiles yielded the atomic hydrogen recombination coefficient, {gamma}, for the four materials. The methodology of measuring the hydrogen radical concentrations, the analysis of the results under flowing gas conditions, and the determination of the atomic hydrogen recombination coefficients for various materials will help facilitate the use of hydrogen radicals for thin film growth processes.

  9. New Method to Characterize Degradation of First Surface Aluminum Reflectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutter, F.; Heller, P.; Meyen, S.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Kennedy, C.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Schmucker, M.

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports the development of a new optical instrument capable of characterizing the aging process of enhanced first surface aluminum reflectors for concentrating solar power (CSP) application. Samples were exposed outdoors at different sites and in accelerated exposure tests. All samples exposed outdoors showed localized corrosion spots. Degradation originated from points of damage in the protective coating, but propagated underneath the protective coating. The degraded samples were analyzed with a microscope and with a newly designed space-resolved specular reflectometer (SR)2 that is capable of optically detecting and characterizing the corrosion spots. The device measures the specular reflectance at three acceptance angles and the wavelengths with spatial resolution using a digital camera's CMOS sensor. It can be used to measure the corrosion growth rate during outdoor and accelerated exposure tests. These results will allow a correlation between the degraded mirror surface and its specular reflectance.

  10. Epitaxial growth of aluminum nitride on AlGaN by reactive sputtering at low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duquenne, C.; Djouadi, M. A.; Tessier, P. Y.; Jouan, P. Y.; Besland, M. P.; Brylinski, C.; Aubry, R.; Delage, S.

    2008-08-04

    We report the synthesis of 1 {mu}m thick single crystalline aluminum nitride films by dc magnetron sputtering on AlGaN/GaN layer grown on sapphire substrate at low temperature (substrate temperature <250 deg. C). The microstructure of c-axis oriented AlN films deposited on Si (100) and AlGaN <0001> substrates was studied by x-ray diffraction, selected area electron diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The optimization of process parameters, involving low energetic ion bombardment on film surface (20-30 eV) during the growth, leads to an increase in the surface mobility and thus promotes AlN epitaxial growth on AlGaN substrate at 250 deg. C.

  11. Controlled Release from Core-Shell Nanoporous Silica Particles for Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Xingmao; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Liu, Nanguo; Xu, Huifang; Rathod, Shailendra; Shah, Pratik; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Ceriumore » m (Ce) corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated into hexagonally ordered nanoporous silica particles via single-step aerosol-assisted self-assembly. The core/shell structured particles are effective for corrosion inhibition of aluminum alloy AA2024-T3. Numerical simulation proved that the core-shell nanostructure delays the release process. The effective diffusion coefficient elucidated from release data for monodisperse particles in water was 1.0 × 10 − 14  m 2 s for Ce 3+ compared to 2.5 × 10 − 13  m 2 s for NaCl. The pore size, pore surface chemistry, and the inhibitor solubility are crucial factors for the application. Microporous hydrophobic particles encapsulating a less soluble corrosion inhibitor are desirable for long-term corrosion inhibition.« less

  12. Recovery and recycling of aluminum, copper, and precious metals from dismantled weapon components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, J.D.; Wheelis, W.T.; Gundiler, I.H.

    1995-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is tasked to support the Department of Energy in the dismantlement and disposal of SNL designed weapon components. These components are sealed in a potting compound, and contain heavy metals, explosive, radioactive, and toxic materials in discrete sub-components. SNL developed and demonstrated a process to identify and remove the hazardous sub-components utilizing real-time radiography and abrasive water-jet cutting. The remaining components were then crushed, granulated, screened, and separated into an aluminum and a precious-and-base-metals fraction using air-tables. Plastics were further cleaned for disposal as non-hazardous waste. The New Mexico Bureau of Mines & Mineral Resources assisted SNL in investigation of size-reduction and separation technologies and in the development of a conceptual design for a mechanical separation system.

  13. Recovery and recycling of aluminum, copper, and precious metals from dismantled weapon components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gundiler, I.H.; Lutz, J.D.; Wheelis, W.T.

    1994-03-03

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is tasked to support The Department of Energy in the dismantlement and disposal of SNL designed weapon components. These components are sealed in a potting compound, and contain heavy metals, explosive, radioactive, and toxic materials. SNL developed a process to identify and remove the hazardous sub-components utilizing real-time radiography and abrasive water-jet cutting. The components were then crushed, granulated, screened, and separated into an aluminum and a precious-and-base-metals fraction using air-tables. Plastics were further cleaned for disposal as non-hazardous waste. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources assisted SNL in investigation of size-reduction and separation technologies.

  14. Effect of grain orientation on aluminum relocation at incipient melt conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yilmaz, Nadir; Vigil, Francisco M.; Vigil, Miquela S.; Branam, Robert; Tolendino, Greg; Gill, Walt; Burl Donaldson, A.

    2015-09-01

    Aluminum is commonly used for structural applications in the aerospace industry because of its high strength in relation to its weight. It is necessary to understand the mechanical response of aluminum structures at elevated temperatures such as those experienced in a fire. Additionally, aluminum alloys exhibit many complicated behaviors that require further research and understanding, such as aluminum combustion, oxide skin formation and creep behavior. This paper discusses the effect of grain orientation on aluminum deformation subjected to heating at incipient melt conditions. Experiments were conducted by applying a vertical compressive force to aluminum alloy 7075 block test specimens. Furthermore, compression testing was done on test specimens with the applied load on the long transverse and short transverse orientations. Our results showed that the grain orientation significantly influences aluminum’s strength and mode of failure.

  15. Effect of grain orientation on aluminum relocation at incipient melt conditions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yilmaz, Nadir; Vigil, Francisco M.; Vigil, Miquela S.; Branam, Robert; Tolendino, Greg; Gill, Walt; Burl Donaldson, A.

    2015-09-01

    Aluminum is commonly used for structural applications in the aerospace industry because of its high strength in relation to its weight. It is necessary to understand the mechanical response of aluminum structures at elevated temperatures such as those experienced in a fire. Additionally, aluminum alloys exhibit many complicated behaviors that require further research and understanding, such as aluminum combustion, oxide skin formation and creep behavior. This paper discusses the effect of grain orientation on aluminum deformation subjected to heating at incipient melt conditions. Experiments were conducted by applying a vertical compressive force to aluminum alloy 7075 block test specimens. Furthermore,more » compression testing was done on test specimens with the applied load on the long transverse and short transverse orientations. Our results showed that the grain orientation significantly influences aluminum’s strength and mode of failure.« less

  16. Susceptibility of Aluminum Alloys to Corrosion in Simulated Fuel Blends Containing Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, Jeffery K; Pawel, Steven J; Wilson, Dane F

    2013-01-01

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined was accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  17. Analytical chemistry of aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graczyk, D.G.; Essling, A.M.; Huff, E.A.; Smith, F.P.; Snyder, C.T.

    1997-02-01

    Component phases of Al salt cake or products from processing salt cake, resist dissolution, a key first step in most analysis procedures. In this work (analysis support to a study of conversion of salt cake fines to value-added oxide products), analysis methods were adapted or devised for determining leachable salt, total halides (Cl and F), Al metal, and elemental composition. Leaching of salt cake fines was by ultrasonic agitation with deionized water. The leachate was analyzed for anions by ion chromatography and for cations by ICP-atomic emission spectroscopy. Only chloride could be measured in the anions, and charge balances between cations and chloride were near unity, indicating that all major dissolved species were chloride salts. For total halides, the chloride and fluorides components were first decomposed by KOH fusion, and the dissolved chloride and fluoride were measured by ion chromatography. Al metal in the fines was determined by a hydrogen evolution procedure adapted for submilligram quantities of metallic Al: the Al was reacted with HCl in a closed system containing a measured amount of high-purity He. After reaction, the H/He ratio was measured by mass spectroscopy. Recoveries of Al metal standards (about 30mg) averaged 93%. Comparison of the acid evolution with caustic reaction of the Al metal showed virtually identical results, but reaction was faster in the acid medium. Decomposition of the salt cake with mineral acids left residues that had to be dissolved by fusion with Na carbonate. Better dissolution was obtained by fusing the salt cake with Li tetraborate; the resulting solution could be used for accurate Al assay of salt cake materials by classical 8-hydroxyquinolate gravimetry.

