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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Photon stimulated desorption measurement of an extruded aluminum beam chamber for the Advanced Photon Source  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Advanced Photon Source (APS), presently being commisioned, will produce X-ray s of unprecedented brightness. The high energy ring of the APS is a 7 GeV positron storage ring, 1104 meters in circumference designed to operate at less than 10{sup {minus}9} Torr with 300 ma of beam and a greater than 10 hour lifetime. The storage ring vacuum chamber is constructed from an extruded 6063 aluminum alloy. During the construction phase, a 2.34 m long section of the APS extruded aluminum chamber was set up on National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) X-ray Beamlline X28A and Photon Stimulated Desorption (PSD) was measured. Cleaning and preparation of the chamber was identical to that of the APS construction. In addition to the chamber, small samples of M, Be, and Cu were also exposed to white light having a critical energy of 5 keV. In addition to PSD, measurements were made of specular and diffuse scattering of photons. The chamber and samples were each exposed to a dose greater than 10{sup 23} photons per meter. Desorption yields for H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}0 are reported as a function of accumulated flux, critical energy, incidence angle, and preparation. These results are compared with previous results for aluminum on NSLS Beamlline U1OB and PSD results of other laboratories published for aluminum.

Foerster, C.L.; Lanni, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Noonan, J.R.; Rosenberg, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

Technology Innovation in Aluminum Products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Today's U.S. aluminum production includes roughly 5.6 million tonnes of .... to help make the cost of aluminum competitive with steel.12 Aluminum pull tabs were ...

3

Cast Shop for Aluminum Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Organizer(s), Trond Furu, Hydro ... Review at Several US Aluminum Die Cast Manufacturers Using Unique, Non-Wetting, Micro-Porous Refractory Products.

4

Electrode Technology for Aluminum Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Loss in Cathode Life Resulting from the Shutdown and Restart of Potlines at Aluminum Smelters · Lower Aluminium Production Cost through Refractory Material ...

5

Development and characterization of extruded/expanded products containing pork and nonmeat ingredients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Blends of pork lean (20%), defatted soy flour (25%), high-amylose corn starch and added water were extrusion-cooked using a laboratory-scale single-screw extruder (15:1 length-to-diameter ratio, 4:1 screw compression ratio, 6.35 mm die nozzle diameter). Experiments conducted according to a central composite rotatable design for response surface methodology and additions statistical techniques determined the extrusion condition that would result in extradites with high expansion ratio and low shear force to be 22.78% feed moisture, 160C? process temperature and any screw speed between 153-187 rpm. Response surfaces and predictive models indicated feed moisture to be the most influential extrusion variable, and process temperature secondary, to expansion ratio, bulk density and shear force values of the extrudates. Pork-soy flour-starch blends with or without additional nutmeat ingredients-onion powder (1%), alone or in combination with carrot powder (1.5%) or carrot extract (1.5%), or defatted oat flour (5%)-were formulated and extruded at 170 rpm screw speed, 22.78% feed moisture and 160C? process temperature. Instrumentally-measured hardness (shear force) of extrudates without the additional nutmeat ingredients was comparable to that of commercially available wheat-based snack sticks or pretzels. Additional ingredients generally decreased expansion and increased bulk density and shear force values. When extrudates with or without onion powder were evaluated by trained sensory panelists, "grain complex'' was the most intense flavor note. Addition of 1% onion powder to raw material mixes made "onion'' flavor distinctly detectable in extrudates. Peroxide values were a better indicator of lipid oxidation than 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances values for these expanded, dry extradites with high protein and starch contents. The onion powder, carrot powder or extract, and defatted oat and soy products used here limited lipid oxidation in extradites stored at 37C? for 60 days. The base product-extrudates from pork-soy flour-starch blends without additional nutmeat ingredients-had low moisture (4%) and fat (3%) and contained 34% protein. Oleic acid was the predominant fatty acid (36% of total fatty acids). Essential amino acids were present in greater amounts in that product than in analogous snacks containing only corn. Since only small amounts of additional nutmeat ingredients were used in other test products, all products were considered to be higher in protein and lower in fat compared to some fried or baked, extruded cereal-based snacks.

Jamora, Jennifer Rachel Jacinto

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

RECOVERY OF ALUMINUM FROM FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for recovertng aluminum values from aqueous solutions containing said values together with fission products. A mixture of Fe/sub 2/O/ sub 3/ and MnO/sub 2/ is added to a solution containing aluminum and fission products. The resulting aluminum-containing supernatant is then separated from the fission product-bearing metal oxide precipitate and is contacted with a cation exchange resin. The aluminum sorbed on the resin is then eluted and recovered. (AEC)

Blanco, R.E.; Higgins, I.R.

1962-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

7

Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Production of metallic aluminum by the electrolysis of Al.sub.2 S.sub.3 at 700.degree.-800.degree. C. in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

Minh, Nguyen Q. (Woodridge, IL); Loutfy, Raouf O. (Tucson, AZ); Yao, Neng-Ping (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Soybeans as Functional Foods and IngredientsChapter 9 Value-Added Products from Extruding-Expelling of Soybeans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soybeans as Functional Foods and Ingredients Chapter 9 Value-Added Products from Extruding-Expelling of Soybeans Food Science Health Nutrition Biochemistry eChapters Food Science & Technology Health - Nutrition - Biochemistry Press

9

Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy Assessments at Two Aluminum Sheet Production Operations;  

SciTech Connect

DOE Industrial Technologies Program case study describes the savings possible if Commonwealth Aluminum (now Aleris Rolled Products) makes improvements noted in energy assessments at two aluminum mills.

Not Available

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Aluminum Production Paths in the New Millennium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrochemical technologies face the same problems and challenges as present ... The driving force for developing new processes for aluminum smelting ...

11

Primary aluminum production : climate policy, emissions and costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Climate policy regarding perfluorocarbons (PFCs) may have a significant influence on investment decisions in the production of primary aluminum. This work demonstrates an integrated analysis of the effectiveness and likely ...

Harnisch, Jochen.; Sue Wing, Ian.; Jacoby, Henry D.; Prinn, Ronald G.

12

Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Developing an Integrated Information System in a Modern Aluminum Smelter" ... "The Energy Crisis and the Aluminum Industry: Can We Learn from History? ... "

13

Insensitive Extrudable Explosive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Insensitive Extrudable Explosive Insensitive Extrudable Explosive Insensitive Extrudable Explosive Los Alamos National Laboratory scientists have developed a novel explosive using a new class of materials in which an energetic binder is chemically attached to a particulate solid explosive using an innovative technique. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Insensitive Extrudable Explosive Applications: Plastic and extrudable explosive replacement Demolition Seismic prospecting Geographical mapping Oil & gas industry Quarrying Mining Construction Military and law enforcement Flexible shaped charges Shock hardening Explosive welding Sheet explosives Detonating cord (cased or bare) Benefits: Compatible with standard explosives Safer than current technology (i.e. insensitive to impact and other

14

VIDEO: The Fundamentals of Aluminum Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Discussions include the importance of anode and cathode performance, maintenance of pot operations, and reducing production costs and waste through  ...

15

Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum From Alumina  

SciTech Connect

An electrolytic cell for producing aluminum from alumina having a reservoir for collecting molten aluminum remote from the electrolysis.

Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA); Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR)

2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

16

Method of winning aluminum metal from aluminous ore  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Aluminous ore such as bauxite containing alumina is blended with coke or other suitable form of carbon and reacted with sulfur gas at an elevated temperature. For handling, the ore and coke can be extruded into conveniently sized pellets. The reaction with sulfur gas produces molten aluminum sulfide which is separated from residual solid reactants and impurities. The aluminum sulfide is further increased in temperature to cause its decomposition or sublimation, yielding aluminum subsulfide liquid (AlS) and sulfur gas that is recycled. The aluminum monosulfide is then cooled to below its disproportionation temperature to again form molten aluminum sulfide and aluminum metal. A liquid-liquid or liquid-solid separation, depending on the separation temperature, provides product aluminum and aluminum sulfide for recycle to the disproportionation step.

Loutfy, Raouf O. (Naperville, IL); Keller, Rudolf (Naperville, IL); Yao, Neng-Ping (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Extrusion of electrode material by liquid injection into extruder barrel  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrode sheet product is formed using an extruder having a feed throat and a downstream section by separately mixing an active electrode material and a solid polymer electrolyte composition that contains lithium salt. The active electrode material is fed into the feed throat of the extruder, while a portion of at least one fluid component of the solid polymer electrolyte composition is introduced to the downstream section. The active electrode material and the solid polymer electrolyte composition are compounded in a downstream end of the extruder. The extruded sheets, adhered to current collectors, can be formed into battery cells. 1 fig.

Keller, D.G.; Giovannoni, R.T.; MacFadden, K.O.

1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

18

Extrusion of electrode material by liquid injection into extruder barrel  

SciTech Connect

An electrode sheet product is formed using an extruder having a feed throat and a downstream section by separately mixing an active electrode material and a solid polymer electrolyte composition that contains lithium salt. The active electrode material is fed into the feed throat of the extruder, while a portion of at least one fluid component of the solid polymer electrolyte composition is introduced to the downstream section. The active electrode material and the solid polymer electrolyte composition are compounded in a downstream end of the extruder. The extruded sheets, adhered to current collectors, can be formed into battery cells.

Keller, David Gerard (Baltimore, MD); Giovannoni, Richard Thomas (Reisterstown, MD); MacFadden, Kenneth Orville (Highland, MD)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

DEUTERIUM-HYDROGEN EXCHANGE IN BOEHMITE CORROSION PRODUCT FORMED ON PURE ALUMINUM IN BOILING WATER  

SciTech Connect

Proton-deuteron exchange is rapid in boehmite corrosion product formed on pure aluminum in boiling water. In addition, deuterated boehmite films undergo rapid exchange with the humidity of the atmosphere. This explains the previously reported anomaly in the H-D exchange rate for the growing corrosion product on 1100 aluminum. (auh)

Mori, S.; Draley, J.E.; Bernstein, R.B.

1961-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

Cast Shop for Aluminum Production - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2012 ... Advanced Compact Filter: ( ACF) An Efficient and Flexible Filtration Process · AlTi5B1 Grain Refiners on the Casting of DIN 226 Aluminum ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using inert anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The inert anodes used in the process preferably comprise a cermet material comprising ceramic oxide phase portions and metal phase portions.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using ceramic inert anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising ceramic inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The ceramic inert anodes used in the process may comprise oxides containing Fe and Ni, as well as other oxides, metals and/or dopants.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); DiMilia, Robert A. (Baton Rouge, LA); Dynys, Joseph M. (New Kensington, PA); Phelps, Frankie E. (Apollo, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Extruded ceramic honeycomb and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Extruded low-expansion ceramic honeycombs comprising beta-spodumene solid solution as the principal crystal phase and with less than 7 weight percent of included mullite are produced by compounding an extrusion batch comprising a lithium aluminosilicate glass powder and a clay additive, extruding a green honeycomb body from the batch, and drying and firing the green extruded cellular honeycomb to crystallize the glass and clay into a low-expansion spodumene ceramic honeycomb body.

Day, J. Paul (Big Flats, NY)

1995-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

24

Final Technical Report Microwave Assisted Electrolyte Cell for Primary Aluminum Production  

SciTech Connect

This research addresses the high priority research need for developing inert anode and wetted cathode technology, as defined in the Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap and Inert Anode Roadmap, with the performance targets: a) significantly reducing the energy intensity of aluminum production, b) ultimately eliminating anode-related CO2 emissions, and c) reducing aluminum production costs. This research intended to develop a new electrometallurgical extraction technology by introducing microwave irradiation into the current electrolytic cells for primary aluminum production. This technology aimed at accelerating the alumina electrolysis reduction rate and lowering the aluminum production temperature, coupled with the uses of nickel based superalloy inert anode, nickel based superalloy wetted cathode, and modified salt electrolyte. Michigan Technological University, collaborating with Cober Electronic and Century Aluminum, conducted bench-scale research for evaluation of this technology. This research included three sub-topics: a) fluoride microwave absorption; b) microwave assisted electrolytic cell design and fabrication; and c) aluminum electrowinning tests using the microwave assisted electrolytic cell. This research concludes that the typically used fluoride compound for aluminum electrowinning is not a good microwave absorbing material at room temperature. However, it becomes an excellent microwave absorbing material above 550°C. The electrowinning tests did not show benefit to introduce microwave irradiation into the electrolytic cell. The experiments revealed that the nickel-based superalloy is not suitable for use as a cathode material; although it wets with molten aluminum, it causes severe reaction with molten aluminum. In the anode experiments, the chosen superalloy did not meet corrosion resistance requirements. A nicked based alloy without iron content could be further investigated.

Xiaodi Huang; J.Y. Hwang

2007-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

25

Low-Cost Continuous Production of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Aluminum Composites .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The research conducted in this study was concerned with the development of low-cost continuous production of carbon fiber/aluminum composites. Two coatings, alumina and zirconia, were… (more)

Durkin, Craig Raymond

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.  

SciTech Connect

A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR); Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA)

2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

27

Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of the Extruded ?-? ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of the Extruded ?-? Duplex Phase Brass Cu-40Zn-Ti Alloy. Author(s), Haruhiko Atsumi, Hisashi ...

28

Aluminum Reduction Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2011 ... GHG Measurement and Inventory for Aluminum Production · HEX Retrofit Enables Smelter Capacity Expansion · HF Emission Reduction from ...

29

Inert anode containing base metal and noble metal useful for the electrolytic production of aluminum  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inert anode for production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a base metal selected from Cu and Ag, and at least one noble metal selected from Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and Os. The inert anode may optionally be formed of sintered particles having interior portions containing more base metal than noble metal and exterior portions containing more noble metal than base metal. In a preferred embodiment, the base metal comprises Cu, and the noble metal comprises Ag, Pd or a combination thereof.

Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Insensitive explosive composition and method of fracturing rock using an extrudable form of the composition  

SciTech Connect

Insensitive explosive compositions were prepared by reacting di-isocyanate and/or poly-isocyanate monomers with an explosive diamine monomer. Prior to a final cure, the compositions are extrudable. The di-isocyanate monomers tend to produce tough, rubbery materials while polyfunctional monomers (i.e. having more than two isocyanate groups) tend to form rigid products. The extrudable form of the composition may be used in a variety of applications including rock fracturing.

Davis, Lloyd L

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

31

Properties of U sub 3 O sub 8 -aluminum cermet fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear fuel elements containing U{sub 3}O{sub 8} dispersed in an aluminum matrix have been used in research and test reactors for about 30 years. These elements, sometimes called cermet fuel, are made by powder metallurgical methods (PM) and can accommodate up to approximately 50 wt % uranium in the core section of extruded tubes. Cermet fuel elements have been fabricated and irradiated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Irradiation behavior is excellent. Extruded tubes with up to 50 wt % uranium have been successfully irradiated to fission densities of about 2 {times} 10{sup 21} fissions per cc of core. Physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of cermet fuels are assembled into a reference document. Results will be used by Argonne National Laboratory to design cermet fuel elements for possible use in the New Production Reactor at SRS. 57 refs., 33 figs., 12 tabs.

Peacock, H.B.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

TRITIUM PRODUCTION BY NEUTRON-IRRADIATION OF ALUMINUM-LITHIUM ALLOY  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for preparing tritium by neutron-bombarding aluminum --lithium alloy and heating the alloy for the release of the tritium formed is described. (AEC)

Abraham, B.M.

1963-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

33

INNOVATIONS IN ALUMINUM: II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Likewise, to produce aluminum sheet and some other products, dissolved sodium and calcium must be fluxed by reaction with chlorine. Today, the combined ...

34

Bevill and the Aluminum Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... particularly the import, mining, refining and primary production of aluminum. ... Experience with Commissioning New Generation Gas Suspension Calciner.

35

Recycling production designs : the value of coordination and flexibility in aluminum recycling operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The growing motivation for aluminum recycling has prompted interest in recycling alternative and more challenging secondary materials. The nature of these alternative secondary materials necessitates the development of an ...

Brommer, Tracey H. (Tracey Helenius)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Twin-Screw Extruder Development for the ITER Pellet Injection System  

SciTech Connect

The ITER pellet injection system is comprised of devices to form and accelerate pellets, and will be connected to inner wall guide tubes for fueling, and outer wall guide tubes for ELM pacing. An extruder will provide a stream of solid hydrogen isotopes to a secondary section, where pellets are cut and accelerated with a gas gun into the plasma. The ITER pellet injection system is required to provide a plasma fueling rate of 120 Pa-m3/s (900 mbar-L/s) and durations of up to 3000 s. The fueling pellets will be injected at a rate up to 10 Hz and pellets used to trigger ELMs will be injected at higher rates up to 20 Hz. A twin-screw extruder for the ITER pellet injection system is under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A one-fifth ITER scale prototype has been built and has demonstrated the production of a continuous solid deuterium extrusion. The 27 mm diameter, intermeshed, counter-rotating extruder screws are rotated at a rate up to ?5 rpm. Deuterium gas is pre-cooled and liquefied and solidified in separate extruder barrels. The precooler consists of a deuterium gas filled copper coil suspended in a separate stainless steel vessel containing liquid nitrogen. The liquefier is comprised of a copper barrel connected to a Cryomech AL330 cryocooler, which has a machined helical groove surrounded by a copper jacket, through which the pre-cooled deuterium condenses. The lower extruder barrel is connected to a Cryomech GB-37 cryocooler to solidify the deuterium (at ?15 K) before it is forced through the extruder die. The die forms the extrusion to a 3 mm x 4 mm rectangular cross section. Design improvements have been made to improve the pre-cooler and liquefier heat exchangers, to limit the loss of extrusion through gaps in the screws. This paper will describe the design improvements for the next iteration of the extruder prototype.

Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Leachman, J. W. [University of Wisconsin, Madison

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

(Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

(Polyfluoroaryl) fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interfere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Reduced temperature aluminum production in an electrolytic cell having an inert anode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Aluminum is produced by electrolytic reduction of alumina in a cell having a cathode, an inert anode and a molten salt bath containing metal fluorides and alumina. The inert anode preferably contains copper, silver and oxides of iron and nickel. Reducing the molten salt bath temperature to about 900-950.degree. C. lowers corrosion on the inert anode constituents.

Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA); Kozarek, Robert L. (Apollo, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Production of Gas-Solid Structures in Aluminum and Nickel Alloys by Gasar Processing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experimental data on directional and bulk solidification of hydrogen-charged samples of aluminum alloy A356 and nickel alloy Inconel 718 are discussed. The solidification structure of the porous zone is shown to be dependent on many process variables. Of these variables, hydrogen content in the melt prior to solidification, and furnace atmospheric pressure during solidification play the decisive role. Also important are the furnace atmosphere composition, the solidification velocity, and the temperature distribution of the liquid metal inside the mold.

Apprill, J.M.; Baldwin, M.D.; Maguire, M.C.; Miszkiel, M.E.; Shapovalov, V.I.

1999-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Recyclability of Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...It is resistant to corrosion, and a low ratio of energy is required to remelt aluminum compared with that required for its primary production. Also, the alloy versatility of aluminum has resulted in a large number of commercial compositions, many of which were designed to accommodate impurity...

42

Energy Policy Position of the Aluminum Association - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy represents about one third of the total production cost of primary aluminum. Electricity is an essential ingredient in primary aluminum production.

43

Material Flow and Texture in Friction Extruded Wire  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Material Flow and Texture in Friction Extruded Wire ... conducted during friction extrusion of AA6061 wire with AA2195 as a marker insert.

44

Microstructure and mechanical properties of 7075 aluminum alloy nanostructured composites processed by mechanical milling and indirect hot extrusion  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured composites of 7075 aluminum alloy and carbon coated silver nanoparticles were produced by mechanical milling and indirect hot extrusion. The milling products were obtained in a high energy SPEX ball mill, and then were compacted by uniaxial load and pressure-less sintered under argon atmosphere. Finally, the sintered product was hot extruded. Carbon coated silver nanoparticles were well distributed in the matrix of the extruded material. Tensile tests were carried out to corroborate the hypothesis that second phase particles, well dispersed in the matrix, improve the strength of the material. High resolution transmission electron microscopy was employed to locate and make sure that the silver nanoparticles were homogeneously and finely dispersed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7075 Al nanostructured composites can be produced by mechanical milling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon coated silver nanoparticles are well dispersed into aluminum matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ductile Ag-C NP's improve the mechanical properties of the 7075 Al-alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-C NP's content has an important effect in the particle and crystallite size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-C NP's keep their morphology after milling and conformation processes.

Flores-Campos, R., E-mail: ruben.flores@itesm.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, CP 31109, Chihuahua, Chih., Mexico (Mexico); Tecnologico de Monterrey Campus Saltillo, Departamento de Ingenieria, Prol. Juan de la Barrera No. 1241 Ote., Col. Cumbres, CP 25270, Saltillo, Coah., Mexico (Mexico); Estrada-Guel, I., E-mail: ivanovich.estrada@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, CP 31109, Chihuahua, Chih., Mexico (Mexico); Miki-Yoshida, M., E-mail: mario.miki@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, CP 31109, Chihuahua, Chih., Mexico (Mexico); Martinez-Sanchez, R., E-mail: roberto.martinez@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, CP 31109, Chihuahua, Chih., Mexico (Mexico); Herrera-Ramirez, J.M., E-mail: martin.herrera@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Laboratorio Nacional de Nanotecnologia, Miguel de Cervantes No. 120, CP 31109, Chihuahua, Chih., Mexico (Mexico)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

Method for the recovery of fluorides from spent aluminum potlining and the production of an environmentally safe waste residue  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for recovery of fluoride values from spent potlining and fluoride containing insulating materials associated with the potlining is disclosed. Spent potlining and the insulating matericals are reduced to a fine particle size and incinerated. The ash residue is leached with a dilute caustic and the leachate is treated with a calcium compound to precipitate calcium fluoride. The calcium fluoride is dried to a moisture content of less than 0.1 percent and is treated with about 93 to 99 percent concentration of sulfuric acid to produce hydrogen fluoride gas and a metal sulfate. The hydrogen fluoride gas is fed into an alumina dry scrubber to produce alumina with absorbed fluorides to be used as feed material to reduction cells used in the manufacture of aluminum by electrolytic reduction. The metal sulfate residue is treated with lime and constitutes an environmentally safe product which can be disposed of as landfill material.

Snodgrass, J.B.; Cambridge, E.L.

1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

46

Phase III Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Utilized in Energy Efficient Aluminum Production Cells  

SciTech Connect

During Phase I of the present program, Alcoa developed a commercial cell concept that has been estimated to save 30% of the energy required for aluminum smelting. Phase ii involved the construction of a pilot facility and operation of two pilots. Phase iii of the Advanced Anodes and Cathodes Program was aimed at bench experiments to permit the resolution of certain questions to be followed by three pilot cells. All of the milestones related to materials, in particular metal purity, were attained with distinct improvements over work in previous phases of the program. NiO additions to the ceramic phase and Ag additions to the Cu metal phase of the cermet improved corrosion resistance sufficiently that the bench scale pencil anodes met the purity milestones. Some excellent metal purity results have been obtained with anodes of the following composition: Further improvements in anode material composition appear to be dependent on a better understanding of oxide solubilities in molten cryolite. For that reason, work was commissioned with an outside consultant to model the MeO - cryolite systems. That work has led to a better understanding of which oxides can be used to substitute into the NiO-Fe2O3 ceramic phase to stabilize the ferrites and reduce their solubility in molten cryolite. An extensive number of vertical plate bench electrolysis cells were run to try to find conditions where high current efficiencies could be attained. TiB2-G plates were very inconsistent and led to poor wetting and drainage. Pure TiB2 did produce good current efficiencies at small overlaps (shadowing) between the anodes and cathodes. This bench work with vertical plate anodes and cathodes reinforced the importance of good cathode wetting to attain high current efficiencies. Because of those conclusions, new wetting work was commissioned and became a major component of the research during the third year of Phase III. While significant progress was made in several areas, much work needs to be done. The anode composition needs further improvements to attain commercial purity targets. At the present corrosion rate, the vertical plate anodes will wear too rapidly leading to a rapidly increasing anode-cathode gap and thermal instabilities in the cell. Cathode wetting as a function of both cathode plate composition and bath composition needs to be better understood to ensure that complete drainage of the molten aluminum off the plates occurs. Metal buildup appears to lead to back reaction and low current efficiencies.

R.A. Christini; R.K. Dawless; S.P. Ray; D.A. Weirauch, Jr.

2001-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

47

Production of NANO powder of aluminum nitride by pulsed power method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After revision of applications, physical and chemical properties and various methods for production of nano powder of AlN, Pulsed Electrical Exploded Wire Discharge (EEW) method for production of various kinds of these nano powders has been studied in ... Keywords: AlN, EEW, low inductance pulse capacitor, nano powder, pulsed power, spark gap

M. M. Daemi Attaran; A. Erfanian; P. Ghassemi Kian

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

EXTRUDED CERAMIC NUCLEAR FUEL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Urania rods 6-in. long and 0.475-in. in diameter were extruded and sintered to densities exceeding 94% of the theoratical urania density. The rods dropped freely through a straight metal tube 8-in. long with an internal diameter 0.004-in. greater than the diameter of the rods. All properties of the extruded and sintered rods relevant to their use as a nuclear fuel material were at least equal to the corresponding properties of pressed and sintered urania pellets. Extruded and sintered urania rods can be produced with standard ceramic-industry machinery. From preliminary estimates it appears that extrusions may be produced more cheaply than pellets. (auth)

1961-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

49

aluminum processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Refining of Potroom Metal Using the Hydro Ram Crucible Fluxing Process [pp. .... Approachgeneration of Aluminum Wrought Alloy Scrap of Old Cars [pp.

50

Aluminum I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 6, 2013 ... Among them, automotive aluminum condensers are generally produced ... The brazing sheet used for the condenser is a three-layer composite ...

51

Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material, including forming the extrusion die  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon, or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life.

Lewandowski, E.F.; Peterson, L.L.

1981-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

52

Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material including forming the extrusion die  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life.

Lewandowski, Edward F. (Westmont, IL); Peterson, Leroy L. (Joliet, IL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

(Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of enhanced utility, uses thereof, and products based thereon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium are novel weakly coordinating anions which are are highly fluorinated. (Polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of one such type contain at least one ring substituent other than fluorine. These (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium have greater solubility in organic solvents, or have a coordinative ability essentially equal to or less than that of the corresponding (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, or indium in which the substituent is replaced by fluorine. Another type of new (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanion of aluminum, gallium, and indium have 1-3 perfluorinated fused ring groups and 2-0 perfluorophenyl groups. When used as a cocatalyst in the formation of novel catalytic complexes with d- or f-block metal compounds having at least one leaving group such as a methyl group, these anions, because of their weak coordination to the metal center, do not interefere in the ethylene polymerization process, while affecting the the propylene process favorably, if highly isotactic polypropylene is desired. Thus, the (polyfluoroaryl)fluoroanions of aluminum, gallium, and indium of this invention are useful in various polymerization processes such as are described.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Chen, You-Xian (Midland, MI)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Reduction of Carbon Footprint and Energy Efficiency Improvement in Aluminum Production by Use of Novel Wireless Instrumentation Integrated with Mathematical Modeling  

SciTech Connect

The work addressed the greenhouse gas emission and electrical energy consumption of the aluminum industry. The objective was to provide a means for reducing both through the application of wireless instrumentation, coupled to mathematical modeling. Worldwide the aluminum industry consumes more electrical energy than all activities in many major countries (e.g. the UK) and emits more greenhouse gasses (e.g. than France). Most of these excesses are in the 'primary production' of aluminum; that is the conversion of aluminum oxide to metal in large electrolytic cells operating at hundreds of thousands of amps. An industry-specific GHG emission has been the focus of the work. The electrolytic cells periodically, but at irregular intervals, experience an upset condition known as an 'anode effect'. During such anode effects the cells emit fluorinated hydrocarbons (PFCs, which have a high global warming potential) at a rate far greater than in normal operation. Therefore curbing anode effects will reduce GHG emissions. Prior work had indicated that the distribution of electrical current within the cell experiences significant shifts in the minutes before an anode effect. The thrust of the present work was to develop technology that could detect and report this early warning of an anode effect so that the control computer could minimize GHG emissions. A system was developed to achieve this goal and, in collaboration with Alcoa, was tested on two cells at an Alcoa plant in Malaga, Washington. The project has also pointed to the possibility of additional improvements that could result from the work. Notable among these is an improvement in efficiency that could result in an increase in cell output at little extra operating cost. Prospects for commercialization have emerged in the form of purchase orders for further installations. The work has demonstrated that a system for monitoring the current of individual anodes in an aluminum cell is practical. Furthermore the system has been installed twice on a smelter in the US without exposing workers to hazards usually associated with running signal wires in aluminum plants. The results display the early warning of an anode effect that potentially can be used to minimize such anode effects with their excessive GHG emissions. They also point to a possible, but substantial, economic benefit that could result in improved current efficiency by anode adjustment based on individual anode current measurements.

James W. Evans

2012-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

55

Extruded Dielectrics for Transmission Cables: Evaluation of Aging Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the tasks proposed at the 2002 EPRI workshop on the aging of extruded transmission cables was to evaluate three recently developed theoretical aging models of electrical insulation. The three models were (1) the Thermodynamic Model of Aging of Extruded Insulation by J.P. Crine; (2) the Space Charge Aging Model by L.A. Dissado, G. Mazzanti, and G.C. Montanari (DMM); and (3) the Electromechanical Aging Model by T.J. Lewis. These three models are considered to be significant improvements over the emp...

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

56

Production of aluminum-26  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a method of producing Al-26 from potassium chloride by exposing it to a proton beam in order to break potassium and chlorine atoms into smaller pieces, which include Al-26. The Al-26 is isolated from the potassium chloride and substances produced by the beam by means of extraction and ion exchange.

Steinkruger, F.J.; Phillips, D.R.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

57

Production of aluminum-26  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing Al-26 from potassium chloride by exposing it to a proton beam in order to break potassium and chlorine atoms into smaller pieces, which include Al-26. The Al-26 is isolated from the potassium chloride and other substances produced by the beam by means of extraction and ion exchange.

Steinkruger, Fred J. (Los Alamos, NM); Phillips, Dennis R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Aluminum—Meeting the Challengesof Climate Change  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

However, the largest potential for emission reduction is through the use of aluminum products in energy-saving applications, such as lightweight vehicles, green ...

59

Light Metals: Aluminum, Magnesium, and Titanium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cast Shop for Aluminum Production ... In this proposed, six-session symposium, papers addressing all aspects of cost reduction in titanium and its alloys will be ...

60

TMS Short Course: Industrial Aluminum Electrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since 1980 he has worked with Hydro Aluminum Metals Products in Ardal, ... energy balance, dynamic process simulation and experimental evaluation of cells.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Cold Water Model Simulation of Aluminum Liquid Fluctuations ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Electrode Technology for Aluminium Production ... Cold Water Model Simulation of Aluminum Liquid Fluctuations Induced by Anodic Gas in New ...

62

Aluminum: Industry of the future  

SciTech Connect

For over a century, the US aluminum industry has led the global market with advances in technology, product development, and marketing. Industry leaders recognize both the opportunities and challenges they face as they head into the 21st century, and that cooperative R and D is key to their success. In a unique partnership, aluminum industry leaders have teamed with the US Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) to focus on innovative technologies that will help to strengthen the competitive position of the US aluminum industry and, at the same time, further important national goals. This industry-led partnership, the Aluminum Industry of the Future, promotes technologies that optimize the use of energy and materials in operations and reduce wastes and energy-related emissions. Led by The Aluminum Association, industry leaders began by developing a unified vision of future market, business, energy, and environmental goals. Their vision document, Partnerships for the Future, articulates a compelling vision for the next 20 years: to maintain and grow the aluminum industry through the manufacture and sale of competitively priced, socially desirable, and ecologically sustainable products. Continued global leadership in materials markets will require the combined resources of industry, universities, and government laboratories. By developing a unified vision, the aluminum industry has provided a framework for the next step in the Industries of the Future process, the development of a technology roadmap designed to facilitate cooperative R and D.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Economic and environmental evaluation of end-of-life aerospace aluminum options using optimization methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The benefits of recycling have long been understood and the conspicuous energy savings of secondary aluminum production have caused aluminum recycling to increase. Obsolete aircraft are a valuable source of aluminum scrap ...

Chen, Emily, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Kaiser Aluminum Corp - IL 19  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kaiser Aluminum Corp - IL 19 Kaiser Aluminum Corp - IL 19 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: KAISER ALUMINUM CORP. (IL.19 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Dolton , Illinois IL.19-2 Evaluation Year: 1987 IL.19-2 Site Operations: Performed limited duration work extruding uranium billets into three CP-5 fuel elements, circa 1959. IL.19-2 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Potential for contamination considered remote due to limited scope of activities IL.19-3 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium IL.19-2 Radiological Survey(s): Yes - health and safety monitoring during operations IL.19-4 Site Status: Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP

65

Energy needed to produce aluminum - Today in Energy - U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Aluminum production in the United States generally takes two forms, with very different energy requirements. Primary production involves making ...

66

Strategies for aluminum recycling : insights from material system optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dramatic increase in aluminum consumption over the past decades necessitates a societal effort to recycle and reuse these materials to promote true sustainability and energy savings in aluminum production. However, the ...

Li, Preston Pui-Chuen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Aluminum Recycling in a Carbon Constrained World: Observations ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 15, 2010 ... per kg of primary aluminum production ( 35 million tonnes ) ... Excessive Product Differentiation Leads to Waste /Cost /Higher. Carbon ...

