Sample records for aluminum alumina refining

  1. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum From Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA); Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR)

    2004-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic cell for producing aluminum from alumina having a reservoir for collecting molten aluminum remote from the electrolysis.

  2. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Aluminum-Alumina Composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudlur, Pradeep

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The preliminary goal of this study is to determine the effects of processing conditions, compositions and microstructural morphologies of the constituents on the physical and thermo-mechanical properties of alumina (Al_2O_3) reinforced aluminum (Al...

  3. Alumina and Aluminum (2010 MECS) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta Fe Metro FleetAlternativeAlumina and Aluminum

  4. Final report on DSA methods for monitoring alumina in aluminum reduction cells with cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sensors Development Program was conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Processes. The work was performed in conjunction with the Inert Electrodes Program at PNL. The objective of the Sensors Development Program in FY 1990 through FY 1992 was to determine whether methods based on digital signal analysis (DSA) could be used to measure alumina concentration in aluminum reduction cells. Specifically, this work was performed to determine whether useful correlations exist between alumina concentration and various DSA-derived quantification parameters, calculated for current and voltage signals from laboratory and field aluminum reduction cells. If appropriate correlations could be found, then the quantification parameters might be used to monitor and, consequently, help control the alumina concentration in commercial reduction cells. The control of alumina concentration is especially important for cermet anodes, which have exhibited instability and excessive wear at alumina concentrations removed from saturation.

  5. Electrolytic cell for production of aluminum from alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolysis of alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte employing inert anode and cathodes, the anode having a box shape with slots for the cathodes.

  6. ITP Aluminum: Alumina Technology Roadmap | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGENDDepartmentSeptember 2009 | DepartmentAlumina

  7. Final report on the application of chaos theory to an alumina sensor for aluminum reduction cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williford, R.E.; Windisch, C.F. Jr.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four chaos-related digital signal analysis (DSA) methods were applied to the analysis of voltage and current signals collected from aluminum electrolysis cells. Two separate data bases were analyzed: bench-scale laboratory experiments and a pilot-scale test. The objective was to assess the feasibility of using these types of data and analysis methods as the basis for a non-intrusive sensor to measure the alumina content in the electrolysis bath. This was the first time chaos theory approaches have been employed to analyze aluminum electrolysis cells.

  8. Beryllium Adsorption at Transition Aluminas: Implications for Environmental Science and Oxidation of Aluminum Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is demonstrated that?gamma- and?eta- aluminas (transition Al2O3 polytypes with defect spinel structure) can effectively capture beryllium atoms. Although the bulk crystal structures of these two oxides are characterized only by slight differences in cation vacancy distributions, the interaction of Be with the two polytypes are different. For gamma- Al2O3, the Be adsorption energy is high (~ 5 eV per atom), and all Be atoms are captured and trapped at the surface - all attempts to move Be in the subsurface region result in its expulsion back to the surface. On the other hand, for ?eta- alumina Be atoms can be captured both at the surface and in octahedrally-coordinated subsurface cation vacancies. This result implies that both alumina oxides could be successfully used for Be capture out of wastewater streams related to industrial processes of aluminum and alumina production. Also, the surface adsorption mechanism of Be at?gamma- Al2O3 explains why very small additions of Be (of the order of several ppm) to Al-Mg and Al-Mg-Si casting and wrought alloys prevent run-away oxidation of these materials in molten state, as well as ingot cracking. We also discuss possibilities to use other additives (e.g., Ca and Sr) yielding the same protective effect for aluminum alloys but which are less toxic than beryllium.

  9. Final report on DSA methods for monitoring alumina in aluminum reduction cells with cermet anodes. Inert Electrodes Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sensors Development Program was conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Processes. The work was performed in conjunction with the Inert Electrodes Program at PNL. The objective of the Sensors Development Program in FY 1990 through FY 1992 was to determine whether methods based on digital signal analysis (DSA) could be used to measure alumina concentration in aluminum reduction cells. Specifically, this work was performed to determine whether useful correlations exist between alumina concentration and various DSA-derived quantification parameters, calculated for current and voltage signals from laboratory and field aluminum reduction cells. If appropriate correlations could be found, then the quantification parameters might be used to monitor and, consequently, help control the alumina concentration in commercial reduction cells. The control of alumina concentration is especially important for cermet anodes, which have exhibited instability and excessive wear at alumina concentrations removed from saturation.

  10. [Aluminum coordination and active sites on aluminas, Y-zeolites and pillared layered silicates]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fripiat, J.J.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is organized in four sections. In the first the authors will outline structural features which are common to all fine grained alumina, as well as to non-framework alumina in zeolites. This section will be followed by a study of the surface vs. bulk coordination of aluminum. The third section will deal with measurement of the number of acid sites and the scaling of their strength. The fourth and last section will describe three model reactions: the isomerization of 1-butene and of 2 cis-butene; the isomerization and disproportionation of oxtho-xylene; and the transformation of trichloroethane into vinyl chloride followed by the polymerization of the vinyl chloride. The relationship between chemical activity and selectivity and what is known of the local structure of the active catalytic sites will be underlined. Other kinds of zeolites besides Y zeolite have been studied. Instead of the aluminum pillared silicates they found it more interesting to study the substitution of silicon by aluminum in a layered structure containing a permanent porosity (aluminated sepiolite).

  11. Influence of Alloy and Solidification Parameters on Grain Refinement in Aluminum Weld Metal due to Inoculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schempp, Philipp [BAM, Germany; Tang, Z. [BIAS, Germany; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Seefeld, T. [BIAS, Germany; Pittner, A. [BAM, Germany; Rethmeier, M. [BAM, Germany

    2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals are: (1) Establish how much Ti/B grain refiner is need to completely refine aluminum weld metal for different alloys and different welding conditions; (2) Characterize how alloy composition and solidification parameters affect weld metal grain refinement; and (3) Apply relevant theory to understand observed behavior. Conclusions are: (1) additions of Ti/B grain refiner to weld metal in Alloys 1050, 5083, and 6082 resulted in significant grain refinement; (2) grain refinement was more effective in GTAW than LBW, resulting in finer grains at lower Ti content - reason is limited time available for equiaxed grain growth in LBW (inability to occlude columnar grain growth); (3) welding travel speed did not markedly affect grain size within GTAW and LBW clusters; and (4) application of Hunt CET analysis showed experimental G to be on the order of the critical G{sub CET}; G{sub CET} was consistently higher for GTAW than for LBW.

  12. Vapor-phase synthesis of a solid precursor for {alpha}-alumina through a catalytic decomposition of aluminum triisopropoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Tu Quang [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, 275 Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, 275 Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyun Young, E-mail: kypark@kongju.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, 275 Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Kyeong Youl [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, 275 Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongju National University, 275 Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung Baek [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 92 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 92 Gwahang-no, Yuseong-gu 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new solid precursor for {alpha}-alumina was prepared at about 200 Degree-Sign C from aluminum tri-isopropoxide vapor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained precursor was calcined at 1200 Degree-Sign C to form {alpha}-alumina particles, 75 nm in surface area equivalent diameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The weight loss of the precursor upon calcination was 24%, lower than that of Al(OH){sub 3}, a conventional alumina precursor. -- Abstract: A new solid precursor, hydrous aluminum oxide, for {alpha}-alumina nanoparticles was prepared by thermal decomposition of aluminum triisopropoxide (ATI) vapor in a 500 mL batch reactor at 170-250 Degree-Sign C with HCl as catalyst. The conversion of ATI increased with increasing temperature and catalyst content; it was nearly complete at 250 Degree-Sign C with the catalyst at 10 mol% of the ATI. The obtained precursor particles were amorphous, spherical and loosely agglomerated. The primary particle size is in the range 50-150 nm. The ignition loss of the precursor was 24%, considerably lower than 35% of Al(OH){sub 3}, the popular precursor for alumina particles. Upon calcination of the precursor at 1200 Degree-Sign C in the air with a heating rate of 10 Degree-Sign C/min and a holding time of 2 h, the phase was completely transformed into {alpha}. The spherical particles composing the precursor turned worm-like by the calcination probably due to sintering between neighboring particles. The surface area equivalent diameter of the resulting {alpha}-alumina was 75 nm.

  13. Influence of Aluminum Content on Grain Refinement and Strength of AZ31 Magnesium GTA Weld Metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babu, N. Kishore [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology; Cross, Carl E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal is to characterize the effect of Al content on AZ31 weld metal, the grain size and strength, and examine role of Al on grain refinement. The approach is to systematically vary the aluminum content of AZ31 weld metal, Measure average grain size in weld metal, and Measure cross-weld tensile properties and hardness. Conclusions are that: (1) increased Al content in AZ31 weld metal results in grain refinement Reason: higher undercooling during solidification; (2) weld metal grain refinement resulted in increased strength & hardness Reason: grain boundary strengthening; and (3) weld metal strength can be raised to wrought base metal levels.

  14. Final report on the application of chaos theory to an alumina sensor for aluminum reduction cells. Inert Electrodes Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williford, R.E.; Windisch, C.F. Jr.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four chaos-related digital signal analysis (DSA) methods were applied to the analysis of voltage and current signals collected from aluminum electrolysis cells. Two separate data bases were analyzed: bench-scale laboratory experiments and a pilot-scale test. The objective was to assess the feasibility of using these types of data and analysis methods as the basis for a non-intrusive sensor to measure the alumina content in the electrolysis bath. This was the first time chaos theory approaches have been employed to analyze aluminum electrolysis cells.

  15. Method And Reactor For Production Of Aluminum By Carbothermic Reduction Of Alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aune, Jan Arthur (Ytre Enebakk, NO); Johansen, Kai (Kristiansand, NO)

    2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A hollow partition wall is employed to feed carbon material to an underflow of a carbothermic reduction furnace used to make aluminum. The partition wall divides a low temperature reaction zone where aluminum oxide is reacted with carbon to form aluminum carbide and a high temperature reaction zone where the aluminum carbide and remaining aluminum oxide are reacted to form aluminum and carbon monoxide.

  16. Effect of core topology on projectile penetration in hybrid aluminum/alumina sandwich structuresq

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    sandwich structures were fabricated by shrink-fitting precision-ground prisms of alumina (CoorsTek grade AD bending resistance of sandwich panels relative to monolithic plates of equivalent areal density [1 reductions in panel deflection relative to equivalent monolithic plates under high-intensity soil loading

  17. The wetting behavior of NiAl and NiPtAl on polycrystalline alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gauffier, Antoine

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    alumina by nickel-aluminum alloys with or without platinumcompositions of nickel-aluminum alloys (with or without

  18. Refining of solid ferrous scrap intermingled with copper by using molten aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwase, M. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Energy Science and Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach for the removal of copper from solid ferrous scrap has been proposed by the present authors. With this process, solid ferrous scrap intermingled with pure copper is brought into contact with molten aluminum, which dissolved copper preferentially, and is recovered as {l_brace}Al + Cu{r_brace} alloys. After a duration of 30 minutes at temperatures between 963 K and 1,223 K, steel scrap is removed from the bath, resulting in being free of copper contamination.

  19. Carbothermic Aluminum Production Using Scrap Aluminum As A Coolant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

    2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing aluminum metal by carbothermic reduction of alumina ore. Alumina ore is heated in the presence of carbon at an elevated temperature to produce an aluminum metal body contaminated with about 10-30% by wt. aluminum carbide. Aluminum metal or aluminum alloy scrap then is added to bring the temperature to about 900-1000.degree. C. and precipitate out aluminum carbide. The precipitated aluminum carbide is filtered, decanted, or fluxed with salt to form a molten body having reduced aluminum carbide content.

  20. aluminum: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Repository Summary: Damping and Dynamic Modulus Measurements in Alumina and Tungsten Fibre-Reinforced Aluminium Composites. the damping capacity of aluminum tungsten fiber...

  1. Interfacial tension between aluminum and chloride-fluoride melts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silny, A. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry] [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Inorganic Chemistry; Utigard, T.A. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science] [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scrap and recycled aluminum have to be remelted and refined before being made into useful new products. This often involves melting the aluminum under a molten salt cover in order to prevent oxidation and to enhance the coalescence and recovery of the molten metal. A technique was developed for the measurement of the interfacial tension between liquid metals and molten salts at elevated temperatures. The technique is based on the measurement of the capillary depression occurring when a capillary, which is moved vertically down through the molten salt layer, passes through the salt/metal interface. The depression is measured by simultaneous video recording of the immersion height of the alumina capillary and the position of a liquid meniscus in a horizontal tube connected to the alumina capillary. The interfacial tension was measured for (a) aluminum and an equimolar melt of NaCl + KCl with several salt additions at 1,000 K, (b) aluminum and NaCl + NaF at 1,123 K, and (c) aluminum and NaCl + KF at 1,123 K. It was found that the interfacial tension decreases with increasing amount of NaF, increases with the increasing amount of MgCl{sub 2} additions, remains unchanged with AlF{sub 3} additions, and slightly decreases with the addition of MgF{sub 2} and Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6}.

  2. aluminum hydroxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Repository Summary: Damping and Dynamic Modulus Measurements in Alumina and Tungsten Fibre-Reinforced Aluminium Composites. the damping capacity of aluminum tungsten fiber...

  3. aluminum weld strength: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Repository Summary: Damping and Dynamic Modulus Measurements in Alumina and Tungsten Fibre-Reinforced Aluminium Composites. the damping capacity of aluminum tungsten fiber...

  4. aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Repository Summary: Damping and Dynamic Modulus Measurements in Alumina and Tungsten Fibre-Reinforced Aluminium Composites. the damping capacity of aluminum tungsten fiber...

  5. aluminum slag dross: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Repository Summary: Damping and Dynamic Modulus Measurements in Alumina and Tungsten Fibre-Reinforced Aluminium Composites. the damping capacity of aluminum tungsten fiber...

  6. aluminum buffing operation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Repository Summary: Damping and Dynamic Modulus Measurements in Alumina and Tungsten Fibre-Reinforced Aluminium Composites. the damping capacity of aluminum tungsten fiber...

  7. aluminum smelting plant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Repository Summary: Damping and Dynamic Modulus Measurements in Alumina and Tungsten Fibre-Reinforced Aluminium Composites. the damping capacity of aluminum tungsten fiber...

  8. aluminum ingestion reduce: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Repository Summary: Damping and Dynamic Modulus Measurements in Alumina and Tungsten Fibre-Reinforced Aluminium Composites. the damping capacity of aluminum tungsten fiber...

  9. aluminum triiodide induced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Repository Summary: Damping and Dynamic Modulus Measurements in Alumina and Tungsten Fibre-Reinforced Aluminium Composites. the damping capacity of aluminum tungsten fiber...

  10. aluminum vanadate ion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Repository Summary: Damping and Dynamic Modulus Measurements in Alumina and Tungsten Fibre-Reinforced Aluminium Composites. the damping capacity of aluminum tungsten fiber...

  11. Commercial applications of nanostructures created with ordered porous alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Brendan Christopher, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the drive from microfabrication to nanofabrication, porous alumina templates may play a key role in technological evolution. Under the right processing conditions, ordered pores can grow in anodic aluminum oxide, which ...

  12. MODELING OF ALUMINUM NANOPARTICLE FORMATION R. Schefflan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MODELING OF ALUMINUM NANOPARTICLE FORMATION R. Schefflan D. Kalyon S. Kovenklioglu Stevens Picatinny Arsenal's process for making alumina coated nanoparticles of aluminum involves the conversion of gaseous aluminum, in the presence of helium carrier gas, to solid nanoparticles and their subsequent

  13. Electrolyte treatment for aluminum reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of treating an electrolyte for use in the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum employing an anode and a cathode, the alumina dissolved in the electrolyte, the treating improving wetting of the cathode with molten aluminum during electrolysis. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten electrolyte comprised of ALF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF and LiF, and treating the electrolyte by providing therein 0.004 to 0.2 wt. % of a transition metal or transition metal compound for improved wettability of the cathode with molten aluminum during subsequent electrolysis to reduce alumina to aluminum.

  14. A simple procedure to prepare spherical {alpha}-alumina powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Ning Guiling [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)], E-mail: ninggl@dlut.edu.cn; Gan Zhihong; Lin Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Spherical {alpha}-alumina powders were prepared by the controlled hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide in a hydrolysis system consisting of octanol and acetonitrile. Diverse solvents to dissolve reactant formed diverse hydrolysis systems and affected particle shape of {alpha}-alumina powders. The precursors crystallized to {gamma}-alumina at 1000 deg. C and converted to {alpha}-alumina at 1150 deg. C without intermediate phases. The particle morphology of precursor was retained after it crystallized to {alpha}-alumina. The heating rate influenced the particle shape and the state of agglomeration during calcination process. The thermal properties of the precursors were characterized by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction technique was used to confirm the conversion of crystalline phase of alumina powders from amorphous to {alpha}-phase. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the morphologies and size of the precursors and products.

  15. aluminum nickelide ni3al: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Repository Summary: Damping and Dynamic Modulus Measurements in Alumina and Tungsten Fibre-Reinforced Aluminium Composites. the damping capacity of aluminum tungsten fiber...

  16. aluminum triso-ethylphosphonate butylate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Repository Summary: Damping and Dynamic Modulus Measurements in Alumina and Tungsten Fibre-Reinforced Aluminium Composites. the damping capacity of aluminum tungsten fiber...

  17. Removal of impurities from dry scrubbed fluoride enriched alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuh, L. [ABB Corporate Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Wedde, G. [ABB Environmental, Oslo (Norway)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pot-gas from an aluminum electrolytic cell is cleaned by a dry scrubbing process using fresh alumina as a scrubbing agent. This alumina is enriched with fluorides and trace impurities in a closed loop system with the pots. The only significant removal of the impurities is due to metal tapping. An improved technique has been developed that is more effective than earlier stripper systems. The impurity-rich fine fraction (< 10 {micro}m) of the enriched alumina is partly attached to the coarser alumina. That attachment has to be broken. Selective impact milling under special moderate conditions and air classifying have shown to be a cost effective process for the removal of impurities. For iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) about 30--70% can be removed by the separation of 0.5--1% of the alumina. Full scale tests have successfully confirmed these results.

  18. Wetting and strength issues at Al/alpha-alumina interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2003-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The wetting behavior and strength at aluminum/alumina interfaces has been an active subject of research. Al/alumina applications include ceramic-metal composites and several applications for electronic industries. In this paper the interface strength and microstructure of Al/alpha-alumina was investigated. We discovered that in a solid-state joining, the strength of the joint increases with increasing joining temperature. In a liquid-state joining, the strength of the joint gradually decreases due to the formation of unbonded areas. The strength, sigma sub b, is expressed by the following equation as a function of unbonded area, A: sigma sub b = 2.22 A + 143 (70 percent {le} A {le} 100 percent). The highest strength reached 400 MPa when the interface was formed at around the melting temperature of aluminum. An aluminum layer close to the interface became a single crystal when it was bonded to a sapphire. The following crystallographic orientation relationship is established: (1{bar 1}1){sub Al}//(001){sub {alpha}}-Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}, (110){sub Al}//<100>{sub {alpha}}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Amorphous alumina islands were formed at the interface. In the amorphous alumina, gamma-alumina nanocrystals grew from the sapphire, with the same orientation relationship to sapphire as above.

  19. Templated self-assembly of nanoporous alumina : pore formation and ordering mechanisms, methodologies, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Ramkumar, 1975-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), also known as porous alumina, is a self-ordered nanostructured material well-suited for use in electronic, magnetic, optical and biological applications due to its small pore size (4-200nm) ...

  20. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  1. Microporous alumina ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.; Guangyao Sheng.

    1993-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Several methods are disclosed for the preparation microporous alumina ceramic membranes. For the first time, porous alumina membranes are made which have mean pore sizes less than 100 Angstroms and substantially no pores larger than that size. The methods are based on improved sol-gel techniques.

  2. Combination for electrolytic reduction of alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2002-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound is, a fluoride; oxide, or carbonate. The metal is nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath is employed in a combination including a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the instant bath during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum improves the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  3. Rietveld Refinement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Obtain from refinement of calibrant (eg. LaB 6 ) Gives the initial values for the profile function (instrumental only parameters) Add screenshot for previous slide on...

  4. Reuse of activated alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobensack, J.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Activated alumina is used as a trapping media to remove trace quantities of UF{sub 6} from process vent streams. The current uranium recovery method employs concentrated nitric acid which destroys the alumina pellets and forms a sludge which is a storage and disposal problem. A recently developed technique using a distilled water rinse followed by three dilute acid rinses removes on average 97% of the uranium, and leaves the pellets intact with crush strength and surface area values comparable with new material. Trapping tests confirm the effectiveness of the recycled alumina as UF{sub 6} trapping media.

  5. aluminum composites final: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Biological Systems: Implications for Neurological years, mining, smelting, and refining of aluminum (Al) in various forms have increasingly exposed living of the Al...

  6. aluminum microstructural features: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on aluminum. Fig: Prototype (direct machining- fluidic devices Metals can be used for tooling Mass and batch production of thermoplastic LOC devices Bone, Gary 9 Refinement of the...

  7. Aluminum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISOSource Heat PumpAllegations ofAlumina and Aluminum

  8. Chemically sensitive polymer-mediated nanoporous alumina SAW sensors for the detection of vapor-phase analytes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Gregory Paul

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the chemical sensitivity of nanoporous (NP) alumina-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that have been surface-modified with polymeric mediating films. The research in this dissertation covers the refinement of the NP...

  9. Chemically sensitive polymer-mediated nanoporous alumina SAW sensors for the detection of vapor-phase analytes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Gregory Paul

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the chemical sensitivity of nanoporous (NP) alumina-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that have been surface-modified with polymeric mediating films. The research in this dissertation covers the refinement of the NP...

  10. Cathode for aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell comprising the steps of providing an anode in a cell, preferably a non-reactive anode, and also providing a cathode in the cell, the cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity reactive with molten aluminum to provide a highly electrically conductive layer on the base material. Electric current is passed from the anode to the cathode and alumina is reduced and aluminum is deposited at the cathode. The cathode base material is selected from boron carbide, and zirconium oxide.

  11. Plasma preparation of planar models of alumina catalysts: their characterization and impregnation chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Halverson, Dennis Eric

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -3735 8 j'I 4 /IX Xl/ Ql/ (lh /IX I/ 37X-3710 basic /t'y~?/ /"y /'Ix Figure 3 - Infrared stretching frequencies for OH on alumina. These hydroxyl groups are the result of adsorbed water on the surface. They have been assigned to the IR stretching... on the surface of alumina prior to and during calcination are a mixture of oxides, hydroxyls, adsorbed water and coordinatively unsaturated aluminum ions. ~ *e The alumina surface goes through a stepwise dehydroxylation upon calcination, while the bulk...

  12. Structure of ?-Alumina: Toward The Atomic Level Understanding...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -Alumina: Toward The Atomic Level Understanding Of Transition Alumina Phases. Structure of -Alumina: Toward The Atomic Level Understanding Of Transition Alumina Phases....

  13. Alumina-carbon compositions and slidegate plates made therefrom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittemore, D.S.

    1993-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A refractory composition consisting essentially of, for each 100 wt.% thereof, about 40 to 80 wt.% of an alumina, about 5 to 30 wt.% of a zirconia containing grain, about 2 to 10 wt.% of a carbon, and about 1 to 12 wt.% of an oxidation and erosion resistance additive that is a mixture of silicon, aluminum and at least one of silicon carbide, ferrosilicon nitride, and a combination thereof is described.

  14. Maintaining molten salt electrolyte concentration in aluminum-producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.; Bradford, Donald R

    2005-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of maintaining molten salt concentration in a low temperature electrolytic cell used for production of aluminum from alumina dissolved in a molten salt electrolyte contained in a cell free of frozen crust wherein volatile material is vented from the cell and contacted and captured on alumina being added to the cell. The captured volatile material is returned with alumina to cell to maintain the concentration of the molten salt.

  15. Review Article Aluminum-Induced Entropy in Biological Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seneff, Stephanie

    Review Article Aluminum-Induced Entropy in Biological Systems: Implications for Neurological years, mining, smelting, and refining of aluminum (Al) in various forms have increasingly exposed living of the Al toxicants to which we are being exposed. 1. Introduction Aluminum (Al) is the most common metal

  16. Method of winning aluminum metal from aluminous ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loutfy, Raouf O. (Naperville, IL); Keller, Rudolf (Naperville, IL); Yao, Neng-Ping (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminous ore such as bauxite containing alumina is blended with coke or other suitable form of carbon and reacted with sulfur gas at an elevated temperature. For handling, the ore and coke can be extruded into conveniently sized pellets. The reaction with sulfur gas produces molten aluminum sulfide which is separated from residual solid reactants and impurities. The aluminum sulfide is further increased in temperature to cause its decomposition or sublimation, yielding aluminum subsulfide liquid (AlS) and sulfur gas that is recycled. The aluminum monosulfide is then cooled to below its disproportionation temperature to again form molten aluminum sulfide and aluminum metal. A liquid-liquid or liquid-solid separation, depending on the separation temperature, provides product aluminum and aluminum sulfide for recycle to the disproportionation step.

  17. Reduced temperature aluminum production in an electrolytic cell having an inert anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawless, Robert K. (Monroeville, PA); Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Hosler, Robert B. (Sarver, PA); Kozarek, Robert L. (Apollo, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum is produced by electrolytic reduction of alumina in a cell having a cathode, an inert anode and a molten salt bath containing metal fluorides and alumina. The inert anode preferably contains copper, silver and oxides of iron and nickel. Reducing the molten salt bath temperature to about 900-950.degree. C. lowers corrosion on the inert anode constituents.

  18. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2002-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode. Removing sulfur from the bath can also minimize cathode deposits. Aluminum formed on the cathode can be removed directly from the cathode.

  19. Electrolytic Cell For Production Of Aluminum Employing Planar Anodes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Robert J. (Goldendale, WA); Mezner, Michael B. (Sandy, OR); Bradford, Donald R (Underwood, WA)

    2004-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising providing a molten salt electrolyte having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell. A plurality of anodes and cathodes having planar surfaces are disposed in a generally vertical orientation in the electrolyte, the anodes and cathodes arranged in alternating or interleaving relationship to provide anode planar surfaces disposed opposite cathode planar surfaces, the anode comprised of carbon. Electric current is passed through anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes depositing aluminum at the cathodes and forming carbon containing gas at the anodes.

  20. Optimized alumina coagulants for water treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyman, May D. (Albuquerque, NM); Stewart, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Substitution of a single Ga-atom or single Ge-atom (GaAl.sub.12 and GeAl.sub.12 respectively) into the center of an aluminum Keggin polycation (Al.sub.13) produces an optimal water-treatment product for neutralization and coagulation of anionic contaminants in water. GaAl.sub.12 consistently shows .about.1 order of magnitude increase in pathogen reduction, compared to Al.sub.13. At a concentration of 2 ppm, GaAl.sub.12 performs equivalently to 40 ppm alum, removing .about.90% of the dissolved organic material. The substituted GaAl.sub.12 product also offers extended shelf-life and consistent performance. We also synthesized a related polyaluminum chloride compound made of pre-hydrolyzed dissolved alumina clusters of [GaO.sub.4Al.sub.12(OH).sub.24(H.sub.2O).sub.12].sup.7+.