  18. Non Invasive estimation of aluminum concentration in Hall-Heroult reduction cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Bell

    2004-03-01

    The present best practice for the preparation of primary aluminum is by electrolysis of alumina in the traditional Hall-Heroult reduction cell. The process conditions in the electrolyte of this cell required for the reduction to proceed are sufficiently harsh to have precluded the implementation of in situ sensing of the electrolyte composition, specifically the concentration of the ionized alumina. This report reveals the theoretical basis for a non-invasive method for estimation of the ionized alumina concentration which does not require the use of any sensor in direct contact with the cell electrolyte. The proposed method can in principle be applied with equal efficacy to the so-called drained cathode cell designs and to cells having any anode composition, because only knowledge of the electrolyte conduction behavior is required a priori. For an operating cell, the proposed method requires only readily available electrical measurements and the facilities to process the acquired signals. The proposed method rests on the ability to identify certain characteristics of the transients in the reduction cell terminal voltages caused by the quasiperiodic introduction of alumina. It will be shown that these voltage transients manifest measurable properties, in a statistical sense, that should permit estimation of the ionized alumina concentration with a delay of one alumina feed cycle. The next logical step following the present work, consistent with the Aluminum Technology Roadmap [1], is to experimentally verify the predictions made here; no doubt practical refinements to the proposed approach will evolve during the course of experimentation. Successful verification of the proposed estimation method will permit the design of reduction cell control algorithms based directly on the mass balance of alumina in the electrolyte. This report assumes that the reader understands certain basic concepts important to the operation of electrolytic cells, and the Hall-Heroult cell

  19. Development of Aluminum Stabilized Superconducting Cables for the Mu2e Detector Solenoid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardo, Vito; Buehler, M.; Lamm, M.; Page, T.; Curreli, S.; Fabbricatore, P.; Musenich, R.

    2015-10-16

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab is designed to measure the rare process of direct muon-to-electron conversion in the field of a nucleus. The experiment comprises a system of three superconducting solenoids, which focus secondary muons from the production target and transport them to an aluminum stopping target, while minimizing the associated background. The Detector Solenoid (DS) is the last magnet in the transport line and its main functions are to provide a graded field in the region of the stopping target as well as a precision magnetic field in a volume large enough to house the tracker downstream of the stopping target. The Detector Solenoid coils are designed to be wound using NbTi Rutherford cables conformed in high purity aluminum for stabilization and then cold-worked for strength. Two types of Al-stabilized conductor are required to build the DS coils, one for the gradient section and one for the spectrometer section of the solenoid. The dimensions are optimized to generate the required field profile when the same current is transported in both conductors. The conductors contain NbTi Rutherford cables with 12 (DS1) and 8 (DS2) strands respectively and are manufactured by two different vendors. This paper describes the results of the manufacturing of production lengths of the Al-stabilized cables needed to build the Mu2e Detector Solenoid as well as the testing campaigns and main results. The main cable properties and results of electrical and mechanical tests are summarized and discussed for each stage of the cable development process. Results are compared to design values to show how the production cables satisfy all the design criteria starting from the NbTi wires to the Al-stabilized cables.

  20. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Cooperative partnerships between industry and government are encouraging the development and use of innovative technologies that reduce industrial energy use, processing wastes, and production costs.

  1. Impact of Aluminum on Anticipated Corrosion in a Flooded SNF Multi Canister Overpack (MCO)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-07-06

    Corrosion reactions in a flooded MCO are examined to determine the impact of aluminum corrosion products (from aluminum basket grids and spacers) on bound water estimates and subsequent fuel/environment reactions during storage. The mass and impact of corrosion products were determined to be insignificant, validating the choice of aluminum as an MCO component and confirming expectations that no changes to the Technical Databook or particulate mass or water content are necessary.

  2. Use of aluminum nitride to obtain temperature measurements in a high temperature and high radiation environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wernsman, Bernard R.; Blasi, Raymond J.; Tittman, Bernhard R.; Parks, David A.

    2016-04-26

    An aluminum nitride piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer successfully operates at temperatures of up to 1000.degree. C. and fast (>1 MeV) neutron fluencies of more than 10.sup.18 n/cm.sup.2. The transducer comprises a transparent, nitrogen rich aluminum nitride (AlN) crystal wafer that is coupled to an aluminum cylinder for pulse-echo measurements. The transducer has the capability to measure in situ gamma heating within the core of a nuclear reactor.

  3. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Hunter Douglas Aluminum Plant Div of

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Bridgeport Brass Co - CA 11 Hunter Douglas Aluminum Plant Div of Bridgeport Brass Co - CA 11 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: HUNTER DOUGLAS ALUMINUM PLANT, DIV. OF BRIDGEPORT BRASS CO. (CA.11 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Hunter Douglas Aluminum Corporation CA.11-1 Location: 3016 Kansas Avenue , Riverside , California CA.11-1 Evaluation Year: 1995 CA.11-2 Site Operations: Fabricated uranium metal tubing during the late 1950s.

  4. Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988: Annual report of the metals initiative for fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    This annual report has been prepared for the President and Congress describing the activities carried out under the Steel and Aluminum Energy Conservation and Technology Competitiveness Act of 1988, commonly referred to as the Metals Initiative. The Act has the following purposes: (1) increase energy efficiency and enhance the competitiveness of the American steel, aluminum, and copper industries; and (2) continue research and development efforts begun under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program known as the Steel Initiative. These activities are detailed in a subsequent section. Other sections describe the appropriation history, the distribution of funds through fiscal year 1996, and the estimated funds necessary to continue projects through fiscal year 1997. The Metals Initiative supported four research and development projects with the U.S. Steel industry: (1) steel plant waste oxide recycling and resource recovery by smelting, (2) electrochemical dezincing of steel scrap, (3) rapid analysis of molten metals using laser-produced plasmas, and (4) advanced process control. There are three Metals Initiative projects with the aluminum industry: (1) evaluation of TiB2-G cathode components, (2) energy efficient pressure calciner, and (3) spray forming of aluminum. 1 tab.

  5. Method and apparatus for measuring flow velocity using matched filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raptis, A.C.

    1983-09-06

    An apparatus and method for measuring the flow velocities of individual phase flow components of a multiphase flow utilizes matched filters. Signals arising from flow noise disturbance are extracted from the flow, at upstream and downstream locations. The signals are processed through pairs of matched filters which are matched to the flow disturbance frequency characteristics of the phase flow component to be measured. The processed signals are then cross-correlated to determine the transit delay time of the phase flow component between sensing positions. 8 figs.

  6. Method and apparatus for measuring flow velocity using matched filters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the flow velocities of individual phase flow components of a multiphase flow utilizes matched filters. Signals arising from flow noise disturbance are extracted from the flow, at upstream and downstream locations. The signals are processed through pairs of matched filters which are matched to the flow disturbance frequency characteristics of the phase flow component to be measured. The processed signals are then cross-correlated to determine the transit delay time of the phase flow component between sensing positions.

  7. Cyclic flow underground coal gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissett, Larry A.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of in situ coal gasification for providing the product gas with an enriched concentration of carbon monoxide. The method is practiced by establishing a pair of combustion zones in spaced-apart boreholes within a subterranean coal bed and then cyclically terminating the combustion in the first of the two zones to establish a forward burn in the coal bed so that while an exothermic reaction is occurring in the second combustion zone to provide CO.sub.2 -laden product gas, an endothermic CO-forming reaction is occurring in the first combustion zone between the CO.sub.2 -laden gas percolating thereinto and the hot carbon in the wall defining the first combustion zone to increase the concentration of CO in the product gas. When the endothermic reaction slows to a selected activity the roles of the combustion zones are reversed by re-establishing an exothermic combustion reaction in the first zone and terminating the combustion in the second zone.

  8. New Aluminum Alloys for Energy-Efficient Transportation | U.S...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    New Aluminum Alloys for Energy-Efficient Transportation Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities ...

  9. Numerical simulation of linear fiction welding (LFW) processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fratini, L.; La Spisa, D. [University of Palermo-Dept. of Industrial engineering (Italy)

    2011-05-04

    Solid state welding processes are becoming increasingly important due to a large number of advantages related to joining ''unweldable'' materials and in particular light weight alloys. Linear friction welding (LFW) has been used successfully to bond non-axisymmetric components of a range of materials including titanium alloys, steels, aluminum alloys, nickel, copper, and also dissimilar material combinations. The technique is useful in the research of quality of the joints and in reducing costs of components and parts of the aeronautic and automotive industries.LFW involves parts to be welded through the relative reciprocating motion of two components under an axial force. In such process the heat source is given by the frictional forces work decaying into heat determining a local softening of the material and proper bonding conditions due to both the temperature increase and the local pressure of the two edges to be welded. This paper is a comparative test between the numerical model in two dimensions, i.e. in plane strain conditions, and in three dimensions of a LFW process of AISI1045 steel specimens. It must be observed that the 3D model assures a faithful simulation of the actual threedimensional material flow, even if the two-dimensional simulation computational times are very short, a few hours instead of several ones as the 3D model. The obtained results were compared with experimental values found out in the scientific literature.

