National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for alternative high oil

  1. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environments | Department of Energy Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments Performance of alternative refrigerants compared with R-22 (mineral oil) at extreme test conditions (outdoor temperature 55°C and indoor temperature 29°C). Image: ORNL. Performance of alternative refrigerants compared with R-22 (mineral oil) at extreme test conditions (outdoor temperature 55°C and

  2. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    10.9;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ...tchable","Switchable","Receipts(e)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(f)" ...

  3. Vegetable oils as fuel alternatives - symposium overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryde, E.H.

    1984-10-01

    Several encouraging statements can be made about the use of vegetable oil products as fuel as a result of the information presented in these symposium papers. Vegetable oil ester fuels have the greatest promise, but further engine endurance tests will be required. These can be carried out best by the engine manufacturers. Microemulsions appear to have promise, but more research and engine testing will be necessary before performance equivalent to the ester fuels can be developed. Such research effort can be justified because microemulsification is a rather uncomplicated physical process and might be adaptable to on-farm operations, which would be doubtful for the more involved transesterfication process. Although some answers have been provided by this symposium, others are still not available; engine testing is continuing throughout the world particularly in those countries that do not have access to petroleum. 9 references.

  4. Process for Converting Algal Oil to Alternative Aviation Fuel - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Process for Converting Algal Oil to Alternative Aviation Fuel Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology The conversion process uses a Kolbe-based method of converting the fatty acids from the algal lipid triglycerides to fuel. The conversion process uses a Kolbe-based method of converting the fatty acids from the algal lipid triglycerides to fuel. Technology Marketing Summary Conversion of triglyceride oils extracted from algae-derived lipids into

  5. High capacity oil burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedrosa, O.A. Jr.; Couto, N.C.; Fanqueiro, R.C.C.

    1983-11-01

    The present invention relates to a high capacity oil burner comprising a cylindrical atomizer completely surrounded by a protective cylindrical housing having a diameter from 2 to 3 times greater than the diameter of said atomizer; liquid fuels being injected under pressure into said atomizer and accumulating within said atomizer in a chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels, and compressed air being injected into a chamber for the accumulation of air; cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels with the outside and cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of air with said cylindrical holes communicating the chamber for the accumulation of liquids with the outside so that the injection of compressed air into said liquid fuel discharge holes atomizes said fuel which is expelled to the outside through the end portions of said discharge holes which are circumferentially positioned to be burnt by a pilot flame; said protecting cylindrical housing having at its ends perforated circular rings into which water is injected under pressure to form a protecting fan-like water curtain at the rear end of the housing and a fan-like water curtain at the flame to reduce the formation of soot; the burning efficiency of said burner being superior to 30 barrels of liquid fuel per day/kg of the apparatus.

  6. Rape oil methyl ester (RME) and used cooking oil methyl ester (UOME) as alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohl, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents a review about the fleet tests carried out by the Austrian Armed Forces concerning the practical application of a vegetable oil, i.e Rape Oil Methyl Ester (RME) and Used Cooking Oil Methyl Ester (UOME) as alternative fuels for vehicles under military conditions, and reviews other research results carried out in Austria. As a result of over-production in Western European agriculture, the increase in crop yields has led to tremendous surpluses. Alternative agricultural products have been sought. One alternative can be seen in biological fuel production for tractors, whereby the farmer is able to produce his own fuel supply as was the case when he previously provided self-made feed for his horses. For the market introduction different activities were necessary. A considerable number of institutes and organizations including the Austrian Armed Forces have investigated, tested and developed these alternative fuels. The increasing disposal problems of used cooking oil have initiated considerations for its use. The recycling of this otherwise waste product, and its preparation for use as an alternative fuel to diesel oil, seems to be most promising.

  7. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  8. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    test conditions (outdoor temperature 55C and indoor temperature 29C). Image: ORNL. Performance of alternative refrigerants compared with R-22 (mineral oil) at extreme test ...

  9. High oil production continues to cut U.S. oil imports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High oil production continues to cut U.S. oil imports High U.S. crude oil production will help further reduce America's reliance on oil imports during the next two years. In its ...

  10. Controlling vanadium from high metals crude oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golden, S.W.; Martin, G.R.

    1995-09-01

    Processing heavier high metals crude oils continues to be an objective of many refiners. Refiners manage the vanadium and other contaminants with hydroprocessing and FCC catalysts that are more tolerant to metals. Although hydroprocessing and FCC catalyst formulations are critical and will be required for the bulk of the metals removal, many times primary distillation impacts on vanadium are ignored. Distillation system designs can significantly impact the metals content of the gas oil pool or the total gas yields for a targeted metals level. Commercial experience shows that total gas oil metals to the hydroprocessing unit can be reduced by 20 to 40% for a given gas yield or the total gas oil yield can be increased for a given metals target by optimizing primary distillation system performance. Total gas oil vanadium content has varied from 5 to 2 weight ppm depending on crude oil metals level, unit process design, distillation unit operation, and equipment design. An actual example using a 22.0 API Bochequero Field blend will be used to illustrate the points covered. The source of the vanadium in the various gas oil pool components will be evaluated and show potential gas oil quality improvements based on primary distillation system design and operation modifications. In the example, the refiner processes 145,000 bpd of crude oil through a conventional integrated atmospheric/vacuum unit and processes the vacuum residue in a delayed coker. The gas oil blend streams consists of atmospheric gas oil, light vacuum gas oil, and heavy vacuum gas oil from the crude unit and heavy coker gas oil from the delayed coker. All the modifications which will be discussed have been operating successfully for several years.

  11. Feasibility report on alternative methods for cooling cavern oils at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levin, Bruce L.; Lord, David L.; Hadgu, Teklu

    2005-06-01

    Oil caverns at the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) are subjected to geothermal heating from the surrounding domal salt. This process raises the temperature of the crude oil from around 75 F upon delivery to SPR to as high as 130 F after decades of storage. While this temperature regime is adequate for long-term storage, it poses challenges for offsite delivery, with warm oil evolving gases that pose handling and safety problems. SPR installed high-capacity oil coolers in the mid-1990's to mitigate the emissions problem by lowering the oil delivery temperature. These heat exchanger units use incoming raw water as the cooling fluid, and operate only during a drawdown event where incoming water displaces the outgoing oil. The design criteria for the heat exchangers are to deliver oil at 100 F or less under all drawdown conditions. Increasing crude oil vapor pressures due in part to methane intrusion in the caverns is threatening to produce sufficient emissions at or near 100 F to cause the cooled oil to violate delivery requirements. This impending problem has initiated discussion and analysis of alternative cooling methods to bring the oil temperature even lower than the original design basis of 100 F. For the study described in this report, two alternative cooling methods were explored: (1) cooling during a limited drawdown, and (2) cooling during a degas operation. Both methods employ the heat exchangers currently in place, and do not require extra equipment. An analysis was run using two heat transfer models, HEATEX, and CaveMan, both developed at Sandia National Laboratories. For cooling during a limited drawdown, the cooling water flowrate through the coolers was varied from 1:1 water:oil to about 3:1, with an increased cooling capacity of about 3-7 F for the test cavern Bryan Mound 108 depending upon seasonal temperature effects. For cooling in conjunction with a degas operation in the winter, cavern oil temperatures for the test cavern Big Hill 102 were

  12. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners | Department of Energy Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners The Oak Ridge National Laboratory High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP)

  13. Alternatives to Double Hull Tank Vessel Design, Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Report to the Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-24

    The report required by section 4115(e) of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. The report concludes that, at present, there are no equivalent designs to the double hull tanker for the prevention of oil outflow due to groundings, which are the most prevalent type of serious vessel accident in U.S. waters. The report does not recommend any changes to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 to allow alternatives to double hull design, but does recommend that the Coast Guard continue to evaluate novel tanker designs and associated technologies.

  14. Microsoft Word - high-oil-price.doc

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Short Term Energy Outlook 1 STEO Supplement: Why are oil prices so high? During most of the 1990s, the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price averaged close to $20 per barrel, before plunging to almost $10 per barrel in late 1998 as a result of the Asian financial crisis slowing demand growth while extra supply from Iraq was entering the market for the first time since the Gulf War. Subsequently, as Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) producers more closely adhered to a

  15. Oil Study Guide - High School | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High School Oil Study Guide - High School Oil Study Guide - High School (602.29 KB) More Documents & Publications EIS-0165: DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT 2009 SPR Report to Congress Fossil Energy Today - First Quarter, 2012

  16. Investigation and development of alternative methods for shale oil processing and analysis. Final technical report, October 1979--April 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, R.A.

    1998-06-01

    Oil shale, a carbonaceous rock which occurs abundantly in the earth`s crust, has been investigated for many years as an alternate source of fuel oil. The insoluble organic matter contained in such shales is termed {open_quotes}Kerogen{close_quotes} from the Greek meaning oil or oil forming. The kerogen in oil shale breaks down into oil-like products when subjected to conditions simulating destructive distillation. These products have been the subject of extensive investigations by several researchers and many of the constituents of shale oil have been identified. (1) Forsman (2) estimates that the kerogen content of the earth is roughly 3 {times} 10{sup 15} tons as compared to total coal reserves of about 5 {times} 10{sup 12}. Although the current cost per barrel estimate for commercial production of shale oil is higher than that of fossil oil, as our oil reserves continue to dwindle, shale oil technology will become more and more important. When oil shale is heated, kerogen is said to undergo chemical transformation to usable oil in two steps (3): Kerogen (in oil shale) 300-500{degrees}C bitumen. Crude shale oil and other products. The crude shale oil so obtained differs from fossil oil in that: (1) kerogen is thought to have been produced from the aging of plant matter over many years; (2) shale oil has a higher nitrogen content than fossil oil; (3) non-hydrocarbons are present to a much greater extent in shale oil; and (4) the hydrocarbons in shale oil are much more unsaturated than those in fossil oil (petroleum).

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri High School Students...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Missouri High School Students Get Hands-On Training With Biodiesel See how students in Fenton, Missouri, are learning to convert waste vegetable oil into biodiesel and put it into ...

  18. Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supporst

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for PEM Fuel Cells | Department of Energy Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supporst for PEM Fuel Cells Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supporst for PEM Fuel Cells Part of a $100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE Secretary Bodman on Oct. 25, 2006. 3_pnnl.pdf (21.99 KB) More Documents & Publications Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting Agenda 2015 Pathways

  19. Probabilistic oil-outflow analysis of alternative tanker designs. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 mandates double hulls for all newly constructed tankers calling in U.S. waters. This study addresses the equivalence of four proposed alternatives to the Double Hull design, based on projected oil outflow resulting from groundings and collisions. The four alternative designs were the Mid-Deck tanker, an underpressure system fitted to a MARPOL tanker, and two proprietary tankage configurations, the Coulombi Egg and POLMIS tankers. Three sizes of vessels, with cargo capacities of 50,000, 150,000, and 272,000 metric tons, were investigated. A probabilistic approach has been adopted for these analyses, utilizing statistical data for tanker casualties developed for the International Maritime Organization. Both side and bottom damage were considered. Loss calculations were based on hydrostatic balance principles. Initial oil loss at impact and dynamic losses due to current and waves were computed based on model tests. Plots illustrating the cumulative oil outflow for each damage condition are presented. Three figures of merit were computed for each damage condition. These are: the probability of zero outflow, the mean outflow, and the extreme (1/10) outflow.

  20. Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supporst for PEM Fuel Cells Fuel Cell Kickoff Meeting Agenda Energy Storage Systems 2012 Peer Review Presentations - ...

  1. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2006-07-01

    The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

  2. Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency | ANSER Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency

  3. Probabilistic oil outflow analysis of alternative tanker designs. Addendum 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This report is an addendum to Probabilistic Oil Outflow Analysis of Alternative Tanker Designs, U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Coast Guard, Report No. CG-D-14-92, July 1992. It covers the effects of design modifications to the Double Hull, Mid-Deck and Underpressure (MARPOL) designs for the 272,000 DWT size, and clarifies the evaluation made of the underpressure concept. The design modifications were made so that these ships would meet the requirements of Regulation 23 of the MARPOL 73/78 Annex for hypothetical outflow of oil. Results for two other designs, the Coulombi Egg and POLMIS, are also presented. A probabilistic approach has been adopted for these analyses, utilizing statistical data for tanker casualties developed for the International Maritime Organization. Both side and bottom damage were considered. Loss calculations were based on hydrostatic balance principles. Initial oil loss at impact and dynamic losses due to current and waves were computed based on model tests. Plots illustrating the cumulative oil outflow for each damage condition are presented. Three figures of merit were computed for each damage condition. These are: the probability of zero outflow, the mean outflow, and the extreme (1/10) outflow.

  4. Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

  5. Zebra processes of oil recovery using fireflood and waterflood in alternate sands in a multi-sand environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a new process of oil recovery, namely, the zebra process, which is specifically advantageous to use in heavy oil reservoirs that exist in multiple sands. This process uses firefloods and waterfloods in alternate sands. The firefloods serve as formation preheaters which reduce the oil viscosities in the neighboring sands so that these sands, normally not amenable to waterfloods because of high viscosity, can be waterflooded with ease. The exciting news is that the air compression cost in firefloods can be reduced by a factor of three with a proper application of the zebra process. This great savings in air compression cost is possible because the heat that is normally lost to the overburden and underburden in firefloods is now being put to good use, by preheating the neighboring sands. Examples are given on zebraing several idealized sand-shale sequences involving three-, five-, six-, and seven-sand reservoirs, and also zebraing two actual sand-shale sequences, both involving five-sand reservoirs.

  6. An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam ...

  7. An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Alternative High Luminosity LHC with Flat Optics and Long-Range ...

  8. Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Supporst for PEM Fuel Cells Development of Alternative and Durable High Performance Cathode Supporst for PEM Fuel Cells Part of a 100 million fuel cell award announced by DOE ...

  9. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    536 Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners Omar Abdelaziz Som Shrestha Jeffrey Munk Randall Linkous William Goetzler Matthew Guernsey Theo Kassuga October 2015 Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. DOCUMENT AVAILABILITY Reports produced after January 1, 1996, are generally available free via US Department of Energy (DOE) SciTech Connect. Website http://www.osti.gov/scitech/

  10. Potential use of California lignite and other alternate fuel for enhanced oil recovery. Phase I and II. Final report. [As alternative fuels for steam generation in thermal EOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, R.; Shimizu, A.; Briggs, A.

    1980-02-01

    The Nation's continued reliance on liquid fossil fuels and decreasing reserves of light oils gives increased impetus to improving the recovery of heavy oil. Thermal enhanced oil recovery EOR techniques, such as steam injection, have generally been the most effective for increasing heavy oil production. However, conventional steam generation consumes a large fraction of the produced oil. The substitution of alternate (solid) fuels would release much of this consumed oil to market. This two-part report focuses on two solid fuels available in California, the site of most thermal EOR - petroleum coke and lignite. Phase I, entitled Economic Analysis, shows detailed cost comparisons between the two candidate fuels and also with Western coal. The analysis includes fuels characterizations, process designs for several combustion systems, and a thorough evaluation of the technical and economic uncertainties. In Phase II, many technical parameters of petroleum coke combustion were measured in a pilot-plant fluidized bed. The results of the study showed that petroleum coke combustion for EOR is feasible and cost effective in a fluidized bed combustor.

  11. Text-Alternative Version of High Performance Space Conditioning Systems:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Part II | Department of Energy II Text-Alternative Version of High Performance Space Conditioning Systems: Part II High Performance Space Conditioning Systems: Part II November 18, 2014 William Zoeller, Stephen Winter Associates Dave Mallay, Home Innovation Research Labs Jordan Dentz, The Levy Partnership Francis Conlin, High Performance Building Solutions Hello everyone! I am Gail Werren with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and I'd like to welcome you to today's webinar hosted by

  12. Text-Alternative Version of High Performance Space Conditioning Systems:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Part I | Department of Energy I Text-Alternative Version of High Performance Space Conditioning Systems: Part I High Performance Space Conditioning Systems: Part I October 21, 2014 Andrew Poerschke, Research Initiatives Specialist, IBACOS Kohta Ueno, Senior Associate, Building Science Corporation Gail: Hello everyone. I am Gail Werren with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. And I'd like to welcome you to today's webinar hosted by the Building America Program. We are excited to have

  13. Method for creating high carbon content products from biomass oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parker, Reginald; Seames, Wayne

    2012-12-18

    In a method for producing high carbon content products from biomass, a biomass oil is added to a cracking reactor vessel. The biomass oil is heated to a temperature ranging from about 100.degree. C. to about 800.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to crack the biomass oil. Tar is separated from the cracked biomass oil. The tar is heated to a temperature ranging from about 200.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. at a pressure ranging from about vacuum conditions to about 20,700 kPa for a time sufficient to reduce the tar to a high carbon content product containing at least about 50% carbon by weight.

  14. Alternative Fuel School Buses Earn High Marks: Reprint from Alternative Fuel News, Vol. 5, No. 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-11-01

    A two-page article on school buses that run on alternative fuels including biodiesel and compressed natural gas. Reprinted from Alternative Fuel News, published by the Clean Cities Program of DOE.

  15. Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department works to ensure domestic and global oil supplies are environmentally sustainable and invests in research and technology to make oil drilling cleaner and more efficient.

  16. EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow April 1, 2009 - 11:35am Addthis The growth of...

  17. Fruit production of Attalea colenda (Arecaceae) in coastal Ecuador - an alternative oil resource?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feil, J.P.

    1996-07-01

    Attalea colenda is a monoecious palm found in pastures in coastal Ecuador. In dry regions, it is a valuable source of oil in self-sufficiency farming or in combination with cattle in pastures. The palm was studied over a gradient of dry to humid environments during two fruiting seasons. Palm growth, production of leaves, inflorescences, and infructescences, number of fruits per infructescence, and seed weight of five populations were evaluated. The individual of average size is 15 m tall, which corresponds to approximately 30-40 years of age. No difference in fruit production was recorded between wet and dry regions of coastal Ecuador. The average production of one hectare of pasture, with 50 palms, was 0.9 t of oil per year. One population that was part of an agroforestry system produced 50% more fruits than the average of all populations in pasture. 18 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  18. Swedish tests on rape-seed oil as an alternative to diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, E.; Nordstroem, O.

    1982-01-01

    The cheapest version of Swedish rape-seed oil was chosen. First the rape-seed oil was mixed in different proportions with regular diesel fuel. A mixture of 1/3 rape-seed oil and 2/3 regular diesel fuel (R 33) was then selected for a long-term test. A Perkins 4.248 diesel engine was used for laboratory tests. Four regular farm tractors, owned and operated by farmers, and two tractors belonging to the Institute have been running on R 33. Each tractor was calibrated on a dynamometer according to Swedish and ISO-standards before they were operated on R 33. Since then the tractors have been regularly recalibrated. The test tractors have been operated on R 33 for more than 3400 h. An additional 1200 h have been covered by the laboratory test engine. None of the test tractors have hitherto required repairs due to the use of R 33, but some fuel filters have been replaced. Some fuel injectors have been cleaned due to deposits on the nozzles. 4 figures, 1 table.

  19. EIS-0083: Final Northeast Regional Environmental Impact Statement; The Potential Conversion of Forty-Two Powerplants From Oil to Coal or Alternate Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This Economic Regulatory Administration statement assesses the potential for cumulative and interactive environmental impacts resulting from conversion of up to 42 northeastern power plants from oil to coal and from an alternative “Voluntary Conversion” scenario for 27 power plants.

  20. Alternative High-Performance Motors with Non-Rare Earth Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Performance Motors with Non-Rare Earth Materials Alternative High-Performance Motors with Non-Rare Earth Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle ...

  1. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants project was aimed to develop an understanding ...

  2. Crude oil and alternate energy production forecasts for the twenty-first century: The end of the hydrocarbon era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, J.D.

    1997-08-01

    Predictions of production rates and ultimate recovery of crude oil are needed for intelligent planning and timely action to ensure the continuous flow of energy required by the world`s increasing population and expanding economies. Crude oil will be able to supply increasing demand until peak world production is reached. The energy gap caused by declining conventional oil production must then be filled by expanding production of coal, heavy oil and oil shales, nuclear and hydroelectric power, and renewable energy sources (solar, wind, and geothermal). Declining oil production forecasts are based on current estimated ultimate recoverable conventional crude oil resources of 329 billion barrels for the United States and close to 3 trillion barrels for the world. Peak world crude oil production is forecast to occur in 2020 at 90 million barrels per day. Conventional crude oil production in the United States is forecast to terminate by about 2090, and world production will be close to exhaustion by 2100.

  3. High-Performance Renewable Base Oils for Industrial Lubricants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    When used in industrial lubricants of all types, Biosynthetic's oils achieved superior performance in many critical performance areas, including pour point, viscosity index, flash ...

  4. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  5. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  6. Economic Effects of High Oil Prices (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections of future energy market conditions reflect the effects of oil prices on the macroeconomic variables that affect oil demand, in particular, and energy demand in general. The variables include real gross domestic product (GDP) growth, inflation, employment, exports and imports, and interest rates.

  7. Evaluating alternative refrigerants for high ambient temperature environments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.

    2016-01-01

    According to the Montreal Protocol, developing countries have started the phase out schedule of the ozone depleting substances, including HCFC refrigerants, in 2015 and expect them to reach 35% reduction in 2020. This commitment to the start the phase out of HCFC refrigerants, especially R-22, in developing countries is seen as an opportunity to introduce lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerants. Furthermore, this paper summarizes an investigation into the performance of lower GWP refrigerants in high ambient temperature environments, experienced in some of the developed countries, in mini-split air conditioning units.

  8. INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

    2011-05-01

    This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

  9. Oil inventories in industrialized countries to reach record high at end of 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Oil inventories in industrialized countries to reach record high at end of 2015 The amount of year-end oil inventories held in industrialized countries is expected to be the highest on record in 2015. In its monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said it expects commercial oil inventories in the United States and other industrialized countries to total 2.83 billion barrels at the end of this year almost 90 million barrels more than at the end of 2014. Global oil production

  10. EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The growth of renewable energy and renewable fuels in the United States will be significantly greater under scenarios involving high oil prices and stricter controls on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, according to DOE's Energy Information Administration (EIA).

  11. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Shrestha, Som S.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  12. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Linkous, Randall Lee; Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Kassuga, Theo

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  13. Global Alternative Fuels | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alternative Fuels Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Alternative Fuels Place: El Paso, Texas Zip: 79922 Product: Global Alternative Fuels processes virgin oils (palm,...

  14. Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: High-Performance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enclosure Strategies, Part 1: Unvented Roof Systems and Innovative Advanced Framing Strategies | Department of Energy High-Performance Enclosure Strategies, Part 1: Unvented Roof Systems and Innovative Advanced Framing Strategies Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: High-Performance Enclosure Strategies, Part 1: Unvented Roof Systems and Innovative Advanced Framing Strategies High-Performance Enclosure Strategies, Part 1: Unvented Roof Systems and Innovative Advanced

  15. Construction-employment opportunities of four oil-replacing space-heating alternatives for core areas of thirteen major northeastern and midwestern cities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santini, D.J.; Wernette, D.R.

    1980-07-01

    Construction employment opportunities are compared for four oil-replacing technologies providing equivalent space-heating services to the core areas of 13 major northeastern and midwestern cities. The four technologies are: cogeneration district heating, coal gasification, coal liquefaction and electrification (coal-fired power plant). It is observed that the district-heating option places a higher percentage of its capital stock within the center city. It also requires lower occupational skills for its construction than the other three alternatives. In view of the lower average educational level of minorities and their concentration in urban areas, substantially more minority employment should occur if district heating is implemented. This alternative also will provide employment opportunities for unemployed nonminority construction laborers and contribute indirectly to the improvement of inner-city neighborhoods where many unemployed construction laborers live.