68

Treatment and Minimization of Aluminum and Light Metals Industry ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3:15 pm. PRODUCTION OF VALUE-ADDED PRODUCTS THROUGH PHOSPHATE STABILIZATION OF ALUMINUM INDUSTRY WASTE: Arun S. Wagh, Energy ...

69

Aluminum in Transportation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Aluminum in Transportation: Case Study of the Development of a ... The unit was entirely redesigned using aluminum and based on the future

70

Recycling - Aluminum - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Life Cycle Inventory Report for the North American Aluminum Industry Document providing the life cycle information for the North American aluminum industry.

71

Development of a Twin-Screw D-2 Extruder for the ITER Pellet Injection System  

SciTech Connect

A twin-screw extruder for the ITER pellet injection system is under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The extruder will provide a stream of solid hydrogen isotopes to a secondary section, where pellets are cut and accelerated with single-stage gas gun into the plasma. A one-fifth ITER scale prototype extruder has been built to produce a continuous solid deuterium extrusion. Deuterium gas is precooled and liquefied before being introduced into the extruder. The precooler consists of a copper vessel containing liquid nitrogen surrounded by a deuterium gas filled copper coil. The liquefier is comprised of a copper cylinder connected to a Cryomech AL330 cryocooler, which is surrounded by a copper coil that the precooled deuterium flows through. The lower extruder barrel is connected to a Cryomech GB-37 cryocooler to solidify the deuterium (at approximate to 15 K) before it is forced through the extruder nozzle. A viewport located below the extruder nozzle provides a direct view of the extrusion. A camera is used to document the extrusion quality and duration. A data acquisition system records the extruder temperatures, torque, and speed, upstream, and downstream pressures. This paper will describe the prototype twin-screw extruder and initial extrusion results.

Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Carbajo, Juan J [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Fehling, Dan T [ORNL; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; McFee, Marshall T [ORNL; McGill, James M [ORNL; Rasmussen, David A [ORNL; Sitterson, R G [ORNL; Sparks, Dennis O [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt % wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3,000 psi. By comparison, conventional pumping systems are capable of pumping slurries containing only 10--20 wt % wood flour in wood oil under similar conditions. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a 3,000 psi pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed during 1983--84. Following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. During the period January 1985 through July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3,000 psi and temperatures from 350{degrees}C to 430{degrees}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt % residual oxygen were produced. 43 refs., 81 figs., 52 tabs.

White, D.H.; Wolf, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

White, D.H.; Wolf, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

MRS Photodiode, LED and extruded scintillator performance in magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The experimental results on the performance of the MRS (Metal/Resistor/Semiconductor) photodiode in the strong magnetic field of 4.4T, and the possible impact of the quench of the magnet at 4.5T on sensor's operation are reported. In addition, the experimental results on the performance of the extruded scintillator and WLS fiber, and various LEDs in the magnetic fields of 1.8T and 2.3T respectively, are detailed. The measurement method used is being described.

Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Rykalin, V.; Zutshi, V.; /Northern Illinois U.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-based fuels.  

SciTech Connect

We have successfully demonstrated aluminum electrorefining from a U-Al-Si alloy that simulates spent aluminum-based reactor fuel. The aluminum product contains less than 200 ppm uranium. All the results obtained have been in agreement with predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics. We have also demonstrated the need for adequate stirring to achieve a low-uranium product. Most of the other process steps have been demonstrated in other programs. These include uranium electrorefining, transuranic fission product scrubbing, fission product oxidation, and product consolidation by melting. Future work will focus on the extraction of active metal and rare earth fission products by a molten flux salt and scale-up of the aluminum electrorefining.

Willit, J. L.

1998-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

76

The Monitoring System for Electric Quantity Consumed in Extruder Based on WB Electrical Transducer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new system was discussed, which can be used to measure the performance parameters of extruders driven by asynchronous motor. By applying the WB electrical transducer and the electrical power method, the problem such as low-precision measurement is ... Keywords: electric quantity measurement, electrical transducer, extruder, asynchronous motor

Zheng Shuang; Liu Fugang

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Towards Industrial Aluminum Spent Pot Lining Treatment with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of a conversion process for the fluorinated end-product would allow its reuse as a substitute to fluorspar mineral for aluminum fluoride ...

78

Study on Aluminum Foam with Fly Ash Increase Viscosity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... Study on Aluminum Foam with Fly Ash Increase Viscosity by Yong Wang, Guang- chun Yao, and Bing Li. Publisher: TMS. Product Format: PDF.

79

TMS to Install Hydro Aluminum's Wolfgang Schneider as 2012 ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Schneider is the head of the research and development center of Hydro Aluminum Rolled Products Business in Bonn, Germany and is also a professor of  ...

80

Aluminum II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 6, 2013 ... The thermodynamic modelling is carried out for forecasting of oxidation products in the interaction of Al-Nb alloys with CaO2, CaCO3, Na2SO4 ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Aluminum Fluoride – A Users Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Aluminum Reduction Technology. Presentation Title, Aluminum Fluoride – A ...

82

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Letters of Intent/Agreements Letters of Intent/Agreements Aluminum Association Logo The Aluminum Association and its members participating in the Voluntary Aluminum Industry Partnership (VAIP), representing 98% of primary aluminum production in the United States, have committed under the Climate VISION program to a direct carbon intensity reduction of emissions of perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and of emissions of CO2 from the consumption of the carbon anode from the primary aluminum reduction process. The Climate VISION target is a 53% total carbon equivalent reduction from these sources by 2010 from 1990 levels. The industry has been working to reduce greenhouse gas emissions for over a decade and this new commitment equates to an additional direct carbon-intensity reduction of 65% since 2000. As a

83

Aluminum Reduction Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing the Power Modulation Window of Aluminium Smelter Pots with Shell Heat Exchanger Technology · Initiatives To Reduction Of Aluminum Potline ...

84

Charcoal in Anodes for Aluminium Production - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Electrode Technology for Aluminum Production. Presentation Title ... Lower Aluminium Production Cost through Refractory Material Selection.

85

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources and Links -  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Federal/State Programs Federal/State Programs DOE Aluminum Industry of the Future Collaborative R&D partnerships between DOE Industrial Technologies Program and industry to maximize technology investments. EPA Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership The Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership (VAIP) is an innovative pollution prevention program developed jointly by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the primary aluminum industry. Participating companies (Partners) work with EPA to improve aluminum production efficiency while reducing perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions, potent greenhouse gases that may remain in the atmosphere for thousands of years. See all Federal/State Programs DOE State Activities For information on activities, financial assistance, and solicitations

86

Product Forms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1 Wrought alloy products and tempers...or cold-finished Rivets Forgings and forging stock Foil Fin stock Drawn Extruded Rod Bar Wire 1050 . . . . . . . . . H112 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1060 O, H12, H14, H16, H18 O, H12, H14, H112 O, H12, H14, H18, H113 O, H112 . . . .

87

Aluminum reference electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

Sadoway, Donald R. (Belmont, MA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Aluminum reference electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

Sadoway, D.R.

1988-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

89

Measuring response of extruded scintillator to UV LED in magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

The experimental results on the performance of the extruded scintillator and WLS fiber, and various LEDs in the magnetic fields of 1.8T and 2.3T respectively, are reported. The methodic used is being described.

Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Rykalin, V.; /Northern Illinois U.; Tartaglia, M.; /Fermilab; Zutshi, V.; /Northern Illinois U.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Consumable arc-melting, extruding, and rolling process for iridium sheet  

SciTech Connect

An iridium alloy has been used as cladding for the /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for recent interplanetary spacecraft such as Voyagers 1 and 2 and will be used for the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft. The iridium alloy sheet for the fuel cladding used on these missions was fabricated by hot and cold rolling of arc-melted and drop-cast 0.5-kg ingots. Upon completion of production for these spacecraft, an opportunity was taken to conduct process improvement studies that would increase processing batch sizes, develop a more uniform product, decrease rejections due to internal delaminations and surface defects, and reduce costs. The studies to scale up and improve the fabrication process are described. In the new process, iridium is electron beam melted, alloyed by arc melting, and then consumable arc melted to form a cylindrical ingot of approximately 7 kg for extrusion. The ingot is extruded to sheet bar and hot and cold rooled into sheet. Sheet evaluated from the first two ingots showed 100% acceptance with no defects on inspection. An improved uniformity of microstructure was obtained, and chemistry was controlled within specification limits.

Heestand, R.L.; Copeland, G.L.; Martin, M.M.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip  

SciTech Connect

Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

92

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Industry Associations Aluminum Association The Aluminum Association, Inc. is the trade association for producers of primary aluminum, recyclers and semi-fabricated aluminum...

93

Casthouse Productivity and Safety  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 28, 2011 ... Cast Shop for Aluminum Production: Casthouse Productivity and ... performance indicator called Specific Energy Consumption [SEC] ... Improved Monolithic Materials for Lining Aluminum Holding and Melting Furnaces: Andy ...

94

Cast Shop for Aluminum Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Implementation of a Global Casthouse Furnace Energy Efficiency Program at Rio Tinto ... Optimised Re-melting by the Use of Low-temperature Oxyfuel at Hydro ...

95

Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve Productivity; DOE Software Adopted as Standard for Analyzing Plant Process Heating Systems Company-Wide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This case study describes how the Kaiser Aluminum plant in Sherman, Texas, achieved annual savings of $360,000 and 45,000 MMBtu, and improved furnace energy intensity by 11.1% after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

Not Available

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

The effect of flaxseed hulls on expanded corn meal products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Brown flaxseed hulls were added to de-germed corn meal and processed into extrudates with acceptable texture and increased nutritional benefits. The addition of brown flaxseed hulls to a corn based expanded snack increases the dietary fiber, alpha omega 3 fatty acids, and antioxidants levels. The addition of flaxseed hulls to a corn based snack can increase its susceptibility to oxidative rancidity which can limit shelf life. Whole ground tannin sorghum with added brown flaxseed hulls was processed into extrudates and texture, antioxidant activity, and stability were evaluated. Brown flaxseed hulls were mixed with de-germed yellow corn meal in ratios of 0:100, 15:85, 20:80, and 25:75 (w/w) and extruded with 12 and 15% feed moistures using a twin screw extruder to produce direct expanded extrudates. Expansion of extrudates containing brown hulls decreased as the amount of hulls increased. Dried extrudates had acceptable flavor immediately after processing. Total phenols and antioxidant activity of extrudates containing 20 and 25% brown flaxseed hulls, extruded at 15% feed moisture were higher than de-germed corn meal extruded at 16% feed moisture. Brown flaxseed hulls were added at 20% to whole ground white and sumac (tannin) sorghums and processed into extrudates. Expansion increased for sorghum extrudates containing brown flaxseed hulls. The addition of brown flaxseed hulls increased antioxidant activity and total phenols of both white and sumac (tannin) extrudates. The sumac (tannin) extrudates had the longest delay in producing off odor (paintlike odor) and had the lowest p-Anisidine values compared to white (ATX631x RTX 436) sorghum and corn meal with added flaxseed hulls. Corn meal extrudates with 20% brown flaxseed hulls produce off odors more rapidly than other extrudates. This suggests that the tannins in sorghum maybe extending shelf life because of their antioxidant activity. The addition of brown flaxseed hulls can be used to increase nutritional value and antioxidant levels in a direct expanded product. Also the use of tannins sorghums in products containing flaxseed may help delay oxidation, thus preventing the occurrence of off odors. Further work needs to be done to verify results.

Barron, Marc Edward

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Aluminum Plenary Session flier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Strategic Impact of Changing Energy Markets on the Aluminum Industry ... For complete technical program information, and registration/housing details.

98

Aluminum Extrusion Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Aluminum extrusion alloys by series...6063 (1944), 6066, 6070, 6082 (1972), 6101 (1954), 6105 (1965),

99

Aluminum Association: Recycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... This webpage provides some historical information on aluminum recycling and describes the processes done by various recyclers: used ...

100

Aluminum Recycling, 2006  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... The book details the collecting, sorting, and separating of scrap aluminum as well as the processing and upgrading equipment used.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Aluminum Reduction Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increased Energy Efficiency and Reduced HF Emissions with New Heat Exchanger · Industrial Test of Low-voltage Energy-saving Aluminum Reduction ...

102

Methods for Cleaning and Evaluating Pipe-Type Cable Pipes for Retrofit with Extruded Dielectric Cable Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes studies of pipe cleaning, "pigging," inspecting, and testing pipe-type cable pipes for re-conditioning as conduits compatible with extruded dielectric cables.

2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

103

Aluminum 2003 TABLE OF CONTENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DOE/OIT PHAST Program Application in the Aluminum Industry [pp. 239-242] F.L. Beichner. Retrofitting Regenerative Burners on Aluminum Melting Furnaces ...

104

One step process for producing dense aluminum nitride and composites thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A one step combustion process for the synthesis of dense aluminum nitride compositions is disclosed. The process comprises igniting pure aluminum powder in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of about 1000 atmospheres or higher. The process enables the production of aluminum nitride bodies to be formed directly in a mold of any desired shape.

Holt, J. Birch (San Jose, CA); Kingman, Donald D. (Danville, CA); Bianchini, Gregory M. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

ALUMINUM CLADDING DISSOLUTION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent shows a method of moderating the chemical reaction when aluminum is dissolved in 2 to 7 molar nitric acid with a mercury catalyst. Nickelous nitrate is added as a negative promoter. (AEC)

Schulz, W.W.

1964-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

106

Aluminum ION Battery  

•Lower cost because of abundant aluminum resources ... Li-ion battery (LiC 6 - Mn 2 O 4) 106 4.0 424 Al-ion battery (Al - Mn 2 O 4) 400 2.65 1,060

107

CORROSION PROTECTION OF ALUMINUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred. (D.C.W.)

Dalrymple, R.S.; Nelson, W.B.

1963-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Field Partial Discharge Measurements on Extruded Dielectric Transmission Cable Systems - State of the Art  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a review of technical literature, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical reports, and industry guides to determine the current state of the art for field partial discharge (PD) measurements on extruded dielectric transmission cable systems. Emphasis is placed on the interpretation of field PD measurement test results.

2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

109

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GHG Information The primary aluminum industry emits PFCs and CO2 directly from the production process and indirectly emits CO2 from its energy consumption. In 2001, the U.S....

110

Fluoride Control in the Aluminum Industry: 100 Years of Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jan 1, 2007 ... TMS Member price: 10.00. Non-member price: 25.00. TMS Student Member price : 10.00. Product In Stock. Description The aluminum industry ...

111

Responsibility, Key Challenges, and Opportunities for the Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It would make the aluminum production process much greener, but again the big gain here would be to get most of our electric power made of non-fossil fuels.

112

Investigation of Opportunities for High-Temperature Solar Energy in the Aluminum Industry  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report gives the conclusions drawn from a study of the potential application of high-temperature solar process heat for production of aluminum.

Murray, J.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Regeneration of aluminum hydride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

114

Regeneration of aluminum hydride  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

Graetz, Jason Allan (Mastic, NY); Reilly, James J. (Bellport, NY)

2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

115

Aluminum battery alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cells are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

Thompson, D.S.; Scott, D.H.

1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

116

Aluminum battery alloys  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

Thompson, David S. (Richmond, VA); Scott, Darwin H. (Mechanicsville, VA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Mechanical Effects on Extruded Dielectric Cables and Joints Installed in Underground Transmission Systems in North America  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In other parts of the world, cable is directly buried or installed in tunnels; but underground cable systems in North America have traditionally been installed in duct/manhole systems or in pipes. In these settings, cables expand and contract during load cycling; and the resulting mechanical stresses can have an impact on the reliable performance of the cable system. With the increased use of extruded dielectric transmission cable systems, EPRI member utilities are faced with the challenge of evaluating ...

2004-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

118

Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip  

SciTech Connect

Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

McHugh, K.M.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Development of extruded and molded straight joint for ultra high-voltage XLPE cable  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Japan, 154-kV crosslinked polyethylene-insulated cables (XLPE) are already in use for long-distance tranmission lines, but 275-kV XLPE cables are used only for short-distance lines (without joints) on the premises of power-generation plants and substations. 275-kV XLPE cable is expected to be used for long-distance transmission lines in the near future because of its overall cost advantage. To respond to this need, a straight-through joint with the same reliability as the cable should be developed. Reliable joints should be formed and molded with the same curable PE compounds as the cable insulation. At present, 154-kV XLPE cables for long-distance transmission lines are usually constructed with the joint comprising XLPE insulation wrapped with curable PE tape and molded by heating. However, this taped molded joint has the disadvantages of troublesome tape handling. On the other hand, extruded molded joints are constructed by injecting curable melted PE into a mold with an extruder, eliminating contamination. The report describes the characteristics of the extruded and molded joint developed for 154, 275 and 500 kV class XLPE cables.

Shimomura, T.; Ando, K.; Asahi, K.; Sugiyama, K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

SOLDERING OF ALUMINUM BASE METALS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent deals with the soldering of aluminum to metals of different types, such as copper, brass, and iron. This is accomplished by heating the aluminum metal to be soldered to slightly above 30 deg C, rubbing a small amount of metallic gallium into the part of the surface to be soldered, whereby an aluminum--gallium alloy forms on the surface, and then heating the aluminum piece to the melting point of lead--tin soft solder, applying lead--tin soft solder to this alloyed surface, and combining the aluminum with the other metal to which it is to be soldered.

Erickson, G.F.

1958-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources and Links -  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Resources & Links Resources & Links Technical Information Publications Case Studies Publications Some of the following publications are available for download as Adobe PDF documents. Download Acrobat Reader Factors Affecting Emissions from Commercial Aluminum Reduction Cells (PDF 316 KB) The U.S. EPA and the Aluminum Association sponsored measurements of two perfluorocarbon (PFC) gases: tetrafluoromethane and hexafluoroethane. The measurements at six primary aluminum production facilities provided data on emissions of these compounds during normal aluminum smelting operations. Technology and Economics of Reducing PFC Emissions from Aluminium Production (PDF 139 KB) The paper, presented in 2002 at the Third International Symposium on Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases (NCGG-3), provides an overview of global efforts

122

Chemical and Physical Properties of Breakfast Cereals and Snacks Made from Specialty Sorghums and Sorghum Bran Using Twin Screw Extruder  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Whole ground white, high tannin and black sorghum with and without additional high tannin sorghum bran were used in different proportions to develop ready to eat breakfast cereals and snacks. The effect of extrusion on the phenolic compounds and on in vitro starch digestibility of sorghum based cereals and snacks were observed. Gluten free and gluten containing breakfast cereal and snacks were developed with different physical, chemical and sensory characteristic. By increasing the sorghum and bran level in the formulations, the bulk density of extrudates was increased while expansion ratio was decreased. Bowl life of extrudates was increased up to 18 min. when 60% whole ground white sorghum was used with additional 10% high tannin sorghum bran. Water soluble index was significantly higher for the extrudates without additional bran and decreased as bran was added. A positive correlation between water soluble index and expansion ratio (R^2=0.89) indicated that the more expansion ratio provided a large surface area for water to interact with starch and other soluble components. The retention of total phenols in these extrudates varied from 13-41% and it was found that extrudates with additional high tannin sorghum bran had more total phenols than extrudates without it. Sorghum extrudates showed a significant reduction in antioxidant activity varied from 21-83%. Similarly, the effect of extrusion on condensed tannins was detrimental, and their retention was ranged from 12-28%. The smaller particle size of ground sorghum increased the surface area of contact between composite flour components and extruder barrel which promoted interactions during extrusion, lowering condensed tannins and antioxidant activity. All sorghum based extrudates had significantly (Psorghum had non-significant difference in starch digestibility from 0.5-2hrs. After 16 hrs., high tannin sorghum extrudates had the lowest starch digestibility (79%), which was significantly different from other sorghum types. There was a negative correlation between the rapid digestible starch and tannin contents (R^2=0.62). Breakfast cereals made from different types of sorghum and bran levels were statistically equally rated in taste and overall acceptability.

Asif, Muhammad

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

CONSOLIDATED CERAMIC PRODUCTS, INC.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For 40 years, Consolidated Ceramic Products, Inc. has been of service to the aluminum industries worldwide. An innovative manufacturer and marketer of ...

124

Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2.8 wt.% Si-0.7 wt.% Fe-0.8 wt.% Mn),. Purification factors (defined as the initial impurity concentration divided by the final impurity concentration) of greater than 20 were achieved for silicon, iron, copper, and manganese. Cell performance was measured using its current and voltage characteristics and composition analysis of the anode, cathode, and electrolytes. The various cells were autopsied as part of the study. Three electrolyte systems tested were: LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3, LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 and LiF-10 wt.% AlF3. An extended four-day run with the LiCl-10 wt.% AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 electrolyte system was stable for the entire duration of the experiment, running at energy requirements about one third of the Hoopes and the conventional Hall-Heroult process. Three different anode membranes were investigated with respect to their purification performance and survivability: a woven graphite cloth with 0.05 cm nominal thickness & > 90 % porosity, a drilled rigid membrane with nominal porosity of 33%, and another drilled rigid graphite membrane with increased thickness. The latter rigid drilled graphite was selected as the most promising membrane design. The economic viability of the membrane cell to purify scrap is sensitive to primary & scrap aluminum prices, and the cost of electricity. In particular, it is sensitive to the differential between scrap and primary aluminum price which is highly variable and dependent on the scrap source. In order to be economically viable, any scrap post-processing technology in the U.S. market must have a total operating cost well below the scrap price differential of $0.20-$0.40 per lb to the London Metal Exchange (LME), a margin of 65%-85% of the LME price. The cost to operate the membrane cell is estimated to be aluminum. The energy cost is estimated to be $0.05/lb of purified aluminum with the remaining costs being repair and maintenance, electrolyte, labor, taxes and depreciation. The bench-scale work on membrane purification cell process has demonstrated technological advantages and subs

David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

125

Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling  

SciTech Connect

Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2.8 wt.% Si-0.7 wt.% Fe-0.8 wt.% Mn),. Purification factors (defined as the initial impurity concentration divided by the final impurity concentration) of greater than 20 were achieved for silicon, iron, copper, and manganese. Cell performance was measured using its current and voltage characteristics and composition analysis of the anode, cathode, and electrolytes. The various cells were autopsied as part of the study. Three electrolyte systems tested were: LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3, LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 and LiF-10 wt.% AlF3. An extended four-day run with the LiCl-10 wt.% AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 electrolyte system was stable for the entire duration of the experiment, running at energy requirements about one third of the Hoopes and the conventional Hall-Heroult process. Three different anode membranes were investigated with respect to their purification performance and survivability: a woven graphite cloth with 0.05 cm nominal thickness & > 90 % porosity, a drilled rigid membrane with nominal porosity of 33%, and another drilled rigid graphite membrane with increased thickness. The latter rigid drilled graphite was selected as the most promising membrane design. The economic viability of the membrane cell to purify scrap is sensitive to primary & scrap aluminum prices, and the cost of electricity. In particular, it is sensitive to the differential between scrap and primary aluminum price which is highly variable and dependent on the scrap source. In order to be economically viable, any scrap post-processing technology in the U.S. market must have a total operating cost well below the scrap price differential of $0.20-$0.40 per lb to the London Metal Exchange (LME), a margin of 65%-85% of the LME price. The cost to operate the membrane cell is estimated to be < $0.24/lb of purified aluminum. The energy cost is estimated to be $0.05/lb of purified aluminum with the remaining costs being repair and maintenance, electrolyte, labor, taxes and depreciation. The bench-scale work on membrane purification cell process has demonstrated technological advantages and subs

David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

126

Laser welding of aluminum alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent interest in reducing the weight of automobiles to increase fuel mileage has focused attention on the use of aluminum and associated joining technologies. Laser beam welding is one of the more promising methods for high speed welding of aluminum. Consequently, substantial effort has been expended in attempting to develop a robust laser beam welding process. Early results have not been very consistent in the process requirements but more definitive data has been produced recently. This paper reviews the process parameters needed to obtain consistent laser welds on 5,000 series aluminum alloys and discusses the research necessary to make laser processing of aluminum a reality for automotive applications.

Leong, K.H.; Sabo, K.R.; Sanders, P.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Technology Development Div.; Spawr, W.J.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Aluminum Alloys for Packaging II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 1996 ... An update is provided of all aspects of can stock materials and the fundamentals of can making, including: the physical metallurgy of aluminum ...

128

Aluminum: Technology, Applications, and Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apr 1, 1998 ... Print Book: Aluminium - Rolling (Process, Principle & Applications). Print Book: Hall-Héroult Centennial: First Century of Aluminum Process ...

129

Aluminum 2002 TABLE OF CONTENTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of Strain Induced Surface Topography of 6XXX Series Aluminum Sheet Under Balanced Biaxial Tension [pp. 83-90] S.W. Banovic and T. Foecke.

130

Aluminum Alloys for Packaging III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 1, 1998... of aluminum can stock, lid stock, and tab stock alloys; coatings; and their related applications to can, lid, and tab making could be presented.

131

Molten Salts, Magnesium and Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 1, 2011 ... Chloride 2011: Practice and Theory of Chloride-Based Metallurgy: Molten Salts, Magnesium and Aluminum Sponsored by: The Minerals, ...

132

Development of a Diagnostic Twin Screw Extruder to Characterize Fuel Production for Tokamaks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fusion Technologies: Heating and Fueling / Proceedings of the Twentieth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (TOFE-2012) (Part 2) Nashville, Tennessee, August 27-31, 2012

J. T. Fisher; J. W. Leachman

133

A study of the manufacturing and product possibilities of a cork/polylactic acid compound  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study of the manufacturing and product capabilities of a cork/polylactic acid compound was conducted. Fine granulated cork, 1mm in diameter, was compounded with Natureworks' IngeoTM3051D PLA and extruded into pellets. ...

Reed, Sarah BR

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Results  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Results Results The Aluminum Association and the federal government have document progress in the Climate Vision program. The results are measured by metrics developed by the industry, in partnership with the government, and reported. Progress will also be tracked under the umbrella of the Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership website. Please check back on this website and the Energy Information Agency website for updates. In 2005, the industry achieved the goal set for 2010. A 56 percent reduction in direct process emissions per ton of production, including combined reductions in PFC's and CO2, exceeds the 53 percent commitment for 2010. Further progress is expected in the industry, however complications from high power costs and potential curtailments make predictions for further reductions

135

Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

2007-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

136

Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and ...  

In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of ...

137

Melting of Aluminum by Electricity: A Review of Operating Practice and Discussion of Cost Factors for Melting Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1998, about 10 million tons of aluminum ingot and various forms of scrap were melted to produce a variety of products. The majority of the aluminum was melted in oil or natural gas-fired furnaces. However, as old gas-fired furnaces are being replaced or capacity is being increased, consideration is being given to electric-fired furnaces to obtain more energy efficient melting and increased yield of product. The purpose of this report is to acquaint the reader with the various types of commercial elect...

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

138

Electrical method and apparatus for impelling the extruded ejection of high-velocity material jets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for producing high-velocity material jets is provided. An electric current pulse generator is attached to an end of a coaxial two-conductor transmission line having an outer cylindrical conductor, an inner cylindrical conductor, and a solid plastic or ceramic insulator there between. A coaxial, thin-walled metal structure is conductively joined to the two conductors of the transmission line. An electrical current pulse applies magnetic pressure to and possibly explosively vaporizes metal structure, thereby collapsing it and impelling the extruded ejection of a high-velocity material jet therefrom. The jet is comprised of the metal of the structure, together with the material that comprises any covering layers disposed on the structure. An electric current pulse generator of the explosively driven magnetic flux compression type or variety may be advantageously used in the practice of this invention. 3 figs.

Weingart, R.C.

1988-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

139

Electrical method and apparatus for impelling the extruded ejection of high-velocity material jets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus (10, 40) for producing high-velocity material jets provided. An electric current pulse generator (14, 42) is attached to an end of a coaxial two-conductor transmission line (16, 44) having an outer cylindrical conductor (18), an inner cylindrical conductor (20), and a solid plastic or ceramic insulator (21) therebetween. A coxial, thin-walled metal structure (22, 30) is conductively joined to the two conductors (18, 20) of the transmission line (16, 44). An electrical current pulse applies magnetic pressure to and possibly explosively vaporizes metal structure (22), thereby collapsing it and impelling the extruded ejection of a high-velocity material jet therefrom. The jet is comprised of the metal of the structure (22), together with the material that comprises any covering layers (32, 34) disposed on the structure. An electric current pulse generator of the explosively driven magnetic flux compression type or variety (42) may be advantageously used in the practice of this invention.

Weingart, Richard C. (Livermore, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

The 11/2{sup -}[505] neutron extruder orbital in {sup 159}Sm  

SciTech Connect

Excited states in {sup 159}Sm, populated following the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf have been studied by means of {gamma} spectroscopy, using the Gammasphere array. In {sup 159}Sm we have identified an isomeric level with a half-life of T{sub 1/2}=116(8) ns at an excitation energy of 1276.8 keV and observed a rotational band on top of this isomer. On the basis of the observed properties of the isomer and the band on top of it we propose that the 1276.8-keV level in {sup 159}Sm corresponds to the 11/2{sup -}[505] neutron extruder configuration. The new excitation scheme of {sup 159}Sm is compared to quasiparticle rotor model calculations.

Urban, W. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue J. Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Pinston, J. A.; Simpson, G. S. [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, F-38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Smith, A. G.; Smith, J. F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); Rzaca-Urban, T. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Ahmad, I. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Experience with Production Scale Usage of Optifine – A High ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2010 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Cast Shop for Aluminum Production. Presentation Title, Experience with ...

142

Electrolyte treatment for aluminum reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of treating an electrolyte for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum employing an anode and a cathode, the alumina dissolved in the electrolyte, the treating improving wetting of the cathode with molten aluminum during electrolysis. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte comprised of ALF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF and LiF, and treating the electrolyte by providing therein 0.004 to 0.2 wt. % of a transition metal or transition metal compound for improved wettability of the cathode with molten aluminum during subsequent electrolysis to reduce alumina to aluminum.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

It's Elemental - The Element Aluminum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Company of America, or Alcoa. When it opened, his company could produce about 25 kilograms of aluminum a day. By 1909, his company was producing about 41,000 kilograms of...

144

CE IGCC Repowering Project: Use of the Lockheed Kinetic Extruder for coal feeding; Topical report, June 1993  

SciTech Connect

ABB CE is evaluating alternate methods of coal feed across a pressure barrier for its pressurized coal gasification process. The Lockheed Kinetic Extruder has shown to be one of the most promising such developments. In essence, the Kinetic Extruder consists of a rotor in a pressure vessel. Coal enters the rotor and is forced outward to the surrounding pressure vessel by centrifugal force. The force on the coal passing across the rotor serves as a pressure barrier. Should this technology be successfully developed and tested, it could reduce the cost of IGCC technology by replacing the large lockhoppers conventionally used with a much smaller system. This will significantly decrease the size of the gasifier island. Kinetic Extruder technology needs testing over an extended period of time to develop and prove the long term reliability and performance needed in a commercial application. Major issues to be investigated in this program are component design for high temperatures, turn-down, scale-up factors, and cost. Such a test would only be economically feasible if it could be conducted on an existing plant. This would defray the cost of power and feedstock. Such an installation was planned for the CE IGCC Repowering Project in Springfield, Illinois. Due to budgetary constraints, however, this provision was dropped from the present plant design. It is believed that, with minor design changes, a small scale test version of the Kinetic Extruder could be installed parallel to an existing lockhopper system without prior space allocation. Kinetic Extruder technology represents significant potential cost savings to the IGCC process. For this reason, a test program similar to that specified for the Springfield project would be a worthwhile endeavor.

NONE

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

BWeb Copy of the Aluminum Chapter from the 1st  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to a cheap source of electric power, typically a large scale hydro-electric facility. With 2,204 pounds electricity generated from burning coal and gas to run a small smelting works in New Kensington, Pennsylvania Falls Power Company. The partnership between large scale aluminum production and power generation

Ford, Andrew

146

Company Background Aluminum rod manufacturer based in Jakarta,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: frequent smaller orders with lower inventory Production inventory is not recorded by Accounting months in 2009 Shift variation unlikely to have caused discrepancy Problem 1: Supporting Materials Usage & Electricity Depreciation Figure 1 - Cost categories excluding aluminum Alex (Kwun Hang) Chan Keith (Hoi Ki

Sun, Yu

147

Melt Conditioned Casting of Aluminum Alloys - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Capillary Tube Fabrication of A3003 Alloy for Air Condition · Cathodic Dissolution of Pure Aluminum, Aluminum Alloy AA6061 and Aluminum Particle Based ...

148

Aluminum is Sustainable  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 15, 2010 ... demand more and more information about the products they market. From: ?light weight ... Technical Analysis of Energy and GHG. Emissions.

149

Spray Forming Aluminum - Final Report (Phase II)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Industrial Technology (DOE) has an objective to increase energy efficient and enhance competitiveness of American metals industries. To support this objective, ALCOA Inc. entered into a cooperative program to develop spray forming technology for aluminum. This Phase II of the DOE Spray Forming Program would translate bench scale spray forming technology into a cost effective world class process for commercialization. Developments under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-94ID13238 occurred during two time periods due to budgetary constraints; April 1994 through September 1996 and October 1997 and December 1998. During these periods, ALCOA Inc developed a linear spray forming nozzle and specific support processes capable of scale-up for commercial production of aluminum sheet alloy products. Emphasis was given to alloys 3003 and 6111, both being commercially significant alloys used in the automotive industry. The report reviews research performed in the following areas: Nozzel Development, Fabrication, Deposition, Metal Characterization, Computer Simulation and Economics. With the formation of a Holding Company, all intellectual property developed in Phases I and II of the Project have been documented under separate cover for licensing to domestic producers.