  10. Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale E. Brown (Pyrotek); Puja B. Kadolkar (ORNL)

    2005-12-15

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and validate new classes of cost-effective low-permeability ceramic and refractory components for handling molten aluminum in both melting and casting environments. Three approaches were employed with partial to full success to achieve this goal: (1) Develop materials and methods for sealing surface porosity in thermal-shock-resistant ceramic refractories; (2) Develop new ceramic coatings for extreme service in molten aluminum operations, with particular emphasis on coatings based on highly stable oxide phases; and (3) Develop new monolithic refractories designed for lower-permeability applications using controlled porosity gradients and particle size distributions. The results of the research work and the field tests performed utilizing these three approaches are listed below: (1) It was demonstrated that high-density IR heating could be a tool for altering and sealing the surface porosity of fused silica. However, the process was not very cost-effective. (2) A low-cost glaze composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) similar to that of a DFS tube was identified and was successfully tested for its integrity and adherence to DFS. Although the glaze acted as a barrier between the molten aluminum and the DFS, persistent porosity and crazing within the glaze affected its performance during the reactivity tests, thus acting as an obstacle in scaling up production of this glaze. (3) Pyrotek's XL glaze showed great success in improving the life of the DFS tubes. Pyrotek has reported an increasing market demand for the XL-coated DFS tubes, which exhibit useful lifetimes three times better than those of uncoated tubes. (4) A computer model to optimize particle size distribution for reduced permeability was developed and successfully applied to casting formulations. Silica riser tubes produced using these new formulations have been tested in a commercial aluminum casting facility and have been reported to

  11. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Using Polyhedral Borane Anions and Aluminum-Ammonia-Borane Complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Jalisatgi, Satish S.; Safronov, Alexander V.; Lee, Han Beak; Wu, Jianguo

    2010-10-01

    Phase 1. Hydrolysis of borohydride compounds offer the potential for significant hydrogen storage capacity, but most work to date has focused on one particular anion, BH4-, which requires high pH for stability. Other borohydride compounds, in particular polyhedral borane anions offer comparable hydrogen storage capacity without requiring high pH media and their long term thermal and hydrolytic stability coupled with non-toxic nature make them a very attractive alternative to NaBH4. The University of Missouri project provided the overall program focal point for the investigation of catalytic hydrolysis of polyhedral borane anions for hydrogen release. Due to their inherent stability, a transition metal catalyst was necessary for the hydrolysis of polyhedral borane anions. Transition metal ions such as cobalt, nickel, palladium and rhodium were investigated for their catalytic activity in the hydrolysis of nido-KB11H14, closo-K2B10H10, and closo-K2B12H12. The rate of hydrolysis follows first-order kinetics with respect to the concentration of the polyhedral borane anion and surface area of the rhodium catalyst. The rate of hydrolysis depends upon a) choice of polyhedral borane anion, c) concentration of polyhedral borane anion, d) surface area of the rhodium catalyst and e) temperature of the reaction. In all cases the yield of hydrogen was 100% which corresponds to ~7 wt% of hydrogen (based on material wt%). Phase 2. The phase 2 of program at the University of Missouri was focused upon developing aluminum ammonia-boranes (Al-AB) as chemical hydrogen storage materials, specifically their synthesis and studies of their dehydrogenation. The ammonia borane molecule (AB) is a demonstrated source of chemically stored hydrogen (19.6 wt%) which meets DOE performance parameters except for its regeneration from spent AB and elemental hydrogen. The presence of an aluminum center bonded to multiple AB residues might combine the efficiency of AB dehydrogenation with an aluminum

  12. MELT RATE ENHANCEMENT FOR HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS FORMULATION FINAL REPORT 08R1360-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT W; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I; BARDAKCI T; GAN H; GONG W; CHAUDHURI M

    2010-01-04

    This report describes the development and testing of new glass formulations for high aluminum waste streams that achieve high waste loadings while maintaining high processing rates. The testing was based on the compositions of Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) with limiting concentrations of aluminum specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP). The testing identified glass formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts and small scale melt rate screening tests. The results were used to select compositions for subsequent testing in a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) system. These tests were used to determine processing rates for the selected formulations as well as to examine the effects of increased glass processing temperature, and the form of aluminum in the waste simulant. Finally, one of the formulations was selected for large-scale confirmatory testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200), which is a one third scale prototype of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW melter and off-gas treatment system. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy (DOE) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same high-aluminum waste composition used in the present work and other Hanford HLW compositions. The scope of this study was outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the WTP is about 13,500 (equivalent to 40,500 MT glass). This estimate is based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form

  13. Electrochemical process and production of novel complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2013-06-25

    A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

  14. A Combined Experimental and Computational Approach for the Design of Mold Topography that Leads to Desired Ingot Surface and Microstructure in Aluminum Casting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Zabaras, N.J.; Samanta, D.; Tan, L.

    2005-10-30

    A design methodology will be developed with which casting mold surface topographies can be tuned to produce required surface features and micro-structural properties of Aluminum ingots. Both static and continuous casting processes will be examined with instrumented molds. Mold surface topographies, which consist of unidirectional and bi-directional groove textures, will be generated using contact and non-contact techniques to elicit a radiator-like effect at the mold-casting interface. The rate of heat extraction, the evolution of near-surface cast microstructure, and shell macro-morphology can be controlled once the proper balance between mold surface area extension and the degree of imperfect wetting at the instant solidification starts is determined. Once this control is achieved, it will be possible to minimize or even eliminate costly post-casting surface milling or scalping which is currently a major barrier to the development of new Aluminum casting processes.

  15. Development and performance of aluminum nitride insulating coatings for application in a lithium environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Reed, C.B.; Rink, D.L.; Haglund, R.C.

    1997-10-01

    The blanket system is one of the most important components in a fusion reactor because it has a major impact on both the economics and safety of fusion energy. Based on the requirement that an electrically insulating coating on the first-wall structural material must minimize the magnetohydrodynamic pressure drop that occurs during the flow of liquid metal in a magnetic field, aluminum nitride (AlN) is considered a candidate coating material for the lithium self-cooled blanket concept. Detailed investigations were conducted on the fabrication, metallurgical microstructure, compatibility in liquid Li, and electrical characteristics of AlN as a coating material. A nonindentation technique was used to evaluate the hardness of the coated samples in as-coated condition, after a hardening treatment, and after exposure to Li. Lithium compatibility studies were conducted in static systems by exposure of AlN-coated specimens for several time periods, at various temperatures, and in various lithium chemistries. Electrical resistance of the specimens was measured at room temperature before and after exposure to liquid Li. This paper discusses the results from ongoing activities on the development of AlN coatings.

  16. ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

    2011-01-27

    Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

  17. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage. Version 2, 2010.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Produced in 2008 by DOE and updated in 2010, this report focuses on the key issues as well as advantages and disadvantages associated with using the reaction between aluminum metal and water for on-board vehicular hydrogen storage.

  18. Metastable phases in mechanically alloyed aluminum germanium powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yvon, P.J.; Schwarz, R.B.

    1993-03-01

    Aluminum and germanium form a simple eutectic system with no stable intermetallic phase, and limited mutual solubility. We report the formation of a metastable rhombohedral,{gamma}{sub 1} phase by mechanically alloying aluminum and germanium powders. This phase, which appears for compositions between 20 and 50 at. % germanium, has also been observed in rapidly quenched alloys, but there is disagreement as to its composition. By measuring the heat of crystallization as a function of composition, we determined the composition of the {gamma}{sub 1} phase to be Al{sub 70}Ge{sub 30}. We also produced Al{sub 70}Ge{sub 30} by arc melting the pure elements, followed by splat-quenching at a cooling rate in the range of 10{sup 8} K s{sup {minus}1}. This method produced two metastable phases, one of which was found to be the {gamma}{sub 1} phase obtained by mechanical alloying. The other was a monoclinic phase reported earlier in the literature as {gamma}{sub 2}.

  19. Interfacial charging phenomena of aluminum (hydr)oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiemstra, T.; Yong, H.; Van Riemsdijk, W.H.