  16. Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: High Performance HVAC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems, Part II: Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications | Department of Energy HVAC Systems, Part II: Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: High Performance HVAC Systems, Part II: Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications High Performance HVAC Systems, Part II: Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications November 16, 2015 Speakers Andrew Poerschke,

  17. Turbo-alternator-compressor design for supercritical high density working fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2013-03-19

    Techniques for generating power are provided. Such techniques involve a thermodynamic system including a housing, a turbine positioned in a turbine cavity of the housing, a compressor positioned in a compressor cavity of the housing, and an alternator positioned in a rotor cavity between the turbine and compressor cavities. The compressor has a high-pressure face facing an inlet of the compressor cavity and a low-pressure face on an opposite side thereof. The alternator has a rotor shaft operatively connected to the turbine and compressor, and is supported in the housing by bearings. Ridges extending from the low-pressure face of the compressor may be provided for balancing thrust across the compressor. Seals may be positioned about the alternator for selectively leaking fluid into the rotor cavity to reduce the temperature therein.

  18. Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freidin, C. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)] [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede-Boqer (Israel)

    1998-06-01

    The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Alternative High-Performance Motors with Non-Rare Earth Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by General Electric Global at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about alternative high...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Alternative High-Performance Motors with Non-Rare Earth Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by General Electric Global at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about alternative high...

  1. West Valley demonstration project: alternative processes for solidifying the high-level wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holton, L.K.; Larson, D.E.; Partain, W.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1981-10-01

    In 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the West Valley Solidification Project as the result of legislation passed by the US Congress. The purpose of this project was to carry out a high level nuclear waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The DOE authorized the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute, to assess alternative processes for treatment and solidification of the WNYNSC high-level wastes. The Process Alternatives Study is the suject of this report. Two pretreatment approaches and several waste form processes were selected for evaluation in this study. The two waste treatment approaches were the salt/sludge separation process and the combined waste process. Both terminal and interim waste form processes were studied.

  2. Guide for Identifying and Converting High-Potential Petroleum Brownfield Sites to Alternative Fuel Stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.; Mosey, G.

    2011-05-01

    Former gasoline stations that are now classified as brownfields can be good sites to sell alternative fuels because they are in locations that are convenient to vehicles and they may be seeking a new source of income. However, their success as alternative fueling stations is highly dependent on location-specific criteria. First, this report outlines what these criteria are, how to prioritize them, and then applies that assessment framework to five of the most popular alternative fuels--electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, ethanol, and biodiesel. The second part of this report delves into the criteria and tools used to assess an alternative fuel retail site at the local level. It does this through two case studies of converting former gasoline stations in the Seattle-Eugene area into electric charge stations. The third part of this report addresses steps to be taken after the specific site has been selected. This includes choosing and installing the recharging equipment, which includes steps to take in the permitting process and key players to include.

  3. Ultra-high speed permanent magnet axial gap alternator with multiple stators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawsey, Robert A.; Bailey, J. Milton

    1991-01-01

    An ultra-high speed, axial gap alternator that can provide an output to a plurality of loads, the alternator providing magnetic isolation such that operating conditions in one load will not affect operating conditions of another load. This improved alternator uses a rotor member disposed between a pair of stator members, with magnets disposed in each of the rotor member surfaces facing the stator members. The magnets in one surface of the rotor member, which alternate in polarity, are isolated from the magnets in the other surface of the rotor member by a disk of magnetic material disposed between the two sets of magents. In the preferred embodiment, this disk of magnetic material is laminated between two layers of non-magnetic material that support the magnets, and the magnetic material has a peripheral rim that extends to both surfaces of the rotor member to enhance the structural integrity. The stator members are substantially conventional in construction in that equally-spaced and radially-oriented slots are provided, and winding members are laid in these slots. A unit with multiple rotor members and stator members is also described.

  4. A technical and economic assessment of petroleum, heavy oil, shale oil and coal liquid refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikonia, J.G.; Shah, B.R.; Ulowetz, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Decreasing availability of conventional crude oil will result in the utilization of alternative raw materials for the production of transportation fuels. Based on currently available processes and as a result of detailed pilot plant studies, the differences in the technical and economic aspects of refining alternative feedstocks of heavy oil, coal liquids and shale oil have indicated that heavy, hydrogen-deficient materials require more complex and costly upgrading techniques. Compared to the base case of Arabian Light crude oil, the Mexican Maya heavy oil is worth about $4.35/B less, the coal liquid about $2.38/B less and the shale oil about $5.98/B less. All of these alternative fuels can be upgraded into high quality transportation fuels.

  5. Screening of industrial wastewaters as feedstock for the microbial production of oils for biodiesel production and high-quality pigments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schneider, Teresa; Graeff-Honninger, Simone; French, William Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Claupein, Wilhelm; Holmes, William E.; Merkt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    The production of biodiesel has notably increased over the past decade. Currently, plant oil is the main feedstock for biodiesel production, but, due to concerns related to the competition with food production, alternative oil feedstocks have to be found. Oleaginous yeasts are known to produce high amounts of lipids, but no integrated process from microbial fermentation to final biodiesel production has reached commercial realization yet due to economic constraints. Therefore, growth and lipid production of red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis was tested on low-cost substrates, namely, wastewaters from potato, fruit juice, and lettuce processing. Additionally, the production of carotenoids as high-valuemore » by-products was examined. All evaluated wastewaters met the general criteria for microbial lipid production. However, no significant increase in lipid content was observed, probably due to lack of available carbon in wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing, and excess of available nitrogen in potato processing wastewater, respectively. During growth on wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing the carotenoid content increased significantly in the first 48 hours. The relations between carbon content, nitrogen content, and carotenoid production need to be further assessed. For economic viability, lipid and carotenoid production needs to be increased significantly. Lastly, the screening of feedstocks should be extended to other wastewaters.« less

  6. Qualification of Alternative Fuels | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Oil Workshop on the qualification of alternative fuels. pyrolysisbutcher.pdf (1.23 MB) More Documents & Publications Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: ...

  7. High-resolution methods for preserving the sum of mass fractions: improved ?-scheme and an alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syamlal, Madhava; Benyahia, Sofiane

    2013-11-20

    When high resolution convection schemes are used for discretizing chemical species mass balance equations, the mass fractions are not guaranteed to add to one. We show that a proposed remedy called ?-scheme (Darwish and Moukalled, Comput.Methods Appl.Mech. Engrg. 192 (2003): 1711) will degrade to a diffusive first-order scheme when a chemical species vanishes from the mixture, for example, because of chemical reactions. We propose an improvement to the ?-scheme to overcome this problem. Furthermore, a computationally efficient alternative scheme is proposed and evaluated with several examples, to quantify the improvements in the accuracy and the computational time.

  8. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-31

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  9. PEAT: an energy alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schora, F.C.; Punwani, D.V.

    1980-01-01

    Even though peat is a low-heating value and low-bulk density fossil fuel which in its natural state contains over 80 percent moisture, it can be an economical alternative to coal, and fuel oil, as is the case in Iceland and Finland for direct combustion applications. This is because of the relative ease with which peat can be harvested, and the generally low sulfur and ash content of peat. Recent studies show that peat also has very favorable characteristics for conversion to synthetic fuels. Tests show that on the basis of chemistry and kinetics, peat is a better raw material than coal for production of synthetic fuels. Recent estimates also show that conversion of peat to high-Btu gas (>950 Btu/scf) is competitive with other alternatives of synthetic high-Btu gas. Therefore, peat can be an economical energy alternative depending upon location of peat deposits, region of energy need, scale of operation and cost of other energy alternatives.

  10. Environmental acceptability of high-performance alternatives for depleted uranium penetrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerley, C.R.; Easterly, C.E.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1996-08-01

    The Army`s environmental strategy for investigating material substitution and management is to measure system environmental gains/losses in all phases of the material management life cycle from cradle to grave. This study is the first in a series of new investigations, applying material life cycle concepts, to evaluate whether there are environmental benefits from increasing the use of tungsten as an alternative to depleted uranium (DU) in Kinetic Energy Penetrators (KEPs). Current military armor penetrators use DU and tungsten as base materials. Although DU alloys have provided the highest performance of any high-density alloy deployed against enemy heavy armor, its low-level radioactivity poses a number of environmental risks. These risks include exposures to the military and civilian population from inhalation, ingestion, and injection of particles. Depleted uranium is well known to be chemically toxic (kidney toxicity), and workplace exposure levels are based on its renal toxicity. Waste materials containing DU fragments are classified as low-level radioactive waste and are regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These characteristics of DU do not preclude its use in KEPs. However, long-term management challenges associated with KEP deployment and improved public perceptions about environmental risks from military activities might be well served by a serious effort to identify, develop, and substitute alternative materials that meet performance objectives and involve fewer environmental risks. Tungsten, a leading candidate base material for KEPS, is potentially such a material because it is not radioactive. Tungsten is less well studied, however, with respect to health impacts and other environmental risks. The present study is designed to contribute to the understanding of the environmental behavior of tungsten by synthesizing available information that is relevant to its potential use as a penetrator.

  11. High pressure pair distribution function studies of Green River oil shale.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Locke, D. R.; Winans, R. E.; Pugmire, R. J.; Univ. of Utah

    2008-01-01

    The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances ({approx}6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R {approx} 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond {approx} {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component. The factors influencing the observed compression behavior are discussed.

  12. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.; King, W.; Hay, M.; Jones, D.

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  13. Alternate approaches to verifying the structural adequacy of the Defense High Level Waste Shipping Cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimmer, A.; Koploy, M.

    1991-12-01

    In the early 1980s, the US Department of Energy/Defense Programs (DOE/DP) initiated a project to develop a safe and efficient transportation system for defense high level waste (DHLW). A long-standing objective of the DHLW transportation project is to develop a truck cask that represents the leading edge of cask technology as well as one that fully complies with all applicable DOE, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. General Atomics (GA) designed the DHLW Truck Shipping Cask using state-of-the-art analytical techniques verified by model testing performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The analytical techniques include two approaches, inelastic analysis and elastic analysis. This topical report presents the results of the two analytical approaches and the model testing results. The purpose of this work is to show that there are two viable analytical alternatives to verify the structural adequacy of a Type B package and to obtain an NRC license. It addition, this data will help to support the future acceptance by the NRC of inelastic analysis as a tool in packaging design and licensing.

  14. Have We Run Out of Oil Yet? Oil Peaking Analysis from an Optimist's Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L; Hopson, Dr Janet L; Li, Jia

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of "running out" of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources.

  15. Ultralight carbon aerogel from nanocellulose as a highly selective oil absorption material

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meng, Yujie; Yang, Timothy M.; Liu, Peizhi; Contescu, Cristian I.; Huang, Biao; Wang, Siqun

    2014-12-04

    The synthesis of a sponge-like carbon aerogel from microfibril cellulose (MFC), with high porosity (99%), ultra-low density (0.01 g/cm3), hydrophobic properties (149° static contact angle) and reusability is reported in this paper. The physical properties, internal morphology, thermal properties, and chemical properties of carbon aerogels heat-treated at 700 and 900 °C (Samples C-700 and C-900) were examined. Stabilization and carbonization parameters were optimized in terms of residual carbon yield. The BET surface area of Sample C-700 (521 m2 /g) was significantly higher than of Sample C-950 (149 m2 /g). Graphitic-like domains were observed in C-950. The highest normalized sorption capacitymore » (86 g/g) for paraffin oil was observed in sample C-700. The removal of hydrophilic function groups during carbonization causes carbon aerogel to present highly hydrophobic properties. Lastly, carbon aerogel's ability to absorb oil is enhanced by its highly porous 3D network structure with interconnected cellulose nanofibrils.« less

  16. Ultralight carbon aerogel from nanocellulose as a highly selective oil absorption material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Yujie; Yang, Timothy M.; Liu, Peizhi; Contescu, Cristian I.; Huang, Biao; Wang, Siqun

    2014-12-04

    The synthesis of a sponge-like carbon aerogel from microfibril cellulose (MFC), with high porosity (99%), ultra-low density (0.01 g/cm3), hydrophobic properties (149° static contact angle) and reusability is reported in this paper. The physical properties, internal morphology, thermal properties, and chemical properties of carbon aerogels heat-treated at 700 and 900 °C (Samples C-700 and C-900) were examined. Stabilization and carbonization parameters were optimized in terms of residual carbon yield. The BET surface area of Sample C-700 (521 m2 /g) was significantly higher than of Sample C-950 (149 m2 /g). Graphitic-like domains were observed in C-950. The highest normalized sorption capacity (86 g/g) for paraffin oil was observed in sample C-700. The removal of hydrophilic function groups during carbonization causes carbon aerogel to present highly hydrophobic properties. Lastly, carbon aerogel's ability to absorb oil is enhanced by its highly porous 3D network structure with interconnected cellulose nanofibrils.

  17. Ultralight carbon aerogel from nanocellulose as a highly selective oil absorption material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Yujie; Yang, Timothy M; Peizhi, Liu; Contescu, Cristian I; Biao, Huang; Siqun, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of a sponge-like carbon aerogel from microfibril cellulose (MFC), with high porosity (99%), ultra-low density (0.01 g/cm3), hydrophobic properties (149 static contact angle) and reusability is reported in this paper. The physical properties, internal morphology, thermal properties, and chemical properties of carbon aerogels heat-treated at 700 and 900 oC (Samples C-700 and C-900) were examined. Stabilization and carbonization parameters were optimized in terms of residual carbon yield. The BET surface area of Sample C-700 (521 m2 /g) was significantly higher than of Sample C-950 (149 m2 /g). Graphitic-like domains were observed in C-950. The highest normalized sorption capacity (86 g/g) for paraffin oil was observed in sample C-700. The removal of hydrophilic function groups during carbonization causes carbon aerogel to present highly hydrophobic properties. Carbon aerogel s ability to absorb oil is enhanced by its highly porous 3D network structure with interconnected cellulose nanofibrils.

  18. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butcher, Thomas A.; Celebi, Yusuf; Fisher, Leonard

    2000-09-15

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  19. Immobilized High Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Alternative Generation and analysis and Decision Report 2nd Generation Implementing Architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-09-14

    Two alternative approaches were previously identified to provide second-generation interim storage of Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). One approach was retrofit modification of the Fuel and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) to accommodate IHLW. The results of the evaluation of the FMEF as the second-generation IHLW interim storage facility and subsequent decision process are provided in this document.

  20. EIS-0020: Crude Oil Transport Alternate From Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 Elk Hills/SOHIO Pipeline Connection Conveyance System, Terminal Tank Farm Relocation to Rialto, California

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves developed this supplement to a Department of Navy statement to evaluate the environmental impacts associated with a modified design of a proposed 250,000 barrels per day crude oil conveyance system from Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 to connect to the proposed SOHIO West Coast to Midcontinent Pipeline at Rialto, California.

  1. Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Salt Alternative Phase III Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langton, C.A.

    1998-12-07

    The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The composition of the direct grout salt solution is higher in sodium salts and contains up to a few hundred ppm Cs-137 more than the current reference salt solution. However it is still similar to the composition of the current reference salt solution. Consequently, the processing, setting, and leaching properties (including TCLP for Cr and Hg) of the direct grout and current saltstone waste forms are very similar. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The Cs-137 concentration in the direct grout salt solution will also affect the long-term curing temperature of the waste form since 4.84 Watts of energy are generated per 1000 Ci of Cs-137. The temperature rise of the direct grout during long-term curing has been calculated by A. Shaddy, SRTC.1 The effect of curing temperature on the strength, leaching and physical durability of the direct grout saltstone is described in this report. At the present time, long term curing at 90 degrees C appears to be unacceptable because of cracking which will affect the structural integrity as evaluated in the immersion test. (The experiments conducted in this feasibility study do not address the effect of cracking on leaching of contaminants other than Cr, Hg, and Cs.) No cracking of the direct grout or reference saltstone waste forms was observed for samples cured at 70 degrees C. At the present time the implications of waste form cracking at elevated curing temperatures has not been fully addressed. The direct grout falls within the

  2. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  3. Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: High Performance Enclosure Strategies, Part II: Low-E Storm Windows and Window Attachments

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: High Performance Enclosure Strategies, Part II: Low-E Storm Windows and Window Attachments

  4. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  5. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  6. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields while simultaneously maximizing oil production. January 8, 2014 Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery. Schematic of a water-alternating-with-gas flood for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery.

  7. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, Thomas T.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  8. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  9. Effect of the water/oil ratio on the SSCC susceptibility of high strength OCTG carbon steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rincon, H.; Hernandez, S.; Salazar, J.; Case, R.; Vera, J.

    1999-11-01

    In this paper a correlation is established between the values of SSC threshold stress (K{sub ISSC}) and hydrogen permeation fluxes obtained using an electrochemical technique. The susceptibility of a high-strength steel to sulfide stress cracking (SSC) in the presence of crude oil was studied utilizing different crude oil/NACE solution ratios, and saturating the test solutions with H{sub 2}S according to the standard NACE TM-0177 method D. Results showed that oil confer protective properties against uniform corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen permeation. The hydrogen permeation technique was found useful to estimate the susceptibility of a given OCTG steel to SSC in sour environments, but the correlation between hydrogen flux and K{sub ISSC} is highly dependant on testing conditions.

  10. Study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, NOSR-2, Uintah and Carbon Counties, Utah. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant and authorized a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Oil Shale Reserve No. 2 (NOSR-2) in Uintah and Carbon Counties, Utah. The US owns 100% of the mineral rights and about 60% of the surface rights in NOSR-2. The Ute Indian Tribe owns the other 40% of the surface. This 88,890-acre tract was set aside as an oil shale reserve for the US Navy by an Executive Order of President Wilson in 1916. Management of NOSR-2 is the responsibility of DOE. No drilling for oil and gas has occurred on the property and no production has been established. No reserves are present, although the area is hypothesized to overlay gas resources. Mapping by the US Geological Survey and others has resulted in speculative seismic leads for structures that may or may not hold conventional oil and gas. All of the mineral rights (including oil shale) must be considered exploratory and the mineral rights must be valued accordingly. The opinion recommended to maximize value to the US is Option 4, sale of the interest of the US of all or part of NOSR-2. Evaluation of this option results in an estimated value which is more than three times greater than the next highest estimated value, for Option 2, transfer to the Department of the Interior for leasing.

  11. Runtime Performance and Virtual Network Control Alternatives in VM-Based High-Fidelity Network Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoginath, Srikanth B; Perumalla, Kalyan S; Henz, Brian J

    2012-01-01

    In prior work (Yoginath and Perumalla, 2011; Yoginath, Perumalla and Henz, 2012), the motivation, challenges and issues were articulated in favor of virtual time ordering of Virtual Machines (VMs) in network simulations hosted on multi-core machines. Two major components in the overall virtualization challenge are (1) virtual timeline establishment and scheduling of VMs, and (2) virtualization of inter-VM communication. Here, we extend prior work by presenting scaling results for the first component, with experiment results on up to 128 VMs scheduled in virtual time order on a single 12-core host. We also explore the solution space of design alternatives for the second component, and present performance results from a multi-threaded, multi-queue implementation of inter-VM network control for synchronized execution with VM scheduling, incorporated in our NetWarp simulation system.

  12. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  13. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  14. Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1996-02-20

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70.degree. C. to 90.degree. C., at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%.

  15. Process for producing modified microorganisms for oil treatment at high temperatures, pressures and salinity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1996-02-20

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. The processes are comprised of steps which successively limit the carbon sources and increase the temperature, pressure and salinity of the media. This is done until microbial strains are obtained that are capable of growing in essentially crude oil as a carbon source and at a temperature range from about 70 C to 90 C, at a pressure range from about 2,000 to 2,500 psi and at a salinity range from about 1.3 to 35%. 68 figs.

  16. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  17. Alternative Passive Decay-Heat Systems for the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2006-07-01

    The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a low-pressure, liquid-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor for the production of electricity and hydrogen. The high-temperature (950 deg C) variant is defined as the liquid-salt-cooled very high-temperature reactor (LS-VHTR). The AHTR has the same safety goals and uses the same graphite-matrix coated particle fuel as do modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. However, the large AHTR power output [2400 to 4000 MW(t)] implies the need for a different type of passive decay-heat removal system. Because the AHTR is a low-pressure, liquid-cooled reactor like sodium-cooled reactors, similar types of decay-heat-removal systems can be used. Three classes of passive decay heat removal systems have been identified: the reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system which is similar to that proposed for the General Electric S-PRISM sodium-cooled fast reactor; the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system, which is similar to that used in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II; and a new pool reactor auxiliary cooling system. These options are described and compared. (author)

  18. Phase II - final report study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NOSR 1 & 3, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Oil Shales Reserves Nos. 1 and 3 (NOSR 1 and 3) in Garfield County, Colorado (Figure 0.1). The report that follows is the Phase II Final Report for that study. Additional details are provided in the Addendum (the Phase 1 Property Description and Fact Finding Report). The key property elements that positively affect the estimated value of NOSR 1 and 3 include the following: working interest income from producing oil and gas leases, income from grazing or leasing of grazing rights, potential income from oil and gas leasing on exploratory (or nonprospective) acreage, potential value of trading surface real estate as ranch land for livestock grazing (56,577 acres). Key elements that negatively impact the estimated value include: environmental assessment costs, gas prices, operating budgets, and lease sale expenses.

  19. COMBINED MICROBIAL SURFACTANT-POLYMER SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED OIL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Our experiments proved that this property leads to improved oil recovery by increasing alternatively, oil mobility and conformance control. less Authors: Jorge Gabitto ; Maria ...

  20. Oil & Gas Technology at Oklahoma City | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experience efforts to safely, efficiently and reliably accelerate oil and gas ... Performance & CO2 including Enhanced Oil Recovery, Alternative Stimulation Fluids, ...

  1. High SO{sub 2} removal duct injection: A low-cost FGD alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    Sorbent Technologies Corporation, of the United States, is currently developing and demonstrating a new waste free, retrofitable, high-SO{sub 2} removal duct-injection process. Up to 85 percent SO{sub 2} removal is achieved by simply injecting a new dry lime-based sorbent into the flue-gas duct, collecting the sorbent downstream in a particulate collector, and then recycling the sorbent. By avoiding large, expensive components, the process can have low capital costs, making it especially appropriate for smaller, older, less-utilized plants. The key to the new technology is the use of sorbent supports. Supported sorbents are produced by coating hydrated lime onto inexpensive mineral supports, such as exfoliated vermiculite or perlite. Consequently, there are no liquid, sludge, or solid wastes with the new technology. Once saturated with SO{sub 2}, the spent sorbent can be easily pelletized into a valuable soil-conditioning agricultural by-product, for the sustainable development that the future requires. This paper describes Sorbent Technologies` pilot demonstration of supported sorbent injection at the Ohio Edison Company`s R.E. Burger station. The Burger effort is also the first demonstration of the Electric Power Research Institute`s new {open_quotes}COHPAC{close_quotes} baghouse technology in a sorbent-injection desulfurization application.