  1. Peltier heats in cryolite melts with alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flem, B.E.; Ratkje, S.K.; Sterten, A. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Seebeck coefficient was measured for cells with electrolytes of molten mixtures of sodium fluoride and aluminum fluoride saturated with alumina. The electrodes were either a pair of oxygen electrodes or a pair of aluminum electrodes. For the molar ratio NaF/AlF{sub 3} equal to 1.8, 1.2 and 1.0, the authors obtained the Seebeck coefficients {minus}1.80 mV K{sup {minus}1} at 971 C, {minus}1.63 mV K{sup {minus}1} at 813.6 C and {minus}0.583 mV K{sup {minus}1} at 758 C, respectively, for the oxygen electrodes. For the aluminum electrodes, the authors obtained the Seebeck coefficient {minus}1.23 mV K{sup {minus}1} at 962 C, for the molar ratio NaF/AlF{sub 3} equal to 1.8. The results suggest that there is a substantial reversible heat consumption at the anode during aluminum electrolysis and a large reversible heat production at the cathode. The highest temperature in the Hall-Heroult cell is then closer to the cathode than the anode. The transported entropies of Al{sup 3+} and O{sup 2{minus}} were calculated to be 77 J mol{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1} and 10 J mol{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1}, respectively, when the molar ratio NaF/AlF{sub 3} was equal to 1.0.

  2. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Vision: Sustainable Solutions for a Dynamic World alumvision.pdf More Documents...

  3. Template Synthesis of Ordered Pt Nanorods in Porous Anodic Alumina Yar-Ming Wang, Hong-Hsiang Kuo, and Mark W. Verbrugge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Wei

    , Singapore 639798 High-purity aluminum was anodized to form an alumina coating layer (typically 10 to 30 µm composite layer could be used as an oxidizing catalyst for automotive applications. The morphologies (Fig. 1B) obtained after removing the front surface of the aluminum oxide have been observed using

  4. Cathode for a hall-heroult type electrolytic cell for producing aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W.

    2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum from alumina in an electrolytic cell including using a cathode comprised of a base material having low electrical conductivity and wettable with molten aluminum to form a reaction layer having a high electrical conductivity on said base layer and a cathode bar extending from said reaction layer through said base material to conduct electrical current from said reaction layer.

  5. Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, Theodore R. (Seattle, WA); Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA)

    2002-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

  6. Bath for electrolytic reduction of alumina and method therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Brooks, Richard J. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Lynnwood, WA); Juric, Drago D. (Bulleen, AU)

    2001-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolytic bath for use during the electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum. The bath comprises a molten electrolyte having the following ingredients: (a) AlF.sub.3 and at least one salt selected from the group consisting of NaF, KF, and LiF; and (b) about 0.004 wt. % to about 0.2 wt. %, based on total weight of the molten electrolyte, of at least one transition metal or at least one compound of the metal or both. The compound may be, for example, a fluoride, oxide, or carbonate. The metal can be nickel, iron, copper, cobalt, or molybdenum. The bath can be employed in a combination that includes a vessel for containing the bath and at least one non-consumable anode and at least one dimensionally stable cathode in the bath. Employing the bath of the present invention during electrolytic reduction of alumina to aluminum can improve the wetting of aluminum on a cathode by reducing or eliminating the formation of non-metallic deposits on the cathode.

  7. Acidity and catalytic activity of zeolite catalysts bound with silica and alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Xianchun

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    of applications as catalysts in the petroleum refining and chemical industry. Because of their poor self- binding property, they need to be bound with a binder (matrix) such as silica, alumina, clay, or their mixture to produce a desired physical shape...

  8. Structure of ?-Alumina: Toward The Atomic Level Understanding Of Transition Alumina Phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovarik, Libor; Bowden, Mark E.; Genc, Arda; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF; Kwak, Ja Hun

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Transition Al2O3 derived from thermal decomposition of AlOOH Boehmite have complex structures and to a large extent remain poorly understood. Here we report a detailed atomic level analysis of ?Al2O3 for the first time using a combination of Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy imaging, XRD refinement, and DFT calculations. We show that the structure of ?Al2O3 represents a complex structural intergrowth from several crystallographic variants. The two main crystallographic variants, which are identified as ?1-Al2O3 and ?2?Al2O3, are fully structurally described. In addition, we also derive the energy of formation for ?1 and ?2-Al2O3 and the other relevant transition Al2O3 phases, and show how energetic degeneracy leads to structural disorder and complex intergrowths among several transition Al2O3. The results of the work have important implications for understanding thermodynamic stability and transformation processes in transition alumina.

  9. Laser Welding of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    .. ) Laser Welding of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys Welds made with sharp bevel-groove weld aluminum and by aluminum alloy 5456 have been studied. The results indicate that initial absorption varies, many aluminum alloys contain magnesium or zinc, which are easily vaporized and thereby form a plasma

  10. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Aluminum-Alumina Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudlur, Pradeep

    2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    with temperatures. Secondly, the goal of this study is to determine the effect of microstructures on the effective thermo-mechanical properties of the manufactured Al-Al_2O_3 composites using finite element (FE) method. Software OOF was used to convert the SEM...

  11. MECS 2006 - Alumina and Aluminum | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTermsDepartment1| Department

  12. ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in California: California Industries of the Future Program ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining Industry in...

  13. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes bandwidth.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Petroleum...

  14. Final report on the PNL program to develop an alumina sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Brenden, B.B.; Koski, O.H.; Williford, R.E.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alumina concentration sensor was required to ensure safe operating conditions for cermet inert anodes that were under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)(a) for the electrolytic production of aluminum metal. The Sensors Development Program at PNL was conducted in response to this need for an alumina sensor. In all, eight different approaches to developing an alumina sensor were evaluated as part of this program. Each approach sought to correlate alumina concentration either to some spectral, physical, or electrical property of the molten electrolytic, or alternatively, to some operational characteristic of the reduction cell such as the integrity of the cermet anodes or the electrical noise generated by them during cell operation. The studies on electrical noise were performed using a large number of digital signal analysis (DSA) methods. There were two primary requirements for success for an alumina sensor to be used in conjunction with cermet anodes: (1) adequate sensitivity to alumina concentration at concentrations close to saturation, and (2) ease of use in an industrial setting. After numerous laboratory experiments as well as field studies in some cases, it was concluded that none of the approaches sufficiently satisfied the two criteria to serve as the basis for an alumina sensor. If further work is to continue in this area, it is recommended that the research focus on altemative DSA approaches, primarily because DSA methods would be so easy to use in an industrial environment. Due to the lack of correlation using DSA in the present work, however, it is recommended that altemative strategies for data collection and analysis be used in any further development activities.

  15. Final report on the PNL program to develop an alumina sensor. Sensors Development Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windisch, C.F. Jr.; Brenden, B.B.; Koski, O.H.; Williford, R.E.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alumina concentration sensor was required to ensure safe operating conditions for cermet inert anodes that were under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)(a) for the electrolytic production of aluminum metal. The Sensors Development Program at PNL was conducted in response to this need for an alumina sensor. In all, eight different approaches to developing an alumina sensor were evaluated as part of this program. Each approach sought to correlate alumina concentration either to some spectral, physical, or electrical property of the molten electrolytic, or alternatively, to some operational characteristic of the reduction cell such as the integrity of the cermet anodes or the electrical noise generated by them during cell operation. The studies on electrical noise were performed using a large number of digital signal analysis (DSA) methods. There were two primary requirements for success for an alumina sensor to be used in conjunction with cermet anodes: (1) adequate sensitivity to alumina concentration at concentrations close to saturation, and (2) ease of use in an industrial setting. After numerous laboratory experiments as well as field studies in some cases, it was concluded that none of the approaches sufficiently satisfied the two criteria to serve as the basis for an alumina sensor. If further work is to continue in this area, it is recommended that the research focus on altemative DSA approaches, primarily because DSA methods would be so easy to use in an industrial environment. Due to the lack of correlation using DSA in the present work, however, it is recommended that altemative strategies for data collection and analysis be used in any further development activities.

  16. Process simulation of aluminum reduction cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabsh, I. [CompuSIM Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Dupuis, M. [GeniSim, Jonquiere, Quebec (Canada); Gomes, A. [Alcan Aluminio do Brasil S.A., Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A program was developed to model the dynamic behavior of an aluminum reduction cell. The program simulates the physical process by solving the heat and mass balance equations that characterize the behavior of eleven chemical species in the system. It also models operational events (such as metal tapping, anode change, etc.) and the process control logic including various alumina feeding policies and anode effect quenching. The program is a PC based Windows{reg_sign} application that takes full advantage of the Windows user interface. This paper describes the implementation of the process model and the control logic. Various results using the simulation are compared to measured data.

  17. E-Print Network 3.0 - alumina silica-alumina etude Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 (2004) 681686 PII: S0960-1317(04)71691-5 Summary: for silica, alumina, and titania aerogels. Silica and alumina aerogel cantilevers are fabricated on the basis... Silica Silica...

  18. Low temperature aluminum reduction cell using hollow cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes are disposed substantially vertically in the electrolyte along with a plurality of monolithic hollow cathodes. Each cathode has a top and bottom and the cathodes are disposed vertically in the electrolyte and the anodes and the cathodes are arranged in alternating relationship. Each of the cathodes is comprised of a first side facing a first opposing anode and a second side facing a second opposing anode. The first and second sides are joined by ends to form a reservoir in the hollow cathode for collecting aluminum therein deposited at the cathode.

  19. Method for preparing Pb-. beta. ''-alumina ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hellstrom, E.E.

    1984-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for preparing impermeable, polycrystalline samples of Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic from Na-..beta..''-alumina ceramic by ion exchange. The process comprises two steps. The first step is a high-temperature vapor phase exchange of Na by K, followed by substitution of Pb for K by immersing the sample in a molten Pb salt bath. The result is a polycrystalline Pb-..beta..''-alumina ceramic that is substantially crack-free.

  20. alumina: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    122 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  1. Synthesis of high porosity, monolithic alumina aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poco, J F; Satcher, J H; Hrubesh, L W

    2000-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Many non-silica aerogels are notably weak and fragile in monolithic form. Particularly, few monolithic aerogels with densities less than 50kg/m3 have any significant strength. It is especially difficult to prepare uncracked monoliths of pure alumina aerogels that are robust and moisture stable. In this paper, we discuss the synthesis of strong, stable, monolithic, high porosity (>98% porous) alumina aerogels, using a two-step sol-gel process. The alumina aerogels have a polycrystalline morphology that results in enhanced physical properties. Most of the measured physical properties of the alumina aerogels are superior to those for silica aerogels for equivalent densities.

  2. Cu--Ni--Fe anode for use in aluminum producing electrolytic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergsma, S. Craig; Brown, Craig W.; Bradford, Donald R; Barnett, Robert J.; Mezner, Michael B.

    2006-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte, the method comprising the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte at a temperature of less than 900.degree. C. having alumina dissolved therein in an electrolytic cell having a liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having a bottom and walls extending upwardly from said bottom. A plurality of non-consumable Cu--Ni--Fe anodes and cathodes are disposed in a vertical direction in the electrolyte, the cathodes having a plate configuration and the anodes having a flat configuration to compliment the cathodes. The anodes contain apertures therethrough to permit flow of electrolyte through the apertures to provide alumina-enriched electrolyte between the anodes and the cathodes. Electrical current is passed through the anodes and through the electrolyte to the cathodes, depositing aluminum at the cathodes and producing gas at the anodes.

  3. FUNCTIONALLY GRADED ALUMINA/MULLITE COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF SILICON CARBIDE CERAMIC COMPONENTS FROM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this research project is the formulation of processes that can be used to prepare compositionally graded alumina/mullite coatings for protection from corrosion of silicon carbide components (monolithic or composite) used or proposed to be used in coal utilization systems (e.g., combustion chamber liners, heat exchanger tubes, particulate removal filters, and turbine components) and other energy-related applications. Mullite will be employed as the inner (base) layer and the composition of the film will be continuously changed to a layer of pure alumina, which will function as the actual protective coating of the component. Chemical vapor deposition reactions of silica, alumina, and aluminosilicates (mullite) through hydrolysis of aluminum and silicon chlorides in the presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} will be employed to deposit compositionally graded films of mullite and alumina. Our studies will include the kinetic investigation of the silica, alumina, and aluminosilicate deposition processes, characterization of the composition, microstructure, surface morphology, and mechanical behavior of the prepared films, and modeling of the various deposition processes. During this six-month reporting period, we continued the work on the development and construction of the thermogravimetric chemical vapor deposition system that we intend to employ for studying the deposition of alumina, silica, and aluminosilicates (such as mullite) from mixtures of metal chlorides in H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. Specifically, we worked on the development of the tubular flow reactor that will be used for producing aluminum chloride for delivery to the chemical vapor deposition system and of the vapor and gas supply system. Various problems arising from condensation of aluminum chlorides in some sections of the supply line were resolved, and we expect to perform experiments using mixtures containing AlCl{sub 3} in the next reporting period. Preliminary experiments on the deposition of SiO{sub 2} from mixtures of methyltrichlorosilane (MTS) or tetrachlorosilane in H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were carried out, and the results showed that the deposition rates from MTS were much higher than those from SiCl{sub 4} and comparable to those reported in the literature for alumina deposition from AlC{sub 3}-H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} mixtures of similar composition. It was thus decided to employ MTS as silicon source in our codeposition experiments, and a comprehensive investigation of thermodynamic equilibrium in the Al/Si/Cl/C/O/H system for compositions corresponding to MTS-AlCl{sub 3}-H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} mixtures was conducted so as to identify the boundaries of the region of the space of operating parameters and conditions where preparation of functionally graded mullite/alumina coatings through CVD from metal chloride, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} is feasible. The results showed that deposition of silica, alumina, mullite, and other aluminosilicates is feasible in a broad range of operating conditions from the equilibrated gas phase, but temperatures above 1148 K have to employed to obtain deposits of alumina and mullite if the solid phases are also at equilibrium with each other.

  4. Refinement Modal Logic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bozzelli, Laura; French, Tim; Hales, James; Pinchinat, Sophie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present refinement modal logic. A refinement is like a bisimulation, except that from the three relational requirements only 'atoms' and 'back' need to be satisfied. Our logic contains a new operator 'forall' in additional to the standard modalities 'Box' for each agent. The operator 'forall' acts as a quantifier over the set of all refinements of a given model. We call it the refinement operator. As a variation on a bisimulation quantifier, it can be seen as a refinement quantifier over a variable not occurring in the formula bound by the operator. The logic combines the simplicity of multi-agent modal logic with some powers of monadic second order quantification. We present a sound and complete axiomatization of multiagent refinement modal logic. We also present an extension of the logic to the modal mu-calculus, and an axiomatization for the single-agent version of this logic. Examples and applications are also discussed: to software verification and design (the set of agents can also be s...

  5. Alumina forming iron base superalloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Yukinori; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Brady, Michael P.

    2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, consists essentially of, in weight percent 2.5 to 4 Al; 25 to 35 Ni; 12 to 19 Cr; at least 1, up to 4 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; 0.5 to 3 Ti; less than 0.5 V; 0.1 to 1 of at least on element selected from the group consisting of Zr and Hf; 0.03 to 0.2 C; 0.005 to 0.1 B; and base Fe. The weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni. The alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, and contains coherent precipitates of .gamma.'-Ni.sub.3Al, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure. The austenitic matrix is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

  6. Synthesis of High Surface Area Alumina Aerogels without the Use of Alkoxide Precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, T F; Gash, A E; Chinn, S C; Sawvel, A M; Maxwell, R S; Satcher Jr., J H

    2004-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Alumina aerogels were prepared through the addition of propylene oxide to aqueous or ethanolic solutions of hydrated aluminum salts, AlCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O or Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} {center_dot} 9H{sub 2}O, followed by drying with supercritical CO{sub 2}. This technique affords low-density (60-130 kg/m{sup 3}), high surface area (600-700 m{sup 2}/g) alumina aerogel monoliths without the use of alkoxide precursors. The dried alumina aerogels were characterized using elemental analysis, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, solid state NMR, acoustic measurements and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. Powder X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis indicated that the aerogel prepared from hydrated AlCl{sub 3} in water or ethanol possessed microstructures containing highly reticulated networks of pseudoboehmite fibers, 2-5 nm in diameter and of varying lengths, while the aerogels prepared from hydrated Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} in ethanol were amorphous with microstructures comprised of interconnected spherical particles with diameters in the 5-15 nm range. The difference in microstructure resulted in each type of aerogel displaying distinct physical and mechanical properties. In particular, the alumina aerogels with the weblike microstructure were far more mechanically robust than those with the colloidal network, based on acoustic measurements. Both types of alumina aerogels can be transformed to {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} through calcination at 800 C without a significant loss in surface area or monolithicity.

  7. Refiners get petchems help

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, A.; Cornitius, T.

    1997-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S.Refining Industry is facing hard times. Slow growth, tough environmental regulations, and fierce competition - especially in retail gasoline - have squeezed margins and prompted a series of mergers and acquisitions. The trend has affected the smallest and largest players, and a series of transactions over the past two years has created a new industry lineup. Among the larger companies, Mobil and Amoco are the latest to consider a refining merger. That follows recent plans by Ashland and Marathon to merge their refining businesses, and the decision by Shell, Texaco, and Saudi Aramco to combine some U.S. operations. Many of the leading independent refiners have increased their scale by acquiring refinery capacity. With refining still in the doldrums, more independents are taking a closer look at boosting production of petrochemicals, which offer high growth and, usually, better margins. That is being helped by the shift to refinery processes that favor the increased production of light olefins for alkylation and the removal of aromatics, providing opportunity to extract these materials for the petrochemical market. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, D.R.

    1988-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A stable reference electrode is described for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na[sub 3]AlF[sub 6], wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution. 1 fig.

  9. Aluminum reference electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald R. (Belmont, MA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stable reference electrode for use in monitoring and controlling the process of electrolytic reduction of a metal. In the case of Hall cell reduction of aluminum, the reference electrode comprises a pool of molten aluminum and a solution of molten cryolite, Na.sub.3 AlF.sub.6, wherein the electrical connection to the molten aluminum does not contact the highly corrosive molten salt solution. This is accomplished by altering the density of either the aluminum (decreasing the density) or the electrolyte (increasing the density) so that the aluminum floats on top of the molten salt solution.

  10. Modelling of impurity balance for an aluminum smelter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W.; Liu, X. [Comalco Research Centre, Thomastown, Victoria (Australia); McMaster, P.; Taylor, M. [New Zealand Aluminium Smelters Ltd., Invercargill (New Zealand)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling of impurity balance for an aluminum smelter was conducted. Major impurity streams were sampled and analyzed for impurity concentrations. A flowsheet model was developed and validated using measured data. The purpose of the modeling was to examine the effects of a change from primary to secondary alumina on metal purity and to determine operational strategies to minimize the impact on high purity metal production in the upgrade of the smelter. The impurity partition for cell groups under different operating conditions was determined. Results suggest that production of high purity metal is highly related to the cell operating characteristics. The understanding gained has assisted the design of operating strategies to produce high purity metal from secondary alumina.

  11. Issues in adaptive mesh refinement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, William Wenlong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we present an approach for a patch-based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) for multi-physics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, and management of patches. Among the special features of this patch-based AMR are symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement, special implementation offlux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. Here, higher efficiency of refinement means less unnecessarily refined cells for a given set of cells to be refined. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement are shown in both two- and three-dimensions.

  12. Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Allentown, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

  13. Reactions of aluminum with uranium fluorides and oxyfluorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Nichols, R.W.; Lankford, B.S. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Every 30 to 40 million operating hours a destructive reaction is observed in one of the {approximately}4000 large compressors that move UF{sub 6} through the gaseous diffusion plants. Despite its infrequency, such a reaction can be costly in terms of equipment and time. Laboratory experiments reveal that the presence of moderate pressures of UF{sub 6} actually cools heated aluminum, although thermodynamic calculations indicate the potential for a 3000-4000{degrees}C temperature rise. Within a narrow and rather low (<100 torr; 1 torr = 133.322 Pa) pressure range, however, the aluminum is seen to react with sufficient heat release to soften an alumina boat. Three things must occur in order for aluminum to react vigorously with either UF{sub 6} or UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}. 1. An initiating source of heat must be provided. In the compressors, this source can be friction, permitted by disruption of the balance of the large rotating part or by creep of the aluminum during a high-temperature treatment. In the absence of this heat source, compressors have operated for 40 years in UF{sub 6} without significant reaction. 2. The film protecting the aluminum must be breached. Melting (of UF{sub 5} at 620 K or aluminum at 930 K) can cause such a breach in laboratory experiments. In contrast, holding Al samples in UF{sub 6} at 870 K for several hours produces only moderate reaction. Rubbing in the cascade can undoubtedly breach the protective film. 3. Reaction products must not build up and smother the reaction. While uranium products tend to dissolve or dissipate in molten aluminum, AIF{sub 3} shows a remarkable tendency to surround and hence protect even molten aluminum. Hence the initial temperature rise must be rapid and sufficient to move reactants into a temperature region in which products are removed from the reaction site.

  14. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Industry Associations Aluminum Association The Aluminum Association, Inc. is the trade association for producers of primary aluminum, recyclers and semi-fabricated aluminum...

  15. Towards automated crystallographic structure refinement with phenix.refine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afonine, Pavel V., E-mail: pafonine@lbl.gov; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Echols, Nathaniel; Headd, Jeffrey J.; Moriarty, Nigel W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mustyakimov, Marat; Terwilliger, Thomas C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Urzhumtsev, Alexandre [CNRS–INSERM–UdS, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy 1, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Zwart, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Adams, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods. phenix.refine is a program within the PHENIX package that supports crystallographic structure refinement against experimental data with a wide range of upper resolution limits using a large repertoire of model parameterizations. It has several automation features and is also highly flexible. Several hundred parameters enable extensive customizations for complex use cases. Multiple user-defined refinement strategies can be applied to specific parts of the model in a single refinement run. An intuitive graphical user interface is available to guide novice users and to assist advanced users in managing refinement projects. X-ray or neutron diffraction data can be used separately or jointly in refinement. phenix.refine is tightly integrated into the PHENIX suite, where it serves as a critical component in automated model building, final structure refinement, structure validation and deposition to the wwPDB. This paper presents an overview of the major phenix.refine features, with extensive literature references for readers interested in more detailed discussions of the methods.

  16. Sorbent selection and design considerations for uranium trapping. [H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, F-1 alumina, sodium fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, R.M.; Hobbs, W.E.; Norton, J.L.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficient removal of UF/sub 6/ from effluent streams can be accomplished through the selection of the best solid sorbent and the implementation of good design principles. Pressure losses, sorbent capacity, reaction kinetics, sorbent regeneration/uranium recovery requirements and the effects of other system components are the performance factors which are summarized. The commonly used uranium trapping materials highlighted are sodium fluoride, H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, and F-1 alumina. Sorbent selection and trap design have to be made on a case-by-case basis but the theoretical modeling studies and the evaluation of the performance factors presented can be used as a guide for other chemical trap applications.

  17. A Theory of Program Refinement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denney, Ewen WKC

    We give a canonical program refinement calculus based on the lambda calculus and classical first-order predicate logic, and study its proof theory and semantics. The intention is to construct a metalanguage for refinement in which basic principles...

  18. Hydrogen and the Structure of the Transition Aluminas Karl Sohlberg,*, Stephen J. Pennycook,, and Sokrates T. Pantelides,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    , with different greek- letter phases corresponding to different distributions of the Aluminum (Al) ions on the two,2 (petroleum refining), and as a support for automotive3,4 and industrial catalysts.5,6 In particular, catalytic reduction of automotive pollutants such as nitric oxide (NOx), as well as oxidation of carbon

  19. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  20. ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) autoroadmap.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle...

  1. Aluminum-Catalyzed Intramolecular Hydroamination of Aminoalkenes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koller, Juergen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum-catalyzed intramolecular hydroamination ofgroup 13 metals such as aluminum are exceedingly inexpensive

  2. Minimally refined biomass fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K. (Pleasanton, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water solubilizes the carbohydrates; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the vicosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  3. Study of Alumina in Austenitic Stainless Steels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chung

    2014-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    to that of chromium; while in a corrosive environment both form a stable oxide layer to prevent critical loss of mass of the parent material. However, alumina scales have a much higher thermodynamic stability in addition to the orders of magnitude slower in growth...

  4. Aluminum monocarbonyl and aluminum isocarbonyl Steve S. Wesolowski,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    Aluminum monocarbonyl and aluminum isocarbonyl Steve S. Wesolowski,a) T. Daniel Crawford,b) Justin of the aluminum monocarbonyl species AlCO and AlOC have been performed to predict the geometries, fragmentation, Ogden, and Oswald6 first isolated aluminum dicarbonyls in solid krypton and identified the species

  5. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WRI

    2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as resins. The Coking Indexes focus on the amount of these intermediate polarity species since coke formation begins when these are depleted. Currently the Coking Indexes are determined by either titration or solubility measurements which must be performed in a laboratory. In the current work, various spectral, microscopic, and thermal techniques possibly leading to on-line analysis were explored for measuring the Coking Indexes.

  6. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Nanometric Alumina Suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuanping Li

    2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Colloidal processing is an effective and reliable approach in the fabrication of the advanced ceramic products. Successful colloidal processing of fine ceramic powders requires accurate control of the rheological properties. The accurate control relies on the understanding the influences of various colloidal parameters on the rheological properties. Almost all research done on the rheology paid less attention to the interactions of particle and solvent. However, the interactions of the particles are usually built up through the media in which the particles are suspended. Therefore, interactions of the particle with the media, the adsorbed layers on the particle surface, and chemical and physical properties of media themselves must influence the rheology of the suspension, especially for the dense suspensions containing nanosized particles. Relatively little research work has been reported in this area. This thesis addresses the rheological properties of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions, and paying more attention to the interactions between particle and solvent, which in turn influence the particle-particle interactions. Dense nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions with low viscosity were achieved by environmentally-benign fructose additives. The rheology of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions and its variation with the particle volume fraction and concentration of fructose were explored by rheometry. The adsorptions of solute (fructose) and solvent (water) on the nanometric alumina particle surfaces were measured and analyzed by TG/DSC, TOC, and NMR techniques. The mobility of water molecules in the suspensions and its variation with particle volume fractions and fructose additive were determined by the {sup 17}O NMR relaxation method. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water and fructose solutions were investigated by AFM. The results indicated that a large number of water layers were physically bound on the particles' surfaces in the aqueous suspension. The viscosity of the suspension increases dramatically when the solid volume fraction exceeds 30 vol.%. The overlap of physically adsorbed water layers at this level causes the sharp increase in viscosity. Fructose molecules can weaken the interactions between the particle surfaces and water molecules, as a consequence, they release some bound water layers from the surfaces to the bulk medium. It is believed that fraction of the water that is bound by the solid surface is reduced hence becoming available for flow. The oxygen-17 relaxation time decreased with the increase of particle volume fractions in the suspension. Fructose addition increased the overall water mobility in the suspension. Only part of the alumina particle surfaces was covered with fructose molecules. This adsorption of fructose molecules on the particle surfaces increased the pH of the suspension with a concomitant decrease in {zeta}-potential of the alumina nanoparticles. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water to a large extent can be explained by the DLVO theory. However, the interactions between particles in fructose solutions cannot be well described by the DLVO theory. The interaction forces (magnitude and range) as well as adhesive force and surface tension between nanometric alumina particles were decreased with the fructose concentration.