    1999-08-31

    The interfacial charging of Al(OH){sub 3} (gibbsite and bayerite) and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been studied. For Al(OH){sub 3} it can be shown that the very strong variation in charging behavior for different preparations is related to the relative presence of differently reacting crystal planes. The edge faces of the hexagonal gibbsite crystals are proton reactive over the whole pH range, in contrast to the 001 plane, which is mainly uncharged below pH = 10. On this 001 face only doubly coordinated surface groups are found, in contrast to the edges which also have singly coordinated surface groups. The results are fully in agreement with the predictions of the Multi site complexation (MUSIC) model. The proton adsorption, electrolyte ion adsorption, and shift of the IEP of gibbsite and aluminum oxide have been modeled simultaneously. For gibbsite, the ion pair formation of Na is larger than that of Cl, as is evidenced by modeling the experimentally observed upward shift on the IEP and charge reversal at high electrolyte concentrations. All these experimental results can be satisfactorily modeled with the MUSIC model, including the experimental surface potential of aluminum oxide (ISFET).

  20. Radiation tolerance of piezoelectric bulk single-crystal aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Parks; Bernhard R. Tittmann

    2014-07-01

    For practical use in harsh radiation environments, we pose selection criteria for piezoelectric materials for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and material characterization. Using these criteria, piezoelectric aluminum nitride is shown to be an excellent candidate. The results of tests on an aluminumnitride-based transducer operating in a nuclear reactor are also presented. We demonstrate the tolerance of single-crystal piezoelectric aluminum nitride after fast and thermal neutron fluences of 1.85 × 1018 neutron/cm2 and 5.8 × 1018 neutron/cm2, respectively, and a gamma dose of 26.8 MGy. The radiation hardness of AlN is most evident from the unaltered piezoelectric coefficient d33, which measured 5.5 pC/N after a fast and thermal neutron exposure in a nuclear reactor core for over 120 MWh, in agreement with the published literature value. The results offer potential for improving reactor safety and furthering the understanding of radiation effects on materials by enabling structural health monitoring and NDE in spite of the high levels of radiation and high temperatures, which are known to destroy typical commercial ultrasonic transducers.

  1. Helium process cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2008-08-12

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  2. Helium process cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganni, Venkatarao

    2007-10-09

    A unique process cycle and apparatus design separates the consumer (cryogenic) load return flow from most of the recycle return flow of a refrigerator and/or liquefier process cycle. The refrigerator and/or liquefier process recycle return flow is recompressed by a multi-stage compressor set and the consumer load return flow is recompressed by an independent consumer load compressor set that maintains a desirable constant suction pressure using a consumer load bypass control valve and the consumer load return pressure control valve that controls the consumer load compressor's suction pressure. The discharge pressure of this consumer load compressor is thereby allowed to float at the intermediate pressure in between the first and second stage recycle compressor sets. Utilizing the unique gas management valve regulation, the unique process cycle and apparatus design in which the consumer load return flow is separate from the recycle return flow, the pressure ratios of each recycle compressor stage and all main pressures associated with the recycle return flow are allowed to vary naturally, thus providing a naturally regulated and balanced floating pressure process cycle that maintains optimal efficiency at design and off-design process cycle capacity and conditions automatically.

  3. Synthesis and use of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium and indium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marks, Tobin J.; Chen, You-Xian

    2000-01-01

    Salts of (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are described. The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions have the formula [ER'R"R'"F].sup..crclbar. wherein E is aluminum, gallium, or indium, wherein F is fluorine, and wherein R', R", and R'" is each a fluorinated phenyl, fluorinated biphenyl, or fluorinated polycyclic group.

  4. Cathode for a hall-heroult type electrolytic cell for producing aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13

    A method of producing aluminum from alumina in an electrolytic cell including using a cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity and wettable with molten aluminum to form a reaction layer having a high electrical conductivity on said base layer and a cathode bar extending from said reaction layer through said base material to conduct electrical current from said reaction layer.

  5. Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

    1995-07-01

    The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower. Many of the results are not necessarily applicable to vehicles built outside of the United States, but others could be used with caution.

  6. Evaluation of Aluminum-Boron Carbide Neutron Absorbing Materials for Interim Storage of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lumin; Wierschke, Jonathan Brett

    2015-04-08

    The objective of this work was to understand the corrosion behavior of Boral® and Bortec® neutron absorbers over long-term deployment in a used nuclear fuel dry cask storage environment. Corrosion effects were accelerated by flowing humidified argon through an autoclave at temperatures up to 570°C. Test results show little corrosion of the aluminum matrix but that boron is leaching out of the samples. Initial tests performed at 400 and 570°C were hampered by reduced flow caused by the rapid build-up of solid deposits in the outlet lines. Analysis of the deposits by XRD shows that the deposits are comprised of boron trioxide and sassolite (H3BO3). The collection of boron- containing compounds in the outlet lines indicated that boron was being released from the samples. Observation of the exposed samples using SEM and optical microscopy show the growth of new phases in the samples. These phases were most prominent in Bortec® samples exposed at 570°C. Samples of Boral® exposed at 570°C showed minimal new phase formation but showed nearly the complete loss of boron carbide particles. Boron carbide loss was also significant in Boral samples at 400°C. However, at 400°C phases similar to those found in Bortec® were observed. The rapid loss of the boron carbide particles in the Boral® is suspected to inhibit the formation of the new secondary phases. However, Material samples in an actual dry cask environment would be exposed to temperatures closer to 300°C and less water than the lowest test. The results from this study conclude that at the temperature and humidity levels present in a dry cask environment, corrosion and boron leaching will have no effect on the performance of Boral® and Bortec® to maintain criticality control.

  7. Carbothermic reduction and prereduced charge for producing aluminum-silicon alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevenson, David T.; Troup, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum oxide to form an aluminum alloy including producing silicon carbide by heating a first mix of carbon and silicon oxide in a combustion reactor to an elevated temperature sufficient to produce silicon carbide at an accelerated rate, the heating being provided by an in situ combustion with oxygen gas, and then admixing the silicon carbide with carbon and aluminum oxide to form a second mix and heating the second mix in a second reactor to an elevated metal-forming temperature sufficient to produce aluminum-silicon alloy. The prereduction step includes holding aluminum oxide substantially absent from the combustion reactor. The metal-forming step includes feeding silicon oxide in a preferred ratio with silicon carbide.

  8. Carbothermic reduction and prereduced charge for producing aluminum-silicon alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stevenson, D.T.; Troup, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum oxide to form an aluminum alloy including producing silicon carbide by heating a first mix of carbon and silicon oxide in a combustion reactor to an elevated temperature sufficient to produce silicon carbide at an accelerated rate, the heating being provided by an in situ combustion with oxygen gas, and then admixing the silicon carbide with carbon and aluminum oxide to form a second mix and heating the second mix in a second reactor to an elevated metal-forming temperature sufficient to produce aluminum-silicon alloy. The prereduction step includes holding aluminum oxide substantially absent from the combustion reactor. The metal-forming step includes feeding silicon oxide in a preferred ratio with silicon carbide. 1 fig.

  9. Aluminum-blade development for the Mod-0A 200-kilowatt wind turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linscott, B.S.; Shaltens, R.K.; Eggers, A.G.

    1981-12-01

    This report documents the operating experience with two aluminum blades used on the DOE/NASA Mod-0A 200-kilowatt wind turbine located at Clayton, New Mexico. Each Mod-0A aluminum blade is 59.9 feet long and weighs 2360 pounds. The aluminum Mod-0A blade design requirements, the selected design, fabrication procedures, and the blade analyses are discussed. A detailed chronology is presented on the operating experience of the Mod-0A aluminum blades used at Clayton, New Mexico. Blade structural damage was experienced. Inspection and damage assessment were required. Structural modifications that were incorporated to the blades successfully extended the useful operating life of the blades. The aluminum blades completed the planned 2 years of operation of the Clayton wind turbine. The blades were removed from service in August 1980 to allow testing of advanced technology wood composite blades.

  10. Low volume flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meixler, Lewis D.

    1993-01-01

    The low flow monitor provides a means for determining if a fluid flow meets a minimum threshold level of flow. The low flow monitor operates with a minimum of intrusion by the flow detection device into the flow. The electrical portion of the monitor is externally located with respect to the fluid stream which allows for repairs to the monitor without disrupting the flow. The electronics provide for the adjustment of the threshold level to meet the required conditions. The apparatus can be modified to provide an upper limit to the flow monitor by providing for a parallel electronic circuit which provides for a bracketing of the desired flow rate.