  2. High-Energy Permanent Magnets for Hybrid Vehicles and Alternative Energy Uses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjipanayis, George C.; McCallum, William R.; Sellmyer, David J.; Harris, Vincent; Carpenter, Everett E.; Liu, Jinfang

    2013-12-17

    The report summarizes research undertaken by a multidisciplinary team aimed at the development of the next generation high-energy permanent magnets. The principal approach was relied on bottom-up fabrication of anisotropic nanocomposite magnets. Our efforts resulted in further development of the theoretical concept and fabrication principles for the nanocomposites and in synthesis of a range of rare-earth-based hard magnetic nanoparticles. Even though we did not make a breakthrough in the assembly of these hard magnetic particles with separately prepared Fe(Co) nanoparticles and did not obtain a compact nanocomposite magnet, our performed research will help to direct the future efforts, in particular, towards nano-assembly via coating, when the two phases which made the nanocomposite are first organized in core-shell-structured particles. Two other approaches were to synthesize (discover) new materials for the traditional singe-material magnets and the nanocomposite magnets. Integrated theoretical and experimental efforts lead to a significant advance in nanocluster synthesis technique and yielded novel rare-earth-free nanostructured and nanocomposite materials. Examination of fifteen R-Fe-X alloy systems (R = rare earth), which have not been explored earlier due to various synthesis difficulties reveal several new ferromagnetic compounds. The research has made major progress in bottom-up manufacturing of rare-earth-containing nanocomposite magnets with superior energy density and open new directions in development of higher-energy-density magnets that do not contain rare earths. The advance in the scientific knowledge and technology made in the course of the project has been reported in 50 peer-reviewed journal articles and numerous presentations at scientific meetings.

  3. Theoretical Study of High-Valent Vanadium Oxo-Porphyrins as a Dopant of Crude Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salcedo, Roberto; Martinez, LMR; Martinez-Magadan, Jose M.

    2001-06-15

    The role played by the vanadyl porphyrinate as a dopant for zeolites in the refinement process of crude oil is analyzed using DFT calculations. The pair formed by the vanadium atom and its bonded oxygen atoms seems to be the responsible items in the dopant reaction. However, the present paper shows the participation of the vanadium atom as being the most important.

  4. Cost of Ownership and Well-to-Wheels Carbon Emissions/Oil Use of Alternative Fuels and Advanced Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, Mr. Amgad; Rousseau, Mr. Aymeric; Wang, Mr. Michael; Ruth, Mr. Mark; Andress, Mr. David; Ward, Jacob; Joseck, Fred; Nguyen, Tien; Das, Sujit

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) updated their analysis of the well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, petroleum use, and the cost of ownership (excluding insurance, maintenance, and miscellaneous fees) of vehicle technologies that have the potential to significantly reduce GHG emissions and petroleum consumption. The analyses focused on advanced light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies such as plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel cell electric vehicles. Besides gasoline and diesel, alternative fuels considered include natural gas, advanced biofuels, electricity, and hydrogen. The Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) and Autonomie models were used along with the Argonne and NREL H2A models.

  5. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, gasoline and diesel fuel have accounted for about 80 percent of total transportation fuel and nearly all of the fuel used in on-road vehicles. Growing concerns about the environmental effects of fossil fuel use and the Nation`s high level of dependence on foreign oil are providing impetus for the development of replacements or alternatives for these traditional transportation fuels. (The Energy Policy Act of 1992 definitions of {open_quotes}replacement{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}alternative{close_quotes} fuels are presented in the following box.) The Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) are significant legislative forces behind the growth of replacement fuel use. Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1993 provides the number of on-road alternative fueled vehicles in use in the United States, alternative and replacement fuel consumption, and information on greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the production, delivery, and use of replacement fuels for 1992, 1993, and 1995.

  6. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for Commodity Chemical Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Robinson, Sharon M

    2008-02-01

    The current high prices for petroleum and natural gas have spurred the chemical industry to examine alternative feedstocks for the production of commodity chemicals. High feedstock prices have driven methanol and ammonia production offshore. The U.S. Chemical Industry is the largest user of natural gas in the country. Over the last 30 years, alternatives to conventional petroleum and natural gas feedstocks have been developed, but have limited, if any, commercial implementation in the United States. Alternative feedstocks under consideration include coal from unconventional processing technologies, such as gasification and liquefaction, novel resources such as biomass, stranded natural gas from unconventional reserves, and heavy oil from tar sands or oil shale. These feedstock sources have been evaluated with respect to the feasibility and readiness for production of the highest volume commodity chemicals in the United States. Sources of organic compounds, such as ethanol from sugar fermentation and bitumen-derived heavy crude are now being primarily exploited for fuels, rather than for chemical feedstocks. Overall, government-sponsored research into the use of alternatives to petroleum feedstocks focuses on use for power and transportation fuels rather than for chemical feedstocks. Research is needed to reduce cost and technical risk. Use of alternative feedstocks is more common outside the United States R&D efforts are needed to make these processes more efficient and less risky before becoming more common domestically. The status of alternative feedstock technology is summarized.

  7. Annual report, spring 2015. Alternative chemical cleaning methods for high level waste tanks-corrosion test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyrwas, R. B.

    2015-07-06

    The testing presented in this report is in support of the investigation of the Alternative Chemical Cleaning program to aid in developing strategies and technologies to chemically clean radioactive High Level Waste tanks prior to tank closure. The data and conclusions presented here were the examination of the corrosion rates of A285 carbon steel and 304L stainless steel when interacted with the chemical cleaning solution composed of 0.18 M nitric acid and 0.5 wt. % oxalic acid. This solution has been proposed as a dissolution solution that would be used to remove the remaining hard heel portion of the sludge in the waste tanks. This solution was combined with the HM and PUREX simulated sludge with dilution ratios that represent the bulk oxalic cleaning process (20:1 ratio, acid solution to simulant) and the cumulative volume associated with multiple acid strikes (50:1 ratio). The testing was conducted over 28 days at 50°C and deployed two methods to invest the corrosion conditions; passive weight loss coupon and an active electrochemical probe were used to collect data on the corrosion rate and material performance. In addition to investigating the chemical cleaning solutions, electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on acidic and basic solutions containing sodium permanganate at room temperature to explore the corrosion impacts if these solutions were to be implemented to retrieve remaining actinides that are currently in the sludge of the tank.

  8. Cronifer 1925 hMo: A promising high-alloy steel for shelf oil and gas production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockel, M.; Jasner, M.

    1995-02-01

    The Cronifer 1925 hMo steel, which is known as a superaustenitic steel, possesses a high resistance toward pitting corrosion (PC), crevice corrosion (CC), and toward corrosion cracking (CoC) in media with a high chloride content and in hydrogen-sulfide-containing gases and condensates. The nominal chemical composition of Cronifer 1925 hMo is (%): < 0.02 C, 24.5-25.5 Ni, 20.0-21.0 Cr, < 1.0 Mn, < 0.5 Si, 0.8-1.0 Cu, 6.0-6.8 Mo, 0.18-0.20 N, < 0.005 S, and < 0.03 P. As a result of the high chromium and molybdenum content, the pitting resistance equivalent (PRE) is equal, according to the PRE equation to PRE = % Cr + 3.3% Mo - 30% N = 74%. A stainless steel is considered as corrosion-resisting in sea water at PRE {ge} 35%. The increased nickel content makes Cronifer 1925 hMo also resistant toward CoC under stress in sea water and in other media with high chloride contents, a well as in gas condensates which contain hydrogen sulfide. All this makes the steel effective for use in marine conditions and in media encountered in the shelf production of oil and gas. The addition of nickel preserves the austenitic structure and improves the passivation properties. Copper improves the resistance of the steel toward general corrosion in reducing media; however, too high a copper content is harmful when the steel is used in neutral chloride-containing solutions and must be limited (not higher than 1%). Cronifer 1925 hMo can be used in hydrocarbon production on the shelf in the following equipment: in fire-extinguishing systems which use fresh and sea water; in pipe systems which return the separated water and gases (with high chloride contents at high pressures and elevated temperatures) to the well in order to fill cavities or to maintain pressure; in separating and cooling equipment of gas and oil production platforms and in oil and gas refineries; and in underwater installations, collectors, and pipe systems, operating under pressure.

  9. Independent Analysis of Alternatives for Disposition of the Idaho Calcined High-Level Waste Inventory Volume 1- Summary Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Field Office and the Office of Environmental Management (EM) chartered an independent Analysis of Alternatives for the Idaho Calcine Disposition Project (CDP), part of the overall Idaho Cleanup Project.

  10. Geek-Up[11.12.2010]: Alternative Fuel-Cell Electrocatalysts, High-Efficiency Thermoelectrics and Ryanodine Receptors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    At Brookhaven National Lab, scientists have engineered an alternative fuel-cell electrocatalyst which minimizes the wear and tear on platinum that occurs during stop-and-go driving while also reducing the amount used of this pricey component.

  11. High-temperature batteries for geothermal and oil/gas borehole applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GUIDOTTI,RONALD A.

    2000-05-25

    A literature survey and technical evaluation was carried out of past and present battery technologies with the goal of identifying appropriate candidates for use in geothermal borehole and, to a lesser extent, oil/gas boreholes. The various constraints that are posed by such an environment are discussed. The promise as well as the limitations of various candidate technologies are presented. Data for limited testing of a number of candidate systems are presented and the areas for additional future work are detailed. The use of low-temperature molten salts shows the most promise for such applications and includes those that are liquid at room temperature. The greatest challenges are to develop an appropriate electrochemical couple that is kinetically stable with the most promising electrolytes--both organic as well as inorganic--over the wide operating window that spans both borehole environments.

  12. Alternative Compliance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alternate Watch Office Germantown Watch Office When activated at senior leadership direction, the Forrestal Watch Office functions are transferred to a relocated Watch Office. This alternate Watch Office replicates the 24/7/365 mission and communications links resident in the Forrestal Watch Office. Related Topics emergency operations watch office

    Compliance Individual Permit: Alternative Compliance When permittees believe they have installed measures to minimize pollutants but are unable to

  13. Enhanced Oil Recovery: Aqueous Flow Tracer Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rovani; John Schabron

    2009-02-01

    A low detection limit analytical method was developed to measure a suite of benzoic acid and fluorinated benzoic acid compounds intended for use as tracers for enhanced oil recovery operations. Although the new high performance liquid chromatography separation successfully measured the tracers in an aqueous matrix at low part per billion levels, the low detection limits could not be achieved in oil field water due to interference problems with the hydrocarbon-saturated water using the system's UV detector. Commercial instrument vendors were contacted in an effort to determine if mass spectrometry could be used as an alternate detection technique. The results of their work demonstrate that low part per billion analysis of the tracer compounds in oil field water could be achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

  14. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  15. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  16. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E.

    2013-04-25

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  17. Refinery Upgrading of Hydropyrolysis Oil From Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Michael; Marker, Terry; Ortiz-Toral, Pedro; Linck, Martin; Felix, Larry; Wangerow, Jim; Swanson, Dan; McLeod, Celeste; Del Paggio, Alan; Urade, Vikrant; Rao, Madhusudhan; Narasimhan, Laxmi; Gephart, John; Starr, Jack; Hahn, John; Stover, Daniel; Parrish, Martin; Maxey, Carl; Shonnard, David; Handler, Robert; Fan, Jiquig

    2015-08-31

    Cellulosic and woody biomass can be converted to bio-oils containing less than 10% oxygen by a hydropyrolysis process. Hydropyrolysis is the first step in Gas Technology Institute’s (GTI) integrated Hydropyrolysis and Hydroconversion IH2®. These intermediate bio-oils can then be converted to drop-in hydrocarbon fuels using existing refinery hydrotreating equipment to make hydrocarbon blending components, which are fully compatible with existing fuels. Alternatively, cellulosic or woody biomass can directly be converted into drop-in hydrocarbon fuels containing less than 0.4% oxygen using the IH2 process located adjacent to a refinery or ethanol production facility. Many US oil refineries are actually located near biomass resources and are a logical location for a biomass to transportation fuel conversion process. The goal of this project was to work directly with an oil refinery partner, to determine the most attractive route and location for conversion of biorenewables to drop in fuels in their refinery and ethanol production network. Valero Energy Company, through its subsidiaries, has 12 US oil refineries and 11 ethanol production facilities, making them an ideal partner for this analysis. Valero is also part of a 50- 50 joint venture with Darling Ingredients called Diamond Green Diesel. Diamond Green Diesel’s production capacity is approximately 11,000 barrels per day of renewable diesel. The plant is located adjacent to Valero’s St Charles, Louisiana Refinery and converts recycled animal fats, used cooking oil, and waste corn oil into renewable diesel. This is the largest renewable diesel plant in the U.S. and has successfully operated for over 2 years For this project, 25 liters of hydropyrolysis oil from wood and 25 liters of hydropyrolysis oils from corn stover were produced. The hydropyrolysis oil produced had 4-10% oxygen. Metallurgical testing of hydropyrolysis liquids was completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratories (Oak Ridge) and showed the

  18. Alternative Compliance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alternative Compliance Request for 19 Site Monitoring AreaSite Combinations Exceeding Target Action Levels for Gross-Alpha Radioactivity CDV-SMA-2 16-021(c) CDV-SMA-2.51 16-010(i) ...

  19. Oil shale technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail.

  20. ,,,"Residual Fuel Oil(b)",,,," Alternative...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for which payment was made," "quantities transferred in, quantities purchased and paid for by a central" "purchasing entity, and quantities for which payment was made in kind. ...

  1. Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    Interest in alternative transportation fuels (ATF`s) has increased in recent years due to the drives for cleaner air and less dependence upon foreign oil. This report, Alternatives to Traditional Transportation Fuels 1996, provides information on ATFs, as well as the vehicles that consume them.

  2. Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures, 1999" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspac...

  3. High resolution FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of bio-oil and residual water soluble organics produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of the marine microalga Nannochloropsis salina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Dungan, Barry; Lammers, Peter; Albrecht, Karl O.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schaub, Tanner

    2014-03-01

    We report a detailed compositional characterization of a bio-crude oil and aqueous by-product from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis salina by direct infusion Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. The FT-ICR MS instrumentation approach facilitates direct assignment of elemental composition to >7000 resolved mass spectral peaks and three-dimensional mass spectral images for individual heteroatom classes highlight compositional diversity of the two samples and provide a baseline description of these materials. Aromatic nitrogen compounds and free fatty acids are predominant species observed in both the bio-oil and aqueous fraction. Residual organic compounds present in the aqueous fraction show distributions that are slightly lower in both molecular ring and/or double bond value and carbon number relative to those found in the bio-oil, albeit with a high degree of commonality between the two compositions.

  4. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike L. Laue

    1997-05-30

    The distal fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economical to develop using vertical wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  5. Process for preparing lubricating oil from used waste lubricating oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whisman, Marvin L.; Reynolds, James W.; Goetzinger, John W.; Cotton, Faye O.

    1978-01-01

    A re-refining process is described by which high-quality finished lubricating oils are prepared from used waste lubricating and crankcase oils. The used oils are stripped of water and low-boiling contaminants by vacuum distillation and then dissolved in a solvent of 1-butanol, 2-propanol and methylethyl ketone, which precipitates a sludge containing most of the solid and liquid contaminants, unspent additives, and oxidation products present in the used oil. After separating the purified oil-solvent mixture from the sludge and recovering the solvent for recycling, the purified oil is preferably fractional vacuum-distilled, forming lubricating oil distillate fractions which are then decolorized and deodorized to prepare blending stocks. The blending stocks are blended to obtain a lubricating oil base of appropriate viscosity before being mixed with an appropriate additive package to form the finished lubricating oil product.

  6. Recycled waste oil: A fuel for medium speed diesel engines?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, A.B.L.; Poynton, W.A.; Howard, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the exploratory engine trials that Mirrlees Blackstone has undertaken to investigate the effect of fueling an engine using waste oil derived from used lubricants. The effect on the engine`s mechanical components, and thermal performance are examined, and the steps taken to overcome problems are discussed. The proposed engine is sited within the Research and Development facilities, housed separately from the manufacturing plant. The unit is already capable of operating on two different types of fuel with single engine set up. It is a 3 cylinder, 4-stroke turbocharged direct injection engine mounted on an underbase and it operates at 600 rpm, 15.0 bar B.M.E.P. (Brake Mean Effective Pressure). It is a mature engine, built {approximately} 20 years previously, and used for emergency stand-by duties in the company`s powerhouse. The test engine is coupled to an alternator and the electricity generated is fed to the national grid. Initial samples of treated fuel oil, analyzed by an independent oil analysis consultant, indicated that the fuel oil does not correspond to a normal fuel oil. They contained high concentrations of trace elements (i.e. calcium, phosphorus, lead, aluminum and silicon) which was consistent with sourcing from waste lubricating oils. The fuel oil was considered to be too severe for use in an engine.

  7. Massive Gulf leak ushers in age of tough oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-15

    A recent public opinion poll released on June 24, 2010, concluded that 63 percent of those surveyed support the idea that reducing emissions and increasing alternative energy are worth pursuing even if that means increased costs. The Energy Information Administration's latest Annual Energy Outlook shows that the current financial crisis has reduced U.S. oil imports from their all time peak of 60 percent and projects a gradually declining percentage through 2035 under the reference case, and even lower if oil prices remain high -- reaching $210 per barrel by 2035 in 2008 dollars.

  8. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic fractures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-08-31

    The long radius, near-horizontal well has been drilled and completion operations are in progress. Upon initial review of log data, two hydraulic fracture treatments were planned. However, the probability of the lower frac growing into thick sands previously swept by waterflood has called for additional information to be obtained prior to proceeding with hydraulic fracture treatments. Should permeabilities prove to be as favorable as some data indicate, produced water volumes could be excessively high. Prior to pumping the first frac, the well will be perforated and produced from lower pay intervals. These perfs will not impact future frac work. Rate data and pressure transient analysis will dictate the need for the lower frac.

  9. Peat as an energy alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punwani, D.V.

    1980-07-01

    The importance of developing alternative energy sources to augment supplies of fossil fuels is growing all over the world. Coal, oil shale, tar sands, biomass, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric power have received considerable attention as alternative energy sources. One large energy resource, however, has received little attention until recently. That resource is peat. Although peat is used as an energy source in some countries such as Russia, Ireland, and Finland, it is virtually unexploited in many countries including the United States. This paper provides an understanding of peat: its varieties, abundance, and distribution; its value as an energy alternative; its current and future role as an energy alternative; and the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of large-scale peat utilization.

  10. World oil trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A. )

    1991-01-01

    This book provides data on many facets of the world oil industry topics include; oil consumption; oils share of energy consumption; crude oil production; natural gas production; oil reserves; prices of oil; world refining capacity; and oil tankers.

  11. ALTERNATE CITY:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    E;;;: 61c F &&I-&&- ALTERNATE --___-----~~~~~-----~~~~~~~--~~~~~~~--- CITY: w _______ STATE:-&- -------- - NAfiE: +~;--- c I 7-b-q Current: Owner contacted 0 yes m no; if yes, date contacted TYPE OF OPERATION ~~_-----~~~~----- q Research & Development cl Facility Type 0 Production sgale testing 0 Pilat Scale 0 Manufacturing 0 Bench Scale Process r~ University i Theoretical Studies 0 Research Organization 0 Government Sponsored Facility Sample & Analysis f$ Other -U-h-

  12. heavy_oil | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heavy Oil Heavy oil is a vast U.S. oil resource that is underexploited because its highly viscous nature renders it difficult to produce and to refine. As higher-gravity crudes (lighter oil) become increasingly scarce in the U.S., American operators are looking more and more to low-gravity crudes (heavy oil) to prop up the Nation's declining oil output. Heavy oil generally is defined as having an API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity of 10-20 degrees. Oil sources with even lower gravities,

  13. Alternative Fuel Vehicle Data - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    & Alternative Fuels - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas Exploration and reserves, storage, imports and exports, production, prices, sales. Electricity Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade,

  14. Property description and fact-finding report for NPR-3 Natrona County, Wyoming. Addendum to 22 August 1996 study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Natrona County, Wyoming. The report that follows is the Phase I fact-finding and property description for that study. The United States of America owns 100 percent of the mineral rights and surface rights in 9,321-acre NPR-3. This property comprises the Teapot Dome oil field and related production, processing and other facilities. Discovered in 1914, this field has 632 wells producing 1,807 barrels of oil per day. Production revenues are about $9.5 million per year. Remaining recoverable reserves are approximately 1.3 million barrels of oil. Significant plugging and abandonment (P&A) and environmental liabilities are present.

  15. Effects of Removing Restrictions on U.S. Crude Oil Exports -...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Alphabetical Frequency Tag Cloud Full report Baseline and scenario data Reference Low Oil Price High Oil and Gas Resource High Oil and Gas Resource with Low Oil Price Effects of ...

  16. Structural characterization of Green River oil-shale at high-pressure using pair distribution function analysis and small angle x-ray scattering.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locke, D. R.; Chupas, P. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Pugmire, R. J.; Winans, R. E.; Univ. of Utah

    2008-01-01

    The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances (6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond 6 {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component.

  17. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, Curtis L.; Timpe, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and usually coal derived.

  18. A methodology for assessing the market benefits of alternative motor fuels: The Alternative Fuels Trade Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leiby, P.N.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes a modeling methodology for examining the prospective economic benefits of displacing motor gasoline use by alternative fuels. The approach is based on the Alternative Fuels Trade Model (AFTM). AFTM development was undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a longer term study of alternative fuels issues. The AFTM is intended to assist with evaluating how alternative fuels may be promoted effectively, and what the consequences of substantial alternative fuels use might be. Such an evaluation of policies and consequences of an alternative fuels program is being undertaken by DOE as required by Section 502(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Interest in alternative fuels is based on the prospective economic, environmental and energy security benefits from the substitution of these fuels for conventional transportation fuels. The transportation sector is heavily dependent on oil. Increased oil use implies increased petroleum imports, with much of the increase coming from OPEC countries. Conversely, displacement of gasoline has the potential to reduce US petroleum imports, thereby reducing reliance on OPEC oil and possibly weakening OPEC`s ability to extract monopoly profits. The magnitude of US petroleum import reduction, the attendant fuel price changes, and the resulting US benefits, depend upon the nature of oil-gas substitution and the supply and demand behavior of other world regions. The methodology applies an integrated model of fuel market interactions to characterize these effects.

  19. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  20. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  1. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil)...

  2. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  3. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  4. Venezuelan oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, A.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Oil reserves have been known to exist in Venezuela since early historical records, however, it was not until the 20th century that the extensive search for new reserves began. The 1950's marked the height of oil exploration when 200 new oil fields were discovered, as well as over 60{percent} of proven reserves. Venezuela now produces one tone in seven of crude oil consumption and the country's abundant reserves such as the Bolivar Coastal field in the West of the country and the Orinoco Belt field in the East, will ensure it's continuing importance as an oil producer well into the 21st century. This book charts the historical development of Venezuela oil and provides a chronology of all the significant events which have shaped the oil industry of today. It covers all the technical, legal, economic and political factors which have contributed to the evolution of the industry and also gives information on current oil resources and production. Those events significant to the development of the industry, those which were influential in shaping future policy and those which precipitated further action are included. The book provides a source of reference to oil companies, oil economists and petroleum geologists.

  5. Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, T.L.

    2005-12-19

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for using biorenewable feedstocks in oil refineries. Economic analyses were conducted, with support from process modeling and proof of principle experiments, to assess a variety of potential processes and configurations. The study considered two primary alternatives: the production of biodiesel and green diesel from vegetable oils and greases and opportunities for utilization of pyrolysis oil. The study identified a number of promising opportunities for biorenewables in existing or new refining operations.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF SHALLOW VISCOUS OIL RESERVES IN NORTH SLOPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-07-01

    North Slope of Alaska has huge oil deposits in heavy oil reservoirs such as Ugnu, West Sak and Shrader Bluff etc. The viscosity of the last two reservoir oils vary from {approx}30 cp to {approx}3000 cp and the amount in the range of 10-20 billion barrels. High oil viscosity and low formation strength impose problems to high recovery and well productivity. Water-alternate-gas injection processes can be effective for the lower viscosity end of these deposits in West Sak and Shrader Bluff. Several gas streams are available in the North Slope containing NGL and CO{sub 2} (a greenhouse gas). The goal of this research is to develop tools to find optimum solvent, injection schedule and well-architecture for a WAG process in North Slope shallow sand viscous oil reservoirs. In the last quarter, we have developed streamline generation and convection subroutines for miscible gas injection. The WAG injection algorithms are being developed. We formulated a four-phase relative permeability model based on two-phase relative permeabilities. The new relative permeability formulations are being incorporated into the simulator. Wettabilities and relative permeabilities are being measured. Plans for the next quarter includes modeling of WAG injection in streamline based simulation, relative permeability studies with cores, incorporation of complex well-architecture.