  7. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, Göttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  8. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

    1982-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

  9. Final Technical Report Microwave Assisted Electrolyte Cell for Primary Aluminum Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaodi Huang; J.Y. Hwang

    2007-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    This research addresses the high priority research need for developing inert anode and wetted cathode technology, as defined in the Aluminum Industry Technology Roadmap and Inert Anode Roadmap, with the performance targets: a) significantly reducing the energy intensity of aluminum production, b) ultimately eliminating anode-related CO2 emissions, and c) reducing aluminum production costs. This research intended to develop a new electrometallurgical extraction technology by introducing microwave irradiation into the current electrolytic cells for primary aluminum production. This technology aimed at accelerating the alumina electrolysis reduction rate and lowering the aluminum production temperature, coupled with the uses of nickel based superalloy inert anode, nickel based superalloy wetted cathode, and modified salt electrolyte. Michigan Technological University, collaborating with Cober Electronic and Century Aluminum, conducted bench-scale research for evaluation of this technology. This research included three sub-topics: a) fluoride microwave absorption; b) microwave assisted electrolytic cell design and fabrication; and c) aluminum electrowinning tests using the microwave assisted electrolytic cell. This research concludes that the typically used fluoride compound for aluminum electrowinning is not a good microwave absorbing material at room temperature. However, it becomes an excellent microwave absorbing material above 550°C. The electrowinning tests did not show benefit to introduce microwave irradiation into the electrolytic cell. The experiments revealed that the nickel-based superalloy is not suitable for use as a cathode material; although it wets with molten aluminum, it causes severe reaction with molten aluminum. In the anode experiments, the chosen superalloy did not meet corrosion resistance requirements. A nicked based alloy without iron content could be further investigated.

  10. Aluminum ion batteries: electrolytes and cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Luke

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Anodes for Aluminum-Air Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.Anodes for Aluminum-Air Batteries. J. Electrochem. Soc.ALLOYS FOR ALUMINUM AIR BATTERIES. J. Electrochem. Soc.

  11. DEFLECTION MEASUREMENTS OF 25 mm ALUMINUM COLLARS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MEASUREMENTS OF 25 mm ALUMINUM COLLARS· C. Peters LawrenceMEASUREMENTS OF 25 mm ALUMINUM COLLARS" C. Peters Lawrenceinch thick 7075- T6 aluminum alloy plate. Inside corners

  12. Creating a GPS for aluminum ions | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Creating a GPS for aluminum ions Creating a GPS for aluminum ions Released: August 14, 2014 New approach pinpoints locations in simple zeolite catalysts Aluminum EXAFS and zeolite...

  13. ITP Aluminum: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Aluminum...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    aluminum.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Aluminum: Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies...

  14. FUNCTIONALLY GRADED ALUMINA/MULLITE COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF SILICON CARBIDE CERAMIC COMPONENTS FROM CORROSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this research project is the formulation of processes that can be used to prepare compositionally graded alumina/mullite coatings for protection from corrosion of silicon carbide components (monolithic or composite) used or proposed to be used in coal utilization systems (e.g., combustion chamber liners, heat exchanger tubes, particulate removal filters, and turbine components) and other energy-related applications. Mullite will be employed as the inner (base) layer and the composition of the film will be continuously changed to a layer of pure alumina, which will function as the actual protective coating of the component. Chemical vapor deposition reactions of silica, alumina, and aluminosilicates (mullite) through hydrolysis of aluminum and silicon chlorides in the presence of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} will be employed to deposit compositionally graded films of mullite and alumina. Our studies will include the kinetic investigation of the silica, alumina, and aluminosilicate deposition processes, characterization of the composition, microstructure, surface morphology, and mechanical behavior of the prepared films, and modeling of the various deposition processes. During this reporting period, the construction and development of the chemical vapor deposition system was completed, and experiments were conducted on the deposition of alumina, silica, and aluminosilicates (such as mullite) from mixtures of AlCl{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}SiCl{sub 3} in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. Work was mainly done on the investigation of the effects of the reaction temperature on the deposition kinetics. It was found that the temperature had a positive effect on the single oxides deposition rates and the codeposition rate. The apparent activation energy values extracted from the deposition rate vs. temperature curves in the high temperature region were similar for the three deposition processes, having a value around 20 kcal/mol. The codeposition rates were higher, by a more than a factor of 2 in some cases, than the sum of the deposition rates of the two oxides in the independent experiments at the same operating conditions, and this result led to the conclusion that there should exist additional surface reaction steps in the codeposition process, that lead to solid formation and involve both silicon-containing and aluminum-containing species. The elemental analysis (EDXA) of films deposited from MTS-AlCl{sub 3}-CO{sub 2}- H2 mixtures showed that silicon oxide was the main component, and comparison of the deposition rates of SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} during codeposition with those seen in single species deposition experiments at the same conditions revealed that the codeposition process was characterized by a dramatic enhancement of the deposition of SiO{sub 2} and an equally dramatic reduction in the rate of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition. Since the enhanced codeposition rate was caused by increased silicon oxide deposition, it was concluded that the main deposition product of the additional surface reaction steps in codeposition must be silicon oxide. A comprehensive investigation of the effects of the other operating parameters on the kinetics of the codeposition process will be carried out in the next reporting period.

  15. alumina core fabricated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and toughening of carbon nanotube reinforced alumina nanocomposite fabricated by Materials Science Websites Summary: Strengthening and toughening of carbon nanotube reinforced...

  16. alumina capillaries mcp: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    418 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  17. alkalized alumina process: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    137 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  18. alumina untuk bahan: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    126 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  19. anodic alumina membranes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    307 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  20. alumina coatings operating: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    185 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  1. alumina sol addition: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    262 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  2. aqueous nanometric alumina: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H. Eugene 165 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  3. alumina vliyanie ionnogo: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    122 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  4. alumina nanosize powders: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    226 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  5. alumina films formed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    217 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  6. anodic porous alumina: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tsaros 388 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  7. alumina zirconia composite: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Frank 202 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  8. alumina pillared bentonite: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    214 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  9. aluminas zirconias joints: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    275 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  10. alumina batteries status: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    350 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  11. anodic alumina membrane: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    307 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  12. anodic alumina formed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    234 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  13. alumina determinacion espectrografica: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    123 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  14. anodic alumina films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    268 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  15. alumina physically loaded: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Luke M. 184 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  16. anodic alumina template: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    445 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  17. anodic alumina supported: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    240 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  18. alumina based capacitive: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Caspar H. 453 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  19. anodic alumina templates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    445 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  20. aluminas sinterizadas visando: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    122 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  1. alumina scale spallation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    234 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  2. alumina zinc oxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Donald L. 420 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  3. Infiltration of nickel into alumina compact by electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirata, Yoshihiro; Kyoda, Hideharu; Iwamoto, Takayuki [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ni metal was electrodeposited into pores of an alumina compact in the aqueous solution of nickel nitrate/urea/ethylene glycol/ammonium sulfate. The Ni{sup 2+} ions in pores of the alumina compact deposited in proportion to t{sup 0.45}-t{sup 0.61} of deposition time (t) on Au electrode sputtered on the alumina surface. The deposition rate of Ni was higher for direct current than pulsed current Nickel grew dendritically in the alumina pores.

  4. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes ITP Petroleum Refining: Technology Roadmap for the Petroleum Industry ITP Petroleum Refining: Profile of the Petroleum Refining...

  5. Interaction potentials for alumina and molecular dynamics simulations of amorphous and liquid alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Interaction potentials for alumina and molecular dynamics simulations of amorphous and liquid for preventing crystalliza- tion and giving chemical stability and durability to a glaze, for instance. Due been identified.4 A review of these crystal structures and their pre- cursors can be found in the work

  6. Scientists ignite aluminum water mix

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Scientists ignite aluminum water mix Don't worry, that beer can you're holding is not going to spontaneously burst into flames. June 30, 2014...

  7. Process for the recovery of alumina from fly ash

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murtha, M.J.

    1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in the lime-sinter process for recovering alumina from pulverized coal fly ash is disclosed. The addition of from 2 to 10 weight percent carbon and sulfur to the fly ash-calcium carbonate mixture increase alumina recovery at lower sintering temperatures.

  8. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Actively Brazed Alumina Specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosking, F.M.; Cadden, C.H.; Stephens, J.J.; Glass, S.J.; Yang, N.Y.C.; Vianco, P.V.; Walker, C.A.

    1999-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Alumina (94 and 99.8% grade compositions) was brazed directly to itself with gold-based active brazing alloys (ABA's) containing vanadium additions of 1,2 and 3 weight percent. The effects of brazing conditions on the joint properties were investigated. Wetting behavior, interfacial reactions, microstructure, hermeticity and tensile strength were determined. Wetting was fair to good for the ABA and base material combinations. Microanalysis identified a discontinuous Al-V-O spinel reaction product at the alumina-braze interface. Tensile strength results for 94% alumina were uniformly good and generally not sensitive to the vanadium concentration, with tensile values of 85-105 MPa. There was more variability in the 99.8% alumina strength results, with values ranging from 25-95 MPa. The highest vanadium concentration (3 wt. %) yielded the highest joint strength for the brazed 99.8% alumina. Failures in the 99.8% alumina samples occurred at the braze-alumina interface, while the 94% alumina specimens exhibited fracture of the ceramic substrate.

  9. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason Allan (Mastic, NY); Reilly, James J. (Bellport, NY)

    2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  10. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  11. Overview of Aluminum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in ManyDepartmentOutreach to MultifamilyAluminum Overview of Aluminum

  12. Alumina-forming Austenitic Alloys Licensed | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta Fe Metro FleetAlternativeAlumina and

  13. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, David S. (Richmond, VA); Scott, Darwin H. (Mechanicsville, VA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  14. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, D.S.; Scott, D.H.

    1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cells are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  15. Conformal refinement of unstructured quadrilateral meshes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garmella, Rao [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a multilevel adaptive refinement technique for unstructured quadrilateral meshes in which the mesh is kept conformal at all times. This means that the refined mesh, like the original, is formed of only quadrilateral elements that intersect strictly along edges or at vertices, i.e., vertices of one quadrilateral element do not lie in an edge of another quadrilateral. Elements are refined using templates based on 1:3 refinement of edges. We demonstrate that by careful design of the refinement and coarsening strategy, we can maintain high quality elements in the refined mesh. We demonstrate the method on a number of examples with dynamically changing refinement regions.

  16. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, M.S.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  17. Differences of growth response to aluminum excess of two Melaleuca trees differing in aluminum resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houman, Yoshifumi; Tahara, Ko; Shinmachi, Fumie; Noguchi, Akira; Satohiko, Sasaki; Hasegawa, Isao

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M, Yamanoshita T, Kojima K. , Role of aluminum-bindingligands in aluminum resistance of Eucalyptus camaldulensissoils, low pH and excess aluminum are the primary factors

  18. The transported entropies of ions in solid state fluorides and beta-alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharivker, V.S.; Ratkje, S.K. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical relevance of reversible heat effects is discussed with reference to high temperature batteries and electrolysis systems. The transported entropies of Na{sup +} in solid state mixtures of NaF and Na{sub 3}AlF{sub 6} are presented. The transported entropies are S{sup *cry}{sub Na{sup +}} = 140 {+-} 7 J K{sup {minus}1} mol{sup {minus}1} for cryolite, S{sup *NaF}{sub Na{sup +}} = 81 {+-} 8 J K{sup {minus}1} mol{sup {minus}1} for sodium fluoride and S{sup *{beta}}{sub Na{sup +}} = 60 {+-} 5 J K{sup {minus}1} mol{sup {minus}1} for sodium {beta}{double_prime}-alumina at the temperature range 380--500 C. The value obtained for sodium in the solid cryolite is higher than transported entropy of Na{sup +} in other solid sodium conductors and makes the authors predict that the transported entropy for Na{sup +} in the molten electrolyte mixture for aluminum production is substantial, and that so are the reversible heat effects in the aluminum electrolysis cell.

  19. aluminum matrix composites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... ...... ..... ... . . 3 Conventional Aluminum Brazing ... 4 Aluminum Composite Joining ... 5 Aluminum Joining by Unconventional Methods Eagar, Thomas W. 2...

  20. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint - Sector: Alumina and Aluminum (NAICS 3313), January 2014 (MECS 2010)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomyDr.EnergyManufacturingAll Manufacturing

  1. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, J.R.

    1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces. 10 figs.

  2. ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION - LABORATORY SCALE VALIDATION ON WASTE SIMULANTS TEST REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SAMS T; HAGERTY K

    2011-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    To reduce the additional sodium hydroxide and ease processing of aluminum bearing sludge, the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process has been invented by AREV A and demonstrated on a laboratory scale to remove alumina and regenerate/recycle sodium hydroxide prior to processing in the WTP. The method uses lithium hydroxide (LiOH) to precipitate sodium aluminate (NaAI(OH){sub 4}) as lithium hydrotalcite (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}.4Al(OH){sub 3}.3H{sub 2}O) while generating sodium hydroxide (NaOH). In addition, phosphate substitutes in the reaction to a high degree, also as a filterable solid. The sodium hydroxide enriched leachate is depleted in aluminum and phosphate, and is recycled to double-shell tanks (DSTs) to leach aluminum bearing sludges. This method eliminates importing sodium hydroxide to leach alumina sludge and eliminates a large fraction of the total sludge mass to be treated by the WTP. Plugging of process equipment is reduced by removal of both aluminum and phosphate in the tank wastes. Laboratory tests were conducted to verify the efficacy of the process and confirm the results of previous tests. These tests used both single-shell tank (SST) and DST simulants.

  3. Possible Reasons Why Aluminum is a Beneficial Element for Melastoma malabathricum, an Aluminum Accumulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watanabe, Toshihiro; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of adaptation to high aluminum condition in native plantit has been well known that aluminum (Al) toxicity restricts

  4. Aluminum Carbothermic Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruno, Marshall J.

    2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the non-proprietary research and development conducted on the Aluminum Carbothermic Technology (ACT) project from contract inception on July 01, 2000 to termination on December 31, 2004. The objectives of the program were to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of a new carbothermic process for producing commercial grade aluminum, designated as the ''Advanced Reactor Process'' (ARP). The scope of the program ranged from fundamental research through small scale laboratory experiments (65 kW power input) to larger scale test modules at up to 1600 kW power input. The tasks included work on four components of the process, Stages 1 and 2 of the reactor, vapor recovery and metal alloy decarbonization; development of computer models; and economic analyses of capital and operating costs. Justification for developing a new, carbothermic route to aluminum production is defined by the potential benefits in reduced energy, lower costs and more favorable environmental characteristics than the conventional Hall-Heroult process presently used by the industry. The estimated metrics for these advantages include energy rates at approximately 10 kWh/kg Al (versus over 13 kWh/kg Al for Hall-Heroult), capital costs as low as $1250 per MTY (versus 4,000 per MTY for Hall-Heroult), operating cost reductions of over 10%, and up to 37% reduction in CO2 emissions for fossil-fuel power plants. Realization of these benefits would be critical to sustaining the US aluminum industries position as a global leader in primary aluminum production. One very attractive incentive for ARP is its perceived ability to cost effectively produce metal over a range of smelter sizes, not feasible for Hall-Heroult plants which must be large, 240,000 TPY or more, to be economical. Lower capacity stand alone carbothermic smelters could be utilized to supply molten metal at fabrication facilities similar to the mini-mill concept employed by the steel industry. Major accomplishments for the program include definition of the system thermo-chemistry, demonstration of reactor stage 1, development of reactor stage 2 critical components in a 500 kW module, experimental determination of the vapor recovery reactor fundamentals, detailed design and installation of an advanced stage 1/vapor recovery reactor, feasibility of efficient separation of Al-C metal alloy product, updated capital and operating cost estimates, and development of computer models for all steps of the Advanced Reactor Process.

  5. alumina nanoparticles composites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Page Topic Index 1 Evaluation of Composite Alumina Nanoparticle and Nitrate Eutectic Materials for use in Concentrating Solar Power Plants Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  6. alumina inlay failure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on post-CMOS MEMS processes and the methods which were used to characterize the thin film porous alumina sensing layer. The average sensitivity is approx. 15 pFRH% which is...

  7. Carbon dioxide pressure swing adsorption process using modified alumina adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaffney, T.R.; Golden, T.C.; Mayorga, S.G.; Brzozowski, J.R.; Taylor, F.W.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure swing adsorption process for absorbing CO[sub 2] from a gaseous mixture containing CO[sub 2] comprises introducing the gaseous mixture at a first pressure into a reactor containing a modified alumina adsorbent maintained at a temperature ranging from 100 C and 500 C to adsorb CO[sub 2] to provide a CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent and a CO[sub 2] depleted gaseous mixture and contacting the CO[sub 2] laden adsorbent with a weakly adsorbing purge fluid at a second pressure which is lower than the first pressure to desorb CO[sub 2] from the CO[sub 2] laden alumina adsorbent. The modified alumina adsorbent which is formed by depositing a solution having a pH of 3.0 or more onto alumina and heating the alumina to a temperature ranging from 100 C and 600 C, is not degraded by high concentrations of water under process operating conditions. 1 fig.

  8. Carbon dioxide pressure swing adsorption process using modified alumina adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaffney, Thomas Richard (Allentown, PA); Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Mayorga, Steven Gerard (Allentown, PA); Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard (Bethlehem, PA); Taylor, Fred William (Allentown, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pressure swing adsorption process for absorbing CO.sub.2 from a gaseous mixture containing CO.sub.2 comprising introducing the gaseous mixture at a first pressure into a reactor containing a modified alumina adsorbent maintained at a temperature ranging from 100.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. to adsorb CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 laden alumina adsorbent and a CO.sub.2 depleted gaseous mixture and contacting the CO.sub.2 laden adsorbent with a weakly adsorbing purge fluid at a second pressure which is lower than the first pressure to desorb CO.sub.2 from the CO.sub.2 laden alumina adsorbent. The modified alumina adsorbent which is formed by depositing a solution having a pH of 3.0 or more onto alumina and heating the alumina to a temperature ranging from 100.degree. C. and 600.degree. C., is not degraded by high concentrations of water under process operating conditions.

  9. Modeling Texture Evolution during Recrystallization in Aluminum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollett, Anthony D.

    Modeling Texture Evolution during Recrystallization in Aluminum Abhijit Brahme1,2 , Joseph Fridy3, Aluminum, Grain Boundary Mobility, Nucleation, Oriented Growth, Oriented Nucleation, Stored Energy, Monte Carlo Modeling. #12;Modeling Texture Evolution during Recrystallization in Aluminum 2 1. Introduction

  10. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metallic aluminum may be produced by the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ at 700 to 800/sup 0/C in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  11. Synthesis and enhanced light absorption of alumina matrix nanocomposites containing multilayer oxide nanorods and silver nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Yong X., E-mail: yong.gan@utoledo.edu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Zeng, Xianwu; Su, Lusheng; Yang, Lu [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gan, Bo J. [Ottawa Hills High School, 2532 Evergreen Road, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)] [Ottawa Hills High School, 2532 Evergreen Road, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Zhang, Lihua [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)] [Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: {yields} Multilayer oxide nanorods (nanocables) were obtained via chemical processing. {yields} Ag nanoparticles were deposited between the core and shell layers of the nanorods. {yields} The structure and composition of the nanorods were analyzed by SEM and TEM. {yields} CoO nanorods and Ag nanoparticles enhance light absorption of the nanocomposites. -- Abstract: In this paper, multilayer oxide nanorods were deposited in the nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) via solution infiltration followed by heat treatment. The nanorods have a core-shell structure. First, the shell (nanotube) with the thickness of about 40 nm was made of TiO{sub 2} through the hydrolysis of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}TiF{sub 6}. Second, silver nanoparticles with the diameter of about 3 nm were added into the TiO{sub 2} layer through thermal decomposition of AgNO{sub 3} at elevated temperatures. Then, cylindrical cores (nanorods) of CoO and ZnO with 200 nm diameter were prepared, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and composition of the nanorods. UV-vis light absorption measurements in the wavelength range from 350 to 1000 nm were performed to study the effect of nanorod and nanoparticle addition on the light absorption property of the alumina nanocomposites. It is found that CoO nanorods increase the light absorption of the alumina matrix composite in the wavelength range from 500 nm to 800 nm, but the TiO{sub 2} shell does not increase the light absorption much. The ZnO nanorods do not change the light absorption either. However, the addition of silver nanoparticles significantly enhances light absorption of both AAO/TiO{sub 2}/Ag/CoO and AAO/TiO{sub 2}/Ag/ZnO nanocomposites. This increase in the visible light absorption reveals that there exists surface plasmon around the fine silver nanoparticles in the nanorods.

  12. Synthesis and Enhanced Light Absorption of Alumina Matrix Nanocomposites Containing Multilayer Oxide Nanorods and Silver Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Y.X.; Zhang, L.; Zeng, X.; Su, L.; Yang, L.; Gan, B.J.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, multilayer oxide nanorods were deposited in the nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) via solution infiltration followed by heat treatment. The nanorods have a core-shell structure. First, the shell (nanotube) with the thickness of about 40 nm was made of TiO{sub 2} through the hydrolysis of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}TiF{sub 6}. Second, silver nanoparticles with the diameter of about 3 nm were added into the TiO{sub 2} layer through thermal decomposition of AgNO{sub 3} at elevated temperatures. Then, cylindrical cores (nanorods) of CoO and ZnO with 200 nm diameter were prepared, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and composition of the nanorods. UV-vis light absorption measurements in the wavelength range from 350 to 1000 nm were performed to study the effect of nanorod and nanoparticle addition on the light absorption property of the alumina nanocomposites. It is found that CoO nanorods increase the light absorption of the alumina matrix composite in the wavelength range from 500 nm to 800 nm, but the TiO{sub 2} shell does not increase the light absorption much. The ZnO nanorods do not change the light absorption either. However, the addition of silver nanoparticles significantly enhances light absorption of both AAO/TiO{sub 2}/Ag/CoO and AAO/TiO{sub 2}/Ag/ZnO nanocomposites. This increase in the visible light absorption reveals that there exists surface plasmon around the fine silver nanoparticles in the nanorods.

  13. ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of Condition Assessment on Energy Use: Selected Applications in Chemicals Processing and Petroleum Refining ITP Petroleum Refining: Impacts of...

  14. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derbidge, T. Craig (Sunnyvale, CA); Mulholland, James A. (Chapel Hill, NC); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  15. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Voluntary Aluminum Industry Partnership (VAIP), representing 98% of primary aluminum production in the United States, have committed under the Climate VISION program to a direct...

  16. Aluminum-tungsten fiber composites with cylindrical geometry and controlled architecture of tungsten reinforcement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucchese, Carl Joesph

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum……………………………………………………………………… Aluminum Alloy 6061-Figure 30 - Aluminum alloy 6061 tubes used to assembleencapsulated within the aluminum alloy 6061 matrix………………..

  17. Cast alumina forming austenitic stainless steels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Yamamoto, Yukinori; Brady, Michael P

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy consisting essentially of, in terms of weight percent ranges 0.15-0.5C; 8-37Ni; 10-25Cr; 2.5-5Al; greater than 0.6, up to 2.5 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; up to 3Mo; up to 3Co; up to 1W; up to 3Cu; up to 15Mn; up to 2Si; up to 0.15B; up to 0.05P; up to 1 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Y, La, Ce, Hf, and Zr; <0.3Ti+V; <0.03N; and, balance Fe, where the weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni, and wherein the alloy forms an external continuous scale comprising alumina, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure, the austenitic matrix being essentially delta-ferrite free and essentially BCC-phase-free. A method of making austenitic stainless steel alloys is also disclosed.

  18. Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnöckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P. [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: AKandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium–aluminum cluster anions, Na{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup ?}, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

  19. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  20. EUROSPF Conference APPLICATION TECHNOLOGY OF ALUMINUM BLOW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    6th EUROSPF Conference APPLICATION TECHNOLOGY OF ALUMINUM BLOW FORMING FOR AUTOMOTIVE CLOSURE PANEL Replacement by aluminum for the closure panels is one of the common methods for lightening car body. However. As a solution to cover the low stamping formability of aluminum, Blow forming technology of aluminum which

  1. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  2. The wetting behavior of NiAl and NiPtAl on polycrystalline alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gauffier, Antoine

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    experiments of alumina by nickel-aluminium alloys andnickel-aluminium-platinum alloys with the sessile drop

  3. Hydrogen removal from e-beam deposited alumina thin films by oxygen ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Arijeet, E-mail: arijeet@rrcat.gov.in; Mukharjee, C., E-mail: arijeet@rrcat.gov.in; Rajiv, K., E-mail: arijeet@rrcat.gov.in; Bose, Aniruddha, E-mail: arijeet@rrcat.gov.in; Singh, S. D., E-mail: arijeet@rrcat.gov.in; Rai, S. K.; Ganguli, Tapas; Joshi, S. C.; Deb, S. K. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India); Phase, D. M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore-452017 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen interstitials and oxygen vacancies defects create energy levels in the band gap of alumina. This limits the application of alumina as a high-k dielectric. A low thermal budget method for removal of hydrogen from alumina is discussed. It is shown that bombardment of alumina films with low energy oxygen ion beam during electron beam evaporation deposition decreases the hydrogen concentration in the film significantly.

  4. Method for the recovery of fluorides from spent aluminum potlining and the production of an environmentally safe waste residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snodgrass, J.B.; Cambridge, E.L.

    1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for recovery of fluoride values from spent potlining and fluoride containing insulating materials associated with the potlining is disclosed. Spent potlining and the insulating matericals are reduced to a fine particle size and incinerated. The ash residue is leached with a dilute caustic and the leachate is treated with a calcium compound to precipitate calcium fluoride. The calcium fluoride is dried to a moisture content of less than 0.1 percent and is treated with about 93 to 99 percent concentration of sulfuric acid to produce hydrogen fluoride gas and a metal sulfate. The hydrogen fluoride gas is fed into an alumina dry scrubber to produce alumina with absorbed fluorides to be used as feed material to reduction cells used in the manufacture of aluminum by electrolytic reduction. The metal sulfate residue is treated with lime and constitutes an environmentally safe product which can be disposed of as landfill material.

  5. Alumina-forming Austenitic Alloys for Advanced Recuperators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Shingledecker, John P [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials selection for thin-walled recuperators has been extensively investigated over the past decade. In the latest generation of recuperated turbine engines, type 347 stainless steel has been replaced by higher alloyed steels and Ni-base chromia-forming alloys. However, high (linear) rates of chromia evaporation in exhaust gas fundamentally limits the oxidation lifetime of these chromia-forming alloys. One solution is to use alumina-forming alloys that are more resistant to this environment. The lower scale growth kinetics and resistance to evaporation in the presence of water vapor suggests an order of magnitude increase in lifetime for alumina-forming alloys. A significant problem with this strategy was the large drop in creep strength with the addition of sufficient Al to form an external alumina scale. However, new Fe-base austenitic compositions have been developed with sufficient strength for this application above 700 C.

  6. Reaping Energy Savings from Petroleum Refining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, A.; Cascone, R.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REAPING ENERGY SAVINGS FROM PETROLEUM REFINING Alan Deng, Project Manager, San Francisco, CA, Ron Cascone, Project Manager, White Plains, NY, Nexant, Inc. ABSTRACT The refining industry is one of the largest energy users in Pacific Gas... years’ energy conservation and demand-side management program participation. The PG&E’s refinery energy efficiency program (REEP) is designed to address key market barriers and tap into the savings potential from energy-intensive refining processes...

  7. Aluminum-lithium alloys -- the next generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, D. (Advanced Material Development, Saratoga, CA (United States))

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The advantages of aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys, such as low density and high modulus, have been well documented in the last 15 years, but their impact on the aerospace market has fallen short of initial expectations. However, vacuum refining processes have now been developed at Comalco Aluminium Ltd., Melbourne, Australia, that provide improved mechanical properties. In addition, the patented technology allows higher levels of lithium, which results in higher stiffness and lower densities. For example, alloys with 3.3% lithium and very low amounts of hydrogen and alkali metal impurities demonstrate good mechanical properties. It also exhibits good weldability, as shown in results of varestraint'' testing, which evaluates the tendency to crack during welding. The high purity of these VacLite alloys ensures that grain boundary fracture is minimized, and cleavage fracture is reduced almost to the limit of detectability. Furthermore, advanced vacuum techniques using electron beam melting at 10[sup [minus]5] torr may eventually reduce impurities to a level at which fracture occurs only in a ductile, transgranular manner.