  11. Roadmap for Process Heating Technology | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roadmap for Process Heating Technology Roadmap for Process Heating Technology This roadmap identifies priority research & development goals and near-term non-research goals to improve industrial process heating. Roadmap for Process Heating Technology (March 2001) (577.94 KB) More Documents & Publications Process Heating Roadmap to Help U.S. Industries Be Competitive ITP Chemicals: Vision 2020 Technology Roadmap for Combinatroial Methods; September 2001 ITP Aluminum: Alumina Technology

  12. Final Technical Report Microwave Assisted Electrolyte Cell for Primary Aluminum Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaodi Huang; J.Y. Hwang

    2007-04-18

    This research addresses the high priority research need for developing inert anode and wetted cathode technology, as defined in the Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap and Inert Anode Roadmap, with the performance targets: a) significantly reducing the energy intensity of aluminum production, b) ultimately eliminating anode-related CO2 emissions, and c) reducing aluminum production costs. This research intended to develop a new electrometallurgical extraction technology by introducing microwave irradiation into the current electrolytic cells for primary aluminum production. This technology aimed at accelerating the alumina electrolysis reduction rate and lowering the aluminum production temperature, coupled with the uses of nickel based superalloy inert anode, nickel based superalloy wetted cathode, and modified salt electrolyte. Michigan Technological University, collaborating with Cober Electronic and Century Aluminum, conducted bench-scale research for evaluation of this technology. This research included three sub-topics: a) fluoride microwave absorption; b) microwave assisted electrolytic cell design and fabrication; and c) aluminum electrowinning tests using the microwave assisted electrolytic cell. This research concludes that the typically used fluoride compound for aluminum electrowinning is not a good microwave absorbing material at room temperature. However, it becomes an excellent microwave absorbing material above 550C. The electrowinning tests did not show benefit to introduce microwave irradiation into the electrolytic cell. The experiments revealed that the nickel-based superalloy is not suitable for use as a cathode material; although it wets with molten aluminum, it causes severe reaction with molten aluminum. In the anode experiments, the chosen superalloy did not meet corrosion resistance requirements. A nicked based alloy without iron content could be further investigated.

  13. Final Report - Melt Rate Enhancement for High Aluminum HLW Glass Formulation, VSL-08R1360-1, Rev. 0, dated 12/19/08

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Gong, W.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.; Bardakci, T.; Kot, W.

    2013-11-13

    The principal objective of the work reported here was to develop and identify HLW glass compositions that maximize waste processing rates for the aluminum limted waste composition specified by ORP while maintaining high waste loadings and acceptable glass properties. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, confirmation tests on the DM100 melter system, and demonstration at pilot scale (DM1200). The DM100-BL unit was selected for these tests since it was used previously with the HLW waste streams evaluated in this study, was used for tests on HLW glass compositions to support subsequent tests on the HLW Pilot Melter, conduct tests to determine the effect of various glass properties (viscosity and conductivity) and oxide concentrations on glass production rates with HLW feed streams, and to assess the volatility of cesium and technetium during the vitrification of an HLW AZ-102 composition. The same melter was selected for the present tests in order to maintain comparisons between the previously collected data. These tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including formation of secondary phases and partitioning. Once DM100 tests were completed, one of the compositions was selected for further testing on the DM1200; the DM1200 system has been used for processing a variety of simulated Hanford waste streams. Tests on the larger melter provide processing data at one third of the scale of the actual WTP HLW melter and, therefore, provide a more accurate and reliable assessment of production rates and potential processing issues. The work focused on maximizing waste processing rates for high aluminum HLW compositions. In view of the diversity of forms of aluminum in the Hanford tanks, tests were also conducted on the DM100 to determine the effect of changes in the form of aluminum on feed properties and production rate. In addition, the work evaluated the effect on production rate of modest increases

  14. TOWARD LOW-COST FABRICATION OF MICROCHANNEL PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES - COST MODELING FOR MANUFACTURING DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leith, Steven D.; King, Dale A.; Paul, Brian

    2010-11-07

    Chemical and energy conversion systems based on microchannel process technology (MPT) demonstrate high performance in applications in which rates are controlled by diffusive heat and mass transfer flux. The performance of MPT-based heat exchangers, absorbers/desorbers and chemical reactors all benefit from process intensification and have been used in a variety of mobile energy conversion systems including fuel reformers/converters, heat pumps and waste heat scavenging technologies. The service environments typical of MPTs often require the devices to be fabricated from metals such as aluminum, titanium, stainless steel or high temperature super alloys. Flow channels and associated critical dimensions in these devices can be as small as 50 um, but generally range from 100 to 1000 um in width and height with characteristic flow channel lengths normally in the mm to cm range. High surface area architectures (e.g. wicks or textured surfaces) are often included in the flow channels as well for enhanced mass transfer and/or catalytic functionality. Fabrication of MPT devices has historically been performed using a stacked-shim approach in which individual metal sheets are first patterned with micro- and meso-scale flow channels and subsequently bonded in a stack to create an array of miniaturized, parallel flow paths. Typical proof-of-concept fabrication efforts have utilized photo chemical machining (PCM) for shim patterning and diffusion bonding or diffusion brazing for joining of shim stacks. While flexible and capable of supporting technology demonstration, however, these techniques can be expensive at prototyping volumes. The high fabrication cost associated with these prototyping processes has contributed to a perception that MPT technology is expensive and will be relegated to a small application space. Recent work at the Microproducts Breakthrough Institute (MBI) has focused on exploring the cost structure of high volume manufacturing of MPT devices in effort to

  15. Recurrent flow analysis in spatiotemporally chaotic 2-dimensional Kolmogorov flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Dan Kerswell, Rich R.

    2015-04-15

    Motivated by recent success in the dynamical systems approach to transitional flow, we study the efficiency and effectiveness of extracting simple invariant sets (recurrent flows) directly from chaotic/turbulent flows and the potential of these sets for providing predictions of certain statistics of the flow. Two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow (the 2D Navier-Stokes equations with a sinusoidal body force) is studied both over a square [0, 2?]{sup 2} torus and a rectangular torus extended in the forcing direction. In the former case, an order of magnitude more recurrent flows are found than previously [G. J. Chandler and R. R. Kerswell, Invariant recurrent solutions embedded in a turbulent two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow, J. Fluid Mech. 722, 554595 (2013)] and shown to give improved predictions for the dissipation and energy pdfs of the chaos via periodic orbit theory. Analysis of the recurrent flows shows that the energy is largely trapped in the smallest wavenumbers through a combination of the inverse cascade process and a feature of the advective nonlinearity in 2D. Over the extended torus at low forcing amplitudes, some extracted states mimic the statistics of the spatially localised chaos present surprisingly well recalling the findings of Kawahara and Kida [Periodic motion embedded in plane Couette turbulence: Regeneration cycle and burst, J. Fluid Mech. 449, 291 (2001)] in low-Reynolds-number plane Couette flow. At higher forcing amplitudes, however, success is limited highlighting the increased dimensionality of the chaos and the need for larger data sets. Algorithmic developments to improve the extraction procedure are discussed.

  16. Semisolid Metal Processing Consortium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apelian,Diran

    2002-01-10

    Mathematical modeling and simulations of semisolid filling processes remains a critical issue in understanding and optimizing the process. Semisolid slurries are non-Newtonian materials that exhibit complex rheological behavior. There the way these slurries flow in cavities is very different from the way liquid in classical casting fills cavities. Actually filling in semisolid processing is often counter intuitive

  17. Photothermally activated motion and ignition using aluminum nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abboud, Jacques E.; Chong Xinyuan; Zhang Mingjun; Zhang Zhili; Jiang Naibo; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R.

    2013-01-14

    The aluminum nanoparticles (Al NPs) are demonstrated to serve as active photothermal media, to enhance and control local photothermal energy deposition via the photothermal effect activated by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and amplified by Al NPs oxidation. The activation source is a 2-AA-battery-powered xenon flash lamp. The extent of the photothermally activated movement of Al NPs can be {approx}6 mm. Ignition delay can be {approx}0.1 ms. Both scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements of motion-only and after-ignition products confirm significant Al oxidation occurs through sintering and bursting after the flash exposure. Simulations suggest local heat generation is enhanced by LSPR. The positive-feedback effects from the local heat generation amplified by Al oxidation produce a large increase in local temperature and pressure, which enhances movement and accelerates ignition.

  18. Method of manufacturing a niobium-aluminum-germanium superconductive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, John L.; Pickus, Milton R.; Douglas, Kent E.

    1980-01-01

    A method for manufacturing flexible Nb.sub.3 (Al,Ge) multifilamentary superconductive material in which a sintered porous niobium compact is infiltrated with an aluminum-germanium alloy and thereafter deformed and heat treated in a series of steps at different successively higher temperatures preferably below 1000.degree. C. to produce filaments composed of Nb.sub.3 (Al,G3) within the compact. By avoiding temperatures in excess of 1000.degree. C. during the heat treatment, cladding material such as copper can be applied to facilitate a deformation step preceding the heat treatment and can remain in place through the heat treatment to also serve as a temperature stabilizer for supeconductive material produced. Further, these lower heat treatment temperatures favor formation of filaments with reduced grain size and, hence with more grain boundaries which in turn increase the current-carrying capacity of the superconductive material.