  7. A novel process for upgrading heavy oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, F.T.T.; Rintjema, R.T.

    1994-12-31

    Canada has extensive reserves of high sulfur heavy oils. These heavy oils are recovered primarily by steam injection techniques. As a result, the heavy oils are obtained as emulsions at well-heads. The heavy oils, being high in sulfur and metals, and low in hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio, require upgrading such as desulfurization and hydrocracking before it can be used in conventional refineries. Conventional emulsion treatment and desulfurization technology require multistage processing. Thus, alternative technologies for processing heavy oil emulsions would be attractive. The authors have recently developed a novel single stage process for upgrading emulsions via activation of water to provide hydrogen in situ for catalytic desulfurization and hydrocracking. Current work is focused on the desulfurization aspect of upgrading, using benzothiophene as the model sulfur compound and molybdic acid as the catalyst. At 340 C and a CO loading pressure of 600 psi, up to 86% sulfur removal was obtained. As well, in situ generated H{sub 2} was found to be more active than externally supplied molecular H{sub 2}. A likely pathway for desulfurization of benzothiophene was via the initial hydrogenation of benzothiophene to dihydrobenzothiophene followed by hydrogenolysis to give ethylbenzene and H{sub 2}S.

  8. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot...

  9. ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditure Intensities, 1999" ,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"per Building (gallons)","per Square Foot (gallons)","per Worker...

  10. Crude Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Barrels) Product: Crude Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Distillate Fuel Oil Residual Fuel Oil Still Gas Petroleum Coke Marketable Petroleum Coke Catalyst Petroleum Coke Other Petroleum Products Natural Gas Coal Purchased Electricity Purchased Steam Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 0 0 0 0 0 0 1986-2015 East Coast (PADD 1) 0 0 0 0

  11. Heavy oil expansions gather momentum worldwide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritis, G.

    1995-08-14

    Cold production, wormholes, foamy oil mechanism, improvements in thermal methods, and horizontal wells are some of the processes and technologies enabling expansion of the world`s heavy oil/bitumen production. Such processes were the focus of the International Heavy Oil Symposium in Calgary, June 19--21. Unlike conventional oil production, heavy oil/bitumen extraction is more a manufacturing process where technology enables the business and does not just add value. The current low price spreads between heavy oil/light oil indicate that demand for heavy oil is high. The paper first discusses the price difference between heavy and light oils, then describes heavy oil production activities in Canada at Cold Lake, in Venezuela in the Orinoco belt, and at Kern River in California.

  12. Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip H. Henna

    2008-08-18

    Polymeric materials have been prevalent in our everyday lives for quite a long time. Most of today's polymeric materials are derived from nonrenewable petroleum-based feedstocks. Instabilities in the regions where petroleum is drilled, along with an increased demand in petroleum, have driven the price of crude oil to record high prices. This, in effect, increases the price of petroleum-based polymeric materials, which has caused a heightened awareness of renewable alternatives for polymeric feedstocks. Cellulose, starch, proteins and natural oils have all been examined as possible polymeric feedstocks. Natural oils are commercially available on a large scale and are relatively cheap. It is projected that the U.S. alone will produce 21 billion pounds of soybean oil in the period 2008/2009. Natural oils also have the advantages of inherent biodegradability, low toxicity, high purity and ready availability. Most natural oils possess a triglyceride structure as shown in Figure 1. Most natural oils have a unique distribution of fatty acid side chains, along with varying degrees of unsaturation per triglyceride. Common fatty acid side chains in naturally occurring oils are palmitic acid (C16:0), a 16 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; stearic acid (C18:0), an 18 carbon fatty acid with no unsaturation; oleic acid (C18:1), an 18 carbon fatty acid with one double bond; linoleic acid (C18:2), an 18 carbon fatty acid with two double bonds; and linolenic acid (C18:3), an 18 carbon fatty acid with three double bonds. Of course, there are other fatty acids with varying degrees of unsaturation, but their abundance is usually minimal. All of the unsaturated fatty acids mentioned have naturally occurring cis double bonds, which is common for most unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, the afore mentioned fatty acids have the first double bond at the position of carbon 9 (C9), followed by carbon 12 (C12), if there are two degrees of unsaturation, then at carbon 15 (C15), if

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption States are allowed to exempt certified alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) from HOV lane requirements within the state. Eligible AFVs are defined as vehicles operating solely on methanol, denatured ethanol, or other alcohols; a mixture containing at least 85% methanol, denatured ethanol, or other alcohols; natural gas, propane, hydrogen, or coal derived liquid fuels; or fuels derived from biological materials. PEVs are

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    (AFV) High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Exemption Dedicated AFVs are permitted to use HOV lanes, regardless of the number of passengers. Qualified vehicles must display an AFV special plate or the Clean Air - Blue Skies Energy Efficient license plate, which are available from the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT). Recognized alternative fuels are propane, natural gas, electricity, and hydrogen. Only certain plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are eligible for the Energy Efficient license

  15. Oil-shale utilization at Morgantown, WV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J.Y.; Notestein, J.E.; Mei, J.S.; Romanosky, R.R.; King, J.A.; Zeng, L.W.

    1982-01-01

    Fully aware of the nation's need to develop high-risk and long-term research in eastern oil-shale and low-grade oil-shale utilization in general, the US DOE/METC initiated an eastern oil-shale characterization program. In less than 3 months, METC produced shale oil from a selected eastern-US oil shale with a Fischer assay of 8.0 gallons/ton. In view of the relatively low oil yield from this particular oil shale, efforts were directed to determine the process conditions which give the highest oil yield. A 2-inch-diameter electrically heated fluidized-bed retort was constructed, and Celina oil shale from Tennessee was selected to be used as a representative eastern oil shale. After more than 50 runs, the retorting data were analyzed and reviewed and the best oil-yield operating condition was determined. In addition, while conducting the oil-shale retorting experiments, a number of technical problems were identified, addressed, and overcome. Owing to the inherent high rates of heat and mass transfers inside the fluidized bed, the fluidized-bed combustor and retorting appear to be a desirable process technology for an effective and efficient means for oil-shale utilization. The fluidized-bed operation is a time-tested, process-proven, high-throughput, solid-processing operation which may contribute to the efficient utilization of oil-shale energy.

  16. Oil Stop Valve : Oil Spill Containment Research and Development Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourn, Robert D.

    1982-07-01

    This report summarizes the research and development project conducted by the Civil Engineering Section, Division of Substation and Control Engineering, to determine the effectiveness of the oil stop valve for use in the Bonneville Power Administration's Oil Spill Containment and Countermeasure Program. The most attractive alternative to lagoons and separator tanks was found in the oil stop valve manufactured by AFL/Clark Industries of Riviera Beach, Florida. This small, direct-acting and relatively inexpensive valve requires little maintenance and can either be employed independently, using existing drain lines for effluent storage, or in conjunction with oil separator tanks and lagoon systems. The AFL/Clark valve requires no power and has only one moving part, a ballasted float having a specific gravity between that of oil and water. In water, the float rides above the throat of the discharge pipe allowing water to flow out. When oil enters the water the float begins losing its relative bouyancy and sinks until it seats itself over the throat of the outlet, closing the valve. Usually installed in a manhole within a typical storm drainage system, the valve backs spilled oil into drainways and contains it for temporary storage within the switchyard.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Local Examples Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... More in this section... Search Federal State Local Examples

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Search Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... More in this section... Search Federal State Local Examples Summary

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tools Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... Fuel Properties Search Fuel Properties Comparison Create a custom chart

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    About the Data Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... More in this section... Search Federal State Local Examples

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    State Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... More in this section... Search Federal State Local Examples Summary

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Incentives Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... More in this section... Search Federal State Local Examples

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Summary Tables Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... More in this section... Search Federal State Local Examples

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Federal Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... More in this section... Search Federal State Local Examples Summary

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    State Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... More in this section... Search Federal State Local Examples Summary

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tools Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... Truckstop Electrification Truck Stop Electrification Locator Locate

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... Vehicle and Infrastructure Cash-Flow Evaluation Model VICE 2.0: Vehicle

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Incentives Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... More in this section... Search Federal State Local Examples

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Incentives » Federal Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... More in this section... Search Federal State Local

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Incentives Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... More in this section... Search Federal State Local Examples

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Entities regulated by RFS include oil refiners and gasoline and diesel importers. The ... This may include sugarcane or sugar beet-based fuels; biodiesel made from vegetable oil or ...

  12. Alternatives to Nitric Acid Stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process for Cesium Removal from Alkaline High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Haverlock, Tamara; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Ditto, Mary E; Moyer, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    Effective alternatives to nitric acid stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent have been demonstrated in this work. The CSSX solvent employs calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-18-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) as the cesium extractant in a modified alkane diluent for decontamination of alkaline high-level wastes. Results reported in this paper support the idea that replacement of the nitrate anion by a much more hydrophilic anion like borate can substantially lower cesium distribution ratios on stripping. Without any other change in the CSSX flowsheet, however, the use of a boric acid stripping solution in place of the 1 mM nitric acid solution used in the CSSX process marginally, though perhaps still usefully, improves stripping. The less-than-expected improvement was explained by the carryover of nitrate from scrubbing into stripping. Accordingly, more effective stripping is obtained after a scrub of the solvent with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide. Functional alternatives to boric acid include sodium bicarbonate or cesium hydroxide as strip solutions. Profound stripping improvement is achieved when trioctylamine, one of the components of the CSSX solvent, is replaced with a commercial guanidine reagent (LIX 79). The more basic guanidine affords greater latitude in selection of aqueous conditions in that it protonates even at mildly alkaline pH values. Under process-relevant conditions, cesium distributions on stripping are decreased on the order of 100-fold compared with current CSSX performance. The extraction properties of the solvent were preserved unchanged over three successive extract-scrub-strip cycles. From the point of view of compatibility with downstream processing, boric acid represents an attractive stripping agent, as it is also a potentially ideal feed for borosilicate vitrification of the separated 137Cs product stream. Possibilities for use of these results toward a dramatically better next-generation CSSX process, possibly one employing the

  13. Past, Present, and Future Production of Bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei; Gajjela, Sanjeev

    2009-04-01

    have developed means to increase the anhydrosugars content of bio-oil above the usual 3% produced during normal pyrolysis by mild acid pretreatment of the biomass feedstock. Mississippi State University has developed a proprietary method to produce an aqueous fraction containing more than 50% of anhydrosugars content. These anhydrosugars can be catalyzed to hydrogen or hydrocarbons; alter-nately, the aqueous fraction can be hydrolyzed to pro-duce a high-glucose content. The hydrolyzed product can then be filtered to remove microbial inhibitor compounds followed by production of alcohols by fer-mentation. Production of bio-oil is now considered a major candidate as a technology promising production of drop-in transportation and boiler fuels.

  14. Oil market outlook and drivers

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Oil inventories in industrialized countries to reach record high at end of 2015 The amount of year-end oil inventories held in industrialized countries is expected to be the highest on record in 2015. In its monthly forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said it expects commercial oil inventories in the United States and other industrialized countries to total 2.83 billion barrels at the end of this year almost 90 million barrels more than at the end of 2014. Global oil production

  15. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  16. Ecotoxicological study of used lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, P.K.; Chan, W.L.; Wang, J.; Wong, C.K.

    1995-12-31

    Used lubricating oil is more toxic than crude oil and fuel oil since it contains comparatively high levels of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). No detail toxicological study has been conducted to evaluate the hazards of used lubricating oil to the environment. This study reports a battery of bioassays using bacteria (Microtox test and Mutatox test), algae, amphipod and shrimp larvae to determine the toxicity of water soluble fraction of used lubricating oil. The results will be used to formulate a complete and extensive ecotoxicological assessment of the impacts of used lubricating oil on aquatic environment.

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center on AddThis.com... More in this section... Search Federal State Local Examples Summary Tables Key Federal Legislation The information below includes a brief chronology and

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    License Fee Effective July 1, 2015, each alternative fuel supplier, refiner, distributor, terminal operator, importer or exporter of alternative fuel used in motor vehicles must...

  19. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per...

  20. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  1. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region, 1999" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per Square Foot"...

  2. ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Expenditures by Census Region for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Expenditures (million dollars)",,,,"Fuel Oil Expenditures (dollars)" ,,,,,"per Gallon",,,,"per...

  3. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (gallons) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (million gallons)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity...

  4. Preliminary Economics for the Production of Pyrolysis Oil from Lignin in a Cellulosic Ethanol Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-04-01

    Cellulosic ethanol biorefinery economics can be potentially improved by converting by-product lignin into high valued products. Cellulosic biomass is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. In a cellulosic ethanol biorefinery, cellulose and hemicellullose are converted to ethanol via fermentation. The raw lignin portion is the partially dewatered stream that is separated from the product ethanol and contains lignin, unconverted feed and other by-products. It can be burned as fuel for the plant or can be diverted into higher-value products. One such higher-valued product is pyrolysis oil, a fuel that can be further upgraded into motor gasoline fuels. While pyrolysis of pure lignin is not a good source of pyrolysis liquids, raw lignin containing unconverted feed and by-products may have potential as a feedstock. This report considers only the production of the pyrolysis oil and does not estimate the cost of upgrading that oil into synthetic crude oil or finished gasoline and diesel. A techno-economic analysis for the production of pyrolysis oil from raw lignin was conducted. comparing two cellulosic ethanol fermentation based biorefineries. The base case is the NREL 2002 cellulosic ethanol design report case where 2000 MTPD of corn stover is fermented to ethanol (NREL 2002). In the base case, lignin is separated from the ethanol product, dewatered, and burned to produce steam and power. The alternate case considered in this report dries the lignin, and then uses fast pyrolysis to generate a bio-oil product. Steam and power are generated in this alternate case by burning some of the corn stover feed, rather than fermenting it. This reduces the annual ethanol production rate from 69 to 54 million gallons/year. Assuming a pyrolysis oil value similar to Btu-adjusted residual oil, the estimated ethanol selling price ranges from $1.40 to $1.48 (2007 $) depending upon the yield of pyrolysis oil. This is considerably above the target minimum ethanol selling

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Test Your Alternative Fuel IQ

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Test Your Alternative Fuel IQ to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Test Your Alternative Fuel IQ on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Test Your Alternative Fuel IQ on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Test Your Alternative Fuel IQ on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Test Your Alternative Fuel IQ on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Test Your Alternative Fuel IQ on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data

  6. World Oil Transit Chokepoints

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01

    Chokepoints are narrow channels along widely used global sea routes, some so narrow that restrictions are placed on the size of vessel that can navigate through them. They are a critical part of global energy security due to the high volume of oil traded through their narrow straits.

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels Technician Certificates The Department of Labor (DOL) will issue a certificate to any person who has successfully passed the appropriate alternative fuels equipment, alternative fuels compression, or electric vehicle technician examination as provided in the Alternative Fuels Technician Certification Act. A certification fee applies. For companies, partnerships, or corporations involved in the business of installing, servicing, repairing, modifying, or renovating equipment used

  8. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleem, Junaid; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; McKay, Gordon

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  9. Analysis of Alternatives | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Alternatives Analysis of Alternatives Documents Available for Download April 13, 2016 Independent Analysis of Alternatives for Disposition of the Idaho Calcined High-Level Waste Inventory Volume 1 - Summary Report The U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Field Office and the Office of Environmental Management (EM) chartered an independent Analysis of Alternatives for the Idaho Calcine Disposition Project (CDP), part of the overall Idaho Cleanup Project.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which assigns a RIN to each gallon of renewable fuel. Entities regulated by RFS include oil refiners, blenders, and gasoline and diesel importers. The volumes required of each...

  11. Improving Vehicle Efficiency, Reducing Dependence on Foreign Oil (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. Today, the United States spends about $400 billion each year on imported oil. To realize a secure energy future, America must break its dependence on imported oil and its volatile costs. The transportation sector accounts for about 70% of U.S. oil demand and holds tremendous opportunity to increase America's energy security by reducing oil consumption. That's why the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducts research and development (R and D) on vehicle technologies which can stem America's dependence on oil, strengthen the economy, and protect the environment. Hybrid-electric and plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles can significantly improve fuel economy, displacing petroleum. Researchers are making batteries more affordable and recyclable, while enhancing battery range, performance, and life. This research supports President Obama's goal of putting 1 million electric vehicles on the road by 2015. The program is also working with businesses to develop domestic battery and electric-drive component plants to improve America's economic competitiveness globally. The program facilitates deployment of alternative fuels (ethanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, electricity, propane, and natural gas) and fuel infrastructures by partnering with state and local governments, universities, and industry. Reducing vehicle weight directly improves vehicle efficiency and fuel economy, and can potentially reduce vehicle operating costs. Cost-effective, lightweight, high-strength materials can significantly reduce vehicle weight without compromising safety. Improved combustion technologies and optimized fuel systems can improve near-and mid-term fuel economy by 25% for passenger vehicles and 20% for commercial vehicles by 2015, compared to 2009 vehicles. Reducing the use of oil-based fuels and lubricants in vehicles has more potential to improve the nation's energy security than any other action

  12. high

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Highlights International Oil Markets Prices. We have raised our world oil price projection by about 2 per barrel for this month because of assumed greater compliance by OPEC to ...

  13. Towards Artificial Photosynthesis and Alternative Energy | Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gust, Director of the Center for Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel Production, presented a lecture for high school students titled "Towards Artificial Photosynthesis and Alternative Energy". ...

  14. EIS-0068: Development Policy Options for the Naval Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves prepared this programmatic statement to examine the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of development projects on the Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1, and examine select alternatives, such as encouraging production from other liquid fuel resources (coal liquefaction, biomass, offshore oil and enhanced oil recovery) or conserving petroleum in lieu of shale oil production.

  15. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  16. Use of alternative fuel at Onahama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohno, H.; Asao, H.; Amano, T.

    1982-07-01

    Since 1965, a green-charged reverberatory furnace has been operating at Onahama Smelting and Refining Co., Ltd., Fukushima-Ken, Japan. Increasing oil prices, however, have caused Onahama to introduce alternative fuels, such as coal and waste tires. Problems such as incomplete combustion of waste tires, have almost been resolved; potential problems with dust in the waste heat boilers as a result of pulverized coal burning have not been severe.

  17. High-level waste inventory, characteristics, generation, and facility assessment for treatment, storage, and disposal alternatives considered in the US Department of Energy eenvironmental management programmatic environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folga, S.M.; Conzelmann, G.; Gillette, J.L.; Kier, P.H.; Poch, L.A.

    1996-12-01

    This report provides data and information needed to support the risk and impact assessments of high-level waste (HLW) management alternatives in the U.S. Department of Energy Waste Management (WM) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Available data on the physical form, chemical and isotopic composition, storage locations, and other waste characteristics of interest are presented. High-level waste management follows six implementation phases: current storage, retrieval, pretreatment, treatment, interim canister storage, and geologic repository disposal; pretreatment, treatment, and repository disposal are outside the scope of the WM PEIS. Brief descriptions of current and planned HLW management facilities are provided, including information on the type of waste managed in the facility, costs, product form, resource requirements, emissions, and current and future status. Data sources and technical and regulatory assumptions are identified. The range of HLW management alternatives (including decentralized, regionalized, and centralized approaches) is described. The required waste management facilities include expanded interim storage facilities under the various alternatives. Resource requirements for construction (e.g., land and materials) and operation (e.g., energy and process chemicals), work force, costs, effluents, design capacities, and emissions are presented for each alternative.

  18. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan; Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard

    2007-10-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

  19. World Oil Price Cases (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01

    World oil prices in Annual Energy Outlook 2005 are set in an environment where the members of OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) are assumed to act as the dominant producers, with lower production costs than other supply regions or countries. Non-OPEC oil producers are assumed to behave competitively, producing as much oil as they can profitability extract at the market price for oil. As a result, the OPEC member countries will be able effectively to set the price of oil when they can act in concert by varying their aggregate production. Alternatively, OPEC members could target a fixed level of production and let the world market determine the price.

  20. Use of alternative fuel at Onahama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohno, H.; Amano, T.; Asao, H.

    1982-07-01

    Since 1965, a green-charged reverberatory furnace has been operating at Onahama Smelting and Refining Co., Ltd., Fukushima-Ken, Japan. Oil consumption has decreased steadily with increased through-put by use of combustion air preheating, an oxygen-fuel burner, and a computerized ore-blending calculation technique. Increasing oil prices, however, have caused Onahama to introduce alternative fuels, such as coal and waste tires. About 46,000 metric tons/month of copper concentrate was smelted using 3,000 metric ton/month waste tires through October 1979 and 8,500 metric ton/month coal through September 1980. At present, oil consumption is reduced to 2,000 kl/month. Problems, such as incomplete combustion of waste tires, have almost been resolved; potential problems with dust in the waste heat boilers as a result of pulverized coal burning have not been severe. Concentrate is charged in relation to the combustion process under automatic computer control. This paper describes the process of reverberatory furnace operation with alternative fuels at Onahama Smelting and Refining Co. and some advantages and disadvantages resulting from the use of alternative fuels.

  1. Peanut varieties: potential for fuel oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammons, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    Research is beginning in farm crushing of peanuts into fuel oil, the high-protein residue being used as livestock feed. Thirty peanut genotypes were investigated for oil and protein yields in field trials in Georgia. For 11 varieties in an irrigated test, mean oil contents (dry base) were in the 49.7-52.7% range, and the level of protein was in the 22.60-26.70% range. Wider variations in oil and protein contents were found in 19 other genotypes selected for possible use as an oil crop. Breeding for high oil yield has not been practiced in US peanut breeding programs. Convergent improvement to attain higher levels of oil content, shell-out percentage, and stable yield will require 6-10 generations of crossing, backcrossing, selection, and testing.

  2. First AEO2015 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    GAS MARKETS TEAMS SUBJECT: First AEO2015 Oil and Gas Working Group Meeting Summary ... The shorter AEO2015 will have 6 cases - Reference case, HighLow Oil Price cases, HighLow ...

  3. Updated Hubbert curves analyze world oil supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanhoe, L.F.

    1996-11-01

    The question is not whether, but when, world crude oil production will start to decline, ushering in the permanent oil shock era. While global information for predicting this event is not so straightforward as the data M. King Hubbert used in creating his famous Hubbert Curve that predicted the US (Lower 48 states, or US/48) 1970 oil production peak, there are strong indications that most of the world`s large exploration targets have now been found. Meanwhile, the earth`s population is exploding along with the oil needs of Asia`s developing nations. This article reviews Hubbert`s original analyses on oil discovery and production curves for the US/48 and projects his proven methodology onto global oil discoveries and production as of 1992. The world`s oil discovery curve peaked in 1962, and thence declined, as a Hubbert Curve predicts. However, global production was restricted after the 1973 Arab oil embargo. Otherwise, world production would have peaked in the mid-1990s. Two graphs show alternate versions of future global oil production.

  4. PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) PIA - Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve System (Heating Oil) (3.31 MB) More Documents & Publications PIA - WEB Physical ...

  5. FCC Pilot Plant Results with Vegetable Oil and Pyrolysis Oil...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FCC Pilot Plant Results with Vegetable Oil and Pyrolysis Oil Feeds FCC Pilot Plant Results with Vegetable Oil and Pyrolysis Oil Feeds Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons ...

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: About the Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    About Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: About the Alternative Fuels Data Center to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: About the Alternative Fuels Data Center on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: About the Alternative Fuels Data Center on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: About the Alternative Fuels Data Center on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: About the Alternative Fuels Data

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicles Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels and Advanced

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fleets Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Offers an Easy Alternative for Fleets on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Technician Training for Alternative Fuels

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Technician Training for Alternative Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Technician Training for Alternative Fuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Technician Training for Alternative Fuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Technician Training for Alternative Fuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Technician Training for Alternative Fuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Technician Training for

  10. Alternative Financing Guide

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2012-03-12

    This directive provides guidance for identification, planning and approval of alternatively-financed projects. Alternative Financing ("AF") is a process whereby DOE and its operational elements obtain the use of privately-developed capital assets through lease.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Decal The state motor fuel tax does not apply to passenger vehicles, certain buses, or commercial vehicles that are powered by an alternative fuel, if they obtain an AFV decal. Owners or operators of such vehicles that also own or operate their own personal fueling stations are required to pay an annual alternative fuel decal fee, as listed below. Hybrid electric vehicles and motor vehicles licensed as historic vehicles are exempt from the alternative fuel decal

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Grants The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) administers the Alternative Fueling Facilities Program (AFFP) as part of the Texas Emissions Reduction Plan. AFFP provides grants for 50% of eligible costs, up to $600,000, to construct, reconstruct, or acquire a facility to store, compress, or dispense alternative fuels in Texas air quality nonattainment areas. Qualified alternative fuels include biodiesel, electricity, natural gas, hydrogen, propane,

  13. Oil shale combustion/retorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted a number of feasibility studies on the combustion and retorting of five oil shales: Celina (Tennessee), Colorado, Israeli, Moroccan, and Sunbury (Kentucky). These studies generated technical data primarily on (1) the effects of retorting conditions, (2) the combustion characteristics applicable to developing an optimum process design technology, and (3) establishing a data base applicable to oil shales worldwide. During the research program, METC applied the versatile fluidized-bed process to combustion and retorting of various low-grade oil shales. Based on METC's research findings and other published information, fluidized-bed processes were found to offer highly attractive methods to maximize the heat recovery and yield of quality oil from oil shale. The principal reasons are the fluidized-bed's capacity for (1) high in-bed heat transfer rates, (2) large solid throughput, and (3) selectivity in aromatic-hydrocarbon formation. The METC research program showed that shale-oil yields were affected by the process parameters of retorting temperature, residence time, shale particle size, fluidization gas velocity, and gas composition. (Preferred values of yields, of course, may differ among major oil shales.) 12 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Incentives The California Energy Commission (CEC) administers the Alternative and Renewable Fuel and Vehicle Technology Program (ARFVTP) to provide financial incentives for businesses, vehicle and technology manufacturers, workforce training partners, fleet owners, consumers, and academic institutions with the goal of developing and deploying alternative and renewable fuels and advanced transportation technologies. The CEC must prepare and adopt an annual Investment

  15. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    1998-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  16. Dielectric-wall linear accelerator with a high voltage fast rise time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, G.J.; Sampayan, S.E.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1998-10-13

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 12 figs.

  17. Alternative Energy Sales Tax Exemption

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Eligible  resources include wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, hydroelectricity, and energy that is derived from coal-to-liquids, nuclear fuel, oil-impregnated diatomaceous earth, oil sands, oil s...

  18. Biodiesel Offers a Renewable Alternative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel made of vegetable oils or animal fats. It can be produced from new oils such as soy or used vegetable oils like restaurant grease.

  19. Upgrading Orinoco Belt heavy oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aliantara, J.; Castillo, O.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), in an effort to develop new oil resources, has undertaken a program to evaluate and develop the Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt, in the eastern part of Venezuela. Lagoven, S.A., a subsidiary of PDVSA, has been assigned the responsibility for developing and upgrading part of the Orinoco belt. This paper describes the most relevant aspects of Lagoven's first upgrading module, a facility that will convert Orinoco oil into a premium crude with a very high yield of products of great market demand.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85: An Alternative Fuel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    E85: An Alternative Fuel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85: An Alternative Fuel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85: An Alternative Fuel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85: An Alternative Fuel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85: An Alternative Fuel on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85: An Alternative Fuel on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: E85: An Alternative

  1. Spent fuel storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connell, R.H.; Bowidowicz, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper compares a small onsite wet storage pool to a dry cask storage facility in order to determine what type of spent fuel storage alternatives would best serve the utilities in consideration of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The Act allows the DOE to provide a total of 1900 metric tons (MT) of additional spent fuel storage capacity to utilities that cannot reasonably provide such capacity for themselves. Topics considered include the implementation of the Act (DOE away-from reactor storage), the Act's impact on storage needs, and an economic evaluation. The Waste Act mandates schedules for the determination of several sites, the licensing and construction of a high-level waste repository, and the study of a monitored retrievable storage facility. It is determined that a small wet pool storage facility offers a conservative and cost-effective approach for many stations, in comparison to dry cask storage.

  2. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  3. Major Corporate Fleets Align to Reduce Oil Consumption | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Corporate Fleets Align to Reduce Oil Consumption Major Corporate Fleets Align to Reduce Oil Consumption April 1, 2011 - 1:07pm Addthis President Obama announces the National Clean Fleets Partnership to help companies reduce fuel usage by incorporating electric vehicles, alternative fuels, and conservation techniques. Dennis A. Smith Director, National Clean Cities What does this project do? Cuts oil imports and consumption Helps businesses save money Increases the efficiency of

  4. Method for recovering oil from an underground formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesselink, F.T.; Saidi, A.M.

    1982-12-21

    Method for recovering oil from an underground formation consisting of blocks of relatively low permeability with an oilwet pore space containing oil surrounded by a fracture network of relatively high permeability by supplying to the fracture network an aqueous solution of a surfactant adapted for decreasing the surface tension between water and oil and displacing the oil from the oil-wet pore space of the blocks.

  5. Real-time determination of lubricant concentrations dissolved in alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schafer, W.R.

    1999-07-01

    A methodology was developed and used to measure both polyolester lubricant concentrations in solution with R-134a and R-407C and mineral oils in solution with R-123. This method is unaffected by changes in pressure, temperature, refrigerant type, and lubricant type. The concentration of dissolved lubricant was measured in three alternative refrigerants with two different synthetic polyolesters and two different mineral oils over a temperature range of 68 F (20 C) to 140 F (60 C) and a concentration range of 0 to 6% w/w. The evaluation methods included density, viscosity, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Measurements of viscosity and density were performed on an oscillating body viscometer. Lubricant concentrations determined by HPLC compared favorably with the ASHRAE Standard 41.1 method (ASHRAE 1984). Circulating lubricant, miscible and immiscible, concentration in identical R-407C operating systems was also measured to demonstrate the practical application of the test method.

  6. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings* Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  7. Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Total Fuel Oil Consumption and Expenditures for All Buildings, 2003" ,"All Buildings Using Fuel Oil",,,"Fuel Oil Consumption",,"Fuel Oil Expenditures" ,"Number of Buildings...

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Locate Stations Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fueling Station Counts by State on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: About the Alternative Fueling Station Data

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Locate Stations Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: About the Alternative Fueling Station Data to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: About the Alternative Fueling Station Data on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: About the Alternative Fueling Station Data on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: About the Alternative Fueling Station Data on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: About the

  10. Retrofitting heavy oil processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, G.L.; Fitzgerald, M.; D'Amico, V.

    1986-01-01

    Refiners, faced with the need to process the bottom end of the heavy high sulfur crude oil barrel in today's uncertain economic environment, are reluctant to commit large amounts of money to expensive upgrading processes. In order to conserve scarce capital while improving operating margins, additional valuable products can be produced by retrofits such as conversion of an idle crude unit to visbreaking, delayed coking or deasphalting service, or conversion of hydrodesulfurizers to mild hydrocracking.

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel is defined as a fuel that is comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oil or animal fats and that meets ASTM D6751. Green diesel is ...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biomass-based diesel is defined as a renewable transportation fuel, transportation fuel additive, heating oil, or jet fuel, such as biodiesel or non-ester renewable diesel, and ...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    For the purpose of this mandate, biodiesel is defined as a motor vehicle fuel derived from vegetable oil, animal fat, or other non-petroleum resources, that is designated as B100 ...

  14. Qualification of Alternative Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    seal materials common; Fuels Considered Biodiesel o soy o palm o tallow o algae SVO - ... GTL- Gas-to-liquids Pyrolysis oil Biodiesel Blends - One Success Story Beginning in ...

  15. Alternative Energy Technology Inc formerly The Alternative Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Inc formerly The Alternative Energy Technology Center Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Alternative Energy Technology Inc (formerly The Alternative Energy Technology...

  16. Corona processing of insulating oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1996-07-01

    It is well known that sustained corona discharge in insulating oil lowers its dielectric strength and simultaneously reduces its corona resistance. Therefore, for operating stresses in the corona regime, activity typically increases with time and, if allowed to continue, eventually leads to breakdown of the oil and failure of the component or system. It is, therefore, common practice to periodically replace oil in devices such as large power transformers and switch gear before breakdown occurs. Sealed components such as capacitors are typically replaced. Recent experiments have demonstrated that the dielectric properties of corona weakened oil can not only be restored, but actually improved by a simple regeneration process. These experiments were carried out on high voltage pulse transformer windings which were operated at high rep rates until partial discharges formed. Reprocessing the oil after each operating cycle resulted in successively longer operational periods before partial discharges appeared. In a separate experiment, a process was developed to precondition transformer oil to raise its corona inception voltage before using it to insulate a high voltage component, thus giving it a longer initial service life for a given operating stress or permitting higher stress operation for limited operating times.

  17. Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-11-14

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value. Probability distributions are produced for the year in which conventional oil production peaks for the world as a whole and the year of peak production from regions outside the Middle East. Recent estimates of world oil resources by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the World Energy Council (WEC) and Dr. C. Campbell provide alternative views of the extent of ultimate world oil resources. A model of oil resource depletion and expansion for twelve world regions is combined with a market equilibrium model of conventional and unconventional oil supply and demand to create a World Energy Scenarios Model (WESM). The model does not make use of Hubbert curves but instead relies on target reserve-to-production ratios to determine when regional output will begin to decline. The authors believe that their analysis has a bias toward optimism about oil resource availability because it does not attempt to incorporate political or environmental constraints on production, nor does it explicitly include geologic constraints on production rates. Global energy scenarios created by IIASA and WEC provide the context for the risk analysis. Key variables such as the quantity of undiscovered oil and rates of technological progress are treated as probability distributions, rather than constants. Analyses based on the USGS and IIASA resource assessments indicate that conventional oil production outside the Middle East is likely to peak sometime between 2010 and 2030. The most important determinants of the date are the quantity of undiscovered oil, the rate at

  18. Thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, Charles R.; Gibson, Michael A.; Knudsen, Christian W.

    1987-01-01

    A thermally-enhanced oil recovery method and apparatus for exploiting deep well reservoirs utilizes electric downhole steam generators to provide supplemental heat to generate high quality steam from hot pressurized water which is heated at the surface. A downhole electric heater placed within a well bore for local heating of the pressurized liquid water into steam is powered by electricity from the above-ground gas turbine-driven electric generators fueled by any clean fuel such as natural gas, distillate or some crude oils, or may come from the field being stimulated. Heat recovered from the turbine exhaust is used to provide the hot pressurized water. Electrical power may be cogenerated and sold to an electric utility to provide immediate cash flow and improved economics. During the cogeneration period (no electrical power to some or all of the downhole units), the oil field can continue to be stimulated by injecting hot pressurized water, which will flash into lower quality steam at reservoir conditions. The heater includes electrical heating elements supplied with three-phase alternating current or direct current. The injection fluid flows through the heater elements to generate high quality steam to exit at the bottom of the heater assembly into the reservoir. The injection tube is closed at the bottom and has radial orifices for expanding the injection fluid to reservoir pressure.

  19. Gulf Canada donor refined bitumen heavy oil upgrading process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, I.P.; Souhrada, F.; Woods, H.J.

    1982-09-01

    The method is a moderate-pressure, noncatalytic alternative which has been shown to be applicable to a wide range of bitumens and heavy oils. It offers the potential of efficiency and reliability at a low capitalized investment and operating cost. The raw distillates are separated from the bitumen or heavy oil and the vacuum residuum is blended with an efficient hydrogen donor stream containing a high proportion of substituted tetralins, and is thermally cracking in the liquid phase. The exhausted donor is recovered from the middle distillate reactor product, reactivated by fixed bed hydrogenation before being recycled to the reactor. The process can be self-sufficient in donor and is independent of the metal content of the feed. The products are blanded with the raw distillates and further hydrogenated to high quality petroleum products. While the primary hydrogen consumption is low, the reconstituted naphtha, distillate and gas oil fractions require less hydrogen than the coker liquids to achieve acceptable refinery feed quality. 1 figure, 9 tables.

  20. high

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... percent changes in model inputs. b Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System. c Refiner acquisitions cost of imported crude oil. d Average unit value of marketed natural gas ...

  1. Low-rank coal oil agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knudson, C.L.; Timpe, R.C.

    1991-07-16

    A low-rank coal oil agglomeration process is described. High mineral content, a high ash content subbituminous coals are effectively agglomerated with a bridging oil which is partially water soluble and capable of entering the pore structure, and is usually coal-derived.

  2. Heading off the permanent oil crisis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacKenzie, J.J.

    1996-11-01

    The 1996 spike in gasoline prices was not a signal of any fundamental worldwide shortage of crude oil. But based on a review of many studies of recoverable crude oil that have been published since the 1950s, it looks as though such a shortfall is now within sight. With world demand for oil growing at 2 percent per year, global production is likely to peak between the years 2007 and 2014. As this time approaches, we can expect prices to rise markedly and, most likely, permanently. Policy changes are needed now to ease the transition to high-priced oil. Oil production will continue, though at a declining rate, for many decades after its peak, and there are enormous amounts of coal, oil sands, heavy oil, and oil shales worldwide that could be used to produce liquid or gaseous substitutes for crude oil, albeit at higher prices. But the facilities for making such synthetic fuels are costly to build and environmentally damaging to operate, and their use would substantially increase carbon dioxide emissions (compared to emissions from products made from conventional crude oil). This paper examines ways of heading of the impending oil crisis. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Excise Tax Credit NOTE: This incentive was retroactively extended multiple times, most recently through December 31, 2016, by Public Law 114-113, 2015. A tax incentive is available for alternative fuel that is sold for use or used as a fuel to operate a motor vehicle. A tax credit in the amount of $0.50 per gallon is available for the following alternative fuels: compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied hydrogen, liquefied petroleum gas (propane),

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Definition - Internal Revenue Code The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) defines alternative fuels as liquefied petroleum gas (propane), compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied hydrogen, liquid fuel derived from coal through the Fischer-Tropsch process, liquid hydrocarbons derived from biomass, and P-Series fuels. Biodiesel, ethanol, and renewable diesel are not considered alternative fuels by the IRS. While the term "hydrocarbons" includes liquids that

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit An income tax credit is available for 25% of the cost to purchase, construct, and install qualified alternative fueling infrastructure. Qualified property includes equipment used to distribute, dispense, or store alternative fuel. Eligible fuels include natural gas and propane. The entire credit must be taken in three equal annual installments beginning with the taxable year in which the facility is placed into service. Unused credits may be carried

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Committee of Alternative Fuels Technician Examiners The Committee of Alternative Fuels Technician Examiners (Committee) was established to assist the Commissioner of Labor on matters relating to the formulation of rules and standards to comply with the Alternative Fuels Technician Certification Act. The Committee consists of eight members, including experts in the natural gas and electric vehicle industries. (Reference House Bill 2622, 2016, and Oklahoma Statutes 40-142.6

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Weight Limit Exemption Gross vehicle weight rating limits for AFVs are 1,000 pounds greater than those for comparable conventional vehicles, as long as the AFVs operate using an alternative fuel or both alternative and conventional fuel, when operating on a highway that is not part of the interstate system. For the purpose of this exemption, alternative fuel is defined as compressed natural gas, propane, ethanol, or any mixture containing 85% or more ethanol (E85) with gasoline or other fuels,

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Funding The Alternative Fuels Incentive Grant (AFIG) Program provides financial assistance for qualified projects; information on alternative fuels, AFVs, HEVs, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles; and advanced vehicle technology research, development, and demonstration. Projects that result in product commercialization and the expansion of Pennsylvania companies are favored in the selection process. The AFIG Program also offers

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit For tax years beginning on or after January 1, 2015, an income tax credit is available for the cost of constructing a qualified alternative fueling station. The credit is 20% of the costs directly associated with the purchase and installation of any alternative fuel storage and dispensing equipment or electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), up to $1,500 for individuals or $20,000 for businesses. Tax credits may be carried forward for two years and

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Use and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Requirements State-owned vehicle fleets must implement petroleum displacement plans to increase the use of alternative fuels and fuel-efficient vehicles. Reductions may be met by petroleum displaced through the use of biodiesel, ethanol, other alternative fuels, the use of hybrid electric vehicles, other fuel-efficient or low emission vehicles, or additional methods the North Carolina Division of Energy, Mineral and Land Resources approves.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Development and Deployment Grants The Pennsylvania Energy Development Authority (PEDA) provides grants of up to $1,000,000 for alternative energy projects and research related to deployment projects or manufacturing. PEDA funding is available for projects involving biomass, fuel cells, and clean and alternative fuels for transportation, and may be used for equipment purchases, construction, contractor expenses, and engineering design necessary for construction or installation.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit for Residents Through the Residential Energy Tax Credit program, qualified residents may receive a tax credit for 25% of alternative fuel infrastructure project costs, up to $750. Qualified residents may receive a tax credit for 50% of project costs, up to $750. Qualified alternative fuels include electricity, natural gas, gasoline blended with at least 85% ethanol (E85), propane, and other fuels that the Oregon Department of Energy approves. A

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel and Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Fund The North Carolina State Energy Office administers the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) Credit Banking and Selling Program, which enables the state to generate funds from the sale of EPAct 1992 credits. The funds that EPAct credit sales generate are deposited into the Alternative Fuel Revolving Fund (Fund) for state agencies to offset the incremental costs of purchasing biodiesel blends of at least 20% (B20) or ethanol blends of at least 85%

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    and Infrastructure Tax Credit for Businesses Business owners and others may be eligible for a tax credit of 35% of eligible costs for qualified alternative fuel infrastructure projects, or the incremental or conversion cost of two or more AFVs. Qualified infrastructure includes facilities for mixing, storing, compressing, or dispensing fuels for vehicles operating on alternative fuels. Qualified alternative fuels include electricity, natural gas, gasoline blended with at least 85% ethanol (E85),

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Mixture Excise Tax Credit NOTE: This incentive was retroactively extended multiple times, most recently through December 31, 2016, by H.R. 2029. An alternative fuel blender that is registered with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) may be eligible for a tax incentive on the sale or use of the alternative fuel blend (mixture) for use as a fuel in the blender's trade or business. The credit is in the amount of $0.50 per gallon of alternative fuel used to produce a mixture

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel and Vehicle Tax Alternative fuels used to operate on-road vehicles are taxed at a rate of $0.162 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). Alternative fuels are taxed at the same rate as gasoline and gasohol (5.1% of the statewide average wholesale price of a gallon of self-serve unleaded regular gasoline). Refer to the Virginia Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) Fuels Tax Rates and Alternative Fuels Conversion website for fuel-specific GGE calculations. All-electric vehicles (EVs)

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit The state offers an income tax credit of 36% of the cost of converting a vehicle to operate on an alternative fuel, the incremental cost of purchasing an original equipment manufacturer AFV, and the cost of alternative fueling equipment. Alternatively, a taxpayer may take a tax credit of 7.2% of the cost of the motor vehicle, up to $1,500. To qualify for the tax credit, vehicles must be dedicated AFVs and registered in

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Transportation Fuel Study The Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources (OER) will prepare a study on strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote alternative ...

  20. Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The “alternative energy generating sources” include combined heat and power (CHP) projects, flywheel energy storage, energy efficient steam technology. and renewable technologies that generate us...

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Loans The Oregon Department of Energy administers the State Energy Loan Program (SELP) which offers low-interest loans for qualified projects. Eligible alternative fuel projects...

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alternative fuels are defined as methanol, ethanol, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), coal-derived liquid fuels, hydrogen, electricity, biodiesel, renewable diesel,...

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    The Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection must pursue the establishment and maintenance of sufficient alternative fueling infrastructure at public ...

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Technician Training The Alternative Fuels Technician Certification Act (Act) regulates the training, testing, and certification of technicians and trainees who install, modify, ...

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    two competitive grant programs to fund projects that reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. The Delaware Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Grant...

  6. Solar Alternative Energy Credits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pennsylvania's Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard (AEPS), created by S.B. 1030 on November 30, 2004, requires each electric distribution company (EDC) and electric generation supplier (EGS) to...

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    fuel use. For these purposes, alternative fuels are natural gas, hydrogen, propane, or electricity used to operate a motor vehicle. (Reference Connecticut General Statutes 4a-59

  8. Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Find alternative fueling stations near an address or ZIP code or along a route in the United States. Enter a state to see a station count.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    For the purpose of the credit, alternative fuels vehicles include dedicated or bi-fuel natural gas, propane, and hydrogen vehicles. Through December 31, 2016, purchased or leased ...

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Use Requirement West Virginia higher education governing boards must use alternative fuels to the maximum extent feasible. (Reference West Virginia Code 18B-5-9)...

  11. Alternative Fueling Station Locator

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    19,710 alternative fuel stations in the United States Excluding private stations Location details are subject to change. We recommend calling the stations to verify location, hours...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (AFV) Revolving Loan Program The Mississippi Alternative Fuel School Bus and Municipal Motor Vehicle Revolving Loan Program provides zero-interest loans for public school...

  13. Alternative fuel information: Glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains definitions of acronyms and definitions of terms used in papers on the use of alternative fuels in automobiles.

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    The Agricultural Growth, Research, and Innovation Program may offer grants, loans, or other financial incentives to alternative fuel retailers for the installation of ethanol ...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) displaying the Virginia Clean Special Fuel license plate ... For HOV lanes serving the I-66 corridor, only registered vehicles displaying Clean Special ...

  16. Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: On February 2016, the PA Public Service Commission (PUC) issued a final rulemaking order amending and clarifying several provisions of PA Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard (AEPS), net...

  17. Turkmenistan test encouraging oil strike

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-27

    This paper reports that another former Soviet central Asian republic has reported a highly encouraging oil strike that provides hope for halting or even reversing a long decline in its oil production. Turkmenistan reported it completed a well flowing more than 1,300 b/d in the central part of the Kara-Kum desert. Saparmurad Niyazov, the republic's president, recently predicted black gold will become one of our nation's main riches. The Turkmenistan discovery follows a huge oil strike in neighboring Uzbekistan's sector of the Fergana Valley. A blowout last march near the Uzbek town of Mingbulak reportedly flowed 62,000 b/d to as much as 146,000 b/d from about 17,000 ft with a pressure of 10,300 psi. Uzbekistan is counting on that discovery to improve its oil production prospects immensely.

  18. Oil and Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil and Gas Oil and Gas R&D focus on the use of conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, including associated environmental challenges Contact thumbnail of Business ...

  19. Oil Security Metrics Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, David L.; Leiby, Paul N.

    2005-03-06

    A presentation to the IWG GPRA USDOE, March 6, 2005, Washington, DC. OSMM estimates oil security benefits of changes in the U.S. oil market.

  20. Oil & Gas Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oil & Gas Research Unconventional Resources NETL's onsite research in unconventional ... quantify potential risks associated with oil and gas resources in shale reservoirs that ...

  1. Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios | Department of Energy Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios The petroleum-based transportation fuel system is complex and highly developed, in contrast to the nascent low-petroleum, low-carbon alternative fuel

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Alabama Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alabama

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Alaska Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alaska

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arizona Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Arizona Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arizona Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arizona Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arizona Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arizona

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Arkansas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Arkansas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Colorado Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Colorado Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Delaware Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Delaware Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Florida Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Florida

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Georgia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Georgia

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Hawaii Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hawaii

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Idaho Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Idaho

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Illinois Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Illinois Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Illinois Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Illinois Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Illinois Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Indiana

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Iowa Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Transportation

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Kansas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kansas

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kentucky Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Kentucky Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kentucky Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kentucky Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Kentucky Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Maine Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maine

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maryland Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Maryland Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maryland Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maryland Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Maryland Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Michigan Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Michigan Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Missouri Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Missouri Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Montana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Montana

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nebraska Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Nebraska Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nebraska Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nebraska Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nebraska Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Nevada Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Nevada

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles New York Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Ohio Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ohio Transportation

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oklahoma Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Oklahoma Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oklahoma Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oklahoma Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oklahoma Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Oregon Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Oregon

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Texas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Texas

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Utah Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Utah Transportation

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Vermont

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Virginia Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wyoming Transportation Data for Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels and Vehicles Wyoming Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wyoming Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wyoming Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wyoming Transportation Data for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wyoming

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Blue Ridge Parkway Incorporates Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels in Its Fleet Blue Ridge Parkway Incorporates Alternative Fuels in Its Fleet to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Blue Ridge Parkway Incorporates Alternative Fuels in Its Fleet on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Blue Ridge Parkway Incorporates Alternative Fuels in Its Fleet on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Blue Ridge Parkway Incorporates Alternative Fuels in Its Fleet on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Blue Ridge

  14. LLNL oil shale project review: METC third annual oil shale contractors meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cena, R.J.; Coburn, T.T.; Taylor, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory combines laboratory and pilot-scale experimental measurements with mathematical modeling of fundamental chemistry and physics to provide a technical base for evaluating oil shale retorting alternatives. Presented herein are results of four research areas of interest in oil shale process development: Recent Progress in Solid-Recycle Retorting and Related Laboratory and Modeling Studies; Water Generation During Pyrolysis of Oil Shale; Improved Analytical Methods and Measurements of Rapid Pyrolysis Kinetics for Western and Eastern Oil Shale; and Rate of Cracking or Degradation of Oil Vapor In Contact with Oxidized Shale. We describe operating results of a 1 tonne-per-day, continuous-loop, solid-recycle, retort processing both Western And Eastern oil shale. Sulfur chemistry, solid mixing limits, shale cooling tests and catalyst addition are all discussed. Using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, we measure individual species evolution with greater sensitivity and selectivity. Herein we discuss our measurements of water evolution during ramped heating of Western and Eastern oil shale. Using improved analytical techniques, we determine isothermal pyrolysis kinetics for Western and Eastern oil shale, during rapid heating, which are faster than previously thought. Finally, we discuss the rate of cracking of oil vapor in contact with oxidized shale, qualitatively using a sand fluidized bed and quantitatively using a vapor cracking apparatus. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  16. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  17. PNNL Breakthrough Leads to Less Foreign Oil, More American Jobs...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PNNL Breakthrough Leads to Less Foreign Oil, More American Jobs PNNL Breakthrough Leads to Less Foreign Oil, More American Jobs October 17, 2011 - 2:50pm Addthis A highly efficient ...

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Aftermarket Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Conversion Requirements Conventional original equipment manufacturer vehicles altered to operate on propane, natural gas, methane, ethanol, or electricity are classified as aftermarket AFV conversions. All vehicle conversions must meet current applicable U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or California Air Resources Board standards for aftermarket conversions. (Reference Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection Policy on Clean Alternative

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Infrastructure Incentives Study The Georgia Joint Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Study Committee will evaluate how providing market incentives for AFV fueling infrastructure may lead to AFV market deployment. The Committee will provide a report of its recommendations and proposed legislation by December 1, 2016. (Reference Senate Resolution 1038

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    Fact sheet describes the Alternative Fuels Data Center, which provides information, data, and tools to help fleets and other transportation decision makers find ways to reduce petroleum consumption through the use of alternative and renewable fuels, advanced vehicles, and other fuel-saving measures.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle Retrofit Emissions Inspection Process The California Department of Health and Safety may adopt a process by which state designated referees inspect vehicles that present prohibitive inspection circumstances, such as vehicles equipped with alternative fuel retrofit systems. (Reference California Health and Safety Code 44014

  2. Oil Production

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1989-07-01

    A horizontal and slanted well model was developed and incorporated into BOAST, a black oil simulator, to predict the potential production rates for such wells. The HORIZONTAL/SLANTED WELL MODEL can be used to calculate the productivity index, based on the length and location of the wellbore within the block, for each reservoir grid block penetrated by the horizontal/slanted wellbore. The well model can be run under either pressure or rate constraints in which wellbore pressuresmore » can be calculated as an option of infinite-conductivity. The model can simulate the performance of multiple horizontal/slanted wells in any geometric combination within reservoirs.« less

  3. Alternative fuel transit buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.

    1996-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory; this project was funded by DOE. One of NREL`s missions is to objectively evaluate the performance, emissions, and operating costs of alternative fuel vehicles so fleet managers can make informed decisions when purchasing them. Alternative fuels have made greater inroads into the transit bus market than into any other. Each year, the American Public Transit Association (APTA) surveys its members on their inventory and buying plans. The latest APTA data show that about 4% of the 50,000 transit buses in its survey run on an alternative fuel. Furthermore, 1 in 5 of the new transit buses that members have on order are alternative fuel buses. This program was designed to comprehensively and objectively evaluate the alternative fuels in use in the industry.

  4. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for which payment was made," "quantities transferred in, quantities purchased and paid for by a central" "purchasing entity, and quantities for which payment was made in kind. ...

  5. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for which payment was made," "quantities transferred in, quantities purchased and paid for by a central" "purchasing entity, and quantities for which payment was made in kind. ...

  6. SOVENT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FOR IN-SITU UPGRADING OF HEAVY OIL SANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munroe, Norman

    2009-01-30

    With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO2. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO2 density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the

  7. Eco Oil 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

    2009-10-26

    This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

  8. World Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    World Crude Oil Prices (Dollars per Barrel) The data on this page are no longer available.

  9. Improved oil recovery using bacteria isolated from North Sea petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davey, R.A.; Lappin-Scott, H.

    1995-12-31

    During secondary oil recovery, water is injected into the formation to sweep out the residual oil. The injected water, however, follows the path of least resistance through the high-permeability zones, leaving oil in the low-permeability zones. Selective plugging of these their zones would divert the waterflood to the residual oil and thus increase the life of the well. Bacteria have been suggested as an alternative plugging agent to the current method of polymer injection. Starved bacteria can penetrate deeply into rock formations where they attach to the rock surfaces, and given the right nutrients can grow and produce exo-polymer, reducing the permeability of these zones. The application of microbial enhanced oil recovery has only been applied to shallow, cool, onshore fields to date. This study has focused on the ability of bacteria to enhance oil recovery offshore in the North Sea, where the environment can be considered extreme. A screen of produced water from oil reservoirs (and other extreme subterranean environments) was undertaken, and two bacteria were chosen for further work. These two isolates were able to grow and survive in the presence of saline formation waters at a range of temperatures above 50{degrees}C as facultative anaerobes. When a solution of isolates was passed through sandpacks and nutrients were added, significant reductions in permeabilities were achieved. This was confirmed in Clashach sandstone at 255 bar, when a reduction of 88% in permeability was obtained. Both isolates can survive nutrient starvation, which may improve penetration through the reservoir. Thus, the isolates show potential for field trials in the North Sea as plugging agents.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicles Beat the Heat,

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fight the Freeze, and Conquer the Mountains Alternative Fuel Vehicles Beat the Heat, Fight the Freeze, and Conquer the Mountains to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicles Beat the Heat, Fight the Freeze, and Conquer the Mountains on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicles Beat the Heat, Fight the Freeze, and Conquer the Mountains on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Vehicles Beat

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Help Ensure America's

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    National Parks Stay Green for Another Century Alternative Fuels Help Ensure America's National Parks Stay Green for Another Century to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Help Ensure America's National Parks Stay Green for Another Century on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Help Ensure America's National Parks Stay Green for Another Century on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Help

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Laws and Incentives: 2013 Year in Review Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Laws and Incentives: 2013 Year in Review to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Laws and Incentives: 2013 Year in Review on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Laws and Incentives: 2013 Year in Review on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Alternative Fuel and Advanced

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Coalition Helps Local Alternative

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Station Boost Revenue New York Coalition Helps Local Alternative Fuel Station Boost Revenue to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Coalition Helps Local Alternative Fuel Station Boost Revenue on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Coalition Helps Local Alternative Fuel Station Boost Revenue on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: New York Coalition Helps Local Alternative Fuel Station Boost Revenue on Google Bookmark

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Laws and Incentives: 2014 Year in Review State Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Laws and Incentives: 2014 Year in Review to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Laws and Incentives: 2014 Year in Review on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Laws and Incentives: 2014 Year in Review on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Alternative Fuel and Advanced

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Laws and Incentives: 2015 Year in Review State Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Laws and Incentives: 2015 Year in Review to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Laws and Incentives: 2015 Year in Review on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Laws and Incentives: 2015 Year in Review on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: State Alternative Fuel and Advanced

  16. Development and Demonstration of a High Efficiency, Rapid Heating, Low NOx Alternative to Conventional Heating of Round Steel Shapes, Steel Substrate (Strip) and Coil Box Transfer Bars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurek, Harry; Wagner, John

    2010-01-25

    Direct Flame Impingement involves the use of an array of very high-velocity flame jets impinging on a work piece to rapidly heat the work piece. The predominant mode of heat transfer is convection. Because of the locally high rate of heat transfer at the surface of the work piece, the refractory walls and exhaust gases of a DFI furnace are significantly cooler than in conventional radiant heating furnaces, resulting in high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. A DFI furnace is composed of a successive arrangement of heating modules through or by which the work piece is conveyed, and can be configured for square, round, flat, and curved metal shapes (e.g., billets, tubes, flat bars, and coiled bars) in single- or multi-stranded applications.

  17. Strategies of Asian oil-importing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.

    1997-04-01

    Various strategies are used by oil-importing countries to reduce their economic dependence on imported oil: national oil production, energy conservation, and the change of economic structures from high energy intensity sectors to low ones. In this article, the roles of these different strategies have been identified for 10 selected oil-importing countries in Asia: Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Thailand, Hong Kong, R.O Korea, and Taiwan. The results show that most of the selected countries (although Hong Kong and Taiwan are independent economic entities, for simplicity, the author refers to them as countries) have succeeded in reducing their national economy dependence on imported oil since 1973. Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and India are among the most successful countries, with more than 40% reduction in their economic dependence on imported oil.

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Do alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) improve air quality? How does the use of alternative fuels affect smog formation? You may find answers to these and other questions through the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Alternative Fuels Data Center (AFDC)-the nation's most com- prehensive repository of perfor- mance data and general informa- tion on AFVs. To date, more than 600 vehi- cles-including light-duty cars, trucks, vans, transit buses, and heavy-duty trucks-have been tested on various

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Tax Rate A license tax of $0.24 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) or diesel gallon equivalent (DGE) is collected on all alternative fuel used, sold, or distributed for sale or use in Wyoming. Alternative fuels include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, and renewable diesel. For taxation purposes, one GGE of CNG is equal to 5.66 pounds (lbs.), one DGE of LNG is equal to 6.06 lbs., one GGE of propane is

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Dealer and Commercial User License Beginning January 1, 2017, alternative fuel dealers and alternative fuel commercial users must apply for a license from the Michigan Department of Treasury. Commercial users are defined as those operating vehicles with three or more axles, or two axles and a gross vehicle weight rating exceeding 26,000 pounds, that operate in more than one state. Alternative fuel dealers must pay a license fee of $500 and commercial users must pay a license fee of $50. For the

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuel Signage The Ohio Turnpike Commission allows businesses to place their logos on directional signs within the right-of-way of state turnpikes. An alternative fuel retailer may include a marking or symbol within their logo indicating that it sells one or more types of alternative fuel. Alternative fuels are defined as E85, fuel blends containing at least 20% biodiesel (B20), natural gas, propane, hydrogen, or any fuel that the U.S. Department of Energy determines, by final rule, to be

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Hydrogen Fueling Station Regulations The Colorado Department of Labor and Employment, Division of Oil and Public Safety (Division), must create rules concerning retail hydrogen fueling stations. The rules must include information regarding inspections, specifications, shipment notification, record keeping, labeling of containers, use of meters or mechanical devices for measurement, submittal of installation plans, and minimum standards for the design, construction, location, installation, and

  3. Alternate-fuel reactor studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, K. Jr.; Ehst, D.A.; Gohar, Y.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Turner, L.R.

    1983-02-01

    A number of studies related to improvements and/or greater understanding of alternate-fueled reactors is presented. These studies cover the areas of non-Maxwellian distributions, materials and lifetime analysis, a /sup 3/He-breeding blanket, tritium-rich startup effects, high field magnet support, and reactor operation spanning the range from full D-T operation to operation with no tritium breeding.

  4. Commercialization of oil shale with the Petrosix process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batista, A.R.D.; Ivo, S.C.; Piper, E.M.

    1985-02-01

    Brazil, because of domestic crude oil shortage, took an interest in oil shale between 1940 and 1950. Petrobras, created in 1954, included in its charter the responsibility to develop a modern oil shale industry. An outgrowth has been the Petrosix process incorporated in a commercial unit in the State of Parana that has operated successfully more than 65,000 hours. Because of the maturity of the Petrosix process in this plant and the similarity of the Brazilian Irati oil shale to many other shales, interest has developed to apply the Petrosix process to producing shale oil and high BTU gas from these oil shales. A comparison of the characteristics has been developed between Irati and other oil shales. An evaluation of a commercial plant design has been completed for Irati, Kentucky, and Indiana oil shale projects. The technological and commercial aspects of producing shale oil using the Petrosix technology are discussed.

  5. Design of heavy oil upgrading units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrell, W.D.; Phodes, R.P.; Zeno, D.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Heavy oil upgrading has become an increasingly important aspect of ER and E's research. Due to high costs of experimental catalysts, small catalyst charges are used (20-150cc). Tubular design and tree-stage stirred design are discussed with emphasis on the techniques and equipment used to handle heavy oil. Mechanical design and fluid mechanics are discussed.

  6. ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Fuel Oil Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for All Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"Fuel Oil Energy Intensity (thousand Btu...

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicle (AFV) Low-Interest Loans Oklahoma has a private loan program with a 3% interest rate for the cost of converting private fleets to operate on alternative fuels and for the ...

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Municipal Alternative Fuel Tax Regulation A taxing jurisdiction may not levy a tax or fee, however denominated, on natural gas or propane used to propel a motor vehicle. (Reference Arizona Revised Statutes 42-6004

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tax Refund Effective July 1, 2015, any person exporting alternative fuel for which the license tax has been paid is eligible for a refund of the license tax paid. The exporter must...

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tax Exemption The retail sale, use, storage, and consumption of alternative fuels is exempt from the state retail sales and use tax. (Reference North Carolina General Statutes 105-164.13

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel and Fuel-Efficient Vehicle Tax Credit Through 2017, new electric, natural gas, and propane vehicles registered in Utah are eligible for an income tax credit of 35% ...

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Acquisition Goal North Carolina established a goal that at least 75% of new or replacement state government light-duty cars and trucks with a gross ...

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Tax Alternative fuels are subject to an excise tax at a rate of 0.205 per gasoline gallon equivalent, with a variable component equal to at least 5% of the average wholesale...

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel on

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Contacts

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    About Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Contacts to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Contacts on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Contacts on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Contacts on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Contacts on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Contacts on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Contacts on AddThis.com...

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Electricity Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electricity on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Ethanol Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol on AddThis.com... More

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Hydrogen Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicles » Propane Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane on

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tools

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tools to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tools on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tools on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tools on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tools on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tools on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tools on AddThis.com... Tools The Alternative Fuels Data Center offers a large collection of helpful tools. These calculators,

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Widgets

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tools Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Widgets to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Widgets on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Widgets on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Widgets on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Widgets on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Widgets on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Widgets on AddThis.com... Widgets

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glossary

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glossary to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glossary on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glossary on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glossary on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glossary on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glossary on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Glossary on AddThis.com...

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Webmaster

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    About Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Webmaster to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Webmaster on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Webmaster on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Webmaster on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Webmaster on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Webmaster on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Webmaster on

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Publications

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Publications Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Publications to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Publications on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Publications on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Publications on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Publications on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Publications on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    National Alternative Fuels Corridors By December 2016, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) must designate national plug-in electric vehicle charging and hydrogen, propane, and natural gas fueling corridors in strategic locations along major highways to improve the mobility of alternative fuel vehicles. To designate the corridors, DOT will solicit nominations from state and local officials, work with industry stakeholders, and incorporate existing fueling infrastructure. Within five years

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Federal Fleets Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, 75% of new light-duty vehicles acquired by covered federal fleets must be alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). As amended in January 2008, Section 301 of EPAct 1992 defines AFVs to include hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, and advanced lean burn vehicles. Fleets that use fuel blends containing at least 20% biodiesel (B20) may earn credits toward their annual requirements. Federal fleets are also required to use alternative

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Definition The following fuels are defined as alternative fuels by the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992: pure methanol, ethanol, and other alcohols; blends of 85% or more of alcohol with gasoline; natural gas and liquid fuels domestically produced from natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); coal-derived liquid fuels; hydrogen; electricity; pure biodiesel (B100); fuels, other than alcohol, derived from biological materials; and P-Series fuels. In addition, the U.S.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Labeling Requirements Alternative fuel dispensers must be labeled with information to help consumers make informed decisions about fueling a vehicle, including the name of the fuel and the minimum percentage of the main component of the fuel. Labels may also list the percentage of other fuel components. This requirement applies to, but is not limited to, the following fuel types: methanol, denatured ethanol, and/or other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more by volume of

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel and Special Fuel Definitions The definition of alternative fuel includes liquefied petroleum gas (propane). Special fuel is defined as all combustible gases and liquids that are suitable for powering an internal combustion engine or motor or are used exclusively for heating, industrial, or farm purposes. Special fuels include biodiesel, blended biodiesel, and natural gas products, including liquefied and compressed natural gas. (Reference Indiana Code 6-6-2.5-1 and 6-6-2.5-22

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Infrastructure Tax Credit Businesses and individuals are eligible for an income tax credit of 50% of the incremental or conversion cost for qualified AFVs, up to $19,000 per vehicle. A tax credit is also available for 50% of the equipment and labor costs for the purchase and installation of alternative fuel infrastructure on qualified AFV fueling property. The maximum credit is $1,000 per residential electric vehicle charging station, and $10,000 per publicly

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Feasibility Study Grants The Wyoming State Energy Office (SEO) offers grants of up to $5,000 to municipalities in the state to conduct feasibility studies related to acquiring alternative fuel vehicles or developing fueling infrastructure. Awardees must submit final feasibility studies to the SEO within 180 days of the grant execution date. Eligible applicants are required to provide at least a 10% cash match. Other terms and conditions may apply. Funding is not currently

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Commercial Vehicle Tax Credit Businesses are eligible to receive tax credits for purchasing new alternative fuel commercial vehicles. Qualified commercial vehicles must be powered primarily by natural gas, propane, hydrogen, dimethyl ether, or electricity. Tax credit amounts vary based on gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) and are up to 50% of the incremental cost, with maximum credit values as follows: GVWR Maximum Credit Amount Per Vehicle Up to 14,000 pounds (lbs.) $5,000

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Infrastructure Grants The Maryland Energy Administration administers the Maryland Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Program (AFIP), which provides grants to develop public access alternative fueling and charging infrastructure. Only Maryland-based private businesses are eligible, and projects must take place in the state. Grant awards will range from $35,000 to $500,000 and applicant cost share must be at least 50%. Applications will be accepted on a competitive basis through February 10, 2017.

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicle (AFV) and Fueling Infrastructure Loans The Nebraska Energy Office administers the Dollar and Energy Saving Loan Program, which makes low-cost loans available for a variety of alternative fuel projects, including the replacement of conventional vehicles with AFVs; the purchase of new AFVs; the conversion of conventional vehicles to operate on alternative fuels; and the construction or purchase of fueling stations or equipment. The maximum loan amount is $750,000 per borrower, and the

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit An income tax credit is available to eligible taxpayers who construct or purchase and install qualified alternative fueling infrastructure. The tax credit is 20% of the total allowable costs associated with construction or purchase and installation of the equipment, up to $400,000 per facility. For the purpose of this tax credit, qualified alternative fuels include natural gas and propane. This tax credit expires December 31, 2017. (Reference West Virginia Code

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Definition and Specifications Alternative fuels include biofuel, ethanol, methanol, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, electricity, natural gas, propane gas, or a synthetic transportation fuel. Biofuel is defined as a renewable, biodegradable, combustible liquid or gaseous fuel derived from biomass or other renewable resources that can be used as transportation fuel, combustion fuel, or refinery feedstock and that meets ASTM specifications and federal quality requirements for

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit An income tax credit is available for 50% of the cost of alternative fueling infrastructure, up to $5,000. Qualifying infrastructure includes electric vehicle supply equipment and equipment to dispense fuel that is 85% or more natural gas, propane, or hydrogen. Unused credits may be carried over into future tax years. The credit expires December 31, 2017. For additional information, including information on how to claim the credit, please see the New

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Study In October 2013, the Climate Legislative and Executive Workgroup finalized a report, Evaluation of Approaches to Reduce GHG Emissions in Washington State, for the governor. The report evaluates strategies for the state to reduce its GHG emissions and makes recommendations. The evaluation includes a review of state policies to stabilize or reduce GHG emissions, including converting public vehicles to alternative fuels and public alternative fuel vehicle (AFV)

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fleet Purchase and Pricing Agreement Requirements The Colorado state fleet and the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) must purchase natural gas vehicles (NGVs) where natural gas fueling is available or planned, whenever possible. Where NGVs are not viable options, other alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) such as plug-in electric, hybrid electric, and propane vehicles, must be considered. All new vehicles purchased must be either alternatively fueled or exceed federal Corporate Average

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Employer Invested Emissions Reduction Funding - South Coast The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) administers the Air Quality Investment Program (AQIP). AQIP provides funding to allow employers within SCAQMD's jurisdiction to make annual investments into an administered fund to meet employers' emissions reduction targets. The revenues collected are used to fund alternative mobile source emissions and trip reduction programs, including alternative fuel vehicle projects, on an

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Oregon Laws and Incentives Listed below are incentives, laws, and regulations related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles for Oregon. Your Clean Cities coordinator at your local coalition can provide you with information about grants and other opportunities. You can also access coordinator and other agency contact information in the points of contact section. Laws and Incentives View All Search Icon of a state map on a computer monitor Oregon Information Find information about alternative

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Texas Laws and Incentives Listed below are incentives, laws, and regulations related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles for Texas. Your Clean Cities coordinator at your local coalition can provide you with information about grants and other opportunities. You can also access coordinator and other agency contact information in the points of contact section. Laws and Incentives View All Search Icon of a state map on a computer monitor Texas Information Find information about alternative

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Retrofit Regulations Converting a vehicle to operate on an alternative fuel in lieu of the original gasoline or diesel fuel is prohibited unless the California Air Resources Board (ARB) has evaluated and certified the retrofit system. ARB will issue certification to the manufacturer of the system in the form of an Executive Order once the manufacturer demonstrates compliance with the emissions, warranty, and durability requirements. A

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petro- leum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numer- ous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mow- ers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Infrastructure Tax Credit Businesses and individuals are eligible for an income tax credit of 50% of the incremental or conversion cost for qualified AFVs, up to $19,000 per vehicle. A tax credit is also available for 50% of the equipment and labor costs for the purchase and installation of alternative fuel infrastructure on qualified AFV fueling property. The maximum credit is $1,000 per residential electric vehicle charging station, and $10,000 per publicly

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Road Tax Alternative fuels including, but not limited to, natural gas or propane sold by a licensed alternative fuel dealer and used in on-road vehicles is subject to a $0.222 per gallon equivalent road tax. The New Hampshire Department of Safety will define rules for the applicable conversion rates for natural gas and propane based on nationally recognized standards for weights and measures. Certain exemptions apply, including sales to government entities, between duly licensed

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Grants The Maryland Energy Administration administers the Maryland Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Program (AFIP), which provides grants to develop public access alternative fueling and charging infrastructure. Only Maryland-based private businesses are eligible, and projects must take place in the state. Grant awards will range from $35,000 to $500,000 and applicant cost share must be at least 50%. Applications will be accepted on a competitive basis through February 10, 2017.

  8. Going Global: Tight Oil Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Leaping out of North America and onto the World Stage JULY 2014 GOING GLOBAL: TIGHT OIL PRODUCTION Jamie Webster, Senior Director Global Oil ...

  9. Oil Study Guide - Middle School | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Middle School Oil Study Guide - Middle School Oil Study Guide - Middle School (271.4 KB) More Documents & Publications Oil Study Guide - High School evaluation_egs_tech_2008.pdf A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States: Reservoir Engineering 1976-2006

  10. An overview of alternative fossil fuel price and carbon regulation scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of the Department of Energy's research and development (R&D) efforts have historically been estimated under business-as-usual market and policy conditions. In recognition of the insurance value of R&D, however, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the Office of Fossil Energy (FE) have been exploring options for evaluating the benefits of their R&D programs under an array of alternative futures. More specifically, an FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group (the Working Group) has proposed to EERE and FE staff the application of an initial set of three scenarios for use in the Working Group's upcoming analyses: (1) a Reference Case Scenario, (2) a High Fuel Price Scenario, which includes heightened natural gas and oil prices, and (3) a Carbon Cap-and-Trade Scenario. The immediate goal is to use these scenarios to conduct a pilot analysis of the benefits of EERE and FE R&D efforts. In this report, the two alternative scenarios being considered by EERE and FE staff--carbon cap-and-trade and high fuel prices--are compared to other scenarios used by energy analysts and utility planners. The report also briefly evaluates the past accuracy of fossil fuel price forecasts. We find that the natural gas prices through 2025 proposed in the FE-EERE Scenarios Working Group's High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable based on current natural gas prices and other externally generated gas price forecasts and scenarios. If anything, an even more extreme gas price scenario might be considered. The price escalation from 2025 to 2050 within the proposed High Fuel Price Scenario is harder to evaluate, primarily because few existing forecasts or scenarios extend beyond 2025, but, at first blush, it also appears reasonable. Similarly, we find that the oil prices originally proposed by the Working Group in the High Fuel Price Scenario appear to be reasonable, if not conservative, based on: (1) the current forward market for oil, (2) current oil prices

  11. Crude Oil Characteristics Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SAE Plan June 29, 2015 Page 1 Crude Oil Characteristics Research Sampling, Analysis and Experiment (SAE) Plan The U.S. is experiencing a renaissance in oil and gas production. The Energy Information Administration projects that U.S. oil production will reach 9.3 million barrels per day in 2015 - the highest annual average level of oil production since 1972. This domestic energy boom is due primarily to new unconventional production of light sweet crude oil from tight-oil formations like the

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biodiesel Tax Exemption Biodiesel blends containing at least 20% biodiesel derived from used cooking oil are exempt from the $0.30 per gallon state fuel excise tax. The exemption does not apply to fuel used in vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of 26,001 pounds or more, fuel not sold in retail operations, or fuel sold in operations involving fleet fueling or bulk sales. The exemption expires after December 31, 2019. (Reference Oregon Revised Statutes 319.530

  13. Oil field management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  14. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1989-01-01

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biobutanol

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biobutanol to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biobutanol on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biobutanol on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biobutanol on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biobutanol on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biobutanol on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biobutanol on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Dimethyl Ether Methanol Renewable

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Methanol to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Dimethyl Ether Methanol Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Telework

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Telework to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Telework on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Telework on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Telework on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Telework on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Telework on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Telework on AddThis.com... More in this section... Idle Reduction Parts & Equipment Maintenance Driving Behavior

  18. Advances in heavy oil hydroprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendizabal, O.B. )

    1988-06-01

    The world increase in heavy crudes has forced refiners to develop different processes that upgrade the yields and product properties recovered from these crudes. However, some of the optimized and new processes are not able to handle whole heavy crude oils, due to the high viscosity and corrosion of their long and short residues. The different processes for heavy crudes can be classified in two areas: physical (vg. Liquid Extraction) and chemical processes. The catalytic hydrotreating process, which belongs to this last classification, has demonstrated to be an economical upgrading process for heavy crude oil. This paper describes the development by the Mexican Petroleum Institute of the process to hydrotreat maya heavy crude. The effect of the operating conditions, the catalyst ---- development and the technical - economical analysis are presented. The product properties and yields are compared with the results obtained with light crude oil like isthmus.

  19. Fuel Oil Use in Manufacturing

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    logo Return to: Manufacturing Home Page Fuel Oil Facts Oil Price Effect Fuel Switching Actual Fuel Switching Storage Capacity Fuel Oil Use in Manufacturing Why Look at Fuel Oil?...

  20. Alternative Fuel Transit Buses

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    35th St. Craig Ave. Alt Blvd. Colucci Pkwy. Final Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Vehicle Evaluation Program Final Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Vehicle Evaluation Program N T Y A U E O F E N E R G D E P A R T M E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R I C M Produced for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a U.S. DOE national laboratory Transit Buses Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Final Results from the

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Heavy-Duty Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Purchase Vouchers The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is providing incentives for alternative fuel trucks and buses and diesel emission controls. Incentives are released on a staggered schedule and include: Vouchers for public, private, and non-profit fleets for 80% of the incremental cost, up to $60,000, for the purchase or lease of all-electric Class 3 through 8 trucks operating 70% of the time and garaged in

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Excise Tax Beginning January 1, 2017, alternative fuels will be taxed equal to the motor fuel tax on a gallon equivalent basis. Alternative fuels include natural gas, propane, hydrogen, and hythane. A gallon equivalent is defined as 5.660 pounds (lbs.) of compressed natural gas, 6.06 lbs. of liquefied natural gas, 480.11 standard cubic feet of hydrogen, and 162.44 standard cubic feet of hydrogen compressed natural gas. A gallon of propane is measured as 4 quarts or 3.785 liters. (Reference House

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fuels Tax Alternative fuels subject to the New Mexico excise tax include liquefied petroleum gas (propane), compressed natural gas (CNG), and liquefied natural gas (LNG). The excise tax imposed on propane is $0.12 per gallon, and the excise tax imposed on CNG and LNG is $0.133 and $0.206 per gallon, respectively. A gallon is measured as 3.785 liters of propane, 5.66 pounds (lbs.) of CNG, and 6.06 lbs. of LNG. Alternative fuel purchased for distribution is not subject to the excise tax at the

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Tax The excise tax imposed on compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG or propane) used to operate a vehicle can be paid through an annual flat rate sticker tax based on the following vehicle weights: Unladen Weight Fee All passenger cars and other vehicles 4,000 pounds (lbs.) or less $36 More than 4,000 lbs. but less than 8,001 lbs. $72 More than 8,000 lbs. but less than 12,001 lbs. $120 12,001 lbs. or more $168 Alternatively,

  5. Eco Alternative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alternative Jump to: navigation, search Name: Eco'Alternative Place: Le Bourget-du-Lac, France Zip: 73370 Product: Complete PV system installer with modules supplied by companies...

  6. ES Alternatives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ES Alternatives Jump to: navigation, search Name: ES Alternatives Place: Dallas, Texas Zip: 75201 Sector: Biomass Product: Landfill gas and biomass project developer. Coordinates:...

  7. Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enhanced Oil Recovery As much as two-thirds of conventional crude oil discovered in U.S. fields remains unproduced, left behind due to the physics of fluid flow. In addition, ...

  8. US Crude oil exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2014 EIA Energy Conference U.S. Crude Oil Exports July 14, 2014 By Lynn D. Westfall U.S. Energy Information Administration U.S. crude oil production has grown by almost 50% since ...

  9. Crude Oil Characteristics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    SAE Plan June 29, 2015 Page 1 Crude Oil Characteristics Research Sampling, Analysis and Experiment (SAE) Plan The U.S. is experiencing a renaissance in oil and gas production. The ...

  10. Sound Oil Company

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Ward Oil Co., 24 DOE 81,002 (1994); see also Belcher Oil Co., 15 DOE 81,018 (1987) ... months relief because of flood); Utilities Bd. of Citronelle-Gas, 4 DOE 81,205 (1979) ...

  11. South American oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    GAO reviewed the petroleum industries of the following eight South American Countries that produce petroleum but are not major exporters: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. This report discusses the amount of crude oil the United States imports from the eight countries, expected crude oil production for these countries through the year 2010, and investment reforms that these countries have recently made in their petroleum industries. In general, although the United States imports some oil from these countries, as a group, the eight countries are currently net oil importers because combined domestic oil consumption exceeds oil production. Furthermore, the net oil imports are expected to continue to increase through the year 2010, making it unlikely that the United States will obtain increased oil shipments from these countries.

  12. Chemical Methods for Ugnu Viscous Oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore Mohanty

    2012-03-31

    The North Slope of Alaska has large (about 20 billion barrels) deposits of viscous oil in Ugnu, West Sak and Shraeder Bluff reservoirs. These shallow reservoirs overlie existing productive reservoirs such as Kuparuk and Milne Point. The viscosity of the Ugnu reservoir on top of Milne Point varies from 200 cp to 10,000 cp and the depth is about 3300 ft. The same reservoir extends to the west on the top of the Kuparuk River Unit and onto the Beaufort Sea. The depth of the reservoir decreases and the viscosity increases towards the west. Currently, the operators are testing cold heavy oil production with sand (CHOPS) in Ugnu, but oil recovery is expected to be low (< 10%). Improved oil recovery techniques must be developed for these reservoirs. The proximity to the permafrost is an issue for thermal methods; thus nonthermal methods must be considered. The objective of this project is to develop chemical methods for the Ugnu reservoir on the top of Milne Point. An alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) formulation was developed for a viscous oil (330 cp) where as an alkaline-surfactant formulation was developed for a heavy oil (10,000 cp). These formulations were tested in one-dimensional and quarter five-spot Ugnu sand packs. Micromodel studies were conducted to determine the mechanisms of high viscosity ratio displacements. Laboratory displacements were modeled and transport parameters (such as relative permeability) were determined that can be used in reservoir simulations. Ugnu oil is suitable for chemical flooding because it is biodegraded and contains some organic acids. The acids react with injected alkali to produce soap. This soap helps in lowering interfacial tension between water and oil which in turn helps in the formation of macro and micro emulsions. A lower amount of synthetic surfactant is needed because of the presence of organic acids in the oil. Tertiary ASP flooding is very effective for the 330 cp viscous oil in 1D sand pack. This chemical formulation

  13. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  14. Oil-futures markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prast, W.G.; Lax, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    This book on oil futures trading takes a look at a market and its various hedging strategies. Growing interest in trading of commodity futures has spread to petroleum, including crude oil, and key refined products such as gasoline and heating oil. This book describes how the international petroleum trade is structured, examines the working of oil futures markets in the United States and the United Kingdom, and assesses the possible courses of further developments.

  15. SRC residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-10-15

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  16. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  17. Sustainable Oils Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    producer and marketer of renewable, environmentally clean, and high-value Camelina-based biodiesel fuel. References: Sustainable Oils Inc.1 This article is a stub. You can help...

  18. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2004-03-05

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  19. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2003-09-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  20. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2003-06-04

    The overall objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involves improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective is to transfer technology which can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The thermal recovery operations in the Tar II-A and Tar V have been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. The advanced technologies to be applied include: (1) Develop three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic geologic models. (2) Develop 3-D deterministic and stochastic thermal reservoir simulation models to aid in reservoir management and subsequent development work. (3) Develop computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid in analysis. (4) Perform detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (5) Pilot steam injection and production via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors). (6) Hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Clean Energy Advisory Commission The South Carolina Clean Energy Industry Manufacturing Market Development Advisory Commission (Commission) will assist with the development of clean energy technologies, materials, and products, including advanced vehicle, alternative transportation fuel, battery manufacturing, and hydrogen fuel cell industries. The Commission issued a final report in September 2015, with a description and analysis of the existing clean energy manufacturing industry, job

  2. Compensated pulsed alternator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weldon, William F.; Driga, Mircea D.; Woodson, Herbert H.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak outout. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit.

  3. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  4. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY)

    1999-01-12

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing in organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed.

  5. Microbial influenced corrosion in cargo oil tanks of crude oil tankers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, R.T.; McFarland, B.L.; Hodgman, R.Z.

    1997-09-01

    Excessive pitting corrosion in the uncoated bottom platings of cargo oil tanks was detected in newbuilt crude oil tankers only 2 to 5 years old, and was diagnosed as microbial influenced corrosion (MIC). Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) concentrations reached as high as 100,000 to 10,000,000 per milliliter in the settled water at the bottom of the cargo oil tanks. Biocide treatment to control MIC was studied in the laboratory using microbial consortia isolated from cargo oil tank bottoms. Biocide treatment to control MIC was attempted experimentally, but was found to be impractical onboard tankers. A MIC mitigation strategy, employing an enhanced pitting inspection and repair program combined with the coating of the bottom platings, was developed and implemented for existing crude oil tankers. Considerations for improvement of future newbuild crude oil tankers are also presented.

  6. Alternative transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Askew, W.S.; McNamara, T.M.; Maxfield, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    The commercialization of alternative fuels is analyzed. Following a synopsis of US energy use, the concept of commercialization, the impacts of supply shortages and demand inelasticity upon commercialization, and the status of alternative fuels commercialization to date in the US are discussed. The US energy market is viewed as essentially numerous submarkets. The interrelationship among these submarkets precludes the need to commercialize for a specific fuel/use. However, the level of consumption, the projected growth in demand, and the inordinate dependence upon foreign fuels dictate that additional fuel supplies in general be brought to the US energy marketplace. Commercialization efforts encompass a range of measures designed to accelerate the arrival of technologies or products in the marketplace. As discussed in this paper, such a union of willing buyers and willing sellers requires that three general conditions be met: product quality comparable to existing products; price competitiveness; and adequate availability of supply. Product comparability presently appears to be the least problematic of these three requirements. Ethanol/gasoline and methanol/gasoline blends, for example, demonstrate the fact that alternative fuel technologies exist. Yet price and availability (i.e., production capacity) remain major obstacles. Given inelasticity (with respect to price) in the US and abroad, supply shortages - actual or contrived - generate upward price pressure and should make once-unattractive alternative fuels more price competitive. It is noted, however, that actual price competitiveness has been slow to occur and that even with price competitiveness, the lengthy time frame needed to achieve significant production capacity limits the near-term impact of alternative fuels.

  7. Bitumen and heavy oil upgrading in Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrones, J. ); Germain, R.R. )

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of the heavy oil upgrading industry in Canada. Up to now it has been based on the processing of bitumen extracted from oil sands mining operations at two sites, to produce a residue-free, low sulphur, synthetic crude. Carbon rejection has been the prime process technology with delayed coking being used by Suncor and FLUID COKING at Syncrude. Alternative processes for recovering greater amounts of synthetic crude are examined. These include a variety of hydrogen addition processes and combinations which produce pipelineable materials requiring further processing in downstream refineries with expanded capabilities. The Newgrade Energy Inc. upgrader now under construction in Regina, will use fixed-bed, catalytic, atmospheric-residue, hydrogen processing. Two additional projects, also based on hydrogenation, will use ebullated bed catalyst systems; the expansion of Syncrude, now underway, is using the LC Fining Process whereas the announced Husky Bi-Provincial upgrader is based on H-Oil.

  8. Bitumen and heavy oil upgrading in Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrones, J.

    1988-06-01

    A review is presented of the heavy oil upgrading industry in Canada. Up to now it has been based on the processing of bitumen extracted from oil sands mining operations at two sites, to produce a residue-free, low sulfur, synthetic crude. Carbon rejection has been the prime process technology with delayed coking being used by Suncor and FLUID COKING at Syncrude. Alternative processes for recovering greater amounts of synthetic crude are examined. These include a variety of hydrogen addition processes and combinations which produce pipelineable materials requiring further processing in downstream refineries with expanded capabilities. The Newgrade Energy Inc. upgrader, now under construction in Regina, will use fixed-bed, catalytic, atmospheric-residue, hydrogen processing. Two additional products, also based on hydrogenation, will use ebullated bed catalyst systems: the expansion of Syncrude, now underway, is using the LC Fining Process whereas the announced Husky Bi-Provincial upgrader is based on H-Oil.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Deploying Alternative Fuel Vehicles in

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Rochester, New York, Through the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program Deploying Alternative Fuel Vehicles in Rochester, New York, Through the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Deploying Alternative Fuel Vehicles in Rochester, New York, Through the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Deploying Alternative Fuel

  10. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Mobil Oil Corp - VA 01

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Mobil Oil Corp - VA 01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Mobil Oil Corp. (VA.01 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corporation VA.01-1 Location: 818 Perry Street , Richmond , Virginia VA.01-1 Evaluation Year: Circa 1987 VA.01-2 VA.01-3 Site Operations: Research/Development to recover Uranium as a byproduct of phosphate production; preparatory process for pilot plant scale operation at Nichols, Florida.

  11. Bush Administration Establishes Program to Reduce Foreign Oil Dependency,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy Establishes Program to Reduce Foreign Oil Dependency, Greenhouse Gases Bush Administration Establishes Program to Reduce Foreign Oil Dependency, Greenhouse Gases April 10, 2007 - 12:34pm Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - In step with the Bush Administration's call to increase the supply of alternative and renewable fuels nationwide, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today established the nation's first comprehensive Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) program.

  12. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  13. Lubricants for CFC alternates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spauschus, H.O.

    1995-12-01

    With the recent development and introduction of environmentally preferred refrigerants as substitutes for HCFC`s, a number of new classes of companion compressor lubricants also have been offered. In contrast to the former compressor lubricants which were derived from petroleum based stocks, the new lubricants are synthetic products, initially designed to provide miscibilities and solubilities similar to the CFC/mineral oil predecessors. Rather than review the classes of lubricants being evaluated and used for different types of refrigeration machinery, this paper will address longer term benefits and challenges related to the introduction of synthetic compressor lubricants such as polyesters, polyolesters, polyalkalene glycols and polycarbonates. Within these families of synthetic fluids, large selections of chemical structures are available, each with unique physical and chemical properties. Of course all of the lubricants must meet general requirements of compressor oils with respect to flammability, pour point, volatility, toxicity, etc., but beyond these minimum requirements, there are technical options for tailoring lubricant structures to optimize certain lubricant (and thus lubricant/refrigerant) properties such as vapor pressure, solubility, viscosity, viscosity index, miscibility, moisture absorption, additive response and biodegradability. Basic studies to predict lubricant/refrigerant mixture properties based on chemical structure of the components are recommended. A number of practical challenges in the selection and application of new lubricants and new working fluids will be discussed including standards for bench screening tests and compressor tests, guidelines for lubricant handling during recovery and servicing of equipment and the potential for reprocessing compressor lubricants.

  14. Maintenance and operation of the US Alternative Fuel Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erwin, J.; Ferrill, J.L.; Hetrick, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    The Alternative Fuels Utilization Program (AFUP) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy has investigated the possibilities and limitations of expanded scope of fuel alternatives and replacement means for transportation fuels from alternative sources. Under the AFUP, the Alternative Fuel Center (AFC) was created to solve problems in the DOE programs that were grappling with the utilization of shale oil and coal liquids for transportation fuels. This report covers the first year at the 3-year contract. The principal objective was to assist the AFUP in accomplishing its general goals with two new fuel initiatives selected for tasks in the project year: (1) Production of low-sulfur, low-olefin catalytically cracked gasoline blendstock; and (2) production of low-reactivity/low-emission gasoline. Supporting goals included maintaining equipment in good working order, performing reformulated gasoline tests, and meeting the needs of other government agencies and industries for fuel research involving custom processing, blending, or analysis of experimental fuels.

  15. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gushee, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Tax Credit NOTE: This incentive originally expired on December 31, 2013, but was retroactively extended through December 31, 2016, by H.R. 2029. Fueling equipment for natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), liquefied hydrogen, electricity, E85, or diesel fuel blends containing a minimum of 20% biodiesel installed between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2016, is eligible for a tax credit of 30% of the cost, not to exceed $30,000. Permitting and inspection

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Education, Research, and Training The Propane Education and Research Act of 1996 established the Propane Education and Research Council (PERC) to develop programs education and training programs for safe propane use. PERC is funded and operated by the propane industry, and helps coordinate efforts to promote the use of propane as an alternative fuel. The Propane Education and Research Enhancement Act of 2014 expanded PERC's duties by tasking the council with developing training programs

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Clean Cities The mission of Clean Cities is to advance the energy, economic, and environmental security of the United States by supporting local initiatives to adopt practices that reduce the use of petroleum in the transportation sector. Clean Cities carries out this mission through a network of nearly 100 volunteer coalitions, which develop public/private partnerships to promote alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, fuel blends, fuel economy, hybrid vehicles, and idle reduction. Clean

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicle Incremental Cost Allocation The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) must allocate the incremental cost of purchasing alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs) across the entire fleet of vehicles distributed by GSA. This mandate also applies to other federal agencies that procure vehicles for federal fleets. For more information, see the GSA's AFV website. (Reference 42 U.S. Code 13212 (c)) Point of Contact U.S. General Services Administration Phone: (703) 605-5630

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Private and Local Government Fleets Under the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) was directed to determine whether private and local government fleets should be mandated to acquire alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). In January 2004, DOE published a final rule announcing its decision not to implement an AFV acquisition mandate for private and local government fleets. In response to a March 2006 ruling by a U.S. District Court, DOE issued a subsequent final

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Aftermarket Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Conversions Conventional original equipment manufacturer vehicles altered to operate on propane, natural gas, methane gas, ethanol, or electricity are classified as aftermarket AFV conversions. All vehicle conversions, except those that are completed for a vehicle to run on electricity, must meet current applicable U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. For more information about vehicle conversion certification requirements, see the

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Improved Energy Technology Loans The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides loan guarantees through the Loan Guarantee Program to eligible projects that reduce air pollution and greenhouse gases, and support early commercial use of advanced technologies, including biofuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The program is not intended for research and development projects. DOE may issue loan guarantees for up to 100% of the amount of the loan for an eligible project. Eligible projects may include

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Enacted February 17, 2009 The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 (Public Law 111-5) appropriates nearly $800 billion towards the creation of jobs, economic growth, tax relief, improvements in education and healthcare, infrastructure modernization, and investments in energy independence and renewable energy technologies. ARRA supports a variety of alternative fuel and advanced vehicle technologies through grant programs, tax

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Improvement and Extension Act of 2008 Enacted October 3, 2008 The Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008 is Division B of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act (Public Law 110-343). Title II of Division B of the law includes several provisions related to tax credits and exemptions for alternative fuels and fuel-efficient technologies. The table below provides a summary of the relevant provisions. Reference Description Section 202 Amends the existing biodiesel mixture and agri-biodiesel

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Independence and Security Act of 2007 Enacted December 19, 2007 The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 (Public Law 110-140) aims to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum. EISA includes provisions to increase the supply of renewable alternative fuel sources by setting a mandatory Renewable Fuel Standard, which requires transportation fuel sold in the United States to contain a minimum of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels annually by 2022. In

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Policy Act of 2005 Enacted August 8, 2005 The table below provides a summary of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005 (Public Law 109-58) provisions related to alternative fuels and vehicles, air quality, fuel efficiency, and other transportation topics. Note that although legislation authorizes funding for activities, the funds still must be appropriated through a separate federal budgeting process. For more information, visit the EPAct website. Reference Description Section 701 Federal Fleet

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    State Energy Plan The Missouri Department of Economic Development's Division of Energy developed a comprehensive state energy plan to include information related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, as well as electric generation, fuels and resource extraction, energy distribution, energy usage, energy storage, energy-related land use issues, energy prices, energy security, and emergency resource planning. For more information, see the Missouri Energy Plan website. (Reference Executive

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel and Idle Reduction Revolving Loan Program for Public Entities The Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs provides low-interest energy efficiency loans through its Local Government Energy Loan program to local governments and educational institutions. Eligible energy efficiency improvement projects include those involving idle reduction equipment and natural gas and propane vehicle conversions or purchases. Dedicated and bi-fuel vehicles are eligible, and the loan

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Emissions Inspection Exemption Vehicles powered exclusively by electricity, propane, or natural gas are exempt from state motor vehicle emissions inspections after receiving a one-time verification inspection. Emissions testing is required in certain counties in the Cleveland and Akron area. For more information, see the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency's E-Check website. (Reference Ohio Administrative Code 3745.26

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Tax An excise tax rate of 9% of the average wholesale price on a per gallon basis applies to all special fuels, including diesel, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), ethanol, biodiesel, hydrogen, and any other combustible gases and liquids, excluding gasoline, used to propel motor vehicles. For taxation purposes, one gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) of compressed natural gas (CNG) is equal to 5.66 pounds (lbs.) or 126.67 cubic feet. One GGE of liquefied natural gas

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    and Idle Reduction Revolving Loan Program for Private Entities The Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs provides an energy efficiency and renewable energy loan through its AlabamaSAVES program to commercial, industrial, and non-profit entities. Eligible energy efficiency improvements include those involving idle reduction equipment, natural gas and propane vehicle conversions or purchases, and alternative fueling infrastructure installation at existing facilities in Alabama.

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    and Fueling Infrastructure Grants The New Mexico Energy, Minerals, and Natural Resources Department administers the Clean Energy Grants Program, which provides grants for projects using clean energy technologies, including alternative fuel vehicles and fueling infrastructure, as well as projects that provide clean energy education, technical assistance, and training programs. These grants are provided on a competitive basis to qualifying entities such as municipalities and county governments,

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Loans The Oregon Department of Energy administers the State Energy Loan Program (SELP) which offers low-interest loans for qualified projects. Eligible alternative fuel projects include fuel production facilities, dedicated feedstock production, fueling infrastructure, and fleet vehicles. Loan recipients must complete a loan application and pay a loan application fee. For more information, including application forms and interest rate and fee information, see the SELP website. (Reference Oregon

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    and Idle Reduction Grants The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources Division of Air Quality provides grants for the incremental cost of original equipment manufacturer alternative fuel vehicles, vehicle conversions, and implementing idle reduction programs. Funding is not currently available for this incentive (verified August 2016). For more information see the Diesel Emission Reductions Grants website. Point of Contact Phyllis Jones Environmental Engineer North

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    State Plan to Reduce Petroleum Consumption The Governor's Office of Energy Independence and Security developed the Comprehensive Energy Action Plan in response to Public Law 656, 2008, in an effort to advance the principles, the programs and the integrated plans necessary to secure a safe, clean and affordable energy future for the citizens of Maine. The updated plan, published in February 2015, notes that Maine is not in the position to independently fund alternative fuel stations, mainly due

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Registration A fee of $75 is required for the registration of an AFV that operates on electricity, solar power, or any other source of energy not otherwise taxed under the state motor fuel tax laws. Compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) are not subject to this requirement. (Reference Nebraska Revised Statutes 60-306 and 60-3,191

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Definition AFVs include vehicles propelled to a significant extent by electricity from a battery that has a capacity of at least four kilowatt-hours and can be recharged from an external source and vehicles propelled solely by compressed natural gas, hydrogen, or propane and that meet or exceed Tier 2, Bin 2 federal exhaust emissions standards. (Reference Nevada Revised Statutes 484A.196 through 484A.197

  18. Weighing the Alternatives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    From their creation, during their utilization and with their disposal, nuclear materials present significant management challenges for those responsible for making decisions that may have impacts on the public and/or the environment. For over thirty years, researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have assisted these decision makers by offering expert, scientific advice when those in our government tasked with nuclear materials management weigh alternatives. The expertise that Sandia National

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Use Requirement All state agencies must, to the extent practicable, use 100% biofuels or electricity to operate all publicly owned vehicles. Agencies may substitute natural gas or propane for electricity or biofuel if the Washington State Department of Commerce (Department) determines that electricity and biofuel are not reasonably available. Practicability and measures of compliance are defined in rules adopted by the Washington State Department of Commerce. In addition,

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    California Laws and Incentives Listed below are incentives, laws, and regulations related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles for California. Your Clean Cities coordinator at your local coalition can provide you with information about grants and other opportunities. You can also access coordinator and other agency contact information in the points of contact section. Laws and Incentives View All Search Icon of a state map on a computer monitor California Information Find information about

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    North Carolina Laws and Incentives Listed below are incentives, laws, and regulations related to alternative fuels and advanced vehicles for North Carolina. Your Clean Cities coordinator at your local coalition can provide you with information about grants and other opportunities. You can also access coordinator and other agency contact information in the points of contact section. Laws and Incentives View All Search Icon of a state map on a computer monitor North Carolina Information Find

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Parking Incentive Programs The California Department of General Services (DGS) and California Department of Transportation (DOT) must develop and implement AFV parking incentive programs in public parking facilities operated by DGS with 50 or more parking spaces and park-and-ride lots owned and operated by DOT. The incentives must provide meaningful and tangible benefits to drivers, such as preferential spaces, reduced fees, and fueling infrastructure. Fueling

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Excise Tax Compressed natural gas motor fuel is subject to the state fuel excise tax at the rate of $0.30 per 120 cubic feet, measured at 14.73 pounds per square inch and 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Propane motor fuel is subject to the excise tax $0.30 per 1.3 gallons at 60 degrees Fahrenheit. (Reference Oregon Revised Statutes 319.530

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicle Miles Traveled Tax Feasibility Study Committee The California Transportation Commission (Commission) and the California Transportation Agency (Agency) must create a Road Usage Charge (RUC) Technical Advisory Committee (Committee) to study RUC alternatives to the gas tax and assess the potential for mileage-based revenue collection. Based on the recommendations of the Committee, the Agency must implement a pilot program to identify and evaluate issues related to potential implementation

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fleet Emissions Reduction Requirements - South Coast The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) requires government fleets and private contractors under contract with public entities to purchase non-diesel lower emission and alternative fuel vehicles. The rule applies to transit bus, school bus, refuse hauler, and other vehicle fleets of at least 15 vehicles that operate in Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties. (Reference SCAQMD Rules 1186.1 and 1191-1196)

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    and Vehicle Policy Development The California Energy Commission (CEC) must prepare and submit an Integrated Energy Policy Report (IEPR) to the governor on a biannual basis. The IEPR provides an overview of major energy trends and issues facing the state, including those related to transportation fuels, technologies, and infrastructure. The IEPR also examines potential effects of alternative fuels use, vehicle efficiency improvements, and shifts in transportation modes on public health and

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Fleet Vehicle Procurement Requirements When awarding a vehicle procurement contract, every city, county, and special district, including school and community college districts, may require that 75% of the passenger cars and/or light-duty trucks acquired be energy-efficient vehicles. By definition, this includes hybrid electric vehicles and alternative fuel vehicles that meet California's advanced technology partial zero emission vehicle (AT PZEV) standards. Vehicle procurement contract

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) and Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Insurance Discount Farmers Insurance provides a discount of up to 10% on all major insurance coverage for HEV and AFV owners. To qualify, the automobile must be a dedicated AFV using ethanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity, or be a HEV. A complete vehicle identification number is required to validate vehicle eligibility. For more information, see the Farmers California Insurance Discounts website.

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emissions Reductions Grants The Carl Moyer Memorial Air Quality Standards Attainment Program (Program) provides incentives to cover the incremental cost of purchasing engines and equipment that are cleaner than required by law. Eligible projects include heavy-duty fleet modernization, light-duty vehicle replacements and retrofits, idle reduction technology, off-road vehicle and equipment purchases, and alternative fuel and electric vehicle infrastructure projects. The Program provides funds for

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicle Acquisition and Petroleum Reduction Requirements The California Department of General Services (DGS) is responsible for maintaining specifications and standards for passenger cars and light-duty trucks that are purchased or leased for state office, agency, and department use. These specifications include minimum vehicle emissions standards and encourage the purchase or lease of fuel-efficient and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). On an annual basis, DGS must compile information

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) Standards California's LEV II exhaust emissions standards apply to Model Year (MY) 2004 and subsequent model year passenger cars, light-duty trucks, and medium-duty passenger vehicles meeting specified exhaust standards. The LEV II standards represent the maximum exhaust emissions for LEVs, Ultra Low Emission Vehicles, and Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicles, including flexible fuel, bi-fuel, and dual-fuel vehicles when operating on an alternative fuel. MY 2009 and

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Use and Vehicle Acquisition Requirements State agency fleets with more than 15 vehicles, excluding emergency and law enforcement vehicles, may not purchase or lease a motor vehicle unless the vehicle uses compressed or liquefied natural gas, propane, ethanol or fuel blends of at least 85% ethanol (E85), methanol or fuel blends of at least 85% methanol (M85), biodiesel or fuel blends of at least 20% biodiesel (B20), or electricity (including plug-in hybrid electric vehicles).

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    State Transportation Plan The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) must update the California Transportation Plan (Plan) by December 31, 2015, and every five years thereafter. The Plan must address how the state will achieve maximum feasible emissions reductions, taking into consideration the use of alternative fuels, new vehicle technology, and tailpipe emissions reductions. Caltrans must consult and coordinate with related state agencies, air quality management districts, public

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Advanced Transportation Tax Exclusion The California Alternative Energy and Advanced Transportation Financing Authority (CAEATFA) provides a sales and use tax exclusion for qualified manufacturers of advanced transportation products, components, or systems that reduce pollution and energy use and promote economic development. Incentives are not available after December 31, 2020. For more information, including application materials, see the CAEATFA Sales and Use Tax Exclusion Program website.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel and Advanced Vehicle Rebate - San Joaquin Valley The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) administers the Drive Clean! Rebate Program, which provides rebates for the purchase or lease of eligible new vehicles, including qualified natural gas, hydrogen fuel cell, propane, zero emission motorcycles, battery electric, neighborhood electric, and plug-in electric vehicles. The program offers rebates of up to $3,000, which are available on a first-come,

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Deploying Clean Buses in Texas...

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    ... The region also covers a large pool of potential violators from many Houston Metro area oil refineries, creating a high demand for improved air quality and plenty of opportunity ...

  17. Study on rheological characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu

    1997-07-01

    We have embarked on a program to develop petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) as an alternative fuel for existing oil-fired boilers. The industrial application of petroleum coke residual oil slurry requires full knowledge of its flow behavior. This paper will present the results of an experimental investigation undertaken to study the Theological properties using a rotating viscometer at shear rate up to 996 s{sup -1}. The effects of temperature, concentration, particle size distribution and additives are also investigated. The experiments show that petroleum coke residual oil slurry exhibits pseudoplastic behavior, which has favorable viscosity property under a certain condition and has broad prospect to be applied on oil-fired boilers.

  18. Four different shale oils processed into jet fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Crude shale oils produced by (a) Geokinetics, (b) Occidental, (c) Paraho, and (d) Tosco II processes have each been catalytically hydroprocessed to produce jet fuel fractions. The shale oil hydroprocessing was performed at low, medium and high hydroprocessing severities. Hydroprocessing severity was changed mainly by varying the temperature. Full boiling range (121-300/sup 0/C) jet fuel was produced from the hydroprocessed product of the raw oil distillates boiling below 343/sup 0/C. This paper describes the shale oil properties and hydroprocessing, gives the results of sulfur removal and hydrogenated shale oil distillation, and lists the physical and chemical properties of the jet fuels. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Describing current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-26

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gases, and the rising numbers of motor vehicles and miles driven could lead to more harmful emissions that may ultimately affect the world`s climate. One approach to curtailing such emissions is to use, instead of gasoline, alternative fuels: LPG, compressed natural gas, or alcohol fuels. In addition to the greenhouse gases, pollutants can be harmful to human health: ozone, CO. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards to control this. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was the first new law to emphasize strengthened energy security and decreased reliance on foreign oil since the oil shortages of the 1970`s. EPACT emphasized increasing the number of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV`s) by mandating their incremental increase of use by Federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets over the new few years. Its goals are far from being met; alternative fuels` share remains trivial, about 0.3%, despite gains. This report describes current and potential markets for AFV`s; it begins by assessing the total vehicle stock, and then it focuses on current use of AFV`s in alternative fuel provider fleets and the potential for use of AFV`s in US households.

  20. Production of hydrogen from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schora, F. C.; Feldkirchner, H. L.; Janka, J. C.

    1985-12-24

    A process for production of hydrogen from oil shale fines by direct introduction of the oil shale fines into a fluidized bed at temperatures about 1200/sup 0/ to about 2000/sup 0/ F. to obtain rapid heating of the oil shale. The bed is fluidized by upward passage of steam and oxygen, the steam introduced in the weight ratio of about 0.1 to about 10 on the basis of the organic carbon content of the oil shale and the oxygen introduced in less than the stoichiometric quantity for complete combustion of the organic carbonaceous kerogen content of the oil shale. Embodiments are disclosed for heat recovery from the spent shale and heat recovery from the spent shale and product gas wherein the complete process and heat recovery is carried out in a single reaction vessel. The process of this invention provides high conversion of organic carbon component of oil shale and high production of hydrogen from shale fines which when used in combination with a conventional oil shale hydroconversion process results in increased overall process efficiency of greater than 15 percent.

  1. Independent Analysis of Alternatives for Disposition of the Idaho...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Independent Analysis of Alternatives for Disposition of the Idaho Calcined High-Level ... The scope of the CDP includes the design and construction of a capability for retrieval ...

  2. California and New Mexico: Sapphire Energy Advances the Commercialization of Algae Crude Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sapphire Green Crude Farm is the first algae-to-energy facility. If adopted and commercialized by other refineries, this algae-based crude oil is a viable green alternative fuel option.

  3. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  4. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    used to evaluate the energy and emission impact of two pathways of alternative energy development. The results show that China can only meets its 2015 and 2020 targets for non-fossil penetration if it successfully achieves all of its capacity targets for 2020 with continued expansion through 2030. To achieve this level of alternative generation, significant amounts of raw materials including 235 Mt of concrete, 54 Mt of steel, 5 Mt of copper along with 3 billion tons of water and 64 thousand square kilometers of land are needed. China’s alternative energy supply will likely have relatively high average energy output to fossil fuel input ratio of 42 declining to 26 over time, but this ratio is largely skewed by nuclear and hydropower capacity. With successful alternative energy development, 32% of China’s electricity and 21% of its total primary energy will be supplied by alternative energy by 2030. Compared to the counterfactual baseline in which alternative energy development stumbles and China does not meet its capacity targets until 2030, alternative energy development can displace 175 Mtce of coal inputs per year and 2080 Mtce cumulatively from power generation by 2030. In carbon terms, this translates into 5520 Mt of displaced CO2 emissions over the twenty year period, with more than half coming from expanded nuclear and wind power generation. These results illustrate the critical role that alternative energy development can play alongside energy efficiency in reducing China’s energy-related carbon emissions.

  5. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  6. Combuston method of oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., John B.; Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-08-16

    A gravity flow, vertical bed of crushed oil shale having a two level injection of air and a three level injection of non-oxygenous gas and an internal combustion of at least residual carbon on the retorted shale. The injection of air and gas is carefully controlled in relation to the mass flow rate of the shale to control the temperature of pyrolysis zone, producing a maximum conversion of the organic content of the shale to a liquid shale oil. The parameters of the operation provides an economical and highly efficient shale oil production.

  7. An Energy Evolution:Alternative Fueled Vehicle Comparisons

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Evolution: Alternative Fueled Vehicle Com parisons Presented to the DOE EERE Office July 26, 2010 Presented by Patrick Serfass, VP, National Hydrogen Association Prepared by C. E. (Sandy) Thomas, Ph.D., ex-President H 2 Gen Innovations, Inc. Alexandria, Virginia and Director, National Hydrogen Association www.CleanCarOptions.com 2 Outline * Main Results from 100-year simulation - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Oil consumption * Battery vs. Fuel Cell system comparison * Capital investments

  8. Evaluating oil quality and monitoring production from heavy oil reservoirs using geochemical methods: Application to the Boscan Field, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufman, R.L.; Noguera, V.H.; Bantz, D.M.; Rodriguez, R.

    1996-08-01

    Many oil fields worldwide contain heavy oil in one or more reservoir units. The low gravity of these oils is most frequently due to biodegradation and/or low maturity. The challenge is to find ways to economically recover this oil. Methods which reduce the operating costs of producing heavy oil add significant value to such projects. Geochemical techniques which use the composition of the reservoir fluids as natural tracers offer cost effective methods to assist with reservoir management. The low viscosity and gravity of heavy oil, combined with frequent high water cuts, low flow rates, and the presence of downhole artificial lift equipment, make many conventional production logging methods difficult to apply. Therefore, monitoring production, especially if the produced oil is commingled from multiple reservoirs, can be difficult. Geochemical methods can be used to identify oil/water contacts, tubing string leaks and to allocate production to individual zones from commingled production. An example of a giant heavy oil field where geochemical methods may be applicable is the Boscan Field in Venezuela. Low maturity oil, averaging 10{degrees} API gravity, is produced from the Eocene Upper and Lower Boscan (Miosa) Sands. Geochemical, stratigraphic and engineering data have helped to better define the controls on oil quality within the field, identified new reservoir compartments and defined unique characteristics of the Upper and Lower Boscan oils. This information can be used to identify existing wells in need of workovers due to mechanical problems and to monitor production from new infill wells.

  9. An oil and gas cartel OPEC in evolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-23

    More than ever before, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries is faced with a sophisticated and complex market, a highly charged environmental movement, and new calls for energy conservation and alternative fuels. It has lost a member, Ecuador. However OPEC's future evolves, it will be challenged to change. As non-OPEC oil production continues to decline, OPEC's future could brighten considerably. Natural gas presents a great opportunity to OPEC as many industrial and developing countries utilize gas more extensively because of price and environmental advantages. Whether oil or gas, OPEC will require large amounts of capital to satisfy the world's appetite for petroleum. The loss of Ecuador seems a setback to the Organization, but there are burgeoning Soviet Republics with large reserves in need of development assistance to tap into their natural resources more effectively. On the demand side, many companies are seeking hospitable recipients for their exploratory activities and investment capital. OPEC's role might somehow include the embrace of these developments for the betterment of its individual, unique members.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Excise Tax Liquefied petroleum gas (propane) and compressed natural gas are subject to a federal excise tax of $0.183 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). The liquefied natural gas tax rate is $0.243 per diesel gallon equivalent (DGE). For taxation purposes, one GGE is equal to 5.75 pounds (lbs.) of propane and 5.66 lbs. of CNG. One DGE is equal to 6.06 lbs. of LNG. (Reference Public Law 114-41 and 26 U.S. Code 4041 and 4081) Point of Contact Excise Tax Branch U.S. Internal

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Tax Exemption Alternative fuels used in a manner that the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) deems as nontaxable are exempt from federal fuel taxes. Common nontaxable uses in a motor vehicle are: on a farm for farming purposes; in certain intercity and local buses; in a school bus; exclusive use by a non-profit educational organization; and exclusive use by a state, political subdivision of a state, or the District of Columbia. This exemption is not available to tax exempt entities that are not

  12. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuels Tax The state motor fuel tax on liquefied natural gas (LNG) is imposed based on the diesel gallon equivalent (DGE) and the tax on propane and compressed natural gas (CNG) is based on the gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE). For taxation purposes, one GGE of propane and CNG is equal to 5.75 pounds (lbs.) and 5.66 lbs., respectively, and one DGE of LNG is equal to 6.06 lbs. The North Carolina Department of Revenue will determine the equivalent rate for all other non-liquid

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Vehicle (AFV) Low-Interest Loans Oklahoma has a private loan program with a 3% interest rate for the cost of converting private fleets to operate on alternative fuels and for the incremental cost of purchasing an original equipment manufacturer AFV. The loan repayment has a maximum six-year period. For more information, see the Oklahoma Department of Commerce website. Point of Contact Kylah McNabb Energy Policy Advisor Oklahoma Department of Commerce Phone: (405) 522-7226 kylah.mcnabb@ee.ok.gov

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Tax Rates A special excise tax rate of 2% is imposed on the sale of propane and an excise tax of $0.23 per gallon is imposed on all special fuels sales and deliveries, including compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG). One gallon of special fuel is equal to 120 cubic feet of CNG or 1.7 gallons of LNG. Retailers must obtain a license from the Office of the State Tax Commissioner to sell special fuels. Exceptions apply. (Reference House Bill 1133, 2015, and

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas and Propane Fuel Tax Any individual using or selling compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), or liquefied petroleum gas (propane) as a motor fuel must report fuel use and remit taxes due to the Kansas Department of Revenue on a monthly basis. The minimum tax imposed on CNG is $0.24 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE), LNG is $0.26 per GGE, and propane is $0.23 per gallon. The state imposes a tax rate of $0.24 per gallon on conventional motor fuel. Alternatively,

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Green Jobs Tax Credit Qualified employers are eligible for a $500 tax credit for each new green job created that offers a salary of at least $50,000, for up to 350 jobs per employer. The credit is allowed for the first five years that the job is continuously filled. For the purposes of this tax credit, a green job is defined as employment in industries relating to renewable or alternative energy, including hydrogen and fuel cell technology, landfill gas, and biofuels. The tax credit expires on

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Tax Credit An eligible business enterprise may claim an income tax credit for the purchase or lease of qualified EVSE provided that the EVSE is located in the state and accessible to the public. The amount of the credit is 10% of the cost of the EVSE, up to $2,500. For more information, see the Georgia Department of Natural Resources Alternative Fuels and Tax Credits website. (Reference Georgia Code 48-7-40.16) Point of Contact James Udi Environmental

  18. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFV) Loan Program The Oregon Department of Energy (ODOE) AFV Revolving Fund provides loans to public agencies, private entities, and tribes for the incremental cost of AFVs and AFV conversions. Priority will be given to converting petroleum-powered vehicles to AFVs. The loan recipient may be responsible for a fee of 0.1% of the loan, up to $2,500, as well as fees to cover the cost of application processing. ODOE may set the interest rate anywhere from 0% to the current

  19. Table 10.24 Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable; Unit: Million barrels. Total Amount of Total Amount of Equipment is Not Switching Unavailable Long-Term Unavailable Combinations of NAICS Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable Distillate Capable of Using Adversely Affects Alternative Environmenta Contract Storage for Another Columns F, G, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed as a Fue Fuel Oil Fuel Use

  20. Table 10.25 Reasons that Made Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Reasons that Made Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable; Unit: Million barrels. Total Amount of Total Amount of Equipment is Not Switching Unavailable Long-Term Unavailable Combinations of NAICS Residual Fuel Oil Unswitchable ResiduaCapable of Using Adversely Affects Alternative Environmental Contract Storage for Another Columns F, G, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed as a Fue Fuel Oil Fuel Use