  8. aluminum alloy produced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for silicon metal comes primarily from the aluminum and chemical industries. Domestic secondary aluminum production--the primary materials source for aluminum-silicon alloys--was...

  9. aluminum metal matrix: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract Solidification of metal aluminum and aluminum alloys is modeled on uneven surfaces char- acterized by sinusoidal curves Zabaras, Nicholas J. 108 Aluminum-tungsten...

  10. Aluminum across the Americas: Caribbean Mobilities and Transnational American Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheller, Mimi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. Jamaica in the World Aluminum Industry, 1838–1973, Vol.2007. Doordan, Dennis. “Promoting Aluminum: Designers andthe American Aluminum Industry. ” Design Issues 9, no. 2 (

  11. Aluminum-detoxifying compounds in roots of Eucalyptus camaldulensis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tahara, Ko; Hashida, Koh; Ohara, Seiji; Kojima, Katsumi; Shinohara, Kenji

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M, Yamanoshita T, Kojima K, Role of aluminum-bindingligands in aluminum resistance of Eucalyptus camaldulensisH, Sasaki S, Kojima K. Aluminum distribution and reactive

  12. Viscosity of alumina nanoparticles dispersed in car engine coolant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kole, Madhusree; Dey, T.K. [Thermophysical Measurements Laboratory, Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present paper, describes our experimental results on the viscosity of the nanofluid prepared by dispersing alumina nanoparticles (<50 nm) in commercial car coolant. The nanofluid prepared with calculated amount of oleic acid (surfactant) was tested to be stable for more than 80 days. The viscosity of the nanofluids is measured both as a function of alumina volume fraction and temperature between 10 and 50 C. While the pure base fluid display Newtonian behavior over the measured temperature, it transforms to a non-Newtonian fluid with addition of a small amount of alumina nanoparticles. Our results show that viscosity of the nanofluid increases with increasing nanoparticle concentration and decreases with increase in temperature. Most of the frequently used classical models severely under predict the measured viscosity. Volume fraction dependence of the nanofluid viscosity, however, is predicted fairly well on the basis of a recently reported theoretical model for nanofluids that takes into account the effect of Brownian motion of nanoparticles in the nanofluid. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of engine coolant based alumina nanofluids obeys the empirical correlation of the type: log ({mu}{sub nf}) = A exp(BT), proposed earlier by Namburu et al. (author)

  13. alumina nuclear waste: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alumina nuclear waste First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Nuclear magnetic resonance-based...

  14. alumina cement concrete: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: O, MgO, transient metal oxides as in Y2O3, Sc2O3, Er2O3 (Ref 1), rare-earths such as CeO, Yb2O3Phase Formation and Transformation in AluminaYSZ...

  15. Joining of 6061 Aluminum Matrix-Ceramic Particle Reinforced Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) ) Joining of 6061 Aluminum Matrix-Ceramic Particle Reinforced Composites by R. Kiehn and T. W................... .. ....... ... ... 3 Literature Review ......... ...... ..... ... . . 3 Conventional Aluminum Brazing ........ 4 Aluminum Composite Joining ........... 5 Aluminum Joining by Unconventional Methods

  16. Current technologies and trends of aluminum design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Michael, 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A literature review of current aluminum technology in the building and construction industry was carried out. Aluminum is an ideal material for building in corrosive environments and for building structures where small ...

  17. Micro Joining of Aluminum Graphite Composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velamati, Manasa

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced aluminum graphite composites have unique thermal properties due to opposing coefficients of thermal expansion of aluminum and graphite. The thermal and mechanical properties of such composites are anisotropic due to directional properties...

  18. EVALUATION OF LOW TEMPERATURE ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION IN TANK 51

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pike, J

    2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days, which became the baseline aluminum dissolution process. LWO initiated a project to modify a waste tank to meet these requirements. Subsequent to an alternative evaluation, LWO management identified an opportunity to perform aluminum dissolution on sludge destined for Sludge Batch 5, but within a limited window that would not allow time for any modifications for tank heating. A variation of the baseline process, dubbed Low Temperature Aluminum Dissolution (LTAD), was developed based on the constraint of available energy input in Tank 51 and the window of opportunity, but was not constrained to a minimum extent of dissolution, i.e. dissolve as much aluminum as possible within the time available. This process was intended to operate between 55 and 70 C, but for a significantly longer time than the baseline process. LTAD proceeded in parallel with the baseline project. The preliminary evaluation at the completion of LTAD focused on the material balance and extent of the aluminum dissolved. The range of values of extent of dissolution, 56% to 64%, resulted from the variation in liquid phase sample data available at the time. Additional solid phase data is available from a sample taken after LTAD to refine this range. This report provides additional detailed evaluation of the LTAD process based on analytical and field data and includes: a summary of the process chronology; a determination of an acceptable blending strategy for the aluminum-laden supernate stored in Tank 11; an update to the determination of aluminum dissolved using more complete sample results; a determination of the effect of LTAD on uranium, plutonium, and other metals; a determination of the rate of heat loss from a quiescent tank; and an evaluation of the aluminum dissolution rate model and actual dissolution rate. LTAD was successfully completed in Tank 51 with minimal waste tank changes. The following general conclusions may be drawn about the LTAD process: (1) Dissolution at about 60 C for 46 days dissolved 64% of the aluminum from the sludge slurry. (2) The aluminum-laden leach solution decanted to Tank 11 can be blended with a wide variety of supernates without risk of precipitating the dissolved aluminum based on thermodynamic chemical equilibrium models. (3) Uranium and plutonium leached into solution without corresponding leaching of iron or metal other than aluminum, but the total mass leached was a small fraction of the total uranium and plutonium in the sludge. (4) The concentration of uranium and plutonium in the leach solution was indistinguishable from other tank farm supernates, thus, the leach solutions can be managed relative to the risk of criticality like any other supernate. (5) A small amount of mercury leached into solution from the sludge causing the liquid phase concentration to increase 6 to 10 fold, which is consistent with the 4 to 14 fold increase observed during the 1982 aluminum dissolution demonstration. (6) Chromium did not dissolve during LTAD. (7) Chloride concentration increased in the liquid phase during LTAD due to chloride contamination in the 50% sodium hydroxide solution. (8) The rate of heat loss from Tank 51 at temperatures above 45 C appeared linear and predictable at 8E+7 cal/hr. (9) The rate of heat transfer from Tank 51 did not follow a simplified bulk heat transfer model. (10) Prediction of the aluminum dissolution rate was prone to error due to a lack of active specific surface area data of sludge particles. (11) The higher than expected dissolution rate during LTAD was likely due to smaller than expected particle sizes of most of the sludge particles. While evaluating the LTAD process, the dissolved salt solution from Tank 41 that was stored and sampled in Tank 49 was determined to be supersaturated relative to alu

  19. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Alloys PROPERTIES OF THE ALUMINUM-WATER REACTIONS RELATIVE ........... 14 TO ON-BOARD SYSTEM aluminum alloys such as aluminum-lithium and aluminum-gallium has been studied. In this case, the molten nature of the alloy prevents the development of a coherent and adherent aluminum oxide layer. However

  20. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C.J.; Dispennette, J.M.

    1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg. 3 figs.

  1. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennon, Dennis R. (Allentown, PA); Snedden, Richard B. (McKeesport, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA); Bellas, George T. (Library, PA)

    1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  2. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  3. Aluminum in Superconducting Magnets Robert J. Weggel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    is aluminum, either ultrapure, as quenchstabilization matrix metal, and/or alloyed and coldworked and heat for magnets in which the stresses and strains are modest. The strongest aluminum alloy commercially available., "Mechanical properties of commercial aluminum alloys at 253o C (­423o F)," NATO ARW, Kiev 713 Sept. 2003

  4. Aluminum: Principled Scenario Exploration through Minimality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Daniel J.

    Aluminum: Principled Scenario Exploration through Minimality Tim Nelson1, Salman Saghafi1, Daniel J. We present Aluminum, a modification of Alloy that presents only minimal scenarios: those that contain no more than is necessary. Aluminum lets users explore the scenario space by adding to scenarios

  5. Aluminum--2004 5. Areferencethatincludesasectionmark()isfoundintheinternet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum--2004 5. Areferencethatincludesasectionmark(§)isfoundintheinternet ReferenceCitedsection. Aluminum ByPatriciaA.Plunkert Domestic survey data and tables were prepared by Benjamin S. Goff.S.GeologicalSurvey(uSGS)requestforproductiondata. CommercialDevelopmentCo.(CDC)ofSt.louis,mO, boughtKaiserAluminumCorp.'s200,000-metric-ton-per-year (t

  6. Aluminum: Principled Scenario Exploration through Minimality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnamurthi, Shriram

    Aluminum: Principled Scenario Exploration through Minimality Tim Nelson1, Salman Saghafi1, Daniel J Aluminum, a modification of Alloy that presents only minimal scenarios: those that contain no more than is necessary. Aluminum lets users explore the scenario space by adding to scenarios and backtracking. It also

  7. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gallons per Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1995...

  8. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gallons per Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1997...

  9. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gallons per Day Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Residual Fuel Oil 5. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Volumes Figure Percentages of Refiner Wholesale Volumes 1996...

  10. Improving NMR Protein Structure Quality by Rosetta Refinement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NMR Protein Structure Quality by Rosetta Refinement: A Molecular Replacement Study. Improving NMR Protein Structure Quality by Rosetta Refinement: A Molecular Replacement Study....

  11. Protective coating for alumina-silicon carbide whisker composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramic composites formed of an alumina matrix reinforced with silicon carbide whiskers homogenously dispersed therein are provided with a protective coating for preventing fracture strength degradation of the composite by oxidation during exposure to high temperatures in oxygen-containing atmospheres. The coating prevents oxidation of the silicon carbide whiskers within the matrix by sealing off the exterior of the matrix so as to prevent oxygen transport into the interior of the matrix. The coating is formed of mullite or mullite plus silicon oxide and alumina and is formed in place by heating the composite in air to a temperature greater than 1200.degree. C. This coating is less than about 100 microns thick and adequately protects the underlying composite from fracture strength degradation due to oxidation.

  12. Melt processing of Bi--2212 superconductors using alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holesinger, Terry G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconducting articles and a method of forming them, where the superconducting phase of an article is Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 CaCu.sub.2 O.sub.y (Bi-2212). Alumina is combined with Bi-2212 powder or Bi-2212 precursor powder and, in order to form an intimate mixture, the mixture is melted and rapidly cooled to form a glassy solid. The glassy solid is comminuted and the resulting powder is combined with a carrier. An alternative to melting is to form the mixture of nanophase alumina and material having a particle size of less than about 10 microns. The powder, with the carrier, is melt processed to form a superconducting article.

  13. Introducing Reference Semantics via Refinement Graeme Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Graeme

    Introducing Reference Semantics via Refinement Graeme Smith Software Verification Research Centre, University of Queensland, Australia smith@svrc.uq.edu.au Abstract. Two types of semantics have been given

  14. Directional solidification of the alumina-zirconia ceramic eutectic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boldt, C.

    1994-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    It is possible to produce alumina-zirconia ceramic samples through existing solidification techniques. The resulting microstructures typically consist of rods of zirconia in an alumina matrix, although a lamellar structure has been noted in some cases. In nearly all cases, colony growth was present which may possibly result from grain size, repeated nucleation events, and lamellar oscillations. In the same vein, it appears that the amount of impurities within the system might be the underlying cause for the colony growth. Colony growth was diminished through impurity control as the higher purity samples exhibited colony free behavior. In addition to colony formations, faceted alumina dendrites or nonfaceted zirconia dendrites may result in the ceramic if the sample is solidified out of the coupled zone. In all cases, for larger-sized Bridgman samples, a lower limit in the eutectic spacing was noted. The solidification model which includes the kinetic effect has been developed, although the effect appears to be negligible under present experimental conditions. A spacing limit might also occur due to the result of heat flow problems. Heat flow out of the ceramic is difficult to control, often causing radial and not axial growth. This behavior is exaggerated in the presence of impurities. Thus, higher purity powders should always be used. Higher purity samples, in addition to yielding a more microstructurally uniform ceramic, also showed increased directionality. In the future, the kinetic model needs to be examined in more detail, and further research needs to be accomplished in the area of molten ceramics. Once better system constants are in place, the kinetic model will give a better indication of the behavior in the alumina-zirconia system.

  15. Organic removal from domestic wastewater by activated alumina adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Pe-Der

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the major groups of pollutants in wastewaters. Adsorption by granular activated carbon, a non-polar adsorbent, is now the primary treatment process for removal of residual organics from biologically treated wastewater. The ability of activated alumina... to human health if they exist in the water supply at relatively high concentrations. A wide variety of treatment processes are available to remove organic matter from wastewater. Biological treatment is the most cost effective method for removing oxygen...

  16. Characterizatin of ultrafine aluminum nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandstrom, M. M. (Mary M.); Jorgensen, B. S. (Betty S.); Mang, J. T. (Joseph T.); Smith, B. L. (Bettina L.); Son, S. F. (Steven F.)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum nanopowders with particle sizes ranging from {approx}25 nm to 80 nm were characterized by a variety of methods. We present and compare the results from common powder characterization techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), BET gas adsorption surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and low angle laser light scattering (LALLS). Aluminum nanoparticles consist of an aluminum core with an aluminum oxide coating. HRTEM measurements of both the particle diameter and oxide layer thickness tend to be larger than those obtained from BET and TGA. LALLS measurements show a large degree of particle agglomeration in solution; therefore, primary particle sizes could not be determined. Furthermore, results from small-angle scattering techniques (SAS), including small-angle neutron (SANS) and x-ray (SAXS) scattering are presented and show excellent agreement with the BET, TGA, and HRTEM. The suite of analytical techniques presented in this paper can be used as a powerful tool in the characterization of many types of nanosized powders.

  17. Alumina catalysts for reduction of NOx from methanol fueled diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamamoto, Toshiro; Noda, Akira; Sakamoto, Takashi; Sato, Yoshio [Ministry of Transport of Japan, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NOx selective reducing catalysts are expected to be used for lean-burn gasoline engines and diesel engines as an effective NOx reduction measure. The authors are interested in the combination of methanol, as a reducing agent, and alumina catalyst, and have considered the NOx reduction method using effectively much unburned methanol. In this report, in order to investigate the effect of NOx reduction by the alumina catalyst, the experiment was carried out by feeding the actual exhaust gas from the methanol engine into the alumina catalyst. As a result, it was confirmed that, without addition of any other reducing agents into the exhaust gas, the alumina catalyst has activity to reduce NOx.

  18. agglomerate-free alumina slurry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Yuwen 168 Chemical Preparation of the Binary Compounds in the CalciaAlumina System by Self-Propagating Combustion Synthesis Materials Science Websites Summary: Chemical...

  19. Method to produce alumina aerogels having porosities greater than 80 percent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2003-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-step method for producing monolithic alumina aerogels having porosities of greater than 80 percent. Very strong, very low density alumina aerogel monoliths are prepared using the two-step sol-gel process. The method of preparing pure alumina aerogel modifies the prior known sol method by combining the use of substoichiometric water for hydrolysis, the use of acetic acid to control hydrolysis/condensation, and high temperature supercritical drying, all of which contribute to the formation of a polycrystalline aerogel microstructure. This structure provides exceptional mechanical properties of the alumina aerogel, as well as enhanced thermal resistance and high temperature stability.

  20. A comparison of alumina, carbon, and carbon-covered alumina as supports for Ni-Mo-F additives: Carbon deposition and model compound reaction studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boorman, P.M.; Chong, K.; Kydd, R.A.; Lewis, J.M. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoride-promoted Ni-Mo catalysts supported on alumina, carbon, and carbon-coveres alumina have been investigated for their activity in cumene cracking, hydrocracking (reduced and sulfided forms), and thiophene HDS. The carbon-covered alumina was prepared by pyrolysis of cyclohexene over either {gamma}-alumina or boehmite and the carbon deposition followed adsorption isotherm-type behavior. The cumene reaction studies indicate that the resulting support system successfully merges the properties of carbon and alumina, possessing improved dehydrogenation-hydrogenation functionality due to carbon and acidic properties due to alumina, such as the generation of Broensted acidity upon fluoride impregnation. In the thiophene HDS reaction the catalyst activities followed the order Al{sub 2} > C-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > C, suggesting that alumina, and not carbon, is the superior HDS support at atmospheric H{sub 2} pressure and at the metal loadings used in this study. Carbon deposition onto Ni-Mo-F/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts revealed that cyclohexene polymerization is promoted by the metal centers, resulting in multilayer islands on these sites, and not by the fluoride-associated Broensted acid sites. However, the Broensted acid sites do promote coke formation when the polymerization reaction is easier such as for {alpha}-methylstyrene.

  1. Green Petroleum Refining -Mathematical Models for Optimizing Petroleum Refining Under Emission Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Charles H.

    Green Petroleum Refining - Mathematical Models for Optimizing Petroleum Refining Under Emission understand that my thesis may be made electronically available to the public. #12;iii Abstract Petroleum and treating options for petroleum refinery waste streams. The performance of the developed model

  2. Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawler, Katherine

    2009-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The viscosities of both aqueous and cyanate ester monomer (BECy) based suspensions of alumina nanoparticle were studied. The applications for these suspensions are different: aqueous suspensions of alumina nanoparticles are used in the production of technical ceramics made by slip casting or tape casting, and the BECy based suspensions are being developed for use in an injection-type composite repair resin. In the case of aqueous suspensions, it is advantageous to achieve a high solids content with low viscosity in order to produce a high quality product. The addition of a dispersant is useful so that higher solids content suspensions can be used with lower viscosities. For BECy suspensions, the addition of nanoparticles to the BECy resin is expected to enhance the mechanical properties of the cured composite. The addition of saccharides to aqueous suspensions leads to viscosity reduction. Through DSC measurements it was found that the saccharide molecules formed a solution with water and this resulted in lowering the melting temperature of the free water according to classic freezing point depression. Saccharides also lowered the melting temperature of the bound water, but this followed a different rule. The shear thinning and melting behaviors of the suspensions were used to develop a model based on fractal-type agglomeration. It is believed that the structure of the particle flocs in these suspensions changes with the addition of saccharides which leads to the resultant viscosity decrease. The viscosity of the BECy suspensions increased with solids content, and the viscosity increase was greater than predicted by the classical Einstein equation for dilute suspensions. Instead, the Mooney equation fits the viscosity behavior well from 0-20 vol% solids. The viscosity reduction achieved at high particle loadings by the addition of benzoic acid was also investigated by NMR. It appears that the benzoic acid interacts with the surface of the alumina particle which may be the cause of the viscosity reduction. The flow behavior of alumina particles in water and BECy is markedly different. Aqueous alumina suspensions are shear thinning at all alumina loadings and capable of 50 vol% loading before losing fluidity whereas BECy/alumina suspensions show Newtonian behavior up to 5 vol%, and above 5 vol% show shear thinning at all shear rates. Highly loaded suspensions (i.e. 20vol% alumina) exhibit shear thinning at low and moderate shear rates and shear thickening at higher shear rates. The maximum particle loading for a fluid suspension, in this case, appears to be about 20 vol%. The difference in the viscosity of these suspensions must be related to the solvent-particle interactions for each system. The reason is not exactly known, but there are some notable differences between BECy and water. Water molecules are {approx}0.28 nm in length and highly hydrogen bonded with a low viscosity (1 mPa's) whereas in the cyanate ester (BECy) system, the solvent molecule is about 1.2 nm, in the largest dimension, with surfaces of varied charge distribution throughout the molecule. The viscosity of the monomer is also reasonably low for organic polymer precursor, about 7 mPa's. Nanoparticles in water tend to agglomerate and form flocs which are broken with the shear force applied during viscosity measurement. The particle-particle interaction is very important in this system. In BECy, the particles appear to be well dispersed and not as interactive. The solvent-particle interaction appears to be most important. It is not known exactly how the alumina particles interact with the monomer, but NMR suggests hydrogen bonding. These hydrogen bonds between the particle and monomer could very well affect the viscosity. A conclusion that can be reached in this work is that the presence of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the alumina particles is significant and seems to affect the interactions between other particles and the solvent. Thus, the hydrogen bonding between particles, particle/additive and/or particle/solvent dictates the behavior of nanos

  3. Weak bonding of alumina coatings on Ni(1 1 1) Emily A.A. Jarvis, Asbjorn Christensen, Emily A. Carter *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Emily A.

    Weak bonding of alumina coatings on Ni(1 1 1) Emily A.A. Jarvis, Asbjorn Christensen, Emily A a marked decrease in the work of adhesion for thicker alumina coatings. This provides a new atomic

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based study of ordered layering on the surface of alumina nanoparticles in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerardi, Craig

    Layering of water molecules on the surface of alumina nanoparticles in an alumina/water nanofluid is studied using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The data suggest that a thin ordered layer ( ? 1.4?nm) of water molecules ...

  5. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Alloys PROPERTIES OF THE ALUMINUM-WATER REACTIONS RELATIVE ........... 14 TO ON-BOARD SYSTEM metal. In addition, the reaction of water with molten aluminum alloys such as aluminum-lithium and aluminum-gallium has been studied. In this case, the molten nature of the alloy prevents the development

  6. An independent refiners approach to RFG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czeskleba, M.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was presented by Mike Czeskleba,Senior Business Analyst for Ashland Petroleum Company in Ashland, Kentucky. Ashland is one of the largest independent refiners and a leading marketer of gasoline and other petroleum products in the U.S. The issues addressed in this report concern the use of ethanol as a gasoline extender and renewable oxygenate, and its use in Reformulated Gasolines (RFG). The impact of Clean Air Act requirements for 1995 and beyond on petroleum refiners and producers is discussed. Some of the strategies which Ashland Petroleum Company is using to meet regulation requirements is also presented.

  7. Production of anhydrous aluminum chloride composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vandergrift, G.F. III; Krumpelt, M.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1981-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for producing an anhydrous aluminum chloride composition from a water-based aluminous material such as a slurry of aluminum hydroxide in a multistage extraction process in which the aluminum ion is first extracted into an organic liquid containing an acidic extractant and then extracted from the organic phase into an alkali metal chloride or chlorides to form a melt containing a mixture of chlorides of alkali metal and aluminum. In the process, the organic liquid may be recycled. In addition, the process advantageously includes an electrolysis cell for producing metallic aluminum and the alkali metal chloride or chlorides may be recycled for extraction of the aluminum from the organic phase.

  8. Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Final Report on the Safety Assessment of Aluminum Silicate, Calcium Silicate, Magnesium Aluminum Silicate, Magnesium Silicate, Magnesium Trisilicate, Sodium Magnesium Silicate, Zirconium Silicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Lithium Magnesium Silicate, Lithium Magnesium

  9. SREELS analysis of oxygen-rich inversion domain boundaries in aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruley, J.; Zhao, J.C.; Notis, M.R. [Lehigh Univ. Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Westwood, A.D. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Youngman, R.A. [Carborundum Co., Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spatially resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis has been conducted on planar inversion domain boundaries in aluminum nitride. The defects were found to contain 1.5 monolayers of oxygen, in agreement with the most recent structural model of Westwood. From variations in near-edge structure, the local atomic environments of both oxygen and aluminum are compared with {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {gamma}-AlON standards. Based upon this study the structure of the inversion domain boundary is found to resemble that of the cubic {gamma}-AlON spinel, and eliminates from consideration those structural models based upon {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Furthermore, quantification of the shape resonances provided Al-O bond-length data from the inversion domain boundary interface. These distances closely agree with the Youngman Model that has recently been further refined by Westwood et al.

  10. D2O Adsorption on an Ultrathin Alumina Film on NiAl(110). | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D2O Adsorption on an Ultrathin Alumina Film on NiAl(110). D2O Adsorption on an Ultrathin Alumina Film on NiAl(110). Abstract: The structure of an ordered, ultra-thin Al2O3 film...

  11. Silicon carbide whisker-zirconia reinforced mullite and alumina ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becher, Paul F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of SiC whisker-reinforced composites utilizing mullite or alumina as the matrix material for the composite are increased by the addition of zirconia in a monoclinic or tetragonal phase to the matrix. The zirconia addition also provides for a lower hot-pressing temperature and increases the flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of the SiC whisker-reinforced composites over SiC whisker-reinforced composites of the similar matrix materials reinforced with similar concentrations of SiC whiskers.

  12. Stresses in thermally grown alumina scales near edges and corners.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimsditch, M.

    1998-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the residual stress near edges and corners of thermally grown alumina scales. Micro-fluorescence measurements, performed on alloys with composition Fe-5Cr-28Al (at.%, bal. Fe) oxidized at 900 C, showed a large (>50%) reduction in hydrostatic stress in the vicinity of edges and corners. Surprisingly, stress relaxation persists out to distances ten times the scale thickness from the edge. Finite element analysis calculations confirm the experimental results and provide a considerably more detailed picture of the stress distribution and its components.

  13. High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W. (Livermore, CA); Coombs, III, Arthur W. (Patterson, CA); Yee, Jick H. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

  14. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resources & Links Industry Associations FederalState Programs Technical Information Plant Assessments Training Calendar Software Tools Energy Management Expertise Auto Aluminum...

  15. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: Resources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Partnership The Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership (VAIP) is an innovative pollution prevention program developed jointly by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency...

  16. High resistivity aluminum antimonide radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherohman, John W.; Coombs, III, Arthur W.; Yee, Jick H.

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb)-based single crystal materials have been prepared for use as ambient (room) temperature X-ray and Gamma-ray radiation detection.

  17. Manganese-Aluminum-Based Magnets: Nanocrystalline t-MnAI Permanent Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REACT Project: Dartmouth is developing specialized alloys with magnetic properties superior to the rare earths used in today’s best magnets. EVs and renewable power generators typically use rare earths to turn the axles in their electric motors due to the magnetic strength of these minerals. However, rare earths are difficult and expensive to refine. Dartmouth will swap rare earths for a manganese-aluminum alloy that could demonstrate better performance and cost significantly less. The ultimate goal of this project is to develop an easily scalable process that enables the widespread use of low-cost and abundant materials for the magnets used in EVs and renewable power generators.

  18. Transforming and Refining Abstract Constraint Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Toby

    Transforming and Refining Abstract Constraint Specifications Alan M. Frisch1 , Brahim Hnich2 , Ian choose model transformations to reduce greatly the amount of effort that is required to solve a problem by systematic search. It is a consid- erable challenge to automate such transformations. A problem may be viewed

  19. Sudbury: Nickel Smelting and Refining Nickel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Sudbury: Nickel Smelting and Refining Nickel Production o Toyota buys most of its nickel from Sudbury to produce its nickel- metal hydride batteries Used in cars such as the Toyota Prius SO2 Emissions o The smelting of nickel = large amount of SO2 released as byproduct 4 metric tons of SO2 per

  20. Focus on Venezuelan heavy crude: refining margins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Of six crudes refined in the US Gulf Coast, heavy Venezuelan crude Lagunillas (15/sup 0/ API) provides the best margin per barrel. Data for end of December 1983 and the first three weeks of January show that margins on all crudes are on the rise in this market, due to a turnaround in product prices. The lighter crudes are showing the greatest increase in Gross Product Worth. This is having a modest shrinking effect on the margin differential between light and heavy crudes in this market. The domestic crude West Texas Intermediate, at 40/sup 0/ API, provides the highest GPW in this crude slate sample, over US $31 per barrel, compared to GPW of under US $28 per barrel for Lagunillas. Still, as Lagunillas cost about US $8 less than does WTI, refiners with sufficient residue conversion capacity can be earning about US $3.50 more in margin per barrel than they can with WTI. Although few refiners would be using a 15/sup 0/ API crude exclusively for any length of time, heavier oil's inclusion in modern refiners' diets is enhancing their competitive position more than any other single factor. This issue of Energy Detente presents the fuel price/tax series and industrial fuel prices for January 1984 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  1. The Pricing of Electricity to Aluminum Smelters in the Northwest 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foley, T. J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    major industrial firms, primarily aluminum companies operating aluminum smelters in the region. These direct service industries (DSIs) have a contractual right to purchase up to 3.500 average megawatts annually from Bonneville. Because the aluminum...