  19. Structure of stagnated plasma in aluminum wire array Z pinches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, G. N.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Bland, S. N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Ampleford, D. J.; Palmer, J. B. A.; Bott, S. C.; Rapley, J.; Chittenden, J. P.; Apruzese, J. P.

    2006-08-15

    Experiments with aluminum wire array Z pinches have been carried out on the mega-ampere generator for plasma implosion experiments (MAGPIE) at Imperial College London [I. H. Mitchell et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 1533 (1996)]. It has been shown that in these arrays, there are two intense sources of radiation during stagnation; Al XII line emission from a precursor-sized object, and both continuum and Al XIII radiation from bright spots of either significantly higher temperature or density randomly distributed around this object so as to produce a hollow emission profile. Spatially resolved spectra produced by spherically bent crystals were recorded, both time-integrated and time-resolved, and were used to show that these two sources of radiation peak at the same time.

  20. Supersonic laser-induced jetting of aluminum micro-droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zenou, M.; Sa'ar, A.; Kotler, Z.

    2015-05-04

    The droplet velocity and the incubation time of pure aluminum micro-droplets, printed using the method of sub-nanosecond laser induced forward transfer, have been measured indicating the formation of supersonic laser-induced jetting. The incubation time and the droplet velocity were extracted by measuring a transient electrical signal associated with droplet landing on the surface of the acceptor substrate. This technique has been exploited for studying small volume droplets, in the range of 10–100 femto-litters for which supersonic velocities were measured. The results suggest elastic propagation of the droplets across the donor-to-acceptor gap, a nonlinear deposition dynamics on the surface of the acceptor and overall efficient energy transfer from the laser beam to the droplets.

  1. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... ETC.) ...... 20 1C IMPACT OF PHYSICS ON THE FLOW (RADIATION, MOISTURE, ETC.) ... shear across scales, global scale physics, flow forcing, coupling kilometer-scale ...

  2. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-04-15

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  3. EIN Cash Flow Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIN Cash Flow Model Energy Independence Now (EIN) Objectives Identify financial risks in early hydrogen infrastructure systems and illustrate hydrogen station cash flows under a ...

  4. Characterization of an explosively bonded aluminum proton beam window for the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClintock, David A; Janney, Jim G; Parish, Chad M

    2014-01-01

    An effort is underway at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to change the design of the 1st Generation high-nickel alloy proton beam window (PBW) to one that utilizes aluminum for the window material. One of the key challenges to implementation of an aluminum PBW at the SNS was selection of an appropriate joining method to bond an aluminum window to the stainless steel bulk shielding of the PBW assembly. An explosively formed bond was selected as the most promising joining method for the aluminum PBW design. A testing campaign was conducted to evaluate the strength and efficacy of explosively formed bonds that were produced using two different interlayer materials: niobium and titanium. The characterization methods reported here include tensile testing, thermal-shock leak testing, optical microscopy, and advanced scanning electron microscopy. All tensile specimens examined failed in the aluminum interlayer and measured tensile strengths were all slightly greater than the native properties of the aluminum interlayer, while elongation values were all slightly lower. A leak developed in the test vessel with a niobium interlayer joint after repeated thermal-shock cycles, and was attributed to an extensive crack network that formed in a layer of niobium-rich intermetallics located on the bond interfaces of the niobium interlayer; the test vessel with a titanium interlayer did not develop a leak under the conditions tested. Due to the experience gained from these characterizations, the explosively formed bond with a titanium interlayer was selected for the aluminum PBW design at the SNS.

  5. Cyclic Thermodynamics with Open Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, R.S.; Ward, W.C.; Swift, G.W.

    1998-05-01

    Some general features of a new class of thermodynamic device combining a thermodynamic cycle with the externally applied steady flow of an open thermodynamic process are discussed and experimentally demonstrated in the context of a thermoacoustic refrigerator. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Impact of magnetron configuration on plasma and film properties of sputtered aluminum nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duquenne, C.; Tessier, P. Y.; Besland, M. P.; Angleraud, B.; Jouan, P. Y.; Djouadi, M. A.; Aubry, R.; Delage, S.

    2008-09-15

    We have investigated the growth of the c-axis oriented aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films on (100) silicon by reactive dc magnetron sputtering at low temperature, considering the effect of the magnet configuration on plasma and film properties. It appears that a magnet modification can significantly modify both the plasma characteristics and the film properties. Electrical and optical characterizations of the plasma phase highlight that depending on the magnet configuration, two very different types of deposition process can be involved in the same deposition chamber. On the one hand, with a balanced magnetron (type 1), the deposition process enhances the production of AlN dimers in the plasma phase and enables to synthesize AlN films with different preferential orientations (100, 002, and even 101). On the other hand, a strongly unbalanced magnetron (type 2) provides a limited production of AlN species in the plasma phase and a strong increase in the ratio of ions to metal atom flux on the growing films. In the latter case, the ion energy provided by the ion flux to the growing film is typically in the 20-30 eV range. Thus, dense (002) oriented films with high crystalline quality are obtained without any substrate heating.

  7. Hanford Workers Compensation Flow - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hanford Site Wide Programs Hanford Workers Compensation Hanford Workers Compensation Flow About Us Hanford Cultural Resources Hanford Workers Compensation PENSER Representatives Hanford Workers Compensation Flow Compensation Claim Process Presentations Related Information Vocational Rehabilitation Email Email Page | Print Print Page | Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size Hanford Worker's Compensation Flow - Printable Version (PDF) WC_Flowchart Share on Last Updated 02/14/2016 4:51

  8. Development of the T+M coupled flow-geomechanical simulator to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of the T+M coupled flow-geomechanical simulator to describe fracture propagation and coupled flow-thermal-geomechanical processes in tightshale gas systems Citation ...

  9. Enhanced structural color generation in aluminum metamaterials coated with a thin polymer layer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cheng, Fei; Yang, Xiaodong; Rosenmann, Daniel; Stan, Liliana; Czaplewski, David; Gao, Jie

    2015-09-18

    A high-resolution and angle-insensitive structural color generation platform is demonstrated based on triple-layer aluminum-silica-aluminum metamaterials supporting surface plasmon resonances tunable across the entire visible spectrum. The color performances of the fabricated aluminum metamaterials can be strongly enhanced by coating a thin transparent polymer layer on top. The results show that the presence of the polymer layer induces a better impedance matching for the plasmonic resonances to the free space so that strong light absorption can be obtained, leading to the generation of pure colors in cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK) with high color saturation.

  10. Fabrication of super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminum alloy substrates by RF-sputtered polytetrafluoroethylene coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Xiao Wei; Zhang, Hai Feng Zhou, Zhi Ping

    2014-03-15

    In this work, we present a method of fabricating super-hydrophobic surface on aluminum alloy substrate. The etching of aluminum surfaces has been performed using Beck's dislocation etchant for different time to create micrometer-sized irregular steps. An optimised etching time of 50 s is found to be essential before polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coating, to obtain a highest water contact angle of 1652 with a lowest contact angle hysteresis as low as 52. The presence of patterned microstructure as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) together with the low surface energy ultrathin RF-sputtered PTFE films renders the aluminum alloy surfaces highly super-hydrophobic.

  11. Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnaces. Final report. [Sulfide capacity of various slags in given temperature range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, D.L. Jr.; Dastolfo, L.E. Jr.; DeYoung, D.H.

    1984-04-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the development of a desulfurizing coal combustion process by the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) in a research program funded by the United States Department of Energy. Conceptually, high sulfur coal is burned with additives in a staged cyclone combustor, such that sufficient sulfur to obviate products of combustion (POC) scrubbing is retained in the slag by-product. Bench scale studies conducted during the program have shown that 70% of the sulfur (2.65% sulfur coal) reports to the slag at equilibrium through a 25% addition of iron ore to the coal. Results obtained correlate with published data for similar slag at higher temperatures. In pilot scale combustion tests, equilibrium levels of coal sulfur were retained by the slag (11 to 14%). Equilibrium sulfur capture was limited by low particulate retention and operating temperature higher than optimal. Cost estimates for implementation of the process are included in this report. 28 references, 39 figures, 58 tables.

  12. Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool Fact Sheet | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Assessment and Survey Tool Fact Sheet Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool Fact Sheet This fact sheet describes how industrial plants can improve their process heating system performance using AMO's Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) PHAST Fact Sheet (714.05 KB) More Documents & Publications Process Heating Assessment and Survey Tool (PHAST) Introduction Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve Productivity Reduce Air Infiltration in

  13. Photo-ionization of aluminum in a hot cavity for the selective production of exotic species project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scarpa, D. Corradetti, S.; Manzolaro, M.; Vasquez, J.; Calderolla, M.; Rossignoli, M.; Monetti, A.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.; Makhathini, L.; Tomaselli, A.; Grassi, D.