D. D. Leon

1999-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

150

Energy Challenges and Conservation Achievements in the Aluminum Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy is a vital resource in the production of aluminum. It is economically essential that producers use it efficiently. The aluminum industry developed historically in an economy of energy surplus or abundance. It has responded to energy constraints with stringent, voluntary energy conservation programs that are enabling producers to reduce their consumption significantly. Conservation plus the results of on-going, energy-related R&D work and innovative technology are helping Alcoa reduce energy requirements. This talk reviews the aluminum industry's and Alcoa's conservation activities of the past five post-embargo years. It highlights smelting improvements, still in the research and development stage, which nonetheless promise significant energy savings in the future, and other research activities as well. The importance of recycling and new recycling technology are included.

Sheldon, A. C.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

152

ICME in Aluminum Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 7, 2013 ... Program Organizers: Kai Karhausen, Hydro Aluminium Rolled Products GmbH ... An example of using a multi-scale-based ICME approach to evaluate ... cold work (small or large strain) and a final brazing heat treatment.

153

Erosion of Ferrous Alloys by Liquid Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... the degradation of ferrous alloys under the demands of liquid metal transfer conditions ... (by exposure to flowing aluminum) and response to thermal cycling (by cyclic exposure to static aluminum) ... 2008 Global Anode Effect Survey Results.

154

TMS 2012 Industrial Aluminum Electrolysis Course Schedule  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 9, 2012 ... Temperature and Aluminum Fluoride. Barry Welch. 11:00 - 12:00. 10: Aluminum Fluoride Variations and Control. Barry Welch. 12:00 - 13:00.

155

Current technologies and trends of aluminum design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A literature review of current aluminum technology in the building and construction industry was carried out. Aluminum is an ideal material for building in corrosive environments and for building structures where small ...

Chen, Michael, 1981-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Aluminum-carbon composite electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

Farahmandi, C. Joseph (Auburn, AL); Dispennette, John M. (Auburn, AL)

1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

157

TMS Short Course: Industrial Aluminum Electrolysis 2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Electrolyte Compositions; Fluoride Emissions Control; Graphite Resistor and Gas ... the Variability and Control of Temperature and Aluminum Fluoride in Cells  ...

158

2013 TMS Industrial Aluminum Electrolysis Course  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum Fluoride Variations and Control; Anode Cover; Anode Effect Mechanism and PFC Emission Rates; Anodes in Cells - Their Reactions and ...

159

Expansion and Collapse of Liquid Aluminum Foams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ESP Dust Recovery Process Test Works, Plant Trial, Commissioning, Operations and Metallurgical Performance · Expansion and Collapse of Liquid Aluminum ...

160

Aluminum Alloys: Fabrication, Characterization and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Welding of Aluminum Wires for Cables Harnesses in the Automotive Industry ... Transmission Electron Microscopic Investigation of Sensitized Al-5083.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Fatigue Resistance of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Fatigue Resistance of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Aluminum ... Fatigue crack propagation (FCP) and fracture mechanism of Al-CNT  ...

162

TMS 2010 Networking Events: Aluminum Plenary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TMS Home · Contact Us ... Technical Divisions Home .... Challenges and Opportunities Relative to Increased Usage of Aluminum within the Automotive Industry

163

Oxide Skin Strength Measurements on Molten Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, OXIDE SKIN STRENGTH MEASUREMENTS ON MOLTEN ALUMINUM – MANGANESE ALLOYS WITH AND WITHOUT SALT ON SURFACE

164

The China Factor: Aluminum Industry Impact  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... International Aluminium Institute, Japan Aluminium Association, South Korea Nonferrous Metals Association, and, for the first time, The Aluminum Association.

165

Aluminum Alloys: Fabrication, Characterization and Applications ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Program Organizers: Zhengdong (Steven) Long, Kaiser Aluminum; Subodh Das, Phinix LLC; Tongguang Zhai, University of Kentucky; William ...

166

TMS Short Course: Industrial Aluminum Electrolysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... lower energy consumption, improve metal quality and reduce environmental ... Formerly Kaiser Aluminum; Halvor Kvande, Hydro Aluminium Primary Metal, ...

167

Life-cycle energy savings potential from aluminum-intensive vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The life-cycle energy and fuel-use impacts of US-produced aluminum-intensive passenger cars and passenger trucks are assessed. The energy analysis includes vehicle fuel consumption, material production energy, and recycling energy. A model that stimulates market dynamics was used to project aluminum-intensive vehicle market shares and national energy savings potential for the period between 2005 and 2030. We conclude that there is a net energy savings with the use of aluminum-intensive vehicles. Manufacturing costs must be reduced to achieve significant market penetration of aluminum-intensive vehicles. The petroleum energy saved from improved fuel efficiency offsets the additional energy needed to manufacture aluminum compared to steel. The energy needed to make aluminum can be reduced further if wrought aluminum is recycled back to wrought aluminum. We find that oil use is displaced by additional use of natural gas and nonfossil energy, but use of coal is lower. Many of the results are not necessarily applicable to vehicles built outside of the United States, but others could be used with caution.

Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Gaines, L.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Commercial Aluminum-Lithium Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 8   Typical physical properties of selected aluminum-lithium alloys...-742 Elastic modulus, GPa (10 6 psi) 76 (11.0) 75 (10.9) 77 (11.2) Poisson's ratio 0.34 � � (a) Measured per ASTM G 60

169

Continuous Severe Plastic Deformation Processing of Aluminum Alloys  

SciTech Connect

Metals with grain sizes smaller than 1-micrometer have received much attention in the past decade. These materials have been classified as ultra fine grain (UFG) materials (grain sizes in the range of 100 to 1000-nm) and nano-materials (grain size <100-nm) depending on the grain size. This report addresses the production of bulk UFG metals through the use of severe plastic deformation processing, and their subsequent use as stock material for further thermomechanical processing, such as forging. A number of severe plastic deformation (SPD) methods for producing bulk UFG metals have been developed since the early 1990s. The most promising of these processes for producing large size stock that is suitable for forging is the equal channel angular extrusion or pressing (ECAE/P) process. This process involves introducing large shear strain in the work-piece by pushing it through a die that consists of two channels with the same cross-sectional shape that meet at an angle to each other. Since the cross-sections of the two channels are the same, the extruded product can be re-inserted into the entrance channel and pushed again through the die. Repeated extrusion through the ECAE/P die accumulates sufficient strain to breakdown the microstructure and produce ultra fine grain size. It is well known that metals with very fine grain sizes (< 10-micrometer) have higher strain rate sensitivity and greater elongation to failure at elevated temperature, exhibiting superplastic behavior. However, this superplastic behavior is usually manifest at high temperature (> half the melting temperature on the absolute scale) and very low strain rates (< 0.0001/s). UFG metals have been shown to exhibit superplastic characteristics at lower temperature and higher strain rates, making this phenomenon more practical for manufacturing. This enables part unitization and forging more complex and net shape parts. Laboratory studies have shown that this is particularly true for UFG metals produced by SPD techniques. This combination of properties makes UFG metals produced by SPD very attractive as machining, forging or extrusion stock, both from the point of view of formability as well as energy and cost saving. However, prior to this work there had been no attempt to transfer these potential benefits observed in the laboratory scale to industrial shop floor. The primary reason for this was that the laboratory scale studies had been conducted to develop a scientific understanding of the processes that result in grain refinement during SPD. Samples that had been prepared in the laboratory scale were typically only about 10-mm diameter and 50-mm long (about 0.5-inch diameter and 2-inches long). The thrust of this project was three-fold: (i) to show that the ECAE/P process can be scaled up to produce long samples, i.e., a continuous severe plastic deformation (CSPD) process, (ii) show the process can be scaled up to produce large cross section samples that could be used as forging stock, and (iii) use the large cross-section samples to produce industrial size forgings and demonstrate the potential energy and cost savings that can be realized if SPD processed stock is adopted by the forging industry. Aluminum alloy AA-6061 was chosen to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach used. The CSPD process developed using the principles of chamber-less extrusion and drawing, and was demonstrated using rolling and wire drawing equipment that was available at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In a parallel effort, ECAE/P dies were developed for producing 100-mm square cross section SPD billets for subsequent forging. This work was carried out at Intercontinental Manufacturing Co. (IMCO), Garland TX. Forging studies conducted with the ECAE/P billets showed that many of the potential benefits of using UFG material can be realized. In particular, the material yield can be increased, and the amount of material that is lost as scrap can be reduced by as much as 50%. Forging temperatures can also be reduced by over 150ºC, resulting in energy savings in the ope

Raghavan Srinivasan (PI); Prabir K. Chaudhury; Balakrishna Cherukuri; Qingyou Han; David Swenson; Percy Gros

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

170

The Effect of Impurities on the Processing of Aluminum Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For this Aluminum Industry of the Future (IOF) project, the effect of impurities on the processing of aluminum alloys was systematically investigated. The work was carried out as a collaborative effort between the Pennsylvania State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Industrial support was provided by ALCOA and ThermoCalc, Inc. The achievements described below were made. A method that combines first-principles calculation and calculation of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) was used to develop the multicomponent database Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na. This method was extensively used in this project for the development of a thermodynamic database. The first-principles approach provided some thermodynamic property data that are not available in the open literature. These calculated results were used in the thermodynamic modeling as experimental data. Some of the thermodynamic property data are difficult, if not impossible, to measure. The method developed and used in this project allows the estimation of these data for thermodynamic database development. The multicomponent database Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na was developed. Elements such as Ca, Li, Na, and K are impurities that strongly affect the formability and corrosion behavior of aluminum alloys. However, these impurity elements are not included in the commercial aluminum alloy database. The process of thermodynamic modeling began from Al-Na, Ca-Li, Li-Na, K-Na, and Li-K sub-binary systems. Then ternary and higher systems were extrapolated because of the lack of experimental information. Databases for five binary alloy systems and two ternary systems were developed. Along with other existing binary and ternary databases, the full database of the multicomponent Al-Ca-K-Li-Mg-Na system was completed in this project. The methodology in integrating with commercial or other aluminum alloy databases can be developed. The mechanism of sodium-induced high-temperature embrittlement (HTE) of Al-Mg is now understood. Using the thermodynamic database developed in this project, thermodynamic simulations were carried out to investigate the effect of sodium on the HTE of Al-Mg alloys. The simulation results indicated that the liquid miscibility gap resulting from the dissolved sodium in the molten material plays an important role in HTE. A liquid phase forms from the solid face-centered cubic (fcc) phase (most likely at grain boundaries) during cooling, resulting in the occurrence of HTE. Comparison of the thermodynamic simulation results with experimental measurements on the high-temperature ductility of an Al-5Mg-Na alloy shows that HTE occurs in the temperature range at which the liquid phase exists. Based on this fundamental understanding of the HTE mechanism during processing of aluminum alloy, an HTE sensitive zone and a hot-rolling safe zone of the Al-Mg-Na alloys are defined as functions of processing temperature and alloy composition. The tendency of HTE was evaluated based on thermodynamic simulations of the fraction of the intergranular sodium-rich liquid phase. Methods of avoiding HTE during rolling/extrusion of Al-Mg-based alloys were suggested. Energy and environmental benefits from the results of this project could occur through a number of avenues: (1) energy benefits accruing from reduced rejection rates of the aluminum sheet and bar, (2) reduced dross formation during the remelting of the aluminum rejects, and (3) reduced CO2 emission related to the energy savings. The sheet and extruded bar quantities produced in the United States during 2000 were 10,822 and 4,546 million pounds, respectively. It is assumed that 50% of the sheet and 10% of the bar will be affected by implementing the results of this project. With the current process, the rejection rate of sheet and bar is estimated at 5%. Assuming that at least half of the 5% rejection of sheet and bar will be eliminated by using the results of this project and that 4% of the aluminum will be lost through dross (Al2O3) during remelting of the rejects, the full-scale industrial implementation of the project results would lead to energy

Zi-Kui Liu; Shengjun Zhang; Qingyou Han; Vinod Sikka

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

171

Alumina Production in Russia Part I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The historical development of Russia's alumina production capacity is closely connected with the development of the Soviet Union's aluminum industry, although ...

172

Spray Forming: Alloys, Products, and Markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the single-step processing cycle, spray-formed aluminum alloys can be produced at substantially lower costs than P/M products, approaching cost levels  ...

173

SCALEUP OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE CATALYST FOR PILOT PLANT LPDMEtm RUN  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) process converts synthesis gas to dimethyl ether in a single slurry bubble column reactor. A mixed slurry of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst in a neutral mineral oil simultaneously synthesizes methanol from syngas and converts some of it to dimethyl ether and water. The reaction scheme is: 2H{sub 2} + CO = CH{sub 3}OH 2CH{sub 3}OH = CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O H{sub 2}O + CO = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Most of the water produced in this reaction is converted to hydrogen by reduction with carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction). This synergy permits higher per pass conversion than methanol synthesis alone. The enhancement in conversion occurs because dehydration of the methanol circumvents the equilibrium constraint of the syngas-to-methanol step. The slurry bubble column reactor provides the necessary heat transfer capacity to handle the greater heat duty associated with high conversion. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst system, non-stoichiometric aluminum phosphate was proposed as the dehydration catalyst for the LPDME{trademark} process. This aluminum phosphate material is a proprietary catalyst. This catalyst system of a standard methanol catalyst and the aluminum phosphate provided stable process performance that met the program targets under our standard test process conditions in the laboratory. These targets are (1) an initial methanol equivalent productivity of 28 gmol/kg/hr, (2) a CO{sub 2}-free, carbon selectivity of 80% to dimethyl ether and (3) stability of both catalysts equivalent to that of the methanol catalyst in the absence of the aluminum phosphate. A pilot plant trial of the LPDME{trademark} process using the aluminum phosphate catalyst was originally planned for March 1998 at the DOE-owned, Air Products (APCI)-operated facility at LaPorte, Texas. Because the aluminum phosphate catalyst is not commercially available, we initiated a scaleup project with a commercial catalyst vendor. A total of 800 pounds of aluminum phosphate catalyst was ordered to provide two reactor charges and some additional material for testing. Although the scaleup was never completed, the effort yielded valuable information about the nature of the catalyst and the nature of the LPDME{trademark} process. This information is documented in this topical report.

Andrew W. Wang

2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

SCALEUP OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE CATALYST FOR PILOT PLANT LPDMEtm RUN  

SciTech Connect

The Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) process converts synthesis gas to dimethyl ether in a single slurry bubble column reactor. A mixed slurry of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst in a neutral mineral oil simultaneously synthesizes methanol from syngas and converts some of it to dimethyl ether and water. The reaction scheme is shown below: 2H{sub 2} + CO = CH{sub 3}OH; 2CH{sub 3}OH = CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O; H{sub 2}O + CO = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Most of the water produced in this reaction is converted to hydrogen by reduction with carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction). This synergy permits higher per pass conversion than methanol synthesis alone. The enhancement in conversion occurs because dehydration of the methanol circumvents the equilibrium constraint of the syngas-to-methanol step. The slurry bubble column reactor provides the necessary heat transfer capacity to handle the greater heat duty associated with high conversion. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst system, non-stoichiometric aluminum phosphate was proposed as the dehydration catalyst for the LPDME{trademark} process. This aluminum phosphate material is a proprietary catalyst. This catalyst system of a standard methanol catalyst and the aluminum phosphate provided stable process performance that met the program targets under our standard test process conditions in the laboratory. These targets are (1) an initial methanol equivalent productivity of 28 gmol/kg/hr, (2) a CO{sub 2}-free, carbon selectivity of 80% to dimethyl ether and (3) stability of both catalysts equivalent to that of the methanol catalyst in the absence of the aluminum phosphate. A pilot plant trial of the LPDME{trademark} process using the aluminum phosphate catalyst was originally planned for March 1998 at the DOE-owned, Air Products (APCI)-operated facility at LaPorte, Texas. Because the aluminum phosphate catalyst is not commercially available, we initiated a scaleup project with a commercial catalyst vendor. A total of 800 pounds of aluminum phosphate catalyst was ordered to provide two reactor charges and some additional material for testing. Although the scaleup was never completed, the effort yielded valuable information about the nature of the catalyst and the nature of the LPDME{trademark} process. This information is documented in this topical report.

Andrew W. Wang

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process. Volume 2, Parts 4--8: Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE`s Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

White, D.H.; Wolf, D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Characterizing Microalgae (Nannochloris oculata) Harvesting by Aluminum Flocculation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent progress in algae biotechnology indicates that microalgae have the potential of becoming a significant source for food, feed proteins, nutraceuticals, and lipids for biofuels. Typically low concentrations of microalgae cultures (less than 2 g/L) make harvesting of algae biomass one of the key economic bottlenecks for microalgae production of biofuels and bioproducts. Among the various biomass harvesting options currently under consideration, flocculation appears to be the least expensive and most flexible method for harvesting and initial concentration of dilute algal cultures. In addition to initial biomass concentration, processing factors that could also affect harvesting efficiency include culture pH, flocculant dosage, and media ionic strength (conductivity). This thesis reviews challenges of harvesting and concentration of green microalgae and examines the effect of pH, flocculant dosage, and culture conductivity on charge neutralization and flocculation of Nannochloris oculata by aluminum chloride. N. oculata flocculation was studied by manipulating the culture pH and ionic strength before the addition of aluminum chloride. The removal efficiency, concentration factor, settling rate, and zeta potential of the culture were measured to assess the effect of processing variables and understand mechanisms that govern N. oculata flocculation by aluminum chloride. Flocculation tests conducted with culture concentrations of 10^7 cells/ml revealed that AlCl3 concentration of 0.05 g/L and flocculation pH of 5.3 were optimal conditions for achieving 100% removal efficiency and a twentyfold algae concentration. At flocculant concentrations greater than 0.05 g/L, removal efficiencies were equally good but resulting concentration factors decreased with increasing AlCl3 dosage. Zeta potential measurements were correlated with flocculation dosage, initial cell concentration, medium pH, and aluminum solubility curves to conclude that densely charged multi-valent aluminum hydroxide species were responsible for the efficient flocculation at pH 5.3 with 0.05 g/L AlCl3.

Davis, Ryan T.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

Moore, R.H.

1962-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Aluminum: Technology, Applications and Environment - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... This volume is the 6th edition of Dr. Dietrich Altenpohl's book, originally titled Aluminum From Within (and still carrying that subtitle.) It is the ...

179

Aluminum Scrap Supply and Environmental Impact Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 1, 2000 ... It has been applied to the USA to forecast sources of aluminum scrap ... good balance between supply and demand on average over the years.

180

Aluminum and Energy--an International Perspective  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review of the effects of regional energy and trade issues on the global aluminium industry and its ... “Energy Policy Position of the Aluminum Association

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Aluminum: The ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... A complete review of today's successful automotive aluminum recycling infrastructure. Shows a car's journey through the entire recycling ...

182

Materials Sustainability: Digital Resource Center - Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... This volume is the 6th edition of Dr. Dietrich Altenpohl's book, originally titled Aluminum From Within (and still carrying that subtitle.) It is the ...

183

Aluminum-stabilized NB3SN superconductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An aluminum-stabilized Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb.sub.3 Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

Scanlan, Ronald M. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions ...  

Aluminum hydride is the best known alane and has been known for over 60 years. It is potentially a very attractive medium for onboard automotive hydrogen storage ...

185

Primary Aluminum Processing in Quebec and Canada  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

3D Meso-scale Modelling of Aluminum-alloy Welding Processes for Prediction of ... Frequency Modulation Effect on the Solidification of Alloy 718 Fusion Zone.

186

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Associations FederalState Programs Technical Information Plant Assessments Training Calendar Software Tools Energy Management Expertise Auto Aluminum Usage Benefits Environment...

187

Energy Opportunities in the Aluminum Processing Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As carbon management has grown in importance and project payback becomes ... overall energy within a plant and within the aluminum processing industry.

188

Distinguishing Dynamic Recrystallization (DRX) in Aluminum and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Damage Tolerant Critical Aircraft Structures – an Aluminum Supplier Perspective .... P44 - X-ray Diffraction Study on Lattice Constant of Supersaturated Solid ...

189

Melter Testing with High Aluminum HLW Streams  

Hanford Tank Waste is High in Aluminum • Estimated Al inventory is 8750 MT • Problem: • Large fraction of Al is in the HLW solids • Greatly increases the ...

190

Cast Aluminum Housings in Electrical Fires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Cast aluminum and its alloys are often used as enclosures for electrical appliances and similar devices. Electrical faults can often be analyzed ...

191

High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

Sherohman, John W. (Livermore, CA); Coombs, III, Arthur W. (Patterson, CA); Yee, Jick H. (Livermore, CA)

2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

192

2013 TMS Industrial Aluminum Electrolysis Course - Tour  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Qatalum is an equal joint venture between Qatar Petroleum and Hydro Aluminum of Norway and produces 585,000 tons of high-quality primary aluminium ...

193

Aluminum: Technology, Applications, and Environment (Sample ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because hydroelectric power is a relatively inexpensive and clean source of energy, aluminum smelters are mostly built in countries with readily avail-.

194

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources and Links -  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Resources & Links Resources & Links Software Tools Aluminum Industry of the Future Tools & Publications ITP offers a wide array of publications, videos, software, and other information products for improving energy efficiency in the aluminum industry. DOE BestPractices Software Tools DOE BestPractices offers a range of software tools and databases that help manufacturers assess their plant's steam, compressed air, motor, and process heating systems. DOE Plant Energy Profiler Industry experience has shown that many plant utility personnel do not have an adequate understanding of their energy cost structure and where the major focus should be for any energy savings program. This tool will address this need and enable an engineer assigned to a plant utility to better understand (a) the cost of all energy sources supplied to the plant,

195

Light Metals 2007 Volume 2: Aluminum Reduction TABLE OF ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

451-456] Mark Cooksey and William Yang. Further Results on the Application of Aluminum-Copper Bimetal Sheets in Aluminum Reduction Cells [pp. 457-460

196

Determination of Aluminum Rolling Oil and Machinery Oil Residues ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Determination of Aluminum Rolling Oil and Machinery Oil Residues on Aluminum Sheet and Foil by Using Elemental Analysis and Fourier  ...

197

High Temperature Creep Characterization of A380 Cast Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Strength Aluminum Brazing Sheets for Condenser Fins of Automotive Heat ... for the Phase Formation in a Wide Range of Commercial Aluminum Alloys.

198

HIGH ENERGY DENSITY ALUMINUM BATTERY - Energy Innovation Portal  

Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery ...

199

Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor - Energy ...  

High-voltage electric power transmission cables based on pure aluminum strands with a stranded steel core (ACSR) or stranded aluminum ... Applications and Industries.

200

Nano Assisted Low Temperature Diffusion Brazing of Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum alloys are ideal for many heat exchanger applications. However, joining of aluminum alloys is challenging due to tenacious native oxides on the base ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

DETERMINATION OF THE FRACTION OF GIBBSITE AND BOEHMITE FORMS OF ALUMINUM IN TANK 51H SLUDGE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with developing a test to determine the fraction of the gibbsite and boehmite forms of aluminum in the sludge solids. Knowledge of the fractions of gibbsite and boehmite in the sludge contained in various waste tanks would facilitate better sludge mass reduction estimates and allow better planning/scheduling for sludge batch preparation. The composite sludge sample prepared for use in the test from several small samples remaining from the original 3-L sample appears to be representative of the original sample based on the characterization data. A Gibbsite/Boehmite Test was developed that uses 8 M NaOH and a temperature of 65 C to dissolve aluminum. The soluble aluminum concentration data collected during the test indicates that, for the three standards containing gibbsite, all of the gibbsite dissolved in approximately 2 hours. Under the test conditions boehmite dissolved at more than an order of magnitude more slowly than gibbsite. An estimate based on the soluble aluminum concentration from the sludge sample at two hours into the test indicates the sludge solids contain a form of aluminum that dissolves at a rate similar to the 100% Boehmite standard. Combined with the XRD data from the original 3-L sample, these results provide substantial evidence that the boehmite form of aluminum predominates in the sludge. A calculation from the results of the Gibbsite/Boehmite test indicates the sludge contains {approx}3% gibbsite and {approx}97% boehmite. The sludge waste in Tank 51H was recently treated under Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD) conditions and a substantial fraction of aluminum (i.e., sludge mass) was removed, avoiding production of over 100 glass canisters in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Results of the Gibbsite/Boehmite test indicate that the aluminum in this sludge was in the form of the more difficult to dissolve boehmite form of aluminum. Since boehmite may be the dominant form of aluminum in Savannah River Site (SRS) waste tank sludge, this result suggests that the conditions of the LTAD process can be used to dissolve both the gibbsite and boehmite forms of aluminum in tank sludge and costly tank infrastructure upgrades required for the higher temperature baseline process can be avoided. However, this conclusion should be confirmed by testing additional waste tank samples.

Hay, M; Kofi Adu-Wusu, K; Daniel McCabe, D

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

THE DIFFUSION OF LITHIUM IN ALUMINUM  

SciTech Connect

The diffusion of lithium in aluminum was measured at various temperatures with diffusion couples of aluminum-LiAl. The activation energy, E, is 33.3 kcal/mol, and the diffusion factor, Do, is 4.5 cm{sup2}/sec. (auth)

Costas, L. P.

1963-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

203

SOLID STATE BONDING OF THORIUM WITH ALUMINUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for bonding thorium and aluminum by placing clean surfaces of thorium and aluminum in contact with each other and hot pressing the metals together in a protective atmosphere at a temperature of about 375 to 575 deg C and at a pressure of at least 10 tsi to effect a bond.

Storchhelm, S.

1959-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

Beck, Theodore R. (Seattle, WA); Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA)

2002-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

205

HIGH ALUMINUM HLW GLASSES FOR HANFORDS WTP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The world's largest radioactive waste vitrification facility is now under construction at the United State Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford site. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is designed to treat nearly 53 million gallons of mixed hazardous and radioactive waste now residing in 177 underground storage tanks. This multi-decade processing campaign will be one of the most complex ever undertaken because of the wide chemical and physical variability of the waste compositions generated during the cold war era that are stored at Hanford. The DOE Office of River Protection (ORP) has initiated a program to improve the long-term operating efficiency of the WTP vitrification plants with the objective of reducing the overall cost of tank waste treatment and disposal and shortening the duration of plant operations. Due to the size, complexity and duration of the WTP mission, the lifecycle operating and waste disposal costs are substantial. As a result, gains in High Level Waste (HLW) and Low Activity Waste (LAW) waste loadings, as well as increases in glass production rate, which can reduce mission duration and glass volumes for disposal, can yield substantial overall cost savings. EnergySolutions and its long-term research partner, the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America, have been involved in a multi-year ORP program directed at optimizing various aspects of the HLW and LAW vitrification flow sheets. A number of Hanford HLW streams contain high concentrations of aluminum, which is challenging with respect to both waste loading and processing rate. Therefore, a key focus area of the ORP vitrification process optimization program at EnergySolutions and VSL has been development of HLW glass compositions that can accommodate high Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations while maintaining high processing rates in the Joule Heated Ceramic Melters (JHCMs) used for waste vitrification at the WTP. This paper, reviews the achievements of this program with emphasis on the recent enhancements in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loadings in HLW glass and its processing characteristics. Glass formulation development included crucible-scale preparation and characterization of glass samples to assess compliance with all melt processing and product quality requirements, followed by small-scale screening tests to estimate processing rates. These results were used to down-select formulations for subsequent engineering-scale melter testing. Finally, further testing was performed on the DM1200 vitrification system installed at VSL, which is a one-third scale (1.20 m{sup 2}) pilot melter for the WTP HLW melters and which is fitted with a fully prototypical off-gas treatment system. These tests employed glass formulations with high waste loadings and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents of {approx}25 wt%, which represents a near-doubling of the present WTP baseline maximum Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading. In addition, these formulations were processed successfully at glass production rates that exceeded the present requirements for WTP HLW vitrification by up to 88%. The higher aluminum loading in the HLW glass has an added benefit in that the aluminum leaching requirements in pretreatment are reduced, thus allowing less sodium addition in pretreatment, which in turn reduces the amount of LAW glass to be produced at the WTP. The impact of the results from this ORP program in reducing the overall cost and schedule for the Hanford waste treatment mission will be discussed.

KRUGER AA; JOSEPH I; BOWMAN BW; GAN H; KOT W; MATLACK KS; PEGG IL

2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

206

Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Add to Cart, Image, Click on Title to view details, Member (Student) Price, Non- member Price. Available at wiley.com, Advanced Materials for Energy Conversion ...

207

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: GHG Information -  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Industry Analysis Briefs Industry Analysis Briefs The Energy Information Agency (EIA) is currently updating industry analysis briefs for the most energy-intensive industries in the United States, including aluminum, chemicals, forest products (such as paper and wood products), glass, metal casting, petroleum and coal products, and steel. As soon as the current briefs are available, we will provide the link. Industry Analysis Briefs will have the following content: Economic Profile and Trends Value of Shipments Annual Production Labor Productivity Energy Use Energy Use by Fuel Fuel Consumption by End Use Energy Consumption by Sector Energy Expenditures Onsite Generation (if applicable) Energy Intensity State-Level Information Technologies and Equipment Cogeneration Technologies (if applicable)

208

Clean and cost-effective dry boundary lubricants for aluminum forming.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Preliminary research in our laboratory has demonstrated that boric acid is an effective lubricant with an unusual capacity to reduce sliding fiction (providing friction coefficients as low as 0.02) and wear of metallic and ceramic materials. More recent studies have revealed that water or methanol solutions of boric acid can be used to prepare strongly bonded layers of boric acid on aluminum surfaces. It appears that boric acid molecules have a strong tendency to bond chemically to the naturally oxidized surfaces of aluminum and its alloys and to make these surfaces very slippery. Recent metal formability tests indicated that the boric acid films formed on aluminum surfaces by spraying or dipping worked quite well; improving draw scale performance by 58 to 75%. These findings have increased the prospect that boric acid can be formulated and optimized as an effective boundary lubricant and used to solve the friction, galling, and severe wear problems currently encountered in cold-forming of aluminum products. Accordingly, the major goal of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness and lubrication capacity of thin boric acid films formed on aluminum surfaces by simple dipping or spraying processes and to describe the lubrication mechanisms under typical metal forming conditions. We will also examine the nature of chemical bonding between boric acid and aluminum surfaces and develop new ways to optimize its performance as an effective boundary lubricant.

Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

1997-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

209

FILM GROWTH ON ALUMINUM IN HIGH-TEMPERATURE WATER  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Film growths on aluminum and two aluminum-1 wt.% nickel alloys in water at 250 and 350 deg C were studied. It was found that oxide growth does not advance on a uniform front but, to the contrary, the advancing surface contains many outcrops in the form of thin platelets, chunky outcrops, and whiskers. With both the pure metal and the alloys considerable intergranular attack was observed. The general corrosion product was usually more uniform in crystal size when formed on the pure metal, but variations in crystal size were observed on both aluminum and alloys with varying features of the metal surface. The roughness of the general oxide surface (includlng outcrops) was found to increase rapidly to about 0.2 micron and then remain relatively constant with increasing film thickness. The composition of films formed under all investigated conditions, except one, was found to be boehmite ( alpha -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/- H/sub 2/O). This exception was films carried by the alloy specimens after testing for 32 days at 350 deg C. In this case the main corrosion film was still boehmite, but in addition the outer surface supported long needles of diaspore ( beta -Al/sub 2/ O/sub 3/- H/sub 2/O). (auth)

Hart, R.K.; Ruther, W.E.

1961-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Metallography of pitted aluminum-clad, depleted uranium fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The storage of aluminum-clad fuel and target materials in the L-Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site for more than 5 years has resulted in extensive pitting corrosion of these materials. In many cases the pitting corrosion of the aluminum clad has penetrated in the uranium metal core, resulting in the release of plutonium, uranium, cesium-137, and other fission product activity to the basin water. In an effort to characterize the extent of corrosion of the Mark 31A target slugs, two unirradiated slug assemblies were removed from basin storage and sent to the Savannah River Technology Center for evaluation. This paper presents the results of the metallography and photographic documentation of this evaluation. The metallography confirmed that pitting depths varied, with the deepest pit found to be about 0.12 inches (3.05 nun). Less than 2% of the aluminum cladding was found to be breached resulting in less than 5% of the uranium surface area being affected by corrosion. The overall integrity of the target slug remained intact.

Nelson, D.Z.; Howell, J.P.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF{sub 6}. This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Advanced manufacturing by spray forming: Aluminum strip and microelectromechanical systems  

SciTech Connect

Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. INEL is developing a unique spray-forming method based on de Laval (converging/diverging) nozzle designs to produce near-net-shape solids and coatings of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Properties of the spray-formed material are tailored by controlling the characteristics of the spray plume and substrate. Two examples are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the replication of micron-scale features in micropatterned polymers during the production of microelectromechanical systems.

McHugh, K.M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

213

Quick Plastic Forming of Aluminum Sheet Metal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

General Motors' President North America, Gary Cowger, General Motors' President North America, Gary Cowger, reviews the 2004 Chevy Malibu Maxx after introducing it to the media at the New York Auto Show. (photo courtesy of General Motors) Quick Plastic Forming of Aluminum Sheet Metal Background Aluminum automotive components made using a hot blow forming process are reducing vehicle weight and increasing the fuel efficiency of today's cars. However, before General Motors (GM) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research in this technol- ogy, blow forming of aluminum was not a viable process for automakers. The prior blow forming process,

214

Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications  

SciTech Connect

Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Aluminum - Fly Ash Metal Matrix Composites as Advanced Automobile Material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Metal matrix composites such as silicon carbide-aluminum, alumina-aluminum, and graphite-aluminum represent a class of emerging materials with significant potential for commercial use in the auto and aerospace industries. In industrial foundry trials, a joint industry and Department of Energy project demonstrated a promising new process for producing a low cost aluminum metal matrix composite containing fly ash particles.

2001-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

216

High Strength Aluminum Brazing Sheets for Condenser Fins of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Aluminum Alloys: Development, Characterization and Applications.

217

Spray forming -- Aluminum: Third annual report (Phase 2). Technical progress -- Summary  

SciTech Connect

Commercial production of aluminum sheet and plate by spray atomization and deposition is a potentially attractive manufacturing alternative to conventional ingot metallurgy/hot-milling and to continuous casting processes because of reduced energy requirements and reduced cost. To realize the full potential of the technology, the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa), under contract by the US Department of Energy, is investigating currently available state-of-the-art atomization devices to develop nozzle design concepts whose spray characteristics are tailored for continuous sheet production. This third technical progress report will summarize research and development work conducted during the period 1997 October through 1998 March. Included are the latest optimization work on the Alcoa III nozzle, results of spray forming runs with 6111 aluminum alloy and preliminary rolling trials of 6111 deposits.

Kozarek, R.L.

1998-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

218

Versatile and Rapid Plasma Heating Device for Steel and Aluminum  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main objective of the research was to enhance steel and aluminum manufacturing with the development of a new plasma RPD device. During the project (1) plasma devices were manufactured (2) testing for the two metals were carried out and (3) market development strategies were explored. Bayzi Corporation has invented a Rapid Plasma Device (RPD) which produces plasma, comprising of a mixture of ionized gas and free electrons. The ions, when they hit a conducting surface, deposit heat in addition to the convective heat. Two generic models called the RPD-Al and RPD-S have been developed for the aluminum market and the steel market. Aluminum melting rates increased to as high as 12.7 g/s compared to 3 g/s of the current industrial practice. The RPD melting furnace operated at higher energy efficiency of 65% unlike most industrial processes operating in the range of 13 to 50%. The RPD aluminum melting furnace produced environment friendly cleaner melts with less than 1% dross. Dross is the residue in the furnace after the melt is poured out. Cast ingots were extremely clean and shining. Current practices produce dross in the range of 3 to 12%. The RPD furnace uses very low power ~0.2 kWh/Lb to melt aluminum. RPDs operate in one atmosphere using ambient air to produce plasma while the conventional systems use expensive gases like argon, or helium in air-tight chambers. RPDs are easy to operate and do not need intensive capital investment. Narrow beam, as well as wide area plasma have been developed for different applications. An RPD was developed for thermal treatments of steels. Two different applications have been pursued. Industrial air hardening steel knife edges were subjected to plasma beam hardening. Hardness, as measured, indicated uniform distribution without any distortion. The biggest advantage with this method is that the whole part need not be heated in a furnace which will lead to oxidation and distortion. No conventional process will offer localized hardening. The RPD has a great potential for heat treating surgical knives and tools. Unavailability of the full amount of the DOE award prevented further development of this exciting technology. Significant progress was made during the 5th quarter, specially the invention of the wider-area plasma and the resultant benefits in terms of rapid melting of aluminum and thermal treatments of larger size steel parts. Coating of nickel base superalloys was demonstrated (an additional task over that proposed). Directed low cost surface enhancement of steel and the directed clean low dross energy efficient melting of aluminum are industrial needs that require new technologies. These are large volume markets which can benefit from energy savings. Estimated energy savings are very large, in the order of 1015 J/year when the equipment is universally used. Compact and directed heating technology/product market in these two sectors could potentially reach over $1B in sales. The results of the research, presented at the DOE annual Review meeting on Aluminum held at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during the 4-5 October 2005, were very well received by the delegates and panel reviewers. Insufficient DOE funds to fully fund the project at the end of the 5th quarter necessitated some key tasks being only partially completed.

Reddy, G.S.

2006-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

219

Locational analysis for the aluminum industry  

SciTech Connect

A locational analysis for the aluminum industry suggests that its locational pattern is probably even more clear-cut than that of the steel industry. Because the smelting of alumina into aluminum requires a very large amount of electric power, aluminum has become an industry highly oriented to cheap-power locations. A quick analysis, taking into account present technological and economic conditions, reveals that the potential advantages of the minimum-transport-cost location for an aluminum plant are clearly outweighed by the large power cost savings accruing from locating the plant at a cheap-power location. This holds true even with a fairly small differential in power rates between the two locations.

Isard, W.; Parcels, L.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Climate Change and Aluminum - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 25, 2008 ... Softcover book: Carbon Dioxide Reduction Metallurgy. Knowledge Product: Sustainability, Climate Change, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions ...

222

In vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of sorghum products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fractions from white and tannin sorghums were processed into extrudates, thick porridges, and breads. The effects of sorghum type and fraction on the in vitro starch availability of the products were evaluated, and the estimated glycemic indexes (EGI) of the products were obtained. Sorghum extrudates were significantly more slowly digested than corn meal extrudates for all preparation methods (whole, cracked and decorticated kernels). Furthermore, tannin extrudates were less digestible than white sorghum extrudates. The soft endosperm nature of the tannin sorghum limited friction formation inside the extruder, reducing starch gelatinization. On the other hand, condensed tannins also interfered with the starch availability for digestion. White sorghum was more 'suitable' for extrusion, giving extrudates with higher starch degradation and expansion than the tannin sorghums. However, tannin sorghums also gave acceptable products offering the benefit of lower EGI values. Sorghum porridges were more slowly digested than a corn flour porridge when using whole and decorticated flours. In addition, tannin sorghum porridges had a lower starch digestibility compared to all the samples. Tannin sorghum flours produced soft porridges with enhanced initial starch digestibility. However, condensed tannins seemed to offset the starch digestion by limiting starch availability. All sorghum porridges had significantly lower EGI values than the corn porridge. Extrudates and porridges had reduced starch digestibilities and EGI values when using whole grains compared to using the decorticated fractions. This was observed in both the white and the tannin sorghum. Therefore, whole-grain products from sorghum have health benefits attributed to whole grain foods and slower digesting starches; for instance, prevention and treatment of diseases such as diabetes, insulin resistance, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and some types of cancer. When 12% of tannin bran was added to a wheat bread formulation, a slower rate of starch digestion was observed compared to a wheat bread. The high concentration of non-starch components of the bran (i.e. dietary fiber, condensed tannins) affected starch digestion. The addition of tannin sorghum bran significantly reduced the EGI value of wheat bread, besides being a natural source of brown color, and an excellent source of antioxidants and dietary fiber.

De Castro Palomino Siller, Angelina

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Low coverage spontaneous etching and hyperthermal desorption of aluminum chlorides from Cl2 Al,,111...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

spectrometry has been used to monitor the desorption of aluminum chloride (AlxCly) etch products from the Al-probable velocity of 517 22 m/s at an Al 111 surface temperature of 100 K. This corresponds to 22 times the expected thermal desorption translational energy for AlCl3 . Cl2 sticking probability measurements and AlxCly etch

Kummel, Andrew C.

224

Behaviors of 7055 Aluminum Alloy in Retrogression and Re-Aging ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Study of the Influence of Plastic Pre Strain in Different Directions before Aging of Extruded and Hydro Formed Material on the Mechanical Properties of ...

225

Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are serious concerns about the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy and nutrient and water use efficiency of large-scale, first generation bio-energy feedstocks currently in use. A major question is whether biofuels obtained from these feedstocks are effective in combating climate change and what impact they will have on soil and water resources. Another fundamental issue relates to the magnitude and nature of their impact on food prices and ultimately on the livelihoods of the poor. A possible solution to overcome the current potentially large negative effects of large-scale biofuel production is developing second and third generation conversion techniques from agricultural residues and wastes and step up the scientific research efforts to achieve sustainable biofuel production practices. Until such sustainable techniques are available governments should scale back their support for and promotion of biofuels. Multipurpose feedstocks should be investigated making use of the bio-refinery concept (bio-based economy). At the same time, the further development of non-commercial, small scale

Science Council Secretariat

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Aluminum Rolling - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Organizer(s), Kai F. Karhausen, Hydro Aluminium Rolled Products GmbH. Scope, This symposium is part of the Light Metals Symposium and covers all ...

227

Advanced Ceramic Composites for Improved Thermal Management in Molten Aluminum Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Degradation of refractories in molten aluminum applications leads to energy inefficiencies, both in terms of increased energy consumption during use as well as due to frequent and premature production shutdowns. Therefore, the ability to enhance and extend the performance of refractory systems will improve the energy efficiency through out the service life. TCON? ceramic composite materials are being produced via a collaboration between Fireline TCON, Inc. and Rex Materials Group. These materials were found to be extremely resistant to erosion and corrosion by molten aluminum alloys during an evaluation funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and it was concluded that they positively impact the performance of refractory systems. These findings were subsequently verified by field tests. Data will be presented on how TCON shapes are used to significantly improve the thermal management of molten aluminum contact applications and extend the performance of such refractory systems.

Peters, Klaus-Markus [ORNL; Cravens, Robert [Rex Materials Group; Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Summary report on the design of the retained gas sampler system (retained gas sampler, extruder and extractor)  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes work performs in Fiscal Year 1994 to develop the three main components of Retained Gas Sampler System (RGSS). These primary components are the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), the Retained Gas Extruder (RGE), and the Retained Gas Extractor (RGEx). The RGS is based on the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Universal Sampler design, and includes modifications to reduce gas leakage. The primary data priorities for the RGSS are to measure the void fraction and the flammable gas concentration in the waste sample. Significant progress has been made in developing the RGSS. The RGSS is being developed by WHC to extract a representative waste sample from a Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks and to measure both the amount and composition of free and {open_quotes}bound{close_quotes} gases. Sudden releases of flammable gas mixtures are a safety concern for normal waste storage operations and eventual waste retrieval. Flow visualization testing was used to identify important fluid dynamic issues related to the sampling process. The primary data priorities for the RGSS are to measure the void fraction and the flammable gas concentration in the waste sample. The safety analysis for the RGSS is being performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and is more than sixty percent (60%) complete.

Wootan, D.W.; Bolden, R.C.; Bridges, A.E.; Cannon, N.S.; Chastain, S.A.; Hey, B.E.; Knight, R.C.; Linschooten, C.G.; Pitner, A.L.; Webb, B.J.

1994-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

229

C:\Eco-SSLs\Contaminant Specific Documents\Aluminum\November 2003\Eco-SSL for Aluminum .wpd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aluminum Aluminum Interim Final OSWER Directive 9285.7-60 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20460 November 2003 This page intentionally left blank TABLE OF CONTENTS SUMMARY ECO-SSLs FOR ALUMINUM 1.0 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 2.0 ALUMINUM CHEMISTRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 3.0 EFFECTS OF ALUMINUM ON PLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.1 General Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3.2 Essentiality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Effect on Phosphorus and Calcium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.4 Differential Tolerance of Plants to Aluminum Toxicity

230

Dissolving uranium oxide--aluminum fuel  

SciTech Connect

The dissolution of aluminum-clad uranium oxide-aluminum fuel was studied to provide basic data for dissolving this type of enriched uranium fuel at the Savannah River Plant. The studies also included the dissolution of a similar material prepared from scrap uranium oxides that were to be recycled through the solvent extraction process. The dissolving behavior of uranium oxide-aluminum core material is similar to that of U-Al alloy. Dissolving rates are rapid in HNO/sub 3/-Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ solutions. Irradiation reduce s the dissolving rate and increases mechanical strength. A dissolution model for use in nuclear safety analyses is developed, . based on the observed dissolving characteristics. (auth)

Perkins, W.C.

1973-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

Kaun, Thomas D. (Mokena, IL)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Study of aluminum corrosion in aluminum solar heat collectors using aqueous glycol solution for heat transfer. Annual technical progress report, July 30, 1979-July 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The effects of glycol aging at elevated temperatures over long periods of time were studied and the zinc powder protective technique was optimized. Glycols are known to gradually decompose into organic acids at high temperatures. These product species may be aggressive to aluminum in the long run. In addition, corrosion inhibitors may also breakdown due to continuous exposure to high temperatures. As for the zinc powder protective technique, efforts have been made to determine the optimal conditions under which aluminum solar collector panels can be protected most effectively and economically. Both uninhibited and inhibited ethylene as well as propyleneglycols have been aged at three different temperatures (100, 140, and 190/sup 0/C) for 6000 hours continuously. Aliquot samples were taken at 1000 hour intervals for pH measurement and chemical analysis. Results showed that in most cases solution pH dropped sharply during the first 1000 hours of exposure and gradually decreased at a slower pace as the aging process progressed. It was also noted that higher temperatures appeared to hasten this pH shift. The corrosiveness of these aged glycol solutions towards aluminum was determined based on laboratory corrosion tests. The critical pitting potential (E/sub p/) of aluminum in chloride-ion containing aqueous glycol solutions was determined. Its dependence on temperature, chloride-ion concentration, and glycol content was investigated in detail. E/sub p/ was found to become more negative with higher chloride-ion concentration, increasing temperature, and decreasing glycol content. (MHR)

Wong, D.; Cocks, F.H.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen - 2010 Update  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage The purpose of this White Paper is to describe and evaluate the potential of aluminum-water reactions for the

234

Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage U.S. Department of Energy Version 2 -...

235

Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 3003 Aluminum Alloy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... reason of property improvement, especially high temperature performance. ... High Strength Aluminum Brazing Sheets for Condenser Fins of Automotive ... predictions for the phase formation in a wide range of commercial aluminum alloys.

236

Surface alloying of silicon into aluminum substrate.  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum alloys that are easily castable tend to have lower silicon content and hence lower wear resistance. The use of laser surface alloying to improve the surface wear resistance of 319 and 320 aluminum alloys was examined. A silicon layer was painted onto the surface to be treated. A high power pulsed Nd:YAG laser with fiberoptic beam delivery was used to carry out the laser surface treatment to enhance the silicon content. Process parameters were varied to minimize the surface roughness from overlap of the laser beam treatment. The surface-alloyed layer was characterized and the silicon content was determined.

Xu, Z.

1998-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

237

Safe and Efficient Traffic Flow for Aluminum Smelters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Aluminum smelter design, construction and operation requires: ... and traffic scheduling for vehicles and pedestrians throughout the Smelter.

238

Treatment and Minimization of Aluminum and Light Metals Industry ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... reverberatory and rotary aluminum furnaces, reverberatory and rotary lead furnaces, as well as rotary brass furnaces. Representative examples are presented ...

239

Cathode Connector For Aluminum Low Temperature Smelting Cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Cathode connector means for low temperature aluminum smelting cell for connecting titanium diboride cathode or the like to bus bars.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Beck, Theodore R. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA)

2003-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

240

13th International Conference on Aluminum Alloys (ICAA13)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nov 29, 2011... electrical power transmission, packaging, building and construction, .... Expanding the Availability of Lightweight Aluminum Alloy Armor Plate ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Distribution of Calcium and Aluminum between Molten Silicon and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Distribution of Calcium and Aluminum between Molten ... Electrochemical deposition of high purity silicon from molten fluoride electrolytes.

242

Nucleation Catalysis Potency of Ceramic Nanoparticles in Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Frontiers in Solidification Science. Presentation Title, Nucleation Catalysis Potency of Ceramic Nanoparticles in Aluminum Matrix Nanocomposites .

243

Prediction of Bake Hardenability of Aluminum Alloys Al6110 and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Welding of Aluminum Wires for Cables Harnesses in the Automotive Industry ... Transmission Electron Microscopic Investigation of Sensitized Al-5083.

244

Aluminum Tailor-welded Blanks for High Volume Automotive ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Strength Aluminum Brazing Sheets for Condenser Fins of Automotive Heat Exchangers · High Temperature Creep Characterization of A380 Cast ...

245

Lower Cost Lithium Ion Batteries From Aluminum Substituted ...  

Lower Cost Lithium Ion Batteries From Aluminum Substituted Cathode Materials Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Contact LBL About This Technology

246

Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

Sandrock, Gary (Ringwood, NJ); Reilly, James (Bellport, NY); Graetz, Jason (Mastic, NY); Wegrzyn, James E. (Brookhaven, NY)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

247

Qualification of aluminum for OTEC heat exchangers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The basis for qualification of aluminum as a material for use as tubing in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion heat exchangers is reviewed. Reference is made to compendia of data from tests of aluminum alloys in natural sea water and to applicable service records. Data from these sources were found to be inadequate to either qualify or disqualify aluminum. They serve only to identify the 5052 alloy and Alclad 3003 or 3004 as being worthy of additional testing under conditions more directly related to what will be encountered in OTEC heat exchangers. The principal deficiency of data from long-time tests in natural sea water is that in almost all of these tests the specimens were exposed under static conditions that caused the surfaces to be covered by marine fouling organisms that would not be present in heat exchanger tubes. The tests did not take into account possible effects of periodic mechanical or chemical treatments to remove fouling or chemical treatments (chlorination) to prevent fouling. A current testing program sponsored by the Department of Energy through Argonne National Laboratory is designed to provide the needed data. Limited tests in high velocity sea water have indicated that aluminum tubes would tolerate the velocities under 10 ft (3 m) per second likely to be used in OTEC heat exchangers.

LaQue, F.L.

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Welcome to the Efficient Windows Collaborative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Frame Types - Metal Frames Metal Frames Aluminum Aluminum window frames are light, strong, durable, and easily extruded into the complex shapes required for window parts. Aluminum...

249

PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TETRACHLORIDE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is descrlbed for the production of uranium tetrachloride by contacting uranlum values such as uranium hexafluoride, uranlum tetrafluoride, or uranium oxides with either aluminum chloride, boron chloride, or sodium alumlnum chloride under substantially anhydrous condltlons at such a temperature and pressure that the chlorldes are maintained in the molten form and until the uranium values are completely converted to uranlum tetrachloride.

Calkins, V.P.

1958-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

250

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: GHG Inventory  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GHG Inventory Protocols GHG Inventory Protocols EPA/IAI PFC Measurement Protocol (PDF 243 KB) Download Acrobat Reader EPA and the International Aluminium Institute have collaborated with the global primary aluminium industry to develop a standard facility-specific PFC emissions measurement protocol. Use of the protocol will help ensure the consistency and accuracy of measurements. International Aluminum Institute's Aluminum Sector Greenhouse Gas Protocol (PDF 161 KB) Download Acrobat Reader The International Aluminum Institute (IAI) Aluminum Sector Addendum to the WBCSD/WRI Greenhouse Gas Protocol enhances and expands for the aluminum sector the World Business Council for Sustainable Development/World Resources Institute greenhouse gas corporate accounting and reporting protocol.

251

FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved aluminum will be stored in Tank 8 and 21,000 kg will be stored in saltcake via evaporation. Up to 77% of the total aluminum planned for SB6 may be removed via aluminum dissolution. Storage of the aluminum-laden supernate in Tank 8 will require routine evaluation of the free hydroxide concentration in order to maintain aluminum in solution. Periodic evaluation will be established on concurrent frequency with corrosion program samples as previously established for aluminum-laden supernate from SB5 that is stored in Tank 11.

Pike, J; Jeffrey Gillam, J

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

252

Process for production of an aluminum hydride compound  

SciTech Connect

A compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl substituted by at least one of: (i) an alkoxy group having from one to six carbon atoms; and (ii) an alkyl group having from three to twelve carbon atoms; wherein M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two.

Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Miller, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

253

Production of Ceramic Coatings on AA6061 Aluminum Alloy Using ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthesis and Characterization of Plasma Polymerized Thin Films Deposited from Benzene and Hexamethyldisiloxane Using (PECVD) Method · Synthesis of ...

254

Production of zinc pellets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

Cooper, J.F.

1996-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

255

Production of zinc pellets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Formation of nanocrystalline h-AlN during mechanochemical decomposition of melamine in the presence of metallic aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Decomposition of melamine was studied by solid state reaction of melamine and aluminum powders during high energy ball-milling. The milling procedure performed for both pure melamine and melamine/Al mixed powders as the starting materials for various times up to 48 h under ambient atmosphere. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results revealed that Al causes melamine deammoniation at the first stages of milling and further milling process leads to the s-triazine ring degradation while nano-crystallite hexagonal aluminum nitride (h-AlN) was the main solid product. Comparison to milling process, the possibility of the reaction of melamine with Al was also investigated by thermal treatment method using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA). Melamine decomposition occurred by thermal treatment in the range of 270-370 Degree-Sign C, but no reaction between melamine and aluminum was observed. - Graphical Abstract: Mechanochemical reaction of melamine with Al resulted in the formation of nanocrystalline AlN after 7 h milling time Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High energy ball milling of melamine and aluminum results decomposition of melamine with elimination of ammonia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-crystalline AlN was synthesized by the mechanochemical route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Milling process has no conspicuous effect on pure melamine degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No reaction takes place by heating melamine and aluminum powder mixture in argon.

Rounaghi, S.A., E-mail: s.a.rounaghi@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box No. 91775-1111, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kiani Rashid, A.R. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box No. 91775-1111, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eshghi, H., E-mail: heshghi@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box No. 91775-1436, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vahdati Khaki, J. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, P.O. Box No. 91775-1111, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

TREATMENT OF FISSION PRODUCT WASTE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pyrogenic method of separating nuclear reactor waste solutions containing aluminum and fission products as buring petroleum coke in an underground retort, collecting the easily volatile gases resulting as the first fraction, he uminum chloride as the second fraction, permitting the coke bed to cool and ll contain all the longest lived radioactive fission products in greatly reduced volume.

Huff, J.B.

1959-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

258

Aluminum hydrolysis constants to 250[degrees]C from boehmite solubility measurements  

SciTech Connect

Boehmite solubilities were measured at 150, 200, and 250[degrees]C at pH values from 1 to 10 at 100 bars total pressure and used to determine the stability constants for the mononuclear aluminum hydroxide complexes Al(OH)[sup 2+], Al(OH)[sup +][sub 2], Al(OH)[sub 0][sub 3], AL(OH)[sup -][sub 4], and the solubility product of boehmite. Buffer solutions of HCl-KCl, acetic acid-sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate-carbonic acid, and boric acid-potassium hydroxide were used to control pH. Our solubility data are in good agreement with boehmite solubility measurements in perchloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions reported by KUYUNKO et al. (1983). The stability constants for the aluminum hydroxide species were determined from the solubility data using a Ridge regression technique. The results indicate that aluminum ion hydrolysis becomes stronger at higher temperatures, and the stability field of the neutral complex Al(OH)[sup 0][sub 3] becomes larger. The results are used to provide a set of equilibrium constants for aluminum hydroxide complex formation and boehmite hydrolysis from 0-300[degrees]C.

Bourcier, W.L.; Knauss, K.G.; Jackson, K.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

High-Efficiency, High-Capacity, Low-NOx Aluminum Melting Using Oxygen-Enhanced Combustion  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the development and application of a novel oxygen enhanced combustion system with an integrated vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) oxygen supply providing efficient, low NOx melting in secondary aluminum furnaces. The mainstay of the combustion system is a novel air-oxy-natural gas burner that achieves high productivity and energy efficiency with low NOx emissions through advanced mixing concepts and the use of separate high- and low-purity oxidizer streams. The technology was installed on a reverberatory, secondary aluminum melting plant at the Wabash Aluminum Alloy's Syracuse, N.Y. plant, where it is currently in operation. Field testing gave evidence that the new burner technology meets the stringent NOx emissions target of 0.323 lb NO2/ton aluminum, thus complying with regulations promulgated by Southern California's South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). Test results also indicated that the burner technology exceeded fuel efficiency and melting capacity goals. Economic modeling showed that the novel air-oxy-fuel (ADF) combustion technology provides a substantial increase in furnace profitability relative to air-fuel operation. Model results also suggest favorable economics for the air-oxy-fuel technology relative to a full oxy-fuel conversion of the furnace.

D'Agostini, M.D.

2000-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

260

Shock response of 5083-0 aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum alloy (5083-0) is used as lightweight armor in armored vehicles. Data on the shock response of this material is useful to simulate ballistic penetration of different nose-shaped penetrators. In this paper we present the dynamic response of 5083-0 aluminum to shock wave loading to 22 GPa. Manganin stress gauges were used to measure the stress wave profiles. Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) and spall strength were 0.28 GPa and 1.6 GPa, respectively. Shock Hugoniot to stress levels of 10 GPa was determined by embedded in-material gauges and above 10 GPa by measuring shock velocities by embedding manganin gauges at the back surface of stepped targets.

Laber, M. W.; Brar, N. S.; Rosenberg, Z. [Impact Physics Laboratory, University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio 45469-0182 (United States); RAFAEL, P.O. Box 2250 (24), Haifa (Israel)

1998-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Helium-filled aluminum flight tubes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Helium-filled aluminum flight tubes. Helium-filled aluminum flight tubes. Detector housing for the CCD camera lens, mirror, and scintillator. For more information, contact Instrument Scientist: Hassina Bilheux, bilheuxhn@ornl.gov, 865.384.9630 neutrons.ornl.gov/instruments/HFIR/factsheets/Instrument-cg1d.pdf The CG-1D beam is used for neutron imaging measurements using a white beam. Apertures (with different diameters D (pinhole geometry) are used at the entrance of the helium-filled flight path to allow L/D variation from 400 to 800. L is the distance between the aperture and the detector (where the image is produced). Samples sit on a translation/ rotation stage for alignment and tomography purposes. Detectors for CG-1D include

262

Inert anodes and advanced smelting of aluminum  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issued associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint. It discusses the outlook for the direct retrofit of advanced reduction technologies to existing aluminum smelters, and compares retrofits to ''brown field'' usage and ''green field'' adoption of the technologies. A number of observations and recommendations are offered for consideration concerning further research and development efforts that may be directed toward these advanced technologies. The opportunities are discussed in the context of incremental progress that is being made in conventional Hall-Heroult cell systems.

ASME Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Aluminum doped zinc oxide for organic photovoltaics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) was grown via magnetron sputtering as a low-cost alternative to indium tin oxide (ITO) for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Postdeposition ozone treatment resulted in devices with lower series resistance, increased open-circuit voltage, and power conversion efficiency double that of devices fabricated on untreated AZO. Furthermore, cells fabricated using ozone treated AZO and standard ITO displayed comparable performance.

Murdoch, G. B.; Hinds, S.; Sargent, E. H.; Tsang, S. W.; Mordoukhovski, L.; Lu, Z. H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)

2009-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

264

Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science September 7, 2012 - 5:33pm Addthis SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory uses massive quantities of aluminum foil to perform "bake out" of their equipment. In a typical bake out, the equipment is blanketed in foil, wrapped with electrical heat tape, and then covered in foil again. Heat tape is used to heat the metal chamber just enough to loosen any residues that could cause trouble. The aluminum foil helps spread the heat evenly. | Photo of SLAC SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory uses massive quantities of aluminum foil to perform "bake out" of their equipment. In a typical bake out, the equipment is blanketed in foil, wrapped with electrical heat tape, and then

265

Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science Five Ways Aluminum Foil Is Advancing Science September 7, 2012 - 5:33pm Addthis SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory uses massive quantities of aluminum foil to perform "bake out" of their equipment. In a typical bake out, the equipment is blanketed in foil, wrapped with electrical heat tape, and then covered in foil again. Heat tape is used to heat the metal chamber just enough to loosen any residues that could cause trouble. The aluminum foil helps spread the heat evenly. | Photo of SLAC SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory uses massive quantities of aluminum foil to perform "bake out" of their equipment. In a typical bake out, the equipment is blanketed in foil, wrapped with electrical heat tape, and then

266

Energy Conservation Design Features of the ARCO Metals Logan County Aluminum Process Complex  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ARCO Metals Company (Formerly Anaconda Aluminum Company) is proceeding as scheduled with the construction of a $400 Million aluminum processing complex in Logan County, Kentucky. When the initial construction phase is completed in the Fall 1983, the complex will be capable of producing 400 million pounds per year of aluminum, sheet and foil using highly automated, computer controlled equipment that will maximize end product quality and minimize the consumption of energy. This paper will describe the basic processes used in the Logan complex and several design features that are being incorporated to reduce energy consumption. Large reverberatroy melting furnaces will remelt scrap aluminum and ingots will be cast on site to supplement those delivered to the site from ARCO Metal's reduction plants. The melting furnaces are expected to achieve a high efficiency which will be further enhanced by the utilization of exhaust gases to preheat the scrap as well as the combustion air. A coreless induction furnace will be used to reduce the melt loss normally associated with light gauge scrap. The ingots will be heated prior to rolling in the hot mill in direct fired preheating furnaces with variable speed fans that minimize cycle time. Flue gasses from these furnaces will be used to generate steam In a waste heat boiler. Motor loads in the hot mill and cold mills, along with other electrical loads, will be monitored by a computer system to minimize peak loading on the TVA power system. Annealing of aluminum coils will be accomplished in radiant tube furnaces with variable speed fan drives in an inert atmosphere produced by an electric powered air separation plant. These furnaces will use recuperative burners. The HVAC system incorporates a feature that will recover stratified hot air for use in other parts of the complex for ambient temperature control.

Speer, J. A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Study of aluminum corrosion in aluminum solar heat collectors using aqueous glycol solution for heat transfer. Semiannual technical progress report, July 30, 1979-January 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

The present work is addressed primarily to the study of the effects of glycol aging at elevated temperatures (above 100/sup 0/C). Glycols are known to be susceptible to thermal decomposition producing new product species which may be aggressive to aluminum. In addition, the possible breakdown of corrosion inhibitors due to long term exposure to high temperature are also investigated. Both uninhibited and inhibited ethylene (as well as propylene) glycols have been aged at temperatures up to 190/sup 0/C for over 2000 h continuously to date. Aliquot samples of each glycol solution tested in this program were taken at 1000 and 2000 h of exposure for chemical analysis and pH measurement. Based on the data obtained so far, solution pH was found to decrease steadily with exposure time. The critical pitting potential of 1100 series aluminum in a 50 vol % aqueous ethylene glycol solution is reported as functions of both temperature and chloride ion concentration. This information is essential in the cathodic protection of pitting corrosion of aluminum.

Wong, D.; Cocks, F.H.; Giner, J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Cold Spray Processing of Bulk Nanostructured Aluminum Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research demonstrates the ability to fabricate billet size samples of a nanocrystalline aluminum alloy (AA5083) via CSP in a relatively quick, low cost, and ...

269

Simulation of Aluminum Shape Casting Processing: From Alloy - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 24, 2007 ... "The objective of the TMS Symposium on the "Simulation of Aluminum Shape Casting Processing" From Alloy Design to Mechanical Properties" ...

270

Fracture of welded aluminum thin-walled structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A comprehensive methodology was developed in the thesis for damage prediction of welded aluminum thin-walled structures, which includes material modeling, calibration, numerical simulation and experimental verification. ...

Zheng, Li, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Cell Voltage Noise Reduction Based on Wavelet in Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Cell Voltage Noise Reduction Based on Wavelet in Aluminum ... cell voltage signals collected in aluminium electrolysis process are with high ...

272

Dynamic Simulation of Cell Voltage Resonance Effect in Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dubal Cell Voltage Drop Initiatives towards Low Energy High Amperage Cells · Dynamic Simulation of Cell Voltage Resonance Effect in Aluminum Electrolysis ...

273

Aluminum nitrate recrystallization and recovery from liquid extraction raffinates  

SciTech Connect

The solid sludges resulting form biodenitrification of discarded aluminum nitrate are the largest Y-12 Plant process solid waste. Aluminum nitrate feedstocks also represent a major plant materials cost. The chemical constraints on aluminum nitrate recycle were investigated to determine the feasibility of increasing recycle while maintaining acceptable aluminum nitrate purity. Reported phase behavior of analogous systems, together with bench research, indicated that it would be possible to raise the recycle rate from 35% to between 70 and 90% by successive concentration and recrystallization of the mother liquor. A full scale pilot test successfully confirmed the ability to obtain 70% recycle in existing process equipment.

Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Huxtable, W.P.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Fabrication of Carbon Nano-Fiber / Aluminum Composites by Low ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the fabrication of carbon containing aluminum composites was attempted by using low-pressure infiltration method. At first, porous perform ...

275

Low Cost Video Emissions Monitoring Technique for Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Aluminum smelting plants emit gaseous and particulate fluoride, sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon oxides (CO and CO2), perfluorocarbons CF4 and ...

276

Energy Efficient Operation of Secondary Aluminum Melting Furnaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 1, 2007 ... Energy Efficient Operation of Secondary Aluminum Melting Furnaces by P.E. King, J.J. Hatem, and B.M. Golchert ...

277

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and J. Newman, Proc. Syrup. Battery Design and Optimization,123, 1364 (1976). Symp, Battery Design and Optimization, S.~ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY Contents ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Pollard, Richard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Localized corrosion of aluminum alloys for OTEC heat exchangers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effects of dissolved oxygen, pH and temperature on the rate of initiation and growth of pitting and crevice corrosion of aluminum alloy 5052 and pure aluminum have been determined. Variations in pH and temperature rather than dissolved oxygen are shown to account for increased corrosion rates of 5000 series aluminum alloys that have been reported for deep ocean exposures. The impact of these results on the use of aluminum for OTEC heat exchanger tubing and on possible approaches to corrosion control are discussed.

Dexter, S C

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor - Energy ...  

Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent Search; Success Stories; News; Events; Electricity Transmission Early Stage R&D Advanced Materials Aluminum ...

280

Carbon Fiber with Ni-Coated Reinforced Aluminum Alloy Matrix ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... Carbon Fiber with Ni-Coated Reinforced Aluminum Alloy Matrix Composites by Bianhua Han, Tianjiao Luo, Chunlin Liang,Guangchun Yao, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

SPG-19: Fabrication and Characterization of Nanoporous Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

1 wt% aqueous solution of nitric acid (HNO3) was used to selectively remove zinc ... Characterization of Nanoporous Aluminum via Selective Dissolution of Al-Zn ...

282

Effect of Dopants on Interdiffusion of Aluminum and Oxygen through ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the mutual GB transport of aluminum and oxygen in RE-doped polycrystalline ... Secondary Transport Phenomena in Ceramic Membranes under ...

283

Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide Nanoink - Energy Innovation Portal  

Scientists at Berkeley Lab have developed a method for fabricating conductive aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals that provide a lower cost, less toxic ...

284

TMS2013 Keynote Session Looks at Impurities in the Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

"Impacts of Impurities Introduced into the Aluminum Reduction Cell"; "Changes in Global Oil Refining and Its Impact on Anode Quality Petroleum Coke"

285

A New Vacuum Degassing Process for Molten Aluminum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to maintain a low hydrogen content in molten aluminum, A porous refractory ... Metallurgical Performance of Salt and Chlorine Fluxing Technologies in ...

286

Heat Recovery from the Exhaust Gas of Aluminum Reduction Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increased Energy Efficiency and Reduced HF Emissions with New Heat Exchanger · Industrial Test of Low-voltage Energy-saving Aluminum Reduction ...

287

The ALCAN Compact Degasser: A through-Based Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 1, 1996 ... The ALCAN Compact Degasser: A through-Based Aluminum Treatment Process. Part I: Metallurgical Principles and Performance by P. Waite ...

288

Aluminum across the Americas: Caribbean Mobilities and Transnational American Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

zinc, bauxite, and the hydroelectric power needed to smeltto stop the building of a hydroelectric project by the majorbuild the Afobaka hydroelectric dam to power an aluminum

Sheller, Mimi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Fabrication of Nanostructural Aluminum Alloy Powder with Ball ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to fabricate aluminum alloy powder with nanostructure using ball milling method. The commercial Al-Mg-Cu alloy powder was milled ...

290

Aluminum Oxynitride Dielectrics for High Energy Density Capacitor ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 15, 2006 ... Aluminum Oxynitride Dielectrics for High Energy Density Capacitor Applications by Kevin R. Bray, Richard L.C. Wu, Sandra Fries-Carr, and ...

291

Hybrid Aluminum-Lithium Ion Battery having Enhanced Power Density  

Hybrid Aluminum-Lithium Ion Battery having Enhanced Power Density Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

292

Life Cycle Inventory Report for the North American Aluminum ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... This document provides the most comprehensive life-cycle information for the North American aluminum industry. Carried out for the calendar ...

293

Aluminum-stabilized Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent discloses an aluminum-stabilized Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

Scanlan, R.M.

1984-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

294

Anodization of Aluminum-Titanium Alloys for Solar Cell Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Anodization of Aluminum-Titanium Alloys for Solar Cell ... Migration of Nanotechnology from Laboratory to Market Place: Arci Experience.

295

The GHG Emissions List Analysis of Aluminum Industry in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The GHG Emissions List Analysis of Aluminum Industry in China. Author(s), Yuanyuan Wang, Hao Bai, Guangwei Du, Yuhao Ding, Kang ...

296

Compression Behavior and Energy Absorption of Aluminum Alloys ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Compression Behavior and Energy Absorption of ... Abstract Scope, The usage of advanced high strength steels and Aluminum Alloys as ...

297

Study on Compressive Properties of Aluminum Foams Reinforced ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On Closed-Cell Aluminum Foam Used as Train Floor and Side Plate ... Piezoelectric Smart Composites: Electromechanical Properties and Design Maps

298

Fabrication of Carbon Nano-Fiber (CNF) Reinforced Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On Closed-Cell Aluminum Foam Used as Train Floor and Side Plate ... Piezoelectric Smart Composites: Electromechanical Properties and Design Maps

299

Effect of Heat Treatment on the Compressive Property of Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On Closed-Cell Aluminum Foam Used as Train Floor and Side Plate ... Piezoelectric Smart Composites: Electromechanical Properties and Design Maps

300

Aluminum-stabilized Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are an aluminum-stabilized Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials. 4 figs.

Scanlan, R.M.

1988-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Processing of Aluminum Wires and Its Effect on Their Electrical ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The treated specimens were mechanically tested and their electrical resistivity was measured and compared with pure aluminum wires. The highest electrical ...

302

A-15: Combustion of Aluminum Powder Compacts due to Dynamic ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goal is to determine the meso-scale mechanisms of combustion of aluminum ... of High Nitrogen Duplex Stainless Steel by Multiscale in-situ Experiments.

303

Vacuum Distillation of Aluminum and Silicon via Carbothermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Vacuum Distillation of Aluminum and Silicon via Carbothermal Reduction of Their Oxides with Concentrated Solar Energy. Author(s), Peter G.

304

SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of uranium and plutonium from neutronirradiated uranium is described. The neutron-irradiated uranium is dissolved in nitric acid to provide an aqueous solution 3N in nitric acid. The fission products of the solution are extruded by treating the solution with dibutyl carbitol substantially 1.8N in nitric acid. The organic solvent phase is separated and neutralized with ammonium hydroxide and the plutonium reduced with hydroxylamine base to the trivalent state. Treatment of the mixture with saturated ammonium nitrate extracts the reduced plutonium and leaves the uranium in the organic solvent.

Nicholls, C.M.; Wells, I.; Spence, R.

1959-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

305

Lithium aluminum/iron sulfide battery having lithium aluminum and silicon as negative electrode  

SciTech Connect

A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Silicon powder is mixed with powdered electroactive material, such as the lithium-aluminum eutectic, to provide an improved electrode and cell.

Gilbert, Marian (Flossmoor, IL); Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Fabrication and corrosion resistance of superhydrophobic hydroxide zinc carbonate film on aluminum substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Superhydrophobic hydroxide zinc carbonate (HZC) films were fabricated on aluminum substrate through a convenient in situ deposition process. Firstly, HZC films with different morphologies were deposited on aluminum substrates through immersing the aluminum ...

Jin Liang, Yunchu Hu, Yiqiang Wu, Hong Chen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Electrochemical study of Aluminum-Fly Ash composites obtained by powder metallurgy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, two different ASTM C 618 Class C fly ashes (FA) were used for the production of aluminum metal matrix composites (MMCs) using powder metallurgy (PM) technology. Calcareous FAs were sampled from the electrostatic precipitators of two different lignite-fired power stations: from Megalopolis, Southern Greece (MFA) and from Kardia, Northen Greece (KFA), under maximum electricity load. FAs were milled in order to reduce the mean particle diameter and Aluminum-FA composites containing 10% and 20% of FA were then prepared and compacted. The green products were sintered for 2 h at 600 Degree-Sign C. Sintered Al-FA MMCs showed increased hardness and wear resistance suggesting their possible use in industrial applications for example in covers, casings, brake rotors or engine blocks. As most possible industrial applications of MMCs not only require wear resistance, but also corrosion resistance in different mild aggressive medias, this paper aims to study the electrochemical behavior of FA MMCs in order to evaluate their corrosion resistance. The morphology and chemical composition of the phases in the Aluminum-FA composite samples were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS). Moreover, topographic and Volta potential maps were acquired by Scanning Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (SKP-FM). Volta potential maps provide information about the electrochemical behavior of the different phases in absence of electrolyte. The electrochemical behavior was investigated by Open Circuit Potential measurements and potentiodynamic polarization, while the corrosion mechanisms were studied by SEM observations after different times of immersion in a mild corrosive medium. In all cases it could be stated that the addition of the FA particles into the Al matrix might cause an increase of the hardness and mechanical properties of the pure aluminum but deteriorates the corrosion resistance. The degradation phenomena occurring on the FA containing samples might be related to the following mechanisms: 1) Partial detachment or dissolution of the FA soluble phases, in particular based on Si, Fe and Ca; 2) dissolution of the Al matrix surrounding the FA particles due to crevice corrosion; 3) Al localized dissolution due to galvanic coupling between the Fe-rich intermetallics and the matrix. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminum metal matrix composites containing two types of fly ashes have been characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructure and the electrochemical behavior have been studied using different techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The addition of FA deteriorates the corrosion resistance of the aluminum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation mechanisms: galvanic coupling, crevice corrosion, detachment of FA particles.

Marin, E. [Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, University of Udine, Via Cotonificio 108, 33100, Udine (Italy); Lekka, M., E-mail: maria.lekka@uniud.it [Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, University of Udine, Via Cotonificio 108, 33100, Udine (Italy); Andreatta, F.; Fedrizzi, L. [Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, University of Udine, Via Cotonificio 108, 33100, Udine (Italy); Itskos, G. [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechneiou 9, Zografou 15780, Athens (Greece); Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Mesogeion Avenue 357-359, Halandri 15231, Athens (Greece); Moutsatsou, A. [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechneiou 9, Zografou 15780, Athens (Greece); Koukouzas, N. [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Mesogeion Avenue 357-359, Halandri 15231, Athens (Greece); Kouloumbi, N. [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechneiou 9, Zografou 15780, Athens (Greece)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

308

NEW ALUMINUM OXIDE HUMIDITY ELEMENT. Second Report  

SciTech Connect

An aluminum oxide humidity sensing element is discussed. These elements, which were developed primarily for use in radiosonde weather measuring equipmeni, have a fast response over the entire humidity range and through a broad temperature range of -80 deg F to +l35 deg F. The elements are a marked improvement over previous humidity sensing devices, and their use in specially designed testers allows measurements to be made which were previously unobtainable. Among their other desirable features, these elements are small and lightweight, can be made inexpensively of readily available materials, and can be mass produced. (auth)

Stover, C.M.

1962-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Gelcasting of aluminum titanate. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to assess the applicability of the gelcasting process for forming automotive exhaust port liner green bodies using Golden Technologies` proprietary aluminum titanate powder composition. A gelcasting process, specifically tailored to Golden Technologies` powder, was developed and used successfully to form green bodies for property evaluation. Using appropriate milling and firing conditions, it was found that the gelcast material had properties which compared favorably with Golden Technologies` baseline material. Tubular gelcast samples simulating exhaust port liners were prepared and shipped to Golden Technologies for final process evaluation.

Nunn, S.D.; Stephan, J.E.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY THE ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA (ALCOA) FOR  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

FOR FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN PATENT RIGHTS UNDER DOE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NO. DE-FC07-98ID13666; W(A)-98-014; CH-0979 The Petitioner, Alcoa, has requested a waiver of domestic and foreign patent rights for all subject inventions arising from its participation under the above referenced cooperative agreement entitled "Industrial Energy Conservation R&D for Energy Efficient Aluminum." The objective of this cooperative agreement is to design and develop a commercially viable and energy efficient aluminum production cell through the use of advanced anode and cathode materials that use 02 evolving anodes and wetted cathodes to achieve a 30% reduction in energy usage. This program will be carried out under three bench and three pilot scales tests along

311

Energy conservation in the primary aluminum and chlor-alkali industries  

SciTech Connect

The primary aluminum and chlor-alkali industries together use nearly 13% of the electrical energy consumed by US industry. As part of its mission to promote energy conservation in basic US industries, the DOE surveys the present technological status of the major electrochemical industries and evaluates promising technological innovations that may lead to reduced energy requirements. This study provides technical and economic analyses in support of a government program of research and development in advanced electrolytic technology. This program is intended to supplement the development efforts directed toward energy savings by private industry. Sections II and III of this report cover aluminum and chlorine production processes only, since these two industries represent over 90% of the electrical energy requirements of all electrolytic industries in the United States. Section IV examines barriers to accelerated research and development by the electrolytic industries, and makes suggestions for government actions to overcome these barriers.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Method of forming aluminum oxynitride material and bodies formed by such methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering green bodies comprising aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material therein. Such green bodies may comprise aluminum, oxygen, and nitrogen in addition to the aluminum orthophosphate. For example, the green bodies may include a mixture of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material. Additional methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering a green body including a sacrificial material therein, using the sacrificial material to form pores in the green body during sintering, and infiltrating the pores formed in the green body with a liquid infiltrant during sintering. Bodies are formed using such methods.

Bakas, Michael P. (Ammon, ID); Lillo, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

313

TransForum v3n1 - Aluminum-Intensive Vehicles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARGONNE PREDICTS BENEFITS OF ALUMINUM-INTENSIVE VEHICLES Aluminum Car Frame At the Paris Exposition of 1855, as part of the rich and varied displays of France's evolving...

314

Characteristics of Aluminum Biosorption by Sargassum fluitans Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Characteristics of Aluminum Biosorption by Sargassum fluitans Biomass Hak Sung Lee1, * and Bohumil3A 2B2, Canada Abstract: Biomass of nonliving brown seaweed Sargassum fluitans pretreated.5. There are indications that the biomass hydroxyl groups were involved in sequestering the aluminum in the form

Volesky, Bohumil

315

POST-SHOCK TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS OF ALUMINUM A. Seifter1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

POST-SHOCK TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS OF ALUMINUM A. Seifter1 , S. T. Stewart2 , M. R. Furlanetto1, Harvard University, 20 Oxford Street, Cambridge MA 02138 Abstract. Post-shock temperature is an important experiments. Keywords: Pyrometry, infrared optics, post-shock temperatures, aluminum, equations of state PACS

Stewart, Sarah T.

316

Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs.

Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

1989-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

317

Nanostructured lithium-aluminum alloy electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrodeposited aluminum films and template-synthesized aluminum nanorods are examined as negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries. The lithium-aluminum alloying reaction is observed electrochemically with cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling in lithium half-cells. The electrodeposition reaction is shown to have high faradaic efficiency, and electrodeposited aluminum films reach theoretical capacity for the formation of LiAl (1 Ah/g). The performance of electrodeposited aluminum films is dependent on film thickness, with thicker films exhibiting better cycling behavior. The same trend is shown for electron-beam deposited aluminum films, suggesting that aluminum film thickness is the major determinant in electrochemical performance regardless of deposition technique. Synthesis of aluminum nanorod arrays on stainless steel substrates is demonstrated using electrodeposition into anodic aluminum oxide templates followed by template dissolution. Unlike nanostructures of other lithium-alloying materials, the electrochemical performance of these aluminum nanorod arrays is worse than that of bulk aluminum.

Hudak, Nicholas S.; Huber, Dale L.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Ash-Based Building Panels Production and Demonstration of Aerock Decking Building Product  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) of Laramie, Wyoming and AeRock, LLC of Eagar, Arizona (formerly of Bellevue, Washington) partnered, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE-NETL), to support the development of rapid-setting, ash-based, fiber-incorporated ''green'' building products. Green building materials are a rapidly growing trend in the building and construction industry in the US. A two phase project was implemented wherein Phase I assessed, through chemical and physical testing, ash, ash-based cement and fiber composites exhibiting superior structural performance when applied to the AeRock mixing and extrusion process and involved the conduct of pilot-scale production trials of AeRock products, and wherein Phase II involved the design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale plant to confirm production issues and to produce panels for performance evaluations. Phase I optimized the composite ingredients including ash-based cement, Class F and Class C DFGD ash, and various fiber reinforcements. Additives, such as retardants and accelerators, were also evaluated as related to extruder performance. The optimized composite from the Phase I effort was characterized by a modulus of rupture (MOR) measured between 1,931 and 2,221 psi flexural strength, comparable to other wood and non-wood building materials. Continuous extrusion of the optimum composite in the AeRock pilot-scale facility produced an excellent product that was assembled into a demonstration for exhibit and durability purposes. Finishes, from plain to marbled, from bright reds to muted earth tones and with various textures, could easily be applied during the mixing and extrusion process. The successful pilot-scale demonstration was in turn used to design the production parameters and extruder dies for a commercial scale demonstration at Ultrapanel Pty, Ltd of Ballarat, Australia under Phase II. The initial commercial-scale production trials showed green product sagging, as a result of the die design. After the third die was acquired and fitted to the extruder, satisfactory decking and structural panels were produced. Cured decking was shipped to the US but experienced significant breakage and damage during transport. Subsequent evaluations concluded that an alternative die design was needed that would produce a more robust product resistant to damage. In summary, AeRock Decking can be a commercially-viable non-wood alternative decking product. This project has provided WRI and AeRock the knowledge and understanding to make AeRock Decking a commercial success. However, a commercial demonstration that produces quality product and the subsequent evaluation of its performance is needed before commercial acceptance of the AeRock product.

Alan E. Bland; Jesse Newcomer

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

319

Mr. Mark Jackson Aluminum Company of America  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

_ _ of Energy Washington, DC 20565 Mr. Mark Jackson Aluminum Company of America 100 Technical Drive Alcoa Center, Pennsylvania 15069-0001 Dear Mr. Jackson: At,the request of the U.S. Department of Energy and with the consent of your company, Oak Ridge National Laboratory performed a radiological survey of the former ALCOA Research Labo,ratory at 600 Freeport Road in New Kensington, Pennsylvania. Three copies of the radiological survey report are enclosed for your information and use. An additional radiological survey was also performed at the former ALCOA New Kensington Works at Pine and Ninth Streets in New Kensington. This property was formerly owned and operated by ALCOA and was utilized at one time for uranium processing activities by DOE's predecessor, the Manhattan Engineer

320

Diode laser welding of aluminum to steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser welding of dissimilar materials was carried out by using a high power diode laser to join aluminum to steel in a butt-joint configuration. During testing, the laser scan rate was changed as well as the laser power: at low values of fluence (i.e. the ratio between laser power and scan rate), poor joining was observed; instead at high values of fluence, an excess in the material melting affected the joint integrity. Between these limiting values, a good aesthetics was obtained; further investigations were carried out by means of tensile tests and SEM analyses. Unfortunately, a brittle behavior was observed for all the joints and a maximum rupture stress about 40 MPa was measured. Apart from the formation of intermeltallic phases, poor mechanical performances also depended on the chosen joining configuration, particularly because of the thickness reduction of the seam in comparison with the base material.

Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Trovalusci, Federica [University of Rome Tor Vergata, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Lightweight Aluminum/Nano composites for Automotive Drive Train Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During Phase I, we successfully processed air atomized aluminum powders via Dynamic Magnetic Compaction (DMC) pressing and subsequent sintering to produce parts with properties similar to wrought aluminum. We have also showed for the first time that aluminum powders can be processed without lubes via press and sintering to 100 % density. This will preclude a delube cycle in sintering and promote environmentally friendly P/M processing. Processing aluminum powders via press and sintering with minimum shrinkage will enable net shape fabrication. Aluminum powders processed via a conventional powder metallurgy process produce too large a shrinkage. Because of this, sinter parts have to be machined into specific net shape. This results in increased scrap and cost. Fully sintered aluminum alloy under this Phase I project has shown good particle-to-particle bonding and mechanical properties. We have also shown the feasibility of preparing nano composite powders and processing via pressing and sintering. This was accomplished by dispersing nano silicon carbide (SiC) powders into aluminum matrix comprising micron-sized powders (nano SiC were processed using DMC press and sinter process to sinter density of 85-90%. The process optimization along with sintering needs to be carried out to produce full density composites.

Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Knoth, Edward A.; Schumaker, Edward J.

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

322

Lightweight Aluminum/Nano composites for Automotive Drive Train Applications  

SciTech Connect

During Phase I, we successfully processed air atomized aluminum powders via Dynamic Magnetic Compaction (DMC) pressing and subsequent sintering to produce parts with properties similar to wrought aluminum. We have also showed for the first time that aluminum powders can be processed without lubes via press and sintering to 100 % density. This will preclude a delube cycle in sintering and promote environmentally friendly P/M processing. Processing aluminum powders via press and sintering with minimum shrinkage will enable net shape fabrication. Aluminum powders processed via a conventional powder metallurgy process produce too large a shrinkage. Because of this, sinter parts have to be machined into specific net shape. This results in increased scrap and cost. Fully sintered aluminum alloy under this Phase I project has shown good particle-to-particle bonding and mechanical properties. We have also shown the feasibility of preparing nano composite powders and processing via pressing and sintering. This was accomplished by dispersing nano silicon carbide (SiC) powders into aluminum matrix comprising micron-sized powders (<100 microns) using a proprietary process. These composite powders of Al with nano SiC were processed using DMC press and sinter process to sinter density of 85-90%. The process optimization along with sintering needs to be carried out to produce full density composites.

Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Knoth, Edward A.; Schumaker, Edward J.

2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

323

The Pricing of Electricity to Aluminum Smelters in the Northwest  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Bonneville Power Administration is a federal agency marketing electric power in the Pacific Northwest. Bonneville sells power from federal hydroelectric projects and two nuclear projects to public and private utilities and directly to several major industrial firms, primarily aluminum companies operating aluminum smelters in the region. These direct service industries (DSIs) have a contractual right to purchase up to 3.500 average megawatts annually from Bonneville. Because the aluminum smelters in the Northwest are generally older and less efficient than plants in other parts of the world and because aluminum companies are facing lower electricity prices in other parts of the world, the Northwest plants have become "swing" plants. That is when the world price of aluminum is high, these plants will run at capacity but they are the first plants to shut down when the world price of aluminum is low. Because of these factors, DSIs have been purchasing only about 2.700 megawatts annually, and annual purchases have been as low as 1.670 megawatts. Sales to the DSIs represent about 45 percent of all industrial uses of electricity or about 18 percent of total electricity loads in the four-state region and about 23 percent of all Bonneville sales. The dramatic fluctuations in Bonnevilles revenue brought on by operating the aluminum plants in the region as swing plants have prompted Bonneville to search for innovative pricing schemes designed to maintain its revenue base. Bonneville's proposed strategy includes tying the price of electricity it sells to the aluminum smelters to the world price of aluminum. This paper will examine Bonneville's proposed pricing strategy; it will also examine other strategies to reduce uncertainty in the region's future electric load.

Foley, T. J.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

THE APPARENT SOLUBILITY OF ALUMINUM(III) IN HANFORD HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TANKS  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of aluminum in Hanford nuclear waste impacts on the process ability of the waste by a number of proposed treatment options. For many years, Hanford staff has anecdotally noted that aluminum appears to be considerably more soluble in Hanford waste than the simpler electrolyte solutions used as analogues. There has been minimal scientific study to confirm these anecdotal observations, however. The present study determines the apparent solubility product for gibbsite in 50 tank samples. The ratio of hydroxide to aluminum in the liquid phase for the samples is calculated and plotted as a function of total sodium molarity. Total sodium molarity is used as a surrogate for ionic strength, because the relative ratios of mono, di and trivalent anions are not available for all of the samples. These results were compared to the simple NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4})H{sub 2}O system, and the NaOH-NaAl(OH{sub 4})NaCl-H{sub 2}O system data retrieved from the literature. The results show that gibbsite is apparently more soluble in the samples than in the simple systems whenever the sodium molarity is greater than two. This apparent enhanced solubility cannot be explained solely by differences in ionic strength. The change in solubility with ionic strength in simple systems is small compared to the difference between aluminum solubility in Hanford waste and the simple systems. The reason for the apparent enhanced solubility is unknown, but could include. kinetic or thermodynamic factors that are not present in the simple electrolyte systems. Any kinetic explanation would have to explain why the samples are always supersaturated whenever the sodium molarity is above two. Real waste characterization data should not be used to validate thermodynamic solubility models until it can be confirmed that the apparent enhanced gibbsite solubility is a thermodynamic effect and not a kinetic effect.

REYNOLDS JG

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

325

EFFECT OF CATIONS ON ALUMINUM SPECIATION UNDER ALKALINE CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments were performed to examine the effect of metal cations common to high level waste on the phase of aluminum formed. Experiments were performed at temperature of 150 C, 75 C, and room temperature, either without additional metal cation, or with 0.01-0.2 molar equivalents of either Ni{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+}, or Cr{sup 3+}. Results showed that temperature has the greatest effect on the phase obtained. At 150 C, boehmite is the only phase obtained, independent of the presence of other metal cations, with only one exception where a small amount of gibbsite was also detected in the product when 0.2 equivalents of Ni{sup 2+} was present. At 75 C, a mixture of phases is obtained, most commonly including bayerite and gibbsite; however, boehmite is also formed under some conditions, including in the absence of additional metal ion. At room temperature, in the absence of additional metal ion, a mixture of bayerite and gibbsite is obtained. The addition of another metal cation suppresses the formation of gibbsite, with a couple of exceptions (0.2 equivalents of Ni{sup 2+} or 0.01 equivalents of Cr{sup 3+}) where both phases are still obtained.

Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

326

Process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics and material  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics is provided. A gaseous atmosphere consisting essentially of silicon monoxide gas is formed by exposing a source of silicon to an atmosphere consisting essentially of hydrogen and a sufficient amount of water vapor. The aluminum based ceramic is exposed to the gaseous silicon monoxide atmosphere for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to produce a continuous, stable silicon-containing film on the surface of the aluminum based ceramic that increases the strength of the ceramic.

Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN); Kim, Hyoun-Ee (Seoul, KR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics and material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for strengthening aluminum based ceramics is provided. A gaseous atmosphere consisting essentially of silicon monoxide gas is formed by exposing a source of silicon to an atmosphere consisting essentially of hydrogen and a sufficient amount of water vapor. The aluminum based ceramic is exposed to the gaseous silicon monoxide atmosphere for a period of time and at a temperature sufficient to produce a continuous, stable silicon-containing film on the surface of the aluminum based ceramic that increases the strength of the ceramic.

Moorhead, Arthur J.; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

ADVANCED CERAMIC COMPOSITES FOR MOLTEN ALUMINUM CONTACT APPLICATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new refractory material which was developed for use in molten aluminum contact applications was shown to exhibit improved corrosion and wear resistance leading to improved thermal management through reduced heat losses caused by refractory thinning and wastage. This material was developed based on an understanding of the corrosion and wear mechanisms associated with currently used aluminum contact refractories under a U.S. Department of Energy funded project to investigate multifunctional refractory materials for energy efficient handling of molten metals. This new material has been validated through an industrial trial at a commercial aluminum rod and cable mill. Material development and results of this industrial validation trial are discussed.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Peters, Klaus-Markus [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Multi-Scale Modeling of Nano Aluminum Particle Ignition and Combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NEEM MURI Multi-Scale Modeling of Nano Aluminum Particle Ignition and Combustion Multi-Scale Modeling of Nano Aluminum Particle Ignition and Combustion Puneesh Puri and Vigor Yang The Pennsylvania Aluminum Particle Combustion · Aluminum oxide cap formed under the effect of surface tension · Oxidized

Yang, Vigor

330

Cast B2-phase iron-aluminum alloys with improved fluidity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems and methods are described for iron aluminum alloys. A composition includes iron, aluminum and manganese. A method includes providing an alloy including iron, aluminum and manganese; and processing the alloy. The systems and methods provide advantages because additions of manganese to iron aluminum alloys dramatically increase the fluidity of the alloys prior to solidification during casting.

Maziasz, Philip J. (122 Clark La., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Paris, Alan M. (P.O. Box 64, Tarrs, PA 15688); Vought, Joseph D. (124 Cove Point Rd., Rockwood, TN 37854)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys  

SciTech Connect

A gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to provide a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surfaces are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy contiguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

Frye, Lowell D. (Kingston, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to profice a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surface are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy continguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

Frye, L.D.

1982-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

333

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Work Plans  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

finalized its work plan with the collaboration of EPA. The plan describes actions the industry intends to take to achieve its Climate VISION goal by 2010. Read the Aluminum...

334

The External and Internal shrinkages in Aluminum Gravity Castings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The External and Internal shrinkages in Aluminum Gravity Castings. Author(s), Fu-Yuan Hsu, Shin-Wei Wang, Huey-Jiuan Lin. On-Site ...

335

Aging Aluminum Alloy 7085 Mold Blocks Part II: Continuous ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 1, 2007 ... Aging Aluminum Alloy 7085 Mold Blocks Part II: Continuous Non-Isothermal Aging by J.T. Staley, Sr., E. Austin, D.B. Glanton, B. Godin, and G.

336

Aging Aluminum Alloy 7085 Mold Blocks Part 1 - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 1, 2007 ... Aging Aluminum Alloy 7085 Mold Blocks Part 1: Two-Step Aging by J.T. Staley; Sr.; H. Conrad; W. Crill; J. Grossman; and F. Skaria ...

337

Effect of Lubrication and Application Modes on Drilled Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of the present research work is to study the effect of cutting fluids and its ... and burr formation during drilling of 7075, 6061, and A356 aluminum alloys.

338

Analytical and FEM Modeling of Aluminum Billet Induction Heating ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Author(s), Mark William Kennedy, Shahid Akhtar, Jon Arne Bakken, Ragnhild Elisabeth Aune ... Process parameters such as: current, power, magnetic field, electrical ... A New Counter Gravity Sand Process Used for Aluminum Alloy Casting.

339

Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on the Filtration of Liquid Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Shahin Akbarnejad, Knut Marthinsen, Jon Arne Bakken, Ragnhild Elizabeth Aune ... aluminum alloy (A356) by the support of various magnetic field strengths (up to ... The obtained results were compared with reference gravity experiments.

340

Norsk Hydro Buys Vale Aluminum Business - Materials Technology ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Posted on: 5/4/2010 12:00:00 AM... In the largest transaction in its history, Norwegian aluminum producer Norsk Hydro announced on May 2 that it will take over ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Sodium Content in Aluminum and Current Efficiency - Correlation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

However, values for this indicator are usually determined monthly and they are ... Development of Low-Voltage Energy-Saving Aluminum Reduction Technology ... Study of Technology and Equipment on Magnetic Induction Intensity Weaken ...

342

A History of the Aluminum Cap of the Washington Monument  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The actual chronology of the letters can be found in an earlier paper.6 Frishmuth proposed that the pyramid be made of aluminum at a quoted price of $75, and if ...

343

Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described herein relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

McDowell, William J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seeley, Forest G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Simulation of Turbulent Combustion Fields of Shock-Dispersed Aluminum Using the AMR Code  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present a Model for simulating experiments of combustion in Shock-Dispersed-Fuel (SDF) explosions. The SDF charge consisted of a 0.5-g spherical PETN booster, surrounded by 1-g of fuel powder (flake Aluminum). Detonation of the booster charge creates a high-temperature, high-pressure source (PETN detonation products gases) that both disperses the fuel and heats it. Combustion ensues when the fuel mixes with air. The gas phase is governed by the gas-dynamic conservation laws, while the particle phase obeys the continuum mechanics laws for heterogeneous media. The two phases exchange mass, momentum and energy according to inter-phase interaction terms. The kinetics model used an empirical particle burn relation. The thermodynamic model considers the air, fuel and booster products to be of frozen composition, while the Al combustion products are assumed to be in equilibrium. The thermodynamic states were calculated by the Cheetah code; resulting state points were fit with analytic functions suitable for numerical simulations. Numerical simulations of combustion of an Aluminum SDF charge in a 6.4-liter chamber were performed. Computed pressure histories agree with measurements.

Kuhl, A L; Bell, J B; Beckner, V E; Khasainov, B

2006-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

346

Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A recent review by the U.S. Advanced Ceramics Association, the Aluminum Association, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (DOE/OIT) described the status of advanced ceramics for aluminum processing, including monolithics, composites, and coatings. The report observed that monolithic ceramics (particularly oxides) have attractive properties such as resistance to heat, corrosion, thermal shock, abrasion, and erosion [1]. However, even after the developments of the past 25 years, there are two key barriers to commercialization: reliability and cost-effectiveness. Industry research is therefore focused on eliminating these barriers. Ceramic coatings have likewise undergone significant development and a variety of processes have been demonstrated for applying coatings to substrates. Some processes, such as thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine engines, exhibit sufficient reliability and service life for routine commercial use. Worldwide, aluminum melting and molten metal handling consumes about 506,000 tons of refractory materials annually. Refractory compositions for handling molten aluminum are generally based on dense fused cast silica or mullite. The microstructural texture is extremely important because an interlocking mass of coarser grains must be bonded together by smaller grains in order to achieve adequate strength. At the same time, well-distributed microscopic pores and cracks are needed to deflect cracks and prevent spalling and thermal shock damage [2]. The focus of this project was to develop and validate new classes of cost-effective, low-permeability ceramic and refractory components for handling molten aluminum in both smelting and casting environments. The primary goal was to develop improved coatings and functionally graded materials that will possess superior combinations of properties, including resistance to thermal shock, erosion, corrosion, and wetting. When these materials are successfully deployed in aluminum smelting and casting operations, their superior performance and durability will give end users marked improvements in uptime, defect reduction, scrap/rework costs, and overall energy savings resulting from higher productivity and yield. The implementation of results of this program will result in energy savings of 30 trillion Btu/year by 2020. For this Industrial Materials for the Future (IMF) project, riser tube used in the low-pressure die (LPD) casting of aluminum was selected as the refractory component for improvement. In this LPD process, a pressurized system is used to transport aluminum metal through refractory tubes (riser tubes) into wheel molds. It is important for the tubes to remain airtight because otherwise, the pressurized system will fail. Generally, defects such as porosity in the tube or cracks generated by reaction of the tube material with molten aluminum lead to tube failure, making the tube incapable of maintaining the pressure difference required for normal casting operation. Therefore, the primary objective of the project was to develop a riser tube that is not only resistant to thermal shock, erosion, corrosion, and wetting, but is also less permeable, so as to achieve longer service life. Currently, the dense-fused silica (DFS) riser tube supplied by Pyrotek lasts for only 7 days before undergoing failure. The following approach was employed to achieve the goal: (1) Develop materials and methods for sealing surface porosity in thermal-shock-resistant ceramic refractories; (2) Develop new ceramic coatings for extreme service in molten aluminum operations, with particular emphasis on coatings based on highly stable oxide phases; (3) Develop new monolithic refractories designed for lower-permeability applications using controlled porosity gradients and particle size distributions; (4) Optimize refractory formulations to minimize wetting by molten aluminum, and characterize erosion, corrosion, and spallation rates under realistic service conditions; and (5) Scale up the processing methods to full-sized components and perform field testi

Kadolkar, Puja [ORNL; Ott, Ronald D [ORNL

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Influence of aluminum oxide on the kinetics of thermal dissociation of calcium sulfate in vacuum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors study the kinetics of thermal dissociation of calcium sulfate in order to assess the possibility of using phosphogypsum (a high-tonnage by-product of phosphoric acid production) as a raw material for the simultaneous production of sulfuric acid and cement. They investigate the effects of aluminum oxide on the kinetics and establish that a vacuum of 2.6 Pa and the addition of the oxide in a 1:1 molar ratio with the sulfate allows a reduction in pyrolysis temperature and an intensification of the reaction. They show that at 1320 K the rate is determined by diffusion and at 1420 K by reaction at the phase boundary.

Mamontov, V.A.; Aziev, R.G.; Shipovskov, V.S.; Men'shikov, V.V.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Photon stimulated desorption (PSD) measurements of extruded copper and of welded copper beam chambers for the PEP II asymmetric B-factory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PEP II is being built as a higher luminosity electron-positron collider, with asymmetric beams of 9 GeV and 3.1 GeV, having maximum currents of 3.0 A. Based on the previous work on the NSLS VUV beamline U10B, a copper was selected for construction of UHV beam chambers and absorbers to minimize the pressure rise from synchrotron radiation during operation. An extruded beam chamber and a welded beam chamber were fabricated from the selected copper for PSD measurements on NSLS X-ray beamline X28A. The chambers were exposed to white light with a critical energy of 5 KeV, both direct and through a 0.010 inch thick Beryllium filter. Each chamber was exposed to a dose of approximately 10{sup 23} photons per meter at an incidence angle of 25 mrad, after argon glow conditioning and a 150 C vacuum bake. Desorption yields for H{sub 2} CO, CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} are reported as a function of accumulated photon flux, critical energy, and chamber preparation. The results are compared with the previous work on beamline U10B and with those of other published work for copper.

Foerster, C.L.; Lanni, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). NSLS; Perkins, C. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Calderon, M.; Barletta, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

349

Textures in Strip-Cast Aluminum Alloys: Their On-Line Monitoring and Quantitative Effects on Formability. Final Technical Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aluminum sheets produced by continuous casting (CC) provide energy and economic savings of at least 25 and 14 percent, respectively, over sheets made from conventional direct chill (DC) ingot casting and rolling. As a result of the much simpler production route in continuous casting, however, the formability of CC aluminum alloys is often somewhat inferior to that of their DC counterparts. The mechanical properties of CC alloys can be improved by controlling their microstructure through optimal thermomechanical processing. Suitable annealing is an important means to improve the formability of CC aluminum alloy sheets. Recrystallization of deformed grains occurs during annealing, and it changes the crystallographic texture of the aluminum sheet. Laboratory tests in this project showed that this texture change can be detected by either laser-ultrasound resonance spectroscopy or resonance EMAT (electromagnetic acoustic transducer) spectroscopy, and that monitoring this change allows the degree of recrystallization or the ''recrystallized fraction'' in an annealed sheet to be ascertained. Through a plant trial conducted in May 2002, this project further demonstrated that it is feasible to monitor the recrystallized state of a continuous-cast aluminum sheet in-situ on the production line by using a laser-ultrasound sensor. When used in conjunction with inline annealing, inline monitoring of the recrystallized fraction by laser-ultrasound resonance spectroscopy offers the possibility of feed-back control that helps optimize processing parameters (e.g., annealing temperature), detect production anomalies, ensure product quality, and further reduce production costs of continuous-cast aluminum alloys. Crystallographic texture strongly affects the mechanical anisotropy/formability of metallic sheets. Clarification of the quantitative relationship between texture and anisotropy/formability of an aluminum alloy will render monitoring and control of its texture during the sheet production process even more meaningful. The present project included a study to determine how the anisotropic plastic behavior of a continuous-cast AA 5754 aluminum alloy depends on quantifiable texture coefficients. Formulae which show explicitly the effects of texture on the directional dependence of the q-value (a formability parameter) and of the uniaxial flow stress, respectively, were derived. Measurements made on a batch of as-received AA 5754 hot band and its O-temper counterpart corroborate the validity of these formulae. On the other hand, these measurements also indicate that some microstructure(s) other than texture could play a significant role in the plastic anisotropy of the AA 5754 alloy. For the q-value of a set of O-temper samples of this alloy, the additional microstructure that affects plastic anisotropy was shown to be grain shape. A formula that captures both the effects of crystallographic texture and grain shape on the q-value of the O-temper material was derived. A simple quadratic plastic potential that delivers this q-value formula was written down. Verification of the adequacy of this plastic potential, however, requires further investigations.

Man, Chi-Sing

2003-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

350

2013 Aluminum Keynote Session - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Arguably the biggest change affecting the U.S. downstream energy market is the rapid development of shale oil supply. Shale oil production ...

351

CHARACTERIZATION AND ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION DEMONSTRATION WITH A 3 LITER TANK 51H SAMPLE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 3-liter sludge slurry sample was sent to SRNL for demonstration of a low temperature aluminum dissolution process. The sludge was characterized before and after the aluminum dissolution. Post aluminum dissolution sludge settling and the stability of the decanted supernate were also observed. The characterization of the as-received 3-liter sample of Tank 51H sludge slurry shows a typical high aluminum HM sludge. The XRD analysis of the dried solids indicates Boehmite is the predominant crystalline form of aluminum in the sludge solids. However, amorphous phases of aluminum present in the sludge would not be identified using this analytical technique. The low temperature (55 C) aluminum dissolution process was effective at dissolving aluminum from the sludge. Over the three week test, {approx}42% of the aluminum was dissolved out of the sludge solids. The process appears to be selective for aluminum with no other metals dissolving to any appreciable extent. At the termination of the three week test, the aluminum concentration in the supernate had not leveled off indicating more aluminum could be dissolved from the sludge with longer contact times or higher temperatures. The slow aluminum dissolution rate in the test may indicate the dissolution of the Boehmite form of aluminum however; insufficient kinetic data exists to confirm this hypothesis. The aluminum dissolution process appears to have minimal impact on the settling rate of the post aluminum dissolution sludge. However, limited settling data were generated during the test to quantify the effects. The sludge settling was complete after approximately twelve days. The supernate decanted from the settled sludge after aluminum dissolution appears stable and did not precipitate aluminum over the course of several months. A mixture of the decanted supernate with Tank 11 simulated supernate was also stable with respect to precipitation.

Hay, M; John Pareizs, J; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Stone, M; Damon Click, D; Daniel McCabe, D

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

352

Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Boron-doped back-surface fields using an aluminum-alloy process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Boron-doped back-surface fields (BSF`s) have potentially superior performance compared to aluminum-doped BSF`s due to the higher solid solubility of boron compared to aluminum. However, conventional boron diffusions require a long, high temperature step that is both costly and incompatible with many photovoltaic-grade crystalline-silicon materials. We examined a process that uses a relatively low-temperature aluminum-alloy process to obtain a boron-doped BSF by doping the aluminum with boron. In agreement with theoretical expectations, we found that thicker aluminum layers and higher boron doping levels improved the performance of aluminum-alloyed BSF`s.

Gee, J.M.; Bode, M.D.; Silva, B.L.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Reactive self-heating model of aluminum spherical nanoparticles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aluminum-oxygen reaction is important in many highly energetic, high pressure generating systems. Recent experiments with nanostructured thermites suggest that oxidation of aluminum nanoparticles occurs in a few microseconds. Such rapid reaction cannot be explained by a conventional diffusion-based mechanism. We present a rapid oxidation model of a spherical aluminum nanoparticle, using Cabrera-Mott moving boundary mechanism, and taking self-heating into account. In our model, electric potential solves the nonlinear Poisson equation. In contrast with the Coulomb potential, a "double-layer" type solution for the potential and self-heating leads to enhanced oxidation rates. At maximal reaction temperature of 2000 C, our model predicts overall oxidation time scale in microseconds range, in agreement with experimental evidence.

Karen S. Martirosyan; Maxim Zyskin

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

355

COMPILATION OF LABORATORY SCALE ALUMINUM WASH AND LEACH REPORT RESULTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report compiles and analyzes all known wash and caustic leach laboratory studies. As further data is produced, this report will be updated. Included are aluminum mineralogical analysis results as well as a summation of the wash and leach procedures and results. Of the 177 underground storage tanks at Hanford, information was only available for five individual double-shell tanks, forty-one individual single-shell tanks (e.g. thirty-nine 100 series and two 200 series tanks), and twelve grouped tank wastes. Seven of the individual single-shell tank studies provided data for the percent of aluminum removal as a function of time for various caustic concentrations and leaching temperatures. It was determined that in most cases increased leaching temperature, caustic concentration, and leaching time leads to increased dissolution of leachable aluminum solids.

HARRINGTON SJ

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

356

corrosion of diffusion bonded magnesium - aluminum couples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 20, 2012 ... If the price of this product displays as $0.00 for your customer category, you may download it for free. You must, however, add it to your cart and ...

357

Assessment of Crystallographic Deformation Behaviors in Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

N11: Microbilogically Influenced Corrosion of Pipeline Steels used in Oil & Gas Industry ... N2: Fabrication of Uranium Dispersion Targets for Mo-99 Production ... Numerical Modelling for Characterising the Flammability of Natural Fibre ...

358

Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum Matrix Composite (AMCS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Study on the Stress Test of Truck Frames for Freight Trains · A Study on the ... Defect Energetics and Fission Product Transport in ZrC · Deformation Field and ...

359

Alleviation of aluminum toxicity by phosphogypsum  

SciTech Connect

Effects of phosphogypsum (PG) on subsoil solution properties and aluminum (Al) speciation were evaluated in this study. A subsoil sample from the Appling series (Typic Hapludults) was treated with either increasing levels of PG (2, 5, and 10 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} PG), reagent-grade CaSo{sub 4}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O (2 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}), or CaCl{sub 2}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O (2 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}) and incubated (22 {plus minus} 2{degree}C) at {minus}0.01 MPa moisture potential. Soil solution pH was 5.67 in untreated soil, while increasing application of PG from 2 to 10 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} decreased the soil solution pH from 5.08 to 4.47. The soil solution pH was higher in soils treated with similar rates of PG or CaSO{sub 4} {center dot}2H{sub 2}O than CaCl{sub 2}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O. Increasing levels of PG increased the concentrations of Ca, Mg, K, P, Na, Si, Mn, F and SO{sub 4} in the soil solution. The concentration of total Al in soil solution was 0.02, 1.95 and 5,25 ppm in soils treated with 2, 5 and 10 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} PG, respectively. However, Al speciation predicted by the GEOCHEM computer program revealed that at the 5 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} PG treatment, 99% and 0.6% of total Al was complexed with F and SO{sub 4}, respectively, while only 0.3% was in Al{sup 3+} form. At the 10T ha{sup {minus}1} PG treatment, although 10% of total Al was in Al{sup 3+} form, the activity of Al{sup 3+} was only 0.11 ppm. Therefore, an increase in concentrations of F and SO{sub 4} in soil solution in PG treated soils may alleviate Al toxicity by formation of less phytotoxic Al-F and Al-SO{sub 4} complexes. The toxicity of Al may be further decreased by further by a reduction in activity of Al{sup 3+} due to an increase in soil solution ionic strength in PG treated soils.

Alva, A.K.; Sumner, M.E.; Noble, A.D. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

REPORT ON QUALITATIVE VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS USING LITHIUM-ALUMINUM LAYERED DOUBLE-HYDROXIDES FOR THE REDUCTION OF ALUMINUM FROM THE WASTE TREATMENT PLANT FEEDSTOCK  

SciTech Connect

A process for removing aluminum from tank waste simulants by adding lithium and precipitating Li-Al-dihydroxide (Lithiumhydrotalcite, [LiAl{sub 2}(OH){sub 6}]{sup +}X{sup -}) has been verified. The tests involved a double-shell tank (DST) simulant and a single-shell tank (SST) simulant. In the case of the DST simulant, the product was the anticipated Li-hydrotalcite. For the SST simulant, the product formed was primarily Li-phosphate. However, adding excess Li to the solution did result in the formation of traces of Li-hydrotalcite. The Li-hydrotalcite from the DST supernate was an easily filterable solid. After four water washes the filter cake was a fluffy white material made of < 100 {micro}m particles made of smaller spheres. These spheres are agglomerates of {approx} 5 {micro}m diameter platelets with < 1 {micro}m thickness. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the filtrate, filter cake, and wash waters indicate a removal of 90+ wt% of the dissolved Al for the DST simulant. For the SST simulant, the main competing reaction to the formation of lithium hydrotalcite appears to be the formation of lithium phosphate. In case of the DST simulant, phosphorus co-precipitated with the hydrotalcite. This would imply the added benefit of the removal of phosphorus along with aluminum in the pre-treatment part of the waste treatment and immobilization plant (WTP). For this endeavor to be successful, a serious effort toward process parameter optimization is necessary. Among the major issues to be addressed are the dependency of the reaction yield on the solution chemistry, as well as residence times, temperatures, and an understanding of particle growth.

HUBER HJ; DUNCAN JB; COOKE GA

2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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361

Field assessment of an aluminum intensive passenger car  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ford Motor Co. has made a small batch of ``aluminum intensive vehicles`` (AIV), consisting of mid-size cars (Taurus/Sable) with all-aluminum bodies. The first twenty vehicles were made for internal evaluation at Ford, but the second batch of twenty has been placed on the hands of selected independent users, primarily automotive suppliers, for long term field assessment. The mass reduction achieved in the body of an AIV is shown, and compared with an equivalent standard steel body. Argonne obtained one of these vehicles last October; this is an assessment of the fuel consumption and other operational characteristics of this type of car to date.

Cuenca, R.M.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

362

Low temperature aluminum reduction cell using hollow cathode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes are disposed substantially vertically in the electrolyte along with a plurality of monolithic hollow cathodes. Each cathode has a top and bottom and the cathodes are disposed vertically in the electrolyte and the anodes and the cathodes are arranged in alternating relationship. Each of the cathodes is comprised of a first side facing a first opposing anode and a second side facing a second opposing anode. The first and second sides are joined by ends to form a reservoir in the hollow cathode for collecting aluminum therein deposited at the cathode.

Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA)

2002-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

363

Tank 12 Sludge Characterization and Aluminum Dissolution Demonstration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40% of the post-dissolution sludge settled over a three week period. The corresponding volume of supernatant that was decanted from the waste was approximately 35% of the total waste volume. The decanted supernatant contained approximately one-third of the dissolved aluminum and exhibited a mild greenish-grey hue.

Reboul, S.; Hay, M.; Zeigler, K; Stone, M.

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

364

TANK 12 SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION AND ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION DEMONSTRATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of {approx}7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low ({approx}20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40% of the post-dissolution sludge settled over a three week period. The corresponding volume of supernatant that was decanted from the waste was approximately 35% of the total waste volume. The decanted supernatant contained approximately one-third of the dissolved aluminum and exhibited a mild greenish-grey hue.

Reboul, S; Michael Hay, M; Kristine Zeigler, K; Michael Stone, M

2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

365

Impact of recent energy legislation on the aluminum industry  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the aluminum industry's technology in energy use and emissions control. Data on consumption and pollution levels are presented. A history of the aluminum industry in the Pacific Northwest, its role in providing power reserves, and how that role fits into the present power situation are given. The Northwest Power Act, the rates the industry will probably pay as a result of the Act, the implications of those rates to the industry, as well as the availability of federal power to the industry are discussed. Finally, the Act's effects on the relative competitiveness of the industry in both domestic and world markets are examined.

Edelson, E.; Emery, J.G.; Hopp, W.J.; Kretz, A.L.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Passivation of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOB  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOBin commercially available lithium-ion battery electrolytes,

Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, Thomas M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed. 5 figs.

Christian, J.D.; Anderson, P.A.

1994-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mercury-free dissolution process for aluminum involves placing the aluminum in a dissolver vessel in contact with nitric acid-fluoboric acid mixture at an elevated temperature. By maintaining a continuous flow of the acid mixture through the dissolver vessel, an effluent containing aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid and other dissolved components are removed.

Christian, Jerry D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Philip A. (Pocatello, ID)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Measuring Sub-micron Size Fractionated Particulate Matter on Aluminum Impactor Disks  

SciTech Connect

Sub-micron sized airborne particulate matter is not collected well on regular quartz or glass fiber filter papers. We used a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) to size fractionate particulate matter (PM) into six size fractions and deposit it on specially designed high purity thin aluminum disks. The MOUDI separated PM into fractions 56-100 nm, 100-180 nm, 180-320 nm, 320-560 nm, 560-1000 nm, and 1000-1800 nm. Since MOUDI have low flow rates, it takes several days to collect sufficient carbon on 47 mm foil disks. The small carbon mass (20-200 microgram C) and large aluminum substrate ({approx}25 mg Al) presents several challenges to production of graphite targets for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis. The Al foil consumes large amounts of oxygen as it is heated and tends to melt into quartz combustion tubes, causing gas leaks. We describe sample processing techniques to reliably produce graphitic targets for {sup 14}C-AMS analysis of PM deposited on Al impact foils.

Buchholz, B A; Zermeno, P; Hwang, H; Young, T M

2009-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

370

Interim evaluation of nickel plate on aluminum-jacketed fuel elements  

SciTech Connect

Nickel plating on the coolant contacting surfaces of aluminum-jacketed fuel elements is highly attractive for increasing resistance. Potential benefits include a highly corrosion-resistant coating for severe localized conditions, reduction of mechanical damage to fuel element jackets, improved fuel element alignment (by reducing friction between fuel element and process tube ribs) and probably lower overfall surface temperatures to reduction in corrosion product film with improved corrosion resistance, neutron economy might also be realized. For example, substitution of a 0.5 mil thick nickel plate for 15-mils thickness of aluminum jacket would result in no reactivity loss and permit a concomitant increase in uranium volume, or in coolant flow annulus. Attendant problems include providing an adherent continuous plate of uniform thickness and possibly contamination of reactor effluent by radio-nickel-cobalt, and phosphorous and it was found that gross sloughing of the nickel plate had occurred. Development and testing work was carried out to determine the cause and a solution to the Greece problem. Studies were limited to the behavior of chemically-deposited nickel because of the unique capability of the process to deposit a coating of uniform thickness in the 0.1 - 0.2 mils thick range, regardless of the geometry of the plated piece. Based on ex- reactor tests, a readily applicable method for significantly improving plate adherence has been developed, as summarized in this report.

Jacky, G.F.

1960-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

371

In-Situ, Real-Time Measurement of Melt Constituents in the Aluminum, Glass, and Steel Industries  

SciTech Connect

Energy Research Company (ERCo), with support from DOE’s Industrial Technologies Program, Sensors and Automation has developed a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) probe to measure, in real time and in-situ, the composition of an aluminum melt in a furnace at an industrial plant. The compositional data is provided to the operator continuously allowing the operator to adjust the melt composition, saving energy, increasing production, and maintaining tighter compositional tolerances than has been previously possible. The overall objectives of this project were to: -- design, develop, fabricate, test and project future costs of the LIBS probe on bench-size experiments; - test the unit in a pilot-scaled aluminum furnace under varying operating conditions of temperature and melt constituents; -- determine the instruments needed for use in industrial environment; -- compare LIBS Probe data to readings traditionally taken on the furnace; -- get full-scale data to resolve if, and how, the LIBS Probe design should be modified for operator acceptance. Extensive laboratory tests have proven the concept feasibility. Elemental concentrations below 0.1% wt. have been accurately measured. Further, the LIBS system has now been installed and is operating at a Commonwealth Aluminum plant in Ohio. The technology is crosscutting as it can be used in a wide variety of applications. In the Sensors and Automation Program the application was for the secondary aluminum industry. However, this project spawned a number of other applications, which are also reported here for completeness. The project was effective in that two commercial systems are now operating; one at Commonwealth Aluminum and another at a PPG fiberglass plant. Other commercial installations are being negotiated as of this writing. This project led to the following conclusions: 1. The LIBS System has been developed for industrial applications. This is the first time this has been accomplished. In addition, two commercial installations have been completed; one at Commonwealth and another at PPG. 2. The system is easy to operate and requires no operator training. Calibration is not required. It is certified as eye safe. 3. The system is crosscutting and ERCo is evaluating seven applications, as reported in this report, and other applications to be reported later. 4. A business plan is being completed for each of the near term markets. ERCo is committed to achieving continued commercial success with the LIBS System. 5. A world wide patent has been issued. 6. The energy savings is substantial. The annual energy savings, by 2010, for each industry is estimated as follows: o Secondary Aluminum – 1.44 trillion Btu’s o Glass – 17 to 45 trillion Btu’s o Steel – Up to 26 trillion Btu’s

Robert De Saro

2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

372

EVALUATION OF LOW TEMPERATURE ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION IN TANK 51  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days, which became the baseline aluminum dissolution process. LWO initiated a project to modify a waste tank to meet these requirements. Subsequent to an alternative evaluation, LWO management identified an opportunity to perform aluminum dissolution on sludge destined for Sludge Batch 5, but within a limited window that would not allow time for any modifications for tank heating. A variation of the baseline process, dubbed Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD), was developed based on the constraint of available energy input in Tank 51 and the window of opportunity, but was not constrained to a minimum extent of dissolution, i.e. dissolve as much aluminum as possible within the time available. This process was intended to operate between 55 and 70 C, but for a significantly longer time than the baseline process. LTAD proceeded in parallel with the baseline project. The preliminary evaluation at the completion of LTAD focused on the material balance and extent of the aluminum dissolved. The range of values of extent of dissolution, 56% to 64%, resulted from the variation in liquid phase sample data available at the time. Additional solid phase data is available from a sample taken after LTAD to refine this range. This report provides additional detailed evaluation of the LTAD process based on analytical and field data and includes: a summary of the process chronology; a determination of an acceptable blending strategy for the aluminum-laden supernate stored in Tank 11; an update to the determination of aluminum dissolved using more complete sample results; a determination of the effect of LTAD on uranium, plutonium, and other metals; a determination of the rate of heat loss from a quiescent tank; and an evaluation of the aluminum dissolution rate model and actual dissolution rate. LTAD was successfully completed in Tank 51 with minimal waste tank changes. The following general conclusions may be drawn about the LTAD process: (1) Dissolution at about 60 C for 46 days dissolved 64% of the aluminum from the sludge slurry. (2) The aluminum-laden leach solution decanted to Tank 11 can be blended with a wide variety of supernates without risk of precipitating the dissolved aluminum based on thermodynamic chemical equilibrium models. (3) Uranium and plutonium leached into solution without corresponding leaching of iron or metal other than aluminum, but the total mass leached was a small fraction of the total uranium and plutonium in the sludge. (4) The concentration of uranium and plutonium in the leach solution was indistinguishable from other tank farm supernates, thus, the leach solutions can be managed relative to the risk of criticality like any other supernate. (5) A small amount of mercury leached into solution from the sludge causing the liquid phase concentration to increase 6 to 10 fold, which is consistent with the 4 to 14 fold increase observed during the 1982 aluminum dissolution demonstration. (6) Chromium did not dissolve during LTAD. (7) Chloride concentration increased in the liquid phase during LTAD due to chloride contamination in the 50% sodium hydroxide solution. (8) The rate of heat loss from Tank 51 at temperatures above 45 C appeared linear and predictable at 8E+7 cal/hr. (9) The rate of heat transfer from Tank 51 did not follow a simplified bulk heat transfer model. (10) Prediction of the aluminum dissolution rate was prone to error due to a lack of active specific surface area data of sludge particles. (11) The higher than expected dissolution rate during LTAD was likely due to smaller than expected particle sizes of most of the sludge particles. While evaluating the LTAD process, the dissolved salt solution from Tank 41 that was stored and sampled in Tank 49 was determined to be supersaturated relative to alu

Pike, J

2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

373

CHARACTERIZATION OF SURFACTANTS IN ALUMINUM-URANIUM FUEL REPROCESSING SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

Surface active materials in aluminum nitrate-nitric acid fuel reprocessing solutions were characterized. Polymerized silica, zirconium- modified silica and soluble dibutyl phosphate species were found to contribute to stable emulsion formation. These surfactants were reduced in effectiveness by added acid. (auth)

Cannon, R.D.

1959-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

374

Microstructure of Ice Accretions Grown on Aluminum Conductors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to study the microstructure of glaze and rime deposits formed on the conductors of power lines, ice accretions are grown on a slowly rotating aluminum cylinder placed in the working section of a wind tunnel. The growth conditions cover ...

Jean-Louis Laforte; Luan C. Phan; Béatrice Felin

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Aluminum: Improved System Yields $100,000 Annual Savings  

SciTech Connect

In another Office of Industrial Technologies Motor Challenge Success Story, Alcoa (formerly Alumax) aluminum reduced annual energy consumption by 12% and reduced both maintenance and noise levels. Order this fact sheet now to learn how your company can both increase energy efficiency and decrease pollution.

Ericksen, E.

1999-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

376

Fabrication of Aluminum Alloy-Based Diamond Grinding Wheel by ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Moreover, ability of CFRP drilling of the aluminum alloy-based diamond grinding wheel ... Accelerated Post-Weld Natural Ageing in Ultrasonic Welding Aluminium ..... Powder Metallurgy of High Strength Al84Gd6Ni7Co3 Gas-atomized Powder.

377

Aluminum bulk micromachining through an anodic oxide mask by electrochemical etching in an acetic acid/perchloric acid solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A well-defined microstructure with microchannels and a microchamber was fabricated on an aluminum plate by four steps of a new aluminum bulk micromachining process: anodizing, laser irradiation, electrochemical etching, and ultrasonication. An aluminum ... Keywords: Aluminum, Anodizing, Bulk micromachining, Electrochemical etching, Laser irradiation

Tatsuya Kikuchi, Yuhta Wachi, Masatoshi Sakairi, Ryosuke O. Suzuki

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Reduction of Oxidative Melt Loss of Aluminum and Its Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project led to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of dross formation. The microstructural evolution in industrial dross samples was determined. Results suggested that dross that forms in layers with structure and composition determined by the local magnesium concentration alone. This finding is supported by fundamental studies of molten metal surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data revealed that only magnesium segregates to the molten aluminum alloy surface and reacts to form a growing oxide layer. X-ray diffraction techniques that were using to investigate an oxidizing molten aluminum alloy surface confirmed for the first time that magnesium oxide is the initial crystalline phase that forms during metal oxidation. The analytical techniques developed in this project are now available to investigate other molten metal surfaces. Based on the improved understanding of dross initiation, formation and growth, technology was developed to minimize melt loss. The concept is based on covering the molten metal surface with a reusable physical barrier. Tests in a laboratory-scale reverberatory furnace confirmed the results of bench-scale tests. The main highlights of the work done include: A clear understanding of the kinetics of dross formation and the effect of different alloying elements on dross formation was obtained. It was determined that the dross evolves in similar ways regardless of the aluminum alloy being melted and the results showed that amorphous aluminum nitride forms first, followed by amorphous magnesium oxide and crystalline magnesium oxide in all alloys that contain magnesium. Evaluation of the molten aluminum alloy surface during melting and holding indicated that magnesium oxide is the first crystalline phase to form during oxidation of a clean aluminum alloy surface. Based on dross evaluation and melt tests it became clear that the major contributing factor to aluminum alloy dross was in the alloys with Mg content. Mg was identified as the primary factor that accelerates dross formation specifically in the transition from two phases to three phase growth. Limiting magnesium oxidation on the surface of molten aluminum therefore becomes the key to minimizing melt loss, and technology was developed to prevent magnesium oxidation on the aluminum surface. This resulted in a lot of the work being focused on the control of Mg oxidation. Two potential molten metal covering agents that could inhibit dross formation during melting and holding consisting of boric acid and boron nitride were identified. The latter was discounted by industry as it resulted in Boron pick up by the melt beyond that allowed by specifications during plant trials. The understanding of the kinetics of dross formation by the industry partners helped them understand how temperature, alloy chemistry and furnace atmosphere (burner controls--e.g. excess air) effected dross formation. This enables them to introduce in their plant process changes that reduced unnecessary holding at high temperatures, control burner configurations, reduce door openings to avoid ingress of air and optimize charge mixes to ensure rapid melting and avoid excess oxidation.

Dr. Subodh K. Das; Shridas Ningileri

2006-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

379

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Aluminum Co of America - PA 23  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

PA 23 PA 23 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA) ( PA.23 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: ALCOA Research Laboratory ALCOA New Kensington Works PA.23-3 PA.23-4 Location: 600 Freeport Road and Pine and Ninth Streets , New Kensington , Pennsylvania PA.23-1 PA.23-4 Evaluation Year: Circa 1993 PA.23-1 Site Operations: Research/Development and Production activities in support of the MED uranium slug canning and other programs, 1943-1945. PA.23-5 Site Disposition: Eliminated - Based upon results of radiological surveys of the properties, potential for residual radioactive contamination is considered remote PA.23-1 PA.23-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium PA.23-1

380

On the micromechanisms of fatigue-crack propagation in aluminum- lithium alloys: Sheet vs. plate material  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Micromechanisms influencing the propagation of long (>10 mm) fatigue cracks in aluminum-lithium alloys are examined by specifically comparing crack-growth kinetics in a peak-aged Al-Li-Cu-Zr alloy 2090, processed as 1.6-mm thin (T83) sheet and 12.7-mm thick (T81) plate. It is found that in general crack-growth rates are significantly faster in the sheet material at equivalent stress-intensity levels, due to differences in the role of crack-tip shielding, resulting from crack deflection and consequent crack closure from wedging of fracture-surface asperities. Microstructurally, such differences are related to variations in the degree of recrystallization, grain structure and deformation texture in the two wrought-product forms. 14 refs., 4 figs.

Rao Venkateswara, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering); Bucci, R.J. (Aluminum Co. of America, Alcoa Center, PA (United States). Alcoa Labs.)

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

INVESTIGATION OF THE TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY OF COLD EXTRUSION FOR ZIRCALOY-2 TUBING PRODUCTION. Quarterly Technical Progress Report No. 3, April-June 1961  

SciTech Connect

Investigations are being made to establish the feasibility of using cold extrusion to produce Zircaloy-2 tubular products. Tests on extruding 1 1/4-in. diameter billets were completed. Samples in 46 bar-extrusion tests were extruded with 80% reduction at 400 deg C. Severe lubricant breakdown occurred. Piercing tests were conducted at, room temperature and 200 deg C, using 50% reduction and a 140-degree conical punch profile. Good extrusions were obtained in forraing 1.07-in. OD x 0.052-in. wall tubes with 65% reduction. Low efficiencies in tube- extrusion tests compared with those for bar extrusion were due to the large surface-to-volume ratio of tubular specimens. Tooling was designed and fabricated to produce, in three steps, 12-in. lengths of 0.560-in. OD x 0.030- in. wall tubing from

Weil, F.E.; Hill, J.G.

1962-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

382

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Technology Pathways  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Technology Pathways Technology Pathways U.S. aluminum producers recognize that reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving energy efficiency offers a competitive edge in world markets. In 1996, the U.S. industry entered into partnership with DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) to work toward shared goals. Since then, the Aluminum Industry of the Future partnership has been feeding the technology pipeline so that U.S. producers will have the technologies they need to achieve their long-term economic, energy and environmental goals. The Industries of the Future process helps entire industries articulate their long-term goals and publish them in a unified vision for the future. To achieve that vision, industry leaders jointly define detailed R&D agendas known as roadmaps. ITP relies on roadmap-defined priorities to

383

Energy absorption in aluminum extrusions for a spaceframe chassis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work describes the design, finite-element analysis, and verifications performed by LLNL and Kaiser Aluminum for the prototype design of the CALSTART Running Chassis purpose-built electric vehicle. Component level studies, along with our previous experimental and finite-element works, provided the confidence to study the crashworthiness of a complete aluminum spaceframe. Effects of rail geometry, size, and thickness were studied in order to achieve a controlled crush of the front end structure. These included the performance of the spaceframe itself, and the additive effects of the powertrain cradle and powertrain (motor/controller in this case) as well as suspension. Various design iterations for frontal impact at moderate and high speed are explored.

Logan, R.W.; Perfect, S.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Parkinson, R.D. [Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation, Pleasanton, CA (United States)

1994-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

384

Reduction of Annealing Times for Energy Conservation in Aluminum  

SciTech Connect

Carnegie Mellon University was teamed with the Alcoa Technical Center with support from the US Dept. of Energy (Office of Industrial Technology) and the Pennsylvania Technology Investment Authority (PTIA) to make processing of aluminum less costly and more energy efficient. Researchers in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering have investigated how annealing processes in the early stages of aluminum processing affect the structure and properties of the material. Annealing at high temperatures consumes significant amounts of time and energy. By making detailed measurements of the crystallography and morphology of internal structural changes they have generated new information that will provide a scientific basis for shortening processing times and consuming less energy during annealing.

Anthony D. Rollett; Hasso Weiland; Mohammed Alvi; Abhijit Brahme

2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

385

Perrhenate Uptake by Iron and Aluminum Oxyhydroxides: An  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Hanford Waste Tank Sludges B R A D L E Y W A K O F F A N D K A T H R Y N L . N A G Y * Department and aluminum oxyhydroxide solids from aqueous simulants of high-level nuclear waste stored at Hanford, WA that 5% of the 99Tc inventory in the Hanford waste tanks may be associated with the sludges, and 0

Illinois at Chicago, University of

386

Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project was to develop and validate new classes of cost-effective low-permeability ceramic and refractory components for handling molten aluminum in both melting and casting environments. Three approaches were employed with partial to full success to achieve this goal: (1) Develop materials and methods for sealing surface porosity in thermal-shock-resistant ceramic refractories; (2) Develop new ceramic coatings for extreme service in molten aluminum operations, with particular emphasis on coatings based on highly stable oxide phases; and (3) Develop new monolithic refractories designed for lower-permeability applications using controlled porosity gradients and particle size distributions. The results of the research work and the field tests performed utilizing these three approaches are listed below: (1) It was demonstrated that high-density IR heating could be a tool for altering and sealing the surface porosity of fused silica. However, the process was not very cost-effective. (2) A low-cost glaze composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) similar to that of a DFS tube was identified and was successfully tested for its integrity and adherence to DFS. Although the glaze acted as a barrier between the molten aluminum and the DFS, persistent porosity and crazing within the glaze affected its performance during the reactivity tests, thus acting as an obstacle in scaling up production of this glaze. (3) Pyrotek's XL glaze showed great success in improving the life of the DFS tubes. Pyrotek has reported an increasing market demand for the XL-coated DFS tubes, which exhibit useful lifetimes three times better than those of uncoated tubes. (4) A computer model to optimize particle size distribution for reduced permeability was developed and successfully applied to casting formulations. Silica riser tubes produced using these new formulations have been tested in a commercial aluminum casting facility and have been reported to increase the life of the DFS tubes by 700%. (5) If all the DFS riser tubes used in LPD casting of aluminum automotive components are replaced with the better, longer-lasting castable riser tubes, the potential national energy savings is estimated to be 206 billion Btu/year.

Dale E. Brown (Pyrotek); Puja B. Kadolkar (ORNL)

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

Susceptibility of Aluminum Alloys to Corrosion in Simulated Fuel Blends Containing Ethanol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined was accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

1961-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

389

Mechanical Damping Properties of Al-Si Closed-Cell Aluminum Foam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The measured loss factor shows that Al-Si closed-cell aluminum foam have a damping capacity which is independent of frequency and increases with ...

390

A New and Versatile Method to Produce Aluminum Multi-Layer Clad ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This method includes the controlled pouring of the liquid aluminum clad alloy ... Frequency Modulation Effect on the Solidification of Alloy 718 Fusion Zone.

391

Wettability of Liquid Aluminum on Carbon/Graphite/TiB2 Composite ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Wettability of Liquid Aluminum on Carbon/Graphite/TiB2 ... The Applicability of Carbon Capture and Sequestration in Primary Aluminium ...

392

High temperature spectroscopic measurements of aluminum combustion in a heterogeneous shock tube.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Aluminum is an important energetic material that burns with a variety of oxidizers with a high reaction enthalpy. It is a top performer for energy… (more)

Lynch, Patrick T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Influences on Burr Size During Face-Milling of Aluminum Alloys and Cast Iron  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ON BURR SIZE DURING FACE-MILLING OF ALUMINUM-SILICON ALLOYSburrs formed during face milling. Other influences are tooliron. INTRODUCTION Face milling is a common procedure during

Shefelbine, Wendy; Dornfeld, David

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Al-Cr -2007-1 February 1, 2007 Aluminum and Chromium Leaching ...  

Al-Cr -2007-1 February 1, 2007 Aluminum and Chromium Leaching Workshop Atlanta, GA January 23 – 24, 2007 Crowne Plaza – Airport Feedback Questionnaire

395

Failure Loads and Deformation in 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy Spot ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Failure Loads and Deformation in 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy ... Application of Neutron Diffraction in Analysis of Residual Stress Profile in the ...

396

Aluminum-Oxide Temperatures on the Mark VB, VE, VR, 15, and Mark 25 Assemblies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The task was to compute the maximum aluminum-oxide and oxide-coolant temperatures of assemblies cladded in 99+ percent aluminum. The assemblies considered were the Mark VB, VE, V5, 15 and 25. These assemblies consist of nested slug columns with individual uranium slugs cladded in aluminum cans. The CREDIT code was modified to calculate the oxide film thickness and the aluminum-oxide temperature at each axial increment. This information in this report will be used to evaluate the potential for cladding corrosion of the Mark 25 assembly.

Aleman, S.E.

2001-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

397

Aluminum-Oxide Temperatures on the Mark VB, VE, VR, 15, and Mark 25 Assemblies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The task was to compute the maximum aluminum-oxide and oxide-coolant temperatures of assemblies cladded in 99 plus percent aluminum. The assemblies considered were the Mark VB, VE, V5, 15 and 25. These assemblies consist of nested slug columns with individual uranium slugs cladded in aluminum cans. The CREDIT code was modified to calculate the oxide film thickness and the aluminum-oxide temperature at each axial increment. The information in this report will be used to evaluate the potential for cladding corrosion of the Mark 25 assembly.

Aleman, S.E.

2001-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

398

Adsorption of Propane on the Magnesium Oxide (100) Surface and Synthesis of Anodized Aluminum Oxide.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This work is divided into two parts: the adsorption of propane on the magnesium oxide (100) surface and the synthesis of anodized aluminum oxide. The… (more)

Felty, Michael John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

NIDC: Online Catalog of Isotope Products | Product List  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

List List Please select an available isotope product from the lists below. If you would like an isotope product that is not listed, you can make a request by clicking here. Stable Isotope Products Radio-Isotope Products Antimony Argon (Alt) Barium Bromine Bromine (Alt) Cadmium Calcium Carbon (Alt) Cerium Chlorine Chlorine (Alt) Chromium Copper Dysprosium Erbium Europium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Hafnium Helium (Alt) Indium Iridium Iron Krypton (Alt) Lanthanum Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon (Alt) Nickel Nitrogen (Alt) Osmium Oxygen (Alt) Palladium Platinum Potassium Rhenium Rubidium Ruthenium Samarium Selenium Silicon Silver Strontium Sulfur Sulfur (Alt) Tantalum Tellurium Thallium Tin Titanium Tungsten Vanadium Xenon (Alt) Ytterbium Zinc Zirconium Actinium-225 Aluminum-26 Americium-241

400

Final Report - Melt Rate Enhancement for High Aluminum HLW Glass Formulation, VSL-08R1360-1, Rev. 0, dated 12/19/08  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of the work reported here was to develop and identify HLW glass compositions that maximize waste processing rates for the aluminum limted waste composition specified by ORP while maintaining high waste loadings and acceptable glass properties. This was accomplished through a combination of crucible-scale tests, confirmation tests on the DM100 melter system, and demonstration at pilot scale (DM1200). The DM100-BL unit was selected for these tests since it was used previously with the HLW waste streams evaluated in this study, was used for tests on HLW glass compositions to support subsequent tests on the HLW Pilot Melter, conduct tests to determine the effect of various glass properties (viscosity and conductivity) and oxide concentrations on glass production rates with HLW feed streams, and to assess the volatility of cesium and technetium during the vitrification of an HLW AZ-102 composition. The same melter was selected for the present tests in order to maintain comparisons between the previously collected data. These tests provide information on melter processing characteristics and off-gas data, including formation of secondary phases and partitioning. Once DM100 tests were completed, one of the compositions was selected for further testing on the DM1200; the DM1200 system has been used for processing a variety of simulated Hanford waste streams. Tests on the larger melter provide processing data at one third of the scale of the actual WTP HLW melter and, therefore, provide a more accurate and reliable assessment of production rates and potential processing issues. The work focused on maximizing waste processing rates for high aluminum HLW compositions. In view of the diversity of forms of aluminum in the Hanford tanks, tests were also conducted on the DM100 to determine the effect of changes in the form of aluminum on feed properties and production rate. In addition, the work evaluated the effect on production rate of modest increases in melter operating temperature. Glass composition development was based on one of the HLW waste compositions specified by ORP that has a high concentration of aluminum. Small-scale tests were used to provide an initial screening of various glass formulations with respect to melt rates; more definitive screening was provided by the subsequent DM100 tests. Glass properties evaluated included: viscosity, electrical conductivity, crystallinity, gross glass phase separation and the 7- day Product Consistency Test (ASTM-1285). Glass property limits were based upon the reference properties for the WTP HLW melter. However, the WTP crystallinity limit (< 1 vol% at 950oC) was relaxed slightly as a waste loading constraint for the crucible melts.

Kruger, Albert A.; Pegg, I. L.; Chaudhuri, M.; Gong, W.; Gan, H.; Matlack, K. S.; Bardakci, T.; Kot, W.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Aluminum nanocomposites having wear resistance better than stainless steel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tribological behavior of alumina-particle-reinforced aluminum composites made by powder metallurgy process has been investigated. The nanocomposite containing 15 vol% of Al2O3 nanoparticles exhibits excellent wear resistance by showing significantly low wear rate and abrasive wear mode. The wear rate of the nanocomposite is even lower than stainless steel. We have also demonstrated that such excellent wear resistance only occurred in the composite reinforced with the high volume fraction of nanosized reinforcing particles. The results were discussed in terms of the microstructure of the nanocomposite.

An, Linan [University of Central Florida; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Luo, Jinsong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Fan, Yi [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Zhang, Ligong [University of Central Florida; Liu, Jinling [University of Central Florida; Xu, Chengying [University of Central Florida; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium window surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined.

Gmur, N.F.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

STATEMENT OF..CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY THE ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA (ALCOA) FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2/99 THU 14:10 FAX 509 376 4590 Chief Cousel 0o002 2/99 THU 14:10 FAX 509 376 4590 Chief Cousel 0o002 STATEMENT OF..CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY THE ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA (ALCOA) FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF PATENT RIGHTS PURSUANT TO A COST SHARED.SUBCONTRACT UNDER RFP NO. 300263 ISSUED BY BATTELLE'S PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY (PNNL).(W(A)99-003) The waiver request is directed to a cost:shared subcontract for the development of a thermal magnesium production process. The proposal title is "Advanced Magnetherm Process for.the Production of Magnesium". Alcoa is requesting the US and foreign rights (subject to the standard government license) to all inventions made under this project. Funding for this project is 50% from DOE and 50% from Alcoa; that is $1,402,069 each. The new magnesium process conceived by Alcoa supports the goals of the

404

Chloride removal from plutonium-aluminum alloy dissolver solution prior to purex solvent extraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Savannah River Plant (SRP), operated by E. I. du Pont de Nemours Co. for the United States Department of Energy, has successfully recovered plutonium from plutonium-aluminum alloy processed through the F-Canyon Separations facility. The alloy, produced at the Rocky Flats Plant, results from recovery of plutonium residues from spent chloride salts from pyrochemical processing. The alloy, termed scrub alloy'' or Rocky Flats scrub alloy'' (RFSA), contains up to 15 weight percent chloride impurity prior to mercuric ion catalyzed dissolution with fluoride-containing nitric acid. Solutions containing 850 to 3000 {mu}g/mL (parts per million) of chloride result. During subsequent Purex solvent extraction of this solution with 30% tri-n-butyl phosphate in normal paraffin diluent, chloride is rejected to the aqueous waste stream. This stream is eventually evaporated for waste treatment and acid recovery. Chloride concentrations in the product streams, subject to further processing, must be less than 100 {mu}g/mL to prevent excessive corrosion of equipment. This paper describes scrub alloy production at RFP, its dissolution and head end treatment to remove chloride, chloride values in subsequent processing streams including environmental discharges, and the turbidimetric analysis technique. 2 tabs.

Holcomb, H.P.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

PRECISE DETERMINATION OF URANIUM IN URANYL NITRATE-ALUMINUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect

A method was developed for the determination of uranium in aqueous solutions that contain aluminum and in tributyl phosphate. Uranium was separated from aluminum by an ion exchange technique and was then determined gravimetrically by the 8-hydroxyquinoline method. The coefficient of variation was O.3%. (auth)

MacDonald, C.M.

1960-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Assembly of Colloidal Nanoparticles into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates by Dip-Coating Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the assembly behavior of colloidal nanoparticles into anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates is investigated. Approximately 20-nm-diameter iron oxide (Fe2O3) particles stabilized by oleic acid and 5-nm-diameter CdSe ... Keywords: Anodic aluminum oxide, colloid nanoparticle, dip coating, self-assembly

Il Seo; Chang-Woo Kwon; Hyun Ho Lee; Yong-Sang Kim; Ki-Bum Kim; Tae-Sik Yoon

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

The Energy Crisis and the Aluminum Industry: Can We Learn from ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ADVERTISING INFORMATION ... The devastating suddenness of the energy crisis in the western United States in 2000–2001 and ... would decline, or aluminum market demand would increase resulting in a rise of aluminum prices. ..... It is beyond the scope of this paper to analyze this ongoing dilemma and it is mentioned ...

408

X-ray diffractometry of lanthanum-nickel-aluminum alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

X-ray diffractometry provides much useful information on LANA alloys that complements data obtained by SEM and Electron Microprobe Analysis. Accurate measurements of the hexagonal lattice parameters of the primary LaNi{sub 5-y}Aly phase reveal the aluminum content (y) and allow the prediction of desorption pressures for the hydrogen isotopes. A study of the broadening of x-ray diffraction lines of the LaNi{sub 5-y}Aly primary phase caused by cyclic absorption and desorption of hydrogen suggests that substitution of aluminum for nickel stabilizes the primary phase with respect to formation of antistructure defects that could cause undesirable trapping of hydrogen isotopes. Correlation of XRD with SEM and EMPA results has helped identify secondary phases, determine their abundances in volume percent, and reveal how they react with hydrogen and the atmosphere. Characterizations of LANA alloys used in process development has provided the bases for development of specifications for alloys to be used in the Replacement Trittium Facility. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

Mosley, W.C.

1988-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

409

Aluminum complexation by catechol as determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods of ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry were used to determine the stoichiometry and association constant for the Al-catechol complex from pH 3.8 to 4.6. Job's method of continuous variation indicated the Al-catechol complex had a 1:1 stoichiometry in the pH range studied. Aluminum titrations of catechol and pH titrations of catechol plus Al resulted in a shift in the UV spectra due to the formation of an Al-catechol complex absorbing UV radiation uniquely different than that of free catechol. General equations were developed for the determination of association constants assuming an organic and Al-organic complex absorb UV radiation. Aluminum titrations with constant catechol concentration yielded a log k/sub 0.1//sup c/ of 16.22 for a 1:1 Al-catechol complex. Calculated absorbance as a function of pH agree dwell with experimental pH titrations of solutions containing catechol plus Al. The fact that Al can be complexed by catechol at low pH indicates the o-hydroxy group provides a potential source for Al complexation in soil and surface waters.

Sikora, F.J.; McBride, M.B.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Biegel, Osman, Yu Analysis of Aluminum-Nitride SOI HiTEC 2000 1 June 11-15, 2000  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Bengtsson, M. Bergh, M. Choumas, C. Olesen, and K.O. Jeppson, "Application of Aluminum Nitride Films

Biegel, Bryan

411

Carbothermic reduction and prereduced charge for producing aluminum-silicon alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum oxide to form an aluminum alloy including producing silicon carbide by heating a first mix of carbon and silicon oxide in a combustion reactor to an elevated temperature sufficient to produce silicon carbide at an accelerated rate, the heating being provided by an in situ combustion with oxygen gas, and then admixing the silicon carbide with carbon and aluminum oxide to form a second mix and heating the second mix in a second reactor to an elevated metal-forming temperature sufficient to produce aluminum-silicon alloy. The prereduction step includes holding aluminum oxide substantially absent from the combustion reactor. The metal-forming step includes feeding silicon oxide in a preferred ratio with silicon carbide. 1 fig.

Stevenson, D.T.; Troup, R.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Carbothermic reduction and prereduced charge for producing aluminum-silicon alloys  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for the carbothermic reduction of aluminum oxide to form an aluminum alloy including producing silicon carbide by heating a first mix of carbon and silicon oxide in a combustion reactor to an elevated temperature sufficient to produce silicon carbide at an accelerated rate, the heating being provided by an in situ combustion with oxygen gas, and then admixing the silicon carbide with carbon and aluminum oxide to form a second mix and heating the second mix in a second reactor to an elevated metal-forming temperature sufficient to produce aluminum-silicon alloy. The prereduction step includes holding aluminum oxide substantially absent from the combustion reactor. The metal-forming step includes feeding silicon oxide in a preferred ratio with silicon carbide.

Stevenson, David T. (Washington Township, Armstrong County, PA); Troup, Robert L. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Hunter Douglas Aluminum Plant Div of  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Hunter Douglas Aluminum Plant Div Hunter Douglas Aluminum Plant Div of Bridgeport Brass Co - CA 11 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: HUNTER DOUGLAS ALUMINUM PLANT, DIV. OF BRIDGEPORT BRASS CO. (CA.11 ) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Hunter Douglas Aluminum Corporation CA.11-1 Location: 3016 Kansas Avenue , Riverside , California CA.11-1 Evaluation Year: 1995 CA.11-2 Site Operations: Fabricated uranium metal tubing during the late 1950s. CA.11-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No Authority - NRC licensed CA.11-2 Radioactive Materials Handled: Yes Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: Uranium Metal CA.11-1 Radiological Survey(s): No Site Status: Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP Also see Documents Related to HUNTER DOUGLAS ALUMINUM PLANT, DIV. OF BRIDGEPORT

414

Aluminum-blade development for the Mod-0A 200-kilowatt wind turbine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the operating experience with two aluminum blades used on the DOE/NASA Mod-0A 200-kilowatt wind turbine located at Clayton, New Mexico. Each Mod-0A aluminum blade is 59.9 feet long and weighs 2360 pounds. The aluminum Mod-0A blade design requirements, the selected design, fabrication procedures, and the blade analyses are discussed. A detailed chronology is presented on the operating experience of the Mod-0A aluminum blades used at Clayton, New Mexico. Blade structural damage was experienced. Inspection and damage assessment were required. Structural modifications that were incorporated to the blades successfully extended the useful operating life of the blades. The aluminum blades completed the planned 2 years of operation of the Clayton wind turbine. The blades were removed from service in August 1980 to allow testing of advanced technology wood composite blades.

Linscott, B.S.; Shaltens, R.K.; Eggers, A.G.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

NIDC: Online Catalog of Isotope Products | Request a New Product  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Request a New Product Request a New Product Step 1 - Enter the new product's criteria below. Element Name Actinium Aluminum Americium Antimony Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium Bismuth Bohrium Boron Bromine Cadmium Caesium Calcium Californium Carbon Cerium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copernicium Copper Curium Darmstadtium Dubnium Dysprosium Einsteinium Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Hassium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Meitnerium Mendelevium Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium Polonium Potassium Praseodymium Promethium Protactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Roentgenium Rubidium Ruthenium Rutherfordium Samarium Scandium Seaborgium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin Titanium Tungsten Ununhexium Ununoctium Ununpentium Ununquadium Ununseptium Ununtrium Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium

416

MELT RATE ENHANCEMENT FOR HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS FORMULATION FINAL REPORT 08R1360-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the development and testing of new glass formulations for high aluminum waste streams that achieve high waste loadings while maintaining high processing rates. The testing was based on the compositions of Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) with limiting concentrations of aluminum specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP). The testing identified glass formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts and small scale melt rate screening tests. The results were used to select compositions for subsequent testing in a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) system. These tests were used to determine processing rates for the selected formulations as well as to examine the effects of increased glass processing temperature, and the form of aluminum in the waste simulant. Finally, one of the formulations was selected for large-scale confirmatory testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200), which is a one third scale prototype of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW melter and off-gas treatment system. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy (DOE) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same high-aluminum waste composition used in the present work and other Hanford HLW compositions. The scope of this study was outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the WTP is about 13,500 (equivalent to 40,500 MT glass). This estimate is based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and glass melting rate. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of {approx}1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HLW waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150 C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product. Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage. The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet WTP Contract terms. The WTP's overall mission will require the immobilization of tank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulfur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in wasteloading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. It is expected that these higher waste loading glasses will reduce the HLW canister production requirement by about 25% or more.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT W; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I; BARDAKCI T; GAN H; GONG W; CHAUDHURI M

2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

417

Pure and Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) Nanoparticles ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental Assessment of Li-CNT Battery Production ... The Production of High-Quality Magnesite Ore Concentrate With Permroll Type Magnetic Separator.

418

Formability Prediction Of Aluminum Sheet In Automotive Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the following paper, a full mechanical characterization of the AA6016 T4 aluminum alloy car body sheet DR100 is presented. A comprehensive experimental program was performed to identify and model the orthotopic elasto-plastic deformation behavior of the material and its fracture characteristics including criteria for localized necking, ductile fracture and shear fracture. The commercial software package MF GenYld + CrachFEM in combination with the explicit finite element code Ls-Dyna is used to validate the quality of the material model with experiments, namely, prediction of the FLD, deep drawing with a cross-shaped punch and finally, analysis of a simplified hemming process using a solid discretization of the problem. The focus is on the correct prediction of the limits of the material in such processes.

Leppin, Christian [Alcan Technology and Management, Bad. Bahnhofstr. 16, CH 8212 Neuhausen (Switzerland); Daniel, Dominique [Alcan - Centre de Recherches de Voreppe, Centr'Alp - BP 27 - 38341 Voreppe cedex (France); Shahani, Ravi [Alcan - Neuf-Brisach, ZIP Rhenane Nord - RD 52 - 68600 Biesheim (France); Gese, Helmut; Dell, Harry [Matfem Partnerschaft Dr. Gese and Oberhofer, Nederlingerstr. 1, 80638 Munich (Germany)

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

419

TEST RESULTS FROM GAMMA IRRADIATION OF ALUMINUM OXYHYDROXIDES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrated metal oxides or oxyhydroxides boehmite and gibbsite that can form on spent aluminum-clad nuclear fuel assemblies during in-core and post-discharge wet storage were exposed as granular powders to gamma irradiation in a {sup 60}Co irradiator in closed laboratory test vessels with air and with argon as separate cover gases. The results show that boehmite readily evolves hydrogen with exposure up to a dose of 1.8 x 10{sup 8} rad, the maximum tested, in both a full-dried and moist condition of the powder, whereas only a very small measurable quantity of hydrogen was generated from the granular powder of gibbsite. Specific information on the test setup, sample characteristics, sample preparation, irradiation, and gas analysis are described.

Fisher, D.; Westbrook, M.; Sindelar, R.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Nonlinear microwave response of aluminum weak-link Josephson oscillators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the driven response at T=30mK of 6 GHz superconducting resonators constructed from capacitively-shunted three dimensional (3D) aluminum nanobridge superconducting quantum interference devices (nanoSQUIDs). We observe flux modulation of the resonant frequency in quantitative agreement with numerical calculation and characteristic of near-ideal short weak link junctions. Under strong microwave excitation, we observe stable bifurcation in devices with coupled quality factor (Q) ranging from ~30-3500. Near this bias point, parametric amplification with > 20dB gain, 40 MHz bandwidth, and near quantum-limited noise performance is observed. Our results indicate that 3D nanobridge junctions are attractive circuit elements to realize quantum bits.

E. M. Levenson-Falk; R. Vijay; I. Siddiqi

2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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421

Nonlinear microwave response of aluminum weak-link Josephson oscillators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the driven response at T=30mK of 6 GHz superconducting resonators constructed from capacitively-shunted three dimensional (3D) aluminum nanobridge superconducting quantum interference devices (nanoSQUIDs). We observe flux modulation of the resonant frequency in quantitative agreement with numerical calculation and characteristic of near-ideal short weak link junctions. Under strong microwave excitation, we observe stable bifurcation in devices with coupled quality factor (Q) ranging from ~30-3500. Near this bias point, parametric amplification with > 20dB gain, 40 MHz bandwidth, and near quantum-limited noise performance is observed. Our results indicate that 3D nanobridge junctions are attractive circuit elements to realize quantum bits.

Levenson-Falk, E M; Siddiqi, I

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Wall pressure exerted by hydrogenation of sodium aluminum hydride.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wall pressure exerted by the bulk expansion of a sodium aluminum hydride bed was measured as a function of hydrogen content. A custom apparatus was designed and loaded with sodium alanates at densities of 1.0, 1.1, and 1.16 g/cc. Four complete cycles were performed to identify variations in measured pressure. Results indicated poor correlation between exerted pressure and hydrogen capacity of the sodium alanate beds. Mechanical pressure due to the hydrogenation of sodium alanates does not influence full-scale system designs as it falls within common design factors of safety. Gas pressure gradients within the porous solid were identified and may limit reaction rates, especially for high aspect ratio beds.

Perras, Yon E.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Zimmerman, Mark D.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Method of manufacturing a niobium-aluminum-germanium superconductive material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for manufacturing flexible Nb.sub.3 (Al,Ge) multifilamentary superconductive material in which a sintered porous niobium compact is infiltrated with an aluminum-germanium alloy and thereafter deformed and heat treated in a series of steps at different successively higher temperatures preferably below 1000.degree. C. to produce filaments composed of Nb.sub.3 (Al,G3) within the compact. By avoiding temperatures in excess of 1000.degree. C. during the heat treatment, cladding material such as copper can be applied to facilitate a deformation step preceding the heat treatment and can remain in place through the heat treatment to also serve as a temperature stabilizer for supeconductive material produced. Further, these lower heat treatment temperatures favor formation of filaments with reduced grain size and, hence with more grain boundaries which in turn increase the current-carrying capacity of the superconductive material.

Wang, John L. (San Francisco, CA); Pickus, Milton R. (Oakland, CA); Douglas, Kent E. (Redondo Beach, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

A disposition strategy for highly enriched, aluminum-based fuel from research and test reactors  

SciTech Connect

The strategy proposed in this paper offers the Department of Energy an approach for disposing of aluminum-based, highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent fuels from foreign and domestic research reactors. The proposal is technically, socially, and economically sound. If implemented, it would advance US non-proliferation goals while also disposing of the spent fuel`s waste by timely and proven methods using existing technologies and facilities at SRS without prolonged and controversial storage of the spent fuel. The fuel would be processed through 221-H. The radioactive fission products (waste) would be treated along with existing SRS high level waste by vitrifying it as borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for disposal in the national geological repository. The HEU would be isotopically diluted, during processing, to low-enriched uranium (LEU) which can not be used to make weapons, thus eliminating proliferation concerns. The LEU can be sold to fabricators of either research reactor fuel or commercial power fuel. This proposed processing-LEU recycle approach has several important advantages over other alternatives, including: Lowest capital investment; lowest net total cost; quickest route to acceptable waste form and final geologic disposal; and likely lowest safety, health, and environmental impacts.

McKibben, J.M.; Gould, T.H.; McDonell, W.R.; Bickford, W.E.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Aluminum stimulates uptake of non-transferrin bound iron and transferrin bound iron in human glial cells  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum and other trivalent metals were shown to stimulate uptake of transferrin bound iron and nontransferrin bound iron in erytholeukemia and hepatoma cells. Because of the association between aluminum and Alzheimer's Disease, and findings of higher levels of iron in Alzheimer's disease brains, the effects of aluminum on iron homeostasis were examined in a human glial cell line. Aluminum stimulated dose- and time-dependent uptake of nontransferrin bound iron and iron bound to transferrin. A transporter was likely involved in the uptake of nontransferrin iron because uptake reached saturation, was temperature-dependent, and attenuated by inhibitors of protein synthesis. Interestingly, the effects of aluminum were not blocked by inhibitors of RNA synthesis. Aluminum also decreased the amount of iron bound to ferritin though it did not affect levels of divalent metal transporter 1. These results suggest that aluminum disrupts iron homeostasis in Brain by several mechanisms including the transferrin receptor, a nontransferrin iron transporter, and ferritin.

Kim, Yongbae [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, Soonchunhyan University, Chunan City (Korea, Republic of) ; Olivi, Luisa [School of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) ; Cheong, Jae Hoon [School of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) ; Maertens, Alex [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University (United States); Bressler, Joseph P. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University (United States) and Kennedy-Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)]. E-mail: Bressler@kennedykrieger.org

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Salt-soda sinter process for recovering aluminum from fly ash  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for recovering aluminum values from fly ash comprises sintering the fly ash with a mixture of NaCl and Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3 to a temperature in the range 700.degree.-900.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to convert greater than 90% of the aluminum content of the fly ash into an acid-soluble fraction and then contacting the thus-treated fraction with an aqueous solution of nitric or sulfuric acid to effect dissolution of aluminum and other metal values in said solution.

McDowell, William J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seeley, Forest G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Ball-milled Materials as Inert Anodes for Aluminum Production in KF ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, various nanostructured materials including Cu-Ni-Fe, Cu-Al-Ni-Fe based alloys and (Cu-Ni-Fe + MOx) composites were prepared by ball milling, ...

428

ALUMINUM READINESS EVALUATION FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENRATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION  

SciTech Connect

A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

SAMS TL; MASSIE HL

2011-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

429

Design of Forming Processes and Tooling in Transforming Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012... Mechanical Properties of Extruded 6063 Aluminum Alloy: Abdul Kareem Abdul Jawwad1; Adnan Bashir1; 1The University of Jordan

430

Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Martin A. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

431

Production Of High Specific Activity Copper-67  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the selective production and isolation of high specific activity Cu.sup.67 from proton-irradiated enriched Zn.sup.70 target comprises target fabrication, target irradiation with low energy (<25 MeV) protons, chemical separation of the Cu.sup.67 product from the target material and radioactive impurities of gallium, cobalt, iron, and stable aluminum via electrochemical methods or ion exchange using both anion and cation organic ion exchangers, chemical recovery of the enriched Zn.sup.70 target material, and fabrication of new targets for re-irradiation is disclosed.

Jamriska, Sr., David J. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Ott, Martin A. (Los Alamos, NM); Fowler, Malcolm (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

432

NIDC: Online Catalog of Isotope Products | Product Search  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Product Search Product Search Step 1 - Enter your search criteria below. Element Name Actinium Aluminum Americium Antimony Argon Arsenic Astatine Barium Berkelium Beryllium Bismuth Bohrium Boron Bromine Cadmium Caesium Calcium Californium Carbon Cerium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copernicium Copper Curium Darmstadtium Dubnium Dysprosium Einsteinium Erbium Europium Fermium Fluorine Francium Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Hassium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Meitnerium Mendelevium Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Nobelium Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium Polonium Potassium Praseodymium Promethium Protactinium Radium Radon Rhenium Rhodium Roentgenium Rubidium Ruthenium Rutherfordium Samarium Scandium Seaborgium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium Thulium Tin Titanium Tungsten Ununhexium Ununoctium Ununpentium Ununquadium Ununseptium Ununtrium Uranium Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Zinc Zirconium

433

Production of Energy Efficient Preform Structures (PEEPS)  

SciTech Connect

Due to its low density, good structural characteristics, excellent fabrication properties, and attractive appearance, aluminum metal and its alloys continue to be widely utilized. The transportation industry continues to be the largest consumer of aluminum products, with aerospace as the principal driver for this use. Boeing has long been the largest single company consumer of heat-treated aluminum in the U.S. The extensive use of aluminum to build aircraft and launch vehicles has been sustained, despite the growing reliance on more structurally efficient carbon fiber reinforced composite materials. The trend in the aerospace industry over the past several decades has been to rely extensively on large, complex, thin-walled, monolithic machined structural components, which are fabricated from heavy billets and thick plate using high speed machining. The use of these high buy-to-fly ratio starting product forms, while currently cost effective, is energy inefficient, with a high environmental impact. The widespread implementation of Solid State Joining (SSJ) technologies, to produce lower buy-to-fly ratio starting forms, tailored to each specific application, offers the potential for a more sustainable manufacturing strategy, which would consume less energy, require less material, and reduce material and manufacturing costs. One objective of this project was to project the energy benefits of using SSJ techniques to produce high-performance aluminum structures if implemented in the production of the world fleet of commercial aircraft. A further objective was to produce an energy consumption prediction model, capable of calculating the total energy consumption, solid waste burden, acidification potential, and CO2 burden in producing a starting product form - whether by conventional or SSJ processes - and machining that to a final part configuration. The model needed to be capable of computing and comparing, on an individual part/geometry basis, multiple possible manufacturing pathways, to identify the best balance of energy consumption and environmental impact. This model has been created and populated with energy consumption data for individual SSJ processes and process platforms. Technology feasibility cases studies were executed, to validate the model, and confirm the ability to create lower buy-to-fly ratio performs and machine these to final configuration aircraft components. This model can now be used as a tool to select manufacturing pathways that offer significant energy savings and, when coupled with a cost model, drive implementation of the SSJ processes.

Dr. John A. Baumann

2012-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

434

High-nitrogen-metal complexes as burning-rate modifiers for the aluminum-water propellant system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reactions of electropositive metals, such as aluminum, with water have long been utilized in explosive and propellant formulations, but until recently this has mostly been limited to the water formed as a product gas from the decomposition of another energetic system . Recently, however, with the increased availability of nano-particulate materials, the direct reaction of nano-aluminum (nAl) with water as an oxidizer has been investigated as a propellant system due to high reaction temperatures and the production of hydrogen as the primary gaseous species. This system could be useful for intra-planetary travel where non-terrestrial water is harvested for the oxidizer. Here we present the study of nAl, mixed at a stoichiometric ratio with water ({Phi} = 1) with the highly water soluble metal complexes of bis(tetrazolato)amine (BTA) added at 5, 15,30 and 50 wt% in the case of FeBTA and 5 and 15 wt% in the case of NiBTA and CoBTA. The basic structure of the BTA complexes is shown below where M = Fe, Ni or Co, and x = 3 for Fe and Co and x = 2 for Ni. The particle size of nAl studied was primarily 38 nm with various studies with the particle size of 80 nm. The FeBT A at a loading of 15 wt% gave the highest burning rate enhancement (4.6x at {approx}6.8 MPa), while retaining a low pressure exponent (0.21 compared to 0.24 for nA/H{sub 2}O). At 15 wt% the Ni and Co increased the burning rate, but also increased the pressure exponents. The burning rate of the FeBTA modified material with 80 nm Al decreased as the weight percent of FeBTA was increased, which also tracked decrease in the calculated specific impulse of the mixtures.

Tappan, Bryce C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mason, Benjamin A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Investigation on Aluminum-Based Amorphous Metallic Glass as New Anode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aluminum based amorphous metallic glass powders were produced and tested as the anode materials for the lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Ground Al??Ni₁?La₁? was found to have a ...

Meng, Shirley Y.

436

Method of Preparing Hydrous Hafnium, Cerium, or Aluminum Oxide Gels and Spherules  

An internal gelatin process for preparing hydrous hafnium, cerium, or aluminum oxidemicrospheres was invented at ORNL. The invention is a type of sol-gel process thatsolidifies droplets of solution as they enter into a warm environment. The resulting ...

437

Solubility and Reaction Rates of Aluminum Solid Phases Under Geothermal Conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experimental studies involving equilibrium solubility and dissolution/precipitation rates were initiated on aluminum hydroxide phases prevalent under geothermal reservoir conditions. A large capacity, hydrogen-electrode concentration cell (HECC) was constructed specifically for this purpose.

Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Anovitz, L.M.

2000-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

438

An in-situ interdiffusion method for harvesting energy from an aluminum-water reaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) are indispensable for countless underwater tasks but are currently limited in their range and endurance by the energy density of their battery packs. Aluminum is an ideal energy source ...

Brandeau, Erich John

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Assessment of geothermal energy as a power source for US aluminum reduction plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical and economic feasibility of using hydrothermal resources as a primary power source for both existing and future aluminum reduction plants in the United States is explored. Applicable hydrothermal resources that should be considered by the aluminum industry for this purpose were identified and evaluated. This work also identified the major institutional parameters to be considered in developing geothermal energy resources for aluminum industry use. Based on the findings of this study, it appears technically and economically feasible to power existing aluminum reduction plants in the Pacific Northwest using electricity generated at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah. It may also be feasible to power existing plants located on the Gulf Coast from Roosevelt Hot Springs, depending on the cost of transmitting the power.

Enderlin, W.I.; Blahnik, D.E.; Davis, A.E.; Jacobson, J.J.; Schilling, A.H.; Weakley, S.A.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Iron-niobium-aluminum alloy having high-temperature corrosion resistance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An alloy for use in high temperature sulfur and oxygen containing environments, having aluminum for oxygen resistance, niobium for sulfur resistance and the balance iron, is discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Hsu, Huey S.

1988-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

REQUEST BY ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN RIGHTS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SS796C; DOE WAIVER DOCKET W(A)-96-022[ORO- SS796C; DOE WAIVER DOCKET W(A)-96-022[ORO- 637] Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) has made a timely request for an advance waiver to worldwide rights in Subject Inventions made in the course of or under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC05-840R21400; Subcontract No. 86X-SS796C. The scope of the work calls for the development of processes for forming aluminum auto parts to make the use of aluminum in the industry feasible and cost effective. Alcoa will be assisting the Department of Energy in developing advanced materials for the automobile industry, namely to develop Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) technology to produce new and existing light weight aluminum alloy castings having greater than fifteen percent ductility. The United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) will assist Alcoa on an

442

Evaluation of neutron absorbers for the melt-dilute treatment of aluminum-based spent fuel  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors is being consolidated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for ultimate disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Most of the aluminum-based fuel material contains highly enriched uranium (HEU) (greater than 20 percent {sup 235}U), which poses a proliferation risk and challenges the preclusion of criticality events for disposal periods exceeding 10,000 years.

Vinson, D.W.

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

443

Electrodeposition of cobalt and cobalt-aluminum alloys from a room temperature chloroaluminate molten salt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electrodeposition of magnetic cobalt-aluminum alloys was investigated in the Lewis acidic aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride [60.0--40.0 mole percent (m/o)] molten salt containing electrogenerated Co(II) at 25 C. rotating disk electrode voltammetry indicated that it is possible to produce alloy deposits containing up to 62 atomic (a/o) aluminum at potentials positive of that for the bulk deposition of aluminum. The onset of the underpotential-driven aluminum codeposition process occurred at around 0.40 V vs. the Al/Al(III) couple in a 5.00 mmol/liter Co(II) solution but decreased as the Co(II) concentration increased. The Co-Al alloy composition displayed an inverse dependence on the Co(II) concentration but tended to become independent of concentration as the potential was decreased to 0 V. A rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry technique was developed to analyze the composition and structure of the Co-Al alloy deposits. This technique takes advantage of the fact that the mass-transport-limited reduction of cobalt(II) occurs at potentials considerably more positive than that at which aluminum codeposition occurs. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis of bulk electrodeposits revealed that deposit morphology depends strongly upon aluminum content/deposition potential; deposits produced at 0.40 V from 50.0 mmol/liter Co(II) solutions consisted of 10 to 20 {micro}m diam multifaceted nodules of pure hcp cobalt, whereas those obtained at 0.20 V were dense and fine grained, containing about 4 a/o Al. Deposits produced at 0 V had the visual appearance of a loosely adherent black powder. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed a lattice expansion and a decrease in grain size as the hcp cobalt was alloyed with increasing amounts of aluminum.

Mitchell, J.A.; Pitner, W.R.; Hussey, C.L. [Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stafford, G.R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Lab.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

AMT-4 RADISONDE TRANSMITTER MODIFICATION ASSEMBLY (USING THE NEW ALUMINUM- OXIDE HUMIDITY ELEMENT)  

SciTech Connect

A modification to the AMT-4 radiosonde transmitter and modulator which permits the use of a new aluminum oxide humidity element is described. The modification is simple enough to be made by relatively unskilled personnel in the field and involves: using the newly developed aluminum oxide humidity element, slightly modifying the transmitter, and slightly revising the modulator circuitry. The polarization problem usually associated with using humidity elements in a direct-current circuit is also minimized by this modification. (auth)

Stover, C.M.

1961-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

First principles predictions of intrinsic defects in aluminum arsenide, AlAs : numerical supplement.  

SciTech Connect

This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in aluminum arsenide, AlAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz, 'First principles predictions of intrinsic defects in Aluminum Arsenide, AlAs', Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings 1370 (2011; SAND2011-2436C), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models.

Schultz, Peter Andrew

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Mercury-Free Dissolution of Aluminum-Based Nuclear Material: From Basic Science to the Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conditions were optimized for the first plant-scale dissolution of an aluminum-containing nuclear material without using mercury as a catalyst. This nuclear material was a homogeneous mixture of plutonium oxide and aluminum metal that had been compounded for use as the core matrix in Mark 42 nuclear fuel. Because this material had later failed plutonium distribution specifications, it was rejected for use in the fabrication of Mark 42 fuel tubes, and was stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) awaiting disposition. This powder-like material was composed of a mixture of approximately 80 percent aluminum and 11 percent plutonium. Historically, aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuels [13] have been dissolved using a mercuric nitrate catalyst in a nitric acid (HNO3) solution to facilitate the dissolution of the bulk aluminum cladding. Developmental work at SRS indicated that the plutonium oxide/aluminum compounded matrix could be dissolved without mercury. Various mercury-free conditions were studied to evaluate the rate of dissolution of the Mark 42 compact material and to assess the corrosion rate to the stainless steel dissolver. The elimination of mercury from the dissolution process fit with waste minimization and industrial hygiene goals to reduce the use of mercury in the United States. The mercury-free dissolution technology was optimized for Mark 42 compact material in laboratory-scale tests, and successfully implemented at the plant.

Crooks, W.J. III

2003-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

447

Glass Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

40, pp. 162 - 186. Glass Production, Shortland, UEE 2009AINES Short Citation: Shortland 2009, Glass Production. UEE.Andrew, 2009, Glass Production. In Willeke Wendrich (ed. ),

Shortland, Andrew

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Production Targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hall (2005), “Prices, Production, and Inventories over theProduction Targets ? Guillermo Caruana CEMFI caruana@cem?.esthe theory using monthly production targets of the Big Three

Caruana, Guillermo; Einav, Liran

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Pottery Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Paul T. Nicholson. ) Pottery Production, Nicholson, UEE 2009Short Citation: Nicholson 2009, Pottery Production. UEE.Paul T. , 2009, Pottery Production. In Willeke Wendrich (

Nicholson, Paul T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Cordage Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

294: fig. 15-3). Cordage Production, Veldmeijer, UEE 2009Short Citation: Veldmeijer, 2009, Cordage Production. UEE.André J. , 2009, Cordage Production. In Willeke Wendrich (

Veldmeijer, André J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans and Bottles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans and bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling.

Han Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Shinguryo, Takuro [Technical Development Department, Aluminum Company, Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, 1500 Suganuma, Oyama-Cho, Sunto-Gun, Shizuoka, 410-1392 (Japan); Yamazaki, Koetsu [Division of Innovative Technology and Science, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, 2-40-20 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-8667 (Japan); Nishiyama, Sadao [Aluminum Company, Mitsubishi Materials Corporation, 19F Otemachi First Square West, 1-5-1, Ohtemachi, Chiyoda-Ku. Tokyo, 100-8117 (Japan)

2005-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

452

H-Disk Aluminum Prototype Heat Transfer Test Summary  

SciTech Connect

The aluminum H-disk was instrumented with heaters (156 ohm on average) and 100 ohm platinum RTD's. Each heater supplies the heat of a double sided H-wedge. Since the flow splits into two flow directions at the inlet fitting, only half of the cooling channel is fully instrumented with RTD's. The other path has a single RTD to check for flow balancing. These items were installed after Greg Derylo petformed the first pressure drop tests. At the time of the test, the desired adhesive for gluing the two halves of the channel together was not available. Therefore, 5-minute epoxy was used on the inner and outer diameters of the halves. Tape was used to set the gap between the two halves. This form of attachment does not make a strong bond between the two halves so the differential pressure between the inside and the outside of the channel was limited to a couple of psi. Therefore, the tests were not conducted in a vacuum.

Squires, B.; /Fermilab

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

453

Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production DELIVERY FUEL CELLS STORAGE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION CODES & STANDARDS SYSTEMS INTEGRATION ANALYSES SAFETY EDUCATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Economy...

454

SEGREGATION IN URANIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOYS AND ITS EFFECT ON THE FUEL LOADING OF ALUMINUM-BASE FUEL ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Techniques were devised for quantitatively determining the accuracy of potentiometric uranium analyses in uranium-aluminum alloys containing up to 55 wt. % U and for evaluatin; the segregation existing in uraniumaluminum alloys containing as low as 7 wt. % U and as high as 50 wt. % U. A theory for predicting the mode of uranium segrcgation in these alloys was postulated. On the basis of the observed uranium segregation, the uranium content of a hypothetical fuel element was predicted by means of several sampling schemes. Dip sampling of the melt was demonstrated to be satisfactory for alloys containing 7 to 19 wt. % U. However, this technique was not considered suitable for alloys containiog 40 to 50 wt. % U, because a significant number of samples is required from the casting or the wrought alloy to adequately represent the fuel content. (auth) An accurate and rapid method for the volumetric determination of uranium has been developed for the ranges 0.3% to 90% uranium. The existing mercury cathode deposition equipment has been modified for the rapid removal of metallic impurities and for the electrolytic reduction of the uranium. (auth)

Thurber, W.C.; Beaver, R.J.

1958-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

455

Novel Precipitation Hardened Aluminum Alloys for Oilfield Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amorphous Coatings Produced by Spray Forming and Thermal Spray of Fe-Cr- Nb-B ... Fluorescent Nanoparticle Tracers for Oil Exploration and Production.

456

Characterization of Aluminum Cathode Sheets Used for Zinc ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A New Method for Production of Titanium Dioxide Pigment – Eliminating CO2 Emissions · A Review of the Behavior and Deportment of Lead, Bismuth, Antimony ...

457

Energy and Environmental Profile of the US Aluminum Industry - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jun 30, 2008 ... This report was prepared by Energetics, Inc. for the U.S. DOE to study the energy and environmental impact of alumina production, anode ...

458

The Challenges that Aluminum Faces as Material of Choice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Substitution of factors or production if — driven by prices .... i i5 REGULATION LEGI5LATION I MARKET: . Cum-um: » Design for X '. _ Cost. PERFORMANCE.

459

Aluminum Nanopowder as a Precursor of Hydrogen Storage Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... After the product powder was collected by bubbling the off-gas through ethanol, the powder composition and grain size were determined by ...

460

Disposal criticality analysis for aluminum-based DOE fuels  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the disposal criticality analysis for canisters containing aluminum-based Department of Energy fuels from research reactors. Different canisters were designed for disposal of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and medium enriched uranium (MEU) fuel. In addition to the standard criticality concerns in storage and transportation, such as flooding, the disposal criticality analysis must consider the degradation of the fuel and components within the waste package. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) U-Al fuel with 93.5% enriched uranium and Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) U-Si-Al fuel with 21% enriched uranium are representative of the HEU and MEU fuel inventories, respectively. Conceptual canister designs with 64 MIT assemblies (16/layer, 4 layers) or 40 ORR assemblies (10/layer, 4 layers) were developed for these fuel types. Borated stainless steel plates were incorporated into a stainless steel internal basket structure within a 439 mm OD, 15 mm thick XM-19 canister shell. The Codisposal waste package contains 5 HLW canisters (represented by 5 Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters from the Savannah River Site) with the fuel canister placed in the center. It is concluded that without the presence of a fairly insoluble neutron absorber, the long-term action of infiltrating water can lead to a small, but significant, probability of criticality for both the HEU and MEU fuels. The use of 1.5kg of Gd distributed throughout the MIT fuel and the use of carbon steels for the structural basket or 1.1 kg of Gd distributed in the ORR fuel will reduce the probability of criticality to virtually zero for both fuels.

Davis, J.W. [Framatome Cogema Fuels, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Gottlieb, P. [TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aluminum extruded products" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Beta-Gamma Coincidence Counting Using an Yttrium Aluminum Perovskit and Bismuth Germanate Phoswich Scintillator  

SciTech Connect

Abstract– Phoswich detectors (two scintillators attached to the same photomultiplier-tube) have been used in the past to measure either betas or gammas separately but were not used to measure beta-gamma coincidence signatures. These coincidence signatures are very important for the detection of many fission products and are exploited to detect four radioxenon isotopes using the Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) [1]. Previous PNNL work with a phoswich detector used a commercially available, thin disk of scintillating CaF2(Eu) and a 2” thick NaI(Tl) crystal in a phoswich arrangement. Studies with this detector measured the beta-gamma coincidence signatures from 133Xe, 214Pb and 214Bi [2]. This scintillator combination worked but was not a good match in scintillation light decay times, 940-ns for CaF2(Eu) and 230 ns for NaI(Tl). Additionally, a 6 mm thick quartz window was placed between the NaI(Tl) and the CaF2 to ensure a hermetic seal for the NaI(Tl) crystal . This dead layer significantly reduced the detection probability of the low energy x-rays and gammas that are part of the coincidence signatures for 214Pb, 214Bi and the radioxenons. Further research showed that Yttrium aluminum perovskit (YAP) and bismuth germanate (BGO) have very good scintillation light characteristics and no hermetic seal requirements. The 27-ns scintillation light decay time of YAP and the 300-ns decay time for BGO are a good match between fast and slow light output. The scintillation light output was measured using XIATM digital signal processing readout electronics, and the fast (YAP) and slow (BGO) light components allowed discrimination between the beta and gamma contributions of the radioactive decays. In this paper we discuss the experimental setup and results obtained with this new phoswich detector and the applications beyond radioxenon gas measurements.

McIntyre, Justin I.; Schrom, Brian T.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Litke, Kevin E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Suarez, Reynold

2006-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

462

DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and glass melting rate. The WTP HLW melter has a glass surface area of 3.75 m{sup 2} and depth of {approx}1.1 m. The two melters in the HLW facility together are designed to produce up to 7.5 MT of glass per day at 100% availability. Further increases in HLW waste processing rates can potentially be achieved by increasing the melter operating temperature above 1150 C and by increasing the waste loading in the glass product Increasing the waste loading also has the added benefit of decreasing the number of canisters for storage. The current estimates and glass formulation efforts have been conservative in terms of achievable waste loadings. These formulations have been specified to ensure that the glasses are homogenous, contain essentially no crystalline phases, are processable in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters and meet WTP contract requirements. The WTP's overall mission will require the immobilization oftank waste compositions that are dominated by mixtures of aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), bismuth (Bi), iron (Fe), phosphorous (P), zirconium (Zr), and sulfur (S) compounds as waste-limiting components. Glass compositions for these waste mixtures have been developed based upon previous experience and current glass property models. Recently, DOE has initiated a testing program to develop and characterize HLW glasses with higher waste loadings. Results of this work have demonstrated the feasibility of increases in waste-loading from about 25 wt% to 33-50 wt% (based on oxide loading) in the glass depending on the waste stream. It is expected that these higher waste loading glasses will reduce the HLW canister production requirement by about 25% or more.

KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

463

Tritium production using highly enriched fuel  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary studies utilizing the MOFDA code have been made for tritium production at the K reactors using 33 and 35 grams per foot oralloy (93.5% U-235) in aluminum in conjunction with standard K5N and K5E fuel elements, respectively. For this report, it was assumed that all tritium would be produced in discrete charges of LiAl target elements. It is intended that the study will be extended at some later time to include LiAl splines. The analysis includes the effect of coolant loss on reactivity for hot-or-cold and green-or-exposed conditions for several oralloy loading fractions.

Miller, R.L.

1967-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

464

In-Flight Oxidation of Aluminum in the Twin-Wire Electric Arc Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the in-flight oxidation of aluminum sprayed in air using the twin-wire electric arc (TWEA) thermal spray process. Aerodynamic shear at the droplet surface increases the amount of in-flight oxidation by promoting entrainment of the surface oxides within the molten droplet and continually exposing fresh fluid available for oxidation. Mathematical predictions herein confirm experimental measurements that reveal an elevated, nearly constant surface temperature (~2273 K) of the droplets during flight. The calculated oxide volume fraction of a “typical” droplet with internal circulation compares favorably to the experimentally determined oxide content (3.3 to 12.7%) for a typical TWEA-sprayed aluminum coating sprayed onto a room temperature substrate. It is concluded that internal circulation within the molten aluminum droplet is a significant source of oxidation. This effect produces an oxide content nearly two orders of magnitude larger than that of a droplet without continual oxidation.

Donna Post Guillen; Brian G. Williams

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Simulation of 7050 Wrought Aluminum Alloy Wheel Die Forging and its Defects Analysis based on DEFORM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Defects such as folding, intercrystalline cracking and flow lines outcrop are very likely to occur in the forging of aluminum alloy. Moreover, it is difficult to achieve the optimal set of process parameters just by trial and error within an industrial environment. In producing 7050 wrought aluminum alloy wheel, a rigid-plastic finite element method (FEM) analysis has been performed to optimize die forging process. Processing parameters were analyzed, focusing on the effects of punch speed, friction factor and temperature. Meanwhile, mechanism as well as the evolution with respect to the defects of the wrought wheel was studied in details. From an analysis of the results, isothermal die forging was proposed for producing 7050 aluminum alloy wheel with good mechanical properties. Finally, verification experiment was carried out on hydropress.

Huang Shiquan; Yi Youping; Zhang Yuxun [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

466

Casting-chill interface heat transfer during solidification of an aluminum alloy  

SciTech Connect

Unidirectional solidification tests on an aluminum alloy were conducted with a computer-controlled instrumented rig. The alloys employed in this study were poured into isolated ingot molds (made of recrystallized alumina and covered with ceramic fiber) placed on top of a steel plate, coated either with a graphite- or ceramic-based paint in order to avoid sticking or the material. Thermal evolution during the test was captured by type-K thermocouples placed at different positions in both the ingot and the plate. The bottom surface of the plate was either cooled with water or left to cool in air. The heat-transfer coefficients across the aluminum-steel interface were evaluated by means of a finite-difference model. It was concluded that the heat-transfer rate depends on the conditions at the interface, such as the type of coating used to protect the plate, and the solidification reactions occurring on the aluminum during its solidification.

Velasco, E.; Cano, S.; Valtierra, S.; Mojica, J.F. [Corporativo Nemak, S.A. de C.V., Garcia (Mexico); Talamantes, J.; Colas, R. [Univ. Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico). Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

A novel aqueous dual-channel aluminum-hydrogen peroxide battery  

SciTech Connect

A dual-channel aluminum hydrogen peroxide battery is introduced with an open-circuit voltage of 1.9 volts, polarized losses of 0.9 mV cm[sup 2]/mA, and power densities of 1 W/cm[sup 2]. Catholyte and anolyte cell compartments are separated by an Ir/Pd modified porous nickel cathode. Separation of catholyte and anolyte chambers prevents hydrogen peroxide poisoning of the aluminum anode. The battery is expressed by aluminum oxidation and aqueous solution phase hydrogen peroxide reduction for an overall battery discharge consisting of 2Al + 3H[sub 2]O[sub 2] + 2 OH[sup [minus

Marsh, C. (Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Newport, RI (United States). Electric Propulsion); Licht, S. (Clark Univ., Worcester, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Electrical and Surface Morphology of Polyvinylchloride Composites Filled with Aluminum Powder  

SciTech Connect

In this work, the electrical and surface morphology of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites filled with different concentration of aluminum powder varying from 0 to 40 wt.% have been prepared by solution costing method. The electrical conductivity of these composites were investigated in the frequency range 100 Hz-10 MHz at room temperature. The conductivity of the composites system exhibited a strong frequency dependence particularly in the vicinity of percolation threshold (20 wt.%). It was observed that the electrical conductivity gradually increased with filler concentration and frequency and explained in terms of hopping conduction mechanism. The electrical conductivity of the composites obeys universal power law (i.e. {sigma} = Af{sup n}), where, n is power exponent. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs indicate the agglomeration of aluminum particles dispersed within the PVC at the higher aluminum concentration, yielding a conductive path through the composites. It is also corroborated with electrical conductivity result.

Singh, Dolly; Kishore, Sangeeta; Singh, N. L. [Department of Physics, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390 002 (India)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

469

Analysis of particle penetration into aluminum plate using underwater shock wave  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some techniques using underwater shock waves have been developed for several material processing applications: explosive welding, shock compaction, and shock synthesis. In this research, a new technique was developed for surface modification of an aluminum plate. Diamond particles were accelerated by an underwater shock wave and penetrated into an aluminum plate, creating a surface coating of diamond on the aluminum plate. In the observation of the cross-section of the recovered Al-diamond composite, a rich diamond layer was confirmed at about 200 {mu}m depth. XRD and wear measurements were conducted for the recovered Al-diamond composite. We also report on the optical observation of the underwater shock wave in this paper.

Tanaka, S. [Faculty of engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Hokamoto, K.; Itoh, S. [Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

2007-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

470

REQUEST BY ALUMINUM COMPANY OF AMERICA FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN RIGHTS  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SU544C; DOE WAIVER DOCKET W(A)-95-042 [ORO- SU544C; DOE WAIVER DOCKET W(A)-95-042 [ORO- 615] Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) has made a timely request on behalf of itself and two subcontractors for an advance waiver to worldwide rights in Subject Inventions made in the course of or under Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC05-840R21400; Subcontract No. 86X-SU544C. The scope of the work calls for the development of processes for forming aluminum auto parts to make the use of aluminum in the industry feasible and cost effective. Alcoa will be working with subcontractors USAMP, a consortium of Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company and General Motors Corporation, formed to assist the Department of Energy in developing advanced materials for the automobile industry, and Rockwell International Corporation Science Center (Rockwell).

471

Metal-Matrix Composites: Aluminum, Titanium, Processing ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 1, 2008 ... TMS Member price: 256.00. Non-member price: 336.00. TMS Student Member price: 256.00. Product In Stock. Description With the purpose of ...

472

Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Aluminum Alloy ... - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

May 1, 2007 ... TMS Member price: 10.00. Non-member price: 25.00. TMS Student Member price : 10.00. Product In Stock. Description Maluti-walled carbon ...

473

Mercury-free dissolution of aluminum-clad fuel in nitric acid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is the purpose of this invention to provide a continuous optimum process for the dissolution of aluminum, without the use of a mercury catalyst. Ile invention generally stated is: a process for dissolution of aluminum comprising: preparing a mixture of nitric acid`and fluoboric acid in a makeup vessel or individual reagents in separate vessels; placing an aluminum element in a dissolver vessel having an overflow; transferring a portion of the mixture of nitric acid and fluoboric acid to the dissolver vessel from the makeup vessel; heating the dissolver vessel and mixture to a boiling temperature and holding that temperature until a desired concentration of dissolved aluminum is achieved; adding a constant flow influent of the mixture of nitric acid and fluoboric acid to the dissolver vessel; and collecting an effluent from the dissolver vessel overflow, said effluent containing a mixture of aluminum nitrate, nitric acid, fluoboric acid, water, and dissolved fuel components. The variables in the above process can be temperature, effluent flow rate, and concentration of the acids as will be discussed later. For corrosion control, it may be necessary to initiate reaction at a decreased HNO{sub 3} concentration and to increase it after a sufficient concentration of aluminum nitrate has accrued. The process may be adapted to batch processing, as well. Again, acid concentrations may be initially relatively small and, then, gradually increased as reaction proceeds until the desired excess of HNO{sub 3} above stoichiometric quantity has been added. Other objects, advantages, and capabilities of the present invention will become more apparent as the description proceeds.

Christian, J.D.; Anderson, P.A.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

474

Exergy-based analysis and efficiency evaluation for an aluminum melting furnace in a die-casting plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The efficiency of a natural gas-fired aluminum melting furnace in a die-casting plant is examined using energy and exergy methods, to improve understanding of the burner system in the furnace and so that potential improvements can be identified. Such ... Keywords: aluminum, die-casting, efficiency, energy, exergy, melting furnace

Marc A. Rosen; Dennis L. Lee

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

The Development of an Innovative Vertical Floatation Melter and Scrap Dryer for Use in the Aluminum Processing Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The project aimed at the development of a Vertical Floatation melter, for application to the aluminum industry. This is intended to improve both the energy efficiency and environmental performance of aluminum melting furnaces. Phase I of this project dealt primarily with the initial research effort. Phase II, dealt with pilot-scale testing.

Robert De Saro

2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

476

Corrosion of aluminum alloy 2024 belonging to the 1930s in seawater environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wreckage of ‘Carnauba’, a 1930s vintage Sikorsky S-38 aircraft, a beloved icon of SC Johnson's early history, was found on July 5, 2000, in seawater off of an Indonesian island of West Irian Jaya. The company decided to recover this aircraft from seawater, conserve it, and display it in its museum, as part of their rich heritage. The objective was to study the aluminum alloy used on the aircraft for its chemical and mechanical properties, suggest the corrosion mechanism of aluminum alloy 2024 in seawater, and recommend preservation methods for the same. Chemical analysis performed on the samples collected from the site revealed that copper was the primary alloying element. Copper is responsible for increasing the strength. However, copper is also the reason for pitting corrosion of the aluminum alloy, causing material loss and reducing the structural stability of the wreckage. Copper forms intermetallics with other elements, such as magnesium and aluminum, and is distributed in the aluminum matrix heterogeneously. In order to study the corrosion mechanism of aluminum alloy 2024, it was subjected to potentiodynamic tests in sodium chloride solution. In the presence of an electrolyte like seawater, the difference between the potentials of these intermetallics and the surrounding aluminum matrix creates a galvanic cell. The galvanic cells serve as sites for localized corrosion. Chloride ions are responsible for pitting of alloy 2024. A pitting potential of around -600mV was observed when sodium chloride was used as an electrolyte. The average corrosion rate measured for wrought aluminum alloys was around 0.05 mm/year. The thesis provides guidelines or recommendations for the procedure to be followed in recovering aircraft from seawater, and retain it in its as found condition. Recommendations about various measurements like pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity, pressure, temperature, and velocity need to be taken and the visual assessment needs to be done before the aircraft is hauled from the seawater were specified. After the aircraft has been recovered, recommendations for handling, cleaning, and prevention of corrosion using coatings such as carnauba wax and inhibitors such as chromates, have been stated.

Gujarathi, Kedar Kanayalal

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Response of aluminum and its alloys to exposure in the high flux isotope reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pure aluminum and some aluminum alloys were irradiated to very high neutron fluences in the cooling water at 328 K in the high flux region of HFIR. Displacement levels of 270 dpa and transmutation-produced silicon levels of 7.15 wt % were reached. Damage microstructures consisted of dislocations, cavities, and precipitates which caused substantial strengthening and associated loss in ductility. Formation of cavities and related swelling were considerably reduced by alloying elements and by the presence of fine Mg/sub 2/Si precipitate.

Farrell, K.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Reduction of Perchlorate and Nitrate by Aluminum Activated by pH Change and Electrochemically Induced Pitting Corrosion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Highly oxidized species like perchlorate and nitrate that are released into the environment by anthropogenic activities are a source of concern as they have been known to contaminate groundwater. These species are extremely soluble in water and can migrate through aquifer systems, travelling substantial distances from the original site of contamination. Due to their high solubility, these oxy-anions cannot be treated using conventional treatment processes like filtration and sedimentation. Several treatment technologies are currently available to abate the human health risk due to exposure to perchlorate and nitrate. However, most of the existing treatment processes are expensive or have limitations, like generation of brines with high concentrations of perchlorate or nitrate. Aluminum can effectively reduce perchlorate and nitrate, if the protective oxide film that separates the thermodynamically reactive Al0 from most environments is removed. Aluminum was activated by pH change and electrochemically induced, pitting corrosion to remove the passivating oxide layer and expose the underlying, thermodynamically reactive, zero-valent aluminum. A partially oxidized species of aluminum, like monovalent aluminum, is believed to bring about the reduction of perchlorate and nitrate. This research studied the reduction of perchlorate and nitrate by aluminum that was activated by these two mechanisms. Results indicated that aluminum activated by pH change resulted in an instantaneous decrease in perchlorate concentration without any increase in chlorate or chloride concentrations, which suggests that the perchlorate might be adsorbed on the aluminum oxide surface. However, aluminum activated by electrochemically induced pitting corrosion can effectively reduce perchlorate to chlorate. Nitrate, on the other hand, was reduced completely to ammonia by both treatment mechanisms. The studies conducted in this dissertation suggest that aluminum can be effectively used as a reducing agent to develop a treatment process to reduce perchlorate and nitrate.

Raut Desai, Aditya B.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Matrix grain characterisation by electron backscattering diffraction of powder metallurgy aluminum matrix composites reinforced with MoSi{sub 2} intermetallic particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research highlights: Six extruded PM AA6061/MoSi{sub 2}/15p were processed with and without ball milling {yields} EBSD was used to characterise matrix grain size and grain orientation. {yields} Ball milling decreases matrix grain size to submicrometric level. {yields} Ball milling produces a more equiaxed microstructure and larger misorientation. {yields} Increasing milling time produces matrix texture randomization.

Corrochano, J., E-mail: javier.corrochano.flores@gmail.com; Hidalgo, P.; Lieblich, M.; Ibanez, J.

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

480

Sustainability, Recycling, and Waste Treatment in the Aluminum ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Carbothermal Production of Zrb2-Zro2 Composite Powder from Zro2-B2O3/B System by ... Fiber and Electron-Beam Irradiation in Thermo-Mechanical Properties of HDPE ... Evaluation of Polypropylene/Saw Dust Composites Prepared with ...

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481

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

482

Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum form 27 July 2010 Accepted 3 September 2010 Keywords: High-energy-density fuels Droplet combustion n-decane-based fuels. Five distinctive stages (preheating and ignition, classical combustion

Qiao, Li

483

Determination of Stability Constants of Hydrogen and Aluminum Fluorides with a Fluoride-Selective Electrode  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ability to directly determine free fluoride ion concentration (or mean activity) simplifies gathering and interpretation of experimental data for studies of metal complexes. In this work, the new lanthanum fluoride electrode was used to measure free fluoride ion in an investigation of the hydrogen-fluoride and aluminum-fluoride systems in NH4NO3.

Baumann, E.W.

2003-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

484