  2. iCons, 2011 Alzheimers and Aluminum: Lesson Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Auerbach, Scott M.

    © iCons, 2011 Alzheimers and Aluminum: Lesson Plan Handouts to explore mechanistic link between Alzheimer's and aluminum 5. Brief proposal expanding Points to Aluminum's Link With Alzheimer's Disease" from 1989. Provide handout

  3. Evaluation of Alumina-Forming Austenitic Foil for Advanced Recuperators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL; Matthews, Wendy [Capstone Turbines

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A corrosion- and creep-resistant austenitic stainless steel has been developed for advanced recuperator applications. By optimizing the Al and Cr contents, the alloy is fully austenitic for creep strength while allowing the formation of a chemically stable external alumina scale at temperatures up to 900 C. An alumina scale eliminates long-term problems with the formation of volatile Cr oxy-hydroxides in the presence of water vapor in exhaust gas. As a first step in producing foil for primary surface recuperators, three commercially cast heats have been rolled to 100 m thick foil in the laboratory to evaluate performance in creep and oxidation testing. Results from initial creep testing are presented at 675 C and 750 C, showing excellent creep strength compared with other candidate foil materials. Laboratory exposures in humid air at 650 800 C have shown acceptable oxidation resistance. A similar oxidation behavior was observed for sheet specimens of these alloys exposed in a modified 65 kW microturbine for 2871 h. One composition that showed superior creep and oxidation resistance has been selected for the preparation of a commercial batch of foil. DOI: 10.1115/1.4002827

  4. Refining industry trends: Europe and surroundings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guariguata, U.G.

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The European refining industry, along with its counterparts, is struggling with low profitability due to excess primary and conversion capacity, high operating costs and impending decisions of stringent environmental regulations that will require significant investments with hard to justify returns. This region was also faced in the early 1980s with excess capacity on the order of 4 MMb/d and satisfying the {open_quotes}at that point{close_quotes} demand by operating at very low utilization rates (60%). As was the case in the US, the rebalancing of the capacity led to the closure of some 51 refineries. Since the early 1990s, the increase in demand growth has essentially balanced the capacity threshold and utilization rates are settled around the 90% range. During the last two decades, the major oil companies have reduced their presence in the European refining sector, giving some state oil companies and producing countries the opportunity to gain access to the consumer market through the purchase of refining capacity in various countries-specifically, Kuwait in Italy; Libya and Venezuela in Germany; and Norway in other areas of Scandinavia. Although the market share for this new cast of characters remains small (4%) relative to participation by the majors (35%), their involvement in the European refining business set the foundation whereby US independent refiners relinquished control over assets that could not be operated profitably as part of a previous vertically integrated structure, unless access to the crude was ensured. The passage of time still seems to render this model valid.

  5. Scientists ignite aluminum water mix

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook Twitter PrincipalfuelTorus ExperimentScientists ignite aluminum

  6. aluminum oxide layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS Renewable Energy Websites Summary: ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE...

  7. aluminum oleate layered: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS Renewable Energy Websites Summary: ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE...

  8. aluminum oxide layers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS Renewable Energy Websites Summary: ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE...

  9. aluminum matrix composite: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topic Index 1 Joining of 6061 Aluminum Matrix-Ceramic Particle Reinforced Composites Materials Science Websites Summary: ) ) Joining of 6061 Aluminum Matrix-Ceramic Particle...

  10. Commonwealth Aluminum: Manufacturer Conducts Plant-Wide Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Costs by Increasing Energy Efficiency in Process Heating Systems ITP Aluminum: Aluminum Industry Roadmap for the Automotive Market (May 1999) Improving Process Heating System...

  11. Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve Productivity Energy Assessment Helps Kaiser Aluminum Save Energy and Improve Productivity This case study describes how a DOE energy...

  12. Aluminum across the Americas: Caribbean Mobilities and Transnational American Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheller, Mimi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    developed countries aluminum smelters consume up to 1/3 ordam to power an aluminum smelter in the 1960s, displacing

  13. aluminum alloy matrix: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: ccsd-00002835,version2-14Sep2004 Light scattering from cold rolled aluminum surfaces Damien experimental light scattering measurements from aluminum surfaces obtained...

  14. aluminum automotive components: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    set of the pn junction with self-assembled, anodic aluminum Anlage, Steven 375 EFFECT OF ENCAPSULANT ON HIGH-TEMPERATURE RELIABILITY OF THE GOLD WIREBOND ALUMINUM BONDPAD...

  15. aluminum high pressure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS Renewable Energy Websites Summary: ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR...

  16. aluminum hydride reduction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University, Ankara 06531, Turkey Aluminum borate chemicals of aluminum sulphate and boric acid. The synthesis temperature of 1075C was found Tas, A. Cuneyt 300 A...

  17. aluminum reduction plant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University, Ankara 06531, Turkey Aluminum borate chemicals of aluminum sulphate and boric acid. The synthesis temperature of 1075C was found Tas, A. Cuneyt 226 A...

  18. activated aluminum oxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University, Ankara 06531, Turkey Aluminum borate chemicals of aluminum sulphate and boric acid. The synthesis temperature of 1075C was found Tas, A. Cuneyt 323 A...

  19. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Hunter Douglas Aluminum...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Hunter Douglas Aluminum Plant Div of Bridgeport Brass Co - CA 11 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: HUNTER DOUGLAS ALUMINUM PLANT, DIV. OF BRIDGEPORT BRASS CO. (CA.11 ) Eliminated from...

  20. ALUMINUM DISTRIBUTIONSIN THE EURASIAN BASIN OF THE ARCTIC OCEAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luther, Douglas S.

    ALUMINUM DISTRIBUTIONSIN THE EURASIAN BASIN OF THE ARCTIC OCEAN A THESISSUBMITTEDTO THE GRADUATE Section(1994)cruiseswere analyzed for their aluminum (Al) content; these two data setswere then combined

  1. Aluminum industry energy conservation workshop V papers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book contains papers given at a recent meeting sponsored by The Aluminum Association. The focus of the meeting is on energy conservation in the aluminum industry. Topics include recovery of waste heat, more energy efficient design of plants, and government policies.

  2. Gating of Permanent Molds for ALuminum Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Tom Engle; Qingming Chang

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a two-year project, DE-FC07-01ID13983 that concerns the gating of aluminum castings in permanent molds. The main goal of the project is to improve the quality of aluminum castings produced in permanent molds. The approach taken was determine how the vertical type gating systems used for permanent mold castings can be designed to fill the mold cavity with a minimum of damage to the quality of the resulting casting. It is evident that somewhat different systems are preferred for different shapes and sizes of aluminum castings. The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminum oxide films and entrapped gas. The project highlights the characteristic features of gating systems used in permanent mold aluminum foundries and recommends gating procedures designed to avoid common defects. The study also provides direct evidence on the filling pattern and heat flow behavior in permanent mold castings.

  3. Removal of hazardous anions from aqueous solutions by La(III)- and Y(III)-impregnated alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasay, Syed Abdul; Tokunaga, Shuzo [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraka (Japan); Park, S.W. [Keimyung Univ., Daegu City (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New adsorbents, La(III)- and Y(III)-impregnated alumina, were prepared for the removal of hazardous anions from aqueous solutions. A commercially available alumina was impregnated with La(III) or Y(III) ions by the adsorption process. The change in the surface charge due to the impregnation was measured by acid/base titration. The adsorption rate and the capacity of the alumina for La(III) and Y(III) ions were determined. The adsorption characteristics of the La(III)- and Y(III)-impregnated alumina and the original alumina for fluoride, phosphate, arsenate and selenite ions were analyzed under various conditions. The pH effect, dose effect, and kinetics were studied. The removal selectivity by the impregnated alumina was in the order fluoride > phosphate > arsenate > selenite. The impregnated alumina has been successfully applied for the removal of hazardous anions from synthetic and high-tech industrial wastewaters.

  4. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  5. 5.841 Crystal Structure Refinement, Fall 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Peter

    This course in crystal structure refinement examines the practical aspects of crystal structure determination from data collection strategies to data reduction and basic and advanced refinement problems of organic and ...

  6. 5.067 Crystal Structure Refinement, Fall 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mueller, Peter

    This course in crystal structure refinement examines the practical aspects of crystal structure determination from data collection strategies to data reduction and basic and advanced refinement problems of organic and ...

  7. PREDICTION OF LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE-LIFE BY ACOUSTIC EMISSION. PART 1: 2024-T3 ALUMINUM ALLOY PART 2: ALCLAD 7075-T6/ ALUMINUM ALLOY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baram, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    toughness of structural aluminum alloys. Fracture . Fracturetoughness of structural aluminum alloys, Eng. Fracture Mech.crack propagation r aluminum alloys, 2024~T3 at low and

  8. PREDICTION OF LOW-CYCLE FATIGUE-LIFE BY ACOUSTIC EMISSION. PART 1: 2024-T3 ALUMINUM ALLOY PART 2: ALCLAD 7075-T6/ ALUMINUM ALLOY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baram, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    low-cycle fatigue life of Aluminum sheet alloys by acoustictoughness of structural aluminum alloys. Fracture . Fracturetoughness of structural aluminum alloys, Eng. Fracture Mech.

  9. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  10. Dinosaurs can fly -- High performance refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treat, J.E. [Booz-Allen and Hamilton, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High performance refining requires that one develop a winning strategy based on a clear understanding of one`s position in one`s company`s value chain; one`s competitive position in the products markets one serves; and the most likely drivers and direction of future market forces. The author discussed all three points, then described measuring performance of the company. To become a true high performance refiner often involves redesigning the organization as well as the business processes. The author discusses such redesigning. The paper summarizes ten rules to follow to achieve high performance: listen to the market; optimize; organize around asset or area teams; trust the operators; stay flexible; source strategically; all maintenance is not equal; energy is not free; build project discipline; and measure and reward performance. The paper then discusses the constraints to the implementation of change.

  11. Activated alumina adsorption of trace amounts of chromium and lead from wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis, Reid L

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    capacities for adsorption of a given compound, activated alumina would be the preferable adsorbent as it is cheaper and has greater density. Activated alumina with an average pore size of 4 to 5 16, 17 nm has larger pores than granular activated carbon... in which 95 percent of the pores are typically less than 2 nm. Larger pore size 19 could suggest that larger molecular weight organics and inorganic polymeric metal complexes could be more readily adsorbed by activated alumina than by granular activated...

  12. Effect of the isoelectric point on the adsorption of molybdates on fluoride-modified aluminas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulcahy, F.M.; Houalla, M.; Hercules, D.M.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The isoelectric point (IEP) of ..gamma..-alumina was modified by the addition of various amounts of fluoride. The modified aluminas were used as supports for molybdenum catalysts prepared by equilibrium adsorption at pH = 6.5. Also, the adsorption of molybdate on supports containing various amounts of fluoride was studied as a function of pH. The amount of molybdenum adsorbed on the fluoride-modified aluminas was found to decrease the IEP of the carrier decreased. An electrostatic model is used to interpret the results. 9 references.

  13. Validating Process Refinement with Ontologies , Gerd Groener2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Staab, Steffen

    Validating Process Refinement with Ontologies Yuan Ren1 , Gerd Groener2 , Jens Lemcke3 , Tirdad University of Koblenz-Landau, 3 SAP AG Abstract. A crucial task in process management is the validation of process refinements. A process refinement is a process description in a more fine-grained representation

  14. Separating hydrogen from coal gasification gases with alumina membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis gas produced in coal gasification processes contains hydrogen, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, nitrogen, and other gases, depending on the particular gasification process. Development of membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the raw gas at the high operating temperatures and pressures near exit gas conditions would improve the efficiency of the process. Tubular porous alumina membranes with mean pore radii ranging from about 9 to 22 {Angstrom} have been fabricated and characterized. Based on hydrostatic tests, the burst strength of the membranes ranged from 800 to 1600 psig, with a mean value of about 1300 psig. These membranes were evaluated for separating hydrogen and other gases. Tests of membrane permeabilities were made with helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Measurements were made at room temperature in the pressure range of 15 to 589 psi. Selected membranes were tested further with mixed gases simulating a coal gasification product gas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Optical Basicity and Nepheline Crystallization in High Alumina Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Schweiger, M. J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Winschell, Abigail E.

    2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to find compositions that increase waste loading of high-alumina wastes beyond what is currently acceptable while avoiding crystallization of nepheline (NaAlSiO4) on slow cooling. Nepheline crystallization has been shown to have a large impact on the chemical durability of high-level waste glasses. It was hypothesized that there would be some composition regions where high-alumina would not result in nepheline crystal production, compositions not currently allowed by the nepheline discriminator. Optical basicity (OB) and the nepheline discriminator (ND) are two ways of describing a given complex glass composition. This report presents the theoretical and experimental basis for these models. They are being studied together in a quadrant system as metrics to explore nepheline crystallization and chemical durability as a function of waste glass composition. These metrics were calculated for glasses with existing data and also for theoretical glasses to explore nepheline formation in Quadrant IV (passes OB metric but fails ND metric), where glasses are presumed to have good chemical durability. Several of these compositions were chosen, and glasses were made to fill poorly represented regions in Quadrant IV. To evaluate nepheline formation and chemical durability of these glasses, quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the Product Consistency Test were conducted. A large amount of quantitative XRD data is collected here, both from new glasses and from glasses of previous studies that had not previously performed quantitative XRD on the phase assemblage. Appendix A critically discusses a large dataset to be considered for future quantitative studies on nepheline formation in glass. Appendix B provides a theoretical justification for choice of the oxide coefficients used to compute the OB criterion for nepheline formation.

  16. Characterization of porous GASAR aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonenberger, R.J. [FM Technologies, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Kee, A.J. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Fort Washington, MD (United States); Everett, R.K.; Matic, P. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental and numerical analyses were performed on porous aluminum samples to evaluate microstructure and mechanical properties. Experiments considered of tensile tests on dog-bone specimens containing 9 to 17% porosity, which were instrumented with axial and transverse extensometers. Properties measured included Young`s modulus, Poisson`s ratio remained constant with porosity., For the numerical simulations, 3-D, mesoscale, multilayer models were constructed to evaluate the effects of pore morphology and interactions on material properties. The models allowed systematic spatial positioning of the pore within the cell and the ability to form solid zones. Pore arrangement, the effect of constraint, and gradients on the stress state were investigated. By using different combinations of hex cells as building blocks, several complicated microstructural arrangements were simulated.

  17. ALUMINUM--2003 5.1 By Patricia A. Plunkert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    metal and alloys held by the London Metal Exchange Ltd. (LME) also increased. Primary aluminumALUMINUM--2003 5.1 ALUMINUM By Patricia A. Plunkert Domestic survey data and tables were prepared, international data coordinator. In 2003, 7 domestic companies operated 15 primary aluminum reduction plants

  18. Aluminum Waste Reaction Indicators in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Waste Reaction Indicators in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Timothy D. Stark, F.ASCE1 landfills may contain aluminum from residential and commercial solid waste, industrial waste, and aluminum American Society of Civil Engineers. CE Database subject headings: Solid wastes; Leaching; Aluminum

  19. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  20. ALUMINUM--1998 5.1 By Patricia A. Plunkert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ALUMINUM--1998 5.1 ALUMINUM By Patricia A. Plunkert Domestic survey data and tables were prepared, international data coordinator. In 1998, 13 domestic companies operated 23 primary aluminum reduction plants to be $5.4 billion. Aluminum recovered from purchased scrap decreased to approximately 3.4 million tons

  1. UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM OXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belanger, David P.

    UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM OXIDE A thesis submitted deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide on crystalline silicon and anodized aluminum substrates. A homemade ALD system is used with trimethylaluminum (TMA) and water as precursors to deposit uniform aluminum oxide

  2. Synthesis of nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composites reinforced with in situ devitrified Al-Ni-La amorphous particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhihui H; Han, B Q; Witkin, D; Ajdelsztajn, L; Laverna, E J

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composites reinforcedAbstract Nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composites wereamount of nanoscale aluminum oxide, nitride and carbide

  3. The Effect of Nanoparticle Concentration on Thermo-physical Properties of Alumina-nitrate Nanofluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qian

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to determine how Al2O3 nanoparticle concentration affected the specific heat, heat of fusion, melting point, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of Alumina-Nitrate nanofluids. Al2O3 nanoparticles were...

  4. Analysis of the Temporal Evolution of Thermal Conductivity in Alumina-Water Nanofluid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortenberry, Stephen

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this effort, the temporal behavior of a manufactured alumina (Al2O3) – water nanofluid was evaluated. Measurements of nanofluid effective thermal conductivity were acquired over an extended time period. Analysis of acquired measurements...

  5. The Effect of Nanoparticle Concentration on Thermo-physical Properties of Alumina-nitrate Nanofluid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Qian

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to determine how Al2O3 nanoparticle concentration affected the specific heat, heat of fusion, melting point, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of Alumina-Nitrate nanofluids. Al2O3 nanoparticles were...

  6. SO2-induced stability of Ag-alumina catalysts in the SCR of NO...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peden.2009."SO2-induced stability of Ag-alumina catalysts in the SCR of NO with methane."Applied Catalysis. B, Environmental 88(1-2):98-105. Authors: X She M Flytzani-Stephanopoul...

  7. Effect of catalyst structure on oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane on alumina-supported vanadia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argyle, Morris D.; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    catalysts: (a) ethane ODH, (b) propane ODH (663 K, 14 kPa CDehydrogenation of Ethane and Propane on Alumina-Supporteddehydrogenation of ethane and propane. UV-visible and Raman

  8. Analysis of the Temporal Evolution of Thermal Conductivity in Alumina-Water Nanofluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortenberry, Stephen

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this effort, the temporal behavior of a manufactured alumina (Al2O3) – water nanofluid was evaluated. Measurements of nanofluid effective thermal conductivity were acquired over an extended time period. Analysis of acquired measurements...

  9. Evaluation of Composite Alumina Nanoparticle and Nitrate Eutectic Materials for use in Concentrating Solar Power Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malik, Darren R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this research was to create and characterize high temperature alumina and nitrate salt eutectic nanofluids for use in thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The nitrate eutectic was originally used in the TES system demonstrated as part...

  10. Identification of aluminum scale with the aid of synthetically produced basic aluminum fluoride complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuchart, C.E. (Halliburton Services, Duncan, OK (United States)); Ali, S.A. (Chevron U.S.A. Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States))

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum scaling can be a problem following HF acidizing. In this paper, a series of synthetic aluminum scales was prepared and identified. The aluminum compounds of a field scale were identified with similar procedures. Recent field work showed that the use of acetic acid in the HF acidizing sequences significantly decreased scaling. The role of acetic acid is discussed on the basis of laboratory support of these field data.

  11. Low-Temperature Carbon Monoxide Oxidation Catalysed by Regenerable Atomically Dispersed Palladium on Alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Eric; DelaRiva, Andrew; Lin, Sen; Johnson, Ryan S.; Guo, Hua; Miller, Jeff; Kwak, Ja Hun; Peden, Charles HF; Kiefer, Boris; Allard, Lawrence F.; Ribeiro, Fabio; Datye, Abhaya K.

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalysis by single isolated atoms of precious metals has attracted much recent interest since it promises the ultimate economy in atom efficiency. Previous reports have been confined to reducible oxide supports such as FeOx, TiO2 or CeO2. Here we show that isolated Pd atoms can be stabilized on industrially relevant gamma-alumina supports. At low Pd loadings (?0.5 wt%) these catalysts contain exclusively atomically dispersed Pd species. The addition of lanthanum-oxide to the alumina, long known for its ability to improve alumina stability, is found to also help in the stabilization of isolated Pd atoms. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (AC-STEM) confirms the presence of intermingled Pd and La on the gamma-alumina surface. Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy, performed on Pd/La-alumina and Pd/gamma-alumina (0.5 wt% Pd) demonstrates the presence of catalytically active atomically dispersed ionic Pd in the Pd/La-doped gamma-alumina system. CO oxidation reactivity measurements show onset of catalytic activity at 40 ?C, indicating that the ionic Pd species are not poisoned by CO. The reaction order in CO and O2 is positive, suggesting a reaction mechanism that is different from that on metallic Pd. The catalyst activity is lost if the Pd species are reduced to their metallic form, but the activity can be regenerated by oxidation at 700 ?C in air. The high-temperature stability of these ionic Pd species on commercial alumina supports makes this catalyst system of potential interest for low-temperature exhaust treatment catalysts.

  12. Aluminum (Al) Etch Instructions The CEPSR cleanroom stores Aluminum Etchant Type A, a pre-made product used for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Philip

    Aluminum (Al) Etch Instructions The CEPSR cleanroom stores Aluminum Etchant Type A, a pre-made product used for removing or etching away aluminum. This etchant is stored inside the acid or corrosive a specific thickness of aluminum that is desired. Note: Once the bottle is empty or you find that it's etch

  13. Effects of composition on the mechanical response of alumina-filled epoxy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, Stephen Tedford

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of composition on the elastic responses of alumina particle-filled epoxy composites is examined using isotropic elastic response models relating the average stresses and strains in a discretely reinforced composite material consisting of perfectly bonded and uniformly distributed particles in a solid isotropic elastic matrix. Responses for small elastic deformations and large hydrostatic and plane-strain compressions are considered. The response model for small elastic deformations depends on known elastic properties of the matrix and particles, the volume fraction of the particles, and two additional material properties that reflect the composition and microstructure of the composite material. These two material properties, called strain concentration coefficients, are characterized for eleven alumina-filled epoxy composites. It is found that while the strain concentration coefficients depend strongly on the volume fraction of alumina particles, no significant dependence on particle morphology and size is observed for the compositions examined. Additionally, an analysis of the strain concentration coefficients reveals a remarkably simple dependency on the alumina volume fraction. Responses for large hydrostatic and plane-strain compressions are obtained by generalizing the equations developed for small deformation, and letting the alumina volume fraction in the composite increase with compression. The large compression plane-strain response model is shown to predict equilibrium Hugoniot states in alumina-filled epoxy compositions remarkably well.

  14. Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular hydrogen. The change in free energy is reduced by providing Al in a state of high entropy...

  15. Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-based fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willit, J. L.

    1998-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We have successfully demonstrated aluminum electrorefining from a U-Al-Si alloy that simulates spent aluminum-based reactor fuel. The aluminum product contains less than 200 ppm uranium. All the results obtained have been in agreement with predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics. We have also demonstrated the need for adequate stirring to achieve a low-uranium product. Most of the other process steps have been demonstrated in other programs. These include uranium electrorefining, transuranic fission product scrubbing, fission product oxidation, and product consolidation by melting. Future work will focus on the extraction of active metal and rare earth fission products by a molten flux salt and scale-up of the aluminum electrorefining.

  16. Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

  17. UV Curable Coatings in Aluminum Can Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donhowe, E. T.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    based coatings. The Coors Brewing Company Can Manufacturing Plant has been utilizing this technology in full scale aluminum can production since 1975, and therefore has had the opportunity to evaluate practical operations of the UV technology...

  18. High thermal conductivity aluminum nitride ceramic body

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huseby, I. C.; Bobik, C. F.

    1985-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a polycrystalline aluminum nitride ceramic body having a porosity of less than about 10% by volume of said body and a thermal conductivity greater than 1.0 W/cm-K at 22/sup 0/ C., which comprises forming a mixture comprised of aluminum nitride powder and an yttrium additive selected from the group consisting of yttrium, yttrium hydride, yttrium nitride and mixtures thereof, said aluminum nitride and yttrium additive having a predetermined oxygen content, said mixture having a composition wherein the equivalent % of yttrium, aluminum, nitrogen and oxygen shapping said mixture into a compact and sintering said compact at a temperature ranging from about 1850/sup 0/ C. to about 2170/sup 0/ C. in an atmosphere selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, argon, hydrogen and mixtures thereof to produce said polycrystalline body.

  19. MECS 2006 - Petroleum Refining | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTermsDepartment1|Petroleum Refining MECS 2006 -

  20. An optimal replacement problem in aluminum production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spanks, Lisa Marie

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN OPTIMAL REPLACEMENT PROBLEM IN ALUMINUM PRODUCTION Thesis by LISA MARIE SPANKS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992... Major Subject: Industrial Engineering AN OPTIMAL REPLACEMENT PROBLEM IN ALUMINUM PRODUCTION Thesis by LISA MARIE SPANKS Approved as to style and content by: Richard M. Feldman (Chair of Committee) James H. Matis (Member) ryan L. Deuermey r...

  1. Aluminum Microfoams for Reduced Fuel Consumption and Pollutant Emissions of Transportation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the foamability of Aluminum alloy . Journal of Materialthe more conventional aluminum alloy, would have a higheraerospace technologies, aluminum alloys are the materials of

  2. SUBTHRESHOLD DISPLACEMENT DAMAGE IN COPPER-ALUMINUM ALLOYS DURING ELECTRON IRRADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drosd, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DAMAGE IN COPPER-ALUMINUM ALLOYS DURING ELECTRON IRRADIATIONDAMAGE IN COPPER-ALUMINUM ALLOYS DURING ELECTRON IRRADIATIONby irradiating copper-aluminum alloys at high tempera­ tures

  3. EFFECT OF GRAIN SIZE ON THE ACOUSTIC EMISSION GENERATED DURING PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF ALUMINUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baram, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF ALUMINUM LAWRENCE BERKELEY LABORATORYDURING PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF ALUMINUM J. Baram Materialsof polycrystalline aluminum, of different grain sizes and at

  4. Aluminum Microfoams for Reduced Fuel Consumption and Pollutant Emissions of Transportation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the foamability of Aluminum alloy . Journal of MaterialFoamability of particle reinforced Aluminum Melt. Ma. -wiss.particle-stabilised Aluminum foams . Advanced Engineering

  5. Aluminum and copper in drinking water enhance inflammatory oroxidative events specifically in the brain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondy, Stephen Bondy C

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    effects of iron and aluminum on stress-related genelopathy syndrome. Possible aluminum intoxication. N. Engl.Chronic exposure to aluminum in drinking water increases

  6. IMPROVED FORMABILITY OF ALUMINUM-GERMANIUM NEAR EUTECTIC COMPOSITIONS THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF SUPERPLASTICITY PRINCIPLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pech, G.J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPROVED FORMABILITY OF ALUMINUM-GERMANIUM NEAR EUTECTICIMPROVED FORMABILITY OF ALUMINUM-GERMANIUM NEAR EUTECTICAl-Ge) wire. Al-Ge «00F Aluminum-Germanium Atomic Percentage

  7. Transcriptomic analysis reveals differential gene expression in common bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris) for aluminum resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eticha, Dejene; Zahn, Marc; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Horst, Walter J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transition zone is the most aluminum-sensitive apical rootsoils is mainly limited by aluminum toxicity. In addition,L. under conditions of aluminum stress. Plant Physiol 104:

  8. A NEW A15 MULTIFILAMENTARY SUPERCONDUCTOR BASED ON THE NIOBIUM-ALUMINUM-SILICON SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quinn, G.C.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BASED ON THE NIOBIUM-ALUMINUM-SILICON SYSTEM Gary C. Quinnpsi. Photomicrograph of an Aluminum-Silicon eutectic filledmultifilimentary niobium-aluminum-silicon wire, a) sample #

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GASEOUS AND SOLID PRODUCTS OF DECOMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM SULFATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knutsen, G.F.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF DECOMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM SULFATE Gary F. Knutsen (M. S.OF DECOMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM SULFATE Contents Abstract . .OF DECOMPOSITION OF ALUMINUM SULFATE Gary F. Knutsen

  10. Mechanical properties and microstructures of dual phase steels containing silicon, aluminum and molybdenum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neill, Thomas John O'

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    STEELS CONTAINING SILICON, ALUMINUM AND MOLYBDENUM Thomasdeoxidizing action of aluminum results in grain refinementquench martensite, Both (a) and Aluminum particle within the

  11. A Study of Aluminum Dependent Root Growth Inhibition in Arabidopsis thaliana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nezames, Cynthia

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    symptom triggered by aluminum, but not the primary cause ofRI (1986) Characterization of hydroxy-aluminum solutionsby aluminum-27 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Soil

  12. The viability of aluminum Zintl anion moieties within magnesium-aluminum clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Haopeng; Jae Ko, Yeon; Zhang, Xinxing; Gantefoer, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H., E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Schnoeckel, Hansgeorg [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)] [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhorn, Bryan W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Jena, Puru [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States); Kiran, Boggavarapu, E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, McNeese State University, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70609 (United States); Kandalam, Anil K., E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu, E-mail: akandalam@wcupa.edu, E-mail: kbowen@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, West Chester University, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19383 (United States)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have investigated the extent to which the aluminum moieties within selected magnesium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Magnesium-aluminum cluster anions were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, photoelectron spectra of Mg{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup ?} (m, n = 1,6; 2,5; 2,12; and 3,11) were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on these four stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for the cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra). Calculations revealed that, unlike the cases of recently reported sodium-aluminum clusters, the formation of aluminum Zintl anion moieties within magnesium-aluminum clusters was limited in most cases by weak charge transfer between the magnesium atoms and their aluminum cluster moieties. Only in cases of high magnesium content, e.g., in Mg{sub 3}Al{sub 11} and Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 12}{sup ?}, did the aluminum moieties exhibit Zintl anion-like characteristics.