    2014-02-15

    SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) is an Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) based accelerator facility that will be built in the Legnaro-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) Laboratory (Italy), intended to provide intense neutron-rich radioactive ion beams obtained by proton-induced fission of a uranium carbide (UCx) target. Besides this main target material, silicon carbide (SiC) will be the first to be used to deliver p-rich beams. This target will also validate the functionality of the SPES facility with aluminum beam as result of impinging SiC target with proton beam. In the past, off line studies on laser photoionization of aluminum have been performed in Pavia Spectroscopy Laboratory and in Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro; a XeCl excimer laser was installed in order to test the laser ionization in the SPES hot cavity. With the new Wien filter installed a better characterization of the ionization process in terms of efficiency was performed and results are discussed.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Aluminum Formability Extension through Superior Blank Processing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Aluminum Formability Extension through Superior Blank Processing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  16. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  17. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  18. Conversion of direct process high-boiling residue to monosilanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinson, Jonathan Ashley (Vale of Glamorgan, GB); Crum, Bruce Robert (Madison, IN); Jarvis, Jr., Robert Frank (Midland, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A process for the production of monosilanes from the high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride with silicon metalloid in a process typically referred to as the "direct process." The process comprises contacting a high-boiling residue resulting from the reaction of hydrogen chloride and silicon metalloid, with hydrogen gas in the presence of a catalytic amount of aluminum trichloride effective in promoting conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. The present process results in conversion of the high-boiling residue to monosilanes. At least a portion of the aluminum trichloride catalyst required for conduct of the process may be formed in situ during conduct of the direct process and isolation of the high-boiling residue.

  19. Iron-niobium-aluminum alloy having high-temperature corrosion resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Huey S.

    1988-04-14

    An alloy for use in high temperature sulfur and oxygen containing environments, having aluminum for oxygen resistance, niobium for sulfur resistance and the balance iron, is discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Aluminum ion parameters for the 2015 PP-on-Al setup in RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-10-02

    In this note the nominal parameters for aluminum ions in Booster, AGS, and RHIC are given for the PP-on-Al setup in RHIC. The setup parameters are summarized in Sections 13, 14, 15.

  1. Fatigue design curves for 6061-T6 aluminum (Conference) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A request has been made to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee that 6061-T6 aluminum be approved for use in the construction of Class 1 welded nuclear vessels so it can ...

  2. Polarized proton parameters for the 2015 PP-on-Aluminum setup in RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, C. J.

    2015-10-02

    Values are given for RHIC circumference shifts due to snakes for various situations. Relevant parameters are tabulated for polarized protons (PP) in the booster and in AGS and RHIC for PP-on-Aluminum stores.

  3. Evaluation of Aluminum Participation in the Development of Reactive Waves in Shock Compressed HMX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pahl, R. J.; Trott, W. M.; Snedigar, S.; Castaneda, J. N.

    2006-07-28

    A series of gas gun tests has been performed to examine contributions to energy release from micron-sized and nanometric aluminum powder added to sieved (212-300{mu}m) HMX. In the absence of added metal, 4-mm-thick, low-density (64-68% of theoretical maximum density) pressings of the sieved HMX respond to modest shock loading by developing distinctive reactive waves that exhibit both temporal and mesoscale spatial fluctuations. Parallel tests have been performed on samples containing 10% (by mass) aluminum in two particle sizes: 2-{mu}m and 123-nm mean particle diameter, respectively. The finely dispersed aluminum initially suppresses wave growth from HMX reactions; however, after a visible induction period, the added metal drives rapid increases in the transmitted wave particle velocity. Wave profile variations as a function of the aluminum particle diameter are discussed.

  4. Evaluation of aluminum participation in the development of reactive waves in shock compressed HMX.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Pahl, Robert J.; Snedigar, Shane; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-07-01

    A series of gas gun tests has been performed to examine contributions to energy release from micron-sized and nanometric aluminum powder added to sieved (212-300{micro}m) HMX. In the absence of added metal, 4-mm-thick, low-density (64-68% of theoretical maximum density) pressings of the sieved HMX respond to modest shock loading by developing distinctive reactive waves that exhibit both temporal and mesoscale spatial fluctuations. Parallel tests have been performed on samples containing 10% (by mass) aluminum in two particle sizes: 2-{micro}m and 123-nm mean particle diameter, respectively. The finely dispersed aluminum initially suppresses wave growth from HMX reactions; however, after a visible induction period, the added metal drives rapid increases in the transmitted wave particle velocity. Wave profile variations as a function of the aluminum particle diameter are discussed.

  5. Solubility and Reaction Rates of Aluminum Solid Phases Under Geothermal Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Anovitz, L.M.

    2000-05-28

    Experimental studies involving equilibrium solubility and dissolution/precipitation rates were initiated on aluminum hydroxide phases prevalent under geothermal reservoir conditions. A large capacity, hydrogen-electrode concentration cell (HECC) was constructed specifically for this purpose.

  6. A UQ Enabled Aluminum Tabular Multiphase Equation-of-State Model

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1325C A UQ Enabled Aluminum Tabular Multiphase Equation-of-State Model Allen C. Robinson, John H. Carpenter0, Bert J. Debusschere*, Ann E. Mattsson0 t Computational Multiphysics, ...

  7. Ignition characteristics of laser-ablated aluminum at shock pressures up to 2 GPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kyung-Cheol; Young Lee, Jae; Yoh, Jack J.; Taira, Tsubasa; Mo Koo, Goon

    2014-01-07

    The ignition of aluminum particles under high pressure and temperature conditions is considered. The laser ablation method is used to generate oxide-free aluminum particles exposed to pressures ranging between 0.35 and 2.2 GPa. A continuous wave CO{sub 2} laser radiation heats the surface of the aluminum target until ignition is observed. We confirm ignition by a spectroscopic analysis of AlO vibronic band of 484 nm wavelength, and the radiant temperature is measured with respect to various pressures for estimating the heating energy for ignition. The ignition characteristics of the oxide-free aluminum particles exposed to extremely high pressures are reported.

  8. Corrosion of aluminum clad spent nuclear fuel in the 70 ton cask during transfer from L area to H-canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J. I.

    2015-08-01

    Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel will be transported for processing in the 70-ton nuclear fuel element cask from L Basin to H-canyon. During transport these fuels would be expected to experience high temperature aqueous corrosion from the residual L Basin water that will be present in the cask. Cladding corrosion losses during transport were calculated for material test reactor (MTR) and high flux isotope reactors (HFIR) fuels using literature and site information on aqueous corrosion at a range of time/temperature conditions. Calculations of the cladding corrosion loss were based on Arrhenius relationships developed for aluminum alloys typical of cladding material with the primary assumption that an adherent passive film does not form to retard the initial corrosion rate. For MTR fuels a cladding thickness loss of 33% was found after 1 year in the cask with a maximum temperature of 263 °C. HFIR fuels showed a thickness loss of only 6% after 1 year at a maximum temperature of 180 °C. These losses are not expected to impact the overall confinement function of the aluminum cladding.

  9. Corrosion of aluminum clad spent nuclear fuel in the 70 ton cask during transfer from L area to H-canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J. I.

    2015-08-31

    Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel will be transported for processing in the 70-ton nuclear fuel element cask from L Basin to H-canyon. During transport these fuels would be expected to experience high temperature aqueous corrosion from the residual L Basin water that will be present in the cask. Cladding corrosion losses during transport were calculated for material test reactor (MTR) and high flux isotope reactors (HFIR) fuels using literature and site information on aqueous corrosion at a range of time/temperature conditions. Calculations of the cladding corrosion loss were based on Arrhenius relationships developed for aluminum alloys typical of cladding material with the primary assumption that an adherent passive film does not form to retard the initial corrosion rate. For MTR fuels a cladding thickness loss of 33 % was found after 1 year in the cask with a maximum temperature of 263 °C. HFIR fuels showed a thickness loss of only 6% after 1 year at a maximum temperature of 180 °C. These losses are not expected to impact the overall confinement function of the aluminum cladding.

  10. CORROSION OF ALUMINUM CLAD SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL IN THE 70 TON CASK DURING TRANSFER FROM L AREA TO H-CANYON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.