  13. Electron beam skull melting and refining of secondary copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bychkov, Y.; Ladokhin, S. [Donetskvtortsvetmet, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron Beam Melting is the most efficient technology for metals and alloys refining. For secondary metals processing the Electron Beam Skull Melting (EBSM) with the electromagnetic stirring (EMS) of melt in the crucible was shown to be the most appropriate. The copper produced by EBSM with EMS possesses higher density and electric conductivity in comparison with other refining methods. The details for high power electrical machines were cast of the copper waste refined by EBSM technology.

  14. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  15. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    - - - - W W - - - - - - See footnotes at end of table. 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 292 Energy...

  16. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  17. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  18. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  19. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  20. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    220 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 2000 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  1. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  2. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons per...

  3. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    250 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  4. Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 Table 44. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Formulation, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Thousand Gallons...

  5. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    134 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State (Cents per Gallon...

  6. ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California ITP Petroleum Refining: Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Petroleum Refineries in California refiningroadmap.pdf More...

  7. Table 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Prices," source for backcast estimates prior to January 1983. 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices 36 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1997...

  8. Table 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Prices," source for backcast estimates prior to January 1983. 19. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices 36 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1996...

  9. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Refiner Retail Volumes 1996 Annual Averages Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Propane Kero-jet Residual Fuel Oil Other Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

  10. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Refiner Retail Volumes 1997 Annual Averages Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Propane Kero-jet Residual Fuel Oil Other Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual...

  11. Adaptively refined large eddy simulations of clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maier, A; Schmidt, W; Niemeyer, J C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a numerical scheme for modelling unresolved turbulence in cosmological adaptive mesh refinement codes. As a first application, we study the evolution of turbulence in the intra-cluster medium and in the core of a galaxy cluster. Simulations with and without subgrid scale model are compared in detail. Since the flow in the ICM is subsonic, the global turbulent energy contribution at the unresolved length scales is smaller than 1% of the internal energy. We find that the production of turbulence is closely correlated with merger events occurring in the cluster environment, and its dissipation locally affects the cluster energy budget. Because of this additional source of dissipation, the core temperature is larger and the density is smaller in the presence of subgrid scale turbulence than in the standard adiabatic run, resulting in a higher entropy core value.

  12. The effects of process variations on residual stress in laser peened 7049 T73 aluminum alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rankin, Jon E; Hill, Michael R; Hackel, Lloyd A

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Handbook - Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys, ASM International,the Fatigue Life of 7050 Aluminum Alloy, Defence Science &in laser peened 7049 T73 aluminum alloy Jon E. Rankin and

  13. ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TITANIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS ONNANOPOROUS ALUMINA TEMPLATES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of the nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Both the 20 nm and 100 nm titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes did not exhibit statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. In addition, 20 nm pore size titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exposed to ultraviolet light demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for 'smart' drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

  14. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL DISCONTINUITIES ON THE STRENGTH OF POLYCRYSTALLINE ALUMINUM OXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallace, J.S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE STRENGTH OF POLYCRYSTALLINE ALUMINUM OXIDE S. Wallace ofThe variables and number of aluminum oxide (almnina). size~

  15. ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A workshop was held on January 23-24, 2007 to discuss the status of processes to leach constituents from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. The objective of the workshop was to examine the needs and requirements for the HLW flowsheet for each site, discuss the status of knowledge of the leaching processes, communicate the research plans, and identify opportunities for synergy to address knowledge gaps. The purpose of leaching of non-radioactive constituents from the sludge waste is to reduce the burden of material that must be vitrified in the HLW melter systems, resulting in reduced HLW glass waste volume, reduced disposal costs, shorter process schedules, and higher facility throughput rates. The leaching process is estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of SRS by seven years and decrease the number of HLW canisters to be disposed in the Repository by 1000 [Gillam et al., 2006]. Comparably at Hanford, the aluminum and chromium leaching processes are estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of the Waste Treatment Plant by 20 years and decrease the number of canisters to the Repository by 15,000-30,000 [Gilbert, 2007]. These leaching processes will save the Department of Energy (DOE) billions of dollars in clean up and disposal costs. The primary constituents targeted for removal by leaching are aluminum and chromium. It is desirable to have some aluminum in glass to improve its durability; however, too much aluminum can increase the sludge viscosity, glass viscosity, and reduce overall process throughput. Chromium leaching is necessary to prevent formation of crystalline compounds in the glass, but is only needed at Hanford because of differences in the sludge waste chemistry at the two sites. Improving glass formulations to increase tolerance of aluminum and chromium is another approach to decrease HLW glass volume. It is likely that an optimum condition can be found by both performing leaching and improving formulations. Disposal of the resulting aluminum and chromium-rich streams are different at the two sites, with vitrification into Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass at Hanford, and solidification in Saltstone at SRS. Prior to disposal, the leachate solutions must be treated to remove radionuclides, resulting in increased operating costs and extended facility processing schedules. Interim storage of leachate can also add costs and delay tank closure. Recent projections at Hanford indicate that up to 40,000 metric tons of sodium would be needed to dissolve the aluminum and maintain it in solution, which nearly doubles the amount of sodium in the entire current waste tank inventory. This underscores the dramatic impact that the aluminum leaching can have on the entire system. A comprehensive view of leaching and the downstream impacts must therefore be considered prior to implementation. Many laboratory scale tests for aluminum and chromium dissolution have been run on Hanford wastes, with samples from 46 tanks tested. Three samples from SRS tanks have been tested, out of seven tanks containing high aluminum sludge. One full-scale aluminum dissolution was successfully performed on waste at SRS in 1982, but generated a very large quantity of liquid waste ({approx}3,000,000 gallons). No large-scale tests have been done on Hanford wastes. Although the data to date give a generally positive indication that aluminum dissolution will work, many issues remain, predominantly because of variable waste compositions and changes in process conditions, downstream processing, or storage limitations. Better approaches are needed to deal with the waste volumes and limitations on disposal methods. To develop a better approach requires a more extensive understanding of the kinetics of dissolution, as well as the factors that effect rates, effectiveness, and secondary species. Models of the dissolution rate that have been developed are useful, but suffer from limitations on applicable compositional ranges, mineral phases, and particle properties that are difficult to measure. The experimental

  16. Excimer laser interactions with an aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koutsomichalis, A.; Kefalidou, A. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Physical Metallurgy

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An AlCuMg alloy was irradiated using a KrF pulsed excimer laser. A microstructural study showed the presence of a laser treated zone having a uniform depth of approximately 20 {micro}m. The surface layer of the laser treated aluminum alloy exhibited a wavy topography and its surface roughness was found to depend on the number of laser pulses per step. A X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of aluminum oxides and nitrides on the surface of the laser irradiated specimens. Corrosion measurements showed that the laser treated aluminum alloy exhibited a higher corrosion resistance. The corrosion behavior of the irradiated specimens is related to the energy density of the incident laser pulses.

  17. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  18. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen - 2010 Update

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage The purpose of this White Paper is to describe and evaluate the potential of aluminum-water reactions for the

  19. aluminum pressure vessels: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    angular region on the surface Stokes, Yvonne 204 iCons, 2011 Alzheimers and Aluminum: Lesson Plan Chemistry Websites Summary: iCons, 2011 Alzheimers and Aluminum: Lesson Plan...

  20. aluminum silicon titanium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aluminum Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 7 HIGH-EFFICIENCY BACK-JUNCTION SILICON SOLAR CELL WITH AN IN-LINE EVAPORATED ALUMINUM FRONT GRID Renewable Energy Websites Summary:...

  1. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A Study...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Produce Hydrogen: A Study of Issues Related to the Use of Aluminum for On-Board Vehicular Hydrogen Storage. Version 2, 2010. Reaction of Aluminum with Water to Produce Hydrogen: A...

  2. Development of a Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Aluminum Autobody...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Aluminum Autobody Panels AMD 309 Development of a Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Aluminum Autobody Panels AMD 309 Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office...

  3. Characterizing Microalgae (Nannochloris oculata) Harvesting by Aluminum Flocculation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Ryan T.

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    oculata by aluminum chloride. N. oculata flocculation was studied by manipulating the culture pH and ionic strength before the addition of aluminum chloride. The removal efficiency, concentration factor, settling rate, and zeta potential of the culture...

  4. Strategies for aluminum recycling : insights from material system optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Preston Pui-Chuen

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dramatic increase in aluminum consumption over the past decades necessitates a societal effort to recycle and reuse these materials to promote true sustainability and energy savings in aluminum production. However, the ...

  5. ALUMINUM--1997 5.1 By Patricia A. Plunkert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    aluminum smelter by February 1998 at an annual rate of 27,000 tons. The Troutdale smelter, which has at its 204,000-ton- per-year Longview, WA, primary aluminum smelter. The restart was expected

  6. New, More Efficient Technology for Remelting Aluminum Chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hosek, D.

    step. Lastly, a new more efficient technology for stirring the molten aluminum during the recycling process will be introduce. A molten metal pump will be employed to stir the molten aluminum more completely....

  7. aluminum phosphate catalyst: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Chair... Balasubramanian, Rajasekaran 1991-01-01 213 The corrosion of aluminum in boric acid solutions Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: THE CORROSION OF ALUMINUM IN...

  8. aluminum sodium sulfate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Chair... Balasubramanian, Rajasekaran 1991-01-01 232 The corrosion of aluminum in boric acid solutions Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: THE CORROSION OF ALUMINUM IN...

  9. aluminum inorganic compounds: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Chair... Balasubramanian, Rajasekaran 1991-01-01 211 The corrosion of aluminum in boric acid solutions Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: THE CORROSION OF ALUMINUM IN...

  10. ORNL: Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates (Agreement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ORNL: Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates (Agreement ID:23278) ORNL: Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates (Agreement ID:23278) 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  11. Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production V6 Engine to Effect Cost-Effective Mass Reduction Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production V6...

  12. Measurements of electrical and mechanical properties of aluminum composite cryoconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sundby, Paul C.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of annealing on the residual resistance ratio (RRR) of five (5) composite aluminum cryoconductor wires and mechanical properties on fifteen (15) aluminum cryoconductor wires are presented. The independent variables of the study include...

  13. Does aluminum smelting cause lung disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abramson, M.J.; Wlodarczyk, J.H.; Saunders, N.A.; Hensley, M.J.

    1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evidence concerning a relationship between work in the aluminum industry and lung disease has been reviewed using epidemiologic criteria. Adequate data on environmental exposure are rarely presented. Case series on aluminum potroom workers over the past 50 years have identified an asthmalike syndrome that appears to be due to an irritant rather than an allergic mechanism. These studies have been supported by evidence of within shift variability of measures of lung function. However, to date, there is inadequate evidence to resolve the question of whether potroom exposure initiates asthma or merely precipitates asthmalike symptoms in a predisposed individual. Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated evidence of reduced lung function, consistent with chronic airflow limitation. In exposed aluminum smelter workers compared to unexposed control subjects. Cigarette smoking, the major potential confounding variable, has been measured and accounted for in multivariate analyses. To date, evidence is lacking from longitudinal studies about the development of disabling chronic obstructive lung disease. Exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles in the production and consumption of anodes has biologic plausibility for an association of lung cancer with work in an aluminum smelter. Although retrospective mortality studies have failed to account for the probable high prevalence of smoking in blue collar workers, the relative risk of lung cancer is very low if present at all. Pulmonary fibrosis has not been shown to be a significant problem in aluminum smelter workers. Future research in the aluminum industry needs to concentrate on longitudinal studies, preferably with an inception cohort for the investigation of potroom asthma. 92 references.

  14. Parallel Triangular Decompositions of an Oil Refining Simulation Xiaodong Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno Maza, Marc

    important process in oil refining is to separate the crude oil into various oil products. This process the composition of the various oil products in designed refining columns operated under a given set of conditions oil products. This process is called distilla- tion, which is a thermal separation method

  15. Specification and Refinement of a RealTime Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Graeme

    such approach via the specification and refinement of the well­known Steam Boiler Control Problem. The case. These features, although not central to the Steam Boiler Control Problem, are typical of features which must­level (i.e., abstract) specification of the Steam Boiler Control Problem. This specification is refined

  16. Feasibility of Organizations -A Refinement of Chemical Organization Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinze, Thomas

    Feasibility of Organizations - A Refinement of Chemical Organization Theory with Application to P a theorem providing a criteria for an unfeasible organization. This is a refinement of organization theory organization. Key words: reaction networks, constructive dynamical systems, chem- ical organization theory

  17. On Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Atmospheric Pollution Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandu, Adrian

    On Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Atmospheric Pollution Models Emil M. Constantinescu and Adrian res- olution system for modeling regional air pollution based on the chemical transport model STEM. Keywords: Air Pollution Modeling, Adaptive Mesh Refinement. 1 Introduction Inadequate grid resolution can

  18. The effect of competition by chloride and sulfate anions on the adsorption of arsenate ion onto activated alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janis, Patrick John

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for adsorption sites on the activated alumina. The results of this study showed that the presence of 15 meq/L chloride anion depresses the ability of the arsenate to be adsorbed by F-1 activated alumina initial liquid phase arsenate ion concentration of 5 mg...

  19. Fracture and Fatigue Behavior at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures of Alumina Bonded with Copper/Niobium/Copper Interlayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritchie, Robert

    Fracture and Fatigue Behavior at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures of Alumina Bonded with Copper/Niobium-phase bonded using copper/niobium/copper interlayers have been investigated at both room and elevated, with failure primarily at the alumina/niobium interfaces. At room temperature, cyclic fatigue-crack propagation

  20. ORNL: Low-Cost Direct Bonded Aluminum (DBA) Substrates (Agreement...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ORNL) 4 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy FY13 - 1: Complete optimization of fabrication processing parameters for DBA substrates with alumina (Al 2 O 3 )...

  1. Aluminum across the Americas: Caribbean Mobilities and Transnational American Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheller, Mimi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    zinc, bauxite, and the hydroelectric power needed to smeltthe Afobaka hydroelectric dam to power an aluminum smelter

  2. The corrosion of aluminum in boric acid solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bass, Henry Kinsolving

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation of the corrosion of aluminum in boric acid solutions was made. The total immersion, continuous agitation method of testing was used. Commercially pure aluminum and two aluminum alloys were exposed to various concentrations of boric acid...THE CORROSION OF ALUMINUM IN BORIC ACID SOLUTIONS A Thesis By HENRI KINSOLVING BASS, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College oi' Texas' in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  3. Cathode Connector For Aluminum Low Temperature Smelting Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Craig W. (Seattle, WA); Beck, Theodore R. (Seattle, WA); Frizzle, Patrick B. (Seattle, WA)

    2003-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Cathode connector means for low temperature aluminum smelting cell for connecting titanium diboride cathode or the like to bus bars.

  4. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandrock, Gary (Ringwood, NJ); Reilly, James (Bellport, NY); Graetz, Jason (Mastic, NY); Wegrzyn, James E. (Brookhaven, NY)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  5. Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Reactions and Problems in Municipal Solid Waste Landfills G. Vincent Calder, Ph.D.1 ; and Timothy D. Stark, Ph.D., P.E., F.ASCE2 Abstract: Aluminum enters municipal solid waste MSW landfills from: Solid wastes; Aluminum; Chemicals; Waste disposal; Landfills. Author keywords: Solid waste; Leachate

  6. Optical frequency standards based on mercury and aluminum ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optical frequency standards based on mercury and aluminum ions W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, A-16 . Keywords: aluminum, atomic clocks, frequency standards, ion traps, mercury 1. INTRODUCTION Optical frequency standards based on the mercury ion and, more recently, the aluminum ion are under devel- opment

  7. Mobilizing aluminum in crustal and mantle fluids Craig E. Manning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, Craig

    Mobilizing aluminum in crustal and mantle fluids Craig E. Manning Department of Earth and Space December 2005 Available online 9 March 2006 Abstract Aluminum is a major rock-forming element, but its low by formation of polynuclear Na­Al­Si­O clusters and/or polymers. Aluminum should not be assumed to be immobile

  8. Inhibition of Aluminum Oxyhydroxide Precipitation with Citric Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Inhibition of Aluminum Oxyhydroxide Precipitation with Citric Acid Daniel M. Dabbs, Usha as an agent for increasing the solubility of aluminum oxyhydroxides in aqueous solutions of high (>2.47 mol/mol) hydroxide-to-aluminum ratios. Conversely, citric acid also colloidally stabilizes particles in aqueous

  9. POST-SHOCK TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS OF ALUMINUM A. Seifter1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Sarah T.

    POST-SHOCK TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS OF ALUMINUM A. Seifter1 , S. T. Stewart2 , M. R. Furlanetto1 concurrent VISAR measurements in the same optical path, validation experiments on aluminum have been-shock temperature of 495 K ± 30 K was recorded from a polished free surface of aluminum 2024-T4 subject to a peak

  10. The Effects of Fe3+ Aluminum Silicate Phase Relations in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus

    The Effects of Fe3+ and Mn3+ on Aluminum Silicate Phase Relations in North-Central New Mexico, U, New Mexico 87131 (Received 28 November 1983; in revised form 2 October 1984) ABSTRACT Aluminum, then their equilibrium coexistence is invariant. However, the aluminum silicate minerals are not pure in highly oxidized

  11. Aluminum Removal from Photographic Waste Submitted to Dr. Tony Bi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluminum Removal from Photographic Waste Submitted to Dr. Tony Bi By: Kristen Favel, Tiffany Jung, and Kenny Tam CHBE 484 University of British Columbia April 15, 2009 #12;ii "Aluminum Removal from photographic waste has shown elevated levels of aluminum in the fixer, which exceed sewer discharge standards

  12. ccsd00002835, Light scattering from cold rolled aluminum surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ccsd­00002835, version 2 ­ 14 Sep 2004 Light scattering from cold rolled aluminum surfaces Damien Camille Soula , 31400 Toulouse, France We present experimental light scattering measurements from aluminum scattering measurements of an s-polarized electromagnetic wave (632.8 nanometers) from a rough aluminum alloy

  13. CLASSIFICATION AND REACTIVITY OF SECONDARY ALUMINUM PRODUCTION WASTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    environment.14 Keywords: Landfills, aluminum, hydrogen, salt cake, dross, calorimeter, waste disposal15 16 17CLASSIFICATION AND REACTIVITY OF SECONDARY ALUMINUM PRODUCTION WASTE Navid H. Jafari Student Member and Reactivity of Secondary Aluminum Production Waste1 Navid H. Jafari1 , Timothy D. Stark2 and Ralph Roper3 2 3

  14. Changing System Interfaces Consistently: a New Refinement Strategy for CSP B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doran, Simon J.

    Changing System Interfaces Consistently: a New Refinement Strategy for CSP B Steve Schneider refinement in the context of CSP B. Our motivation to include this notion of refinement within the CSP B to change the events of a CSP process and the B machines when refining a system. Notions of refinement based

  15. Alumina reinforced tetragonal zirconia (TZP) composites. Final technical report, July 1, 1993--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shetty, D.K.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final technical report summarizes the significant research results obtained during the period July 1, 1993 through December 31, 1996 in the DOE-supported research project entitled, {open_quotes}Alumina Reinforced Tetragonal Zirconia (TZP) Composites{close_quotes}. The objective of the research was to develop high-strength and high-toughness ceramic composites by combining mechanisms of platelet, whisker or fiber reinforcement with transformation toughening. The approach used included reinforcement of Celia- or yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia (Ce-TZP or Y-TZP) with particulates, platelets, or continuous filaments of alumina.

  16. Solid-state NMR studies of the adsorption of acetylene on platinum/alumina catalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambregts, Marsha Jo Lupher

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLID-STATE NMR STUDIES OF THE ADSORPTION OF ACETYLENE ON PLATINUM/ALUMINA CATALYSTS A Thesis by MARSHA JO LUPHER LAMBREGTS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Chemistry SOLID-STATE NMR STUDIES OF THE ADSORPTION OF ACETYLENE ON PLATINUM/ALUMINA CATALYSTS A Thesis by MARSHA JO LUPHER LAMBREGTS Approved as to style and content by: ames F. Haw...

  17. Grain refinement using equal channel angular extrusion in bulk sections of copper 101 and aluminum alloys 3003 and 6061 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrasse, Stephane

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that is very stable after extrusion and annealing. Lower temperature deformation enhances strength whereas the number of passes has a small influence on peak aged material. For overaged material, these effects are inverted and the structure appears less strong...

  18. Grain refinement using equal channel angular extrusion in bulk sections of copper 101 and aluminum alloys 3003 and 6061

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrasse, Stephane

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of extrusion passes increases. For a billet rotation of 180' between passes (route C), an unusual event is observed. At each even numbered pass, subgrains without shear bands are present inside the old grains which form a more equiaxed and uniform structure...

  19. Electron beam cold hearth refining in Vallejo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, J.H.C. [Axel Johnson Metals, Inc., Vallejo, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron Beam Cold Hearth Refining Furnace (EBCHR) in Vallejo, California is alive, well, and girding itself for developing new markets. A brief review of the twelve years experience with EBCHR in Vallejo. Acquisition of the Vallejo facility by Axel Johnson Metals, Inc. paves the way for the development of new products and markets. A discussion of some of the new opportunities for the advancement of EBCHR technology. Discussed are advantages to the EBCHR process which include: extended surface area of molten metal exposed to higher vacuum; liberation of insoluble oxide particles to the surface of the melt; higher temperatures that allowed coarse solid particles like carbides and carbonitrides to be suspended in the fluid metal as fine micro-segregates, and enhanced removal of volatile trace impurities like lead, bismuth and cadmium. Future work for the company includes the continued recycling of alloys and also fabricating stainless steel for the piping of chip assembly plants. This is to prevent `killer defects` that ruin a memory chip.

  20. GRChombo : Numerical Relativity with Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katy Clough; Pau Figueras; Hal Finkel; Markus Kunesch; Eugene A. Lim; Saran Tunyasuvunakool

    2015-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical relativity has undergone a revolution in the past decade. With a well-understood mathematical formalism, and full control over the gauge modes, it is now entering an era in which the science can be properly explored. In this work, we introduce GRChombo, a new numerical relativity code written to take full advantage of modern parallel computing techniques. GRChombo's features include full adaptive mesh refinement with block structured Berger-Rigoutsos grid generation which supports non-trivial "many-boxes-in-many-boxes" meshing hierarchies, and massive parallelism through the Message Passing Interface (MPI). GRChombo evolves the Einstein equation with the standard BSSN formalism, with an option to turn on CCZ4 constraint damping if required. We show that GRChombo passes all the standard "Apples-to-Apples" code comparison tests. We also show that it can stably and accurately evolve vacuum black hole spacetimes such as binary black hole mergers, and non-vacuum spacetimes such as scalar collapses into black holes. As an illustration of its AMR capability, we demonstrate the evolution of triple black hole merger, which can be set up trivially in GRChombo.

  1. GRChombo : Numerical Relativity with Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clough, Katy; Finkel, Hal; Kunesch, Markus; Lim, Eugene A; Tunyasuvunakool, Saran

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical relativity has undergone a revolution in the past decade. With a well-understood mathematical formalism, and full control over the gauge modes, it is now entering an era in which the science can be properly explored. In this work, we introduce GRChombo, a new numerical relativity code written to take full advantage of modern parallel computing techniques. GRChombo's features include full adaptive mesh refinement with block structured Berger-Rigoutsos grid generation which supports non-trivial "many-boxes-in-many-boxes" meshing hierarchies, and massive parallelism through the Message Passing Interface (MPI). GRChombo evolves the Einstein equation with the standard BSSN formalism, with an option to turn on CCZ4 constraint damping if required. We show that GRChombo passes all the standard "Apples-to-Apples" code comparison tests. We also show that it can stably and accurately evolve vacuum black hole spacetimes such as binary black hole mergers, and non-vacuum spacetimes such as scalar collapses into b...

  2. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CENTURY ALUMINUM OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CENTURY ALUMINUM OF WEST VIRGINIA, INC. By Randall A. Childs Bureau of Business and Economic Research College of Business and Economics West Virginia more than 660 employees with a production capacity of 170,000 tonnes per year. The economic impact

  3. Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

    2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2.8 wt.% Si-0.7 wt.% Fe-0.8 wt.% Mn),. Purification factors (defined as the initial impurity concentration divided by the final impurity concentration) of greater than 20 were achieved for silicon, iron, copper, and manganese. Cell performance was measured using its current and voltage characteristics and composition analysis of the anode, cathode, and electrolytes. The various cells were autopsied as part of the study. Three electrolyte systems tested were: LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3, LiCl-10 wt. % AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 and LiF-10 wt.% AlF3. An extended four-day run with the LiCl-10 wt.% AlCl3-5 wt.% AlF3 electrolyte system was stable for the entire duration of the experiment, running at energy requirements about one third of the Hoopes and the conventional Hall-Heroult process. Three different anode membranes were investigated with respect to their purification performance and survivability: a woven graphite cloth with 0.05 cm nominal thickness & > 90 % porosity, a drilled rigid membrane with nominal porosity of 33%, and another drilled rigid graphite membrane with increased thickness. The latter rigid drilled graphite was selected as the most promising membrane design. The economic viability of the membrane cell to purify scrap is sensitive to primary & scrap aluminum prices, and the cost of electricity. In particular, it is sensitive to the differential between scrap and primary aluminum price which is highly variable and dependent on the scrap source. In order to be economically viable, any scrap post-processing technology in the U.S. market must have a total operating cost well below the scrap price differential of $0.20-$0.40 per lb to the London Metal Exchange (LME), a margin of 65%-85% of the LME price. The cost to operate the membrane cell is estimated to be < $0.24/lb of purified aluminum. The energy cost is estimated to be $0.05/lb of purified aluminum with the remaining costs being repair and maintenance, electrolyte, labor, taxes and depreciation. The bench-scale work on membrane purification cell process has demonstrated technological advantages and subs

  4. Flash threshold of shocked aluminum silicofluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloom, G.H.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For a 0.5-mm polycarbonate flier striking a 0.5-mm polycarbonate target, we found that a velocity of 1.42 km/s was necessary to cause aluminum silicofluoride sprayed on the far surface to flash. We calculated that the pressure in the polycarbonate was 2.93 GPa. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Aluminum Solubility in Complex Electrolytes - 13011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agnew, S.F. [Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc., 1806 Terminal Dr., Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc., 1806 Terminal Dr., Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Johnston, C.T. [Dept. of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)] [Dept. of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Predicting aluminum solubility for Hanford and Savannah River waste liquids is very important for their disposition. It is a key mission goal at each Site to leach as much aluminum as practical from sludges in order to minimize the amount of vitrified high level waste. And it is correspondingly important to assure that any soluble aluminum does not precipitate during subsequent decontamination of the liquid leachates with ion exchange. This report shows a very simple and yet thermodynamic model for aluminum solubility that is consistent with a wide range of Al liquors, from simple mixtures of hydroxide and aluminate to over 300 Hanford concentrates and to a set of 19 Bayer liquors for temperatures from 20-100 deg. C. This dimer-dS{sub mix} (DDS) model incorporates an ideal entropy of mixing along with previous reports for the Al dimer, water activities, gibbsite, and bayerite thermodynamics. We expect this model will have broad application for nuclear wastes as well as the Bayer gibbsite process industry. (authors)

  6. Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy (Cambridge, MA); Kramer, Keith (Cleveland, OH); Liu, Xinye (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

  7. Prediction of new thermodynamically stable aluminum oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yue; Wang, Shengnan; Zhu, Qiang; Dong, Xiao; Kresse, Georg

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, it has been shown that under pressure, unexpected and counterintuitive chemical compounds become stable. Laser shock experiments (A. Rode, unpublished) on alumina (Al2O3) have shown non-equilibrium decomposition of alumina with the formation of free Al and a mysterious transparent phase. Inspired by these observations, with have explored the possibility of the formation of new chemical compounds in the system Al-O. Using the variable-composition structure prediction algorithm USPEX, in addition to the well-known Al2O3, we have found two extraordinary compounds Al4O7 and AlO2 to be thermodynamically stable in the pressure range 330-443 GPa and above 332 GPa, respectively. Both of these compounds at the same time contain oxide O2- and peroxide O22- ions, and both are insulating. Peroxo-groups are responsible for gap states, which significantly reduce the electronic band gap of both Al4O7 and AlO2.

  8. FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pike, J; Jeffrey Gillam, J

    2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved aluminum will be stored in Tank 8 and 21,000 kg will be stored in saltcake via evaporation. Up to 77% of the total aluminum planned for SB6 may be removed via aluminum dissolution. Storage of the aluminum-laden supernate in Tank 8 will require routine evaluation of the free hydroxide concentration in order to maintain aluminum in solution. Periodic evaluation will be established on concurrent frequency with corrosion program samples as previously established for aluminum-laden supernate from SB5 that is stored in Tank 11.

  9. Production of sodium-22 from proton irradiated aluminum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Wayne A. (Los Alamos, NM); Heaton, Richard C. (Los Alamos, NM); Jamriska, David J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for selective separation of sodium-22 from a proton irradiated minum target including dissolving a proton irradiated aluminum target in hydrochloric acid to form a first solution including aluminum ions and sodium ions, separating a portion of the aluminum ions from the first solution by crystallization of an aluminum salt, contacting the remaining first solution with an anion exchange resin whereby ions selected from the group consisting of iron and copper are selectively absorbed by the anion exchange resin while aluminum ions and sodium ions remain in solution, contacting the solution with an cation exchange resin whereby aluminum ions and sodium ions are adsorbed by the cation exchange resin, and, contacting the cation exchange resin with an acid solution capable of selectively separating the adsorbed sodium ions from the cation exchange resin while aluminum ions remain adsorbed on the cation exchange resin is disclosed.

  10. Fabrication of nickel microbump on aluminum using electroless nickel plating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, H.; Honma, H. [Kanto Gakuin Univ., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of nickel microbumps on an aluminum electrode using a nickel displacement and a direct nickel plating process was investigated. Electroless nickel plating reaction with hypophosphite as a reducing agent was not initiated on the aluminum substrate, because aluminum does not have catalytic action on the oxidation of hypophosphite. Accordingly, nickel was initially deposited on the aluminum using nickel displacement plating for the initiation of the electroless plating. Nickel bumps on the aluminum electrode were fabricated by treatment of the nickel displacement plating followed by electroless nickel plating. Nickel microbumps also can be formed on the aluminum electrode without the displacement plating process. Activation of the aluminum surface is an indispensable process to initiate electroless nickel plating. Uniform bumps 20 {micro}m wide and 15 {micro}m high with good configuration were obtained by direct nickel plating after being activated with dimethyl amine borane.

  11. Microarray Analysis on Human Neuroblastoma Cells Exposed to Aluminum, Beta1–42-Amyloid or the Beta1–42-Amyloid Aluminum Complex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J (1992) Selective accumulation of aluminum and iron in theB, Tognon G, Zatta P (2005) Aluminum-triggered structuralrole of beta-amyloid(1-42)-aluminum complex in Alzheimer’s

  12. Micro Catalytic Combustor with Pd/Nano-porous Alumina for High-Temperature Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    Micro Catalytic Combustor with Pd/Nano-porous Alumina for High-Temperature Application Takashi: A micro-scale catalytic combustor using high-precision ceramic tape-casting technology has been developed surface reaction of butane. In combustion experiments with a prototype combustor, the wall temperature

  13. Creep behavior in SiC whisker-reinforced alumina composite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, H.T.; Becher, P.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Grain boundary sliding (often accompanied by cavitation) is a major contributor to compressive and tensile creep deformation in fine-grained aluminas, both with and without whisker-reinforcement. Studies indicate that the creep response of alumina composites reinforced with SiC whiskers can be tailored by controlling the composite microstructure and composition. The addition of SiC whiskers (< 30 vol%) significantly increases the creep resistance of fine-grained (1--2 {mu}m) alumina in air at temperatures of 1,200 and 1,300 C. However, at higher whisker contents (30 and 50 vol%), the creep resistance is degraded due to enhanced surface oxidation reactions accompanied by extensive creep cavitation. Densification aids (i.e., Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}), which facilitate silica glass formation and thus liquid phase densification of the composites, can also result in degradation of creep resistance. On the other hand, increasing the matrix grain size or decreasing the whisker aspect ratio (increased whisker number density) results in raising the creep resistance of the composites. These observations not only explain the variability in the creep response of various SiC whisker-reinforced alumina composites but also indicate factors that can be used to enhance the elevated temperature performance.

  14. Alumina atomic layer deposition nanocoatings on primary diamond particles using a fluidized bed reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Steven M.

    /high-temperature (HP/HT) synthesis methods [4­7] led to the discovery of polycrystalline diamond grit and the manufacture of polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) materials [8]. PDC cutters are well known and widely usedAlumina atomic layer deposition nanocoatings on primary diamond particles using a fluidized bed

  15. Evaluation of Composite Alumina Nanoparticle and Nitrate Eutectic Materials for use in Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malik, Darren R.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Solar Two power tower and is currently employed as the TES material at Andasol 1 in Spain. Concentrations of alumina nanoparticles between 0.1% and 10% by weight were introduced into the base material in an effort to create nanofluids which would exhibit...

  16. Electrical conductivity and current-voltage characteristics of alumina with or without neutron and electron irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howlader, Matiar R

    irradiation. Radiation induced conductivity (RIC) was observed for all speci- mens under neutron and electron of the leading candidates for insula- tor and radiofrequency window/feedthrough applica- tions in magnetic fusion of alumina. Radiation induced conductivity (RIC) and radiation induced electrical de- gradation (RIED

  17. WRINKLING OF a-ALUMINA FILMS GROWN BY OXIDATIONII. OXIDE SEPARATION AND FAILURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, David R.

    of thermal cycling on these modes of separation and how they may lead to oxide spalling are discussed. # 1998WRINKLING OF a-ALUMINA FILMS GROWN BY OXIDATIONÐII. OXIDE SEPARATION AND FAILURE V. K. TOLPYGO oxidation and cooling to room temperature. One type is a form of buckling where the size of the detached

  18. Atomistic structure of sodium and calcium silicate intergranular films in alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garofalini, Stephen H.

    Atomistic structure of sodium and calcium silicate intergranular films in alumina David A. Litton March 1998; accepted 21 October 1998) Sodium silicate intergranular films (IGF) in contact. The results were compared to previous simulations of calcium silicate and sol-gel silica IGF's in contact

  19. Processing and Mechanical Properties of Ti2AlC Reinforced with Alumina Fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, Kwonguk

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    , even at temperature as high as 1400 oC at which reaction between Ti2AlC and NextelTM 720 was observed. The double torsion (DT) tests were carried out at room temperature to measure the fracture toughness of the HIPed pure and 5vol% alumina fiber...

  20. STRESS-DENSITY VARIATIONS IN ALUMINA SEDIMENTS: EFFECTS OF POLYMER CHEMISTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    rearrangement into densely packed structures. Polysiloxanes are excellent lubricants (e.g., silicon oil) due151 STRESS-DENSITY VARIATIONS IN ALUMINA SEDIMENTS: EFFECTS OF POLYMER CHEMISTRY C. H. SCHILLING) the magnitude of the effective stresses (i.e., stresses that are supported by the particulate network) and (ii

  1. Differential Pair Distribution Function Study of the Structure of Arsenate Adsorbed on Nanocrystalline [gamma]-Alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wei; Harrington, Richard; Tang, Yuanzhi; Kubicki, James D.; Aryanpour, Masoud; Reeder, Richard J.; Parise, John B.; Phillips, Brian L. (SBU); (Penn)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural information is important for understanding surface adsorption mechanisms of contaminants on metal (hydr)oxides. In this work, a novel technique was employed to study the interfacial structure of arsenate oxyanions adsorbed on {gamma}-alumina nanoparticles, namely, differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray total scattering. The d-PDF is the difference of properly normalized PDFs obtained for samples with and without arsenate adsorbed, otherwise identically prepared. The real space pattern contains information on atomic pair correlations between adsorbed arsenate and the atoms on {gamma}-alumina surface (Al, O, etc.). PDF results on the arsenate adsorption sample on {gamma}-alumina prepared at 1 mM As concentration and pH 5 revealed two peaks at 1.66 {angstrom} and 3.09 {angstrom}, corresponding to As-O and As-Al atomic pair correlations. This observation is consistent with those measured by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, which suggests a first shell of As-O at 1.69 {+-} 0.01 {angstrom} with a coordination number of 4 and a second shell of As-Al at 3.13 {+-} 0.04 {angstrom} with a coordination number of 2. These results are in agreement with a bidentate binuclear coordination environment to the octahedral Al of {gamma}-alumina as predicted by density functional theory (DFT) calculation.

  2. Mullite/Alumina Mixtures for Use as Porous Matrices in Oxide Fiber Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zok, Frank

    ceramic composites. Conditions for the deflection of a matrix crack at a fiber-matrix interface are used particle mixtures of mullite and alumina are assessed as candidate matrixes for use in porous matrix to identify the combinations of modulus and toughness of the fibers and the matrix for which damage

  3. Effect of testing conditions and doping on superplastic creep of alumina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    716 Effect of testing conditions and doping on superplastic creep of alumina P. Gruffel, P. Carry. pressive creep tests at 1450 °C [3]. It was un- ambiguously established that: - normal grain growth took superplastic deformation. Fig. 1. Strain rate variations during creep tests in compression C and tension

  4. Surface preparation for high purity alumina ceramics enabling direct brazing in hydrogen atmospheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cadden, Charles H. (Danville, CA); Yang, Nancy Yuan Chi (Lafayette, CA); Hosking, Floyd M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen that enables direct brazing in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by this brazing method. The presence of silicon, in the form of a SiO.sub.2 -containing surface layer, can more than double the tensile bond strength in alumina ceramic joints brazed in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active Au-16Ni-0.75 Mo-1.75V filler metal. A thin silicon coating applied by PVD processing can, after air firing, produce a semi-continuous coverage of the alumina surface with a SiO.sub.2 film. Room temperature tensile strength was found to be proportional to the fraction of air fired surface covered by silicon-containing films. Similarly, the ratio of substrate fracture versus interface separation was also related to the amount of surface silicon present prior to brazing. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

  5. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells - Refining the Message Initiating a National Dialogue and Educational Agenda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggert, Anthony; Kurani, Kenneth S; Turrentine, Tom; Ogden, Joan M; Sperling, Dan; Winston, Emily

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    April 1, 2005 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the MessageHydrogen and Fuel Cells – Refining the Message Initiating athe communication problem. Hydrogen and fuel cells have now

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - amerya petroleum refining Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ) Petroleum Refining Efficiency: 150 ppm S RFG with MTBE: GBS (d) Petroleum Refining... Eficiency: ... Source: Argonne National Laboratory - GREET Model Project Collection:...

  7. Iterative model-building, structure refinement, and density modification with the PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terwilliger, T. C.; Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Building 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, England

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iterative model-building, structure refinement, and densitytool for iterative model- building, structure refinement andusing RESOLVE or TEXTAL model- building, RESOLVE statistical

  8. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    S O N D 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Retail < or 1% Wholesale < or 1% Retail > 1% Wholesale > 1% 7. U.S. Refiner Residual Fuel Oil Prices and...

  9. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    150.0 2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  10. Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    253.2 2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  11. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    150.0 2,026.7 W W 234.5 161.7 - 396.3 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  12. Petroleum Products Table 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    253.2 2,222.4 W W 206.4 134.3 - 340.7 See footnotes at end of table. 43. Refiner Motor Gasoline Volumes by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District, and State 262 Energy Information...

  13. Consensus Clustering Algorithms: Comparison and Refinement Andrey Goder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filkov, Vladimir

    -deterministic clustering algorithms, e.g. K-means, are sensitive to the choice of the initial seed clusters; running K-meansConsensus Clustering Algorithms: Comparison and Refinement Andrey Goder Vladimir Filkov Computer

  14. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Refiner Retail Volumes 1995 Annual Averages Motor Gasoline No. 2 Distillate Propane Kero-jet Residual Fuel Oil Other 39.1% 17.4% 2.2% 32.0% 8.1% 1.1% Energy Information...

  15. Japan`s refiner/marketers headed for major shakeout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Japan`s downstream oil industry is in a state of crisis and headed for a major shakeout. The major catalyst for this was a dramatic deregulation step during April 1996 that allowed refined petroleum product imports by non-refiners. The move, together with a sharp drop in refining margins, falling retail gasoline prices, and a service station sector on the brink of collapse, are all leading to massive changes in the way the country`s refiners and marketers do business. This paper reviews the collapse of corporate profits during this period of deregulation; the development of a new price system geared toward bringing the prices of gasoline, fuel oil, and kerosene into line with each other to offset the fall in gasoline prices; and industry restructuring including mergers, acquisitions, and marketing consolidation. The paper then makes predictions on the outcome of these changes on the Japanese oil industry.

  16. Polygons in Buildings and their Refined Side Lengths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kapovich, Michael; Leeb, Bernhard; Millson, John J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1999. [Bro] K. Brown, Buildings, Springer, 1989. [BuBI] D.AMS, 2001. [D] M. Davis, Buildings are CAT(0), in “Geometryat Springerlink.com POLYGONS IN BUILDINGS AND THEIR REFINED

  17. Lithium ion diffusion in Li ?-alumina single crystals measured by pulsed field gradient NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Tareque, E-mail: mtareque@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.jp; Takekawa, Reiji; Iwai, Yoshiki; Kuwata, Naoaki; Kawamura, Junichi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)] [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The lithium ion diffusion coefficient of a 93% Li ?-alumina single crystal was measured for the first time using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR spectroscopy with two different crystal orientations. The diffusion coefficient was found to be 1.2 × 10{sup ?11} m{sup 2}/s in the direction perpendicular to the c axis at room temperature. The Li ion diffusion coefficient along the c axis direction was found to be very small (6.4 × 10{sup ?13} m{sup 2}/s at 333 K), which suggests that the macroscopic diffusion of the Li ion in the ?-alumina crystal is mainly two-dimensional. The diffusion coefficient for the same sample was also estimated using NMR line narrowing data and impedance measurements. The impedance data show reasonable agreement with PFG-NMR data, while the line narrowing measurements provided a lower value for the diffusion coefficient. Line narrowing measurements also provided a relatively low value for the activation energy and pre-exponential factor. The temperature dependent diffusion coefficient was obtained in the temperature range 297–333 K by PFG-NMR, from which the activation energy for diffusion of the Li ion was estimated. The activation energy obtained by PFG-NMR was smaller than that obtained by impedance measurements, which suggests that thermally activated defect formation energy exists for 93% Li ?-alumina single crystals. The diffusion time dependence of the diffusion coefficient was observed for the Li ion in the 93% Li ?-alumina single crystal by means of PFG-NMR experiments. Motion of Li ion in fractal dimension might be a possible explanation for the observed diffusion time dependence of the diffusion coefficient in the 93% Li ?–alumina system.

  18. Steps taken at Malelane refinery to improve refined sugar quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M Moodley; Pm Schorn

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The refinery at Malelane has in the past produced refined sugar for the consumer market. A decision was taken by the management of Transvaal Sugar (TSB) to produce a quality of refined sugar that would also be acceptable to the industrial and the export markets. The processes that were evaluated and implemented at the Malelane refinery during the past three seasons to achieve this objective, are described.

  19. Crystal-structure refinement of zirconium-rich eudialyte and its place among calcium-poor eudialyte-group minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aksenov, S. M., E-mail: aks.crys@gmail.com; Rastsvetaeva, R. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The repeated refinement of the crystal structure of zirconium-rich eudialyte based on the X-ray diffraction data set collected earlier revealed new structural features. The trigonal unit-cell parameters are a = 14.222(3) A, c = 30.165(5) A, V = 5283.9 A{sup 3}. The refinement resulted in the reduction of the R factor from 0.045 (2347F > 4{sigma}(F)) to 0.035 (3124F > 3{sigma}(F)). It was found that the ordering of Ca and Fe in six-membered rings leads to the lowering of the symmetry to R3. An excess amount of zirconium (more than three atoms per symmetrically independent unit) is located in the M2 microregion in square and five-vertex polyhedral positions. However, this amount is insufficient to be dominant, and the deficiency of zirconium is compensated for by sodium atoms. Based on the new data, zirconium-rich eudialyte can be assigned to the oneillite subtype, being a zirconium-rich and aluminum variety of raslakite.

  20. Recovery of gallium from aluminum industry residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carvalho, M.S.; Neto, K.C.M.; Nobrega, A.W.; Medeiros, J.A.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A procedure is proposed to recover gallium from flue dust aluminum residues produced in plants by using solid-phase extraction with a commercial polyether-type polyurethane foam (PUF). Gallium can be separated from high concentrations of aluminum, iron, nickel, titanium, vanadium, copper, zinc, sulfate, fluoride, and chloride by extraction with PUF from 3 M sulfuric acid and 3 M sodium chloride concentration medium with at least a 92% efficiency. Gallium backextraction was fast and quantitative with ethanol solution. In all recovery steps commercial-grade reagents could be used, including tap water. The recovered gallium was precipitated with sodium hydroxide solution, purified by dissolution and precipitation, calcinated, and the final oxide was 98.6% pure.

  1. Fluorescence energy transfer enhancement in aluminum nanoapertures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Torres, Juan; Moparthi, Satish Babu; Grigoriev, Victor; Wenger, Jérome

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zero-mode waveguides (ZMWs) are confining light into attoliter volumes, enabling single molecule fluorescence experiments at physiological micromolar concentrations. Among the fluorescence spectroscopy techniques that can be enhanced by ZMWs, F\\"{o}rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is one of the most widely used in life sciences. Combining zero-mode waveguides with FRET provides new opportunities to investigate biochemical structures or follow interaction dynamics at micromolar concentration with single molecule resolution. However, prior to any quantitative FRET analysis on biological samples, it is crucial to establish first the influence of the ZMW on the FRET process. Here, we quantify the FRET rates and efficiencies between individual donor-acceptor fluorophore pairs diffusing in aluminum zero-mode waveguides. Aluminum ZMWs are important structures thanks to their commercial availability and the large literature describing their use for single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy. We also compare the ...

  2. Generation and structural characterization of aluminum cyanoacetylide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabezas, Carlos; Peña, Isabel; Alonso, José L., E-mail: alargo@qf.uva.es, E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Parque Científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén 5, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Barrientos, Carmen; Largo, Antonio, E-mail: alargo@qf.uva.es, E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es [Departamento de Química Física y Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Campus Miguel Delibes, Paseo de Belén 7, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Guillemin, Jean-Claude [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Cernicharo, José [Group of Molecular Astrophysics, ICMM C/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz N3 Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined spectroscopy measurements and theoretical calculations bring to light a first investigation of a metallic cyanoacetylide, AlC{sub 3}N, using laser ablation molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. This molecule was synthesized in a supersonic expansion by the reaction of aluminum vapour with C{sub 3}N, produced from solid aluminum rods and BrCCCN in a newly constructed ablation-heating nozzle device. A set of accurate rotational and {sup 27}Al and {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants have been determined from the analysis of the rotational spectrum and compared with those predicted in a high-level ab initio study, conducting to the assignment of the observed species to linear AlCCCN. We have searched for this species towards the carbon-rich evolved star IRC + 10216 but only an upper limit to its abundance has been obtained.

  3. Inert anodes and advanced smelting of aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ASME Technical Working Group on Inert Anode Technologies

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a broad assessment of open literature and patents that exist in the area of inert anodes and their related cathode systems and cell designs, technologies that are relevant for the advanced smelting of aluminum. The report also discusses the opportunities, barriers, and issued associated with these technologies from a technical, environmental, and economic viewpoint. It discusses the outlook for the direct retrofit of advanced reduction technologies to existing aluminum smelters, and compares retrofits to ''brown field'' usage and ''green field'' adoption of the technologies. A number of observations and recommendations are offered for consideration concerning further research and development efforts that may be directed toward these advanced technologies. The opportunities are discussed in the context of incremental progress that is being made in conventional Hall-Heroult cell systems.

  4. Laser assisted arc welding for aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuerschbach, P.W.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been performed using a coaxial end-effector to combine a focused laser beam and a plasma arc. The device employs a hollow tungsten electrode, a focusing lens, and conventional plasma arc torch nozzles to co-locate the focused beam and arc on the workpiece. Plasma arc nozzles were selected to protect the electrode from laser generated metal vapor. The project goal is to develop an improved fusion welding process that exhibits both absorption robustness and deep penetration for small scale (<1.5 mm thickness) applications. On aluminum alloys 6061 and 6111, the hybrid process has been shown to eliminate hot cracking in the fusion zone. Fusion zone dimensions for both stainless steel and aluminum were found to be wider than characteristic laser welds, and deeper than characteristic plasma arc welds.

  5. Ignition of Aluminum Particles and Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhl, A L; Boiko, V M

    2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Here we review experimental data and models of the ignition of aluminum (Al) particles and clouds in explosion fields. The review considers: (i) ignition temperatures measured for single Al particles in torch experiments; (ii) thermal explosion models of the ignition of single Al particles; and (iii) the unsteady ignition Al particles clouds in reflected shock environments. These are used to develop an empirical ignition model appropriate for numerical simulations of Al particle combustion in shock dispersed fuel explosions.

  6. Experimental superplastic characterization of advanced aluminum alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kopp, Christopher Carl

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of America Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. R. E. Goforth An investigation into the experimental superplastic characterization of advanced aluminum alloys consisted of the design and assembly of an experimental test facility for measuring the effects... of strain-rate, temperature and hydrostatic pressure. The experimental apparatus was designed to accurately monitor these parameters while allowing for active control of the strain-rate and hydrostatic pressure. The results obtained from...

  7. Dissolved aluminum in the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myre, Peggy Lynne

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in areas of minimum sediment resuspension. With limited data available it appears that the boundary of the sediment/water interface does release dissolved Al, but kinetically Al should decrease with depth in the sediment during authigenesis. The Al... DISSOLVED ALUMINUM IN THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by PEGGY LYNNE MYRE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Majo...

  8. Influence of argon and oxygen on charge-state-resolved ion energy distributions of filtered aluminum arcs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Johanna; Anders, Andre; Mraz, Stanislav; Atiser, Adil; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy distributions of filtered aluminum arcs Johanna Roséndistributions (IEDs) in filtered aluminum vacuum arc plasmasfor vacuum arc plasmas. Aluminum plasma, for example,

  9. THE PROTOTYPE ALUMINUM - CARBON SINGLE, DOUBLE, AND TRIPLE BONDS: Al - CH3, Al = CH2, AND Al. = CH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    three prototype Table II. aluminum-carbon bonds and theirPhysics THE PROTOTYPE ALUMINUM - CARBON SINGLE, DOUBLE, ANDLBL-l0871 The Prototype Aluminum - Carbon Single, Double.

  10. INSTITUTE FOR SHOCK PHYSICSLaser-Shock Spall Experiments in Aluminum II: Interface Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    fracture in aluminum alloys at short time scales (10-8 s) · Role of PMMA backing material window -Changing. (2006) * Advised by Yoshi Toyoda and Y. M. Gupta Aluminum Thickness (m) Aluminum Alloy AluminumINSTITUTE FOR SHOCK PHYSICSLaser-Shock Spall Experiments in Aluminum II: Interface Measurements

  11. Friction Stir Weld Failure Mechanisms in Aluminum-Armor Structures Under Ballistic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    in armor structures made of high-performance aluminum alloys (including solution-strengthened and age-hardenable aluminum alloy grades). It is argued that due to the large width of FSW joints found in thick aluminum-solution strengthened and cold-worked aluminum alloy armor FSW-weld test structure. Keywords aluminum armor, ballistic

  12. Thermal cycling effect on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a carbonate eutectic with alumina nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shankar, Sandhya

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to measure the effect of thermal cycling on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a nanocomposite material consisting of a eutectic of lithium carbonate and potassium carbonate and 1% by mass alumina...

  13. aluminum equivalent approximation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - TxSpace Summary: based coatings. The Coors Brewing Company Can Manufacturing Plant has been utilizing this technology in full scale aluminum can production since 1975,...

  14. aluminum calcium sodium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the pores Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 380 2009 SIMULIA Customer Conference 1 Aluminum Bottle Forming Simulation with Abaqus Engineering Websites Summary: 2009 SIMULIA Customer...

  15. aluminum alloy pressure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the pores Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 349 2009 SIMULIA Customer Conference 1 Aluminum Bottle Forming Simulation with Abaqus Engineering Websites Summary: 2009 SIMULIA Customer...

  16. Aluminum-stabilized Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scanlan, R.M.

    1988-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are an aluminum-stabilized Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb[sub 3]Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials. 4 figs.

  17. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Anton (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  18. Aluminum-stabilized Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scanlan, R.M.

    1984-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent discloses an aluminum-stabilized Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor and process for producing same, utilizing ultrapure aluminum. Ductile components are co-drawn with aluminum to produce a conductor suitable for winding magnets. After winding, the conductor is heated to convert it to the brittle Nb/sub 3/Sn superconductor phase, using a temperature high enough to perform the transformation but still below the melting point of the aluminum. This results in reaction of substantially all of the niobium, while providing stabilization and react-in-place features which are beneficial in the fabrication of magnets utilizing superconducting materials.

  19. Joining of parts via magnetic heating of metal aluminum powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Ian

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of joining at least two parts includes steps of dispersing a joining material comprising a multi-phase magnetic metal-aluminum powder at an interface between the at least two parts to be joined and applying an alternating magnetic field (AMF). The AMF has a magnetic field strength and frequency suitable for inducing magnetic hysteresis losses in the metal-aluminum powder and is applied for a period that raises temperature of the metal-aluminum powder to an exothermic transformation temperature. At the exothermic transformation temperature, the metal-aluminum powder melts and resolidifies as a metal aluminide solid having a non-magnetic configuration.

  20. Fracture of welded aluminum thin-walled structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Li, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive methodology was developed in the thesis for damage prediction of welded aluminum thin-walled structures, which includes material modeling, calibration, numerical simulation and experimental verification. ...

  1. Aluminum nitrate recrystallization and recovery from liquid extraction raffinates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, W.L.; Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Huxtable, W.P.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solid sludges resulting form biodenitrification of discarded aluminum nitrate are the largest Y-12 Plant process solid waste. Aluminum nitrate feedstocks also represent a major plant materials cost. The chemical constraints on aluminum nitrate recycle were investigated to determine the feasibility of increasing recycle while maintaining acceptable aluminum nitrate purity. Reported phase behavior of analogous systems, together with bench research, indicated that it would be possible to raise the recycle rate from 35% to between 70 and 90% by successive concentration and recrystallization of the mother liquor. A full scale pilot test successfully confirmed the ability to obtain 70% recycle in existing process equipment.

  2. Microsoft PowerPoint - Aluminum Concentrations in Storm Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    It is never found free in nature and is found in most rocks, primarily in stable silicate mineral phases such as feldspars and phylosilicates. Aluminum enters environmental...

  3. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  4. Aluminum fluoride inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor inactivation and transformation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Housley, P.R. (Univ. of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia (USA))

    1990-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluoride, in the presence of aluminum ions, reversibly inhibits the temperature-mediated inactivation of unoccupied glucocorticoid receptors in cytosol preparations from mouse L cells. The effect is concentration-dependent, with virtually complete stabilization of specific glucocorticoid-binding capacity at 2 mM fluoride and 100 microM aluminum. These concentrations of aluminum and fluoride are ineffective when used separately. Aluminum fluoride also stabilizes receptors toward inactivation by gel filtration and ammonium sulfate precipitation. Aluminum fluoride prevents temperature-dependent transformation of steroid-receptor complexes to the DNA-binding state. Aluminum fluoride does not inhibit calf intestine alkaline phosphatase, and unoccupied receptors inactivated by this enzyme in the presence of aluminum fluoride can be completely reactivated by dithiothreitol. The effects of aluminum fluoride are due to stabilization of the complex between the glucocorticoid receptor and the 90-kDa mammalian heat-shock protein hsp90, which suggests that aluminum fluoride interacts directly with the receptor. Endogenous thermal inactivation of receptors in cytosol is not accompanied by receptor dephosphorylation. However, inactivation is correlated with dissociation of hsp90 from the unoccupied receptor. These results support the proposal that hsp90 is required for the receptor to bind steroid and dissociation of hsp90 is sufficient to inactivate the unoccupied receptor.

  5. aluminum oxide membrane: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aluminum oxide grown on the Fe at 850 C forms a homogeneous hexagonal oxide film with a thickness of approximately 10 ?. Core level 38 Development of novel...

  6. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: GHG Inventory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gas Protocol enhances and expands for the aluminum sector the World Business Council for Sustainable DevelopmentWorld Resources Institute greenhouse gas corporate accounting and...

  7. aluminum alloy parts: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloy that may combine strength, extrudability, favorable corrosion resistance with low cost and scrap compatibility. The first (more) Li, Xiao, 1963-...

  8. aluminum alloy aa: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For a wide Grujicic, Mica 2 Processing and Properties of Environmentally-Friendly Corrosion Resistant Hybrid Nanocomposite Coatings for Aluminum Alloy AA2024. Open Access...

  9. aluminum alloy processed: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloy that may combine strength, extrudability, favorable corrosion resistance with low cost and scrap compatibility. The first (more) Li, Xiao, 1963-...

  10. aluminum alloys part: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloy that may combine strength, extrudability, favorable corrosion resistance with low cost and scrap compatibility. The first (more) Li, Xiao, 1963-...

  11. Adaptive mesh refinement for shocks and material interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, William Wenlong [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are three kinds of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in structured meshes. Block-based AMR sometimes over refines meshes. Cell-based AMR treats cells cell by cell and thus loses the advantage of the nature of structured meshes. Patch-based AMR is intended to combine advantages of block- and cell-based AMR, i.e., the nature of structured meshes and sharp regions of refinement. But, patch-based AMR has its own difficulties. For example, patch-based AMR typically cannot preserve symmetries of physics problems. In this paper, we will present an approach for a patch-based AMR for hydrodynamics simulations. The approach consists of clustering, symmetry preserving, mesh continuity, flux correction, communications, management of patches, and load balance. The special features of this patch-based AMR include symmetry preserving, efficiency of refinement across shock fronts and material interfaces, special implementation of flux correction, and patch management in parallel computing environments. To demonstrate the capability of the AMR framework, we will show both two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with many levels of refinement.

  12. Ab Initio Study of the Interaction of Water with Cluster Models of the Aluminum Terminated (0001) r-Aluminum Oxide Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Ab Initio Study of the Interaction of Water with Cluster Models of the Aluminum Terminated (0001) r-Aluminum to hydroxylation of the aluminum terminated surface, the two water process was found to be the most exothermic, occurring within 10-2 s. I. Introduction As one of the most important ceramic materials, R-aluminum oxide

  13. Synthesis and characterization of aluminium–alumina micro- and nano-composites by spark plasma sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dash, K., E-mail: khushbudash@gmail.com; Chaira, D.; Ray, B.C.

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: The evolution of microstructure by varying the particle size of reinforcement in the matrix employing spark plasma sintering has been demonstrated here in Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. An emphasis has been laid on varying the reinforcement particle size and evaluating the microstructural morphologies and their implications on mechanical performance of the composites. Nanocomposites of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7 volume % alumina (average size < 50 nm) reinforced in aluminium matrix were fabricated by powder metallurgy route using spark plasma sintering technique technique at a temperature of 773 K and pressure of 50 MPa. Another set of specimens having composition 1, 5, 20 vol.% of alumina (average size ? 10 ?m) had been fabricated to compare the physical as well as mechanical attributes of the microcomposite as well as the nanocomposites. These micro- and nano-composites have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy followed by density, microhardness and nanoindentation measurements. The alumina nanoparticles revealed an interface showing appreciable physical intimacy with the aluminium matrix compared to that of the alumina microparticles. The interfacial integrity in case of nanocomposites is better than in the microcomposite which has been studied using microscopic techniques. Spark plasma sintering imparts enhanced densification as well as matrix-reinforcement proximity which has been corroborated with the experimental results. - Highlights: • The Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} micro- and nano-composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering. • Better matrix-reinforcement integrity in nanocomposites than microcomposites. • Spark plasma sintering method results in higher density and hardness values. • High density and hardness values of nanocomposites than microcomposites. • High dislocation density in spark plasma sintered Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites. - Abstract: In the present study, an emphasis has been laid on evaluation of the microstructural morphologies and their implications on mechanical performance of the composites by varying the reinforcement particle size. Nanocomposites of 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7 volume % alumina (average size < 50 nm) and microcomposites of 1, 5, 20 volume % of alumina (average size ? 10 ?m) reinforced in aluminium matrix were fabricated by spark plasma sintering technique at a temperature of 773 K and pressure of 50 MPa. These micro- and nano-composites have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy followed by density, microhardness and nanoindentation hardness measurements. The alumina nanoparticles revealed appreciable physical intimacy with the aluminium matrix than that of alumina microparticles. The highest nanohardness recorded 0.85 GPa and 99% densification for 7 and 1 vol.% Al–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nancomposites respectively. Spark plasma sintering imparts enhanced densification and matrix-reinforcement proximity which have been corroborated with the experimental results.

  14. Particle shape effects on thermo-physical properties of alumina nanofluids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timofeeva, E.; Routbort, J.; Singh, D. (Energy Systems); ( NE)

    2009-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivity and viscosity of various shapes of alumina nanoparticles in a fluid consisting of equal volumes of ethylene glycol and water were investigated. Experimental data were analyzed and accompanied by theoretical modeling. Enhancements in the effective thermal conductivities due to particle shape effects expected from Hamilton-Crosser equation are strongly diminished by interfacial effects proportional to the total surface area of nanoparticles. On the other hand, the presence of nanoparticles and small volume fractions of agglomerates with high aspect ratios strongly increases viscosity of suspensions due to structural constrains. Nanoparticle surface charge also plays an important role in viscosity. It is demonstrated that by adjusting pH of nanofluid, it is possible to reduce viscosity of alumina nanofluid without significantly affecting thermal conductivity. Efficiency of nanofluids (ratio of thermal conductivity and viscosity increase) for real-life cooling applications is evaluated in both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes using the experimental values of thermal conductivity and viscosity.

  15. Novel method for the prediction of an interface bonding species at alumina/metal interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshitake, Michiko, E-mail: yoshitake.michiko@nims.go.jp; Yagyu, Shinjiro [National Institute for Materials Science, 3-13, Sakura, Tsukuba 305-0003 (Japan); Chikyow, Toyohiro [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1, Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Interface bonding between alumina and various metals is discussed from the viewpoint of chemical thermodynamics. A method to predict the interface bonding species at an alumina/metal interface under equilibrium conditions is proposed by using the concept of chemical equilibrium for interface termination. The originality of this method is in the way a simple estimation of the interface binding energy, which is generally applicable to most metals, is developed. The effectiveness of this method is confirmed by careful examination of the experimental results. Comparison of the predicted and experimentally observed interface terminations reveals that the proposed method agrees well with the reported results. The method uses only basic quantities of pure elements and the formation enthalpy of oxides. Therefore, it can be applied to most metals in the periodic table and is useful for screening materials in the quest to develop interfaces with particular functions.

  16. Fischer-Tropsch activity for non-promoted cobalt-on-alumina catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singleton, Alan H. (Baden, PA); Oukaci, Rachid (Gibsonia, PA); Goodwin, James G. (Gibsonia, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cobalt catalysts, and processes employing these inventive catalysts, for hydrocarbon synthesis. The inventive catalyst comprises cobalt on an alumina support and is not promoted with any noble or near noble metals. In one aspect of the invention, the alumina support preferably includes a dopant in an amount effective for increasing the activity of the inventive catalyst. The dopant is preferably a titanium dopant. In another aspect of the invention, the cobalt catalyst is preferably reduced in the presence of hydrogen at a water vapor partial pressure effective to increase the activity of the cobalt catalyst for hydrocarbon synthesis. The water vapor partial pressure is preferably in the range of from 0 to about 0.1 atmospheres.

  17. aluminum alloy 6061-t6: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    resolution study of the impact of an aluminum sphere on an aluminum plate supported by a hollow aluminum cylinder. In a previous report, an optimal set of input parameters The...

  18. loading dir (MPa) Grain Boundary Decohesion and Particle-Matrix Debonding in Aluminum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    loading dir (MPa) Grain Boundary Decohesion and Particle-Matrix Debonding in Aluminum Alloy 7075-T - matrix debonding occur in some aluminum alloys. · To model accurately MSFC behavior in aluminum

  19. Low-Cycle Fatigue of Ultra-Fine-Grained Cryomilled 5083 Aluminum Alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walley, J. L.; Lavernia, E. J.; Gibeling, J. C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an Ultra-Fine Grained Aluminum Alloy, Poster Session, TMS,with other MA aluminum alloys and is attributed to theGrained Cryomilled 5083 Aluminum Alloy J.L. WALLEY, E.J.

  20. Influences on Burr Size During Face-Milling of Aluminum Alloys and Cast Iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shefelbine, Wendy; Dornfeld, David

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    burrs. As with the aluminum alloys, the machining conditionsON BURR FORMATION As with the aluminum alloys, there is someFACE-MILLING OF ALUMINUM-SILICON ALLOYS AND CAST IRON Wendy

  1. Economic and environmental evaluation of end-of-life aerospace aluminum options using optimization methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Emily, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The benefits of recycling have long been understood and the conspicuous energy savings of secondary aluminum production have caused aluminum recycling to increase. Obsolete aircraft are a valuable source of aluminum scrap ...

  2. Aluminum-tungsten fiber composites with cylindrical geometry and controlled architecture of tungsten reinforcement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucchese, Carl Joesph

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chung, D. “Silicon-Aluminum Network Composites Fabricated byFigure 95 - Fine model with initial aluminum matrix failure.slight necking of the aluminum matrix. Note failed elements

  3. Fabrication and applications of nanocomposite structures using anodized aluminum oxide membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gapin, Andrew Isaac

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hall, Process of Reducing Aluminum from its Fluoride SaltsFrary and Z. Jeffries, Aluminum and its Production, McGraw-1 (1948). J. E. Hatch, Aluminum Properties and Physical

  4. Long-term and Highly Aluminum-resistant Root Elongation in a Camphor Tree Cinnamomum camphora

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osawa, Hiroki

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the detoxification of aluminum in roots of tea plant (Oda A, Yamamoto F, Effects of aluminum on growth and biomassT, Beneficial effect of aluminum on growth of plants adapted

  5. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AISI 4340 STEEL MODIFIED WITH ALUMINUM AND SILICON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, M.S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Met. Trans. 1,2163 (1972). Aluminum_~n Iron~, S. L. Case andSTEEL MODIFIED WITH ALUMINUM AND SILIC ON ManjeshwarThe influence of additions of aluminum and combinations of

  6. Low-Cycle Fatigue of Ultra-Fine-Grained Cryomilled 5083 Aluminum Alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walley, J. L.; Lavernia, E. J.; Gibeling, J. C.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of an Ultra-Fine Grained Aluminum Alloy, Poster Session,Grained Cryomilled 5083 Aluminum Alloy J.L. WALLEY, E.J.consistent with other MA aluminum alloys and is attributed

  7. Control of residual aluminum from conventional treatment to improve reverse osmosis performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabelich, C J; Ishida, K P; Gerringer, F W; Evangelista, R; Kalyan, M; Suffet, I H

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2005. The Role of Dissolved Aluminum in Silica Chemistry forDraft Public Health Goal for Aluminum in Drinking Water .1994. Control of Residual Aluminum in Filtered Water . AWWA,

  8. A Fracture Mechanics Approach to Thermal Shock Investigation in Alumina-Based Refractory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volkov-Husovic, T.; Heinemann, R. Jancic; Mitrakovic, D. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Karnegijeva 4, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal shock behavior of large grain size, alumina-based refractories was investigated experimentally using a standard water quench test. A mathematical model was employed to simulate the thermal stability behavior. Behavior of the samples under repeated thermal shock was monitored using ultrasonic measurements of dynamic Young's modulus. Image analysis was used to observe the extent of surface degradation. Analysis of the obtained results for the behavior of large grain size samples under conditions of rapid temperature changes is given.

  9. Structural studies of alumina pillared hectorite using polyvinyl alcohol as a pillaring agent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroenig, Andrea N

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the clay's hydrated cations to be replaced with almost any desired cation by using simple ion exchange methods, allows for the preparation of pillared interlayered clays (PILC's). Homoionic exchange derivatives are readily achievable with simple... the pillaring precursor into A1203 pillars. The resulting alumina pillared clay (Al-PILC) is a stable microporous material with high specific surface area, although this porosity is mainly influenced by the method of preparation. 90 Occelli and Pinnavaia...

  10. Industrial recovery capability. Final report. [Claus alumina catalyst for sulfur production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregg, D.W.

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an evaluation of the vulnerability - to a nuclear strike, terrorist attack, or natural disaster - of our national capacity to produce chlorine, beryllium, and a particular specialty alumina catalyst required for the production of sulfur. All of these industries are of critical importance to the United States economy. Other industries that were examined and found not to be particularly vulnerable are medicinal drugs and silicon wafers for electronics. Thus, only the three more vulnerable industries are addressed in this report.

  11. US refiners choose variety of routes to MTBE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1992-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that refiners and merchant manufacturers in the U.S. are gearing up to produce the large volumes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) needed to comply with oxygenated gasoline requirements. The 1990 U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments specify that, as of the first of this coming November, gasoline containing a minimum of 2.7 wt % oxygen must be sold in 39 CO-nonattainment cities. Refiners and others are scurrying to bring MTBE capacity on line in time to meet this requirement. Many U.S. refiners already have some operating MTBE capacity, but this will not be nearly enough to meet the looming increase in demand. As a result, additional capacity is being constructed worldwide.

  12. Numerical solution of plasma fluid equations using locally refined grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, P., LLNL

    1997-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a numerical method for the solution of plasma fluid equations on block-structured, locally refined grids. The plasma under consideration is typical of those used for the processing of semiconductors. The governing equations consist of a drift-diffusion model of the electrons and an isothermal model of the ions coupled by Poisson's equation. A discretization of the equations is given for a uniform spatial grid, and a time-split integration scheme is developed. The algorithm is then extended to accommodate locally refined grids. This extension involves the advancement of the discrete system on a hierarchy of levels, each of which represents a degree of refinement, together with synchronization steps to ensure consistency across levels. A brief discussion of a software implementation is followed by a presentation of numerical results.

  13. The US petroleum refining industry in the 1980's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the EIA program on petroleum, The US Petroleum Refining Industry in the 1980's, presents a historical analysis of the changes that took place in the US petroleum refining industry during the 1980's. It is intended to be of interest to analysts in the petroleum industry, state and federal government officials, Congress, and the general public. The report consists of six chapters and four appendices. Included is a detailed description of the major events and factors that affected the domestic refining industry during this period. Some of the changes that took place in the 1980's are the result of events that started in the 1970's. The impact of these events on US refinery configuration, operations, economics, and company ownership are examined. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Lithium aluminum/iron sulfide battery having lithium aluminum and silicon as negative electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Marian (Flossmoor, IL); Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a negative electrode, the electrode made thereby and a secondary electrochemical cell using the electrode. Silicon powder is mixed with powdered electroactive material, such as the lithium-aluminum eutectic, to provide an improved electrode and cell.

  15. Geochemistry of Aluminum in High Temperature Brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1999-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective ofthis research is to provide quantitative data on the equilibrium and thermodynamic properties of aluminum minerals required to model changes in permeability and brine chemistry associated with fluid/rock interactions in the recharge, reservoir, and discharge zones of active geothermal systems. This requires a precise knowledge of the thermodynamics and speciation of aluminum in aqueous brines, spanning the temperature and fluid composition rangesencountered in active systems. The empirical and semi-empirical treatments of the solubility/hydrolysis experimental results on single aluminum mineral phases form the basis for the ultimate investigation of the behavior of complex aluminosilicate minerals. The principal objective in FY 1998 was to complete the solubility measurements on boehmite (AIOOH) inNaC1 media( 1 .O and 5.0 molal ionic strength, IOO-250°C). However, additional measurements were also made on boehmite solubility in pure NaOH solutions in order to bolster the database for fitting in-house isopiestic data on this system. Preliminary kinetic Measurements of the dissolution/precipitation of boehmite was also carried out, although these were also not planned in the earlier objective. The 1999 objectives are to incorporate these treatments into existing codes used by the geothermal industry to predict the chemistry ofthe reservoirs; these calculations will be tested for reliability against our laboratory results and field observations. Moreover, based on the success of the experimental methods developed in this program, we intend to use our unique high temperature pH easurement capabilities to make kinetic and equilibrium studies of pH-dependent aluminosilicate transformation reactions and other pH-dependent heterogeneous reactions.

  16. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  17. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state`s total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation`s energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska`s 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  18. Fast electromigration crack in nanoscale aluminum film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emelyanov, O. A., E-mail: oaemel2@gmail.com; Ivanov, I. O. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The current-induced breakage of 20?nm thin aluminum layers deposited onto capacitor grade polypropylene (PP) films is experimentally studied. Biexponential current pulses of different amplitude (10–15?A) and duration (0.1–1??s) were applied to the samples. Breakage occurred after fast development of electromigrating ?200?nm-wide cracks with initial propagation velocity of ?1?m/s under a high current density of ?10{sup 12?}A/m{sup 2}. The cracks stopped when their lengths reached 250–450??m. This behavior is explained by the balance of electromigration and stress-induced atomic fluxes.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Programs and Their Impacts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weakley, S. A.; Roop, J. M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency: • aluminum • chemicals • forest products • glass • metal casting • mining • petroleum refining • steel #0;?#0;? process heating #0;?#0;? heat treating #0;?#0;? forging #0;?#0;? welding #0;?#0;? powder... in their choice of fuels because the technologies currently used in specific processes require a certain fuel. For example, aluminum production requires large amounts of electricity to reduce the alumina to metal. Paper pulping leaves a large residual...

  20. Method of forming aluminum oxynitride material and bodies formed by such methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bakas, Michael P. (Ammon, ID) [Ammon, ID; Lillo, Thomas M. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Chu, Henry S. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering green bodies comprising aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material therein. Such green bodies may comprise aluminum, oxygen, and nitrogen in addition to the aluminum orthophosphate. For example, the green bodies may include a mixture of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, and aluminum orthophosphate or another sacrificial material. Additional methods of forming aluminum oxynitride (AlON) materials include sintering a green body including a sacrificial material therein, using the sacrificial material to form pores in the green body during sintering, and infiltrating the pores formed in the green body with a liquid infiltrant during sintering. Bodies are formed using such methods.

  1. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY. I. GALVONOSTATIC DISCHARGE BEHAVIOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollard, Richard

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    composition profiles in lithium/sulfur battery analogues hasTHE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY. I. GALVONOSTATICthe Lithium-Aluminum, Iron Sulfide Battery I. Galvanostatic

  2. Icosahedral phase formation in rapidly quenched aluminum-ruthenium alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Icosahedral phase formation in rapidly quenched aluminum- ruthenium alloys Steven M. Anlagea phases as a function of composition. We have chosen the aluminum-ruthenium alloy system because. %. The solidified alloys have been studied by electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction to determine

  3. Characteristics of Aluminum Biosorption by Sargassum fluitans Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volesky, Bohumil

    Characteristics of Aluminum Biosorption by Sargassum fluitans Biomass Hak Sung Lee1, * and Bohumil3A 2B2, Canada Abstract: Biomass of nonliving brown seaweed Sargassum fluitans pretreated.5. There are indications that the biomass hydroxyl groups were involved in sequestering the aluminum in the form

  4. BWeb Copy of the Aluminum Chapter from the 1st

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, Andrew

    industry. It then exploits the power of arrays to develop a model which distinguishes between smelters for smelting aluminum on a commercial basis (Smith 1988, p. 17). In today's industry, a large smelter might produce around 0.2 million metric tons (mmt) of aluminum each year. The smelter would be located close

  5. ALUMINUM--2001 6.1 By Patricia A. Plunkert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the Pacific Northwest, and low metal prices led several aluminum smelters to continue to reduce production consumption in 2001. The recycling rate for aluminum UBCs decreased to 55.4%, compared with 62.1% in 2000 prices led smelters in the Pacific Northwest to continue the cutbacks in production that were begun last

  6. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using ceramic inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA); DiMilia, Robert A. (Baton Rouge, LA); Dynys, Joseph M. (New Kensington, PA); Phelps, Frankie E. (Apollo, PA); LaCamera, Alfred F. (Trafford, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising ceramic inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The ceramic inert anodes used in the process may comprise oxides containing Fe and Ni, as well as other oxides, metals and/or dopants.

  7. Aluminum sulfate (alum; Al2 O) is used as a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    477 Aluminum sulfate (alum; Al2 (SO4 )3 ·14H2 O) is used as a chemical treatment of poultry litter, and pelletizing, the use of chemical amendments, primarily aluminum sulfate (alum, Al2 (SO4 )3 ·14H2 O), alter

  8. Molecular Scale Assessment of Methylarsenic Sorption on Aluminum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Molecular Scale Assessment of Methylarsenic Sorption on Aluminum Oxide M A S A Y U K I S H I M I Z than AsV or AsIII , their reduction can produce very toxic MMAIII or DMAIII . Aluminum oxides

  9. Electrolytic production of high purity aluminum using inert anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Liu, Xinghua (Monroeville, PA); Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A. (Murrysville, PA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing commercial purity aluminum in an electrolytic reduction cell comprising inert anodes is disclosed. The method produces aluminum having acceptable levels of Fe, Cu and Ni impurities. The inert anodes used in the process preferably comprise a cermet material comprising ceramic oxide phase portions and metal phase portions.

  10. Aluminum-tungsten fiber composites with cylindrical geometry and controlled architecture of tungsten reinforcement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucchese, Carl Joesph

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements in Alumina and Tungsten Fibre-Reinforcedto-Ductile Transition in Tungsten Single Crystals. ” ScienceToughness of Polycrystalline Tungsten Under Mode I and Mixed

  11. Corrosion behavior of aluminum-lithium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrard, W.N. (Defence Science and Technology Organization, Victoria (Australia))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corrosion behavior of three aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys was investigated in aerated 0.5 M sodium sulfate (Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]), deaerated 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl), and aerated 3.5% NaCl. Corrosion behavior of the Aluminum Association (AA) alloys 2090-T8E41 (UNS A92090, sheet), AA 8090-T851 (UNS A98090, sheet), and AA 8090-T82551 (UNS A98090, bar) was compared to behavior of the conventional AA 7075-T6 (UNS A97075, sheet). Uniform corrosion was the predominant form of attack in aerated Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] and deaerated NaCl, although some localized attack resulted from corrosion of intermetallics on specimen surfaces. Pitting was the main form of attack in aerated NaCl. In all three media, the sheet materials corroded at a similar rate, but the bar form of AA 8090 corroded at a lower rate. Pretreatment of the alloys by immersion in a cerium (Ce) solution inhibited pitting in aerated NaCl but only for a short period.

  12. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murduck, James M. (Lisle, IL); Lepetre, Yves J. (Lauris, FR); Schuller, Ivan K. (Woodridge, IL); Ketterson, John B. (Evanston, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources.

  13. Superconducting structure with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murduck, J.M.; Lepetre, Y.J.; Schuller, I.K.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1989-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconducting structure is formed by depositing alternate layers of aluminum nitride and niobium nitride on a substrate. Deposition methods include dc magnetron reactive sputtering, rf magnetron reactive sputtering, thin-film diffusion, chemical vapor deposition, and ion-beam deposition. Structures have been built with layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride having thicknesses in a range of 20 to 350 Angstroms. Best results have been achieved with films of niobium nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 70 Angstroms and aluminum nitride deposited to a thickness of approximately 20 Angstroms. Such films of niobium nitride separated by a single layer of aluminum nitride are useful in forming Josephson junctions. Structures of 30 or more alternating layers of niobium nitride and aluminum nitride are useful when deposited on fixed substrates or flexible strips to form bulk superconductors for carrying electric current. They are also adaptable as voltage-controlled microwave energy sources. 8 figs.

  14. Time Critical Isosurface Refinement And Smoothing V. Pascucci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    the global geometry of the embedding (no self- intersections) of any approximated level of detail: (i) a progressive al- gorithm that builds a multi-resolution surface by successive refine- ments so of the U.S. Depart- ment of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under

  15. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1996 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  16. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1995 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  17. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-782A, "Refiners...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    4. U.S. Refiner Wholesale Petroleum Product Prices Figure J F M A M J J A S O N D 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes Kero-jet Propane No. 1 Distillate No....

  18. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    71.8 W 70.5 78.9 W 76.0 83.6 W 69.2 75.2 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  19. Table 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    W 68.4 70.8 W W 78.6 W 85.7 81.8 W 69.3 73.8 See footnotes at end of table. 35. Refiner Motor Gasoline Prices by Grade, Sales Type, PAD District and State 176 Energy Information...

  20. Refinement of the One-Copy Serializable Correctness Criterion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muñoz, Francesc

    Refinement of the One-Copy Serializable Correctness Criterion M. I. Ruiz-Fuertes, F. D. Mu~noz-Esco. Mu~noz-Esco´i Instituto Tecnol´ogico de Inform´atica Universidad Polit´ecnica de Valencia Camino de