    2014-06-01

    Aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel will be transported for processing in the 70-ton nuclear fuel element cask from L Basin to H-canyon. During transport these fuels would be expected to experience high temperature aqueous corrosion from the residual L Basin water that will be present in the cask. Cladding corrosion losses during transport were calculated for material test reactor (MTR) and high flux isotope reactors (HFIR) fuels using literature and site information on aqueous corrosion at a range of time/temperature conditions. Calculations of the cladding corrosion loss were based on Arrhenius relationships developed for aluminum alloys typical of cladding material with the primary assumption that an adherent passive film does not form to retard the initial corrosion rate. For MTR fuels a cladding thickness loss of 33 % was found after 1 year in the cask with a maximum temperature of 260 {degrees}C. HFIR fuels showed a thickness loss of only 6% after 1 year at a maximum temperature of 180 {degrees}C. These losses are not expected to impact the overall confinement function of the aluminum cladding.

  11. PROCESS FOR JACKETING A CORE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Last, G.A.

    1960-07-19

    A process is given for enclosing the uranium core of a nuclear fuel element by placing the core in an aluminum cup and closing the open end of the cup over the core. As the metal of the cup is brought together in a weld over the center of the end of the core, it is extruded inwardly as internal projection into a central recess in the core and outwardly as an external projection. Thus oxide inclusions in the weld of the cup are spread out into the internal and external projections and do not interfere with the integrity of the weld.

  12. Electrolytic conditioning of a magnesium aluminum chloride complex for reversible magnesium deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barile, Christopher J.; Barile, Elizabeth C.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2014-12-04

    We describe in this report the electrochemistry of Mg deposition and dissolution from the magnesium aluminum chloride complex (MACC). The results define the requirements for reversible Mg deposition and definitively establish that voltammetric cycling of the electrolyte significantly alters its composition and performance. Elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) results demonstrate that irreversible Mg and Al deposits form during early cycles. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) data show that inhibitory oligomers develop in THF-based solutions. These oligomers form via the well-established mechanism of a cationic ring-opening polymerization of THF during the initial synthesis of the MACC andmore » under resting conditions. In contrast, MACC solutions in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), an acyclic solvent, do not evolve as dramatically at open circuit potential. Furthermore, we propose a mechanism describing how the conditioning process of the MACC in THF improves its performance by both tuning the Mg:Al stoichiometry and eliminating oligomers.« less

  13. VOC compliance on the ball: Aluminum can manufacturer rolls to California VOC compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gay, R.

    1997-07-01

    Since entering the North American beverage can market in 1969, Ball Corp., has increased its market share at a pace more than double the growth of the market itself. In addition to holding numerous patented advancements in can-making technology, Ball prides itself as an environmentally responsible company. When Ball decided to increase production capacity in its Fairfield, California, plant, the challenge was to produce more cans, while still complying with the state`s stringent air emissions regulations. As with other aluminum can manufacturing facilities, Ball`s coating and curing operations generate volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ball`s permit from the state of California allows only limited amounts of VOC discharges into the atmosphere. With proposed increases in production capacities, however, the Bay Area`s Air Quality Management District--a local US EPA authority--required Ball to incinerate far more VOCs than the existing recuperative abatement system could handle. According to California regulations, facilities that wish to increase VOC emissions must install some type of VOC-control system or provide technological offsets. This regulatory pressure led Ball to seek a solution that would not only comply with emissions regulations, but would not compromise the company`s production process. Ball engineers selected a regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO) for the Fairfield, Calif., plant. Considering the success Ball has encountered in previous experiences with this type of oxidation unit, the company immediately selected an RTO instead of catalytic oxidizers or other types of pollution control equipment.

  14. Electrolytic conditioning of a magnesium aluminum chloride complex for reversible magnesium deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barile, Christopher J.; Barile, Elizabeth C.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2014-12-04

    We describe in this report the electrochemistry of Mg deposition and dissolution from the magnesium aluminum chloride complex (MACC). The results define the requirements for reversible Mg deposition and definitively establish that voltammetric cycling of the electrolyte significantly alters its composition and performance. Elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) results demonstrate that irreversible Mg and Al deposits form during early cycles. Electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) data show that inhibitory oligomers develop in THF-based solutions. These oligomers form via the well-established mechanism of a cationic ring-opening polymerization of THF during the initial synthesis of the MACC and under resting conditions. In contrast, MACC solutions in 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME), an acyclic solvent, do not evolve as dramatically at open circuit potential. Furthermore, we propose a mechanism describing how the conditioning process of the MACC in THF improves its performance by both tuning the Mg:Al stoichiometry and eliminating oligomers.

  15. Tribological characteristics of aluminum alloys against steel lubricated by ammonium and imidazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Meyer III, Harry M; Truhan, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Sliding friction and wear characteristics of aluminum alloys against AISI 52100 steel lubricated by ionic liquids (ILs) were investigated at both room and elevated temperatures. The tested aluminum alloys include a commercially pure aluminum Al 1100, a wrought alloy Al 6061-T6511, and a cast alloy Al 319-T6. The lubricating performance of two ILs with the same anion, one ammonium-based [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium-based C10mim.Tf2N, were compared each other and benchmarked against that of a conventional fully-formulated engine oil. Significant friction (up to 35%) and wear (up to 55%) reductions were achieved by the ammonium IL when lubricating the three aluminum alloys compared to the engine oil. The imidazolium IL performed better than the oil but not as well as the ammonium IL for Al 1100 and 319 alloys. However, accelerated wear was unexpectedly observed for Al 6061 alloy when lubricated by C10mim.Tf2N. Surface chemical analyses implied complex tribochemical reactions between the aluminum surfaces and ILs during the wear testing, which has been demonstrated either beneficial by forming a protective boundary film or detrimental by causing severe tribo-corrosion. The effects of the IL cation structure, aluminum alloy composition, and tribo-testing condition on the friction and wear results have been discussed.

  16. Retention and release of tritium in aluminum clad, Al-Li alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    Tritium retention in and release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloys is modeled from experimental and operational data developed during the thirty plus years of tritium production at the Savannah River Site. The model assumes that tritium atoms, formed by the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha}){sup 3}He reaction, are produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly becomes supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms are trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability is the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release is determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. This model is used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloys. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Retention and release of tritium in aluminum clad, Al-Li alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium retention in and release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloys is modeled from experimental and operational data developed during the thirty plus years of tritium production at the Savannah River Site. The model assumes that tritium atoms, formed by the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha}){sup 3}He reaction, are produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly becomes supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms are trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability is the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release is determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. This model is used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloys. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Structural and valence state of iron ions in sodium-aluminum-phosphate glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vashman, A.A.; Pronin, I.S.; Samsonov, V.E.; Filin, V.M.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the structural and valence state of iron ions in sodium-aluminum-phosphate glass for the application of liquid radioactive waste solidification. Electron paramagnetic resonance, Moessbauer spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonances were used to conduct the study. Results were used to determine the characteristics of the occupancy and distribution of iron ions over tetra- and octahedral positions as a function of the ratio of the concentration of iron and aluminum oxides, to determine the concentration of Fe{sup 3}{sup +} and Fe{sup 2}{sup +} ions and the number of phosphorus and aluminum atoms in the nearest neighbor environment of the impurity iron ions, and estimate the effect of the concentration of aluminum oxide on the average distance between the phosphorus atoms in the glass. Results indicate that it must be assumed that tetrahedral glass-forming positions of ions are more stable than octahedral positions. Therefore, the long-term fixation of iron ions in sodium-aluminum-phosphate glasses will be more reliable with lower iron-aluminum ratios. These results will apparently extend to radioactive ions due to similar valence properties. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Direct acid dissolution of aluminum and other metals from fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelmers, A.D.; Egan, B.Z.; Seeley, F.G.; Campbell, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    Fly ash could provide a significant domestic source of alumina and thus supply a large part of the US needs for aluminum and possibly also several other metals. The aluminum and other metals can be solubilized from fly ash by acid dissolution methods. The aluminum may be present in any or all of three solid phases: (1) crystalline; (2) glassy amorphous; and (3) irregular, spongy amorphous. The chemistry of these phases controls the solubilization behavior. The aluminum in high-calcium western ashes is primarily found in the amorphous phases, and much of it can be solubilized by using short-time, ambient-temperature leaching. Little of the aluminum in the low-calcium eastern ashes is solubilized under ambient-temperature conditions, and only a portion can be solubilized even at reflux temperature conditions. Some of the aluminum in these eastern ashes is present as mullite, while some is found in the amorphous material. The fraction contained in mullite is relativey acid insoluble, and only partial solubilization can be achieved even under vigorous acid leach conditions.

  20. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans and Bottles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Shinguryo, Takuro; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao

    2005-08-05

    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans and bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling.