National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for alpha excluding radon

  1. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1993-01-12

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  2. Radon detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-01-25

    A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element is described. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding. 3 figures.

  3. Radon detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding.

  4. Improvement in understanding the deposition of ambient dust particles on ECAM (environmental continuous air monitor) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAMs with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schery, Stephen D., Wasiolek, Piotr; Rodgers, John

    1999-06-01

    Improvement in understanding the deposition of ambient dust particles on ECAM (environmental continuous air monitor) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAMs with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions.

  5. The relation of seismic activity and radon concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulali, Feride E-mail: iskender@fef.sdu.edu.tr; Akkurt, ?skender E-mail: iskender@fef.sdu.edu.tr; Vogiannis, Efstratios

    2014-10-06

    Radon, which is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation, reaches to surface as gas or dissolved form in the ground water. Emanation of radon can has a profile is disposed to increasing or decreasing depending on the effects of meteorological events or crust movements. In this work, the radon concentration in soil gas, which is transported from soil to AlphaGUARD, is continuously measured in Mytilene (Greece). A graph of radon concentration is prepared for comparison with simultaneous earthquake data. As a consequence of comparison, we determined that the radon concentration indicates anomalies before the earthquakes.

  6. Fernald radon stack monitor user`s guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitley, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    The stack monitor uses long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technology for the measurement of radon levels in the stack emissions. The basic principle behind LRAD is the collection of ions created in air through the energy loss mechanisms of decay alphas. This is accomplished by establishing an electric field in the region where alpha decays will occur, and directing the ions via the field onto a biased plate. Accumulation of charge on the plate results in a current in the biasing circuit which can be read with a sensitive electrometer. In electrostatic LRAD designs, the linearity of the measured current with gross alpha activity is well-established. In order to determine radon-222 levels in the presence of other radon isotopes, it is necessary to perform some type of isotopic analysis on the stack samples. In the present case, other radon isotopes of possible concern are radon-219, which occurs in the decay chain of uranium-235, and radon-220, found in the decay chain of thorium-232. Radon-219, with a half-life of four seconds, presents no difficulty for the situation in which emanations from the vitrification process undergo as little as one minute of delay before release into the stack. For example, an initial concentration of 200,000 pCi/l of radon-219 decays to 5 pCi/l in one minute. Radon-220, however, has a half-life of about 55 seconds. If initially present in a substantial ratio to radon-222, a radon gross-alpha measurement on stack emissions would have a significant error if used as a measure for radon-222, even with many minutes of processing delay before the sample was taken.

  7. Use of MCNPX for Alpha Spectrometry Simulations of a Continuous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    spectrum in a Passive Implanted Planar Silicon (PIPS) detector, as modeled by MCNPX 1, ... PROGENY; RADIOISOTOPES; RADON; SILICON Alpha Spectrometry, Continuous Air ...

  8. Event counting alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolton, Richard D.; MacArthur, Duncan W.

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.

  9. Event counting alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolton, R.D.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-08-27

    An electrostatic detector is disclosed for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure. 6 figs.

  10. ARM - Campaign Instrument - radon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsradon Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Radon (RADON) Instrument Categories...

  11. Radon measurements at the FEMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomczak, L.M.; Daniels, R.D.; Dennis, C.; Glassey, H.G.; Lohner, W.G.; Ray, E.C.; Selasky, J.A.; Spitz, H.B.; Roush, K.

    1993-08-01

    Environmental radon monitoring activities at the DOE Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) have been conducted extensively since the early 1980`s. Monitoring has been conducted at ambient concentration levels (< 1 pCi/L Rn-222), inside buildings, and at significantly elevated levels (hundreds of thousands pCi/L Rn-222) within the K-65 silo that store concentrated radium bearing wastes. The purpose of this paper/presentation is to present and discuss some of the difficulties encountered/solutions (e.g. reliability, detection limits, affects of environmental factors, data transfer, etc.) that have been discovered while taking measurements using both alpha track-etch passive integrating detectors and alpha scintillation real-time detectors. A short summary and conclusion section is provided following each topic presented.

  12. Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding ... This document contains the Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from ...

  13. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Gregory K.; Martz, Dowell E.

    1989-01-01

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinguishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts.

  14. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  15. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braeuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Claus E.; Sorensen, Mette; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Center for Epidemiology Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen ; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  16. Evaluation Ratings Definitions (Excluding Utilization of Small...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Excluding Utilization of Small Business) Rating Definition Note Exceptional ... Definitions (Utilization of Small Business) Rating Definition Note Exceptional ...

  17. Radon in multi-story residential buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mardis, H.M.; MacWaters, J.; Oswald, J.

    1991-12-01

    In September 1989, HUD signed an Interagency Agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requesting EPA to measure radon levels and distribution patterns in several multi-story residential buildings. This study was conducted in two phases. The Phase 1 included walk-through investigations of each of the four test buildings. These preliminary investigations were focused on identifying site-specific characteristics that might influence radon entry and distribution. The results of these investigations were used to design and implement short-term screening measurements (diffusion barrier charcoal canisters) of each building's radon potential. Phase 2 consisted of long-term radon measurements with alpha track detectors (approximately 6 months) and investigations of the characteristics of each building. These measurements were made to address the possibility that long-term radon levels might be higher on upper floors than indicated by the short-term basement and ground-level screening tests. The report describes the investigations that were conducted, the data that were gathered for each building, and general observations and discussions about patterns of radon distribution in these specific buildings.

  18. Construction and measurements of a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnee, R. W.; Bunker, R.; Ghulam, G.; Jardin, D.; Kos, M.; Tenney, A. S. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)

    2013-08-08

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the {sup 222}Rn decay chain on (and near) detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double beta decay, and in screening detectors. In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto the wires of the Beta Cage during its assembly, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at Syracuse University using a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system. The radon filter shows ?20 reduction at its output, from 7.470.56 to 0.370.12 Bq/m{sup 3}, and the cleanroom radon activity meets project requirements, with a lowest achieved value consistent with that of the filter, and levels consistently < 2 Bq/m{sup 3}.

  19. Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Agencies should report aggregate energy consumption in excluded buildings for each energy type in the reporting units listed below: Electricity Fuel Oil Natural Gas LPGPropane ...

  20. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-07

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the 'cave factor' 1.5. The value of 'cave factor' which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free {sup 218}Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin of 'radon pockets' with very high radon concentration, and enable study of the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave. Most of the results show the equilibrium factor around F = 0.2-0.7 and the unattached fraction around 2%-30%. One of the most important question remains: how accurately was the unattached fraction measured? Part of this project was to verify the influence of etched track detector position in the cave.

  1. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  2. Alpha Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments

  3. Radon-related backgrounds in the LUX dark matter search

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bradley, A.; Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850’ level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily taggedmore » and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.« less

  4. Radon-related backgrounds in the LUX dark matter search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, A. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Akerib, D. S. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Arajo, H. M. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Bailey, A. J. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Balajthy, J. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Bernard, E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Byram, D. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Cahn, S. B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Carmona-Benitez, M. C. [Univ. of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Chan, C. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Chapman, J. J. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Chiller, A. A. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Chiller, C. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Coffey, T. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Currie, A. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); de Viveiros, L. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Dobi, A. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Dobson, J. [Univ. of Edingburg, Edinburg (United Kingdom); Druszkiewicz, E. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Edwards, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Faham, C. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fiorucci, S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Flores, C. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Gaitskell, R. J. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Gehman, V. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghag, C. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Gibson, K. R. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Gilchriese, M. G.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hall, C. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Hertel, S. A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Horn, M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Huang, D. Q. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Ihm, M. [Univ. of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobsen, R. G. [Univ. of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kazkaz, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knoche, R. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Larsen, N. A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Lee, C. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Lindote, A. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Lopes, M. I. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Malling, D. C. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Mannino, R. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); McKinsey, D. N. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Mei, D. -M. [Univ. of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Mock, J. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Moongweluwan, M. [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Morad, J. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Murphy, A. St.J. [Univ. of Edingburg, Edinburg (United Kingdom); Nehrkorn, C. [Univ. of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Nelson, H. [Univ. of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Neves, F. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Ott, R. A. [Univ. of California, Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Pangilinan, M. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Parker, P. D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Pease, E. K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Pech, K. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Phelps, P. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Reichhart, L. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Shutt, T. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Silva, C. [Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-01-01

    The LUX detector is currently in operation at the Davis Campus at the 4850 level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD to directly search for WIMP dark matter. Knowing the type and rate of backgrounds is critical in a rare, low energy event search, and LUX was designed, constructed, and deployed to mitigate backgrounds, both internal and external. An important internal background are decays of radon and its daughters. These consist of alpha decays, which are easily tagged and are a tracer of certain backgrounds, and beta decays, some of which are not as readily tagged and present a background for the WIMP search. We report on studies of alpha decay and discuss implications for the WIMP search.

  5. Use of MCNPX for Alpha Spectrometry Simulations of a Continuous Air Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Hayes, Craig Marianno

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the alpha energy spectrum in a Passive Implanted Planar Silicon (PIPS) detector, as modeled by MCNPX [1], can be used to design a radon stripping algorithm for a continuous air monitor (CAM). This stripping algorithm would be employed to discriminate naturally occurring radioisotopes from the anthropogenic for nuclear safety -related applications. It is hoped that using an algorithm based on MCNPX simulations, the CAM will not be prone to false alarms when radon levels are dynamic as identified in other CAM systems [2,3]. This work is focused on the design of the next generation air particulate detector (NGAPD) for the United States Navy. The primary isotope of interest is Co-60. This radionuclide emits a beta with an average energy of 96 keV. Therefore, once deposited on the CAM filter, it will produce a beta continuum seen by the PIPS detector. In addition, as radon progeny is deposited on the air filter, these will give rise to characteristic alpha peaks and a beta continuum. This is primarily an issue in port-or land-based applications. Ultimately, measurement of a radon alpha spectrum is desired to predict the amount of beta activity which would be measured from the radon progeny decay chains. All excess beta activity could then be attributed to anthropogenic sources once the radon progeny contributions have been stripped out.

  6. Use of a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. ... MODIFICATIONS; PROGENY; RADON; SILICON air monitoring, radon, algorithm, PIPS, ...

  7. Problems Found Using a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. ... MODIFICATIONS; PROGENY; RADON; SILICON air monitoring, radon, algorithm, PIPS, ...

  8. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  9. Radon and radon daughter measurements at and near the former Middlesex Sampling Plant, Middlesex, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Christian, D.J.; Leggett, R.W.; Dickson, H.W.; Myrick, T.E.

    1980-03-01

    The results of the radon and radon daughter measurements made to date (1978) at the Middlesex Sampling Plant in Middlesex, New Jersey, are presented in this report. These measurements were one portion of a more comprehensive radiological survey conducted at this site and the surrounding area from 1976 to 1978. The surveyed property served as a uranium ore sampling plant during the 1940's and early 1950's and as a result contains elevated levels of surface an subsurface contamination. On-site indoor radon daughter and radon concentrations exceeded both the US Surgeon General Guidelines and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's maximum permissible concentration limits for radon (10 CFR Part 20) in all structures surveyed. Off-site structures showed concentrations of radon and radon daughters at or only slightly above background levels, except for one site where the radon levels were found to be above the 10 CFR Part 20 guidelines. Outdoor radon ad radon daughter concentrations, measured both on and off the site, were well below the guidelines, and the data give no indication of significant radon transport from the site.

  10. Evaluation of experiences in long-term radon and radon-daughter measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Thomas, V.W.

    1982-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is performing side-by-side measurements of radon and radon daughter concentrations using several instruments and techniques, and is comparing these measurements with side-by-side measurements made by other investigators at other locations. The standard deviation of the differences between the (natural) logarithms of the Terradex Track Etch radon concentrations and the logarithms of the Radon Progency Integrating Sampling Units (RPISU) radon daughter concentrations (S.D.-ln) measured in 50 buildings in Edgemont, South Dakota, was 0.37. Using this S.D.-ln, it can be calculated that if the Track Etch radon daughter concentration is 0.010 WL there should be only a 14% probability that the RPISU average would be greater than 0.015 WL, and only a 3% probability tht the RPISU average would be greater than 0.020 WL. If buildings had been cleared from remedial action when the Track Etch averages were less than 0.10 WL, then about 61% of the buildings would have been cleared from remedial action, and only a few percent of these buildings would have actually had average RPISU concentrations greater than 0.015 WL. The S.D.-ln between the Track Etch radon measurements and the RPISU radon daughter measurements made by ALARA at Grand Junction, the PERM radon measurements and the MOD-225 radon daughter measurements made by Mound Facility at Canonsburg and Middlesex, and the PERM and Track Etch radon measurements made by Mound Facility at Salt Lake City were similar to the S.D.-ln between the Track Etch radon measurements and the RPISU radon daughter measurements at Edgemont.

  11. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-11-27

    Measurements of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the {sup 226}Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 76.8 Bq m{sup ?3} to 571.1 251.4 Bq m{sup ?3}, 101.0 41.0 Bq m{sup ?3} to 245.3 100.2 Bq m{sup ?3}, 53.1 7.5 Bq m{sup ?3} to 181.8 9.7 Bq m{sup ?3}, 256.1 59.3 Bq m{sup ?3} to 652.2 222.2 Bq m{sup ?3} and 164.5 75.9 Bq m{sup ?3} to 653.3 240.0 Bq m{sup ?3}, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 194.3 Bq m{sup ?3}, 192.1 75.4 Bq m{sup ?3}, 176.1 85.9 Bq m{sup ?3} and 28.4 5.7 Bq m{sup ?3}, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m{sup ?3} proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0.15 kg and 0.25 kg. Whereas, all building material samples have exceeded the radon concentration in concrete and building materials of 3 to 7 Bq m{sup ?3} estimated by ICRP. The annual effective dose, effective dose equivalent, and radon exhalation rates in tin tailings were calculated to be in the range of 2.47 to 11.46 mSv, 5.94 to 1090.56 mSv y{sup ?1}, and 0.23 to 1.18 mBq kg{sup ?1} h{sup ?1}. For building materials, the calculated risk assessment of the annual effective dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk were 0.72 to 10.00 mSv, 1.73 to 24.00 mSv y{sup ?1}, 0.010 to 0.06 mBq kg{sup ?1} h{sup ?1} and 40 to 550 chances of persons will suffer the cancer per million (1 10{sup 6}), respectively.

  12. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded Actions |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy NEPA » National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded Actions National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded Actions Categorical Exclusions (CX) - Categorical exclusions are categories of actions that DOE has determined, by regulation, do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment and for which neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement is typically required. Title

  13. Scattering from Star Polymers including Excluded Volume Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Hong, Kunlun; Smith, Greg; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffness of its constituent branch.

  14. Scattering from Star Polymers including Excluded Volume Effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Hong, Kunlun; Smith, Greg; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffnessmore » of its constituent branch.« less

  15. National radon database documentation. Volume 4. The EPA/state residential radon surveys: Year 4. Final report 1986-1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The National Radon Database has been developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to distribute information collected in two recently completed radon surveys: the EPA/State Residential Radon Surveys, Years 1 to 6; and The National Residential Radon Survey. The goals of the state radon surveys were twofold. Some measure of the distribution of radon levels among residences was desired for major geographic areas within each state and for each state as a whole. In addition, it was desired that each state survey would be able to identify areas of potentially high residential radon concentrations (hot spots) in the state, enabling the state to focus its attention on areas where indoor radon concentrations might pose a greater health threat. The document discusses year 4, 1989-90. The areas surveyed are: California; Hawaii; Idaho; Louisiana; Nebraska; Billings, MT IHS Area; Nevada; North Carolina; Oklahoma; South Carolina; and Navajo Nation.

  16. Occupant radon exposure in houses with basements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franklin, E.M.; Fuoss, S.

    1995-12-31

    This study compares basement and main-level radon exposure based on bi-level week-long radon measurements, occupancy and activity data collected in normal use during heating and non-heating seasons in a geographically-stratified random sample of about 600 Minnesota homes, in response to critiques of radon measurement protocol. Basement radon (RN1) (M=4.5, SD=4.5) and main level (Rn2)(M=2.9, SD=3.4) correlation was 0.8 (p=.00), including seasonal variation. In a 101-house subsample where Rn1 >=4.0 pCi/L and Rn2 <=3.9 pCi/L, maximum household exposure in basements was 1162 pCiHrs (M=120, Sd=207), main-level 2486 pCiHrs (M-434, SD=421). In same households, persons with most basement-time maxed 100 hrs (M=13,SD=23), persons with most main-level time maxed 160 hrs (M=79, SD=39). Basement activities show two patterns, (1) member used it for personal domain, e.g. sleeping, and (2) household used it for general activities, e.g. TV or children`s play. Basement occupancy justifies measurement of radon in the lowest livable housing level.

  17. Indoor radon and decay products: Concentrations, causes, and control strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-11-01

    This report is another in the on going technical report series that addresses various aspects of the DOE Radon Research Program. It provides an overview of what is known about the behavior of radon and its decay products in the indoor environment and examines the manner in which several important classes of factors -- structural, geological, and meteorological -- affect indoor radon concentrations. Information on US indoor radon concentrations, currently available monitoring methods and novel radon control strategies are also explored. 238 refs., 22 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Radon free storage container and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langner, Jr., G. Harold (Mack, CO); Rangel, Mark J. (Austin, CO)

    1991-01-01

    A radon free containment environment for either short or long term storage of radon gas detectors can be provided as active, passive, or combined active and passive embodiments. A passive embodiment includes a resealable vessel containing a basket capable of holding and storing detectors and an activated charcoal adsorbing liner between the basket and the containment vessel wall. An active embodiment includes the resealable vessel of the passive embodiment, and also includes an external activated charcoal filter that circulates the gas inside the vessel through the activated charcoal filter. An embodiment combining the active and passive embodiments is also provided.

  19. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space from the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.

  20. Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopke, P.K.

    1996-09-01

    This report completes Clarkson University`s study of the chemical and physical behavior of the {sup 218}Po atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity in the sub-10 nm size range result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and it dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. In order to pursue this general goal, two areas of radon progeny behavior are being pursued; laboratory studies under controlled conditions to better understand the fundamental physical and chemical processes that affect the progeny`s atmospheric behavior and studies in actual indoor environments to develop a better assessment of the exposure of the occupants of that space to the size and concentration of the indoor radioactive aerosol. Thus, two sets of specific goals have been established for this project. The specific tasks of the controlled laboratory studies are (1) Determine the formation rates of {circ}OH radicals formed by the radiolysis of air following radon decay; (2) Examine the formation of particles by the radiolytic oxidation of substances like SO{sub 2}, ethylene, and H{sub 2}S to lower vapor pressure compounds and determine the role of gas phase additives such as H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3} in determining the particle size; (3) Measure the rate of ion-induced nucleation using a thermal diffusion cloud chamber, and (4) Measure the neutralization rate of {sup 218}PoO{sub x}{sup +} in O{sub 2} at low radon concentrations.

  1. Destilaria Alpha | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alpha Jump to: navigation, search Name: Destilaria Alpha Place: Claudio, Minas Gerais, Brazil Product: Brazil based ethanol producer. References: Destilaria Alpha1 This article...

  2. A radon progeny deposition model (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by the long half life (22 y) of sup 210Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. ... RADIATION; CLEAN ROOMS; DEPOSITION; HALF-LIFE; PROGENY; RADIATION DETECTORS; RADON; ...

  3. A radon progeny deposition model (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon ...

  4. Scattering from Colloid-Polymer Conjugates with Excluded Volume Effect

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xin; Smith, Gregory Scott; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2015-01-01

    This work presents scattering functions of conjugates consisting of a colloid particle and a self-avoiding polymer chain as a model for protein-polymer conjugates and nanoparticle-polymer conjugates in solution. The model is directly derived from the two-point correlation function with the inclusion of excluded volume effects. The dependence of the calculated scattering function on the geometric shape of the colloid and polymer stiffness is investigated. The model is able to describe the experimental scattering signature of the solutions of suspending hard particle-polymer conjugates and provide additional conformational information. This model explicitly elucidates the link between the global conformation of a conjugatemore » and the microstructure of its constituent components.« less

  5. Scattering from Colloid-Polymer Conjugates with Excluded Volume Effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xin; Smith, Gregory Scott; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2015-01-01

    This work presents scattering functions of conjugates consisting of a colloid particle and a self-avoiding polymer chain as a model for protein-polymer conjugates and nanoparticle-polymer conjugates in solution. The model is directly derived from the two-point correlation function with the inclusion of excluded volume effects. The dependence of the calculated scattering function on the geometric shape of the colloid and polymer stiffness is investigated. The model is able to describe the experimental scattering signature of the solutions of suspending hard particle-polymer conjugates and provide additional conformational information. This model explicitly elucidates the link between the global conformation of a conjugate and the microstructure of its constituent components.

  6. Invited Article: In situ comparison of passive radon-thoron discriminative monitors at subsurface workplaces in Hungary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kvsi, Norbert; Social Organization for Radioecological Cleanliness, Veszprm ; Vigh, Tams; Manganese Mining Process Ltd., rkt ; Nmeth, Csaba; University of Pannonia, Veszprm ; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Omori, Yasutaka; Janik, Miroslaw; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-02-15

    During a one-year long measurement period, radon and thoron data obtained by two different passive radon-thoron discriminative monitors were compared at subsurface workplaces in Hungary, such as mines (bauxite and manganese ore) and caves (medical and touristic). These workplaces have special environmental conditions, such as, stable and high relative humidity (100%), relatively stable temperature (12C21C), low or high wind speed (max. 2.4 ms{sup ?1}) and low or elevated aerosol concentration (13060000 particles m{sup ?3}). The measured radon and thoron concentrations fluctuated in a wide range among the different workplaces. The respective annual average radon concentrations and their standard deviations (in brackets) measured by the passive radon-thoron discriminative monitor with cellulose filter (CF) and the passive radon-thoron discriminative monitor with sponge filter (SF) were: 350(321) Bqm{sup ?3} and 550(497) Bqm{sup ?3} in the bauxite mine; 887(604) Bqm{sup ?3} and 1258(788) Bqm{sup ?3} in the manganese ore mine; 2510(2341) Bqm{sup ?3} and 3403(3075) Bqm{sup ?3} in the medical cave (Hospital Cave of Tapolca); and 6239(2057) Bq m{sup ?3} and 8512(1955) Bqm{sup ?3} in the touristic cave (Lake Cave of Tapolca). The respective average thoron concentrations and their standard deviation (in brackets) measured by CF and SF monitors were: 154(210) Bqm{sup ?3} and 161(148) Bqm{sup ?3} in the bauxite mine; 187(191) Bqm{sup ?3} and 117(147) Bqm{sup ?3} in the manganese-ore mine; 360(524) Bqm{sup ?3} and 371(789) Bqm{sup ?3} in the medical cave (Hospital Cave of Tapolca); and 1420(1184) Bq m{sup ?3} and 1462(3655) Bqm{sup ?3} in the touristic cave (Lake Cave of Tapolca). Under these circumstances, comparison of the radon data for the SF and CF monitors showed the former were consistently 51% higher in the bauxite mine, 38% higher in the manganese ore mine, and 34% higher in the caves. Consequently, correction is required on previously obtained radon data acquired by CF monitors at subsurface workplaces to gain comparable data for SF monitors. In the case of thoron, the data were unreliable and no significant tendency was seen during the comparison therefore comparison of previously obtained thoron data acquired by either CF or SF is doubtful. There was probable influence by relative humidity on the detection response; however, the effects of the high wind speed and elevated aerosol concentration could not be excluded. The results of this study call attention to the importance of calibration under extreme environmental conditions and the need for using reliable radon-thoron monitors for subsurface workplaces.

  7. Radon diffusion through multilayer earthen covers: models and simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, D.W.; Oster, C.A.; Nelson, R.W.; Gee, G.W.

    1981-09-01

    A capability to model and analyze the fundamental interactions that influence the diffusion of radon gas through uranium mill tailings and cover systems has been investigated. The purpose of this study is to develop the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion and to develop an understanding of the fundamental interactions that influence radon diffusion. This study develops the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion in one, two and three dimensions. The theory has been incorporated into three computer models that are used to analyze several tailings and cover configurations. This report contains a discussion of the theoretical basis for modeling radon diffusion, a discussion of the computer models used to analyze uranium mill tailings and multilayered cover systems, and presents the results that have been obtained.

  8. Nationwide occurrence of radon and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, T. R.

    1985-10-01

    The nationwide study, which began in November of 1980, was designed to systematically sample water supplies in all 48 contiguous states. The results of the study will be used, in cooperation with EPA's Office of Drinking Water, to estimate population exposures nationwide and to support possible future standards for radon, uranium, and other natural radioactivity in public water supplies. Samples from more than 2500 public water supplies representing 35 states were collected. Although we sampled only about five percent of the total number of groundwater supplies in the 48 contiguous states of the US, those samples represent nearly 45 percent of the water consumed by US groundwater users in the 48 contiguous states. Sample results are summarized by arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and population weighted arithmetic mean for each state and the entire US. Results include radon, gross alpha, gross beta, Ra-226, Ra-228, total Ra, U-234, U-238, total U, and U-234/U-238 ratios. Individual public water supply results are found in the appendices. 24 refs., 91 figs., 51 tabs.

  9. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  10. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  11. Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX) 2006-2014 Final...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radon-222 (222Rn) is a valuable tracer for measuring atmospheric mixing because it is emitted from the land surface and has a short enough half-life (3.8 days) to allow ...

  12. Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX) 2006-2014 Final...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The radioisotope radon-222 (222Rn) is a valuable tracer for measuring atmospheric mixing because it is emitted from the land surface and has a short enough half-life (3.8 days) to ...

  13. Radon in energy-efficient earth-sheltered structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nero, A.V.

    1983-05-01

    Exposure o the radioactive-decay products of radon 222 that are present in indoor air constitutes the most-significant radiation dose received by the general population in most countries. Indoor concentrations vary from one building to another, ranging from insignificant to very high levels that cause radiation doses higher than those experienced by uranium miners. This wide range of concentrations is attributable to variability in the rate at which radon enters buildings, and differences in the ventilation rate. Earth-sheltered dwellings, because they are more completely surrounded by earth material than other structures, have an as yet unquantified potential for having radon entry rates that are higher than typical for other houses in the region. Moreover, measures that save energy by reducing ventilation rates (for example by reducing infiltration) can also raise indoor radon concentrations. For these reasons a significant effort is needed to determine the potential for ventilation-reducing measures and earth sheltering to increase radon concentrations, especially in regions where they are already high. Where necessary, proper attention to specific design features that affect radon entry rates or residence time indoors should be adequate to avoid undue risk to the public.

  14. HEALTH PHYSICS SOCIETY - ENVIRONMENTAL/RADON SECTION ANNOUNCEMENT OF SPONSORED SCHOLARSHIP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    HEALTH PHYSICS SOCIETY - ENVIRONMENTAL/RADON SECTION ANNOUNCEMENT OF SPONSORED SCHOLARSHIP Tim Jannik, Environmental/Radon Section President The HPS Environmental/Radon Section is dedicated to promoting students within our discipline. To this end, the Environmental/Radon section is proud to announce the F. Ward Whicker Scholarship. This scholarship will provide $2,000 per year ($1,000 for the first semester and $1,000 for the second semester-dependent on successful completion of the first

  15. Multi-parametric approach towards the assessment of radon and thoron progeny exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, Rosaline E-mail: rosaline.mishra@gmail.com; Sapra, B. K.; Mayya, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    Conventionally, the dosimetry is carried out using radon and thoron gas concentration measurements and doses have been assigned using assumed equilibrium factors for the progeny species, which is inadequate pertaining to the variations in equilibrium factors and possibly due to significant thoron. In fact, since the true exposures depend upon the intricate mechanisms of progeny deposition in the lung, therefore an integrated approach for the assessment of progeny is essential. In this context, the recently developed deposition based progeny concentration measurement techniques (DTPS: Direct Thoron progeny sensors and DRPS: Direct Radon progeny sensors) appear to be best suited for radiological risk assessments both among occupational workers and general study populations. DTPS and DRPS consist of aluminized mylar mounted LR115 type passive detectors, which essentially detects the alpha particles emitted from the deposited progeny atoms on the detector surface. It gives direct measure of progeny activity concentrations in air. DTPS has a lower limit of detection limit of 0.1?Bq/m{sup 3} whereas that for DRPS is 1 Bq/m{sup 3}, hence are perfectly suitable for indoor environments. These DTPS and DRPS can be capped with 200-mesh type wire-screen to measure the coarse fraction of the progeny concentration and the corresponding coarse fraction deposition velocities as well as the time integrated fine fraction. DTPS and DRPS can also be lodged in an integrated sampler wherein the wire-mesh and filter-paper are arranged in an array in flow-mode, to measure the fine and coarse fraction concentration separately and simultaneously. The details are further discussed in the paper.

  16. "ENDING STOCKS OF CRUDE OIL (excluding SPR)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ENDING STOCKS OF CRUDE OIL (excluding SPR)" "Sourcekey","WCESTP11","WCESTP11","WCESTP21","WCESTP21","WCESTP31","WCESTP31","WCESTP41","WCESTP41","WCESTP51","WCESTP51","WCESTUS1","WCESTUS1" "Date","Weekly East Coast (PADD 1) Ending Stocks excluding SPR of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","Weekly East Coast (PADD 1) Ending Stocks excluding SPR

  17. Link Alpha Q

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    q A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T V W Y Z Filter by alpha... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z Qualified Electrical Worker (QEW) Qualified Electrical Worker...

  18. Link Alpha K

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    k A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T V W Y Z Filter by alpha... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z Key Plans: Building Floor Plans Key Request: Facilities Lock...

  19. Link Alpha Y

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    y A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T V W Y Z Filter by alpha... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z Year End Close

  20. Link Alpha Z

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T V W Y Z Filter by alpha... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z Zimride Zip + 4 (Zip codes for Berkeley Lab)

  1. Link Alpha V

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    v A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T V W Y Z Filter by alpha... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z Vacation Policy Vanpool Commuting Program for Employees...

  2. Modeling surface backgrounds from radon progeny plate-out

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perumpilly, G.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Snyder, N. [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)] [University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 57069 (United States)

    2013-08-08

    The next generation low-background detectors operating deep underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. The surface deposition and subsequent implantation of radon progeny in detector materials will be a source of energetic background events. We investigate Monte Carlo and model-based simulations to understand the surface implantation profile of radon progeny. Depending on the material and region of interest of a rare event search, these partial energy depositions can be problematic. Motivated by the use of Ge crystals for the detection of neutrinoless double-beta decay, we wish to understand the detector response of surface backgrounds from radon progeny. We look at the simulation of surface decays using a validated implantation distribution based on nuclear recoils and a realistic surface texture. Results of the simulations and measured ? spectra are presented.

  3. Effects of excluded volume and correlated molecular orientations on Frster resonance energy transfer in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Mino

    2014-04-14

    Frster theory for the survival probability of excited chromophores is generalized to include the effects of excluded volume and orientation correlation in the molecular distribution. An analytical expression for survival probability was derived and written in terms of a few simple elementary functions. Because of the excluded volume, the survival probability exhibits exponential decay at early times and stretched exponential decay at later times. Experimental schemes to determine the size of the molecular excluded volume are suggested. With the present generalization of theory, we analyzed vibrational resonance energy transfer kinetics in neat water. Excluded volume effects prove to be important and slow down the kinetics at early times. The majority of intermolecular resonance energy transfer was found to occur with exponential kinetics, as opposed to the stretched exponential behavior predicted by Frster theory. Quantum yields of intra-molecular vibrational relaxation, intra-, and intermolecular energy transfer were calculated to be 0.413, 0.167, and 0.420, respectively.

  4. Portable apparatus for the measurement of environmental radon and thoron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Negro, Vincent C.

    2001-01-01

    The radometer is a portable instrument for the measurement of the concentration of atmospheric radon/thoron in a test area. A constant velocity pump pulls the air from the outside at a constant flow rate. If the air is too moist, some or all of the sample is passed through a desiccant filter prior to encountering an electrostatic filter. The electrostatic filter prevents any charged particles from entering the sampling chamber. Once the sample has entered the chamber, the progeny of the decay of radon/thoron are collected on a detector and measured. The measured data is compiled by a computer and displayed.

  5. Radon monitoring and early low background counting at the Sanford Underground Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, K.J.; Mei, D.M.; Heise, J.; Durben, D.; Salve, R.

    2010-09-01

    Radon detectors have been deployed underground at the Sanford Underground Laboratory at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, SD. Currently, no radon mitigation measures are in place in the underground environment, and the continuing evolution of the facility ventilation systems has led to significant variations in early airborne radon concentrations. The average radon concentration measured near the primary ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Yates shaft) is 391 Bq/m{sup 3}, based on approximately 146 days of data. The corresponding average radon concentration near the other main ventilation intake for the 4850-ft level (Ross shaft) is 440 Bq/m{sup 3} based on approximately 350 days of data. Measurements have also been collected near the 1250-ft level Ross shaft, with average radon concentrations at 180 Bq/m{sup 3}. Secondary factors that may increase the baseline radon level underground include the presence of iron oxide and moisture, which are known to enhance radon emanation. The results of the current radon monitoring program will be used for the planning of future measurements and any potential optimization of ventilation parameters for the reduction of radon in relevant areas underground.

  6. Surface alpha clustering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotter, I.

    1983-05-01

    The problem of alpha decay is discussed on the basis of a theory which describes discrete and continuous states in a unified manner. A formula for numerical calculations is given in which configurational mixing as well as channel coupling is taken into account. The R-matrix approximation is shown to be justified if the width is spread over a small number of decay channels. Generally, renormalization of the wave function is necessary if a factorization of the width is assumed. The importance of channel coupling for the case of a small reduced width is discussed.

  7. Link Alpha I

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    i A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T V W Y Z Filter by alpha... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z Image Library Project Images - Release for Non-commercial Use Imaging and Distributed Computing Group (Home of the Whole Frog Project) Immigration Services Implicit Bias Improper Governmental Activities Reporting Incident Notification/Contact x6999 Indoor Air Quality Scientific Findings Resource Bank Indoor Air Quality, Inside Information Industrial Energy Analysis Industry

  8. Link Alpha J

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    j A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T V W Y Z Filter by alpha... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z JBEI: Joint BioEnergy Institute JCAP: Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis JDEM: The Joint Dark Energy Mission JGI: Joint Genome Institute Job Descriptions Job Hazards Analysis (JHA Help Center) Job Hazards Analysis (JHA Login page) Job Opening Request Jobs

  9. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  10. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  11. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

    1993-02-02

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  12. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Wolf, Michael A.; McAtee, James L.; Unruh, Wesley P.; Cucchiara, Alfred L.; Huchton, Roger L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  13. Recommended Procedures for Measuring Radon Fluxes from Disposal Sites of Residual Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young,, J. A.; Thomas, V. W.; Jackson, P. 0.

    1983-03-01

    This report recornmenrls instrumentation and methods suitable for measuring radon fluxes emanating from covered disposal sites of residual radioactive materials such as uranium mill tailings. Problems of spatial and temporal variations in radon flux are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of several instruments are examined. A year-long measurement program and a two rnonth measurement rnethodology are then presented based on the inherent difficulties of measuring average radon flux over a cover using the recommended instrumentation.

  14. Link Alpha D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    d A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T V W Y Z Filter by alpha... A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z Data Center Energy Management Data Management Research and Development Group Data Science and Technology Department Daughters and Sons to Work Day at the Lab Daylighting the New York Times Headquarters Building DC Power for Data Centers of the Future Demand Response Research Center Dental Plans: Phone & Contact Info for UC Dental Plans Directions on How to Get to the Lab

  15. Radon induced surface contaminations in low background experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pattavina, L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)] [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)

    2013-08-08

    In neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches, one of the main issues is to increase the experimental sensitivity through careful material selection and production, minimizing the background contributions. In order to achieve the required, extremely low, counting rates, very stringent requirements must be fulfilled in terms of bulk material radiopurity. As the experimental sensitivity increases, the bulk impurities in the detector components decrease, and surface contaminations start to play an increasingly significant role In fully active detectors, like cryogenic particle detectors, surface contaminations are a critical issue (as shown by the CUORICINO experiment). {sup 222}Rn is by far the most intense source of airborne radioactivity, and if a radio-pure material is exposed to environment where the Radon concentration is not minimized, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po contaminations can occur. The mechanisms and the dynamics of Radon-induced surface contaminations are reviewed, and specific solutions to prevent and to reject the induced background are presented.

  16. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404). Environmental guidance program reference book: Revision 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  17. Indoor Radon and Its Decay Products: Concentrations, Causes, and Control Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nero, A.V.; Gadgil, A.J.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Revzan, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    This report is an introduction to the behavior of radon 222 and its decay products in indoor air. This includes review of basic characteristics of radon and its decay products and of features of the indoor environment itself, all of which factors affect behavior in indoor air. The experimental and theoretical evidence on behavior of radon and its decay products is examined, providing a basis for understanding the influence of geological, structural, and meteorological factors on indoor concentrations, as well as the effectiveness of control techniques. We go on to examine three important issues concerning indoor radon. We thus include (1) an appraisal of the concentration distribution in homes, (2) an examination of the utility and limitations of popular monitoring techniques and protocols, and (3) an assessment of the key elements of strategies for controlling radon levels in homes.

  18. Characterization of the radon source in North-Central Florida. Final report part 1 -- Final project report; Final report part 2 -- Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    This report contains two separate parts: Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (final report part 1 -- final project report); and Characterization of the Radon Source in North-Central Florida (technical report). The objectives were to characterize the radon 222 source in a region having a demonstrated elevated indoor radon potential and having geology, lithology, and climate that are different from those in other regions of the U.S. where radon is being studied. Radon availability and transport in this region were described. Approaches for predicting the radon potential of lands in this region were developed.

  19. Use of a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted ... FLOW; ALGORITHMS; BETA SOURCES; BETA SPECTROSCOPY; EVALUATION; MODIFICATIONS; PROGENY; ...

  20. RADON PROGENY AS AN EXPERIMENTAL TOOL FOR DOSIMETRY OF NANOAEROSOLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruzer, Lev; Ruzer, Lev S.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-02-25

    The study of aerosol exposure and dosimetry measurements and related quantitation of health effects are important to the understanding of the consequences of air pollution, and are discussed widely in the scientific literature. During the last 10 years the need to correlate aerosol exposure and biological effects has become especially important due to rapid development of a new, revolutionary industry ?-- nanotechnology. Nanoproduct commerce is predicted to top $1 trillion by 2015. Quantitative assessment of aerosol particle behavior in air and in lung deposition, and dosimetry in different parts of the lung, particularly for nanoaerosols, remains poor despite several decades of study. Direct measurements on humans are still needed in order to validate the hollow cast, animal studies, and lung deposition modeling. We discuss here the use of nanoscale radon decay products as an experimental tool in the study of local deposition and lung dosimetry for nanoaerosols. The issue of the safe use of radon progeny in such measurements is discussed based on a comparison of measured exposure in 3 settings: general population, miners, and in a human experiment conducted at the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. One of the properties of radon progeny is that they consist partly of 1 nm radioactive particles called unattached activity; having extremely small size and high diffusion coefficients, these particles can be potentially useful as radioactive tracers in the study of nanometer-sized aerosols. We present a theoretical and experimental study of the correlation between the unattached activity and aerosol particle surface area, together with a description of its calibration and method for measurement of the unattached fraction.

  1. Method for excluding salt and other soluble materials from produced water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, Tommy J. [Knoxville, TN; Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge, TN; Palumbo, Anthony V. [Oak Ridge, TN; Riestenberg, David E. [Knoxville, TN; McCallum, Scott D. [Knoxville, TN

    2009-08-04

    A method for reducing the salinity, as well as the hydrocarbon concentration of produced water to levels sufficient to meet surface water discharge standards. Pressure vessel and coflow injection technology developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to mix produced water and a gas hydrate forming fluid to form a solid or semi-solid gas hydrate mixture. Salts and solids are excluded from the water that becomes a part of the hydrate cage. A three-step process of dissociation of the hydrate results in purified water suitable for irrigation.

  2. A generic biokinetic model for noble gases with application to radon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Marsh, James; Gregoratto, Demetrio; Blanchardon, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently uses a dose conversion coefficient to calculate effective dose per unit exposure to radon and its progeny. The coefficient is derived by dividing the detriment associated with unit exposure to radon, as estimated from epidemiological studies, by the detriment per unit effective dose, as estimated mainly from atomic bomb survivor data and animal studies. In a recent statement the ICRP indicated that future guidance on exposure to radon and its progeny will be developed in the same way as guidance for any other radionuclide. That is, intake of radon and progeny will be limited on the basis of effective dose coefficients derived from biokinetic and dosimetric models. This paper proposes a biokinetic model for systemic (absorbed) radon for use in the calculation of dose coefficients for inhaled or ingested radon. The model is based largely on physical laws governing transfer of a non-reactive and soluble gas between materials. Model predictions are shown to be consistent with results of controlled studies of the fate of internally deposited radon in human subjects.

  3. The Effect of Steady Winds on Radon-222 Entry from soil into houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W.J.; Gadgil, A.J.; Bonnefous, Y.C.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    1994-10-01

    Wind affects the radon-222 entry rate from soil into buildings and the resulting indoor concentrations. To investigate this phenomenon, we employ a previously tested three-dimensional numerical model of soil-gas Bow around houses, a commercial computational fluid dynamics code, an established model for determining ventilation rates in the presence of wind, and new wind tunnel results for the ground-surface pressure field caused by wind. These tools and data, applied under steady-state conditions to a prototypical residential building, allow us (1) to determine the complex soil-gas flow patterns that result from the presence of wind-generated ground-surface pressures, (2) to evaluate the effect of these flows on the radon concentration in the soil, and (3) to calculate the effect of wind on the radon entry rate and indoor concentration. For a broad range of soil permeabilities, two wind speeds, and two wind directions, we quantify the"flushing" effect of wind on the radon in the soil surrounding a house, and the consequent sharp decrease in radon entry rates. Experimental measurements of the time-dependent radon concentration in soil gas beneath houses confirm the existence of wind-induced flushing. Comparisons are made to modeling predictions obtained while ignoring the effect of the wind-generated ground-surface pressures. These investigations lead to the conclusion that wind-generated ground-surface pressures play a significant role in determining radon entry rates into residential buildings. [References: 26

  4. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethke, Siegfried; Hoang, Andre H.; Kluth, Stefan; Schieck, Jochen; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  5. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  6. Unexpected Complication with the New C3 Excluder: Cause and Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katsargyris, Athanasios; Oikonomou, Kyriakos; Bracale, Umberto M.; Verhoeven, Eric L. G.

    2013-04-15

    The new C3 Gore Excluder delivery system enables both up/downward and rotational repositioning of the device before complete deployment. This contributes to more precise proximal landing and permits facilitation of the contralateral gate cannulation. During separate deployment, the position of the ipsilateral limb can also be readjusted. We have used the modified C3 delivery system in more than 50 patients, and in most cases, we were able to utilize the repositioning options of the device to achieve optimal fixation and sealing. However, we present a case where our attempt to readjust the position of the ipsilateral limb led to upward migration of the main body with coverage of the left renal artery origin. The latter was secured with a bare stent implantation.

  7. Radon and helium in soil gases in the Phlegraean Fields, central Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lombardi, S. ); Reimer, G.M. )

    1990-05-01

    The distribution and migration of radon and helium soil-gas concentrations in the Phlegraean Fields, Italy, are controlled by the tectonic features of the area. Radon is supplied from surficial sources and helium has both surficial and deep origins. There is no direct correlation between the two noble gases on a point-to-point basis but the areal distribution of both gases is similar, suggesting that the distribution is controlled primarily by fractures and movement of geothermal fluids.

  8. Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX) 2006-2014 Final Campaign

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Summary (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Program Document: Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX) 2006-2014 Final Campaign Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX) 2006-2014 Final Campaign Summary Uncertainty in vertical mixing between the surface layer, boundary layer, and free troposphere leads to large uncertainty in "top-down" estimates of regional land-atmosphere carbon exchange (i.e., estimates based on

  9. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Wind-induced contaminant transport in near-surface soils with application to radon entry into buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riley, W J

    1996-05-01

    Indoor air exposures to gaseous contaminants originating in soil can cause large human health risks. To predict and control these exposures, the mechanisms that affect vapor transport in near-surface soils need to be understood. In particular, radon exposure is a concern since average indoor radon concentrations lead to much higher risks than are generally accepted for exposure to other environmental contaminants. This dissertation examines an important component of the indoor radon problem: the impacts of wind on soil-gas and radon transport and entry into buildings. The research includes experimental and modeling studies of wind`s interactions with a building`s superstructure and the resulting soil-gas and radon flows in the surrounding soil. In addition to exploring the effects of steady winds, a novel modeling technique is developed to examine the impacts of fluctuating winds on soil-gas and radon transport.

  11. Ly{alpha} ESCAPE FROM z {approx} 0.03 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES: THE DOMINANT ROLE OF OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wofford, Aida; Leitherer, Claus [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Salzer, John, E-mail: wofford@stsci.edu [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Swain West 408, 727 East Third Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    The usefulness of H I Ly{alpha} photons for characterizing star formation in the distant universe is limited by our understanding of the astrophysical processes that regulate their escape from galaxies. These processes can only be observed in detail out to a few Multiplication-Sign 100 Mpc. Past nearby (z < 0.3) spectroscopic studies are based on small samples and/or kinematically unresolved data. Taking advantage of the high sensitivity of Hubble Space Telescope's Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS), we observed the Ly{alpha} lines of 20 H{alpha}-selected galaxies located at =0.03. The galaxies cover a broad range of luminosity, oxygen abundance, and reddening. In this paper, we characterize the observed Ly{alpha} lines and establish correlations with fundamental galaxy properties. We find seven emitters. These host young ({<=}10 Myr) stellar populations have rest-frame equivalent widths in the range 1-12 A, and have Ly{alpha} escape fractions within the COS aperture in the range 1%-12%. One emitter has a double-peaked Ly{alpha} with peaks 370 km s{sup -1} apart and a stronger blue peak. Excluding this object, the emitters have Ly{alpha} and O I {lambda}1302 offsets from H{alpha} in agreement with expanding-shell models and Lyman break galaxies observations. The absorbers have offsets that are almost consistent with a static medium. We find no one-to-one correspondence between Ly{alpha} emission and age, metallicity, or reddening. Thus, we confirm that Ly{alpha} is enhanced by outflows and is regulated by the dust and H I column density surrounding the hot stars.

  12. Industrial Technology of Decontamination of Liquid Radioactive Waste in SUE MosSIA 'Radon' - 12371

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamovich, Dmitry V.; Neveykin, Petr P.; Karlin, Yuri V.; Savkin, Alexander E. [SUE MosSIA 'Radon', 7th Rostovsky lane 2/14, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    SUE MosSIA 'RADON' - this enterprise was created more than 50 years ago, which deals with the recycling of radioactive waste and conditioning of spent sources of radiation in stationary and mobile systems in the own factory and operating organizations. Here is represented the experience SUE MosSIA 'Radon' in the field of the management with liquid radioactive waste. It's shown, that the activity of SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is developing in three directions - improvement of technical facilities for treatment of radioactive waters into SUE MosSIA 'RADON' development of mobile equipment for the decontamination of radioactive waters in other organizations, development of new technologies for decontamination of liquid radioactive wastes as part of various domestic Russian and international projects including those related to the operation of nuclear power and nuclear submarines. SUE MosSIA 'RADON' has processed more than 270 thousand m{sup 3} of radioactive water, at that more than 7000 m{sup 3} in other organizations for more than 50 years. It is shown that a number of directions, particularly, the development of mobile modular units for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste, SUE MosSIA 'RADON' is a leader in the world. (authors)

  13. The ORNL Indoor Air Quality Study: Re-cap, Context, and Assessment on Radon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Rose, Erin M.; Ternes, Mark P.

    2015-10-01

    As part of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s low-income Weatherization Assistance Program that was led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), an assessment of the impacts of weatherization on indoor air quality (IAQ) was conducted. This assessment included nearly 500 treatment and control homes across the country. Homes were monitored for carbon monoxide, radon, formaldehyde, temperature and humidity pre- and post-weatherization. This report focuses on the topic of radon and addresses issues not thoroughly discussed in the original IAQ report. The size, scope and rigor of the radon component of the IAQ study are compared to previous studies that assessed the impacts of weatherization on indoor radon levels. It is found that the ORNL study is by far the most extensive study conducted to date, though the ORNL results are consistent with the findings of the other studies. However, the study does have limitations related to its reliance on short-term measurements of radon and inability to attribute changes in radon levels in homes post-weatherization to specific weatherization measures individually or in combination.

  14. AlphaWatt Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AlphaWatt Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: AlphaWatt Ltd Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: EC1V 4PY Sector: Solar Product: Solar project developer, plans to become an...

  15. Alpha buildings | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    buildings Alpha buildings Looking east to west at ground level, Y-12 building footers and utility lines continue to be constructed. The Alpha buildings are seen in the background

  16. AlphaSpectrum ASPECT analysis code for background correction & peak integration

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-04-13

    The ASPECT code provides a means for rapid analysis of energy-resolved spectra obtained by multi-channel pulse-height analysis (MCA) during (or after) counting of alpha-emissions from a filter air sample (or other suitably prepared sample) utilizing a solid-state detector, or other detector having sufficient energy resolution indiviual radioisotope peaks indentified in a spectrum are fitted using a peak shape algorithm by non-linear least-square fitting procedures that minimize Chi-square differences between the data and a fitted peakmore » function. The code accomplishes the identification of all significant peaks present in the spectrum with automatic recalibration to the 7.68 Po-214 alpha peak from the Radon-222 decay chain, the subtraction of all radon progeny interference overlaps with lower energy peaks in the energy range of Pu-238, Am-241, Pu-239, and U-234/Th-232, and the integration of the counts in any peak identified for these transuranic radionuclides. The output is therefore in the form of isotope specific net transuranic CPM, DPM or concentration, available in near real-time during air sampling. In this "copyright" version, the assumption is made that the alpha spectra to be analyzed have been stored by unique name in sequential form: "FileName(i)", where "FileName" can be any name and i is the index number of the file saved (e.g., i = 1,2, ..., n). this format is one automatically generated by the alpha Environmental Continuous Air Monitor (ECAM), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, and manufactured by Canberra Industries, a Laboratory Industrial Partner for this technology. It is assumed in this version of the code that the alpha spectrum data are stored in a 256 channel spectrum, although a larger num ber of channels could be easily accommodated by small code changes. The ECAM data output format is RADNET compliant (an inidustry standard developed at Los Alamos), and include, in addition to a 256-channel alpha spectrum, data on the count time of the spectrum, sample volume represented, the total volume of air sampled by the filter, and other relevant data on the sample. Dummy variable assignments could be made in the code for all variables except for the alpha spectrum if the count rate, concentration, date stamp, and other outputs were not desired, but this option in not automatically available. The code could be implemented in an embedded form and thereby operate independently of user inputs. However, in the present version, the code is designed to operate off-line, accessing stored spectrum data (and other relevant sampling data) from stored files. In this form the user can select the characteristics of peak identification, the sigma-multiplier for the Critical Level determination, and whether or not the data are smoothed before analysis. This version is a development version, from which the user could prepare an embedded version not requiring operator intervention. In any case, the core program of peak identification, fitting, and interference correction is the same.« less

  17. AlphaSpectrum ASPECT analysis code for background correction & peak integration

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-04-13

    The ASPECT code provides a means for rapid analysis of energy-resolved spectra obtained by multi-channel pulse-height analysis (MCA) during (or after) counting of alpha-emissions from a filter air sample (or other suitably prepared sample) utilizing a solid-state detector, or other detector having sufficient energy resolution indiviual radioisotope peaks indentified in a spectrum are fitted using a peak shape algorithm by non-linear least-square fitting procedures that minimize Chi-square differences between the data and a fitted peakmorefunction. The code accomplishes the identification of all significant peaks present in the spectrum with automatic recalibration to the 7.68 Po-214 alpha peak from the Radon-222 decay chain, the subtraction of all radon progeny interference overlaps with lower energy peaks in the energy range of Pu-238, Am-241, Pu-239, and U-234/Th-232, and the integration of the counts in any peak identified for these transuranic radionuclides. The output is therefore in the form of isotope specific net transuranic CPM, DPM or concentration, available in near real-time during air sampling. In this "copyright" version, the assumption is made that the alpha spectra to be analyzed have been stored by unique name in sequential form: "FileName(i)", where "FileName" can be any name and i is the index number of the file saved (e.g., i = 1,2, ..., n). this format is one automatically generated by the alpha Environmental Continuous Air Monitor (ECAM), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, and manufactured by Canberra Industries, a Laboratory Industrial Partner for this technology. It is assumed in this version of the code that the alpha spectrum data are stored in a 256 channel spectrum, although a larger num ber of channels could be easily accommodated by small code changes. The ECAM data output format is RADNET compliant (an inidustry standard developed at Los Alamos), and include, in addition to a 256-channel alpha spectrum, data on the count time of the spectrum, sample volume represented, the total volume of air sampled by the filter, and other relevant data on the sample. Dummy variable assignments could be made in the code for all variables except for the alpha spectrum if the count rate, concentration, date stamp, and other outputs were not desired, but this option in not automatically available. The code could be implemented in an embedded form and thereby operate independently of user inputs. However, in the present version, the code is designed to operate off-line, accessing stored spectrum data (and other relevant sampling data) from stored files. In this form the user can select the characteristics of peak identification, the sigma-multiplier for the Critical Level determination, and whether or not the data are smoothed before analysis. This version is a development version, from which the user could prepare an embedded version not requiring operator intervention. In any case, the core program of peak identification, fitting, and interference correction is the same.less

  18. Effects of finite sampling and additive noise on image reconstruction from Radon transform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsujimoto, E.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1988-12-01

    The Radon transform arises naturally in the problem of reconstructing an image or cross section from line integral measurements through a specified object. Each line integral or ray is a sample of the Radon transform of the object and the set of all samples at a particular angle is called a projection or view. Consequently, the set of all possible samples at all possible projections in a particular plane constitutes the two-dimensional Radon transform. Of course, it is impossible to acquire an infinite number of data points for the purpose of image reconstruction. However, with a sufficient set of Radon transform samples, an images can be determined through various Radon transform inversion techniques. From this statement, however, arises the question of just what constitutes a sufficient set of Radon transform samples. Acquiring an insufficient number of samples results in various artifacts in the reconstructed image. On the other hand, taking too many samples utilizes the data inefficiently. Thus, the problem of interest is to determine the optimum number of projections and the optimum number of samples per projection required to adequately represent the Radon transform such that the image can be accurately reconstructed. The problem of image reconstruction is further complicated if noise is introduced in the projection domain. Noise may be caused by round-off error in the sampled projection data or by various other factors inherent in data acquisition processes. However, several filtering techniques can be implemented to suppress the effects of noise. Therefore, a second problem of interest is to study the effectiveness of different filtering techniques in noise suppression.

  19. Alpha

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effect of Alfve ´ n waves and current drive in reversed-field pinches C. Litwin a) and S. C. Prager Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ͑Received 9 September 1997; accepted 5 December 1997͒ Circularly polarized Alfve ´ n waves give rise to an ␣-dynamo effect that can be exploited to drive parallel current. In a ''laminar'' magnetic the effect is weak and does not give rise to significant currents for realistic parameters ͑e.g.,

  20. Potential increases in natural radon emissions due to heating of the Yucca Mountain rock mass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pescatore, C.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1992-02-01

    Heating of the rock mass by the spent fuel in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will cause extra amounts of natural radon to diffuse into the fracture system and to migrate faster to the accessible environment. Indeed, free-convection currents due to heating will act to shorten the radon travel times and will cause larger releases than would be possible under undistributed conditions. To estimate the amount of additional radon released due to heating of the Yucca Mountain rock mass, we obtain an expression for the release enhancement factor, E. This factor is defined as the ratio between the total flux of radon at the surface of the mountain before and after closure of the repository assuming the only cause of disturbance to be the heating of the rock mass. With appropriate approximations and using a heat load representative of that expected at Yucca Mountain, the present calculations indicate that the average enhancement factor over the first 10,000 years will be 4.5 as a minimum. These calculations are based on the assumption that barometric pumping does not significantly influence radon release. The latter assumption will need to be substantiated.

  1. Study on the influence of CR-39 detector size on radon progeny detection in indoor environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, L. A.; Hadler, J. C.; Lixandro F, A. L.; Guedes, S.; Takizawa, R. H.

    2014-11-11

    It is well known that radon daughters up to {sup 214}Po are the real contaminants to be considered in case of indoor radon contamination. Assemblies consisting of 6 circular bare sheets of CR-39, a nuclear track detector, with radius varying from 0.15 to 1.2 cm were exposed far from any material surface for periods of approximately 6 months in 13 different indoor rooms (7 workplaces and 6 dwellings), where ventilation was moderate or poor. It was observed that track density was as greater as smaller was the detector radius. Track density data were fitted using an equation deduced based on the assumption that the behavior of radon and its progeny in the air was described by Fick's Law, i.e., when the main mechanism of transport of radon progeny in the air is diffusion. As many people spend great part of their time in closed or poorly ventilated environments, the confirmation they present equilibrium between radon and its progeny is an interesting start for dosimetric calculations concerning this contamination.

  2. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolton, Richard D.; Bounds, John A.; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W.

    1996-01-01

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors.

  3. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

    1996-05-07

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

  4. X-RAY CONSTRAINTS ON THE Ly{alpha} ESCAPE FRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng Zhenya; Wang Junxian; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gawiser, Eric; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Guaita, Lucia; Nilsson, Kim K.

    2012-02-10

    We have co-added the X-ray flux of all known Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S) region, achieving the tightest upper limits yet on the X-ray to Ly{alpha} ratio. We use the X-ray data to place sensitive upper limits on the average unobscured star formation rate (SFR{sub X}) in these galaxies. A very small fraction of Ly{alpha} galaxies in the field are individually detected in the X-rays, implying a low fraction of active galactic nucleus activity. After excluding the few X-ray-detected LAEs, we stack the undetected LAEs located in the 4 Ms CDF-S data and 250 ks Extended CDF-S (ECDF-S) data, and compute a 1{sigma} upper limit on SFR{sub X} < 1.6, 14, 28, 28, 140, 440, 880 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for LAEs located at z {approx} 0.3 and z = 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 4.5, 5.7, and 6.5, respectively. The upper limit of SFR{sub X} in LAEs can be then compared to SFR{sub Ly{alpha}} derived from Ly{alpha} line and thus can constrain on the Ly{alpha} escape fraction (f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}}). The f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} from X-ray at z {approx} 0.3 is substantially larger than that from UV or H{alpha}. Three X-ray-detected LAE galaxies at z {approx} 0.3 show f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} {approx} 3%-22%, and the average Ly{alpha} escape fraction from stacking the X-ray-undetected LAEs show f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} > 28% at 3{sigma} significance level at the same redshift. We derive a lower limit on f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} > 14% (84% confidence level, 1{sigma} lower limit) for LAEs at redshift z {approx} 2.1 and z {approx} 3.1-3.2. At z > 4, the current LAE samples are not of sufficient size to constrain SFR{sub X} well. By averaging all the LAEs at z > 2, the X-ray non-detection constrains f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} > 17% (84% confidence level, 1{sigma} lower limit), and rejects f{sup Esc}{sub Ly{alpha}} < 5.7% at the 99.87% confidence level from 2.1 < z < 6.5.

  5. Water treatment facilities (excluding wastewater facilities). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, costs, and operation of water treatment facilities. Facilities covered include those that provide drinking water, domestic water, and water for industrial use. Types of water treatment covered include reverse osmosis, chlorination, filtration, and ozonization. Waste water treatment facilities are excluded from this bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, D.A.; Dunning, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels (<2.5 pCi m/sup -2/s/sup -1/) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables.

  7. Radon in HUD assisted multifamily housing: Policy recommendations to the Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The report complies with Section 1091 of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Amendments Act of 1988 which requires that the HUD Secretary report to the Congress on a recommended policy for addressing radon contamination in specified housing. The housing specified in the Act is virtually all rental housing predominantly for low-income and moderate-income households. Almost all of it is multifamily housing: row houses, walk-up apartment buildings, or high-rise buildings. There is inadequate information on the extent to which excessive concentrations of radon occur above the first floor of multistory buildings and on the variation in radon concentrations in attached houses in the same row. HUD's recommended policy is in the four topic areas specified in the Act: research, education, testing, and mitigation.

  8. National Radon Database. Volume 4. The EPA/state residential radon surveys: CA, HI, ID, LA, NE, NV, NC, OK, SC, the Navajo Nation, and the Billings, MT IHS Area 1989-1990 (5 1/4 inch, 1. 2mb) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The National Radon Database (NRDB) was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to distribute information in two recent radon surveys: the EPA/State Residential Radon Surveys and the National Residential Radon Survey. The National Residential Radon Surveys collected annual average radon measurements on all levels of approximately 5,700 homes nationwide. Information collected during survey includes a detailed questionnaire on house characteristics, as well as radon measurements. The radon survey data for Volume 6 is contained on two diskettes. The data diskettes are accompanied by comprehensive documentation on the design and implementation of the survey, the development and use of sampling weights, a summary of survey results, and information concerning the household questionnaire.

  9. National Radon Database. Volume 4. The EPA/state residential radon survey: CA, HI, ID, LA, NE, NV, NC, OK, SC, the Navajo Nation, and the Billings, MT IHS Area 1989-1990 (3 1/2 inch, 1. 44mb) (for microcomputers). Data file

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The National Radon Database (NRDB) was developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to distribute information in two recent radon surveys: the EPA/State Residential Radon Surveys and the National Residential Radon Survey. The National Residential Radon Surveys collected annual average radon measurements on all levels of approximately 5,700 homes nationwide. Information collected during survey includes a detailed questionnaire on house characteristics, as well as radon measurements. The radon survey data for Volume 6 is contained on two diskettes. The data diskettes are accompanied by comprehensive documentation on the design and implementation of the survey, the development and use of sampling weights, a summary of survey results, and information concerning the household questionnaire.

  10. Alpha Renewable Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Renewable Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Alpha Renewable Energy Place: Atlanta, Georgia Sector: Biomass Product: Manufacturer of biomass wood gas stoves and standalone...

  11. SHOE V.1.5 ALPHA

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    002913MLTPL00 Sandia Higher Order Elements (SHOE) v 0.5 alpha http://midas3.kitware.com/midas/folder/10328

  12. Cost of radon-barrier systems for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.

    1982-08-01

    This report deals specifically with the cost of three types of radon barrier systems, earthen covers, asphalt emulsion covers, and multilayer covers, which could meet standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency to stabilize uranium mill tailings located primarily in the western US. In addition, the report includes a sensitivity analysis of various factors which significantly effect the overall cost of the three systems. These analyses were based on a generic disposal site. Four different 3m thick earthen covers were tested and cost an average of $27/m/sup 2/. The least expensive earthen cover cost was about $21/m/sup 2/. The asphalt cover system (6 to 7 cm of asphalt topped with 0.6m of overburden) cost about $28/m/sup 2/. The four multilayer covers averaged $57/m/sup 2/, but materials handling problems encountered during the test inflated this cost above what was anticipated and significant cost reductions should be possible. The least expensive multilayer cover cost $43/m/sup 2/. Based on the results of the Grand Junction field test we estimated the cost of covering the tailings from three high priority sites, Durango, Shiprock, and Salt Lake City (Vitro). The cost of a 3m earthen cover ranged from $18 to 33/m/sup 2/ for the seven disposal sites (two or three at each location) studied. The cost of asphalt cover systems were $23 to 28/m/sup 2/ and the multilayer cover costs were between $31 to 36/m/sup 2/. The earthen cover costs are less than the Grand Junction field test cost primarily because cover material is available at or near most of the disposal sites selected. Earthen material was imported from 6 to 10 miles for the field test. Assuming more efficienct utilization of materials significantly reduced the cost of the multilayer covers.

  13. Filter for on-line air monitor unaffected by radon progeny and method of using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Terrance D.; Edwards, Howard D.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for testing air having contaminants and radon progeny therein. The apparatus includes a sampling box having an inlet for receiving the air and an outlet for discharging the air. The sampling box includes a filter made of a plate of sintered stainless steel. The filter traps the contaminants, yet allows at least a portion of the radon progeny to pass therethrough. A method of testing air having contaminants and radon progeny therein. The method includes providing a testing apparatus that has a sampling box with an inlet for receiving the air and an outlet for discharging the air, and has a sintered stainless steel filter disposed within said sampling box; drawing air from a source into the sampling box using a vacuum pump; passing the air through the filter; monitoring the contaminants trapped by the filter; and providing an alarm when a selected level of contaminants is reached. The filter traps the contaminants, yet allows at least a portion of the radon progeny to pass therethrough.

  14. AIR AND RADON PATHWAY MODELING FOR THE F AREA TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.; Phifer, M.

    2010-07-30

    An air and radon pathways analysis was conducted for the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) to estimate the flux of volatile radionuclides and radon at the ground surface due to residual waste remaining in the tanks following closure. This analysis was used as the basis to estimate the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for the air pathway per Curie (Ci) of each radionuclide remaining in the combined FTF waste tanks. For the air pathway analysis, several gaseous radionuclides were considered. These included carbon-14 (C-14), chlorine-36 (Cl-36), iodine-129 (I-129), selenium-79 (Se-79), antimony-125 (Sb-125), tin-126 (Sn-126), tritium (H-3), and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The dose to the MEI was estimated at the SRS Boundary during the 100 year institutional control period. For the 10,000 year post closure compliance period, the dose to the MEI was estimated at the 100 m compliance point. Additionally, the dose to the MEI was estimated at a seepage outcrop located 1600 m from the facility. For the radon pathway analysis, five parent radionuclides and their progeny were analyzed. These parent radionuclides included uranium-238 (U-238), plutonium-238 (Pu-238), uranium-234 (U-234), thorium-230 (Th-230), and radium-226 (Ra-226). The peak flux of radon-222 due to each parent radionuclide was estimated for the simulation period of 10,100 years.

  15. Four Years of Practical Arrangements between IAEA and Moscow SIA 'Radon': Preliminary Results - 13061

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batyukhnova, O.G.; Karlina, O.K.; Neveikin, P.P. [SUE SIA 'Radon', The 7-th Rostovsky Lane 2/14, Moscow, 119121 (Russian Federation)] [SUE SIA 'Radon', The 7-th Rostovsky Lane 2/14, Moscow, 119121 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    The International Education Training Centre (IETC) at Moscow State Unitary Enterprise Scientific and Industrial Association 'Radon' (SIA 'Radon'), in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has developed expertise and provided training to waste management personnel for the last 15 years. Since 1997, the educational system of the enterprise with the support of the IAEA has acquired an international character: more than 470 experts from 35 countries- IAEA Member States completed the professional development. Training is conducted at various thematic courses or fellowships for individual programs and seminars on IAEA technical projects. In June 2008 a direct agreement (Practical Arrangements) was signed between SIA 'Radon' and the IAEA on cooperation in the field of development of new technologies, expert's advice to IAEA Member States, and, in particular, the training of personnel in the field of radioactive waste management (RWM), which opens up new perspectives for fruitful cooperation of industry professionals. The paper summarizes the current experience of the SIA 'Radon' in the organization and implementation of the IAEA sponsored training and others events and outlines some of strategic educational elements, which IETC will continue to pursue in the coming years. (authors)

  16. Constraining PCP Violating Varying Alpha Theory through Laboratory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Constraining PCP Violating Varying Alpha Theory through Laboratory Experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraining PCP Violating Varying Alpha Theory through ...

  17. Microscopic Study Of Alpha + N Bremsstrahlung From Effective...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Of Alpha + N Bremsstrahlung From Effective And Realistic Inter-Nucleon Interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microscopic Study Of Alpha + N Bremsstrahlung ...

  18. Producing Linear Alpha Olefins From Biomass - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Producing Linear Alpha Olefins From Biomass Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Linear alpha olefins (LAOs) are...

  19. National Weatherization Assistance Program Impact Evaluation: Impact of Exhaust-Only Ventilation on Radon and Indoor Humidity - A Field Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pigg, Scott

    2014-09-01

    The study described here sought to assess the impact of exhaust-only ventilation on indoor radon and humidity in single-family homes that had been treated by the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP).

  20. Laboratory studies on the removal of radon-born lead from KamLAND׳s organic liquid scintillator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Keefer, G.; Grant, C.; Piepke, A.; Ebihara, T.; Ikeda, H.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kibe, Y.; Koseki, Y.; Ogawa, M.; Shirai, J.; et al

    2014-09-28

    We studied the removal of radioactivity from liquid scintillator in preparation of a low background phase of KamLAND. We describe the methods and techniques developed to measure and efficiently extract radon decay products from liquid scintillator. Lastly, we report the radio-isotope reduction factors obtained when applying various extraction methods. During this study, distillation was identified as the most efficient method for removing radon daughters from liquid scintillator.

  1. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E. Jr.; Dawson, J.M.

    1983-11-23

    This invention relates generally to high energy confined plasmas and more particularly is directed to measuring the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a confined energetic plasma.

  2. Tri Alpha Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    information indicates the company's goal is the commercialisation of plasma based nuclear fusion. References: Tri Alpha Energy1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  3. Alpha particles in effective field theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caniu, C.

    2014-11-11

    Using an effective field theory for alpha (?) particles at non-relativistic energies, we calculate the strong scattering amplitude modified by Coulomb corrections for a system of two ?s. For the strong interaction, we consider a momentum-dependent interaction which, in contrast to an energy dependent interaction alone [1], could be more useful in extending the theory to systems with more than two ? particles. We will present preliminary results of our EFT calculations for systems with two alpha particles.

  4. Transport of Radioactive Material by Alpha Recoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Icenhour, A.S.

    2005-05-19

    The movement of high-specific-activity radioactive particles (i.e., alpha recoil) has been observed and studied since the early 1900s. These studies have been motivated by concerns about containment of radioactivity and the protection of human health. Additionally, studies have investigated the potential advantage of alpha recoil to effect separations of various isotopes. This report provides a review of the observations and results of a number of the studies.

  5. Structures of G [alpha [superscript i1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, Christopher A.; Willard, Francis S.; Jezyk, Mark R.; Fredericks, Zoey; Bodor, Erik T.; Jones, Miller B.; Blaesius, Rainer; Watts, Val J.; Harden, T. Kendall; Sondek, John; Ramer, J. Kevin; Siderovski, David P.

    2010-07-19

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are molecular switches that regulate numerous signaling pathways involved in cellular physiology. This characteristic is achieved by the adoption of two principal states: an inactive, GDP bound state and an active, GTP bound state. Under basal conditions, G proteins exist in the inactive, GDP bound state; thus, nucleotide exchange is crucial to the onset of signaling. Despite our understanding of G protein signaling pathways, the mechanism of nucleotide exchange remains elusive. We employed phage display technology to identify nucleotide state-dependent G{alpha} binding peptides. Herein, we report a GDP-selective G{alpha} binding peptide, KB-752, that enhances spontaneous nucleotide exchange of G{alpha}{sub i} subunits. Structural determination of the G{alpha}{sub i1}/peptide complex reveals unique changes in the G{alpha} switch regions predicted to enhance nucleotide exchange by creating a GDP dissociation route. Our results cast light onto a potential mechanism by which G{alpha} subunits adopt a conformation suitable for nucleotide exchange.

  6. Preparation and properties of (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2. 2. 2)oct-3-yl- (R)-(+)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4-( sup 125 I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate and (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2. 2. 2)oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha- (4-( sup 125 I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate as potential radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, V.I.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Gibson, R.E.; Fan, L.H.; Reba, R.C. )

    1989-10-01

    rac-4-Nitrobenzilic acid was synthesized and resolved with quinidine and quinine to give the corresponding (R)- and (S)-salts. The resolved diastereomeric salts were converted to (R)- and (S)-4-nitrobenzilic acids and subsequent esterification gave their corresponding ethyl esters. Transesterification with (R)-(-)-3-quinuclidinol afforded (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(R)-(+)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha- (4-nitrophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate and (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy- alpha-(4-nitrophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate. After hydrogenation, the (R,R)- and (R,S)-amines were converted to the respective triazene derivatives. The triazene derivatives reacted with sodium ({sup 125}I)iodide to give (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(R)-(+)- alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4-({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate and (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy- alpha-(4-(125I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate. The evaluation of their affinities to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (MAcChR) shows that (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4- ({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate exhibits an affinity for the MAcChR from corpus striatum that is approximately threefold lower than that of (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(R)-(+)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4- ({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate.

  7. Enhancement of [alpha]-Helix Mimicry by an [alpha/beta]-Peptide Foldamer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    via Incorporation of a Dense Ionic Side-Chain Array (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Enhancement of [alpha]-Helix Mimicry by an [alpha/beta]-Peptide Foldamer via Incorporation of a Dense Ionic Side-Chain Array Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhancement of [alpha]-Helix Mimicry by an [alpha/beta]-Peptide Foldamer via Incorporation of a Dense Ionic Side-Chain Array Authors: Johnson, Lisa M. ; Mortenson, David E. ; Yun, Hyun Gi ; Horne, W. Seth ; Ketas, Thomas J. ; Lu, Min ;

  8. Methods for the synthesis and polymerization of .alpha.,.alpha.'-dihalo-p-xylenes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ferraris, John P.; Neef, Charles J.

    2002-07-30

    The present invention describes an improved method for the polymerization of .alpha.,.alpha.-dihalo-p-xylene's such as the .alpha.,.alpha.'-dihalo-2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-xylene's. The procedure for synthesis is based on the specific order of addition of reagents and the use of an anionic initiator that allows control of the molecular weight of the polymer. The molecular weight control allows processability of the polymer which is important for its utility in applications including in light-emitting-diodes, field effect transistors and photovoltaic devices.

  9. Alpha Channeling in Rotating Plasma with Stationary Waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2010-02-15

    An extension of the alpha channeling effect to supersonically rotating mirrors shows that the rotation itself can be driven using alpha particle energy. Alpha channeling uses radiofrequency waves to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. We show that stationary magnetic fields with high n? can be used for this purpose, and simulations show that a large fraction of the alpha energy can be converted to rotation energy.

  10. DOE/SC-ARM-15-027 Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX) 2006-2014 Final Campaign Summary ML Fischer SC Biraud A Hirsch May 2015 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or

  11. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

  12. Low Radioactive Techniques in SuperNEMO: Status of the Radon R and D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perrot, F. [Universite de Bordeaux, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, Chemin du Solarium, Le Haut-Vigneau, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan (France); CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, Chemin du Solarium, Le Haut-Vigneau, BP120, F-33175 Gradignan (France)

    2011-04-27

    Radon is a well-known source of background with respect to the search for neutrinoless double beta decay (0{nu}{beta}{beta}), due to the high Q{sub {beta}} value of one of its daughter nucleus {sup 214}Bi. Radon has been observed and reduced down to 6.5 mBq/m{sup 3} in the NEMO-3 experiment which is looking for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} process in {sup 100}Mo and in six other isotopes. The SuperNEMO project, a next-generation double beta decay experiment which will also use a tracko-calorimeter technique, has been in an R and D phase since 2006. The goal is to reach a sensitivity of T{sub 1/2}(0{nu})>10{sup 26} y corresponding to an effective Majorana neutrino mass of 0.05-0.1 eV with 100 kg of {sup 82}Se. Such a sensitivity requires in particular to improve the radon radiopurity down to 0.1 mBq/m{sup 3} in the tracking chamber.

  13. Radon exhalation rate from coal ashes and building materials in Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battaglia, A.; Capra, D.; Queirazza, G.

    1992-12-31

    The Italian National Electricity Board, in cooperation with Centro Informazioni Stubi Esperienze (CISE) has a program to assess the hazards connected with using fly ash in civil applications as partial substitutes for cement and other building materials. We investigated the natural radioactivity levels of more than 200 building materials. The survey involved materials available in Italy, categorized by geographical location and type of production. We also examined approximately 100 samples of fly ash from United States and South African coal, obtained from Italian power plants. Exhalation rates from about 40 powdered materials were determined by continuously measuring radon concentration growth in closed containers. Measurements were also performed on whole bricks, slabs, and titles. Details about the high-sensitivity measuring devices are presented. The influence of fly ash on exhalation rates was investigated by accurately measuring radon emanation from slabs with various ash/cement ratios and with slabs of inert materials having various radium concentrations. We will discuss results of forecasting indoor radon concentrations under different ventilation conditions. Two identical test rooms are being built, one with conventional and one with fly-ash building materials, to compare theoretical calculations with experimental data. Specifications for instruments to control and to measure the most important parameters are also discussed.

  14. Radon emanation from giant landslides of Koefels (Tyrol, Austria) and Langtang Himal (Nepal)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purtscheller, F.; Pirchl, T.; Sieder, G.

    1995-07-01

    The identification of extremely high indoor radon concentrations in the village Umhausen (Tyrol, Austria) initiated a scientific program to get information about the source and distribution of this noble gas. The high concentrations can not be related to U anomalies or large-scale fault zones. The nearby giant landslide of Koefels, with its highly fractured and crushed orthogneisses, are the only possible source of radon, despite the fact that the U and Ra content of the rocks is by no means exceptional. The reasons for the high emanation rates from the landslide are discussed and compared to results gained from a similar examination of the giant landslide of Langtang Himal (Nepal). The exceptional geologic situation in both cases, as well as the spatial distribution of different concentration levels, indicate that both landslides must be considered as the production sites of radon. Independent of the U and Ra contents of the rocks, the most important factors producing high emanation rates are the production of a high active surface area in circulation pathways for Rn-enriched soil air by brittle deformation due to the impact of the landslidemass. 37 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Analysis of electret ion chamber radon detector response to {sup 222}Rn and interference from background gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usman, S.; Spitz, H.; Lee, S.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental radon ({sup 222}Rn) monitors that incorporate electret detectors are confounded by background gamma radiation, which may cause the electret to discharge by as much as 7.5 volts per mR. Although background gamma corrections were formerly made by multiplying the known background gamma exposure rate with a constant conversion factor, this research demonstrates that doing so introduces an error ranging up to about 20%, especially in high gamma background areas. A new, more accurate method of background gamma correction has been developed that uses an average, voltage-dependent discharge factor, D{sub {gamma}} (V Kg C{sup {minus}1}). This factor and its coefficients were experimentally determined by separately exposing groups of electret radon detectors to photons from {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs. Statistical analysis shows that D{sub {gamma}} is independent of the orientation of the electret during irradiation but that some dependency on dose rate or energy of the irradiating photons may be expected. The discharge of the electret due only to gamma irradiation, V{sub {gamma}}, is determined by multiplying the total integrated gamma exposure by D{sub {gamma}}. The discharge of the electret during a radon measurement can then be corrected for background gamma radiation by subtracting V{sub {gamma}} from the total discharge of the electret resulting in a net discharge due solely to radon. A new equation has also been developed in this study for the radon discharge factor, D{sub Rn} (V m{sup 3}Bq{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}), that is entirely consistent with the gamma discharge radon detectors to known concentrations of radon.

  16. Table 5.23 All Sellers Sales Prices for Selected Petroleum Products, 1994-2010 (Dollars per Gallon, Excluding Taxes)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 All Sellers Sales Prices for Selected Petroleum Products, 1994-2010 (Dollars 1 per Gallon, Excluding Taxes) Product 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Sales Prices to Resellers 2 Motor Gasoline 0.602 0.630 0.715 0.703 0.530 0.645 0.966 0.888 0.832 1.001 1.288 1.675 1.973 2.186 2.587 1.773 2.169 Unleaded Regular .571 .599 .689 .677 .504 .621 .946 .868 .813 .982 1.271 1.659 1.956 2.165 2.570 1.753 2.151 Conventional 3 .565 .583 .672 .658 .484

  17. Fertility and Pregnancy Outcome After Abdominal Irradiation That Included or Excluded the Pelvis in Childhood Tumor Survivors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudour, Helene; Chastagner, Pascal; Claude, Line; Desandes, Emmanuel; Klein, Marc; Carrie, Christian; Bernier, Valerie

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate fertility after abdominal and/or pelvic irradiation in long-term female survivors. Methods and Materials: Puberty and pregnancy outcome were analyzed in female survivors of childhood cancer (aged <18 years) treated with abdominal and/or pelvic radiotherapy (RT) at one of two French centers (Nancy and Lyon) between 1975 and 2004. Data were obtained from medical records and questionnaires sent to the women. Results: A total of 84 patients who had received abdominal and/or pelvic RT during childhood and were alive and aged more than 18 years at the time of the study made up the study population. Of the 57 female survivors treated with abdominal RT that excluded the pelvis, 52 (91%) progressed normally through puberty and 23 (40%) had at least one recorded pregnancy. Of the 27 patients treated with pelvic RT, only 10 (37%) progressed normally through puberty and 5 (19%) had at least one recorded pregnancy. Twenty-two women (seventeen of whom were treated with pelvic RT) had certain subfertility. A total of 50 births occurred in 28 women, with one baby dying at birth; one miscarriage also occurred. There was a high prevalence of prematurity and low birth weight but not of congenital malformations. Conclusions: Fertility can be preserved in patients who undergo abdominal RT that excludes the pelvis, taking into account the other treatments (e.g., chemotherapy with alkylating agents) are taken into account. When RT includes the pelvis, fertility is frequently impaired and women can have difficulty conceiving. Nevertheless, pregnancies can occur in some of these women. The most important factor that endangers a successful pregnancy after RT is the total dose received by the ovaries and uterus. This radiation dose has to be systematically recorded to improve our ability to follow up patients.

  18. Performance of an Alpha-IPEM.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, Barney Lee; McDaniel, Floyd Del; Rossi, Paolo; Auzelyte, Vaida; Mellon, Michael

    2005-07-01

    The ion photon emission microscope, or IPEM, is the first device that allows scientists to microscopically study the effects of single ions in air on semiconductors, microchips and even biological cells without having to focus the beam. Reported here is a prototype, the size of a conventional optical microscope, developed at Sandia. The alpha-IPEM, that employs alpha particles from a radioactive source, represents the first example of IBA imaging without an accelerator. The IPEM resolution is currently limited to 10 {micro}m, but we also report a gridded-phosphor approach that could improve this resolution to that of the optical microscope, or {approx} 1 {micro}m. Finally, we propose that a simple adaptation of the alpha-IPEM could be the only way to maintain the high utility of radiation effects microscopy into the future.

  19. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grisham, Larry R.; Post, Jr., Douglass E.; Dawson, John M.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a magnetically contained plasma is provided. The fusion plasma is seeded with energetic boron neutrals for producing, by means of the reaction .sup.10 B (.alpha.,n) .sup.13 N reaction, radioactive nitrogen nuclei which are then collected by a probe. The radioactivity of the probe is then measured by conventional techniques in determining the energy distribution of the alpha particles in the plasma. In a preferred embodiment, diborane gas (B.sub.2 H.sub.6) is the source of the boron neutrals to produce .sup.13 N which decays almost exclusively by positron emission with a convenient half-life of 10 minutes.

  20. Synthesis of peptide .alpha.-thioesters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Camarero, Julio A.; Mitchell, Alexander R.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2008-08-19

    Disclosed herein is a new method for the solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal peptide .alpha. thioesters using Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazine linker, which is totally stable to conditions required for Fmoc-SPPS. When the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker is achieved by mild oxidation. The oxidation step converts the acyl-hydrazine group into a highly reactive acyl-diazene intermediate which reacts with an .alpha.-amino acid alkylthioester (H-AA-SR) to yield the corresponding peptide .alpha.-thioester in good yield. A variety of peptide thioesters, cyclic peptides and a fully functional Src homology 3 (SH3) protein domain have been successfully prepared.

  1. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1993-02-16

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, which is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  2. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; McAtee, James L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, whcih is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  3. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-05-10

    A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

  4. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  5. Assessment of inhalation and ingestion doses from exposure to radon gas using passive and active detecting techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, A. H.; Jafaar, M. S.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess an environmental hazard of radon exhalation rate from the samples of soil and drinking water in selected locations in Iraqi Kurdistan, passive (CR-39NTDs) and active (RAD7) detecting techniques has been employed. Long and short term measurements of emitted radon concentrations were estimated for 124 houses. High and lower radon concentration in soil samples was in the cities of Hajyawa and Er. Tyrawa, respectively. Moreover, for drinking water, high and low radon concentration was in the cities of Similan and Kelak, respectively. A comparison between our results with that mentioned in international reports had been done. Average annual dose equivalent to the bronchial epithelium, stomach and whole body in the cities of Kelak and Similan are estimated, and it was varied from 0.04{+-}0.01 mSv to 0.547{+-}0.018 mSv, (2.832{+-}0.22)x10{sup -5} to (11.972{+-}2.09)x10{sup -5} mSv, and (0.056 {+-}0.01) x10{sup -5} to (0.239{+-}0.01)x10{sup -5} mSv, respectively. This indicated that the effects of dissolved radon on the bronchial epithelium are much than on the stomach and whole body. (authors)

  6. S. 2844: A Bill to provide for radon testing. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, September 29, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Bill S. 2844 provides for radon testing and is cited as the Department of Housing and Urban Development Policy Act. The bill provides the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) with a mandate to establish a departmental radon policy and program. The department will be required to use its programs to assist the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) address radon contamination. The bill also requires HUD, in coordination with the EPA, to develop a radon assessment and mitigation program which utilizes EPA recommended guidelines and standards to ensure that occupants of housing covered under this act are not exposed to elevated levels of radon. The entire contents of the bill are presented in eight sections entitled: Short Title, findings, Purpose, Definitions, Program, Information, Cooperation with Environmental Protection Agency, and Authorization. The bill was referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs.

  7. Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.J. Fisch

    2009-12-21

    Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible. __________________________________________________

  8. Method of making nanocrystalline alpha alumina

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siegel, Richard W.; Hahn, Horst; Eastman, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    Method of making selected phases of nanocrystalline ceramic materials. Various methods of controlling the production of nanocrystalline alpha alumina and titanium oxygen phases are described. Control of the gas atmosphere and use of particular oxidation treatments give rise to the ability to control the particular phases provided in the aluminum/oxygen and titanium/oxygen system.

  9. Ground radon survey of a geothermal area in Hawaii | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on the lower east riftof Kilauea volcano, were measured by alpha particle sensitive cellulose nitrate films. The survey successfully defined an area of thermal significance...

  10. MINOR PLANET 2002 EX{sub 12} (=169P/NEAT) AND THE ALPHA CAPRICORNID SHOWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenniskens, P.; Vaubaillon, J.

    2010-05-15

    Minor planet 2002 EX{sub 12} (=comet 169P/NEAT) is identified as the parent body of the alpha Capricornid shower, based on a good agreement in the calculated and observed direction and speed of the approaching meteoroids for ejecta 4500-5000 years ago. The meteoroids that come to within 0.05 AU of Earth's orbit show the correct radiant position, radiant drift, approach speed, radiant dispersion, duration of activity, and distribution of dust at the other node, but meteoroids ejected 5000 years ago by previously proposed parent bodies do not. A more recent formation epoch is excluded because not enough dust would have evolved into Earth's path. The total mass of the stream is about 9 x 10{sup 13} kg, similar to that of the remaining comet. Release of so much matter in a short period of time implies a major disruption of the comet at that time. The bulk of this matter still passes inside Earth's orbit, but will cross Earth's orbit 300 years from now. As a result, the alpha Capricornids are expected to become a major annual shower in 2220-2420 A.D., stronger than any current annual shower.

  11. Photochemically enhanced binding of small molecules to the tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 inhibits the binding of TNF-[alpha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, Percy H.; Scherle, Peggy A.; Muckelbauer, Jodi K.; Voss, Matthew E.; Liu, Rui-qin; Thompson III, Lorin A.; Xu, Meizhong; Lo, Yvonne C.; Li, Zhong; Strzemienski, Paul; Yang, Gengjie; Falahatpishen, Nikoo; Farrow, Neil A.; Tebben, Andrew J.; Underwood, Denis; Trzaskos, James M.; Friedman, Steven M.; Newton, Robert C.; Decicco, Carl P.

    2010-03-05

    The binding of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}) to the type-1 TNF receptor (TNFRc1) plays an important role in inflammation. Despite the clinical success of biologics (antibodies, soluble receptors) for treating TNF-based autoimmune conditions, no potent small molecule antagonists have been developed. Our screening of chemical libraries revealed that N-alkyl 5-arylidene-2-thioxo-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones were antagonists of this protein-protein interaction. After chemical optimization, we discovered IW927, which potently disrupted the binding of TNF-{alpha} to TNFRc1 (IC{sub 50} = 50 nM) and also blocked TNF-stimulated phosphorylation of I{kappa}-B in Ramos cells (IC{sub 50} = 600 nM). This compound did not bind detectably to the related cytokine receptors TNFRc2 or CD40, and did not display any cytotoxicity at concentrations as high as 100 {micro}M. Detailed evaluation of this and related molecules revealed that compounds in this class are 'photochemically enhanced' inhibitors, in that they bind reversibly to the TNFRc1 with weak affinity (ca. 40-100 mM) and then covalently modify the receptor via a photochemical reaction. We obtained a crystal structure of IV703 (a close analog of IW927) bound to the TNFRc1. This structure clearly revealed that one of the aromatic rings of the inhibitor was covalently linked to the receptor through the main-chain nitrogen of Ala-62, a residue that has already been implicated in the binding of TNF-{alpha} to the TNFRc1. When combined with the fact that our inhibitors are reversible binders in light-excluded conditions, the results of the crystallography provide the basis for the rational design of nonphotoreactive inhibitors of the TNF-{alpha}-TNFRc1 interaction.

  12. Enhancement of [alpha]-Helix Mimicry by an [alpha/beta]-Peptide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enhancement of alpha-Helix Mimicry by an alphabeta-Peptide Foldamer via Incorporation of a Dense Ionic Side-Chain Array Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhancement ...

  13. Y-12 "Alpha" building | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Alpha" ... Y-12 "Alpha" building An "Alpha" building at Y-12 at approximately 50% completion

  14. Rossi alpha Measurements and Calculations for HEU/Pb Core (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rossi alpha Measurements and Calculations for HEUPb Core Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rossi alpha Measurements and Calculations for HEUPb Core Rossi alpha ...

  15. Antibody-mediated reduction of .alpha.-ketoamides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Gallop, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies raised against a 4-nitrophenyl phosphonate hapten catalyze the stereospecific reduction of an .alpha.-ketoamide to the corresponding .alpha.-hydroxyamide in the presence of an appropriate reducing agent.

  16. Human 3[alpha]-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3: structural...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Human 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3: structural clues of 5alpha-DHT reverse binding and enzyme down-regulation decreasing MCF7 cell growth Citation Details ...

  17. Antibody-mediated reduction of {alpha}-ketoamides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, P.G.; Gallop, M.A.

    1998-06-09

    Monoclonal antibodies raised against a 4-nitrophenyl phosphonate hapten catalyze the stereospecific reduction of an {alpha}-ketoamide to the corresponding {alpha}-hydroxyamide in the presence of an appropriate reducing agent.

  18. Alpha Calutron tank | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Calutron tank Alpha Calutron tank The C-shaped alpha calutron tank, together with its emitters and collectors on the lower-edge door, was removed in a special drydock from the magnet for the recovery of uranium-235

  19. Determination of radon concentration in water using RAD7 with RAD H{sub 2}O accessories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malik, M. F. I.; Rabaiee, N. A.; Jaafar, M. S.

    2015-04-24

    In the last decade, the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Radon exposure occurs when using water for showering, washing dishes, cooking and drinking water. RAD7 and Rad H20 accessories were used in order to measure radon concentration in water sample. In this study, four types of water were concerns which are reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Reverse osmosis (drinking water) and mineral water were bought from the nearest supermarket while tap water and well water were taken from selected areas of Pulau Pinang and Kedah. Total 20 samples were taken with 5 samples for each type of water. The measured radon concentration ranged from 2.9±2.9 to 79.5±17 pCi/L, 2.9±2.9 to 67.8±16 pCi/L, 15.97±7 to 144.25±24 pCi/L and 374.89±37 to 6409.03±130 pCi/L in reverse osmosis (drinking water), mineral water, tap water and well water. Well water has the highest radon compared to others. It was due to their geological element such as granite. Results for all types of water are presented and compared with maximum contamination limit (MCL) recommended by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) which is 300pCi/L. Reverse osmosis water, mineral water and tap water were fall below MCL. However, well water was exceeded maximum level that was recommended. Thus, these findings were suggested that an action should be taken to reduce radon concentration level in well water as well as reduce a health risk towards the public.

  20. Excluded volume and ion-ion correlation effects on the ionic atmosphere around B-DNA: Theory, simulations, and experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovanesyan, Zaven; Marucho, Marcelo; Medasani, Bharat; Fenley, Marcia O.; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; Olvera de la Cruz, Mónica

    2014-12-14

    The ionic atmosphere around a nucleic acid regulates its stability in aqueous salt solutions. One major source of complexity in biological activities involving nucleic acids arises from the strong influence of the surrounding ions and water molecules on their structural and thermodynamic properties. Here, we implement a classical density functional theory for cylindrical polyelectrolytes embedded in aqueous electrolytes containing explicit (neutral hard sphere) water molecules at experimental solvent concentrations. Our approach allows us to include ion correlations as well as solvent and ion excluded volume effects for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of highly charged cylindrical polyelectrolytes. Several models of size and charge asymmetric mixtures of aqueous electrolytes at physiological concentrations are studied. Our results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical calculations display significant differences in the ion density profiles for the different aqueous electrolyte models studied. However, similar results regarding the excess number of ions adsorbed to the B-DNA molecule are predicted by our theoretical approach for different aqueous electrolyte models. These findings suggest that ion counting experimental data should not be used alone to validate the performance of aqueous DNA-electrolyte models.

  1. Excluding the light dark matter window of a 331 model using LHC and direct dark matter detection data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cogollo, D.; Gonzalez-Morales, Alma X.; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Teles, P. Rebello E-mail: alxogonz@ucsc.edu E-mail: patricia.rebello.teles@cern.ch

    2014-11-01

    We sift the impact of the recent Higgs precise measurements, and recent dark matter direct detection results, on the dark sector of an electroweak extension of the Standard Model that has a complex scalar as dark matter. We find that in this model the Higgs decays with a large branching ratio into dark matter particles, and charged scalars when these are kinematically available, for any coupling strength differently from the so called Higgs portal. Moreover, we compute the abundance and spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section, which are driven by the Higgs and Z{sup '} boson processes. We decisively exclude the 1–500 GeV dark matter window and find the most stringent lower bound in the literature on the scale of symmetry breaking of the model namely 10 TeV, after applying the LUX-2013 limit. Interestingly, the projected XENON1T constraint will be able to rule out the entire 1 GeV–1000 GeV dark matter mass range. Lastly, for completeness, we compute the charged scalar production cross section at the LHC and comment on the possibility of detection at current and future LHC runnings.

  2. Evaluation of radon progeny from Mount St. Helens eruptions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepel, E.A.; Olsen, K.B.; Thomas, V.W.; Eichner, F.N.

    1982-09-01

    A network of twelve monitoring sites around Mount St. Helens was established to evaluate possible short-lived radioactivity in the fallen ash. Seven sites were located near major population centers of Washington and Oregon, and five sites were located within 80 km of the volcano. Each site monitored the radioactivity present by the use of thermoluminescent dosimeters which recorded the total exposure to radioactivity over the exposure period. Eruptions occurring on July 22, August 7, and October 16 to 18, 1980 were monitored. No statistically significant quantities of measurable radon daughters were observed.

  3. AIR AND RADON PATHWAY MODELING FOR THE F-AREA TANK FARM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K; Mark Phifer, M

    2007-09-17

    The F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) is located within F-Area in the General Separations Area (GSA) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) as seen in Figure 1. The GSA contains the F and H Area Separations Facilities, the S-Area Defense Waste Processing Facility, the Z-Area Saltstone Facility, and the E-Area Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities. The FTF is a nearly rectangular shaped area and comprises approximately 20 acres, which is bounded by SRS coordinates N 76,604.5 to N 77,560.0 and E 52,435.0 to E 53,369.0. SRS is in the process of preparing a Performance Assessment (PA) to support FTF closure. As part of the PA process, an analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential magnitude of gaseous release of radionuclides from the FTF over the 100-year institutional control period and 10,000-year post-closure compliance period. Specifically, an air and radon pathways analysis has been conducted to estimate the flux of volatile radionuclides and radon at the ground surface due to residual waste remaining in the tanks following closure. This analysis was used as the basis to estimate the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for the air pathway per Curie (Ci) of each radionuclide remaining in the combined FTF waste tanks. For the air pathway analysis, several gaseous radionuclides were considered. These included carbon-14 (C-14), chlorine-36 (Cl-36), iodine-129 (I-129), selenium-79 (Se-79), antimony-125 (Sb-125), tin-126 (Sn-126), tritium (H-3), and technetium-99 (Tc-99). The dose to the MEI was estimated at the SRS Boundary during the 100 year institutional control period. For the 10,000 year post closure compliance period, the dose to the MEI was estimated at the 100 m compliance point. For the radon pathway analysis, five parent radionuclides and their progeny were analyzed. These parent radionuclides included uranium-238 (U-238), plutonium-238 (Pu-238), uranium-234 (U-234), thorium-230 (Th-230), and radium-226 (Ra-226). The peak flux of radon-222 due to each parent radionuclide was estimated for the simulation period of 10,100 years.

  4. Detection of alpha radiation in a beta radiation field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Reese, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting alpha particles in the presence of high activities of beta particles utilizing an alpha spectrometer. The apparatus of the present invention utilizes a magnetic field applied around the sample in an alpha spectrometer to deflect the beta particles from the sample prior to reaching the detector, thus permitting detection of low concentrations of alpha particles. In the method of the invention, the strength of magnetic field required to adequately deflect the beta particles and permit alpha particle detection is given by an algorithm that controls the field strength as a function of sample beta energy and the distance of the sample to the detector.

  5. Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

    1998-12-14

    Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvn eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

  6. Control of contamination of radon-daughters in the DEAP-3600 acrylic vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jillings, Chris; Collaboration: DEAP Collaboration; and others

    2013-08-08

    DEAP-3600 is a 3600kg single-phase liquid-argon dark matter detector under construction at SNOLAB with a sensitivity of 10{sup ?46}cm{sup 2} for a 100 GeV WIMP. The argon is held an an acrylic vessel coated with wavelength-shifting 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB). Acrylic was chosen because it is optically transparent at the shifted wavelength of 420 nm; an effective neutron shield; and physically strong. With perfect cleaning of the acrylic surface before data taking the irreducible background is that from bulk {sup 210}Pb activity that is near the surface. To achieve a background rate of 0.01 events in the 1000-kg fiducial volume per year of exposure, the allowed limit of Pb-210 in the bulk acrylic is 31 mBq/tonne (= 1.2 10{sup ?20}g/g). We discuss how pure acrylic was procured and manufactured into a complete vessel paying particular attention to exposure to radon during all processes. In particular field work at the acrylic panel manufacturer, RPT Asia, and acrylic monomer supplier, Thai MMA Co. Ltd, in Thailand is described. The increased diffusion of radon during annealing the acrylic at 90C as well as techniques to mitigate against this are described.

  7. {alpha} decay and shape coexistence in the {alpha}-rotor model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richards, J.D.; Bingham, C.R.; Nazarewicz, W.; Wauters, J.; Berggren, T.; Berggren, T.; Bingham, C.R.; Nazarewicz, W.; Nazarewicz, W.

    1997-09-01

    The particle-plus-rotor model was employed to study the fine structure seen in the {alpha} decay of even-even neutron-deficient nuclei in the Hg-Po region. The configuration mixing resulting from the shape coexistence between well-deformed prolate bands and spherical (or quasirotational oblate) structures in the daughter nuclei was considered. Experimental {alpha}-decay branching ratios are reproduced within one order of magnitude, except for the case of {sup 180}Hg, where the daughter nucleus {sup 176}Pt is expected to be triaxial in its ground state. The effect of configuration mixing on the relative intensities is discussed in detail, together with the sensitivity of results to the choice of the {alpha}-nucleus optical model parameters. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Synthesis of alpha-amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Jr., Jefferson W.

    1983-01-01

    A method for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(OSOCl)CN, R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(Cl)CN and [R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(CN)O].sub.2 SO wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the snythesis methods of the prior art.

  9. Synthesis of alpha-amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Jr., Jefferson W.

    1983-01-01

    A method for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceeding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(OSOCl)CN, R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(Cl)CN and [R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(CN)O].sub.2 SO wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 12 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  10. Synthesis of alpha-amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Jr., Jefferson W.

    1983-01-01

    A method for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(OSOCl)CN, R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(Cl)CN and [R.sub.1 R.sub.2 C(CN)O].sub.2 SO wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 12 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art.

  11. Run Spear Down Low-alpha Shutdown

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spear Down Low-alpha Shutdown Maintenance / AP University Holidays Sep Oct S 1 Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug 4/6/2012 SPEAR OPERATING SCHEDULE 2011-2012 2011 2012 Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb 1 2 M 3 1 1 1 S 2 4 1 3 1 AP 2 2 2 W 5 2 4 2 AP AP 3 3 AP 1 3 T 3 5 3 4 1 4 2 4 1 6 4 F 2 7 5 2 1 5 3 1 5 2 T 1 6 4 S 3 8 5 3 7 5 4 1 6 3 2 6 4 2 6 8 5 S 4 9 6 8 6 low 2 7 4 3 7 5 3 7 5 9 MA MA 9 7 M 5 10 3 8 5 4 alpha 8 6 4 T 6 11 8 6 10 8 7 4 9 MA 6 5 9 MA AP 7 13 11 9 W 7 12 9 5 10 AP 7 6 AP 10 8 6 AP 10 AP 7 AP 13

  12. Performance checks with the Alpha Sentry CAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodgers, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    Before a CAM is put into service, it must be calibrated. The flow meter and detector must be calibrated with an external flow meter to provide accurate flow data, and the detector must be calibrated to produce accurate DPM data. Both flow and DPM data enter into the calculation of the Derived Air Concentration exposure (DAC-hr) by the CAM software. The focus of this report is on methods for checking that the DAC-hr alarm functionality has been properly calibrated and available in installed CAM instruments. The process begins with detector calibration. In order to calibrate the detector, the Alpha Sentry CAM is placed in an off-line calibration mode and detector efficiency calibration is selected. The user is prompted to enter the calibration source DPM and place the source in the CAM head. Upon latching the filter door with the source in place, a count is automatically initiated and completed. From the count data and the user entered DPM data, an efficiency is determined in the Alpha Sentry Manager (ASM) and stored in non-volatile memory in the CAM head electronics. This source is typically a plated {sup 239}Pu or {sup 241}Am source diffused into a stainless steel planchet.

  13. CXD 4605, Disposition Excess Equipment from Alpha 1 (4605)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disposition Excess Equipment from Alpha 1 (4605) Y-12 Site Office Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee The proposed action is to characterize and disposition equipment that was...

  14. Catalyzing Alpha-Channeling by Minority Ion Injection in Mirror...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fisch Maintaining fuel ions hotter than electrons would greatly facilitate controlled nuclear fusion. Alpha channeling is a technique that can potentially extract energy from...

  15. Probable new type of reaction mechanism: Double. cap alpha. direct...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; BERYLLIUM 8; CLUSTER MODEL; BISMUTH 209 TARGET; CARBON 12 REACTIONS; MULTI-NUCLEON TRANSFER REACTIONS; ALPHA ...

  16. Synthesis of alpha-amino acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, J.W. Jr.

    1983-01-25

    A method is described for synthesizing alpha amino acids proceeding through novel intermediates of the formulas: R[sub 1]R[sub 2]C(OSOCl)CN, R[sub 1]R[sub 2]C(Cl)CN and [R[sub 1]R[sub 2]C(CN)O][sub 2]SO wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are each selected from hydrogen monovalent substituted and unsubstituted hydrocarbon radicals of 1 to 10 carbon atoms. The use of these intermediates allows the synthesis steps to be exothermic and results in an overall synthesis method which is faster than the synthesis methods of the prior art. No Drawings

  17. Metathesis process for preparing an alpha, omega-functionalized olefin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdett, Kenneth A.; Mokhtarzadeh, Morteza; Timmers, Francis J.

    2010-10-12

    A cross-metathesis process for preparing an .alpha.,.omega.-functionalized olefin, such as methyl 9-decenoate, and an .alpha.-olefin having three or more carbon atoms, such as 1-decene. The process involves contacting in a first reaction zone an .alpha.-functionalized internal olefin, such as methyl oleate, and an .alpha.-olefinic monomer having three or more carbon atoms, such as 1-decene, with a first metathesis catalyst to prepare an effluent stream containing the .alpha.,.omega.-functionalized olefin, such as methyl 9-decenoate, an unfunctionalized internal olefin, such as 9-octadecene, unconverted reactant olefins, and optionally, an .alpha.,.omega.-difunctionalized internal olefinic dimer, such as dimethyl 9-octadecen-1,18-dioate; separating said effluent streams; then contacting in a second reaction zone the unfunctionalized internal olefin with ethylene in the presence of a second metathesis catalyst to obtain a second product effluent containing the .alpha.-olefinic monomer having three or more carbon atoms; and cycling a portion of the .alpha.-olefinic monomer stream(s) to the first zone.

  18. Method for using a yeast alpha-amylase promoter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Johnway; Skeen, Rodney S.; Hooker, Brian S.; Anderson, Daniel B.

    2003-04-22

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of an alpha-amylase gene of a starch utilizing yeast strain Schwanniomyces castellii. The isolated alpha-amylase promoter is an inducible promoter, which can regulate strong gene expression in starch culture medium.

  19. A simple procedure to prepare spherical {alpha}-alumina powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Hongyu [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Ning Guiling [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)], E-mail: ninggl@dlut.edu.cn; Gan Zhihong; Lin Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2009-04-02

    Spherical {alpha}-alumina powders were prepared by the controlled hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide in a hydrolysis system consisting of octanol and acetonitrile. Diverse solvents to dissolve reactant formed diverse hydrolysis systems and affected particle shape of {alpha}-alumina powders. The precursors crystallized to {gamma}-alumina at 1000 deg. C and converted to {alpha}-alumina at 1150 deg. C without intermediate phases. The particle morphology of precursor was retained after it crystallized to {alpha}-alumina. The heating rate influenced the particle shape and the state of agglomeration during calcination process. The thermal properties of the precursors were characterized by thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis. X-ray diffraction technique was used to confirm the conversion of crystalline phase of alumina powders from amorphous to {alpha}-phase. Transmission electron microscopy was used to investigate the morphologies and size of the precursors and products.

  20. THE ATTENUATED RADON TRANSFORM: APPLICATION TO SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE PRESENCE OF A VARIABLE ATTENUATING MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gullberg, Grant T.

    1980-03-01

    The properties of the attenuated Radon transform and its application to single-photon emission computed tomography (ECT) are analyzed in detail. In nuclear medicine and biological research, the objective of ECT is to describe quantitatively the position and strengths of internal sources of injected radiopharmaceuticals and radionuclides where the attenuation between the sources and detector is unknown. The problem is mathematically and practically quite different from well-known methods in transmission computed tomography (TCT) where only the attenuation is unknown. A mathematical structure using function theory and the theory of linear operators on Hilbert spaces is developed to better understand the spectral properties of the attenuated Radon transform. The continuous attenuated Radon transform is reduced to a matrix operator for discrete angular and lateral sampling, and the reconstruction problem reduces to a system of linear equations. For variable attenuation coefficients frequently found in imaging internal organs, the numerical methods developed in this paper involve iterative techniques of performing the generalized inverse. Its application to nuclear medicine is demonstrated by reconstructions of transverse sections of the brain, heart, and liver.

  1. Antihydrogen Trapped in the ALPHA Experiment

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    In 2010 the ALPHA collaboration succeeded in trapping antihydrogen atoms for the first time.[i]  Stored antihydrogen promises to be a unique tool for making high precision measurements of the structure of this first anti-atom. Achieving this milestone presented several substantial experimental challenges and this talk will describe how they were overcome.   The unique design features of the ALPHA apparatus will be explained.[ii]  These allow a high intensity positron source and an antiproton imaging detector similar to the one used in the ATHENA[iii] experiment to be combined with an innovative magnet design of the anti-atom trap. This seeks to minimise the perturbations to trapped charged particles which may cause particle loss and heating[iv].   The diagnostic techniques used to measure the diameter, number, density, and temperatures of both plasmas will be presented as will the methods developed to actively compress and cool of both plasma species to sizes and temperatures [v],[vi], [vii] where trapping attempts with a reasonable chance of success can be tried.   The results of the successful trapping experiments will be outlined as well as some subsequent experiments to improve the trapping rate and storage time. [i] 'Trapped antihydrogen' G.B. Andresen et al., Nature 468, 673 (2010) [ii]'A Magnetic Trap for Antihydrogen Confinement' W. Bertsche et al., Nucl. Instr. Meth. Phys. Res. A566, 746 (2006) [iii] Production and detection of cold antihydrogen atoms M.Amoretti et al., Nature 419, 456 (2002). [iv]' Antihydrogen formation dynamics in a multipolar neutral anti-atom trap' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Lett. B 685, 141 (2010) [v]' Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures',                                   G.B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 105, 013003 (2010) [vi]'Compression of Antiproton Clouds for Antihydrogen Trapping' G. B. Andresen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett 100, 203401 (2008) [vii]  'Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas' G.B. Andresen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 025002 (2011) Organizer: Ferdinand Hahn PH/DT Detector Seminar webpage  

  2. MFTF-. cap alpha. + T progress report (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MFTF-. cap alpha. + T progress report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MFTF-. cap alpha. + T progress report You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  3. Rossi alpha Measurements and Calculations for HEU/Pb Core (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rossi alpha Measurements and Calculations for HEUPb Core Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rossi alpha Measurements and Calculations for HEUPb Core You are accessing ...

  4. Selective flow path alpha particle detector and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring alpha contamination are provided in which ions generated in the air surrounding the item, by the passage of alpha particles, are moved to a distant detector location. The parts of the item from which ions are withdrawn can be controlled by restricting the air flow over different portions of the apparatus. In this way, detection of internal and external surfaces separately, for instance, can be provided. The apparatus and method are particularly suited for use in undertaking alpha contamination measurements during the commissioning operations.

  5. Single and double grid long-range alpha detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.

    1993-03-16

    Alpha particle detectors capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a voltage is generated in a single electrically conductive grid while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across the conductive grid. The current in the conductive grid can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. Another embodiment builds on this concept and provides an additional grid so that air ions of both polarities can be detected. The detector can be used in many applications, such as for pipe or duct, tank, or soil sample monitoring.

  6. Single and double grid long-range alpha detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.

    1993-01-01

    Alpha particle detectors capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a voltage is generated in a single electrically conductive grid while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across the conductive grid. The current in the conductive grid can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. Another embodiment builds on this concept and provides an additional grid so that air ions of both polarities can be detected. The detector can be used in many applications, such as for pipe or duct, tank, or soil sample monitoring.

  7. {alpha}-cluster states in N{ne}Z nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, V. Z.; Rogachev, G. V.

    2012-10-20

    The importance of studies of {alpha}-Cluster structure in N{ne}Z light nuclei is discussed. Spin-parity assignments for the low-lying levels in {sup 10}C are suggested.

  8. Methods of Using Alpha Channeling Together with Transformer Recharging...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methods of Using Alpha Channeling Together with Transformer Recharging A tokamak current can be sustained using rf waves for transformer recharging at low density and high-Z with...

  9. An investigation of radon release and mobility in the subsurface environment. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, D.

    1997-06-01

    Processes affecting transport of volatile species in the shallow soil column have recently been recognized as having a substantial impact on a broad array of real world problems. Investigations of volatile transport have ranged from studies of probable health impacts of radon infiltration into homes to pesticide and volatile organic contaminant mobility in the soil column. The objectives of many of these studies has been the development of numerical models of vapor phase (and solute) transport in shallow soils. An early model, LEACHM, developed by Hutson and Wagenent was recently modified enabling it to describe both solute and vapor phase transport of volatile chemicals in the soil. Subsequent tests of the latter model, named LEACHV, showed that use outside of a very restricted range of soil conditions resulted in large mass balance errors and unreasonable values for soil gas concentrations and vapor flux. The present research was undertaken in an effort to identify and correct the subroutines responsible for the problems and to allow the model to describe vapor phase transport in a much broader range of soil conditions.

  10. Environmental factors affecting long-term stabilization of radon suppression covers for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, J.K.; Long, L.W.; Reis, J.W.

    1982-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon suppression cover applied to uranium mill tailings. To help determine design stresses for the tailings piles, environmental parameters are characterized for the five active uranium-producing regions on a site-specific basis. Only conventional uranium mills that are currently operating or that are scheduled to open in the mid 1980s are considered. Available data indicate that flooding has the most potential for disrupting a tailings pile. The arid regions of the Wyoming Basins and the Colorado Plateau are subject to brief storms of high intensity. The Texas Gulf Coast has the highest potential for extreme precipitation from hurricane-related storms. Wind data indicate average wind speeds from 3 to 6 m/sec for the sites, but extremes of 40 m/sec can be expected. Tornado risks range from low to moderate. The Colorado Plateau has the highest seismic potential, with maximum acceleration caused by earthquakes ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 g. Any direct effect from volcanic eruption is negligible, as all mills are located 90 km or more from an igneous or hydrothermal system.

  11. Microscopic Study Of Alpha + N Bremsstrahlung From Effective And Realistic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inter-Nucleon Interactions (Conference) | SciTech Connect Microscopic Study Of Alpha + N Bremsstrahlung From Effective And Realistic Inter-Nucleon Interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microscopic Study Of Alpha + N Bremsstrahlung From Effective And Realistic Inter-Nucleon Interactions Authors: Dohet-Eraly, J ; Quaglioni, S ; Navratil, P ; Hupin, G Publication Date: 2014-11-05 OSTI Identifier: 1178412 Report Number(s): LLNL-PROC-663865

  12. Microscopic Study Of Alpha + N Bremsstrahlung From Effective And Realistic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inter-Nucleon Interactions (Conference) | SciTech Connect Microscopic Study Of Alpha + N Bremsstrahlung From Effective And Realistic Inter-Nucleon Interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microscopic Study Of Alpha + N Bremsstrahlung From Effective And Realistic Inter-Nucleon Interactions × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as

  13. The 2014 ALPHA Immersion Workshop | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The 2014 ALPHA Immersion Workshop August 2, 2014 (Photo by Participants from universities across the nation and Mexico participate in the workshop) Gallery: The Science Education Department started the summer with a workshop geared towards college physics instructors interested in incorporating plasma physics experiments in their classrooms. The Alpha Immersion workshop (http://www.advlab.org/immersions.html) was a 3 day event that introduced the attendees to all aspects of a specific

  14. Labeled ALPHA4BETA2 ligands and methods therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Pichika, Ramaiah; Potkin, Steven; Leslie, Frances; Chattopadhyay, Sankha

    2013-02-19

    Contemplated compositions and methods are employed to bind in vitro and in vivo to an .alpha.4.beta.2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in a highly selective manner. Where such compounds are labeled, compositions and methods employing such compounds can be used for PET and SPECT analysis. Alternatively, and/or additionally contemplated compounds can be used as antagonists, partial agonists or agonists in the treatment of diseases or conditions associated with .alpha.4.beta..beta.2 dysfunction.

  15. Preparation and synthetic application of {alpha}-phenylthioethylsamarium compound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasuga, Y.; Matsubara, S.; Utimoto, K. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Although samarium(II) iodide-mediated reaction of organohalides with carbonyl compounds has been applied to various organic syntheses, intermediary organosamarium species could be detected only when HMPA exists in the reaction system. The authors now report the detection of {alpha}-phenylthioethylsamarium compound in the absence of HMPA and application to diastereoselective reaction with aldehydes. A treatment of the organosamarium reagent, prepared from 1-chloroethyl phenyl sulfide and samarium(II) iodide, with D{sub 2}O afforded 1-deuterioethyl phenyl sulfide in 53% yield (82% D). The reagent reacted with aldehyde containing a stereogenic center at {alpha}-position to give {beta}-hydroxysulfide with high diastereoselectivity. Reaction using Barbier type procedure afforded the same results. These results suggest that {alpha}-phenylthioethylsamarium species is also generated in the Barbier type reaction. Configurational stability of {alpha}-thiosubstituted alkylmetal compounds seems to depend on the applied metal. Hoffmann Test indicated that the configuration of {alpha}-phenylthloethylsamarium compound is unchanged during the reaction with aldehyde, while that of {alpha}-alkylthioalkyllithium is unstable.

  16. Minimal Determinants for Binding Activated G alpha from the Structure of a G alpha i1-Peptide Dimer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston,C.; Lobanova, E.; Shavkunov, A.; Low, J.; Ramer, J.; Blasesius, R.; Fredericks, Z.; willard, F.; Kuhlman, B.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    G-Proteins cycle between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state, serving as molecular switches that coordinate cellular signaling. We recently used phage display to identify a series of peptides that bind G{alpha}subunits in a nucleotide-dependent manner [Johnston, C. A., Willard, F. S., Jezyk, M. R., Fredericks, Z., Bodor, E. T., Jones, M. B., Blaesius, R., Watts, V. J., Harden, T. K., Sondek, J., Ramer, J. K., and Siderovski, D. P. (2005) Structure 13, 1069-1080]. Here we describe the structural features and functions of KB-1753, a peptide that binds selectively to GDP{center_dot}AlF{sub 4{sup -}}- and GTP{gamma}S-bound states of G{alpha}{sup i} subunits. KB-1753 blocks interaction of G{alpha}{sub transducin} with its effector, cGMP phosphodiesterase, and inhibits transducin-mediated activation of cGMP degradation. Additionally, KB-1753 interferes with RGS protein binding and resultant GAP activity. A fluorescent KB-1753 variant was found to act as a sensor for activated G{alpha} in vitro. The crystal structure of KB-1753 bound to G{alpha}{sub i1}-GDP{center_dot}AlF{sub 4{sup -}} reveals binding to a conserved hydrophobic groove between switch II and 3 helices and, along with supporting biochemical data and previous structural analyses, supports the notion that this is the site of effector interactions for G{alpha}i subunits.

  17. Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from the Energy Performance Requirements of Section 543 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act as Amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document contains the Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from the Energy Performance Requirements of Section 543 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act as Amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005

  18. Table 5.22 Refiner Sales Prices and Refiner Margins for Selected Petroleum Products, 1995-2011 (Dollars per Gallon, Excluding Taxes)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Refiner Sales Prices and Refiner Margins for Selected Petroleum Products, 1995-2011 (Dollars 1 per Gallon, Excluding Taxes) Product 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Sales Prices to Resellers: 2 Aviation Gasoline 0.975 1.055 1.065 0.912 1.007 1.330 1.256 1.146 1.288 1.627 2.076 2.490 2.758 3.342 2.480 2.874 3.739 Motor Gasoline .626 .713 .700 .526 .645 .963 .886 .828 1.002 1.288 1.670 1.969 2.182 2.586 1.767 2.165 2.867 Unleaded Regular .593

  19. Method of and apparatus for measuring the mean concentration of thoron and/or radon in a gas mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucas, Henry

    1990-01-01

    A method of and an apparatus for detecting and accurately measuring the mean concentrations of .sup.222 Rn and .sup.220 Tn in a gas mixture, such as the ambient atmosphere in a mine, is provided. The apparatus includes an alpha target member which defines at least one operative target surface and which is preferably fabricated from a single piece of an alpha particle sensitive material. At least one portion of the operative target surface is covered with an alpha particle filter. The uncovered and filter covered operative surface is exposed to the gas mixture containing the .sup.222 Rn and .sup.220 Tn. In the radioactive decay series of these isotopes the maximum kinetic energy emitted by the alpha decay of .sup.222 Rn is about 1.1 MeV less than the maximum kinetic energy emitted by the alpha decay of a .sup.220 Tn. The alpha particle filter has a predetermined mass per unit area of the covered portion of the operative target surface that prevents penetration of alpha particles which originate from .sup.222 Rn decay, but which allows passage therethrough of the maximum kinetic energy alpha particles from .sup.220 Tn decay. Thus, a count of the alpha particle tracks in the uncovered portion of the target member is proportional to the mean concentration of sum of .sup.222 Rn and .sup.220 Tn in the gas mixture, while the count of alpha tracks in the target member under the filter is proportional to the concentration of only the .sup.220 Tn in the gas mixture.

  20. Alpha-beta coordination method for collective search

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention comprises a decentralized coordination strategy called alpha-beta coordination. The alpha-beta coordination strategy is a family of collective search methods that allow teams of communicating agents to implicitly coordinate their search activities through a division of labor based on self-selected roles and self-determined status. An agent can play one of two complementary roles. An agent in the alpha role is motivated to improve its status by exploring new regions of the search space. An agent in the beta role is also motivated to improve its status, but is conservative and tends to remain aggregated with other agents until alpha agents have clearly identified and communicated better regions of the search space. An agent can select its role dynamically based on its current status value relative to the status values of neighboring team members. Status can be determined by a function of the agent's sensor readings, and can generally be a measurement of source intensity at the agent's current location. An agent's decision cycle can comprise three sequential decision rules: (1) selection of a current role based on the evaluation of the current status data, (2) selection of a specific subset of the current data, and (3) determination of the next heading using the selected data. Variations of the decision rules produce different versions of alpha and beta behaviors that lead to different collective behavior properties.

  1. Gross alpha analytical modifications that improve wastewater treatment compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, B.J.; Arndt, S.

    2007-07-01

    This paper will propose an improvement to the gross alpha measurement that will provide more accurate gross alpha determinations and thus allow for more efficient and cost-effective treatment of site wastewaters. To evaluate the influence of salts that may be present in wastewater samples from a potentially broad range of environmental conditions, two types of efficiency curves were developed, each using a thorium-230 (Th-230) standard spike. Two different aqueous salt solutions were evaluated, one using sodium chloride, and one using salts from tap water drawn from the Bergen County, New Jersey Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW). For each curve, 13 to 17 solutions were prepared, each with the same concentration of Th-230 spike, but differing in the total amount of salt in the range of 0 to 100 mg. The attenuation coefficients were evaluated for the two salt types by plotting the natural log of the counted efficiencies vs. the weight of the sample's dried residue retained on the planchet. The results show that the range of the slopes for each of the attenuation curves varied by approximately a factor of 2.5. In order to better ensure the accuracy of results, and thus verify compliance with the gross alpha wastewater effluent criterion, projects depending on gross alpha measurements of environmental waters and wastewaters should employ gross alpha efficiency curves prepared with salts that mimic, as closely as possible, the salt content of the aqueous environmental matrix. (authors)

  2. Computer program for the sensitivity calculation of a CR-39 detector in a diffusion chamber for radon measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikezic, D. Stajic, J. M.; Yu, K. N.

    2014-02-15

    Computer software for calculation of the sensitivity of a CR-39 detector closed in a diffusion chamber to radon is described in this work. The software consists of two programs, both written in the standard Fortran 90 programming language. The physical background and a numerical example are given. Presented software is intended for numerous researches in radon measurement community. Previously published computer programs TRACK-TEST.F90 and TRACK-VISION.F90 [D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 174, 160 (2006); D. Nikezic and K. N. Yu, Comput. Phys. Commun. 178, 591 (2008)] are used here as subroutines to calculate the track parameters and to determine whether the track is visible or not, based on the incident angle, impact energy, etching conditions, gray level, and visibility criterion. The results obtained by the software, using five different V functions, were compared with the experimental data found in the literature. Application of two functions in this software reproduced experimental data very well, while other three gave lower sensitivity than experiment.

  3. Apparatus for detecting alpha radiation in difficult access areas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steadman, P.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1997-09-02

    An electrostatic alpha radiation detector for measuring alpha radiation emitted from inside an enclosure comprising an electrically conductive expandable electrode for insertion into the enclosure is disclosed. After insertion, the electrically conductive expandable electrode is insulated from the enclosure and defines a decay cavity between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure so that air ions generated in the decay cavity are electrostatically captured by the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure when an electric potential is applied between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. Indicator means are attached to the electrically conductive expandable electrode for indicating an electrical current produced by generation of the air ions generated in the decay cavity by collisions between air molecules and the alpha particles emitted from the enclosure. A voltage source is connected between the indicator means and the electrically conductive enclosure for creating an electric field between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. 4 figs.

  4. Apparatus for detecting alpha radiation in difficult access areas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steadman, Peter; MacArthur, Duncan W.

    1997-09-02

    An electrostatic alpha radiation detector for measuring alpha radiation emitted from inside an enclosure comprising an electrically conductive expandable electrode for insertion into the enclosure. After insertion, the electrically conductive expandable electrode is insulated from the enclosure and defines a decay cavity between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure so that air ions generated in the decay cavity are electrostatically captured by the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure when an electric potential is applied between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. Indicator means are attached to the electrically conductive expandable electrode for indicating an electrical current produced by generation of the air ions generated in the decay cavity by collisions between air molecules and the alpha particles emitted from the enclosure. A voltage source is connected between the indicator means and the electrically conductive enclosure for creating an electric field between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure.

  5. Complexation of americium with {alpha}-d-iso-saccharinate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allard, S.; Knutsson, A.; Oedegaard-Jensen, A.; Ekberg, C.; Jolsteraa, R.

    2008-07-01

    Under alkaline conditions, cellulose will degrade, with iso-saccharinate being the dominant end-product. One of the formed diastereomers, the {alpha}-D-iso-saccharinate, is a strong complexing agent for tri- and tetravalent actinides and is the dominant conformation at pH > 5, rendering other conformations insignificant at neutral to alkaline conditions. The presence of {alpha}-D-iso-saccharinate increases the amount of metal in solution and also affects the surface interactions. Understanding this complexation is of relevance for long-term repository assessments. This study has investigated the complexation of americium with {alpha}-D-iso-saccharinate using solvent-extraction and radioanalytical techniques at 25 deg. C. The stability constants for the complexation reactions were determined by curve fitting of a distribution-ratio equation to experimental data.

  6. Study of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in {sup 124}Sn by means of the ({alpha},{alpha}'{gamma}) reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endres, J.; Zilges, A.; Pietralla, N.; Savran, D.; Sonnabend, K.; Harakeh, M. N.; Stoica, V.; Woertche, H.; Butler, P.; Herzberg, R. D.; Scheck, M.; Kruecken, R.; Popescu, L.; Harissopulos, S.; Lagoyannis, A.

    2009-01-28

    In recent years {alpha}-{gamma} coincidence experiments at 136 MeV incident energy on {sup 48}Ca, {sup 140}Ce, {sup 138}Ba and {sup 124}Sn were performed at the KVI in Groningen to study the isospin character of electric dipole excitations below the particle threshold, frequently called Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR). An array of HPGe {gamma}-detectors has been used in coincidence with the Big-Bite Spectrometer (BBS) and a resolution of about 10 keV in the {gamma}-ray energy has been achieved. The results show that the excitation patterns of the PDR in the ({alpha},{alpha}') reaction seem to differ significantly from results obtained in Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF)({gamma},{gamma}') measurements. The PDR, which until now has been assigned to one excitation mode, splits up into two parts: One that is excited in ({alpha},{alpha}'{gamma}) and ({gamma},{gamma}') reactions (denoting a dominant isoscalar character), and one that is only excited in ({gamma},{gamma}')(denoting a dominant isovector character). This indicates that two different excitation mechanisms produce these low-lying E1 excitations [1], The preliminary results of the latest measurements on the N = 82 nucleus {sup 138}Ba and the Z = 50 nucleus {sup 124}Sn show that this break up into two parts is a common feature of the PDR in semi-magic nuclei.

  7. Direct analysis of air filter samples for alpha emitting isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohagheghi, A.H.; Ghanbari, F.; Ebara, S.B.; Enghauser, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bakhtiar, S.N. [Westinghouse WIPP, Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The traditional method for determination of alpha emitting isotopes on air filters has been to process the samples by radiochemical methods. However, this method is too slow for cases of incidents involving radioactive materials where the determination of personnel received dose is urgent. A method is developed to directly analyze the air filters taken from personal and area air monitors. The site knowledge is used in combination with alpha spectral information to identify isotopes. A mathematical function is developed to estimate the activity for each isotope. The strengths and weaknesses of the method are discussed.

  8. {alpha} decay of {sup 180,181}Pb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Saro, S.; Ackermann, D.; Comas, V. F.; Heinz, S.; Heredia, J. A.; Hessberger, F. P.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kojouharov, I.; Kindler, B.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R.; Cocolios, T. E.; Elseviers, J.; Huyse, M.; Duppen, P. Van; Venhart, M.; Franchoo, S.; Hofmann, S.

    2009-11-15

    A detailed {alpha}-decay study of the neutron-deficient isotope {sup 181}Pb has been performed in the complete fusion reaction {sup 40}Ca+{sup 144}Sm{yields}{sup 184}Pb* at the velocity filter SHIP (GSI, Darmstadt). In comparison with the literature, more precise data have been deduced for the I{sup {pi}}=(9/2{sup -}) ground state in this nucleus, which is presumably based on the neutron {nu}h{sub 9/2} spherical orbital. Improved {alpha}-decay data were also measured for {sup 180}Pb.

  9. Preparation of {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and anhydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spivey, J.J.; Gogate, M.R.; Zoeller, J.R.; Tustin, G.C.

    1998-01-20

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and anhydrides thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising mixed oxides of vanadium, phosphorus and, optionally, a third component selected from titanium, aluminum or, preferably silicon.

  10. Preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gogate, Makarand Ratnakar; Spivey, James Jerry; Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic acid, ester or anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising an oxide of niobium.

  11. Preparation of .alpha., .beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and anhydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spivey, James Jerry; Gogate, Makarand Ratnakav; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Tustin, Gerald Charles

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and anhydrides thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising mixed oxides of vanadium, phosphorus and, optionally, a third component selected from titanium, aluminum or, preferably silicon.

  12. Preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.

    1998-09-15

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic acid, ester or anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising an oxide of niobium.

  13. CRAD, Management- Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU ALPHA LLWT Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a November 2003 assessment of the Management Program portion of an Operational Readiness Review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU ALPHA LLWT Project.

  14. Small-Molecule Inhibition of TNF-alpha

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Farrington, G., Eldredge, J.K., Day, E.S., Cruz, L.A., Cachero, T.G., Miller, S.K., Friedman, J.E., Choong, I.C., Cunningham, B.C. Small-molecule inhibition of TNF-alpha. Science...

  15. CRAD, Training- Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU ALPHA LLWT Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a November 2003 assessment of the Training Program portion of an Operational Readiness Review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU ALPHA LLWT Project.

  16. THE TWO REGIMES OF PHOTOSPHERIC MOTIONS IN {alpha} HYDRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, David F., E-mail: dfgray@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2013-02-10

    High-resolution spectroscopic observations of {alpha} Hya were acquired between 2003 and 2010. Analysis of line shifts, differential shifts, line widths, and line bisectors points to two regimes of velocity fields in the photosphere of {alpha} Hya: (1) normal granulation embedded in (2) large convection cells. Variations occur on a wide range of timescales, from several years on down. Radial velocity variations, which are irregular and span 786 m s{sup -1}, have a distribution consistent with a true mean rise velocity of the large cells of {approx}725 m s{sup -1} and a dispersion of {approx}220 m s{sup -1}. The distribution of granulation velocities, as measured from the widths of spectral lines, shows only small variations, consistent with the two regime concepts. On the multi-year timescale, radial velocity changes, small temperature variations ({approx}10 K), and small line-width variations ({approx}<0.8%) track each other, possibly with phase shifts. The granulation velocity gradient for {alpha} Hya is about half as large as the Sun's and no variation with time was seen, implying that any variation in velocity gradient from one large cell to the next must be less than a few percent. The asymmetry in the granulation velocity distribution, as specified in the flux deficit, is smaller than expected for {alpha} Hya's position in the HR diagram and appears to be variable.

  17. Alpha storage regime in high temperature sub-ignited D-T tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zweben, S.J.; Furth, H.P.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Redi, M.H.; Strachan, J.D.

    1988-07-01

    Alpha particle parameters in sub-ignited D-T tokamaks like TFTR can be optimized in a high temperature ''alpha storage regime '' in which the alpha particle thermalization time /tau//sub ..cap alpha../ is long (approx.1.0 sec) and in which the alpha particle source rate S/sub ..cap alpha../ is enhanced due to a beam-target and beam-beam reactions (by a factor of approx.2-3). Near reactor-level alpha instability parameters ..beta../sub ..cap alpha../(0) approx. n/sub ..cap alpha../(0)/n/sub e/(O) approx. 1% are predicted by simulation codes when Q approx. 0.5-1, while present TFTR ''supershots'' already have ..beta../sub ..cap alpha../(O) approx. n/sub /alpha/(O)/n/sub e/(O) /approx/ 0.1-0.2%. Plasmas in this regime can be used to test theories of collective alpha instabilities for the first time, and can be used to provide a strong (but transient) alpha heating pulse. An experimental scenario to exploit this regime is described. 28 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.,

  18. A modeling study of the effect of depth of burial of depleted uranium and thorium on radon gas flux at a dry desert alluvial soil radioactive waste management site (RWMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-08-01

    An integral part of designing low-level waste (LLW) disposal pits and their associated closure covers in very dry desert alluvium is the use of a radon gas transport and fate model. Radon-222 has the potential to be a real heath hazard. The production of radon-222 results from the radioactive decay (a particle emission) of radium-226 in the uranium-235 and 238 Bateman chains. It is also produced in the thorium-230 series. Both long lived radionuclides have been proposed for disposal in the shallow land burial pits in Area 5 RWMS compound of Nevada Test Site (NTS). The constructed physics based model includes diffusion and barometric pressure-induced advection of an M-chain of radionuclides. The usual Bateman decay mechanics are included for each radionuclide. Both linear reversible and linear irreversible first order sorption kinetics are assumed for each radionuclide. This report presents the details of using the noble gas transport model, CASCADR9, in an engineering design study mode. Given data on the low-level waste stream, which constitutes the ultimate source of radon-222 in the RWMS, CASCADR9 is used to generate the surface flux (pCi/cm{sup 2}-sec) of radon-222 under the realistic atmospheric and alluvial soil conditions found in the RWMS at Area 5, of the NTS. Specifically, this study examines the surface flux of radon-222 as a function of the depth of burial below the land surface.

  19. Comments on the behavior of alpha(1) in main injector gamma(t...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Comments on the behavior of alpha(1) in main injector gamma(t) jump schemes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comments on the behavior of alpha(1) in ...

  20. EIS-0305: Treating Transuranic (TRU)/Alpha Low-Level at the Oak...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transuranic (TRU)Alpha Low-Level at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee EIS-0305: Treating Transuranic (TRU)Alpha Low-Level at the Oak Ridge National ...

  1. {open_quotes}Radon{close_quotes} - the system of Soviet designed regional waste management facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horak, W.C.; Reisman, A.; Purvis, E.E. III

    1997-07-01

    The Soviet Union established a system of specialized regional facilities to dispose of radioactive waste generated by sources other than the nuclear fuel cycle. The system had 16 facilities in Russia, 5 in Ukraine, one in each of the other CIS states, and one in each of the Baltic Republics. These facilities are still being used. The major generators of radioactive waste they process these are research and industrial organizations, medical and agricultural institution and other activities not related to nuclear power. Waste handled by these facilities is mainly beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides with half lives of less than 30 years. The long-lived and alpha-emitting isotopic content is insignificant. Most of the radwaste has low and medium radioactivity levels. The facilities also handle spent radiation sources, which are highly radioactive and contain 95-98 percent of the activity of all the radwaste buried at these facilities.

  2. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alpha Baking Company Augments Its Fleet With

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Propane Delivery Trucks Alpha Baking Company Augments Its Fleet With Propane Delivery Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alpha Baking Company Augments Its Fleet With Propane Delivery Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alpha Baking Company Augments Its Fleet With Propane Delivery Trucks on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alpha Baking Company Augments Its Fleet With Propane Delivery Trucks on Google Bookmark Alternative

  3. Effect of. cap alpha. -ketobutyrate on the metabolism of pyruvate and palmitate in isolated rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brass, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    Alpha-ketobutyrate (..cap alpha..KB), an intermediate in the catabolism of threonine and methionine, is decarboxylated to propionyl-CoA. The authors have reported that propionate (PROP) inhibits oxidative metabolism in rate hepatocytes. Based on these observations, the present study examined the effects of ..cap alpha..KB on pyruvate and palmitate metabolism in hepatocytes isolated from fed rats. Similar to PROP, ..cap alpha..KB (10mM) inhibited palmitate oxidation and this inhibition was diminished when 10mM carnitine (CN) was added (35 +/- 6% inhibition without CN, 22 +/- 8% with CN). ..cap alpha..KB inhibited the conversion of 3-/sup 14/C-pyruvate to glucose and CO/sub 2/. Inhibition of pyruvate metabolism by ..cap alpha..KB was concentration-dependent. At equal concentrations, ..cap alpha..KB inhibited pyruvate metabolism to a greater extent than PROP. Addition of CN partially reversed the effects of PROP on pyruvate metabolism, but not those of ..cap alpha..KB despite the generation of propionylcarnitine when ..cap alpha..KB and CN were included in the incubation. These results demonstrate that accumulation of ..cap alpha..KB can impair normal hepatocyte metabolism. While some of the effects of ..cap alpha..KB can be explained on the basis of propionyl-CoA formation, ..cap alpha..KB has effects on pyruvate metabolism not explainable by this mechanism.

  4. INSTABILITIES DRIVEN BY THE DRIFT AND TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY OF ALPHA PARTICLES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verscharen, Daniel; Bourouaine, Sofiane; Chandran, Benjamin D. G. E-mail: s.bourouaine@unh.edu

    2013-08-20

    We investigate the conditions under which parallel-propagating Alfven/ion-cyclotron (A/IC) waves and fast-magnetosonic/whistler (FM/W) waves are driven unstable by the differential flow and temperature anisotropy of alpha particles in the solar wind. We focus on the limit in which w{sub Parallel-To {alpha}} {approx}> 0.25v{sub A}, where w{sub Parallel-To {alpha}} is the parallel alpha-particle thermal speed and v{sub A} is the Alfven speed. We derive analytic expressions for the instability thresholds of these waves, which show, e.g., how the minimum unstable alpha-particle beam speed depends upon w{sub Parallel-To {alpha}}/v{sub A}, the degree of alpha-particle temperature anisotropy, and the alpha-to-proton temperature ratio. We validate our analytical results using numerical solutions to the full hot-plasma dispersion relation. Consistent with previous work, we find that temperature anisotropy allows A/IC waves and FM/W waves to become unstable at significantly lower values of the alpha-particle beam speed U{sub {alpha}} than in the isotropic-temperature case. Likewise, differential flow lowers the minimum temperature anisotropy needed to excite A/IC or FM/W waves relative to the case in which U{sub {alpha}} = 0. We discuss the relevance of our results to alpha particles in the solar wind near 1 AU.

  5. Alpha Solarco`s Photovoltaic Concentrator Development program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, A.; Bailor, B.; Carroll, D.

    1995-10-01

    This report details the work done under Sandia`s Photovoltaic Concentrator Development contract, funded jointly by Alpha Solarco and the US Department of Energy. It discusses improvements made to the cell assembly and module design of Alpha Solarco`s point-focus, high-concentration photovoltaic module. The goals of this effort were to increase the module efficiency, reduce the manufacturing cost of the cell assembly, and increase product reliability. Redesign of the secondary optical element achieved a 4 percent increase in efficiency due to better cell fill factors and offtrack performance. New, lower cost materials were identified for the secondary optical element, the optical couple between the secondary optical element and the cell, and the cell assembly electrical insulator. Manufacturing process improvements and test equipment are also discussed.

  6. ALPHA ENHANCEMENT AND THE METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF PLAUT'S WINDOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Michael Rich, R.; Fulbright, Jon P.; Valenti, Elena; McWilliam, Andrew E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: evalenti@eso.org

    2011-05-10

    We present Fe, Si, and Ca abundances for 61 giants in Plaut's window (l = -1{sup 0}, b = -8.{sup 0}5) and Fe abundances for an additional 31 giants in a second, nearby field (l = 0{sup 0}, b = -8{sup 0}) derived from high-resolution (R {approx} 25,000) spectra obtained with the Blanco 4 m telescope and Hydra multifiber spectrograph. The median metallicity of red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Plaut's field is {approx}0.4 dex lower than those in Baade's window, and confirms the presence of an iron abundance gradient along the bulge minor axis. The full metallicity range of our (biased) RGB sample spans -1.5 < [Fe/H] < +0.3, which is similar to that found in other bulge fields. We also derive a photometric metallicity distribution function for RGB stars in the (l = -1{sup 0}, b = -8{sup 0}.5) field and find very good agreement with the spectroscopic metallicity distribution. The radial velocity (RV) and dispersion data for the bulge RGB stars are in agreement with previous results of the Bulge Radial Velocity Assay survey, and we find evidence for a decreasing velocity dispersion with increasing [Fe/H]. The [{alpha}/Fe] enhancement in Plaut field stars is nearly identical to that observed in Baade's window, and suggests that an [{alpha}/Fe] gradient does not exist between b = -4{sup 0} and -8{sup 0}. Additionally, a subset of our sample (23 stars) appears to be foreground red clump stars that are very metal rich, exhibit small metallicity and RV dispersions, and are enhanced in {alpha} elements. While these stars likely belong to the Galactic inner disk population, they exhibit [{alpha}/Fe] ratios that are enhanced above the thin and thick disk.

  7. Measurements of the CKM Angle Alpha at BaBar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stracka, Simone; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan

    2012-04-04

    The authors present improved measurements of the branching fractions and CP-asymmetries fin the B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, and B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup 0} decays, which impact the determination of {alpha}. The combined branching fractions of B {yields} K{sub 1}(1270){pi} and B {yields} K{sub 1}(1400){pi} decays are measured for the first time and allow a novel determination of {alpha} in the B{sup 0} {yields} {alpha}{sub 1}(1260){sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} decay channel. These measurements are performed using the final dataset collected by the BaBar detector at the PEP-II B-factory. The primary goal of the experiments based at the B factories is to test the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) picture of CP violation in the standard model of electroweak interactions. This can be achieved by measuring the angles and sides of the Unitarity Triangle in a redundant way.

  8. A comparison of the alpha and gamma radiolysis of CMPO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Gary Groenewold; Gracy Elias

    2011-06-01

    The radiation chemistry of CMPO has been investigated using a combination of irradiation and analytical techniques. The {alpha}-, and {gamma}-irradiation of CMPO resulted in identical degradation rates (G-value, in {mu}mol Gy{sup -1}) for both radiation types, despite the difference in their linear energy transfer (LET). Similarly, variations in {gamma}-ray dose rates did not affect the degradation rate of CMPO. The solvent extraction behavior was different for the two radiation types, however. Gamma-irradiation resulted in steadily increasing distribution ratios for both forward and stripping extractions, with respect to increasing absorbed radiation dose. This was true for samples irradiated as a neat organic solution, or irradiated in contact with the acidic aqueous phase. In contrast, {alpha}-irradiated samples showed a rapid drop in distribution ratios for forward and stripping extractions, followed by essentially constant distribution ratios at higher absorbed doses. These differences in extraction behavior are reconciled by mass spectrometric examination of CMPO decomposition products under the different irradiation sources. Irradiation by {gamma}-rays resulted in the rupture of phosphoryl-methylene bonds with the production of phosphinic acid products. These species are expected to be complexing agents for americium that would result in higher distribution ratios. Irradiation by {alpha}-sources appeared to favor rupture of carbamoyl-methylene bonds with the production of less deleterious acetamide products.

  9. Human 3[alpha]-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3: structural clues of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    5[alpha]-DHT reverse binding and enzyme down-regulation decreasing MCF7 cell growth (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Human 3[alpha]-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3: structural clues of 5[alpha]-DHT reverse binding and enzyme down-regulation decreasing MCF7 cell growth Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Human 3[alpha]-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3: structural clues of 5[alpha]-DHT reverse binding and enzyme down-regulation decreasing MCF7 cell growth Authors: Zhang, Bo ;

  10. Alpha particle losses from Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor deuterium-tritium plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darrow, D.S.; Zweben, S.J.; Batha, S.

    1996-01-01

    Because alpha particle losses can have a significant influence on tokamak reactor viability, the loss of deuterium-tritium alpha particles from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been measured under a wide range of conditions. In TFTR, first orbit loss and stochastic toroidal field ripple diffusion are always present. Other losses can arise due to magnetohydrodynamic instabilities or due to waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. No alpha particle losses have yet been seen due to collective instabilities driven by alphas. Ion Bernstein waves can drive large losses of fast ions from TFTR, and details of those losses support one element of the alpha energy channeling scenario.

  11. X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE z {approx} 4.5 Ly{alpha} EMITTERS IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Wang, J. X.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Finkelstein, K. D.; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J. E. E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.c

    2010-07-20

    We report the first X-ray detection of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at redshift z {approx} 4.5. One source (J033127.2-274247) is detected in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (ECDF-S) X-ray data and has been spectroscopically confirmed as a z = 4.48 quasar with L{sub X} = 4.2 x 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. The single detection gives an Ly{alpha} quasar density of {approx} 2.7{sup +6.2} {sub -2.2} x 10{sup -6} Mpc{sup -3}, consistent with the X-ray luminosity function of quasars. Another 22 LAEs in the central Chandra Deep Field-South region are not detected individually, but their co-added counts yield an S/N = 2.4 (p = 99.83%) detection at soft band, with an effective exposure time of {approx}36 Ms. Further analysis of the equivalent width (EW) distribution shows that all the signals come from 12 LAE candidates with EW{sub rest}< 400 A and 2 of them contribute about half of the signal. From follow-up spectroscopic observations, we find that one of the two is a low-redshift emission-line galaxy, and the other is a Lyman break galaxy at z = 4.4 with little or no Ly{alpha} emission. Excluding these two and combined with ECDF-S data, we derive a 3{sigma} upper limit on the average X-ray flux of F {sub 0.5-2.0keV} < 1.6 x 10{sup -18} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which corresponds to an average luminosity of (L {sub 0.5-2keV}) <2.4 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} for z {approx} 4.5 LAEs. If the average X-ray emission is due to star formation, it corresponds to a star formation rate (SFR) of <180-530 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1}. We use this SFR {sub X} as an upper limit of the unobscured SFR to constrain the escape fraction of Ly{alpha} photons and find a lower limit of f{sub esc,Ly{alpha}} > 3%-10%. However, our upper limit on the SFR {sub X} is {approx}7 times larger than the upper limit on SFR {sub X} on z {approx} 3.1 LAEs in the same field and at least 30 times higher than the SFR estimated from Ly{alpha} emission. From the average X-ray-to-Ly{alpha} line ratio, we estimate that fewer than 3.2% (6.3%) of our LAEs could be high-redshift type 1 (type 2) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and those hidden AGNs likely show low rest-frame EWs.

  12. Sandia Higher Order Elements (SHOE) v 0.5 alpha

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-09-24

    SHOE is research code for characterizing and visualizing higher-order finite elements; it contains a framework for defining classes of interpolation techniques and element shapes; methods for interpolating triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, and hexahedral cells using Lagrange and Legendre polynomial bases of arbitrary order; methods to decompose each element into domains of constant gradient flow (using a polynomial solver to identify critical points); and an isocontouring technique that uses this decomposition to guarantee topological correctness. Please notemore » that this is an alpha release of research software and that some time has passed since it was actively developed; build- and run-time issues likely exist.« less

  13. Magnetic interaction in oxygenated alpha Fe-phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzmann, Ern?, E-mail: kuzmann@caesar.elte.hu; Homonnay, Zoltn; Horvth, Attila [Institute of Chemistry, Etvs Lornd University, P.O. Box 32, 1512 Budapest (Hungary); Pechousek, Jiri; Cuda, Jan; Machala, Libor; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Zboril, Radek [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Departments of Experimental Physics and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Yin, Houping; Wei, Yen [Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Klencsr, Zoltn [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, 1117 (Hungary); Kubuki, Shiro [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nath, Amar [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Asheville, NC 28804 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Alpha iron phthalocyanines (?-FePc) oxygenated at low temperatures were investigated with the help of {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy, magnetization measurements (SQUID) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Mssbauer spectroscopy revealed that upon oxygenation of ?-FePc, new species were formed which could be associated with Fe{sup III}Pc oxygen adducts. Unexpectedly, magnetically split spectrum of oxygenated ?-FePc was observed below 20 K. In-field Mssbauer spectra in a 5 T external magnetic field at 5K and magnetization measurements indicate antiferromagnetic coupling in oxygenated ?-FePc.

  14. Splitting of the pygmy dipole resonance in {sup 138}Ba and {sup 140}Ce observed in the ({alpha},{alpha}{sup '}{gamma}) reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Endres, J.; Hasper, J.; Zilges, A.; Savran, D.; Berg, A. M. van den; Dendooven, P.; Woertche, H. J.; Fritzsche, M.; Harakeh, M. N.

    2009-09-15

    The N=82 nuclei {sup 140}Ce and {sup 138}Ba have been investigated by means of the ({alpha},{alpha}{sup '}{gamma}) coincidence method to study the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR). The experiments have been performed at the AGOR cyclotron at KVI, Groningen, at a primary beam energy of E{sub {alpha}}=136 MeV. The Big-Bite Spectrometer and seven large-volume high-purity germanium detectors were used in coincidence to perform a simultaneous spectroscopy of the scattered {alpha} particles and the {gamma} decay. The comparison with results of nuclear resonance fluorescence experiments reveals a splitting of the PDR into two components. Up to about 6 MeV the same states that could be observed in ({gamma},{gamma}{sup '}) are also excited in {alpha}-scattering experiments, whereas the higher-lying states are missing in the ({alpha},{alpha}{sup '}{gamma}) reaction. This indicates a structural splitting of the PDR into two modes with different underlying structure.

  15. Simulation of Alpha Particles in Rotating Plasma Interacting with a Stationary Ripple

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-01-11

    Superthermal ExB rotation can provide magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and enhanced confinement to axisymmetric mirrors. However, the rotation speed has been limited by phenomena at end electrodes. A new prediction is that rotation might instead be produced using a magnetic ripple and alpha particle kinetic energy, in an extension of the alpha channeling concept. The interaction of alpha particles with the ripple results in visually interesting and practically useful orbits.

  16. Method for the simultaneous preparation of radon-211, xenon-125, xenon-123, astatine-211, iodine-125 and iodine-123

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, S.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1985-07-01

    The invention relates to a practical method for commercially producing radiopharmaceutical activities and, more particularly, relates to a method for the preparation of about equal amount of Radon-211 (/sup 211/Rn) and Xenon-125 (/sup 125/Xe) including a one-step chemical procedure following an irradiation procedure in which a selected target of Thorium (/sup 232/Th) or Uranium (/sup 238/U) is irradiated. The disclosed method is also effective for the preparation in a one-step chemical procedure of substantially equal amounts of high purity /sup 123/I and /sup 211/At. In one preferred arrangement of the invention almost equal quantities of /sup 211/Rn and /sup 125/Xe are prepared using a onestep chemical procedure in which a suitably irradiated fertile target material, such as thorium-232 or uranium-238, is treated to extract those radionuclides from it. In the same one-step chemical procedure about equal quantities of /sup 211/At and /sup 123/I are prepared and stored for subsequent use. In a modified arrangement of the method of the invention, it is practiced to separate and store about equal amounts of only /sup 211/Rn and /sup 125/Xe, while preventing the extraction or storage of the radionuclides /sup 211/At and /sup 123/I.

  17. Recovery Cleanup Project at Y-12 Leaves Alpha 5 with an Empty...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Cleanup Project at Y-12 Leaves Alpha 5 with an Empty Feeling | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile...

  18. Alpha channeling with high-field launch of lower hybrid waves...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of a radial alpha particle birth gradient, this interaction can take the form of wave amplification rather than damping. While it is known that this amplification more...

  19. Comparison of MCNP6 and experimental results for neutron counts, Rossi-{alpha}, and Feynman-{alpha} distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, Y.; Sadovich, S.; Kiyavitskaya, H.; Bournos, V.; Fokov, Y.; Routkovskaya, C.

    2013-07-01

    MCNP6, the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle code, has the capability to perform time-dependent calculations by tracking the time interval between successive events of the neutron random walk. In fixed-source calculations for a subcritical assembly, the zero time value is assigned at the moment the neutron is emitted by the external neutron source. The PTRAC and F8 cards of MCNP allow to tally the time when a neutron is captured by {sup 3}He(n, p) reactions in the neutron detector. From this information, it is possible to build three different time distributions: neutron counts, Rossi-{alpha}, and Feynman-{alpha}. The neutron counts time distribution represents the number of neutrons captured as a function of time. The Rossi-a distribution represents the number of neutron pairs captured as a function of the time interval between two capture events. The Feynman-a distribution represents the variance-to-mean ratio, minus one, of the neutron counts array as a function of a fixed time interval. The MCNP6 results for these three time distributions have been compared with the experimental data of the YALINA Thermal facility and have been found to be in quite good agreement. (authors)

  20. Networked alpha and gamma spectral acquisition and analysis system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilcox, C.M.; Gross, J.M.

    1993-10-01

    This manual assumes a knowledge of (terminology used and a working familiarity with) the windowing system and mouse of the Sun computer workstation. See the appropriate Sun manuals for additional information. ALDO, the alpha detector control program, is used to control, monitor, and edit log information associated with the collection of alpha spectra. Actual data collection and control functions are performed by Mizar Real-Time computers for which ALDO acts as a friendly user command interface and status display. It is normally started as part of your login procedure, but may also be started from the ``NETSPEC Utilities`` submenu of the root menu. The root menu is obtained by pushing the right mouse button when the cursor is over the root window (background picture). To become a user of ALDO and the other programs in the NETSPEC system, contact the person who performs systems administration tasks for the Sun computers. Most user interaction with ALDO is by means of mouse manipulation of screen items such as buttons, checkboxes, and sliders. The action of pushing the left mouse button when the cursor is over an item is called selecting that item. The left mouse button is therefore called the select button. The right mouse button is the menu button because a limited number of options may be displayed when that button is pressed when the cursor is over an item with a triangle (inverted delta). In this document, names of selectable items are printed in bold when they are first mentioned or when emphasis is helpful. In general, items which do not apply to the current context are either disabled or made invisible in order to prevent selection.

  1. Structural and Biophysical Studies of the Human IL-7/IL-7R[alpha] Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McElroy, Craig A.; Dohm, Julie A.; Walsh, Scott T.R.; (OSU); (UPENN)

    2009-03-06

    IL-7 and IL-7R{alpha} bind the {gamma}{sub c} receptor, forming a complex crucial to several signaling cascades leading to the development and homeostasis of T and B cells. We report that the IL-7R{alpha} ectodomain uses glycosylation to modulate its binding constants to IL-7, unlike the other receptors in the {gamma}{sub c} family. IL-7 binds glycosylated IL-7R{alpha} 300-fold more tightly than unglycosylated IL-7R{alpha}, and the enhanced affinity is attributed primarily to an accelerated on rate. Structural comparison of IL-7 in complex to both forms of IL-7R{alpha} reveals that glycosylation does not participate directly in the binding interface. The SCID mutations of IL-7R{alpha} locate outside the binding interface with IL-7, suggesting that the expressed mutations cause protein folding defects in IL-7R{alpha}. The IL-7/IL-7R{alpha} structures provide a window into the molecular recognition events of the IL-7 signaling cascade and provide sites to target for designing new therapeutics to treat IL-7-related diseases.

  2. Cloning of a yeast alpha-amylase promoter and its regulated heterologous expression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR; Hooker, Brian S [Kennewick, WA; Anderson, Daniel B [Pasco, WA

    2003-04-01

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of an alpha-amylase gene of a starch utilizing yeast strain Schwanniomyces castellii. The isolated alpha-amylase promoter is an inducible promoter, which can regulate strong gene expression in starch culture medium.

  3. Recovery Cleanup Project at Y-12 Leaves Alpha 5 with an Empty Feeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Alpha 5 Legacy Material Disposition project at Y-12 recently celebrated the early completion of a significant project milestone. The fourth floor of Alpha 5 has been cleared of 5,430 containers of legacy materials, which includes any equipment and materials not bolted or secured to the facility.

  4. Probable new type of reaction mechanism: Double. cap alpha. direct transfer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Shu-wei; Wu Guo-hua; Miao Rong-zhi; Han Fei

    1983-10-01

    It is assumed that /sup 8/Be consists of two ..cap alpha.. particles which are close to each other in configuration space. A spectroscopic density of /sup 8/Be cluster in the residue nuclei is then obtained, which is proportional to the square of the preformation probability of ..cap alpha.. particle at nuclear surface. Using the improved method of parametrization of EFR-DWBA overlap integral,/sup 1//sup en-dash//sup 2/ we calculate the double differential energy spectra and angular distributions of ..cap alpha.. particles for the reactions /sup 209/Bi (/sup 12/C, ..cap alpha..) /sup 217/Fr and extract the preformation probability of ..cap alpha.. particle at the surface of /sup 217/Fr nuclei from fitting the experimental data. The agreement within the range of calculation error between the preformation probabilities extracted from transfer reactions and ..cap alpha.. decay suggests that the reaction /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C, ..cap alpha..) /sup 217/Fr may be explained as a double ..cap alpha.. direct transfer process.

  5. Simulations of alpha parameters in a TFTR DT supershot with high fusion power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Budny, R.V.; Bell, M.G.; Janos, A.C.

    1995-07-01

    A TFTR supershot with a plasma current of 2.5 MA, neutral beam heating power of 33.7 MW, and a peak DT fusion power of 7.5 MW is studied using the TRANSP plasma analysis code. Simulations of alpha parameters such as the alpha heating, pressure, and distributions in energy and v{sub parallel}/v are given. The effects of toroidal ripple and mixing of the fast alpha particles during the sawteeth observed after the neutral beam injection phase are modeled. The distributions of alpha particles on the outer midplane are peaked near forward and backward v{sub parallel}/v. Ripple losses deplete the distributions in the vicinity of v{sub parallel}/v {approximately}{minus}0.4. Sawtooth mixing of fast alpha particles is computed to reduce their central density and broaden their width in energy.

  6. Use of /sup 3/He/sup + +/ ICRF minority heating to simulate alpha particle heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, D.E. Jr.; Hwang, D.Q.; Hovey, J.

    1983-11-16

    It is an object of the present invention to provide a better understanding of alpha particle behavior in a magnetically confined, energetic plasma. Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved means and method for studying and measuring the energy distribution of heated alpha particles in a confined plasma. Yet another object of the present invention is to permit detailed analysis of energetic alpha particle behavior in a magnetically confined plasma for use in near term fusion reactor experiments. A still further object of the present invention is to simulate energetic alpha particle behavior in a deuterium-tritium plasma confined in a fusion reactor without producing the neutron activation associated with the thus produced alpha particles.

  7. (p,. cap alpha. ) reactions on 1p, 2s-1d shell nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrini, F.; Trivisonno, D.; Avon, S.; Bianchin, R.; Rui, R.

    1983-07-01

    The /sup 12/C(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 9/B and /sup 32/S(p,..cap alpha..)/sup 29/P reactions have been studied at incident energies of 42.77 and 41.9 MeV, respectively. The experimental (p,..cap alpha..) relative cross sections are well reproduced by distorted wave direct pickup calculations with a semimicroscopic form factor and current shell model wave functions. A comparison between (p,..cap alpha..) and (/sup 3/He,d) spectra on 1p and 2s-1d shell nuclei, leading to the same final nucleus, shows a clear evidence of a dominant pickup process over the knockout mechanism in the dynamics of the (p,..cap alpha..) reaction.

  8. ORNL-5489 Radon and Radon Daughter

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... in resolution when helium is used as a chamber fill gas. ... Department of Energy, 376 Hudson Street, New York, NY 10014 Jack Healy, Office of Environmental Policy Analysis, Los ...

  9. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, Rino; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Murota, Kaeko; Yamada, Yuko; Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO{sub 2} production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. {yields} Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO{sub 2} production in small intestinal epithelial cells. {yields} Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. {yields} It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPAR{alpha} activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPAR{alpha} activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites in enterocytes. Moreover, bezafibrate treatment suppressed postprandial lipidemia after oral administration of olive oil to the mice. These findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia through enhancement of fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes, suggesting that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activity is a novel target of PPAR{alpha} agonist for decreasing circulating levels of lipids under postprandial conditions.

  10. Evaluation of repeated measurements of radon-222 concentrations in well water sampled from bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont near Richmond, Virginia, USA: Effects of lithology and well characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, Shelley A. . E-mail: saharris@vcu.edu; Billmeyer, Ernest R.; Robinson, Michael A.

    2006-07-15

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentrations in 26 ground water wells of two distinct lithologies in the Piedmont of Virginia were measured to assess variation in ground water radon concentrations (GWRC), to evaluate differences in concentrations related to well characteristics, lithology, and spatial distributions, and to assess the feasibility of predicting GWRC. Wells were sampled in accordance with American Public Health Association Method 7500 Rn-B, with modifications to include a well shaft profile analysis that determined the minimum purge time sufficient to remove the equivalent of one column of water from each well. Statistically significant differences in GWRC were found in the Trssu (1482{+-}1711 pCi/L) and Mpg (7750{+-}5188 pCi/L) lithologies, however, no significant differences were found among GWRC at each well over time. Using multiple regression, 86% of the variability (R {sup 2}) in the GWRC was explained by the lithology, latitudinal class, and water table elevation of the wells. The GWRC in a majority of the wells studied exceed US Environmental Protection Agency designated maximum contaminant level and AMCL. Results support modifications to sampling procedures and indicate that, in previous studies, variations in GWRC concentrations over time may have been due in part to differences in sampling procedures and not in source water.

  11. Measurement of the cross section of charmed hadrons and the nuclear dependence alpha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanco-Covarrubias, E.Alejandro; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2009-12-01

    With data from the SELEX experiment we study charm hadro-production. We report the differential production cross sections as function of the longitudinal and transverse momentum, as well as for two different target materials, of 14 charmed hadron and/or their decay modes. This is the most extensive study to date. SELEX is a fixed target experiment at Fermilab with high forward acceptance; it took data during 1996-1997 with 600 GeV/c {Sigma}{sup -} and {pi}{sup -}, and 540 GeV/c proton and {pi}{sup +} beams. It used 5 target foils (two copper and three diamond). We use the results to determine {alpha}, used in parametrizing the production cross section as {infinity} A{sup {alpha}}, where A is the mass number of the target nuclei. We found within our statistics that {alpha} is independent of the longitudinal momentum fraction x{sub F} in the interval 0.1 < x{sub F} < 1.0, with {alpha} = 0.778 {+-} 0.014. The average value of {alpha} for charm production by pion beams is {alpha}{sub meson} = 0.850 {+-} 0.028. This is somewhat larger than the corresponding average {alpha}{sub baryon} = 0.755 {+-} 0.016 for charm production by baryon beams ({Sigma}{sup -} and protons).

  12. COMPUTING INTRINSIC LY{alpha} FLUXES OF F5 V TO M5 V STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; France, Kevin; Ayres, Tom

    2013-04-01

    The Ly{alpha} emission line dominates the far-ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars and is a major source for photodissociation of important molecules including H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} in exoplanet atmospheres. The incident flux in this line illuminating an exoplanet's atmosphere cannot be measured directly as neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium (ISM) attenuates most of the flux reaching the Earth. Reconstruction of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} line has been accomplished for a limited number of nearby stars, but is not feasible for distant or faint host stars. We identify correlations connecting the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with the flux in other emission lines formed in the stellar chromosphere, and find that these correlations depend only gradually on the flux in the other lines. These correlations, which are based on Hubble Space Telescope spectra, reconstructed Ly{alpha} line fluxes, and irradiance spectra of the quiet and active Sun, are required for photochemical models of exoplanet atmospheres when intrinsic Ly{alpha} fluxes are not available. We find a tight correlation of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with stellar X-ray flux for F5 V to K5 V stars, but much larger dispersion for M stars. We also show that knowledge of the stellar effective temperature and rotation rate can provide reasonably accurate estimates of the Ly{alpha} flux for G and K stars, and less accurate estimates for cooler stars.

  13. THE SPATIALLY RESOLVED H{alpha}-EMITTING WIND STRUCTURE OF P CYGNI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balan, Aurelian; Tycner, C.; Zavala, R. T.; Benson, J. A.; Hutter, D. J.; Templeton, M. E-mail: c.tycner@cmich.ed E-mail: jbenson@nofs.navy.mi E-mail: matthewt@aavso.or

    2010-06-15

    High spatial resolution observations of the H{alpha}-emitting wind structure associated with the luminous blue variable star P Cygni were obtained with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer. These observations represent the most comprehensive interferometric data set on P Cyg to date. We demonstrate how the apparent size of the H{alpha}-emitting region of the wind structure of P Cyg compares between the 2005, 2007, and 2008 observing seasons and how this relates to the H{alpha} line spectroscopy. Using the data sets from 2005, 2007, and 2008 observing seasons, we fit a circularly symmetric Gaussian model to the interferometric signature from the H{alpha}-emitting wind structure of P Cyg. Based on our results, we conclude that the radial extent of the H{alpha}-emitting wind structure around P Cyg is stable at the 10% level. We also show how the radial distribution of the H{alpha} flux from the wind structure deviates from a Gaussian shape, whereas a two-component Gaussian model is sufficient to fully describe the H{alpha}-emitting region around P Cyg.

  14. LIMITS ON ALPHA PARTICLE TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY AND DIFFERENTIAL FLOW FROM KINETIC INSTABILITIES: SOLAR WIND OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourouaine, Sofiane; Verscharen, Daniel; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Maruca, Bennett A.; Kasper, Justin C.

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the observed temperature anisotropies of protons and alpha particles in the solar wind are constrained by theoretical thresholds for pressure and anisotropy driven instabilities such as the Alfvn/ion-cyclotron (A/IC) and fast-magnetosonic/whistler (FM/W) instabilities. In this Letter, we use a long period of in situ measurements provided by the Wind spacecraft's Faraday cups to investigate the combined constraint on the alpha proton differential flow velocity and the alpha particle temperature anisotropy due to A/IC and FM/W instabilities. We show that the majority of the data are constrained to lie within the region of parameter space in which A/IC and FM/W waves are either stable or have extremely low growth rates. In the minority of observed cases in which the growth rate of the A/IC (FM/W) instability is comparatively large, we find relatively higher values of T {sub ?}/T {sub p} (T {sub ??}/T {sub ?p}) when the alpha proton differential flow velocity is small, where T {sub ?} and T {sub p} (T {sub ??} and T {sub ?p}) are the perpendicular (parallel) temperatures of alpha particles and protons. We conjecture that this observed feature might arise from preferential alpha particle heating which can drive the alpha particles beyond the instability thresholds.

  15. Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 7 IN THE SUBARU/XMM-NEWTON DEEP SURVEY FIELD:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PHOTOMETRIC CANDIDATES AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTION (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 7 IN THE SUBARU/XMM-NEWTON DEEP SURVEY FIELD: PHOTOMETRIC CANDIDATES AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTION Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 7 IN THE SUBARU/XMM-NEWTON DEEP SURVEY FIELD: PHOTOMETRIC CANDIDATES AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTION We conducted a deep narrowband NB973 (FWHM = 200 A centered at 9755 A) survey of z = 7 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) in the

  16. A novel zirconium K{alpha} imager for high energy density physics research

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A novel zirconium K{alpha} imager for high energy density physics research Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A novel zirconium K{alpha} imager for high energy density physics research We report on the development and characterization of a zirconium K{alpha} imager for high energy density physics research. The imager consists of a spherically bent quartz crystal operating at 15.7 keV photon energy. We compare the performance of the imager in terms

  17. On the approximations of the distribution function of fusion alpha particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilato, R. Brambilla, M.; Poli, E.

    2014-10-15

    The solution of the drift-kinetic equation for fusion-born alpha particles is derived in the limit of dominant parallel streaming, and it is related to the usual slowing-down distribution function. The typical approximations of the fast tail of fusion-born alpha particles are briefly compared and discussed. In particular, approximating the distribution function of fast-alpha particles with an equivalent Maxwellian is inaccurate to describe absorption of radio-frequency waves in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies.

  18. Attempt to extract the preformation probability of. cap alpha. cluster at the surface of heavy nuclei by means of. cap alpha. -transfer reactions leading to the continuum states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Shu-wei; Wu Guo-hua; Miao Rong-zhi; Han Fei

    1983-07-01

    The method of parametrization of an EFR-DWBA overlap integral developed by T. Udagawa and T. Tamura et al./sup 1/ is improved. Using the improved method we have fitted the experimental double differential energy spectrum of the /sup 8/Be cluster coming from the reaction /sup 208/Pb(/sup 12/C, /sup 8/Be) /sup 212/Po leading to the continuum states and extracted the preformation probability of the ..cap alpha.. cluster at the surface of the /sup 212/Po nucleus. Within the range of calculation error, the result is in agreement with that extracted from fitting the experimental data of ..cap alpha.. decay.

  19. Measurement of cross sections for the Cu-63(alpha,gamma)Ga-67...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Measurement of cross sections for the Cu-63(alpha,gamma)Ga-67 reaction from 5.9-8.7 MeV Authors: Basunia, M S ; Norman, E B ; Shugart, H A ; Smith, A R ; Dolinski, M J ; ...

  20. Special features of the alpha induced d and polarized d breakup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, J.M.; Treado, P.A.; Koike, Y.; Slaus, I.; Correll, F.D.; Brown, R.E.; Hardekopf, R.A.; Jarmie, N.

    1982-01-01

    The alpha induced deuteron breakup reactions have been of interest since the three-nucleon, nucleon induced deuteron breakup, problem was addressed with tractable and predictive codes based on the Faddeev formalism and with appropriate nucleon-nucleon forces. In this paper we discuss a few special features of the alpha induced deuteron breakup reactions. Specifically, we point out the importance of the n-p tensor force in the predictions of the three-body model that fit the tensor analyzing powers better and the concommittent deterioration of the fit to the vector analyzing power caused by the inclusion of the tensor force. We suggest that there exists evidence for the /sup 1/S/sub 0/ n-p interaction, which is isospin forbidden, in both the cross section and spin observables data. Finally, we discuss certain characteristics of the p-..cap alpha.. quasifree-scattering and n-..cap alpha.. final-state-interaction processes.

  1. Reich-Moore Parameterization of ({alpha},n) Reactions on Light...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...Moore Parameterization of (alpha,n) Reactions on Light Nuclei: Impact on a Neutron Source Calculation in an Oxide Fuel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reich-Moore ...

  2. Measurement of Cross Sections for the 63Cu(alpha,gamma)67Ga Reaction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Measurement of Cross Sections for the 63Cu(alpha,gamma)67Ga Reaction from 5.9-8.7 MeV Authors: Basunia, M S ; Norman, E B ; Shugart, H A ; Smith, A R ; Dolinski, M J ; ...

  3. Hardy-Littlewood theorem for trigonometric series with {alpha}-monotone coefficients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyachenko, Mikhail I; Nursultanov, Erlan D

    2009-12-31

    The Hardy-Littlewood theorem is established for trigonometric series with {alpha}-monotone coefficients. Inequalities of Hardy-Littlewood kind are proved. Examples of series demonstrating that the results obtained are sharp are constructed. Bibliography: 15 titles.

  4. Helix Dipole Movement and Conformational Variability Contribute to Allosteric GDP Release in G[alpha] Subunits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preininger, Anita M.; Funk, Michael A.; Oldham, William M.; Meier, Scott M.; Johnston, Christopher A.; Adhikary, Suraj; Kimple, Adam J.; Siderovski, David P.; Hamm, Heidi E.; Iverson, Tina M.

    2009-06-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (Galphabetagamma) transmit signals from activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to downstream effectors through a guanine nucleotide signaling cycle. Numerous studies indicate that the carboxy-terminal alpha5 helix of Galpha subunits participates in Galpha-receptor binding, and previous EPR studies suggest this receptor-mediated interaction induces a rotation and translation of the alpha5 helix of the Galpha subunit [Oldham, W. M., et al. (2006) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 13, 772-777]. On the basis of this result, an engineered disulfide bond was designed to constrain the alpha5 helix of Galpha(i1) into its EPR-measured receptor-associated conformation through the introduction of cysteines at position 56 in the alpha1 helix and position 333 in the alpha5 helix (I56C/Q333C Galpha(i1)). A functional mimetic of the EPR-measured alpha5 helix dipole movement upon receptor association was additionally created by introduction of a positive charge at the amino terminus of this helix, D328R Galpha(i1). Both proteins exhibit a dramatically elevated level of basal nucleotide exchange. The 2.9 A resolution crystal structure of I56C/Q333C Galpha(i1) in complex with GDP-AlF(4)(-) reveals the shift of the alpha5 helix toward the guanine nucleotide binding site that is anticipated by EPR measurements. The structure of the I56C/Q333C Galpha(i1) subunit further revealed altered positions for the switch regions and throughout the Galpha(i1) subunit, accompanied by significantly elevated crystallographic temperature factors. Combined with previous evidence in the literature, the structural analysis supports the critical role of electrostatics of the alpha5 helix dipole and overall conformational variability during nucleotide release.

  5. Involvement of the [beta]3-[alpha]3 Loop of the Proline Dehydrogenase

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Domain in Allosteric Regulation of Membrane Association of Proline Utilization A (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Involvement of the [beta]3-[alpha]3 Loop of the Proline Dehydrogenase Domain in Allosteric Regulation of Membrane Association of Proline Utilization A Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Involvement of the [beta]3-[alpha]3 Loop of the Proline Dehydrogenase Domain in Allosteric Regulation of Membrane Association of Proline Utilization A Authors: Zhu, Weidong ; Haile,

  6. ALFITeX: A code introducing improvements in the analysis of alpha spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caro Marroyo, B.; Sanchez, A. Martin; Jurado Vargas, M.

    2013-06-10

    A new code for the deconvolution of complex alpha-particle spectra, called ALFITeX, has been developed. The procedure is based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, with the curve fitting being the mathematical function formed by the convolution of a Gaussian with two left-handed exponential curves in the low-energy-tail region. ALFITeX has been checked with its application to the calculation of the alpha-particle emission probabilities of several nuclides.

  7. Reich-Moore Parameterization of ({alpha},n) Reactions on Light Nuclei:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Impact on a Neutron Source Calculation in an Oxide Fuel (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Reich-Moore Parameterization of ({alpha},n) Reactions on Light Nuclei: Impact on a Neutron Source Calculation in an Oxide Fuel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reich-Moore Parameterization of ({alpha},n) Reactions on Light Nuclei: Impact on a Neutron Source Calculation in an Oxide Fuel Evaluated data are adjusted on experimental measurements using nuclear reaction models. Among these data,

  8. Method for characterization of a spherically bent crystal for K.alpha.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray imaging of laser plasmas using a focusing monochromator geometry (Patent) | DOEPatents Data Explorer Search Results Method for characterization of a spherically bent crystal for K.alpha. X-ray imaging of laser plasmas using a focusing monochromator geometry Title: Method for characterization of a spherically bent crystal for K.alpha. X-ray imaging of laser plasmas using a focusing monochromator geometry A method is provided for characterizing spectrometric properties (e.g., peak

  9. Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of alpha iron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    around room temperature (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of alpha iron around room temperature Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Behavior of tritium permeation induced by water corrosion of alpha iron around room temperature Tritium (T) permeation leakage to surroundings is a great safety concern in fission and fusion reactor systems. T permeation potentially occurs from T contaminated water through cooling tubes or

  10. Abrupt changes in alpha-decay systematics as a manifestation of collective nuclear modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, C.; Liotta, R. J.; Wyss, R. A.; Andreyev, A. N.; Huyse, M.; Van Duppen, P.

    2010-06-15

    An abrupt change in alpha-decay systematics around the N=126 neutron shell closure is discussed. It is explained as a sudden hindrance of the clustering of the nucleons that eventually form the alpha particle. This is because the clustering induced by the pairing mode acting upon the four nucleons is inhibited if the configuration space does not allow a proper manifestation of the pairing collectivity.

  11. {alpha}-particle optical potentials for nuclear astrophysics (NA) and nuclear technology (NT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avrigeanu, V.; Avrigeanu, M.

    2012-11-20

    The high precision of recent measurements for low-energy {alpha}-particle elastic-scattering as well as induced-reaction data makes possible the understanding of actual limits and possible improvement of the global optical model potentials parameters. Involvement of recent optical potentials for reliable description of both the elastic scattering and emission of {alpha}-particles, of equal interest for nuclear astrophysics (NA) and nuclear technology (NT) for fusion devices, is discussed in the present work.

  12. The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in Zr, Ti:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in Zr, Ti: Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The kinetics of the [omega] to [alpha] phase transformation in Zr, Ti: Analysis of data from shock-recovered samples and atomistic simulations Authors: Zong, Hongxiang ; Lookman, Turab ; Ding, Xiangdong

  13. [alpha]E-catenin is an autoinhibited molecule that coactivates vinculin

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect [alpha]E-catenin is an autoinhibited molecule that coactivates vinculin Citation Details In-Document Search Title: [alpha]E-catenin is an autoinhibited molecule that coactivates vinculin Authors: Choi, Hee-Jung ; Pokutta, Sabine ; Cadwell, Gregory W. ; Bobkov, Andrey A. ; Bankston, Laurie A. ; Liddington, Robert C. ; Weis, William I. [1] ; Sanford-Burnham) [2] + Show Author Affiliations (Stanford-MED) ( Publication Date: 2012-10-02 OSTI Identifier: 1051867

  14. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... B1.24, B3.1, B6.1 LM 28-14 Aerial Photography and Topographic Mapping of the Weldon ... 08262014 B3.1(c) LM 13-14 Aerial photography and mapping of the Gunnison, Colorado, ...

  15. Mammalian. cap alpha. -polymerase: cloning of partial complementary DNA and immunobinding of catalytic subunit in crude homogenate protein blots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SenGupta, D.N.; Kumar, P.; Zmudzka, B.Z.; Coughlin, S.; Vishwanatha, J.K.; Robey, F.A.; Parrott, C.; Wilson, S.H.

    1987-02-10

    A new polyclonal antibody against the ..cap alpha..-polymerase catalytic polypeptide was prepared by using homogeneous HeLa cell..cap alpha..-polymerase. The antibody neutralized ..cap alpha..-polymerase activity and was strong and specific for the ..cap alpha..-polymerase catalytic polypeptide (M/sub r/ 183,000) in Western blot analysis of crude extracts of HeLa cells. The antibody was used to screen a cDNA library of newborn rat brain poly(A+) RNA in lambdagt11. A positive phage was identified and plaque purified. This phage, designated lambdapol..cap alpha..1.2, also was found to be positive with an antibody against Drosophila ..cap alpha..-polymerase. The insert in lambdapol..cap alpha..1.2 (1183 base pairs) contained a poly(A) sequence at the 3' terminus and a short in-phase open reading frame at the 5' terminus. A synthetic oligopeptide (eight amino acids) corresponding to the open reading frame was used to raise antiserum in rabbits. Antibody affinity purified from this serum was found to be immunoreactive against purified ..cap alpha..-polymerase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and was capable of immunoprecipitating ..cap alpha..-polymerase. This indicated the lambdapol..cap alpha..1.2 insert encoded an ..cap alpha..-polymerase epitope and suggested that the cDNA corresponded to an ..cap alpha..-polymerase mRNA. This was confirmed in hybrid selection experiments using pUC9 containing the cDNA insert and poly(A+) RNA from newborn rat brain; the insert hybridized to mRNA capable of encoding ..cap alpha..-polymerase catalytic polypeptides. Northern blot analysis of rat brain poly(A+) RNA revealed that this mRNA is approx.5.4 kilobases.

  16. Catalposide is a natural agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee-jin; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao; Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 ; Han, Xiang Hua; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Hak-Ju; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Sung-Joon; Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposide is a novel ligand for PPAR{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell stimulated with catalposide improved fatty acid uptake, regulated target genes in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation and synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposdie reduces hepatic triacylglycerides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theses demonstrate catalposide could ameliorate hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes related to cellular lipid uptake and oxidation. Thus, PPAR{alpha} agonists may be important in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. In this study, we demonstrated that catalposide is a novel natural PPAR{alpha} agonist, identified from reporter gene assay-based activity screening with approximately 900 natural plant and seaweed extracts. Results of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses suggested that the compound interacted directly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{alpha}. Cultured hepatocytes stimulated with catalposide exhibited significantly reduced cellular triglyceride concentrations, by 21%, while cellular uptake of fatty acids was increased, by 70% (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the increase in cellular fatty acid uptake was due to upregulation of fatty acid transporter protein-4 (+19% vs. the control) in cells stimulated with catalposide. Additionally, expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and high-density lipoprotein metabolism were upregulated, while that of genes related to fatty acid synthesis were suppressed. In conclusion, catalposide is hypolipidemic by activation of PPAR{alpha} via a ligand-mediated mechanism that modulates the expression of in lipid metabolism genes in hepatocytes.

  17. P70S6K 1 regulation of angiogenesis through VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bian, Chuan-Xiu; Shi, Zhumei; Meng, Qiao; Jiang, Yue; Liu, Ling-Zhi; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} P70S6K1 regulates VEGF expression; {yields} P70S6K1 induces transcriptional activation through HIF-1{alpha} binding site; {yields} P70S6K1 regulates HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression; {yields} P70S6K1 mediates tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression. -- Abstract: The 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1), a downstream target of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is an important regulator of cell cycle progression, and cell proliferation. Recent studies indicated an important role of p70S6K1 in PTEN-negative and AKT-overexpressing tumors. However, the mechanism of p70S6K1 in tumor angiogenesis remains to be elucidated. In this study, we specifically inhibited p70S6K1 activity in ovarian cancer cells using vector-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) against p70S6K1. We found that knockdown of p70S6K1 significantly decreased VEGF protein expression and VEGF transcriptional activation through the HIF-1{alpha} binding site at its enhancer region. The expression of p70S6K1 siRNA specifically inhibited HIF-1{alpha}, but not HIF-1{beta} protein expression. We also found that p70S6K1 down-regulation inhibited ovarian tumor growth and angiogenesis, and decreased cell proliferation and levels of VEGF and HIF-1{alpha} expression in tumor tissues. Our results suggest that p70S6K1 is required for tumor growth and angiogenesis through HIF-1{alpha} and VEGF expression, providing a molecular mechanism of human ovarian cancer mediated by p70S6K1 signaling.

  18. Structure-function analysis of human protein Ero1-L{alpha}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Yanyan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yang, Charles; Chen, Xianjun; Zheng, Wenyun [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China) [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yang, Yi, E-mail: yiyang@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China) [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Tang, Yun, E-mail: ytang234@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2009-11-27

    Human Ero1-L{alpha} catalyzes the formation of disulfide bond and hence plays an essential role in protein folding. Understanding the mechanism of disulfide bond formation in mammals is important because of the involvement of protein misfolding in conditions such as diabetes, arthritis, cancer, and aging. However, the crystal structure of the enzyme is not available yet, which seriously hinders the understanding of biological function of Ero1-L{alpha}. Based on the crystal structure of yeast Ero1p, a rational three-dimensional structural model of Ero1-L{alpha} was built and the characteristics of the enzyme were hence investigated. The characteristic similarities and differences between Ero1-L{alpha} and Ero1p were compared on the basis of computational and experimental results, providing the first insight into the structure-function relationships of the enzymes. Both calculation and experiment got the concordant conclusion that FAD binds more tightly with Ero1-L{alpha} than Ero1p. In addition, the probable electron transfer pathway was proposed on the basis of the structural models.

  19. A simulation of the transport and fate of radon-222 derived from thorium-230 low-level waste in the near-surface zone of the Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Donahue, M.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-12-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A (DOE, 1988) requires performance assessments on all new and existing low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal sites. An integral part of performance assessment is estimating the fluxes of radioactive gases such as radon-220 and radon-222. Data needs pointed out by mathematical models drive site characterization. They provide a logical means of performing the required flux estimations. Thorium-230 waste, consisting largely of thorium hydroxide and thorium oxides, has been approved for disposal in shallow trenches and pits at the LLW Radioactive Waste Management Site in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site. A sophisticated gas transport model, CASCADR8 (Lindstrom et al., 1992b), was used to simulate the transport and fate of radon-222 from its source of origin, nine feet below a closure cap of native soil, through the dry alluvial earth, to its point of release into the atmosphere. CASCADR8 is an M-chain gas-phase radionuclide transport and fate model. It has been tailored to the site-specific needs of the dry desert environment of southern Nevada. It is based on the mass balance principle for each radionuclide and uses gas-phase diffusion as well as barometric pressure-induced advection as its main modes of transport. CASCADR8 uses both reversible and irreversible sorption kinetic rules as well as the usual classical Bateman (1910) M-chain decay rules for its kinetic processes. Worst case radon-222 gas-phase concentrations, as well as surface fluxes, were estimated over 40 days. The maximum flux was then used in an exposure assessment model to estimate the total annual dose equivalent received by a person residing in a standard 2500-square-foot house with 10-foot walls. Results are described.

  20. Alpha image reconstruction (AIR): A new iterative CT image reconstruction approach using voxel-wise alpha blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofmann, Christian; Sawall, Stefan; Knaup, Michael; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Iterative image reconstruction gains more and more interest in clinical routine, as it promises to reduce image noise (and thereby patient dose), to reduce artifacts, or to improve spatial resolution. Among vendors and researchers, however, there is no consensus of how to best achieve these aims. The general approach is to incorporatea priori knowledge into iterative image reconstruction, for example, by adding additional constraints to the cost function, which penalize variations between neighboring voxels. However, this approach to regularization in general poses a resolution noise trade-off because the stronger the regularization, and thus the noise reduction, the stronger the loss of spatial resolution and thus loss of anatomical detail. The authors propose a method which tries to improve this trade-off. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is called alpha image reconstruction (AIR). One starts with generating basis images, which emphasize certain desired image properties, like high resolution or low noise. The AIR algorithm reconstructs voxel-specific weighting coefficients that are applied to combine the basis images. By combining the desired properties of each basis image, one can generate an image with lower noise and maintained high contrast resolution thus improving the resolution noise trade-off. Methods: All simulations and reconstructions are performed in native fan-beam geometry. A water phantom with resolution bar patterns and low contrast disks is simulated. A filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction with a Ram-Lak kernel is used as a reference reconstruction. The results of AIR are compared against the FBP results and against a penalized weighted least squares reconstruction which uses total variation as regularization. The simulations are based on the geometry of the Siemens Somatom Definition Flash scanner. To quantitatively assess image quality, the authors analyze line profiles through resolution patterns to define a contrast factor for contrast-resolution plots. Furthermore, the authors calculate the contrast-to-noise ratio with the low contrast disks and the authors compare the agreement of the reconstructions with the ground truth by calculating the normalized cross-correlation and the root-mean-square deviation. To evaluate the clinical performance of the proposed method, the authors reconstruct patient data acquired with a Somatom Definition Flash dual source CT scanner (Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany). Results: The results of the simulation study show that among the compared algorithms AIR achieves the highest resolution and the highest agreement with the ground truth. Compared to the reference FBP reconstruction AIR is able to reduce the relative pixel noise by up to 50% and at the same time achieve a higher resolution by maintaining the edge information from the basis images. These results can be confirmed with the patient data. Conclusions: To evaluate the AIR algorithm simulated and measured patient data of a state-of-the-art clinical CT system were processed. It is shown, that generating CT images through the reconstruction of weighting coefficients has the potential to improve the resolution noise trade-off and thus to improve the dose usage in clinical CT.

  1. Use of .sup.3 He.sup.30 + ICRF minority heating to simulate alpha particle heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Jr., Douglass E.; Hwang, David Q.; Hovey, Jane

    1986-04-22

    Neutron activation due to high levels of neutron production in a first heated deuterium-tritium plasma is substantially reduced by using Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating of energetic .sup.3 He.sup.++ ions in a second deuterium-.sup.3 He.sup.++ plasma which exhibit an energy distribution and density similar to that of alpha particles in fusion reactor experiments to simulate fusion alpha particle heating in the first plasma. The majority of the fast .sup.3 He.sup.++ ions and their slowing down spectrum can be studied using either a modulated hydrogen beam source for producing excited states of He.sup.+ in combination with spectrometers or double charge exchange with a high energy neutral lithium beam and charged particle detectors at the plasma edge. The maintenance problems thus associated with neutron activation are substantially reduced permitting energetic alpha particle behavior to be studied in near term large fusion experiments.

  2. Synthesis of fine-grained .alpha.-silicon nitride by a combustion process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, J. Birch; Kingman, Donald D.; Bianchini, Gregory M.

    1990-01-01

    A combustion synthesis process for the preparation of .alpha.-silicon nitride and composites thereof is disclosed. Preparation of the .alpha.-silicon nitride comprises the steps of dry mixing silicon powder with an alkali metal azide, such as sodium azide, cold-pressing the mixture into any desired shape, or loading the mixture into a fused, quartz crucible, loading the crucible into a combustion chamber, pressurizing the chamber with nitrogen and igniting the mixture using an igniter pellet. The method for the preparation of the composites comprises dry mixing silicon powder (Si) or SiO.sub.2, with a metal or metal oxide, adding a small amount of an alkali metal azide such as sodium azide, introducing the mixture into a suitable combustion chamber, pressurizing the combustion chamber with nitrogen, igniting the mixture within the combustion chamber, and isolating the .alpha.-silicon nitride formed as a reaction product.

  3. A novel zirconium K{alpha} imager for high energy density physics research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akli, K. U.; Jiang, S.; Storm, M. S.; Krygier, A.; Freeman, R. R.; Sanchez del Rio, M.; Stephens, R. B.; Pereira, N. R.; Baronova, E. O.; Theobald, W.; Ping, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Patel, P. K.; Key, M. H.

    2011-12-15

    We report on the development and characterization of a zirconium K{alpha} imager for high energy density physics research. The imager consists of a spherically bent quartz crystal operating at 15.7 keV photon energy. We compare the performance of the imager in terms of integrated reflectivity (R{sub int}) and temperature dependent collection efficiency ({eta}{sub Te}) to that of the widely used Cu K{alpha} imager. Our collisional-radiative simulations show that the new imager can be reliably used up to 250 eV plasma temperature. Monte Carlo simulations show that for a 25 {mu}m thick tracer layer of zirconium, the contribution to K{alpha} production from photo-pumping is only 2%. We present, for the first time, 2D spatially resolved images of zirconium plasmas generated by a high intensity short pulse laser interacting with Zr solid targets.

  4. Effect of {alpha} variation on the vibrational spectrum of Sr{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beloy, K.; Hauser, A. W.; Borschevsky, A.; Schwerdtfeger, P.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2011-12-15

    We consider the effect of {alpha} variation on the vibrational spectrum of Sr{sub 2} in the context of a planned experiment to test the stability of {mu}{identical_to}m{sub e}/m{sub p} using optically trapped Sr{sub 2} molecules [Zelevinsky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043201 (2008); Kotochigova et al., Phys. Rev. A 79, 012504 (2009)]. We find the prospective experiment to be 3 to 4 times less sensitive to fractional variation in {alpha} as it is to fractional variation in {mu}. Depending on the precision ultimately achieved by the experiment, this result may give justification for the neglect of {alpha} variation or, alternatively, may call for its explicit consideration in the interpretation of experimental results.

  5. Daily treatment with {alpha}-naphthoflavone enhances follicular growth and ovulation rate in the rat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barreiro, Karina A.; Di Yorio, Maria P.; Artillo-Guida, Romina D.; Paz, Dante A.; Faletti, Alicia G.

    2011-04-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and the first protein involved in a variety of physiological and toxicological processes, including those of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. AhR has been found in the ovary of many species and seems to mediate the ovarian toxicity of many environmental contaminants, which are AhR ligands. However, the role of AhR in the ovarian function is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the action of {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}NF), known to be an AhR antagonist, on both follicular growth and ovulation. Immature Sprague-Dawley rats were daily injected intraperitoneally with {alpha}NF (0.1-80 mg/kg) or vehicle for 12 days, and primed with gonadotrophins (eCG/hCG) to induce follicular growth and ovulation. Ovaries were obtained 20 h after hCG administration. By means of immunohistochemistry, we found that the numbers of primordial, primary and antral follicles were increased in rats treated with 80 mg/kg {alpha}NF and that there were no differences with other doses. Likewise, the ovarian weight and the ovulation rate, measured by both number of oocytes within oviducts and corpora lutea in ovarian sections, were increased when the rats received either 1 or 10 mg/kg daily. Although further studies are necessary to know the mechanism of action of {alpha}NF, it is possible that the different ovarian processes can be differentially responsive to the presence of different levels of {alpha}NF, and that the same or different endogenous AhR ligands can be involved in these ovarian processes in a cell type-dependent manner.

  6. SU-E-J-03: A Comprehensive Comparison Between Alpha and Beta Emitters for Cancer Radioimmunotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, C.Y.; Guatelli, S; Oborn, B; Allen, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive comparison of the therapeutic efficacy and cytotoxicity of alpha and beta emitters for Radioimmunotherapy (RIT). For each stage of cancer development, specific models were built for the separate objectives of RIT to be addressed:a) kill isolated cancer cells in transit in the lymphatic and vascular circulation,b) regress avascular cell clusters,c) regress tumor vasculature and tumors. Methods: Because of the nature of short range, high LET alpha and long energy beta radiation and heterogeneous antigen expression among cancer cells, the microdosimetric approach is essential for the RIT assessment. Geant4 based microdosimetric models are developed for the three different stages of cancer progression: cancer cells, cell clusters and tumors. The energy deposition, specific energy resulted from different source distribution in the three models was calculated separately for 4 alpha emitting radioisotopes ({sup 211}At, {sup 213}Bi, {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac) and 6 beta emitters ({sup 32}P, {sup 33}P, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I and {sup 177}Lu). The cell survival, therapeutic efficacy and cytotoxicity are determined and compared between alpha and beta emitters. Results: We show that internal targeted alpha radiation has advantages over beta radiation for killing isolated cancer cells, regressing small cell clusters and also solid tumors. Alpha particles have much higher dose specificity and potency than beta particles. They can deposit 3 logs more dose than beta emitters to single cells and solid tumor. Tumor control probability relies on deep penetration of radioisotopes to cancer cell clusters and solid tumors. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a quantitative understanding of the efficacy and cytotoxicity of RIT for each stage of cancer development.

  7. Measurement of cross sections for the Cu-63(alpha,gamma)Ga-67 reaction from

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    5.9-8.7 MeV (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Measurement of cross sections for the Cu-63(alpha,gamma)Ga-67 reaction from 5.9-8.7 MeV Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement of cross sections for the Cu-63(alpha,gamma)Ga-67 reaction from 5.9-8.7 MeV Authors: Basunia, M S ; Norman, E B ; Shugart, H A ; Smith, A R ; Dolinski, M J ; Quiter, B J Publication Date: 2005-02-24 OSTI Identifier: 15020440 Report Number(s): UCRL-JRNL-210075 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource

  8. Method for high specific bioproductivity of .alpha.,.omega.-alkanedicarboxylic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mobley, David Paul; Shank, Gary Keith

    2000-01-01

    This invention provides a low-cost method of producing .alpha.,.omega.-alkanedicarboxylic acids. Particular bioconversion conditions result in highly efficient conversion of fatty acid, fatty acid ester, or alkane substrates to diacids. Candida tropicalis AR40 or similar yeast strains are grown in a medium containing a carbon source and a nitrogen source at a temperature of 31.degree. C. to 38.degree. C., while additional carbon source is continuously added, until maximum cell growth is attained. Within 0-3 hours of this point, substrate is added to the culture to initiate conversion. An .alpha.,.omega.-alkanedicarboxylic acid made according to this method is also provided.

  9. A Lapping Technique for Metallic, Alpha-Phase, Plutonium: Achieving and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measuring Nano-Meter Roughness and Sub-Micron Flatness (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: A Lapping Technique for Metallic, Alpha-Phase, Plutonium: Achieving and Measuring Nano-Meter Roughness and Sub-Micron Flatness Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Lapping Technique for Metallic, Alpha-Phase, Plutonium: Achieving and Measuring Nano-Meter Roughness and Sub-Micron Flatness Authors: Wall, M A ; Blobaum, K J Publication Date: 2014-03-31 OSTI Identifier: 1136178

  10. Comments on the behavior of alpha(1) in main injector gamma(t) jump schemes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Comments on the behavior of alpha(1) in main injector gamma(t) jump schemes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comments on the behavior of alpha(1) in main injector gamma(t) jump schemes × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources

  11. Cosmological Behavior of a Parity and Charge-Parity Violating Varying Alpha

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Theory (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Cosmological Behavior of a Parity and Charge-Parity Violating Varying Alpha Theory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Cosmological Behavior of a Parity and Charge-Parity Violating Varying Alpha Theory Authors: Maity, Debaprasad ; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. ; Chen, Pisin ; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park Publication Date: 2013-07-02 OSTI Identifier: 1086980 Report Number(s): SLAC-PUB-15660 arXiv:1005.5104 DOE Contract Number:

  12. Determination of the strong coupling constant ({alpha}{sub s}) and a test

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of perturbative QCD using W + jets processes in the D0 detector (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect Thesis/Dissertation: Determination of the strong coupling constant ({alpha}{sub s}) and a test of perturbative QCD using W + jets processes in the D0 detector Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Determination of the strong coupling constant ({alpha}{sub s}) and a test of perturbative QCD using W + jets processes in the D0 detector The D0 experiment has accumulated data for a study

  13. Alpha Emission Near 100Sn and the Termination of the rp Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alpha Emission Near 100 Sn and the Termination of the rp Process The astrophysical rp-process is thought to reach a termination point in the region of 100 Sn, via the Sn(p,γ)⟶Sb(p,γ)⟶Te(γ,α) cycle, due to changing mass surface above the closed Z=50 shell. By measuring the decay properties of nuclei in this region, information can be provided to determine the actual endpoint for the rp-process, as well as measure single particle states near 100 Sn. We have identified a small alpha branch

  14. Anti-Alpha Particles Observed for the First Time | U.S. DOE Office of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science (SC) 1 » Anti-Alpha Particles Observed for the First Time Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email Us More Information » 04.01.11 Anti-Alpha Particles Observed for the First

  15. : Hanson Blata, Chief, Radiation Branch Health & Safety Division

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    smear samples for measuring removable alpha contamination, general air and locsl'air radon samples, air dust samples utilizing the Hudson air sampler with 1 l8" diameter ...

  16. 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics Experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density...

  17. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha in plutonium-239-induced lung neoplasms in dogs: investigations of autocrine mechanisms of growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillett, N.A.; Stegelmeier, B.L.; Chang, I.Y.; Kelly, G. )

    1991-06-01

    We have previously shown that 47% of radiation-induced lung neoplasms in dogs exhibit increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study, we investigated the expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), a ligand for EGFR, to determine if an autocrine mechanism for growth stimulation was present in these tumors. As determined by immunohistochemistry, 59% (26/44) of the lung neoplasms examined had increased expression of TGF-alpha. Expression of TGF-alpha was not related to the etiology of the tumor, e.g., spontaneous or plutonium-induced; however, it was related to the phenotype of the tumor. Statistical analysis of the correlation of EGFR and TGF-alpha expression within the same tumor did not show a positive association; however, specific phenotypes did have statistically significant expression of EGFR or TGF-alpha, suggesting that overexpression of either the ligand or its receptor conferred a growth advantage to the neoplasm. Twenty-seven percent (32/117) of radiation-induced proliferative epithelial foci expressed TGF-alpha, and a portion of those foci (8/32) expressed both EGFR and TGF-alpha. This supports the hypothesis that these foci represent preneoplastic lesions, and suggests that those foci exhibiting increased expression of the growth factor or its receptor are at greater risk for progressing to neoplasia.

  18. Proliferation of Estrogen Receptor alpha Positive Mammary Epithelial Cells is Restrained by TGFbeta1 in Adult Mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewan, Kenneth B.R.; Oketch-Rabah, Hellen A.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Shyamala, G.; Moses, Harold L.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2005-03-03

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) is a potent inhibitor of mammary epithelial proliferation. In human breast, estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) cells rarely co-localize with markers of proliferation, but their increased frequency correlates with breast cancer risk. To determine whether TGF{beta}1 is necessary for the quiescence of ER{alpha}-positive population, we examined mouse mammary epithelial gland at estrus. Approximately 35% of cells showed TGF{beta}1 activation, which co-localized with nuclear receptor-phosphorylated Smad 2/3, indicating that TGF{beta} signaling is autocrine. Furthermore, nuclear Smad co-localized with nuclear ER{alpha}. To test whether TGF{beta} was functional, we examined genetically engineered mice with different levels of TGF{beta}1. ER{alpha} co-localization with markers of proliferation (i.e. Ki-67 or BrdU) at estrus was significantly increased in the mammary glands of Tgf{beta}1 C57/bl/129SV heterozygote mice. This relationship was maintained following pregnancy, but was absent at puberty. Conversely, mammary epithelial expression of constitutively active TGF{beta}1 via the MMTV promoter suppressed proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells. Thus, TGF{beta}1 activation functionally restrains ER{alpha} positive cells from proliferating in adult mammary gland. Accordingly, we propose that TGF{beta}1 dysregulation may promote proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells associated with breast cancer risk in humans.

  19. Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jessen, Holly Jean; Liao, Hans H.; Gort, Steven John; Selifonova, Olga V.

    2011-10-04

    The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

  20. CRAD, Safety Basis- Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU ALPHA LLWT Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a November 2003 assessment of the Safety Basis portion of an Operational Readiness Review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU ALPHA LLWT Project.

  1. Alpha Backgrounds for HPGe Detectors in Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R. A. [University of Washington, Seattle; Burritt, T. H. [University of Washington, Seattle; Elliott, S. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gehman, V. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Guiseppe, V.E. [University of South Dakota; Wilkerson, J. F. [UNC/Triangle Univ. Nucl. Lab, Durham, NC/ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The Majorana Experiment will use arrays of enriched HPGe detectors to search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge. Such a decay, if found, would show lepton-number violation and confirm the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Searches for such rare events are hindered by obscuring backgrounds which must be understood and mitigated as much as possible. A potentially important background contribution to this and other double-beta decay experiments could come from decays of alpha-emitting isotopes in the 232Th and 238U decay chains on or near the surfaces of the detectors. An alpha particle emitted external to an HPGe crystal can lose energy before entering the active region of the detector, either in some external-bulk material or within the dead region of the crystal. The measured energy of the event will only correspond to a partial amount of the total kinetic energy of the alpha and might obscure the signal from neutrinoless double-beta decay. A test stand was built and measurements were performed to quantitatively assess this background. We present results from these measurements and compare them to simulations using Geant4. These results are then used to measure the alpha backgrounds in an underground detector in situ. We also make estimates of surface contamination tolerances for double-beta decay experiments using solid-state detectors.

  2. Improving Alpha Spectrometry Energy Resolution by Ion Implantation with ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dion, Michael P.; Liezers, Martin; Farmer, Orville T.; Miller, Brian W.; Morley, Shannon M.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Eiden, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    We report results of a novel technique using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) as a method of source preparation for alpha spectrometry. This method produced thin, contaminant free 241Am samples which yielded extraordinary energy resolution which appear to be at the lower limit of the detection technology used in this research.

  3. PDGFBB promotes PDGFR{alpha}-positive cell migration into artificial bone in vivo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshida, Shigeyuki; Center for Human Metabolomic Systems Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 ; Iwasaki, Ryotaro; Kawana, Hiromasa; Miyauchi, Yoshiteru; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582; Department of Integrated Bone Metabolism and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 ; Hoshi, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Hiroya; Mori, Tomoaki; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 ; Kanagawa, Hiroya; Katsuyama, Eri; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinano-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 ; Hao, Wu; and others

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined effects of PDGFBB in PDGFR{alpha} positive cell migration in artificial bones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB was not expressed in osteoblastic cells but was expressed in peripheral blood cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB promoted PDGFR{alpha} positive cell migration into artificial bones but not osteoblast proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB did not inhibit osteoblastogenesis. -- Abstract: Bone defects caused by traumatic bone loss or tumor dissection are now treated with auto- or allo-bone graft, and also occasionally by artificial bone transplantation, particularly in the case of large bone defects. However, artificial bones often exhibit poor affinity to host bones followed by bony union failure. Thus therapies combining artificial bones with growth factors have been sought. Here we report that platelet derived growth factor bb (PDGFBB) promotes a significant increase in migration of PDGF receptor {alpha} (PDGFR{alpha})-positive mesenchymal stem cells/pre-osteoblastic cells into artificial bone in vivo. Growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF{beta}) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) reportedly inhibit osteoblast differentiation; however, PDGFBB did not exhibit such inhibitory effects and in fact stimulated osteoblast differentiation in vitro, suggesting that combining artificial bones with PDGFBB treatment could promote host cell migration into artificial bones without inhibiting osteoblastogenesis.

  4. Inhibition of K+ permeability diminishes alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated effects on norepinephrine release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimanyi, I.; Folly, G.; Vizi, E.S.

    1988-05-01

    The effect of two different potassium channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and quinine, on the alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated modulation of norepinephrine (NE) release was investigated. Pairs of mouse vasa deferentia were loaded with /sup 3/H-norepinephrine (/sup 3/H-NE), superfused continuously, and stimulated electrically. 4-AP (5.3 x 10(-4) M), and quinine (10(-5) M) enhanced the stimulation-evoked release of tritium significantly. The electrically induced release of radioactivity was reduced by alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists (1-NE and xylazine) and enhanced by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. Both effects were affected markedly by 4-AP or quinine: the depressant action of 1-NA and xylazine was partially antagonized and the facilitatory effect of yohimbine was completely abolished during the blockade of the potassium channels. It is suggested that the blockade of the potassium permeability counteracts negative feedback modulation; therefore, it seems likely that the stimulation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors leads to an enhanced potassium permeability and hyperpolarization of varicose axon terminals.

  5. Method to Exhaust Fusion-Product Tritons and Alpha Particles Rapidly from

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    D-3He Fueled FRC Fusion Reactors | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Exhaust Fusion-Product Tritons and Alpha Particles Rapidly from D-3He Fueled FRC Fusion Reactors A method is described how to reduce neutron production from small D-3He burning FRC fusion reactors, thereby reducing the shielding required and allowing safer operation and less maintenance. No.: M-898

  6. CRAD, Conduct of Operations- Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU ALPHA LLWT Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a November, 2003 assessment of the Conduct of Operations Program portion of an Operational Readiness Review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TRU ALPHA LLWT Project.

  7. Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jessen, Holly Jean; Liao, Hans H; Gort, Steven John; Selifonova, Olga V

    2014-11-18

    The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

  8. CRAD, Radiological Controls- Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU ALPHA LLWT Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a November 2003 assessment of the Radiation Protection Program portion of an Operational Readiness Review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU ALPHA LLWT Project.

  9. Suppression of alpha formation probability around the N = 126 shell closure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qi, Chong; Liotta, R. J.; Wyss, R.; Andreyev, A. N.; Huyse, M.; Van Duppen, P.

    2011-10-28

    {alpha} formation amplitudes extracted from experimental data are presented and an abrupt change around the N = 126 shell closure is noted. It is explained as a sudden hindrance of the clustering of nucleons. The clustering induced by the pairing mode acting upon the four nucleons is inhibited if the configuration space does not allow a proper manifestation of the pairing collectivity.

  10. CRAD, Quality Assurance- Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU ALPHA LLWT Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a November 2003 assessment of the Quality Assurance Program portion of an Operational Readiness Review of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU ALPHA LLWT Project.

  11. Pending indoor air quality and radon abatement legislation. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Clean Air and Nuclear Regulation of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, First Session on S. 656 and S. 657, May 25, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This hearing on pending indoor air quality and radon abatement legislation includes testimony from individuals and representatives of the following groups: Business Council on Indoor Air; American Lung Association; Consumer Federation of America; Radiation Protection Programs, NJ; School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University; AFL-CIO; EPA; National Parent Teacher Association. Additional material includes statements from: American Lung Assoc.; Alliance for Radon Reduction; Alliance to Save Energy; American Industrial Hygiene Assoc.; Bowser Morner, Inc.; Building Owners and Managers Assoc. International; Chemical Specialties Manufacturers Assoc.; Council for American Private Education; National Assoc. of Home Builders; National Assoc. of Realtors; National School Boards Assoc.; Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Assoc.

  12. Stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}/CXCL12) stimulates ovarian cancer cell growth through the EGF receptor transactivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porcile, Carola; Bajetto, Adriana . E-mail: bajetto@cba.unige.it; Barbieri, Federica; Barbero, Simone; Bonavia, Rudy; Biglieri, Marianna; Pirani, Paolo; Florio, Tullio . E-mail: florio@cba.unige.it; Schettini, Gennaro

    2005-08-15

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death in gynecologic diseases in which there is evidence for a complex chemokine network. Chemokines are a family of proteins that play an important role in tumor progression influencing cell proliferation, angiogenic/angiostatic processes, cell migration and metastasis, and, finally, regulating the immune cells recruitment into the tumor mass. We previously demonstrated that astrocytes and glioblastoma cells express both the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and that SDF-1{alpha} treatment induced cell proliferation, supporting the hypothesis that chemokines may play an important role in tumor cells' growth in vitro. In the present study, we report that CXCR4 and SDF-1 are expressed in OC cell lines. We demonstrate that SDF-1{alpha} induces a dose-dependent proliferation in OC cells, by the specific interaction with CXCR4 and a biphasic activation of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases. Our results further indicate that CXCR4 activation induces EGF receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation that in turn was linked to the downstream intracellular kinases activation, ERK1/2 and Akt. In addition, we provide evidence for cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase (c-Src) involvement in the SDF-1/CXCR4-EGFR transactivation. These results suggest a possible important 'cross-talk' between SDF-1/CXCR4 and EGFR intracellular pathways that may link signals of cell proliferation in ovarian cancer.

  13. Physically consistent simulation of mesoscale chemical kinetics: The non-negative FIS-{alpha} method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana, Saswati, E-mail: saswatid@rishi.serc.iisc.ernet.in [Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Raha, Soumyendu, E-mail: raha@serc.iisc.ernet.in [Supercomputer Education and Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2011-10-01

    Biochemical pathways involving chemical kinetics in medium concentrations (i.e., at mesoscale) of the reacting molecules can be approximated as chemical Langevin equations (CLE) systems. We address the physically consistent non-negative simulation of the CLE sample paths as well as the issue of non-Lipschitz diffusion coefficients when a species approaches depletion and any stiffness due to faster reactions. The non-negative Fully Implicit Stochastic {alpha} (FIS {alpha}) method in which stopped reaction channels due to depleted reactants are deleted until a reactant concentration rises again, for non-negativity preservation and in which a positive definite Jacobian is maintained to deal with possible stiffness, is proposed and analysed. The method is illustrated with the computation of active Protein Kinase C response in the Protein Kinase C pathway.

  14. Samuel C.C. Ting, the J/psi Particle (Charm), and the Alpha Magnetic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spectrometer (AMS) Samuel C.C. Ting, the J/psi Particle (Charm), and the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Resources with Additional Information Samuel C.C. Ting Credit: Courtesy of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology 'Samuel C.C. Ting was born ... in Ann Arbor, Michigan, ... [and] received his elementary and secondary education in China ... . He excelled in mathematics, science and history. In 1956, Ting returned to the United States to attend the University of Michigan as an

  15. The discovery of novel tartrate-based TNF-[alpha] converting enzyme (TACE) inhibitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosner, Kristin E.; Guo, Zhuyan; Orth, Peter; Shipps, Jr., Gerald W.; Belanger, David B.; Chan, Tin Yau; Curran, Patrick J.; Dai, Chaoyang; Deng, Yongqi; Girijavallabhan, Vinay M.; Hong, Liwu; Lavey, Brian J.; Lee, Joe F.; Li, Dansu; Liu, Zhidan; Popovici-Muller, Janeta; Ting, Pauline C.; Vaccaro, Henry; Wang, Li; Wang, Tong; Yu, W.; Zhou, G.; Niu, X.; Sun, J.; Kozlowski, J.A.; Lundell, D.J.; Madison, V.; McKittrick, B.; Piwinski, J.J.; Shih, N.Y.; Siddiqui, M. Arshad; Strickland, Corey O.

    2010-09-17

    A novel series of TNF-{alpha} convertase (TACE) inhibitors which are non-hydroxamate have been discovered. These compounds are bis-amides of L-tartaric acid (tartrate) and coordinate to the active site zinc in a tridentate manner. They are selective for TACE over other MMP's. We report the first X-ray crystal structure for a tartrate-based TACE inhibitor.

  16. Small heat shock proteins protect against {alpha}-synuclein-induced toxicity and aggregation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Outeiro, Tiago Fleming [Alzheimer's Research Unit, MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, MGH, Harvard Medical School, CNY 114, 16th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); Klucken, Jochen [Alzheimer's Research Unit, MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, MGH, Harvard Medical School, CNY 114, 16th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); Strathearn, Katherine E. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2091 (United States); Liu Fang [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2091 (United States); Nguyen, Paul [Alzheimer's Research Unit, MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, MGH, Harvard Medical School, CNY 114, 16th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); Rochet, Jean-Christophe [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2091 (United States); Hyman, Bradley T. [Alzheimer's Research Unit, MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, MGH, Harvard Medical School, CNY 114, 16th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States); McLean, Pamela J. [Alzheimer's Research Unit, MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease, MGH, Harvard Medical School, CNY 114, 16th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129 (United States)]. E-mail: touteiro@partners.org

    2006-12-22

    Protein misfolding and inclusion formation are common events in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) or Huntington's disease (HD). {alpha}-Synuclein (aSyn) is the main protein component of inclusions called Lewy bodies (LB) which are pathognomic of PD, Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and other diseases collectively known as LB diseases. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are one class of the cellular quality control system that mediate protein folding, remodeling, and even disaggregation. Here, we investigated the role of the small heat shock proteins Hsp27 and {alpha}B-crystallin, in LB diseases. We demonstrate, via quantitative PCR, that Hsp27 messenger RNA levels are {approx}2-3-fold higher in DLB cases compared to control. We also show a corresponding increase in Hsp27 protein levels. Furthermore, we found that Hsp27 reduces aSyn-induced toxicity by {approx}80% in a culture model while {alpha}B-crystallin reduces toxicity by {approx}20%. In addition, intracellular inclusions were immunopositive for endogenous Hsp27, and overexpression of this protein reduced aSyn aggregation in a cell culture model.

  17. Alternative methods for degradation studies by alpha radiolysis: tributyl phosphate and CMPO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pearson, J.; Nilsson, M.; Miller, G.E.

    2013-07-01

    Solvent extraction separation processes used in the recycling of used nuclear fuel are susceptible to radiolytic damage from radioactive isotopes present in used fuel. Studying the respective effects on matter of both low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation such as gamma radiation and high LET such as alpha radiation will allow for accurate prediction and modeling of process performance losses with respect to dose. The effects of gamma radiation on solvent extraction ligands have been more extensively studied than the effects of alpha radiation due to the inherent difficulty in producing a sufficient and confluent dose of alpha particles within a sample without leaving the sample contaminated with long lived radioactive isotopes. We have developed a method for studying the effects of high LET radiation in situ via {sup 10}B activation and the high LET particles that result from the {sup 10}B(n,a){sup 7}Li reaction which follows. In this study we applied this method to organic solutions of tributyl phosphate (TBP) and CMPO (compound octylphenyl-N, N-diisobutyl-carbamoyl methyl phosphine oxide) representing the PUREX and TRUEX processes respectively. Rates of degradation of TBP and CMPO and their respective degradation products in the presence of both high and low LET radiation are presented and compared to values reported in the literature. Preliminary data appears to show decreased degradation of CMPO in the presence of an aqueous acidic phase, which agrees with other studies performed on TBP solutions. (authors)

  18. Energy and frequency dependence of the alpha particle redistribution produced by internal kink modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farengo, R.; Ferrari, H. E.; Garcia-Martinez, P. L.; Firpo, M.-C.; Ettoumi, W.; Lifschitz, A. F.

    2014-08-15

    The redistribution of alpha particles due to internal kink modes is studied. The exact particle trajectories in the total fields, equilibrium plus perturbation, are calculated. The equilibrium has circular cross section and the plasma parameters are similar to those expected in ITER. The alpha particles are initially distributed according to a slowing down distribution function and have energies between 18?keV and 3.5?MeV. The (1, 1), (2, 2), and (2, 1) modes are included and the effect of changing their amplitude and frequency is studied. When only the (1, 1) mode is included, the spreading of high energy (E?1?MeV) alpha particles increases slowly with the energy and mode frequency. At lower energies, the redistribution is more sensitive to the mode frequency and particle energy. When a (2, 1) mode is added, the spreading increases significantly and particles can reach the edge of the plasma. Trapped particles are the most affected and the redistribution parameter can have maxima above 1?MeV, depending on the mode frequency. These results can have important implications for ash removal.

  19. 12.6 keV Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Kr K-alpha X-ray Source For High Energy Density Physics Experiments A high contrast 12.6 keV Kr Kalpha source has been demonstrated on the petawatt-class Titan laser facility. ...

  20. Tumor suppressor KAI1 affects integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated ovarian cancer cell adhesion, motility, and proliferation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruseva, Zlatna; Geiger, Pamina Xenia Charlotte; Hutzler, Peter; Kotzsch, Matthias; Luber, Birgit; Schmitt, Manfred; Gross, Eva; Reuning, Ute

    2009-06-10

    The tetraspanin KAI1 had been described as a metastasis suppressor in many different cancer types, a function for which associations of KAI1 with adhesion and signaling receptors of the integrin superfamily likely play a role. In ovarian cancer, integrin {alpha}v{beta}3 correlates with tumor progression and its elevation in vitro provoked enhanced cell adhesion accompanied by significant increases in cell motility and proliferation in the presence of its major ligand vitronectin. In the present study, we characterized integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated tumor biological effects as a function of cellular KAI1 restoration and proved for the first time that KAI1, besides its already known physical crosstalk with {beta}1-integrins, also colocalizes with integrin {alpha}v{beta}3. Functionally, elevated KAI1 levels drastically increased integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-dependent ovarian cancer cell adhesion. Since an intermediate level of cell adhesive strength is required for optimal cell migration, we next studied ovarian cancer cell motility as a function of KAI1 restoration. By time lapse video microscopy, we found impaired integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-mediated cell migration most probably due to strongly enhanced cellular immobilization onto the adhesion-supporting matrix. Moreover, KAI1 reexpression significantly diminished cell proliferation. These data strongly indicate that KAI1 may suppress ovarian cancer progression by inhibiting integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-provoked tumor cell motility and proliferation as important hallmarks of the oncogenic process.

  1. Optical properties of {gamma}- and {alpha}-Ce by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joo Yull, Rhee

    1992-07-20

    A rotating analyzer type ellipsometer with an ultra high vacuum sample chamber was built. The dielectric functions of {gamma}- and {alpha}-Ce were measured in the energy range from 1.5 to 5.4 eV to investigate the role of the 4f electron in the isostructural phase transition. {gamma}- and {alpha}-Ce were made by evaporation of Ce on sapphire substrates at room temperature and 25 K. All measurements were performed inside a UHV chamber at pressures lower than l {times} 10{sup {minus}10}Torr. The measured dielectric functions showed a thickness dependence. The thicker sample has the smaller optical conductivities. Both overlayer thickness and void fraction increase as sample thickness increases. Repeating cooling-heating-cooling or heating-cooling-heating cycles causes the sample surface to become rougher but the relative volume fractions of both phases and the void fraction in the bulk remain unchanged. The optical conductivity increases upon entering the a-phase but the number of electrons per atom, N{sub eff}/N{sub A}, contributing to the optical conductivity does not change. The valence electrons lose oscillator strength in the above energy range due to volume collapse. This reduces N{sub eff}/NA but the increased 4f-sd valence band hybridization exactly compensates the reduced oscillator strength. Therefore the net effects of the {gamma}{yields}{alpha} isostructural phase transition are an increase of optical conductivity and constancy of N{sub eff}/N{sub A}.

  2. Dynamic study of (De)sodiation in alpha-MnO2 nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Yifei; Ma, Lu; He, Kun; Yao, Wentao; Nie, Anmin; Bi, Xuanxuan; Amine, Khalil; Wu, Tianpin; Lu, Jun; Shahbazian-Yassr, Reza

    2016-01-01

    In this report, the electrochemical sodiation and desodiation in single crystalline alpha-MnO2 nanowires are studied dynamically at both single particle level using in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and bulk level using in situ synchrotron X-ray. The TEM results suggest that the first sodiation process starts with tunnel-based Na+ intercalation, experiences the formation of Na0.5MnO2 as a result of tunnel degradation, and ends with the Mn2O3 phase. The inserted Na+ can be partially extracted out of the sodiated products, and the following cycles are dominated by the reversible conversion reaction between Na0.5MnO2 and Mn2O3. The Mn valence evolution inside a cycling coin using alpha-MnO2 nanowire electrode also exhibits partially reversible characteristic, agreeing well with the in situ TEM analysis. The sodiation is compared with lithiation in the same alpha-MnO2 nanowires. Both Na+ and Li+ interact with the tunneled structure via a similar tunnel -driven intercalation mechanism before Mn4+ is reduced to Mn3.5+. For the following deep insertion, the tunnels survive up. to LiMnO2 (Mn3+) during lithiation, while the sodiation proceeds via a different mechanism that involves obvious phase transition and fast tunnel degradation after Mn's valence is below 3.5+. The difference in charge carrier insertion mechanisms can be ascribed to the strong interaction between the tunnel frame and inserted Na+ possessing a larger ionic size than inserted Li+.

  3. BROAD Ly{alpha} EMISSION FROM THREE NEARBY BL LACERTAE OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stocke, John T.; Danforth, Charles W. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Perlman, Eric S., E-mail: danforth@casa.colorado.edu, E-mail: stocke@casa.colorado.edu, E-mail: eperlman@fit.edu [Florida Institute of Technology, Physics and Space Sciences Department, 150 West University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2011-05-10

    We present far-UV HST/COS spectra of four nearby BL Lac objects. BL Lac spectra are dominated by a smooth, power-law continuum which arises in a relativistic jet. However, the spectra are not necessarily featureless; weak, broad- and/or narrow-line emission is sometimes seen in high-quality optical spectra. We present detections of Ly{alpha} emission in HST/COS spectra of Mrk 421 (z = 0.030) and PKS 2005-489 (z = 0.071) as well as an archival HST/GHRS observation of Mrk 501 (z = 0.0337). Archival HST/STIS observations of PKS 2155-304 (z = 0.116) show no Ly{alpha} emission to a very low upper limit. Using the assumption that the broad-line region (BLR) clouds are symmetrically placed around the active galactic nucleus (AGN), we use these measured Ly{alpha} emission features to constrain either the relativistic {Gamma} values for the ionizing continuum produced by the jet (in the ionization-bounded case) or the mass of warm gas (in the density-bounded case). While realistic {Gamma} values can be obtained for all four cases, the values for Mrk 421 and PKS 2155-304 are high enough to suggest that covering factors of BLR clouds of {approx}1%-2% might be required to provide consistency with earlier values of Doppler boosting and viewing angles suggested for this class of BL Lacs. This discrepancy also exists in the case of M 87, where the amount of Doppler boosting in our direction is expected to be minimal, again suggestive of a small covering factor of BLR clouds. If, as these small covering factors might suggest, the assumptions of a density-bounded model could be more correct, then the observed Ly{alpha} luminosities require that BL Lac/FR 1 nuclei possess very little warm gas (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -5} M{sub sun}) as suggested by Guilbert et al. If these clouds are in pressure balance with a hotter ({approx}10{sup 6} K) gas, the BLR contains too little mass to power the AGN by accretion alone.

  4. Sintering of beta-type alumina bodies using alpha-alumina encapsulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEntire, Bryan J.; Virkar, Anil V.

    1981-01-01

    A method of sintering a shaped green, beta-type alumina body comprising: (A) inserting said body into an open chamber prepared by exposing the interior surface of a container consisting essentially of at least about 50 weight percent of alpha-alumina and a remainder of other refractory material to a sodium oxide or sodium oxide producing environment; (B) sealing the chamber; and heating the chamber with the shaped body encapsulated therein to a temperature and for a time necessary to sinter said body to the desired density. The encapsulation chamber prepared as described above is also claimed.

  5. Anisotropic alpha decay from oriented odd-mass isotopes of some light actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berggren, T. )

    1994-11-01

    Half-lives and anisotropies in the [alpha] decay of [sup 205,207,209]Rn, [sup 219]Rn, [sup 221]Fr, [sup 227,229]Pa, and [sup 229]U have been calculated using the reaction-theoretical formalism proposed by Jackson and Rhoades-Brown and adapted for axially symmetric deformed nuclei by Berggren and Olanders. The possibility of octupole deformation has been taken into account. In addition, a variant of triaxial octupole deformation has been considered tentatively in the case of [sup 227]Pa and [sup 229]Pa.

  6. An Analysis of the NEXAFS Spectra of a molecular crystal: alpha-Glycine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Craig P.; Saykally, Richard J.; Prendergast, David

    2010-06-18

    The nitrogen K-edge Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectrum of alpha-crystalline glycine has been calculated for temperatures ranging from 0 K to 450 K. Significant temperature dependent spectral changes are predicted. The calculated room temperature spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. At high temperatures, molecular motions strongly influence the spectrum, as any unique spectrum from an individual instantaneous configuration does not resemble the experimental result or the average calculated spectrum; complex coupled motions in this prototypical molecular crystal underlie the observed spectral changes.

  7. Calculating infinite-medium {alpha}-eigenvalue spectra with a transition rate matrix method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betzler, B. R.; Kiedrowski, B. C.; Brown, F. B.; Martin, W. R.

    2013-07-01

    The time-dependent behavior of the energy spectrum in neutron transport was investigated with a formulation, based on continuous-time Markov processes, for computing {alpha}-eigenvalues and eigenvectors in an infinite medium. For this, a research Monte Carlo code called TORTE was created and used to estimate elements of a transition rate matrix. TORTE is capable of using both multigroup and continuous-energy nuclear data, and verification was performed. Eigenvalue spectra for infinite homogeneous mixtures were obtained and an eigenfunction expansion was used to investigate transient behavior of the neutron energy spectrum. (authors)

  8. Scintillator assembly for alpha radiation detection and an associated method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; McElhaney, Stephanie A.; Bates, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A scintillator assembly for use in conjunction with a photomultiplier or the like in the detection of alpha radiation utilizes a substrate or transparent yttrium aluminum garnet and a relatively thin film of cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet coated upon the substrate. The film material is applied to the substrate in a sputtering process, and the applied film and substrate are annealed to effect crystallization of the film upon the substrate. The resultant assembly provides relatively high energy resolution during use in a detection instrument and is sufficiently rugged for use in field environments.

  9. Scintillator assembly for alpha radiation detection and an associated method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McElhaney, S.A.; Bates, J.B.

    1994-07-26

    A scintillator assembly for use in conjunction with a photomultiplier or the like in the detection of alpha radiation utilizes a substrate or transparent yttrium aluminum garnet and a relatively thin film of cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet coated upon the substrate. The film material is applied to the substrate in a sputtering process, and the applied film and substrate are annealed to effect crystallization of the film upon the substrate. The resultant assembly provides relatively high energy resolution during use in a detection instrument and is sufficiently rugged for use in field environments. 4 figs.

  10. Magnetoelastic Coupling and Symmetry Breaking in the Frustrated Antiferromagnet {alpha}-NaMnO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giot, Maud; Chapon, Laurent C.; Radaelli, Paolo G.; Androulakis, John; Lappas, Alexandros; Green, Mark A.

    2007-12-14

    The magnetic and crystal structures of the {alpha}-NaMnO{sub 2} have been determined by high-resolution neutron powder diffraction. The system maps out a frustrated triangular spin lattice with anisotropic interactions that displays two-dimensional spin correlations below 200 K. Magnetic frustration is lifted through magneto-elastic coupling, evidenced by strong anisotropic broadening of the diffraction profiles at high temperature and ultimately by a structural phase transition at 45 K. In this low-temperature regime a three-dimensional antiferromagnetic state is observed with a propagation vector k=((1/2),(1/2),0)

  11. THE LONG RANGE ALPHA DETECTOR IN THE LANL GREEN IS CLEAN PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.M. GRUETZMACHER; R.M. BUSTOS; S.C. MYERS

    2001-06-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is in the process of adding Long Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) technology to its established Green Is Clean (GIC) program. GIC material includes waste and material for recycle generated in radiological controlled areas (RCAs) that have been actively segregated as ''clean'' (i.e., nonradioactive) through the use of waste generator acceptable knowledge (AK). Properly segregated GIC material has a high probability of being free of radioactive contamination. LANL GIC operations provide a verification check on the AK-based determination for low-density and certain high-density items.

  12. Effects of overburden, biomass and atmospheric inversions on energy and angular distributions of gamma rays from U, K, Th, and airborne radon sources. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubin, R.M.; Leggett, D.; Wells, M.B.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a set of radiation transport calculations that were run with the AHISN S/sub n/ discrete ordinates code and a point kernel code to determine the energy, polar angle and height in air distributions of the total and direct gamma-ray flux densities from: (1) uranium sources of 3.2, 200 and 800 ppM in a sandstone orebody covered with biomass densities of 0, 10.2, 20.4, 51.0 and 102.0 kg/m/sup 2/; (2) thorium sources of 12, 25 and 80 ppM in a sandstone ore body covered with biomass densities of 0, 10.2, 20.4, 51.0 and 102.0 kg/m/sup 2/; (3) potassium source (2.5 wt %) in a sandstone ore body covered with biomass densities of 0, 10.2, 20.4, 51.0 and 102.0 kg/m/sup 2/; (4) constant airborne source with height for no inversion and for inversion layer heights of 65.22, 260.32 and 458.43 m; (5) exponentially decreasing airborne source for no inversion and inversion layer heights of 65.22, 260.32 and 458.43 m; (6) 3.2 ppM uranium source in overburden layers of 10.266, 17.110, 26.399 and 32.509 cm thick; (7) 12 ppM thorium source in overburden layers of 10.266, 17.110, 26.399 and 32.509 cm; (8) 2.5 wt % of potassium in overburden layers of 10.266, 17.110, 26.399 and 32.509 cm thick; and (9) 3.2 ppM, 200 ppM, and 800 ppM uranium source in sandstone orebody covered with overburden thicknesses of 10.266, 17.110, 26.399 and 32.509 cm. Gamma-ray emission from the decay of natural uranium, thorium, radon, and potassium are given in a 45-energy group structure applicable to the energy windows used to map the potential uranium ore reserves.

  13. Isothermal Martensitic and Pressure-Induced Delta to Alpha-Prime Phase Transformations in a Pu-Ga Alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, A J; Wall, M A; Farber, D L; Moore, K T; Blobaum, K M

    2008-01-18

    A well-homogenized Pu-2 at.% Ga alloy can be retained in the metastable face-centered cubic {delta} phase at room temperature. Ultimately, this metastable {delta} phase will decompose via a eutectoid transformation to the thermodynamically stable monoclinic {alpha} phase and the intermetallic compound Pu{sub 3}Ga over a period of approximately 10,000 years [1]. In addition, these low solute-containing {delta}-phase Pu alloys are metastable with respect to an isothermal martensitic phase transformation to the {alpha}{prime} phase during low temperature excursions [2, 3] and are also metastable with respect to a {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} phase transformation with increases in pressure [3-5]. The low temperature {delta} {yields} {alpha}{prime} isothermal martensitic phase transformation in the Pu-2 at.% Ga alloy only goes to {approx}25% completion with the resultant {approx}20 {micro}m long by 2 {micro}m wide lath-shaped {alpha}{prime} particles dispersed within the {delta} matrix. In recently reported studies, Faure et al. [4] have observed a {delta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {alpha}{prime} pressure-induced phase transformation sequence during a diamond anvil cell investigation and, based on x-ray diffraction and density and compressibility experiments, Harbur [5] has concluded that both {alpha}{prime} and an amorphous phase are present in samples that were pressurized and recovered. In this work, a large volume moissanite anvil cell is constructed to permit the pressurization and recovery of specimens of a size suitable for TEM and electron diffraction studies. The cell, shown in Fig. 1, has an overall diameter of 101.6 mm, a moissanite anvil diameter of 9.00 mm, a culet size of 3 mm, and a spring steel gasket 0.5 mm thick with a hole diameter of 2.5 mm. A 2.3 mm diameter by 100 {micro}m thick sample of {delta}-phase Pu-2 at.% Ga is compressed at a rate of approximately 0.05 GPa/minute to {approx}1 GPa to induce the phase transformation to {alpha}{prime}. Optical microscopy of the recovered specimen reveals a very fine microstructure that appears to be single phase, although the resolution of this technique is insufficient to differentiate between single and multiple phases if the grain size is below approximately 1 {micro}m. X-ray diffraction, using a laboratory Cu K{sub {alpha}} source with wavelength of 1.542{angstrom}, shows the monoclinic reflections from the {alpha}{prime} phase, strong peaks from the aluminum specimen holder, and weak peaks from the face-centered cubic {delta} phase as shown in Fig. 2. The recovered specimen is prepared for TEM and electron diffraction studies as described in Moore et al. [6]. TEM reveals small regions of {delta} phase with a very high dislocation density interspersed between the 10-100's nm {alpha}{prime} grains as shown in Fig. 3. Electron diffraction, shown in the insert in Fig. 3, clearly reveals the presence of the {delta} phase. This microstructure is in contrast to the {alpha}{prime} particles that form as a result of the low-temperature isothermal martensite in which the {alpha}{prime} particles are lath-shaped and significantly larger as shown in the optical micrograph in Fig. 4 of a sample cooled to -120 C and held for 10 hours. In these preliminary results, there is no evidence of either an amorphous phase, as suggested by Harbur [5], or the presence of a {gamma} phase. We expected to observe an amorphous phase based on the similarity of this experiment to that of Harbur [5]. It is possible that the {gamma} phase, as reported by Faure et al. [4], does form as an intermediate, but it is not retained to ambient pressure.

  14. Metal catalyzed synthesis of hyperbranched ethylene and/or .alpha.-olefin polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman; Kim, Jang Sub; Pawlow, James H.; Murtuza, Shahid; Kacker, Smita; Wojcinski, III, Louis M.

    2001-01-01

    Oily hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin, and a method for their synthesis, are disclosed. The polymers have non-regular microstructures and are characterized by a ratio ({character pullout})of methyl hydrogens centered around 0.85 ppm on the 1H-NMR spectra of the polymers relative to total aliphatic hydrogens of from about 0.40 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from ethylene or butene, and a ratio ({character pullout})of from greater than 0.50 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from propylene. A method for grafting hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin onto aromatic rings in organic molecules and polymers, and the resulting grafted materials, are also disclosed. The hyperbranched polymers and grafted materials are useful, for example, as lubricants and lubricant additives.

  15. The R6A-1 peptide binds to switch II of G{alpha}{sub i1} but is not a GDP-dissociation inhibitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willard, Francis S. . E-mail: fwillard@med.unc.edu; Siderovski, David P.

    2006-01-27

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are molecular switches that convert signals from membrane receptors into changes in intracellular physiology. Recently, several peptides that bind heterotrimeric G-protein {alpha} subunits have been isolated including the novel G{alpha}{sub i1} . GDP binding peptides R6A and KB-752. The R6A peptide and its minimized derivative R6A-1 interact with G{alpha}{sub i1} . GDP. Based on spectroscopic analysis of BODIPYFL-GTP{gamma}S binding to G{alpha}{sub i1}, it has been reported that R6A-1 has guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI) activity against G{alpha}{sub i1} [W.W. Ja, R.W. Roberts, Biochemistry 43 (28) (2004) 9265-9275]. Using radioligand binding, we show that R6A-1 is not a GDI for G{alpha}{sub i1} subunits. Furthermore, we demonstrate that R6A-1 reduces the fluorescence quantum yield of the G{alpha}{sub i1}-BODIPYFL-GTP{gamma}S complex, thus explaining the previously reported GDI activity as a fluorescence artifact. We further show that R6A-1 has significant sequence similarity to the guanine nucleotide exchange factor peptide KB-752 that binds to switch II of G{alpha}{sub i1}. We use competitive binding analysis to show that R6A-1 also binds to switch II of G{alpha} subunits.

  16. Identification of {gamma} rays from {sup 172}Au and {alpha} decays of {sup 172}Au, {sup 168}Ir, and {sup 164}Re

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadinia, B.; Cederwall, B.; Andgren, K.; Baeck, T.; Johnson, A.; Khaplanov, A.; Wyss, R.; Page, R. D.; Grahn, T.; Paul, E. S.; Sandzelius, M.; Scholey, C.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, J.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Nyman, M.

    2009-12-15

    The very neutron deficient odd-odd nucleus {sup 172}Au was studied in reactions of 342 and 348 MeV {sup 78}Kr beams with an isotopically enriched {sup 96}Ru target. The {alpha} decays previously reported for {sup 172}Au were confirmed and the decay chain extended down to {sup 152}Tm through the discovery of a new {alpha}-decaying state in {sup 164}Re[E{sub {alpha}}=5623(10) keV; t{sub 1/2}=864{sub -110}{sup +150} ms; b{sub {alpha}}=3(1)%]. Fine structure in these {alpha} decays of {sup 172}Au and {sup 168}Ir were identified. A new {alpha}-decaying state was also observed and assigned as the ground state in {sup 172}Au[E{sub {alpha}}=6762(10) keV; t{sub 1/2}=22{sub -5}{sup +6} ms]. This decay chain was also correlated down to {sup 152}Tm through previously reported {alpha} decays. Prompt {gamma} rays from excited states in {sup 172}Au have been identified using the recoil-decay tagging technique. The partial level scheme constructed for {sup 172}Au indicates that it has an irregular structure. Possible configurations of the {alpha}-decaying states in {sup 172}Au are discussed in terms of the systematics of nuclei in this region and total Routhian surface calculations.

  17. Measurement and analysis of. cap alpha. particles emitted in reactions of /sup 12/C bombarding /sup 12/C, /sup 27/Al, and /sup nat/Ca

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    XIE Yuan-xiang; WU Guo-hua; ZHU Yong-tai; MIAO Rong-zhi; FONG En-pu; YIN Xu; MIAO He-bing; CAI Jing-xiang; SHEN Wen-qing; SUN Shu-ming

    1985-10-01

    The energy spectra and angular distributions of the ..cap alpha.. particles emitted in the reactions of 69.5 MeV /sup 12/C bombarding /sup 12/C, /sup 27/Al, and /sup nat/Ca have been measured and analyzed using the fast-particle exciton model. The contribution from the equilibrium and pre-equilibrium ..cap alpha.. emissions is calculated to be 89%, 81%, and 83% of the total ..cap alpha.. yields for the three reactions, respectively, where the pre-equilibrium ..cap alpha.. emissions are 11%, 14%, and 16%, respectively. A small contribution comes from other reaction mechanisms.

  18. On the Behavior of the Effective QCD Coupling {alpha}{sub {tau}}(s)at Low Scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2002-12-11

    The hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton can be used to determine the effective charge {alpha}{tau}(m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2}) for a hypothetical {tau}-lepton with mass in the range 0 < m{sub {tau}{prime}} < m{sub {tau}}. This definition provides a fundamental definition of the QCD coupling at low mass scales. We study the behavior of {alpha}{sub {tau}} at low mass scales directly from first principles and without any renormalization-scheme dependence by looking at the experimental data from the OPAL Collaboration. The results are consistent with the freezing of the physical coupling at mass scales s = m{sub {tau}{prime}}{sup 2} of order 1 GeV{sup 2} with a magnitude {alpha}{sub {tau}} {approx} 0.9 {+-} 0.1.

  19. Analysis of Neutral Transport in the GAMMA10 Anchor-Cell Using H{alpha}-Emission Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higashizono, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Nakashima, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ohki, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Islam, M.K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Shoji, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan); Kobayashi, S. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University (Japan); Yoshikawa, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kubota, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Murakami, R. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yamada, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Cho, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-01-15

    The neutral transport was studied in the anchor cell. The H{alpha} line intensities were measured by using axially aligned H{alpha} detectors. It was found that the intensity is considerably dependent on ECRH and GP 3,4. A 5ch H{alpha} detector was newly installed in the outer-transition region of the anchor-cell. From the measurement of the spatial distributions, the vertical intensity profile is estimated to be about 2.5 cm on the half width half maximum, while the horizontal distribution shows roughly flat around Z=-670 cm. The above characteristics were discussed with aid of neutral transport simulation using DEGAS Monte-Carlo Code.

  20. Growth of single-crystal {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanorods on multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Yong; Liu Chenguang; Liu Chang; Lu Gaoqing; Cheng Huiming

    2007-11-06

    Single-crystal {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanorods were grown on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution. The morphology and microstructure of the composites were examined by transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffractometry and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} single-crystal nanorods with a mean diameter of 15 nm were densely grown on the surface of MWNTs. Those MWNTs/MnO{sub 2} composites were used as an electrode material for supercapacitors, and it was found that the supercapacitor performance using MWNTs/MnO{sub 2} composites was improved largely compared to that using pure MWNTs and {alpha}-MnO{sub 2} nanorod mechanically mixed with MWNTs.

  1. X-rays structural analysis and thermal stability studies of the ternary compound {alpha}-AlFeSi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roger, J.; Bosselet, F.; Viala, J.C.

    2011-05-15

    From literature data presently available, the decomposition temperature and the nature of the decomposition reaction of the ternary compound {alpha}-AlFeSi (also designated as {alpha}{sub H} or {tau}{sub 5}) are not clearly identified. Moreover, some uncertainties remain concerning its crystal structure. The crystallographic structure and thermochemical behaviour of the ternary compound {alpha}-AlFeSi were meticulously studied. The crystal structure of {alpha}-AlFeSi was examined at room temperature from X-ray single crystal intensity data. It presents hexagonal symmetry, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc with unit cell parameters (293 K) a=12.345(2) A and c=26.210(3) A (V=3459 A{sup 3}). The average chemical formula obtained from refinement is Al{sub 7.1}Fe{sub 2}Si. From isothermal reaction-diffusion experiments and Differential Thermal Analysis, the title compound decomposes peritectically upon heating into {theta}-Fe{sub 4}Al{sub 13}(Si), {gamma}-Al{sub 3}FeSi and a ternary Al-rich liquid. Under atmospheric pressure, the temperature of this reversible transformation has been determined to be 772{+-}12 {sup o}C. -- Graphical abstract: Partial representation of the crystal structure of the {alpha}-Al{sub 7.1}Fe{sub 2}Si compound. Display Omitted Highlights: The main findings of our work are: {yields} a detailed X-rays crystal structure determination of the ternary compound {alpha}-AlFeSi. {yields} The precision of the silicon atoms positions in the crystal structure. {yields} A precised determination of the decomposition temperature of this compound.

  2. Structures of NodZ [alpha]1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2012-03-26

    Rhizobial NodZ {alpha}1,6-fucosyltransferase ({alpha}1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5'-diphosphate-{beta}-L-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signaling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two {alpha}1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of {alpha}1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fuc and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystal of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 {angstrom} resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzyme-product complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-L-glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 {angstrom} resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-terminal domain, which are conserved among {alpha}1,2-, {alpha}1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the loop located between strand {beta}C2 and helix {alpha}C3. In addition, there is a shift of the {alpha}C3 helix itself upon GDP-Fuc binding.

  3. Two-stage sintering inhibits abnormal grain growth during beta to alpha transformation in SiC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, Aaron M.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2007-09-17

    Free sintering of SiC with Al, B, and C additions in two successive stages, first under nitrogen and then under argon, produced a near full-density ceramic with equiaxed grain structure. The beta to alpha transformation proceeded to completion; however, the grain shape remained equiaxed due to the action of nitrogen present during the first stage of sintering. It is found that the beta to alpha transformation is necessary but not sufficient for producing the microstructure of interlocking plates found in high-toughness SiC.

  4. Coexistence of the Alpha and Delta Phases in As-Cast Uranium-Rich U-Zr

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Alloys (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Coexistence of the Alpha and Delta Phases in As-Cast Uranium-Rich U-Zr Alloys Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Coexistence of the Alpha and Delta Phases in As-Cast Uranium-Rich U-Zr Alloys Authors: McKeown, J T ; Irukuvarghula, S ; Ahn, S ; Wall, M ; Hsiung, L L ; McDeavitt, S ; Turchi, P A Publication Date: 2012-09-05 OSTI Identifier: 1073796 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-579942 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource

  5. Alpha and gamma radioysis of nuclear solvent etxraction ligands used for An(III) and Ln(III) Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen P. Mezyk; Bruce J. Mincher; Christian Ekberg; Gunnar Skarnemark

    2013-05-01

    The separation of the minor actinides from dissolved nuclear fuel remains a major challenge in developing large-scale waste separations processes. One important criterion is that all these processes must be robust under high acidity and radiation dose conditions. Here we have investigated the TRUEX ligand CMPO in dodecane, comparing the effects of gamma (60Co) with alpha irradiation using isotopic alpha sources (244Cm, 211At) experiments. The radiolytically-based CMPO decomposition efficiencies are approximately the same for both types of radiolysis, with the overall decomposition being significantly less when this formulation is irradiated in contact with aqueous acid.

  6. EIS-0305: Treating Transuranic (TRU)/Alpha Low-Level at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates DOE's proposal to construct, operate, and decontaminate/decommission a Transuranic (TRU) Waste Treatment Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The four waste types that would be treated at the proposed facility would be remote-handled TRU mixed waste sludge, liquid low-level waste associated with the sludge, contact-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids, and remote-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids. The mixed waste sludge and some of the solid waste contain metals regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and may be classified as mixed waste.

  7. Alpha Radiolysis of Sorbed Water on Uranium Oxides and Uranium Oxyfluorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Icenhour, A.S.

    2003-09-10

    The radiolysis of sorbed water and other impurities contained in actinide oxides has been the focus of a number of studies related to the establishment of criteria for the safe storage and transport of these materials. Gamma radiolysis studies have previously been performed on uranium oxides and oxyfluorides (UO{sub 3}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, and UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) to evaluate the long-term storage characteristics of {sup 233}U. This report describes a similar study for alpha radiolysis. Uranium oxides and oxyfluorides (with {sup 238}U as the surrogate for {sup 233}U) were subjected to relatively high alpha radiation doses (235 to 634 MGy) by doping with {sup 244}Cm. The typical irradiation time for these samples was about 1.5 years, which would be equivalent to more than 50 years irradiation by a {sup 233}U sample. Both dry and wet (up to 10 wt % water) samples were examined in an effort to identify the gas pressure and composition changes that occurred as a result of radiolysis. This study shows that several competing reactions occur during radiolysis, with the net effect that only very low pressures of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide are generated from the water, nitrate, and carbon impurities, respectively, associated with the oxides. In the absence of nitrate impurities, no pressures greater than 1000 torr are generated. Usually, however, the oxygen in the air atmosphere over the oxides is consumed with the corresponding oxidation of the uranium oxide. In the presence of up to 10 wt % water, the oxides first show a small pressure rise followed by a net decrease due to the oxygen consumption and the attainment of a steady-state pressure where the rate of generation of gaseous components is balanced by their recombination and/or consumption in the oxide phase. These results clearly demonstrate that alpha radiolysis of either wet or dry {sup 233}U oxides will not produce deleterious pressures or gaseous components that could compromise the long-term storage of these materials.

  8. Estimation of the Alpha Factor Parameters for the Emergency Diesel Generators of Ulchin Unit 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dae Il Kang; Sang Hoon Han

    2006-07-01

    Up to the present, the generic values of the Common cause failure (CCF) event parameters have been used in most PSA projects for the Korean NPPs. However, the CCF analysis should be performed with plant specific information to meet Category II of the ASME PRA Standard. Therefore, we estimated the Alpha factor parameters of the emergency diesel generator (EDG) for Ulchin Unit 3 by using the International Common-Cause Failure data Exchange (ICDE) database. The ICDE database provides the member countries with only the information needed for an estimation of the CCF parameters. The Ulchin Unit A3, pressurized water reactor, has two onsite EDGs and one alternate AC (AAC) diesel generator. The onsite EDGs of Unit 3 and 4 and the AAC are manufactured by the same company, but they are designed differently. The estimation procedure of the Alpha factor used in this study follows the approach of the NUREG/CR-5485. Since we did not find any qualitative difference between the target systems (two EDGs of Ulchin Unit 3) and the original systems (ICDE database), the applicability factor of each CCF event in the ICDE database was assumed to be 1. For the case of three EDGs including the AAC, five CCF events for the EDGs in the ICDE database were identified to be screened out. However, the detailed information for the independent events in the ICDE database is not presented. Thus, we assumed that the applicability factors for the CCF events to be screened out were, to be conservative, 0.5 and those of the other CCF events were 1. The study results show that the estimated Alpha parameters by using the ICDE database are lower than the generic values of the NUREG/CR-5497. The EDG system unavailability of the 1 out of 3 success criterion except for the supporting systems was calculated as 2.76 E-3. Compared with the system unavailability estimated by using the data of NUREG/CR-5497, it is decreased by 31.2%. (authors)

  9. A P-loop Mutation in G[alpha] Subunits Prevents Transition to the Active State: Implications for G-protein Signaling in Fungal Pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosch, Dustin E.; Willard, Francis S.; Ramanujam, Ravikrishna; Kimple, Adam J.; Willard, Melinda D.; Naqvi, Naweed I.; Siderovski, David P.

    2012-10-23

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins are molecular switches integral to a panoply of different physiological responses that many organisms make to environmental cues. The switch from inactive to active G{alpha}{beta}{gamma} heterotrimer relies on nucleotide cycling by the G{alpha} subunit: exchange of GTP for GDP activates G{alpha}, whereas its intrinsic enzymatic activity catalyzes GTP hydrolysis to GDP and inorganic phosphate, thereby reverting G{alpha} to its inactive state. In several genetic studies of filamentous fungi, such as the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, a G42R mutation in the phosphate-binding loop of G{alpha} subunits is assumed to be GTPase-deficient and thus constitutively active. Here, we demonstrate that G{alpha}(G42R) mutants are not GTPase deficient, but rather incapable of achieving the activated conformation. Two crystal structure models suggest that Arg-42 prevents a typical switch region conformational change upon G{alpha}{sub i1}(G42R) binding to GDP {center_dot} AlF{sub 4}{sup -} or GTP, but rotameric flexibility at this locus allows for unperturbed GTP hydrolysis. G{alpha}(G42R) mutants do not engage the active state-selective peptide KB-1753 nor RGS domains with high affinity, but instead favor interaction with G{beta}{gamma} and GoLoco motifs in any nucleotide state. The corresponding G{alpha}{sub q}(G48R) mutant is not constitutively active in cells and responds poorly to aluminum tetrafluoride activation. Comparative analyses of M. oryzae strains harboring either G42R or GTPase-deficient Q/L mutations in the G{alpha} subunits MagA or MagB illustrate functional differences in environmental cue processing and intracellular signaling outcomes between these two G{alpha} mutants, thus demonstrating the in vivo functional divergence of G42R and activating G-protein mutants.

  10. Experimental investigations of electron capture from atomic hydrogen and deuterium by alpha particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gay, T.J.; Park, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    We report progress made during the period 15 September 1991--14 September 1992 on the project Experimental Investigations of Electron Capture from Atomic Hydrogen and Deuterium by Alpha Particles''. In the past year we have developed reliable, narrow energy spread, high-current sources of He[sup ++] based on direct-current magentron and electron-cyclotron resonance discharges. These sources have been proven on our test bench accelerator which has been upgraded to also allow us to test atomic hydrogen effusive targets. We have thus made substantial progress toward our goal of studying single electron capture from atomic hydrogen by doubly-ionized helium. A research plan for the upcoming year is also presented.

  11. Scintillator assembly for alpha radiation detection and method of making the assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhaney, Stephanie A.; Bauer, Martin L.; Chiles, Marion M.

    1992-01-01

    A scintillator assembly for use in the detection of alpha radiation includes a body of optically-transparent epoxy and an amount of phosphor particles embedded within the body adjacent one surface thereof. When making the body, the phosphor particles are mixed with the epoxy when in an uncured condition and permitted to settle to the bottom surface of a mold within which the epoxy/phosphor mixture is contained. When the mixture subsequently cures to form a hardened body, the one surface of the body which cured against the bottom surface of the mold is coated with a thin layer of opaque material for preventing ambient light form entering the body through the one surface. The layer of opaque material is thereafter coated with a layer of protective material to provide the assembly with a damage-resistant entrance window.

  12. Scintillator assembly for alpha radiation detection and method of making the assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhaney, S.A.; Bauer, M.L.; Chiles, M.M.

    1992-09-22

    A scintillator assembly for use in the detection of alpha radiation includes a body of optically-transparent epoxy and an amount of phosphor particles embedded within the body adjacent one surface thereof. When making the body, the phosphor particles are mixed with the epoxy when in an uncured condition and permitted to settle to the bottom surface of a mold within which the epoxy/phosphor mixture is contained. When the mixture subsequently cures to form a hardened body, the one surface of the body which cured against the bottom surface of the mold is coated with a thin layer of opaque material for preventing ambient light form entering the body through the one surface. The layer of opaque material is thereafter coated with a layer of protective material to provide the assembly with a damage-resistant entrance window. 6 figs.

  13. Alpha channeling with high-field launch of lower hybrid waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ochs, I. E.; Bertelli, N.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-11-04

    Although lower hybrid waves are effective at driving currents in present-day tokamaks, they are expected to interact strongly with high-energy particles in extrapolating to reactors. In the presence of a radial alpha particle birth gradient, this interaction can take the form of wave amplification rather than damping. While it is known that this amplification more easily occurs when launching from the tokamak high-field side, the extent of this amplification has not been made quantitative. Here, by tracing rays launched from the high- field-side of a tokamak, the required radial gradients to achieve amplification are calculated for a temperature and density regime consistent with a hot-ion-mode fusion reactor. As a result, these simulations, while valid only in the linear regime of wave amplification, nonetheless illustrate the possibilities for wave amplification using high-field launch of the lower hybrid wave.

  14. Doppler spectroscopy and D-alpha emission diagnostics for the C-2 FRC plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Deepak K.; Paganini, E.; Bonelli, L.; Deng, B. H.; Gornostaeva, O.; Hayashi, R.; Knapp, K.; McKenzie, M.; Pousa-Hijos, R.; Primavera, S.; Schroeder, J.; Tuszewski, M.; Balvis, A.; Giammanco, F.; Marsili, P.

    2010-10-15

    Two Doppler spectroscopy diagnostics with complementary capabilities are developed to measure the ion temperatures and velocities of FRC plasmas in the C-2 device. First, the multichord ion doppler diagnostic can simultaneously measure 15 chords of the plasma using an image intensified camera. Second, a single-chord fast-response ion Doppler diagnostic provides much higher faster time response by using a 16-channel photo-multiplier tube array. To study the neutral density of deuterium under different wall and plasma conditions, a highly sensitive eight-channel D-alpha diagnostic has been developed and calibrated for absolute radiance measurements. These spectroscopic diagnostics capabilities, combined with other plasma diagnostics, are helping to understand and improve the field reversed configuration plasmas in the C-2 device.

  15. Alpha channeling with high-field launch of lower hybrid waves

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ochs, I. E.; Bertelli, N.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-11-04

    Although lower hybrid waves are effective at driving currents in present-day tokamaks, they are expected to interact strongly with high-energy particles in extrapolating to reactors. In the presence of a radial alpha particle birth gradient, this interaction can take the form of wave amplification rather than damping. While it is known that this amplification more easily occurs when launching from the tokamak high-field side, the extent of this amplification has not been made quantitative. Here, by tracing rays launched from the high- field-side of a tokamak, the required radial gradients to achieve amplification are calculated for a temperature and densitymore » regime consistent with a hot-ion-mode fusion reactor. As a result, these simulations, while valid only in the linear regime of wave amplification, nonetheless illustrate the possibilities for wave amplification using high-field launch of the lower hybrid wave.« less

  16. Beta-endorphin and alpha-n-acetyl beta-endorphin; synthesis, conformation and binding parameter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovegren, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    Beta-endorphin (EP) is a 31-residue opioid peptide found in many tissues, including the pituitary, brain and reproductive tract. Alpha-amino-acetyl beta-endorphin (AcEP) was characterized spectroscopically by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism in deuterated water and trifluoroethanol (TFE). Both EP and AcEP bind to neuroblastoma N2a cells. This binding was not mediated through opiate receptors, and both peptides seemed to bind at common sites. Ovarian immunoreactive-EP levels were determined for immature and mature rates. These levels were found to be responsive to exogenous gonadotropin treatment in immature animals. A large percentage of the immunoreactive-EP is present in follicular fluid, and most of the endorphin-like peptides were acetylated, as measured by radioimmunoassay. Chromatogaphic analysis suggested at least three EP-like species: EP, a carboxy-terminally cleaved and an amino-terminally acetylated EP.

  17. Structure determination of {alpha}-La{sub 6}W{sub 2}O{sub 15}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambrier, M-H.; Ibberson, R.M.; Goutenoire, F.

    2010-06-15

    The structure of the high temperature alpha form of La{sub 6}W{sub 2}O{sub 15} has been determined ab-initio from high temperature laboratory X-ray and neutron time-of-flight data. This tungstate crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic space group (No. 20) C222{sub 1}, with Z=2, a=12.6250(2) A, b=9.1875(1) A, c=5.9688(1) A. The structure comprises [O{sub 2}La{sub 3}] infinite ribbons and is better described by the structural formula [O{sub 2}La{sub 3}]{sub 2}[WO{sub 5.5}]{sub 2}. Using this description we can understand the strong structural similarity of the present compound with compounds of the general composition BiM{sub 2}AO{sub 6} (M=Cu, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ca, Pb; A=P, As, V) described as [O{sub 2}M{sub 2}Bi][AO{sub 4}]. The [WO{sub 5.5}] entity implies oxygen disorder in the material. - Graphical abstract: Projection of the polyhedra around the tungsten atom. Atoms labelled in grey are occupied at 50%. Short oxygen-oxygen distances are marked. The polyhedra represents WO{sub 5.5} that is related to the structural unit W{sub 2}O{sub 11} unit. Alpha-La{sub 6}W{sub 2}O{sub 15} could be described as [O{sub 2}La{sub 3}]{sub 2}[WO{sub 5.5}]{sub 2}.

  18. Process for the generation of .alpha., .beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters using niobium catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gogate, Makarand Ratnakav; Spivey, James Jerome; Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1999-01-01

    A process using a niobium catalyst includes the step of reacting an ester or carboxylic acid with oxygen and an alcohol in the presence a niobium catalyst to respectively produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated ester or carboxylic acid. Methanol may be used as the alcohol, and the ester or carboxylic acid may be passed over the niobium catalyst in a vapor stream containing oxygen and methanol. Alternatively, the process using a niobium catalyst may involve the step of reacting an ester and oxygen in the presence the niobium catalyst to produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acid. In this case the ester may be a methyl ester. In either case, niobium oxide may be used as the niobium catalyst with the niobium oxide being present on a support. The support may be an oxide selected from the group consisting of silicon oxide, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide and mixtures thereof. The catalyst may be formed by reacting niobium fluoride with the oxide serving as the support. The niobium catalyst may contain elemental niobium within the range of 1 wt % to 70 wt %, and more preferably within the range of 10 wt % to 30 wt %. The process may be operated at a temperature from 150 to 450.degree. C. and preferably from 250 to 350.degree. C. The process may be operated at a pressure from 0.1 to 15 atm. absolute and preferably from 0.5-5 atm. absolute. The flow rate of reactants may be from 10 to 10,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h, and preferably from 100 to 1,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h.

  19. Effects of alpha beam on the parametric decay of a parallel propagating circularly polarized Alfven wave: Hybrid simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Xinliang; Lu, Quanming; Tao, Xin; Hao, Yufei; Wang, Shui

    2013-09-15

    Alfven waves with a finite amplitude are found to be unstable to a parametric decay in low beta plasmas. In this paper, the parametric decay of a circularly polarized Alfven wave in a proton-electron-alpha plasma system is investigated with one-dimensional (1-D) hybrid simulations. In cases without alpha particles, with the increase of the wave number of the pump Alfven wave, the growth rate of the decay instability increases and the saturation amplitude of the density fluctuations slightly decrease. However, when alpha particles with a sufficiently large bulk velocity along the ambient magnetic field are included, at a definite range of the wave numbers of the pump wave, both the growth rate and the saturation amplitude of the parametric decay become much smaller and the parametric decay is heavily suppressed. At these wave numbers, the resonant condition between the alpha particles and the daughter Alfven waves is satisfied, therefore, their resonant interactions might play an important role in the suppression of the parametric decay instability.

  20. Recognition of the Activated States of G[alpha]13 by the rgRGS Domain of PDZRhoGEF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhe; Singer, William D.; Danesh, Shahab M.; Sternweis, Paul C.; Sprang, Stephen R.

    2009-12-01

    G12 class heterotrimeric G proteins stimulate RhoA activation by RGS-RhoGEFs. However, p115RhoGEF is a GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) toward G{alpha}13, whereas PDZRhoGEF is not. We have characterized the interaction between the PDZRhoGEF rgRGS domain (PRG-rgRGS) and the alpha subunit of G13 and have determined crystal structures of their complexes in both the inactive state bound to GDP and the active states bound to GDP {center_dot} AlF (transition state) and GTP{gamma}S (Michaelis complex). PRG-rgRGS interacts extensively with the helical domain and the effector-binding sites on G{alpha}13 through contacts that are largely conserved in all three nucleotide-bound states, although PRG-rgRGS has highest affinity to the Michaelis complex. An acidic motif in the N terminus of PRG-rgRGS occupies the GAP binding site of G{alpha}13 and is flexible in the GDP {center_dot} AlF complex but well ordered in the GTPS complex. Replacement of key residues in this motif with their counterparts in p115RhoGEF confers GAP activity.

  1. An alpha–gamma coincidence spectrometer based on the Photon–Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS®) system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cadieux, J. R.; Fugate, G. A.; King, III, G. S.

    2015-02-07

    Here, an alpha–gamma coincidence spectrometer has been developed for the measurement of selected actinide isotopes in the presence of high beta/gamma fields. The system is based on a PERALS® liquid scintillation counter for beta/alpha discrimination and was successfully tested with both high purity germanium and bismuth germanate, gamma-ray detectors using conventional analog electronics.

  2. Analysis of the {sup 6}He {beta} decay into the {alpha}+d continuum within a three-body model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tursunov, E.M.; Baye, D.; Descouvemont, P.

    2006-01-15

    The {beta}-decay process of the {sup 6}He halo nucleus into the {alpha}+d continuum is studied in a three-body model. The {sup 6}He nucleus is described as an {alpha}+n+n system in hyperspherical coordinates on a Lagrange mesh. The convergence of the Gamow-Teller matrix element requires the knowledge of wave functions up to about 30 fm and of hypermomentum components up to K=24. The shape and absolute values of the transition probability per time and energy units of a recent experiment can be reproduced very well with an appropriate {alpha}+d potential. A total transition probability of 1.6x10{sup -6} s{sup -1} is obtained in agreement with that experiment. Halo effects are shown to be very important because of a strong cancellation between the internal and halo components of the matrix element, as observed in previous studies. The forbidden bound state in the {alpha}+d potential is found essential to reproduce the order of magnitude of the data. Comments are made on R-matrix fits.

  3. Roles of core-shell and {delta}-ray kinetics in layered BN {alpha}-voltaic efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melnick, Corey; Kaviany, Massoud; Kim, Moo-Hwan

    2013-02-14

    {alpha}-voltaics harvest electron-hole pairs created as energetic {alpha} particles collide with and ionize electrons in a semiconductor, creating {delta}-rays. After ionization, charged pair production continues through {delta}-ray impact ionization events and the Auger relaxation of core-shell holes created through K-shell ionization events. Secondary ionization events are quantified using the TPP-2M model, the fraction of K-shell ionization events is determined using the energy-loss Coulomb-repulsion perturbed-stationary-state relativistic theory, and the relaxation of the resulting holes is treated with a fully ab initio approach using multiple Fermi golden rule calculations for ranges of carrier concentrations and temperatures. The limiting rate is 15 ns{sup -1} for small carrier concentrations and high temperatures, as compared to the radiative core-shell relaxation rate estimated here at 20 ns{sup -1}, indicating that Auger modes contribute significantly. Moreover, the K-shell ionization events are shown to dominate for low energy {alpha} particles and vanish for high energy ones. Thus, the efficiency loss due to energy dissipation in the fuel layer is mitigated, which is demonstrated by the analysis of a layered fuel-voltaic device with an efficiency from 20% to 14% for fuel layers between 5 and 10 {mu}m thick. The design of a {alpha}-voltaic integrated with a thermoelectric generator is suggested for improved efficiency and the system-level mitigation of radiation damage and geometric inefficiency.

  4. Lower hybrid instability driven by mono-energy {alpha}-particles with finite pitch angle spread in a plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Vishwesh; Tripathi, V. K.

    2013-02-15

    A kinetic formalism of lower hybrid wave instability, driven by mono-energy {alpha}-particles with finite pitch angle spread, is developed. The instability arises through cyclotron resonance interaction with high cyclotron harmonics of {alpha}-particles. The {alpha}-particles produced in D-T fusion reactions have huge Larmor radii ({approx}10 cm) as compared to the wavelength of the lower hybrid wave, whereas their speed is an order of magnitude smaller than the speed of light in vacuum. As a result, large parallel phase velocity lower hybrid waves, suitable for current drive in tokamak, are driven unstable via coupling to high cyclotron harmonics. The growth rate decreases with increase in pitch angle spread of the beam. At typical electron density of {approx}10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, magnetic field {approx}4 Tesla and {alpha}-particle concentration {approx}0.1%, the large parallel phase velocity lower hybrid wave grows on the time scale of 20 ion cyclotron periods. The growth rate decreases with plasma density.

  5. Energy and Mass Dependences of the Parameters of the Semimicroscopic Folding Model for Alpha Particles at Low and Intermediate Energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuterbekov, K.A.; Zholdybayev, T.K.; Kukhtina, I.N.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.

    2005-06-01

    The energy and mass dependences of the parameters of the semimicroscopic alpha-particle potential are investigated for the first time in the region of low and intermediate energies. Within the semimicroscopic folding model, both elastic and inelastic differential and total cross sections for reactions on various nuclei are well described by using global parameters obtained in this study.

  6. Measurements of neutral density profiles using a deuterium Balmer-alpha diagnostic in the C-2 FRC plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Deepak K.; Deng, B. H.; Knapp, K.; Sun, X.; Thompson, M. C.

    2012-10-15

    In C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) device, low neutral density outside the FRC separatrix is required to minimize the charge exchange loss of fast particles. Titanium gettering is used in C-2 to reduce the wall recycling and keep the neutral density low in plasma edge. The measurements of neutral density radial profile are desirable to understand the plasma recycling and the effects of titanium gettering. These measurements are also needed to study the interaction of neutral beams with FRC plasma and confinement of fast ions. Diagnostic based on absolute deuterium Balmer-alpha (D-alpha) radiation measurements is developed and deployed on C-2 device to measure the radial profile of neutral density. Simultaneous measurements of electron density and temperature are done using CO{sub 2} interferometer, Thomson scattering, and triple probes diagnostics along with absolute D-alpha radiation. Abel inversion was performed to get the time dependent radial profile of the local D-alpha emission density. Neutral density profiles are obtained under different machine conditions of titanium deposition.

  7. Microwave-assisted synthesis and humidity sensing of nanostructured {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deshmukh, Rupali G.; Badadhe, Satish S.; Mulla, Imtiaz S.

    2009-05-06

    Nanocrystalline {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been prepared on a large-scale by a facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal route from a solution of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.9H{sub 2}O and pentaerythritol. A systematic study of the morphology, crystallinity and oxidation state of Fe using different characterization techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed. It reveals that nanostructured {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} comprises bundles of nanorods with a rhombohedral crystalline structure. The individual nanorod has 8-10 nm diameter and {approx}50 nm length. The as-prepared nanostructured {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sensor) gives selective response towards humidity. The sensor shows high sensitivity, fast linear response to change in the humidity with almost 100% reproducibility. The sensor works at room temperature and rejuvenates without heat treatment. The as-prepared nanostructured {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} appears to be a promising humidity sensing material with the potential for commercialization.

  8. Controlled synthesis of mesoporous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods and visible light photocatalytic property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Guo-Ying; Feng, Yan; Xu, Yan-Yan; Gao, Dong-Zhao; Sun, Ya-Qiu

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods were prepared by a facile hydrothermal process of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}9H{sub 2}O in NaOH aqueous solution combined with calcination method. The rod structure can be well controlled via NaOH quantity and exhibits a high BET surface area of 105.1 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The as-obtained porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods show good reusability and superior visible-light photocatalytic activity in degradation of MB compared to hematite nanoparticles and microplates. Considering the excellent photocatalytic activity, recycling stability, and facile preparation method, the porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods are believed to have potential application in the field of photocatalysis. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods with typical pore size of 2-4 nm were controlled prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods exhibit a high BET surface area of 105.1 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and a pore volume of 0.13 m{sup 3} g{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It exhibits excellent visible-light photocatalytic activity and reusability in degradation of MB, in comparison to {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and platelets. -- Abstract: Porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods with typical pore size of 2-4 nm were controlled prepared by a facile hydrothermal process of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}9H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in the presence of NaOH, followed by a calcination treatment. Contrast experiments indicate that the morphology and crystalline structure of the hydrothermal products depend greatly on the quantity of NaOH. Hematite nanoparticles and microplates were respectively obtained under conditions without or with excess NaOH. The porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods exhibit a high BET surface area of 105.1 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and a pore volume of 0.13 m{sup 3} g{sup -1}. UV-vis measurement shows wide absorption to visible light and an obvious blue-shift of the adsorption edge due to the quantum size effect. The visible-light photocatalytic performances of the as-prepared samples were evaluated by photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue at ambient temperature. The results indicate that the photocatalytic activity of the porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods is superior to hematite nanoparticles and platelets and exhibit good reusable feature. The photocatalytic process of porous structure is determined to be pseudo-first-order reaction with apparent reaction rate constant of 1.04 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}. And the optimum photocatalyst dosage is 20 mg per 100 mL of dye solution. The porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods are considered potential photocatalyst for practical application due to the excellent photocatalytic behavior and good reusability.

  9. Mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} identified in MODY3 and MODY5 downregulate DPP-IV gene expression in Caco-2 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu Ning [Laboratory of Metabolism, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Laboratory of Neurochemistry, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Adachi, Tetsuya [Department of Genomic Drug Discovery Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Matsunaga, Tetsuro [Laboratory of Metabolism, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Takeda, Jun [Department of Endocrinology Diabetes and Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Tsujimoto, Gozoh [Department of Genomic Drug Discovery Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ishihara, Akihiko [Laboratory of Neurochemistry, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Yasuda, Koichiro [Laboratory of Metabolism, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Diabetic Center, Tsunashimakai-Kosei Hospital, Himeji (Japan); Tsuda, Kinsuke [Laboratory of Metabolism, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)]. E-mail: jinkan@tom.life.h.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-08-04

    Dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a well-documented drug target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNF)-1{alpha} and HNF-1{beta}, known as the causal genes of MODY3 and MODY5, respectively, have been reported to be involved in regulation of DPP-IV gene expression. But, it is not completely clear (i) that they play roles in regulation of DPP-IV gene expression, and (ii) whether DPP-IV gene activity is changed by mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} in MODY3 and MODY5. To explore these questions, we investigated transactivation effects of wild HNF-1{alpha} and 13 mutant HNF-1{alpha}, as well as wild HNF-1{beta} and 2 mutant HNF-1{beta}, on DPP-IV promoter luciferase gene in Caco-2 cells by means of a transient experiment. Both wild HNF-1{alpha} and wild HNF-1{beta} significantly transactivated DPP-IV promoter, but mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} exhibited low transactivation activity. Moreover, to study whether mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} change endogenous DPP-IV enzyme activity, we produced four stable cell lines from Caco-2 cells, in which wild HNF-1{alpha} or wild HNF-1{beta}, or else respective dominant-negative mutant HNF-1{alpha}T539fsdelC or dominant-negative mutant HNF-1{beta}R177X, was stably expressed. We found that DPP-IV gene expression and enzyme activity were significantly increased in wild HNF-1{alpha} cells and wild HNF-1{beta} cells, whereas they decreased in HNF-1{alpha}T539fsdelC cells and HNF-1{beta}R177X cells, compared with DPP-IV gene expression and enzyme activity in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that both wild HNF-1{alpha} and wild HNF-1{beta} have a stimulatory effect on DPP-IV gene expression, but that mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} attenuate the stimulatory effect.

  10. HUBBLE/COS OBSERVATIONS OF THE Ly{alpha} FOREST TOWARD THE BL Lac OBJECT 1ES 1553+113

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danforth, Charles W.; Keeney, Brian A.; Stocke, John T.; Shull, J. Michael; Yao Yangsen, E-mail: danforth@casa.colorado.ed [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-09-01

    We present new moderate-resolution, far-ultraviolet spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST/COS) of the BL Lac object 1ES 1553+113 covering the wavelength range 1135 A < {lambda} < 1795 A. The data show a smooth continuum with a wealth of narrow (b < 100 km s{sup -1}) absorption features arising in the interstellar medium and intergalactic medium. These features include 41 Ly{alpha} absorbers at 0 < z{sub abs} < 0.43, 14 of which are detected in multiple Lyman lines and 6 of which show absorption in one or more metal lines. We analyze a metal-rich triplet ({Delta}cz {approx} 1000 km s{sup -1}) of Ly{alpha} absorbers at z{sub abs} {approx} 0.188 in which O VI, N V, and C III absorption is detected. Silicon ions (Si III, Si IV) are not detected to fairly strong upper limits and we use the measured Si III/C III upper limit to derive an abundance limit (C/Si) {>=} 4(C/Si){sub sun} for the strongest component of the absorber complex. Galaxy redshift surveys show a number of massive galaxies at approximately the same redshift as this absorption complex, suggesting that it arises in a large-scale galaxy filament. As one of the brightest extragalactic X-ray and {gamma}-ray sources, 1ES 1553+113 is of great interest to the high-energy astrophysics community. With no intrinsic emission or absorption features, 1ES 1553+113 has no direct redshift determination. We use intervening Ly{alpha} absorbers to place a direct limit on the redshift: z{sub em}>0.395 based on a confirmed Ly{alpha}+O VI absorber and z{sub em}>0.433 based on a single-line detection of Ly{alpha}. The current COS data are only sensitive to Ly{alpha} absorbers at z < 0.47, but we present statistical arguments that z{sub em} {approx}< 0.58 (at a 1{sigma} confidence limit) based on the non-detection of any Ly{beta} absorbers at z>0.4.

  11. Alternative disposal options for alpha-mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomis, G.G.; Sherick, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents several disposal options for the Department of Energy alpha-mixed low-level waste. The mixed nature of the waste favors thermally treating the waste to either an iron-enriched basalt or glass waste form, at which point a multitude of reasonable disposal options, including in-state disposal, are a possibility. Most notably, these waste forms will meet the land-ban restrictions. However, the thermal treatment of this waste involves considerable waste handling and complicated/expensive offgas systems with secondary waste management problems. In the United States, public perception of offgas systems in the radioactive incinerator area is unfavorable. The alternatives presented here are nonthermal in nature and involve homogenizing the waste with cryogenic techniques followed by complete encapsulation with a variety of chemical/grouting agents into retrievable waste forms. Once encapsulated, the waste forms are suitable for transport out of the state or for actual in-state disposal. This paper investigates variances that would have to be obtained and contrasts the alternative encapsulation idea with the thermal treatment option.

  12. Tight binding prediction of the {alpha}-Gd{sub 2}S{sub 3} magnetic structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Lindsay E.; Hughbanks, Timothy

    2007-03-15

    Spin-dependent extended Hueckel tight binding (EHTB) calculations were carried out for the magnetic solid Gd{sub 2}S{sub 3} by considering 20 different variations in the ordering of the 4f {sup 7} moments. The tight-binding calculations are used to interpolate the band structure of a nonmagnetic congener (Y{sub 2}S{sub 3}) and the 4f/5d,6s exchange interactions are introduced as perturbations via the introduction of spin-dependent H{sub dd} and H{sub ss} parameters. The calculations predict that Gd{sub 2}S{sub 3} adopts an antiferromagnetic ordering of the 4f {sup 7} moments that is consistent with published neutron diffraction results. Our attempt to account for the calculated energies of the spin patterns using an Ising model was unsuccessful. - Graphical abstract: The spin-dependent EHTB method correctly predicts the magnetic structure of {alpha}-Gd{sub 2}S{sub 3} determined from neutron diffraction experiments.

  13. Study of the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jianbing Zhang, Xianmei Yu, Limin Zhao, Xiang

    2014-02-12

    Part of the energy of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves may be absorbed by the ? particles via the so-called perpendicular landau damping mechanism, which depends on various parameters of fusion reactors and the LH waves. In this article, we calculate the absorption coefficient ?{sub ?} of LH waves due to ? particles. Results show that, the ?{sub ?} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ?} while deceases with increasing the frequency of LH waves ?{sub LH} over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption, and there is a peak value of ?{sub ?} when n{sub e}?810{sup 19}m{sup ?3} for ITER-like scenario. The thermal corrections to the cold plasma dispersion relation will change the damping rate to a certain extent under some specific conditions. We have also evaluated the fraction of LH power absorbed by the alpha particles, ? ? 0.47% and 4.1% for an LH frequency of 5 GHz and 3.7 GHz respectively for ITER-like scenario. This work gives the effective reference for the choice of parameters of future fusion reactors.

  14. STOCHASTIC HEATING, DIFFERENTIAL FLOW, AND THE ALPHA-TO-PROTON TEMPERATURE RATIO IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandran, B. D. G.; Verscharen, D.; Isenberg, P. A.; Bourouaine, S.; Quataert, E.; Kasper, J. C. E-mail: s.bourouaine@unh.edu E-mail: daniel.verscharen@unh.edu E-mail: jkasper@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-10-10

    We extend previous theories of stochastic ion heating to account for the motion of ions along the magnetic field B . We derive an analytic expression for the temperature ratio T{sub i}/T{sub p} in the solar wind assuming that stochastic heating is the dominant ion heating mechanism, where T{sub i} is the perpendicular temperature of species i and T{sub p} is the perpendicular proton temperature. This expression describes how T{sub i}/T{sub p} depends upon U{sub i} and ?{sub ?p}, where U{sub i} is the average velocity along B of species i in the proton frame and ?{sub ?p} is the ratio of the parallel proton pressure to the magnetic pressure, which we take to be ?< 1. We compare our model with previously published measurements of alpha particles and protons from the Wind spacecraft. We find that stochastic heating offers a promising explanation for the dependence of T{sub ?}/T{sub p} on U{sub ?} and ?{sub ?p} when the fractional cross helicity and Alfvn ratio at the proton-gyroradius scale have values that are broadly consistent with solar-wind measurements. We also predict how the temperatures of other ion species depend on their drift speeds.

  15. Expected accuracy in a measurement of the CKM angle alpha using a Dalitz plot analysis of B0 ---> rho pi decays in the BTeV project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shestermanov, K.E.; Vasiliev, A.N; Butler, J.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Kasper, P.; Kiselev, V.V.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Kubota, Y.; Kutschke, R.; Matulenko, Y.A.; Minaev, N.G.; /Serpukhov, IHEP /Fermilab /Minnesota U. /Syracuse U. /INFN, Milan

    2005-12-01

    A precise measurement of the angle {alpha} in the CKM triangle is very important for a complete test of Standard Model. A theoretically clean method to extract {alpha} is provided by B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{pi} decays. Monte Carlo simulations to obtain the BTeV reconstruction efficiency and to estimate the signal to background ratio for these decays were performed. Finally the time-dependent Dalitz plot analysis, using the isospin amplitude formalism for tre and penguin contributions, was carried out. It was shown that in one year of data taking BTeV could achieve an accuracy on {alpha} better than 5{sup o}.

  16. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 9. Air-drop instrumentation. Part 2. Teller-alpha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grier, H.E.

    1985-09-01

    It was the purpose of the Teller-Alpha experiment to measure the coefficient alpha by means of detectors placed a long distance from the bomb. The detectors are photoelectric devices that respond to visible light produced in the air surrounding the bomb by the absorbed gamma rays. A measurement of this sort was proposed by Edward Teller prior to the Sandstone Operation. The main components of the Teller-Alpha equipment were the photohead, the 200-Mc timing oscillator, and the high-speed-sensitivity recoding oscilloscope. A complete discussion of the experiment is provided.

  17. Mechanism of the [alpha]-to-[beta] phase transformation in the LaNi[subscript 5]?H[subscript 2] system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, E. MacA.; Blach, T.P.; Pitt, M.P.; Cookson, D.J. (Griffith U); (ASRP)

    2014-09-24

    High-energy synchrotron in situ X-ray powder diffraction has been used to elucidate the mechanism of the hydriding phase transformation in a LaNi5 model hydrogen storage intermetallic in real time. The transformation proceeds at 10 C via the transient growth of an interfacial phase, the {gamma} phase, with lattice parameters intermediate between those of the {alpha} (dilute solid solution) and {beta} (concentrated hydride) phases. The {gamma} phase forms to partially accommodate the 24% change in unit cell volume between the {alpha} and {beta} phases during hydriding and dehydriding. The {alpha}, {gamma} and {beta} phases coexist at the nanoscopic level.

  18. Focusing of millijoule picosecond K{sub a}lpha radiation from 100 TW laser-solid interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, A.; Dorchies, F.; Audebert, P.; Chalupsky, J.; Hajkova, V.; Juha, L.; Vysin, L.; Kaempfer, T.; Uschmann, I.; Sinn, H.; Gaudin, J.

    2010-04-12

    A calibrated x-ray spectrometer was used to characterize an intense 4.5 keV K{sub a}lpha source. Generated from the interaction of 30 J-320 fs laser pulses focused on 25 mum thick Ti foils, the conversion efficiency into Ti K{sub a}lpha line is estimated to (9+-6)x10{sup -5}. Highly efficient collection, monochromatization and focusing were achieved using an ellipsoidally bent highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal. The measured 700 mum full width half maximum (FWHM) focal spot leads to a fluence of (3.0+-2.1) mJ/cm{sup 2} hence paving the way to the study of intense x-ray pulse interaction with matter as demonstrated by a first simple experiment.

  19. When linear stability does not exclude nonlinear instability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Pelinovsky, D. E.; Saxena, A.

    2015-05-29

    We describe a mechanism that results in the nonlinear instability of stationary states even in the case where the stationary states are linearly stable. In this study, this instability is due to the nonlinearity-induced coupling of the linearization’s internal modes of negative energy with the continuous spectrum. In a broad class of nonlinear Schrödinger equations considered, the presence of such internal modes guarantees the nonlinear instability of the stationary states in the evolution dynamics. To corroborate this idea, we explore three prototypical case examples: (a) an antisymmetric soliton in a double-well potential, (b) a twisted localized mode in a one-dimensionalmore » lattice with cubic nonlinearity, and (c) a discrete vortex in a two-dimensional saturable lattice. In all cases, we observe a weak nonlinear instability, despite the linear stability of the respective states.« less

  20. Apparatus and method for excluding gas from a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Jr., Robert J. (Bellaire, TX)

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for preventing diffusion of a gas under high pressure into the bulk of a liquid filling a substantially closed chamber. This apparatus and method is particularly useful in connection with test devices for testing fluid characteristics under harsh conditions of extremely high pressure and high temperature. These devices typically pressurize the liquid by placing the liquid in pressure and fluid communication with a high pressure inert gas. The apparatus and method of the present invention prevent diffusion of the pressurizing gas into the bulk of the test liquid by decreasing the chamber volume at a rate sufficient to maintain the bulk of the liquid free of absorbed or dissolved gas by expelling that portion of the liquid which is contaminated by the pressurizing gas.

  1. Optical Model Potential Parameters for p, d, {sup 3}He and Alpha-Particle Scattering on Lithium Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burtebayev, N.; Nassurlla, Marzhan; Nassurlla, Maulen; Kerimkulov, Zh. K.; Sakuta, S. B.

    2008-11-11

    Analysis of the p, d, {sup 3}He and {alpha}-particles elastic scattering on the {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li nuclei has been done in the framework of the optical model at the beam energies up to 72 MeV. It was shown that the account of the cluster exchange mechanism together with the potential scattering allow reproducing the experimental cross-sections in the whole angular range.

  2. SiC Schottky Diode Detectors for Measurement of Actinide Concentrations from Alpha Activities in Molten Salt Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Windl, Wolfgang; Blue, Thomas

    2013-01-28

    In this project, we have designed a 4H-SiC Schottky diode detector device in order to monitor actinide concentrations in extreme environments, such as present in pyroprocessing of spent fuel. For the first time, we have demonstrated high temperature operation of such a device up to 500 {degrees}C, in successfully detecting alpha particles. We have used Am-241 as an alpha source for our laboratory experiments. Along with the experiments, we have developed a multi scale model to study the phenomena controlling the device behavior and to be able to predict the device performance. Our multi scale model consists of ab initio modeling to understand defect energetics and their effect on electronic structure and carrier mobility in the material. Further, we have developed the basis for a damage evolution model incorporating the outputs from ab initio model in order to predict respective defect concentrations in the device material. Finally, a fully equipped TCAD-based device model has been developed to study the phenomena controlling the device behavior. Using this model, we have proven our concept that the detector is capable of performing alpha detection in a salt bath with the mixtures of actinides present in a pyroprocessing environment.

  3. RAPID DETERMINATION OF 237 NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN WATER BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ALPHA SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.; Jones, V.; Culligan, B.; Nichols, S.; Noyes, G.

    2010-06-23

    A new method that allows rapid preconcentration and separation of plutonium and neptunium in water samples was developed for the measurement of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry; a hybrid approach. {sup 238}U can interfere with {sup 239}Pu measurement by ICP-MS as {sup 238}UH{sup +} mass overlap and {sup 237}Np via peak tailing. The method provide enhanced removal of uranium by separating Pu and Np initially on TEVA Resin, then moving Pu to DGA resin for additional removal of uranium. The decontamination factor for uranium from Pu is almost 100,000 and the decontamination factor for U from Np is greater than 10,000. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation method. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and alpha spectrometry so that long and short-lived Pu isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 20 samples (including QC samples) in 4 to 6 hours, and can also be used for emergency response. {sup 239}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 237}Np were measured by ICP-MS, while {sup 236}Pu, {sup 238}Pu, and {sup 239}Pu were measured by alpha spectrometry.

  4. Mechanisms of photoinduced C{sub {alpha}}-C{sub {beta}} bond breakage in protonated aromatic amino acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, B.; Barat, M.; Fayeton, J. A.; Perot, M.; Jouvet, C.; Gregoire, G.; Broendsted Nielsen, S.

    2008-04-28

    Photoexcitation of protonated aromatic amino acids leads to C{sub {alpha}}-C{sub {beta}} bond breakage among other channels. There are two pathways for the C{sub {alpha}}-C{sub {beta}} bond breakage, one is a slow process (microseconds) that occurs after hydrogen loss from the electronically excited ion, whereas the other is a fast process (nanoseconds). In this paper, a comparative study of the fragmentation of four molecules shows that the presence of the carboxylic acid group is necessary for this fast fragmentation channel to occur. We suggest a mechanism based on light-induced electron transfer from the aromatic ring to the carboxylic acid, followed by a fast internal proton transfer from the ammonium group to the negatively charged carboxylic acid group. The ion formed is a biradical since the aromatic ring is ionized and the carbon of the COOH group has an unpaired electron. Breakage of the weak C{sub {alpha}}-C{sub {beta}} bond gives two even-electron fragments and is expected to quickly occur. The present experimental results together with the ab initio calculations support the interpretation previously proposed.

  5. Elastic deuteron scattering on {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O nuclei in the alpha-cluster model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berezhnoy, Yu. A.; Mikhailyuk, V. P.; Pilipenko, V. V. Fedorchenko, D. V.

    2013-07-15

    On the basis of the dispersive alpha-cluster model for target nuclei and the theory of multiple diffractive scattering, differential cross sections and analyzing powers for the elastic scattering of 400 and 700-MeV deuterons on {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O target nuclei were calculated in the pointlike-deuteron approximation. In these calculations, the amplitude for incident-deuteron scattering on nuclei was constructed with the aid of amplitudes for d{alpha} scattering that were obtained from a fit to data on d{sup 16}O scattering. The same features were calculated on the basis of the diffraction approximation with allowance for the internal deuteron structure by using the amplitudes obtained earlier for nucleon scattering on {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O nuclei within the same dispersive alpha-clustermodel. The latter made it possible to perform calculations without employing adjustable parameters. The observables calculated on the basis of either approach agree with available experimental data.

  6. The Lyman alpha reference sample. II. Hubble space telescope imaging results, integrated properties, and trends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, Matthew; stlin, Gran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Rivera-Thorsen, Thger; Adamo, Angela; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitov, Ivana; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Ot-Floranes, Hctor; Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen; Atek, Hakim; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Herenz, E. Christian

    2014-02-10

    We report new results regarding the Ly? output of galaxies, derived from the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample, and focused on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. For 14 galaxies we present intensity images in Ly?, H?, and UV, and maps of H?/H?, Ly? equivalent width (EW), and Ly?/H?. We present Ly? and UV radial light profiles and show they are well-fitted by Srsic profiles, but Ly? profiles show indices systematically lower than those of the UV (n ? 1-2 instead of ? 4). This reveals a general lack of the central concentration in Ly? that is ubiquitous in the UV. Photometric growth curves increase more slowly for Ly? than the far ultraviolet, showing that small apertures may underestimate the EW. For most galaxies, however, flux and EW curves flatten by radii ?10 kpc, suggesting that if placed at high-z only a few of our galaxies would suffer from large flux losses. We compute global properties of the sample in large apertures, and show total Ly? luminosities to be independent of all other quantities. Normalized Ly? throughput, however, shows significant correlations: escape is found to be higher in galaxies of lower star formation rate, dust content, mass, and nebular quantities that suggest harder ionizing continuum and lower metallicity. Six galaxies would be selected as high-z Ly? emitters, based upon their luminosity and EW. We discuss the results in the context of high-z Ly? and UV samples. A few galaxies have EWs above 50 , and one shows f{sub esc}{sup Ly?} of 80%; such objects have not previously been reported at low-z.

  7. Homeobox A7 stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation by up-regulating estrogen receptor-alpha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yu; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4H4 ; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Leung, Peter C.K.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: HOXA7 regulates MCF7 cell proliferation. HOXA7 up-regulates ER? expression. HOXA7 mediates estrogen-induced MCF7 cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common hormone-dependent malignancy in women. Homeobox (HOX) transcription factors regulate many cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been reported to be associated with human reproductive cancers. Estradiol (E2) and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta, are known to play critical roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. However, an understanding of the potential relationship between HOXA7 and ER in breast cancer cells is limited. In this study, our results demonstrate that knockdown of HOXA7 in MCF7 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and ER? expression. In addition, HOXA7 knockdown attenuated E2-induced cell proliferation as well as progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The stimulatory effects of E2 on cell proliferation and PR expression were abolished by co-treatment with ICI 182780, a selective ER? antagonist. In contrast, overexpression of HOXA7 significantly stimulated cell proliferation and ER? expression. Moreover, E2-induced cell proliferation, as well as PR expression, was enhanced by the overexpression of HOXA7. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of HOXA7 affected the ER-beta levels. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating breast cancer cell proliferation via regulation of ER? expression. This finding contributes to our understanding of the role HOXA7 plays in regulating the proliferation of ER-positive cancer cells.

  8. Design of novel assays based on the newly found role of dystroglycan and alpha-dystroglycan proteolysis in tumor cell growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bissell, Mina J.; Muschler, John L.

    2006-01-03

    The invention provides method for assessing tumorigenicity of mammalian cells by assaying the proteolytic fragments of 120-130 kD alpha-dystroglycan in medium surrounding mammalian cells.

  9. Effect of {alpha} variation on a prospective experiment to detect variation of m{sub e}/m{sub p} in diatomic molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beloy, K.; Borschevsky, A.; Schwerdtfeger, P.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2011-10-15

    We consider the influence of variation in the fine structure constant {alpha} on a promising experiment proposed by DeMille et al. to search for variation in the electron-to-proton mass ratio {mu} using diatomic molecules [DeMille et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 043202 (2008)]. The proposed experiment involves spectroscopically probing the splitting between two nearly degenerate vibrational levels supported by different electronic potentials. Here we demonstrate that this splitting may be equally or more sensitive to variation in {alpha} as to variation in {mu}. For the anticipated experimental precision, this implies that the {alpha} variation may not be negligible, as previously assumed, and further suggests that the method could serve as a competitive means to search for {alpha} variation as well.

  10. RAPID DETERMINATION OF ACTINIDES IN URINE BY INDUCTIVELY-COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ALPHA SPECTROMETRY: A HYBRID APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S.; Jones, V.

    2009-05-27

    A new rapid separation method that allows separation and preconcentration of actinides in urine samples was developed for the measurement of longer lived actinides by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and short-lived actinides by alpha spectrometry; a hybrid approach. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration, if required, is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation. Similar technology has been applied to separate actinides prior to measurement by alpha spectrometry, but this new method has been developed with elution reagents now compatible with ICP-MS as well. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and alpha spectrometry so that long- and short-lived actinide isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 24 samples (including QC samples) in less than 3 h. Simultaneous sample preparation can offer significant time savings over sequential sample preparation. For example, sequential sample preparation of 24 samples taking just 15 min each requires 6 h to complete. The simplicity and speed of this new method makes it attractive for radiological emergency response. If preconcentration is applied, the method is applicable to larger sample aliquots for occupational exposures as well. The chemical recoveries are typically greater than 90%, in contrast to other reported methods using flow injection separation techniques for urine samples where plutonium yields were 70-80%. This method allows measurement of both long-lived and short-lived actinide isotopes. 239Pu, 242Pu, 237Np, 243Am, 234U, 235U and 238U were measured by ICP-MS, while 236Pu, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm were measured by alpha spectrometry. The method can also be adapted so that the separation of uranium isotopes for assay is not required, if uranium assay by direct dilution of the urine sample is preferred instead. Multiple vacuum box locations may be set-up to supply several ICP-MS units with purified sample fractions such that a high sample throughput may be achieved, while still allowing for rapid measurement of short-lived actinides by alpha spectrometry.

  11. z {approx} 4 H{alpha} EMITTERS IN THE GREAT OBSERVATORIES ORIGINS DEEP SURVEY: TRACING THE DOMINANT MODE FOR GROWTH OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Hyunjin; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Dickinson, Mark; Lin Lihwai; Yan, Chi-Hung; Spinrad, Hyron; Stern, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    We present evidence for strong H{alpha} emission in galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range of 3.8 < z < 5.0 over the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields. Among 74 galaxies detected in the Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands, more than 70% of the galaxies show clear excess at 3.6 {mu}m compared to the expected flux density from stellar continuum only. We provide evidence that this 3.6 {mu}m excess is due to H{alpha} emission redshifted into the 3.6 {mu}m band, and classify these 3.6 {mu}m excess galaxies to be H{alpha} emitter (HAE) candidates. The selection of HAE candidates using an excess in broadband filters is sensitive to objects whose rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width (EW) is larger than 350 A. The H{alpha} inferred star formation rates (SFRs) of the HAEs range between 20 and 500 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and are a factor of {approx}6 larger than SFRs inferred from the UV continuum. The ratio between the H{alpha} luminosity and UV luminosity of HAEs is also on average larger than that of local starbursts. Possible reasons for such strong H{alpha} emission in these galaxies include different dust extinction properties, young stellar population ages, extended star formation histories, low metallicity, and a top-heavy stellar initial mass function. Although the correlation between UV slope {beta} and L{sub H{alpha}}/L{sub UV} raises the possibility that HAEs prefer a dust extinction curve which is steeper in the UV, the most dominant factor that results in strong H{alpha} emission appears to be star formation history. The H{alpha} EWs of HAEs are large despite their relatively old stellar population ages constrained by spectral energy distribution fitting, suggesting that at least 60% of HAEs produce stars at a constant rate. Under the assumption that the gas supply is sustained, HAEs are able to produce {approx}> 50% of the stellar mass density that is encompassed in massive (M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) galaxies at z {approx} 3. This 'strong H{alpha} phase' of star formation plays a dominant role in galaxy growth at z {approx} 4, and they are likely progenitors of massive red galaxies at lower redshifts.

  12. Synthesis and structural characterization of [eta superscript 3]-allyl([alpha]-diimine)nickel(II) complexes bearing trimethylsilyl groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ionkin, Alex S.; Marshall, William J.

    2012-02-10

    A set of isomeric para- and meta-trimethylsilylphenyl ortho-substituted N,N-phenyl {alpha}-diimine ligands [(Ar-N C(Me)-(Me)C N-Ar) Ar=2,6-di(4-trimethylsilylphenyl)phenyl (16); Ar=2,6-di(3-trimethylsilylphenyl)phenyl (17)] have been synthesized through a two-step procedure. The palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction between 2,6-dibromophenylamine (7) and 4-trimethylsilylphenylboronic acid (8), 3-trimethylsilylphenylboronic acid (9) was used to prepare 4,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)-[1,1;3,1]terphenyl-2-ylamine (10) and 3,3-bis(trimethylsilyl)-[1,1;3,1]terphenyl-2-ylamine (11). The di-1-adamantylphosphine oxide Ad{sub 2}P(O)H (13) and di-tert-butyl-trimethylsilylanylmethylphosphine tert-Bu{sub 2}P-CH{sub 2}-SiMe{sub 3} (14) were used for the first time as ligands for the Suzuki coupling. The condensation of 2,2,3,3-tetramethoxybutane (15) with anilines 10 and 11 afforded {alpha}-diimines 16 and 17. The reaction of {pi}-allylnickel chloride dimer (18), {alpha}-diimines (16), (17) and sodium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate (BAF) (19) or silver hexafluoroantimonate (20) led to two sets of isomeric complexes [{eta}{sup 3}-allyl(Ar-N C(Me)-(Me)C N-Ar)Ni]{sup +} X{sup -}, [Ar=2,6-di(4-trimethylsilylphenyl)phenyl, X=BAF (3), X=SbF6 (4); Ar=2,6-di(3-trimethylsilylphenyl)phenyl, X=BAF (5), X=SbF6 (6)]. The steric repulsion of closely positioned trimethylsilyl groups in 4 caused the distortion of the nickel square planar coordination by 17.6{sup o} according to X-ray analysis.

  13. Activation of IL-2 receptor {alpha}-chain gene by individual members of the rel oncogene family in association with serum response factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, J.W.; Jamieson, C.A.; Ross, J.L.

    1995-08-15

    Expression of the IL-2R{alpha} gene is regulated by members of the c-Rel/NF-{kappa}B family of transcription factors binding to the {kappa}B site in the promoter. Previous work has not defined the role of individual members of the c-Rel family in the activation of the IL-2R{alpha} gene. Using the COS cell system, we were able to reconstitute the regulation of the IL-2R{alpha} promoter by expressing cloned Rel family members with serum response factor (SRF). We found that c-rel alone activated the IL-2R{alpha} promoter only weakly but worked with the p50 subunit of NF-{kappa}B (NFKB1) to give a higher level of expression. We showed that c-rel heterodimerizes with p50 and the amount of this heterodimer correlated with the level of IL-2R{alpha} gene expression. Our results provide evidence that c-rel/p50 heterodimers activate gene expression in the context of a cellular promoter. We show that c-rel or p65 can cooperate with SRF in the activation of this promoter and the transactivation by c-rel with SRF was enhanced by p50. Synergistic activation required both {kappa}B an CArG sites, and binding studies show that these that these adjacent sites can be occupied simultaneously. The transactivation observed with cloned transcription factors mimics the physiologic induction of the IL-2R{alpha} gene since multiple sequence elements cooperate to give gene activation. The data support the model that c-rel/p50 or p65 can cooperate with SRF to specifically target the expression of the IL-2R{alpha} gene in activated T cells.

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 573: Alpha Contaminated Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 573 is located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 573 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with non-nuclear experiments and nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 573, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 05-23-02, GMX Alpha Contaminated Area • 05-45-01, Atmospheric Test Site - Hamilton These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives.

  15. A New Interpretation of Alpha-particle-driven Instabilities in Deuterium-Tritium Experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Nazikian; G.J. Kramer; C.Z. Cheng; N.N. Gorelenkov; H.L. Berk; S.E. Sharapov

    2003-03-26

    The original description of alpha-particle-driven instabilities in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) in terms of Toroidal Alfvin Eigenmodes (TAEs) remained inconsistent with three fundamental characteristics of the observations: (i) the variation of the mode frequency with toroidal mode number, (ii) the chirping of the mode frequency for a given toroidal mode number, and (iii) the anti-ballooning density perturbation of the modes. It is now shown that these characteristics can be explained by observing that cylindrical-like modes can exist in the weak magnetic shear region of the plasma that then make a transition to TAEs as the central safety factor decreases in time.

  16. Relativistic configuration interaction calculations for the K{alpha} and K{beta} X-ray satellites of iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou Haijun Jiang Gang Hu Feng; Hao Lianghuan

    2009-03-15

    Multi-configuration Dirac-Fock and relativistic configuration interaction calculations with the Breit interaction, quantum electrodynamics, and finite nuclear mass corrections were carried out in the extended optimal level scheme for the transition wavelengths, electric dipole transition rates, and oscillator strengths of the K{alpha} and K{beta} X-rays from Fe XVII through Fe XXV. The calculated values were compared with the available data on He-like, Li-like, Be-like, and F-like iron, and were in very good agreement. These data provide reference values for level lifetime, charge state distribution, and average charge of iron plasmas.

  17. Highly polarized emission in spin resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of alpha-Fe(001)/GaAs(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, James; Yu, Sung Woo; Morton, Simon; Waddill, George; Thompson, Jamie; Neal, James; Spangenberg, Matthais; Shen, T.H.

    2009-05-19

    Highly spin-polarized sources of electrons, Integrated into device design, remain of great interest to the spintronic and magneto-electronic device community Here, the growth of Fe upon GaAs(001) has been studied with photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), including Spin Resolved PES. Despite evidence of atomic level disorder such as intermixing, an over-layer with the spectroscopic signature of alpha-Fe(001), with a bcc real space ordering, Is obtained The results will be discussed in light of the possibility of using such films as a spin-polarized source in device applications.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis reveals that GTP binding affects the interaction between the {alpha}- and {gamma}-subunits of translation initiation factor 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakakido, Makoto; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Sokabe, Masaaki; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2008-07-11

    Eukaryotic and archaeal translation initiation factors 2, heterotrimers that consist of {alpha}-, {beta}-, and {gamma}-subunits, deliver methionylated initiator tRNA to a small ribosomal subunit in a manner that depends on GTP. To evaluate correlation of the function and association of the subunits, we used isothermal titration calorimetry to analyze the thermodynamics of the interactions between the {alpha}- and {gamma}-subunits in the presence or absence of a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog or GDP. The {alpha}-subunits bound to the {gamma}-subunit with large heat capacity change ({delta}C{sub p}) values. The {delta}H and {delta}C{sub p} values for the interaction between the {alpha}- and {gamma}-subunits varied in the presence of the GTP analog but not in the presence of GDP. These results suggest that the binding of both the {alpha}-subunit and GTP changes the conformation of the switch region of the {gamma}-subunit and increases the affinity of the {gamma}-subunit for tRNA.

  19. COMMISSIONING AND START-UP TESTS OF ALPHA-CONTAMINATED SOLID WASTE SORTING, CEMENTING, AND INTERIM STORAGE FACILITIES AT BELGOPROCESS (BELGIUM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLIBERT, R.C.; NUYT, G.; LAMOTTE, G.; RENARD, CL.; DE GOEYSE, A.; GOETSCHALCKX, R.; GHYS, B.

    2003-02-27

    The alpha-contaminated solid waste generated in Belgium results from past activities in the fuel cycle (R & D +Reprocessing and MOX fabrication pilot plants) and present operation of BELGONUCLEAIRE's MOX fuel fabrication plant. After the main steps in the management of alpha-contaminated solid waste were established, BELGONUCLEAIRE, with the backing of BELGOPROCESS and ONDRAF/NIRAS, started the design and construction of the T & C and interim-storage facilities for this alpha waste. The accumulated solid alpha radwaste containing a mixture of combustible and non-combustible material will be sorted. After sorting, both the accumulated and recently-generated non-combustible alpha waste will be embedded in a cement matrix. The erection of the sorting and cementing units which include glove-boxes and the interim storage building for conditioned packages was completed at BELGOPROCESS, at the beginning of year 2002. Start-up operations for both facilities have been performed. Operating tests of the sorting and cementing units were completed in July 2002 and inactive operation campaigns were started in August 2002. The results of the tests and inactive campaigns are given. Overall testing of the storage building supervised by the Safety Authorities was successfully performed at the end of 202 after completion of the operating tests on the equipment. The present paper summarizes the main information collected during the tests and campaigns, some of which has led to modifications of the equipment originally installed.

  20. Oxidation of alpha-tocopherol in micelles and liposomes by the hydroxyl, perhydroxyl, and superoxide free radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukuzawa, K.; Gebicki, J.M.

    1983-10-01

    Rates of oxidation of alpha-tocopherol by the hydroxyl- and superoxide free radicals were measured. The radicals were produced in known yields by radiolysis of aqueous solutions with gamma rays. Two main systems were used to dissolve the tocopherol; micelles, made up from charged and uncharged amphiphiles, and membranes made from dimyristyl phosphatidylcholine which could be charged by addition of stearyl amine or dicetyl phosphate. The HO. radicals were efficient oxidants of alpha-tocopherol in all systems, with up to 83% of radicals generated in micelle and 32% in membrane suspensions initiating the oxidation. The HO/sub 2/ radical was an even more effective oxidant, but when most of it was in the O/sub 2/ form at neutral or alkaline pH, the oxidation rates became low. Tocopherol held in positively charged micelles or membranes was oxidized at a higher rate by the O/sub 2/ than in uncharged or negative particles. Possible biological significance of these results is discussed.

  1. PRODUCTION OF {sup 9}Be THROUGH THE {alpha}-FUSION REACTION OF METAL-POOR COSMIC RAYS AND STELLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusakabe, Motohiko; Kawasaki, Masahiro E-mail: kawasaki@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2013-04-10

    Spectroscopic observations of metal-poor stars have indicated possible {sup 6}Li abundances that are much larger than the primordial abundance predicted in the standard big bang nucleosynthesis model. Possible mechanisms of {sup 6}Li production in metal-poor stars include pregalactic and cosmological cosmic-ray (CR) nucleosynthesis and nucleosynthesis by flare-accelerated nuclides. We study {sup 9}Be production via two-step {alpha}-fusion reactions of CR or flare-accelerated {sup 3,4}He through {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li, in pregalactic structure, intergalactic medium, and stellar surfaces. We solve transfer equations of CR or flare particles and calculate nuclear yields of {sup 6}He, {sup 6,7}Li, and {sup 9}Be taking account of probabilities of processing {sup 6}He and {sup 6,7}Li into {sup 9}Be via fusions with {alpha} particles. Yield ratios, i.e., {sup 9}Be/{sup 6}Li, are then calculated for the CR and flare nucleosynthesis models. We suggest that the future observations of {sup 9}Be in metal-poor stars may find enhanced abundances originating from metal-poor CR or flare activities.

  2. Color-singlet J/{psi} production at O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 6}) in {Upsilon} decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He Zhiguo; Wang Jianxiong

    2010-11-01

    To clarify the conflict between the theoretical predictions and experimental measurements of the inclusive J/{psi} production in {Upsilon} decay, we consider the {alpha}{sub s}{sup 6} order color-singlet (CS) contributions of processes {Upsilon}{yields}J/{psi}+gg and {Upsilon}{yields}J/{psi}+gggg. Both the branching ratio and the J/{psi} momentum spectrum are calculated, and the branching ratio (4.7x10{sup -4}) is larger than the leading-order contribution ({alpha}{sub s}{sup 5}, {Upsilon}{yields}J/{psi}+ccg). Together with the QCD and QED leading-order contributions considered in our previous work, the CS prediction of the branching ratio for the direct J/{psi} production is Br({Upsilon}{yields}J/{psi}{sub direct}+X)=0.90{sub -0.31}{sup +0.49}x10{sup -4}, which is still about 3.8 times less than the CLEO measurement. We also obtain a preliminary CS prediction of R{sub cc}=(B({Upsilon}{yields}J/{psi}+cc+X)/B({Upsilon}{yields}J/{psi}+X)) and find that the value 0.39{sub -0.20}{sup +0.21} is much larger than the color-octet prediction, and suggest to measure this quality in future experimental analysis.

  3. X-ray Crystallographic Analysis of [alpha]-Ketoheterocycle Inhibitors Bound to a Humanized Variant of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mileni, Mauro; Garfunkle, Joie; Ezzili, Cyrine; Kimball, F.Scott; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Boger, Dale L.

    2010-11-03

    Three cocrystal X-ray structures of the {alpha}-ketoheterocycle inhibitors 3-5 bound to a humanized variant of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are disclosed and comparatively discussed alongside those of 1 (OL-135) and its isomer 2. These five X-ray structures systematically probe each of the three active site regions key to substrate or inhibitor binding: (1) the conformationally mobile acyl chain-binding pocket and membrane access channel responsible for fatty acid amide substrate and inhibitor acyl chain binding, (2) the atypical active site catalytic residues and surrounding oxyanion hole that covalently binds the core of the {alpha}-ketoheterocycle inhibitors captured as deprotonated hemiketals mimicking the tetrahedral intermediate of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction, and (3) the cytosolic port and its uniquely important imbedded ordered water molecules and a newly identified anion binding site. The detailed analysis of their key active site interactions and their implications on the interpretation of the available structure-activity relationships are discussed providing important insights for future design.

  4. Channel coupling and exchange of an alpha-particle cluster in deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakuta, S. B.; Burtebaev, N.; Artemov, S. V.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2012-07-15

    Existing experimental data on elastic and inelastic deuteron scattering on {sup 6}Li nuclei in the energy range from 8 to 50 MeV were analyzed within the approach of coupled reaction channels. The coupling of elastic scattering and inelastic scattering accompanied by the transition to the 3{sup +} state at E{sub x} 2.186 MeV and the mechanism involving the exchange of an alpha-particle cluster were taken into account in respective calculations. The phenomenological potentials obtained from the present analysis describe well experimental angular distributions at all energies and in full angular ranges. The depths of the real and imaginary parts of the potentials in question depend smoothly on energy at fixed values of the remaining parameters. The energy dependence of relevant volume integrals agrees well with similar data for the p + {sup 6}Li, {alpha} + {sup 6}Li, and {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C systems and with the predictions of a microscopic theory.

  5. Effect of milling time on magnetic properties and structures of bulk Sm-Co/{alpha}-(Fe, Co) nanocomposite magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Y.; Huang, M. Q.; Turgut, Z.; Lucas, M. S.; Michel, E.; Horwath, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Bulk Sm-Co/{alpha}-(Fe,Co) nanocomposite magnets were fabricated by hot pressing composite powders prepared by high-energy ball milling of magnetically hard SmCo{sub 5} powder and magnetically soft Fe powder. The bulk magnets had a nanocomposite structure consisting of Sm-Co matrix (1:5 H and 1:7 H phases) and {alpha}-(Fe,Co) phases. The Fe-Co particles were distributed uniformly in the Sm-Co matrix. The milling time strongly affects the structures and the magnetic properties of the bulk magnets. Increasing milling time led to a decrease of the amount of 1:5 H phase, an increase in the phase fraction of the 1:7 H phase, and a decrease in the amount of soft phase, which resulted in an increase in magnetization and a decrease in coercivity. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses revealed that inter-diffusion took place between the Sm-Co matrix and Fe particles during the processing.

  6. {sup 147}Sm(n,{alpha}) cross section measurements from 3 eV to 500 keV: Implications for explosive nucleosynthesis reaction rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gledenov, Yu. M.; Koehler, P. E.; Andrzejewski, J.; Guber, K. H.; Rauscher, T.

    2000-10-01

    We have measured the {sup 147}Sm(n,{alpha}) cross section from 3 eV to 500 keV. These data were used to test nuclear statistical models which must be relied on to calculate the rates for as yet unmeasurable reactions occurring in explosive nucleosynthesis scenarios. It was found that our data are in reasonably good agreement with the reaction rate predicted by an older model but that the rates predicted by two very recent models are roughly a factor of 3 different from the data (in opposite directions). A detailed analysis indicates the strong dependence on the employed optical {alpha} potentials. These results, together with counting rate estimates for future experiments indicate that (n,{alpha}) measurements will be useful for improving reaction rate predictions across the global range of masses needed for explosive nucleosynthesis calculations.

  7. Dipole strength in {sup 144}Sm studied via (gamma,n), (gamma,p), and (gamma,alpha) reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nair, C.; Junghans, A. R.; Erhard, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Beyer, R.; Kosev, K.; Marta, M.; Rusev, G.; Schilling, K. D.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.; Grosse, E.

    2010-05-15

    Photoactivation measurements on {sup 144}Sm have been performed with bremsstrahlung endpoint energies from 10.0 to 15.5 MeV at the bremsstrahlung facility of the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The measured activation yield for the {sup 144}Sm(gamma,n) reaction is compared with the calculated yield using cross sections from previous photoneutron experiments. The activation yields measured for all disintegration channels {sup 144}Sm(gamma,n), (gamma,p), and (gamma,alpha) are compared to the yield calculated by using Hauser-Feshbach statistical models. A new parametrization of the photon strength function is presented and the yield simulated by using the modified photon strength parameters is compared to the experimental data.

  8. High magnetic shear gain in a liquid sodium stable couette flow experiment A prelude to an alpha - omega dynamo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colgate, Stirling [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Jui [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Finn, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pariev, Vladimir [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Beckley, Howard [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH; Si, Jiahe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Martinic, Joe [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westpfahl, David [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Slutz, James [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.; Westrom, Zeb [NM INSTIT. OF TECH.; Klein, Brianna [NM INSTIT. OF MINING AND TECH.

    2010-11-08

    The {Omega}-phase of the liquid sodium {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo experiment at NMIMT in cooperation with LANL has successfully demonstrated the production of a high toroidal field, B{sub {phi}} {approx_equal} 8 x B{sub r} from the radial component of an applied poloidal magnetic field, B{sub r}. This enhanced toroidal field is produced by rotational shear in stable Couette Row within liquid sodium at Rm {approx_equal} 120. The small turbulence in stable Taylor-Couette Row is caused by Ekman Row where ({delta}v/v){sup 2} {approx} 10{sup -3}. This high {Omega}-gain in low turbulence flow contrasts with a smaller {Omega}-gain in higher turbulence, Helmholtz-unstable shear flows. This result supports the ansatz that large scale astrophysical magnetic fields are created within semi-coherent large scale motions in which turbulence plays a diffusive role that enables magnetic flux linkage.

  9. Impact of sensitivity and throughput on optimum selection of a low-background alpha/beta gross counting system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seymour, R.; Sergent, F.; Knight, K.; Kyker, B.

    1992-12-31

    Selection of the appropriate low-background counting system is determined by the laboratory`s measurement requirements including the radionuclide activities being measured, required sensitivity, sample volume, sample throughput, operator skill, automation, reporting requirements, budget, reliability, service, and upgrade capability. These requirements are ranked differently by each user. Nevertheless, any selection requires that the sensitivity and sample throughput be evaluated first because these parameters are instrument-specific, cannot be changed after the equipment is purchased and are easily quantified beforehand. Many of the other criteria are also related to sensitivity and affect the choice of instrument. Mathematical expressions, useful in evaluating sensitivity and throughput, are reviewed, extended, and applied to selecting a low-background alpha/beta counting system.

  10. Estimate of B(B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma}) at O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misiak, M.; Asatrian, H. M.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Poghosyan, V.; Bieri, K.; Ewerth, T.; Greub, C.; Czakon, M.; Czarnecki, A.; Slusarczyk, M.; Ferroglia, A.; Gambino, P.; Gorbahn, M.; Steinhauser, M.; Haisch, U.; Hurth, T.; Mitov, A.

    2007-01-12

    Combining our results for various O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) corrections to the weak radiative B-meson decay, we are able to present the first estimate of the branching ratio at the next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD. We find B(B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma})=(3.15{+-}0.23)x10{sup -4} for E{sub {gamma}}>1.6 GeV in the B-meson rest frame. The four types of uncertainties: nonperturbative (5%), parametric (3%), higher-order (3%), and m{sub c}-interpolation ambiguity (3%) have been added in quadrature to obtain the total error.

  11. Analysis of fission gas release measurements using the COMETHE IIIJ and FCODE-Alpha computer codes. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leppert, G.; Rayes, L.; Rumble, E.; Stuart, R.

    1981-07-01

    Fission gas release predictions from FCODE-Alpha and COMETHE IIIJ were compared with experimental data from a representative group of light water reactor (LWR) fuel rods and with each other. In the first phase of the study, standard versions of the codes obtained from the Electric Power Software Center were compared with data from 36 rods. A modified version of COMETHE was used in the second phase of the study, which compared measurements from some of the same rods studied in the first phase, as well as with an additional 27 rods. Fission gas release predictions from both codes show substantial deviation from experimental measurements, and additional well-qualified data from LWR's is needed for comparison. Unpressurized rods experience significant degradation in heat transfer across the fuel-to-cladding gap as the lower thermal conductivity fission gases mix with the helium.

  12. Note: Real time optical sensing of alpha-radiation emitting radioactive aerosols based on solid state nuclear track detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, A.; Bak, M. S. E-mail: moonsoo@skku.edu; Ha, S.; Joshirao, P.; Manchanda, V.; Kim, T. E-mail: moonsoo@skku.edu

    2015-06-15

    A sensitive radioactive aerosols sensor has been designed and developed. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable measurements to provide daily aerosol monitoring. The exposure of diethylene-glycol bis (allylcarbonate) to radiation causes modification of its physico-chemical properties like surface roughness and reflectance. In the present study, optical sensor based on the reflectance measurement has been developed with an aim to monitor real time presence of alpha radioactive aerosols emitted from thorium nitrate hydrate. The results shows that the fabricated sensor can detect 0.0157 kBq to 0.1572 kBq of radio activity by radioactive aerosols generated from (Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} ⋅ 5H{sub 2}O) at 0.1 ml/min flow rate. The proposed instrument will be helpful to monitor radioactive aerosols in/around a nuclear facility, building construction sites, mines, and granite polishing factories.

  13. Final Deactivation Project report on the Alpha Powder Facility, Building 3028, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the condition of the Alpha Powder Facility (APF), Building 3028, after completion of deactivation activities. Activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) program are outlined. A history and profile of the facility prior to commencing deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities are provided. Turnover items, such as the post-deactivation surveillance and maintenance (S&M) plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, safeguards and security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided for in the DOE Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) turnover package are discussed.

  14. Role of channel coupling and deuteron-exchange mechanisms in anomalous alpha-particle scattering on {sup 6}Li

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakuta, S. B.; Artemov, S.V.; Burtebaev, N.; Kerimkulov, Zh.; Novatsky, B. G.; Stepanov, D.N.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2009-12-15

    A unified description of existing experimental data on alpha-particle scattering by {sup 6}Li over the broad energy range from 18 to 166 MeV was obtained with allowance for channel-coupling effects and mechanisms involving the exchange of a deuteron cluster. Angular distributions were analyzed on the basis of the optical model and the coupled reaction channels method. It was shown that the inclusion of channel coupling and the contributions from one- and two-step exchangemechanismsmakes it possible to describe special features of the behavior of differential cross sections for both elastic and inelastic scattering in a full energy range. Optimum values found for the parameters of optical potentials agree with the parameters of the global potential proposed previously for nuclei in the mass region A > 12.

  15. COMET 169P/NEAT(=2002 EX{sub 12}): THE PARENT BODY OF THE {alpha}-CAPRICORNID METEOROID STREAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasuga, Toshihiro; Wiegert, Paul A.; Balam, David D.

    2010-12-15

    The Jupiter-family comet 169P/NEAT (previously known as asteroid 2002 EX{sub 12}) has a dynamical association with the {alpha}-Capricornid meteoroid stream. In this paper, we present photometric observations of comet 169P/NEAT to further investigate the physical characters of its disintegration state related to the stream. The comet shows a point-like surface brightness profile limiting contamination due to coma emission to {approx}4% at most, indicating no evidence of outgassing. An upper limit on the fraction of the surface that could be sublimating water ice of <10{sup -4} is obtained with an upper limit to the mass loss of {approx}10{sup -2} kg s{sup -1}. The effective radius of nucleus is found to be 2.3 {+-} 0.4 km. Red filter photometry yields a rotational period of 8.4096 {+-} 0.0012 hr, and the range of the amplitude 0.29 {+-} 0.02 mag is indicative of a moderately spherical shape having a projected axis ratio {approx}1.3. The comet shows redder colors than the Sun, being compatible with other dead comet candidates. The calculated lost mass per revolution is {approx}10{sup 9} kg. If it has sustained this mass loss over the estimated 5000 yr age of the {alpha}-Capricornid meteoroid stream, the total mass loss from 169P/NEAT ({approx}10{sup 13} kg) is consistent with the reported stream mass ({approx}10{sup 13}-10{sup 15} kg), suggesting that the stream is the product of steady disintegration of the parent at every return.

  16. Stark broadening for diagnostics of the electron density in non-equilibrium plasma utilizing isotope hydrogen alpha lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Lin; Tan, Xiaohua; Wan, Xiang; Chen, Lei; Jin, Dazhi; Qian, Muyang; Li, Gongping

    2014-04-28

    Two Stark broadening parameters including FWHM (full width at half maximum) and FWHA (full width at half area) of isotope hydrogen alpha lines are simultaneously introduced to determine the electron density of a pulsed vacuum arc jet. To estimate the gas temperature, the rotational temperature of the C{sub 2} Swan system is fit to 2500??100?K. A modified Boltzmann-plot method with b{sub i}-factor is introduced to determine the modified electron temperature. The comparison between results of atomic and ionic lines indicates the jet is in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium and the electron temperature is close to 13?000??400?K. Based on the computational results of Gig-Card calculation, a simple and precise interpolation algorithm for the discrete-points tables can be constructed to obtain the traditional n{sub e}-T{sub e} diagnostic maps of two Stark broadening parameters. The results from FWHA formula by the direct use of FWHM?=?FWHA and these from the diagnostic map are different. It can be attributed to the imprecise FWHA formula form and the deviation between FWHM and FWHA. The variation of the reduced mass pair due to the non-equilibrium effect contributes to the difference of the results derived from two hydrogen isotope alpha lines. Based on the Stark broadening analysis in this work, a corrected method is set up to determine n{sub e} of (1.10??0.08)??10{sup 21}?m{sup ?3}, the reference reduced mass ?{sub 0} pair of (3.30??0.82 and 1.65??0.41), and the ion kinetic temperature of 7900??1800?K.

  17. Facile synthesis and characterization of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite hollow nanospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Yu [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China) [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Tade, Moses [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Liu, Shaomin, E-mail: Shaomin.Liu@curtin.edu.au [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite hollow nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a facile method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed structural, morphology and the phase composition were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The incorporation of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} gives an appropriate band gap value to utilize solar energy. -- Abstract: ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite hollow nanospheres were successfully fabricated via a facile one-pot solvothermal method, utilizing polyethylene glycol as soft template. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the prepared nanospheres with cubic spinel and rhombohedra composite structure had a uniform diameter of about 370 nm, and the hollow structure could be further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared techniques were also applied to characterize the elemental composition and chemical bonds in the hollow nanospheres. The ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/{alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite hollow nanospheres show attractive light absorption property for potential applications in electronics, optics, and catalysis.

  18. Impact of x-ray dose on the response of CR-39 to 1–5.5 MeV alphas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rojas-Herrera, J. Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Orozco, D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-03-15

    The CR-39 nuclear track detector is used in many nuclear diagnostics fielded at inertial confinement fusion (ICF) facilities. Large x-ray fluences generated by ICF experiments may impact the CR-39 response to incident charged particles. To determine the impact of x-ray exposure on the CR-39 response to alpha particles, a thick-target bremsstrahlung x-ray generator was used to expose CR-39 to various doses of 8 keV Cu-K{sub α} and K{sub β} x-rays. The CR-39 detectors were then exposed to 1–5.5 MeV alphas from an Am-241 source. The regions of the CR-39 exposed to x-rays showed a smaller track diameter than those not exposed to x-rays: for example, a dose of 3.0 ± 0.1 Gy causes a decrease of (19 ± 2)% in the track diameter of a 5.5 MeV alpha particle, while a dose of 60.0 ± 1.3 Gy results in a decrease of (45 ± 5)% in the track diameter. The reduced track diameters were found to be predominantly caused by a comparable reduction in the bulk etch rate of the CR-39 with x-ray dose. A residual effect depending on alpha particle energy is characterized using an empirical formula.

  19. Unlike PPAR{gamma}, PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{beta}/{delta} activation does not promote human monocyte differentiation toward alternative macrophages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouhlel, Mohamed Amine; Inserm U545, F-59000 Lille; UDSL, F-59000 Lille; Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille ; Brozek, John; Derudas, Bruno; Inserm U545, F-59000 Lille; UDSL, F-59000 Lille; Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille ; Zawadzki, Christophe; Jude, Brigitte; Staels, Bart; Inserm U545, F-59000 Lille; UDSL, F-59000 Lille; Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille ; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia; Inserm U545, F-59000 Lille; UDSL, F-59000 Lille; Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille

    2009-08-28

    Macrophages adapt their response to micro-environmental signals. While Th1 cytokines promote pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, Th2 cytokines promote an 'alternative' anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors expressed in macrophages where they control the inflammatory response. It has been shown that PPAR{gamma} promotes the differentiation of monocytes into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in humans and mice, while a role for PPAR{beta}/{delta} in this process has been reported only in mice and no data are available for PPAR{alpha}. Here, we show that in contrast to PPAR{gamma}, expression of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta}/{delta} overall does not correlate with the expression of M2 markers in human atherosclerotic lesions, whereas a positive correlation with genes of lipid metabolism exists. Moreover, unlike PPAR{gamma}, PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{beta}/{delta} activation does not influence human monocyte differentiation into M2 macrophages in vitro. Thus, PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta}/{delta} do not appear to modulate the alternative differentiation of human macrophages.

  20. Impact of x-ray dose on the response of CR-39 to 1–5.5 MeV alphas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rojas-Herrera, J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Orozco, D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-03-01

    The CR-39 nuclear track detector is used in many nuclear diagnostics fielded at inertial confinement fusion (ICF) facilities. Large x-ray uences generated by ICF experiments may impact the CR-39 response to incident charged particles. To determine the impact of x-ray exposure on the CR-39 response to alpha particles, a thick-target bremsstrahlung x-ray generator was used to expose CR-39 to various doses of 8 keV Cu-Kα and Kβ x-rays. The CR-39 detectors were then exposed to 1-5.5 MeV alphas from an Am-241 source. The regions of the CR-39 exposed to x-rays showed a smaller track diameter than those not exposed to x-rays: for example, a dose of 3.0 ± 0.1 Gy causes a decrease of (19 ± 2)% in the track diameter of a 5.5 MeV alpha particle, while a dose of 60.0 ± 1.3 Gy results in a decrease of (45 ± 5)% in the track diameter. The reduced track diameters were found to be predominantly caused by a comparable reduction in the bulk etch rate of the CR-39 with x-ray dose. A residual effect depending on alpha particle energy is characterized using an empirical formula.

  1. Impact of x-ray dose on the response of CR-39 to 1–5.5 MeV alphas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rojas-Herrera, J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Orozco, D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; et al

    2015-03-01

    The CR-39 nuclear track detector is used in many nuclear diagnostics fielded at inertial confinement fusion (ICF) facilities. Large x-ray uences generated by ICF experiments may impact the CR-39 response to incident charged particles. To determine the impact of x-ray exposure on the CR-39 response to alpha particles, a thick-target bremsstrahlung x-ray generator was used to expose CR-39 to various doses of 8 keV Cu-Kα and Kβ x-rays. The CR-39 detectors were then exposed to 1-5.5 MeV alphas from an Am-241 source. The regions of the CR-39 exposed to x-rays showed a smaller track diameter than those not exposed tomore » x-rays: for example, a dose of 3.0 ± 0.1 Gy causes a decrease of (19 ± 2)% in the track diameter of a 5.5 MeV alpha particle, while a dose of 60.0 ± 1.3 Gy results in a decrease of (45 ± 5)% in the track diameter. The reduced track diameters were found to be predominantly caused by a comparable reduction in the bulk etch rate of the CR-39 with x-ray dose. A residual effect depending on alpha particle energy is characterized using an empirical formula.« less

  2. Mechanism and computational model for Lyman-{alpha}-radiation generation by high-intensity-laser four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi; Bakule, Pavel; Yokoyama, Koji; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Iwasaki, Masahiko

    2011-09-15

    We present a theoretical model combined with a computational study of a laser four-wave mixing process under optical discharge in which the non-steady-state four-wave amplitude equations are integrated with the kinetic equations of initial optical discharge and electron avalanche ionization in Kr-Ar gas. The model is validated by earlier experimental data showing strong inhibition of the generation of pulsed, tunable Lyman-{alpha} (Ly-{alpha}) radiation when using sum-difference frequency mixing of 212.6 nm and tunable infrared radiation (820-850 nm). The rigorous computational approach to the problem reveals the possibility and mechanism of strong auto-oscillations in sum-difference resonant Ly-{alpha} generation due to the combined effect of (i) 212.6-nm (2+1)-photon ionization producing initial electrons, followed by (ii) the electron avalanche dominated by 843-nm radiation, and (iii) the final breakdown of the phase matching condition. The model shows that the final efficiency of Ly-{alpha} radiation generation can achieve a value of {approx}5x10{sup -4} which is restricted by the total combined absorption of the fundamental and generated radiation.

  3. Impact of x-ray dose on the response of CR-39 to 15.5 MeV alphas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rojas-Herrera, J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Zylstra, A. B.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Orozco, D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sio, H.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-03-01

    The CR-39 nuclear track detector is used in many nuclear diagnostics #12;fielded at inertial con#12;nement fusion (ICF) facilities. Large x-ray uences generated by ICF experiments may impact the CR-39 response to incident charged particles. To determine the impact of x-ray exposure on the CR-39 response to alpha particles, a thick-target bremsstrahlung x-ray generator was used to expose CR-39 to various doses of 8 keV Cu-K?#11; and K#12;? x-rays. The CR-39 detectors were then exposed to 1-5.5 MeV alphas from an Am-241 source. The regions of the CR-39 exposed to x-rays showed a smaller track diameter than those not exposed to x-rays: for example, a dose of 3.0#6; 0.1 Gy causes a decrease of (19 #6;2)% in the track diameter of a 5.5 MeV alpha particle, while a dose of 60.0 #6;1.3 Gy results in a decrease of (45 #6;5)% in the track diameter. The reduced track diameters were found to be predominantly caused by a comparable reduction in the bulk etch rate of the CR-39 with x-ray dose. A residual eff#11;ect depending on alpha particle energy is characterized using an empirical formula.

  4. Photooxidation of Alpha-Pinene at High Relative Humidity in the Presence of Increasing Concentrations of NOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Yong; Ezell, Michael J.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan G.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Ortega, John V.; D'Anna, Barbara; Harmon, Chris W.; Johnson, Stan; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2008-06-01

    The photooxidation of ~1 ppm alpha-pinene in the presence of increasing concentrations of NO2 was studied in a Teflon chamber at relative humidities from 70 - 88% and temperatures from 296 - 304 K. The loss of alpha-pinene and formation of gas phase products were followed using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Gas phase reaction products measured by PTR-MS and their yields include formaldehyde (5 + 1%), formic acid (2.5 + 1.4%), methanol (0.6 + 0.3%), acetaldehyde (3.9 + 1.7%), acetic acid (10 + 2%), acetone (11.5 + 3.1%), pinonaldehyde (22 + 6%), and pinene oxide (0.9 + 0.1%). There was evidence of organic nitrates in the gas phase and small peaks were tentatively assigned to norpinonaldehyde, 4-oxopinonaldehyde, propanedial, 2,3-dioxobutanal and 3,5,6-trioxoheptanal or 3-hydroxymethyl-2,2-dimethylcyclobutylethanone. The formation and growth of new particles were followed using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and their chemical composition was probed using single particle mass spectrometry (SPLAT II). SPLAT II analysis also provided measurements of the vacuum aerodynamic diameters of the newly formed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles and, in combination with the electrical mobility diameter, a particle density of 1.21 + 0.02 g cm-3 was calculated, 20% larger than often assumed in calculating SOA yields. SPLAT II showed that the suspended SOA consisted of a complex mixture of organic nitrates and organics, possibly including pinonic acid, pinic acid and trans-sobrerol. Three-wavelength light scattering measurements made using an integrating nephelometer were consistent with particles having a refractive index characteristic of organic compounds, but the data could not be well matched at all three wavelengths with a single refractive index. The effect of addition of cyclohexane or NO on particle formation showed that ozonolysis was the major mechanism of SOA formation in this system. However, unlike simple ozonolysis, organic nitrates are formed in both the gas and particle phases. Identifying and measuring specific organic nitrates in both the gas and particle phases in air may help to elucidate why SOA formation has been reported in field studies to be associated with polluted urban areas, yet the carbon in these particles is largely contemporary, i.e., non-fossil fuel carbon.

  5. Charging Properties of Cassiterite (alpha-SnO2) surfaces in NaCl and RbCl Ionic Media.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenqvist, Jorgen K; Machesky, Michael L.; Vlcek, Lukas; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-09-01

    The acid-base properties of cassiterite (alpha-SnO2) surfaces at 10-50 degrees C were studied using potentiometric titrations of powder suspensions in aqueous NaCl and RbCl media. The proton sorption isotherms exhibited common intersection points in the pH range of 4.0-4.5 under all conditions, and the magnitude of charging was similar but not identical in NaCl and RbCl. The hydrogen bonding configuration at the oxide-water interface, obtained from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was analyzed in detail, and the results were explicitly incorporated in calculations of protonation constants for the reactive surface sites using the revised MUSIC model. The calculations indicated that the terminal SnOH2 group is more acidic than the bridging Sn2OH group, with protonation constants (log KH) of 3.60 and 5.13 at 25 degrees C, respectively. This is contrary to the situation on the isostructural alpha-TiO2 (rutile), apparently because of the difference in electronegativity between Ti and Sn. MD simulations and speciation calculations indicated considerable differences in the speciation of Na+ and Rb+, despite the similarities in overall charging. Adsorbed sodium ions are almost exclusively found in bidentate surface complexes, whereas adsorbed rubidium ions form comparable numbers of bidentate and tetradentate complexes. Also, the distribution of adsorbed Na+ between the different complexes shows a considerable dependence on the surface charge density (pH), whereas the distribution of adsorbed Rb+ is almost independent of pH. A surface complexation model (SCM) capable of accurately describing both the measured surface charge and the MD-predicted speciation of adsorbed Na+/Rb+ was formulated. According to the SCM, the deprotonated terminal group (SnOH(-0.40)) and the protonated bridging group (Sn2OH+0.36) dominate the surface speciation over the entire pH range of this study (2.7-10). The complexation of medium cations increases significantly with increasing negative surface charge, and at pH 10, roughly 40% of the terminal sites are predicted to form cation complexes, whereas anion complexation is minor throughout the studied pH range.

  6. Charging Properties of Cassiterite (alpha-SnO2) Surfaces in NaCl and RbCl Ionic Media.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenqvist, Jorgen K; Machesky, Michael L.; Vlcek, Lukas; Wesolowski, David J

    2009-09-01

    The acid-base properties of cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) surfaces at 10-50 C were studied using potentiometric titrations of powder suspensions in aqueous NaCl and RbCl media. The proton sorption isotherms exhibited common intersection points in the pH range of 4.0-4.5 under all conditions, and the magnitude of charging was similar but not identical in NaCl and RbCl. The hydrogen bonding configuration at the oxide-water interface, obtained from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was analyzed in detail, and the results were explicitly incorporated in calculations of protonation constants for the reactive surface sites using the revised MUSIC model. The calculations indicated that the terminal SnOH{sub 2} group is more acidic than the bridging Sn{sub 2}OH group, with protonation constants (log K{sub H}) of 3.60 and 5.13 at 25 C, respectively. This is contrary to the situation on the isostructural {alpha}-TiO{sub 2} (rutile), apparently because of the difference in electronegativity between Ti and Sn. MD simulations and speciation calculations indicated considerable differences in the speciation of Na{sup +} and Rb{sup +}, despite the similarities in overall charging. Adsorbed sodium ions are almost exclusively found in bidentate surface complexes, whereas adsorbed rubidium ions form comparable numbers of bidentate and tetradentate complexes. Also, the distribution of adsorbed Na{sup +} between the different complexes shows a considerable dependence on the surface charge density (pH), whereas the distribution of adsorbed Rb{sup +} is almost independent of pH. A surface complexation model (SCM) capable of accurately describing both the measured surface charge and the MD-predicted speciation of adsorbed Na{sup +}/Rb{sup +} was formulated. According to the SCM, the deprotonated terminal group (SnOH{sup -0.40}) and the protonated bridging group (Sn{sub 2}OH{sup +0.36}) dominate the surface speciation over the entire pH range of this study (2.7-10). The complexation of medium cations increases significantly with increasing negative surface charge, and at pH 10, roughly 40% of the terminal sites are predicted to form cation complexes, whereas anion complexation is minor throughout the studied pH range.

  7. Effects of alpha-zirconium phosphate on thermal degradation and flame retardancy of transparent intumescent fire protective coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xing, Weiyi; Zhang, Ping; Song, Lei; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: A transparent intumescent fire protective coating was obtained by UV-cured technology. OZrP could enhance the thermal stability and anti-oxidation of the coating. OZrP could reduce the combustion properties of the coatings. - Abstract: Organophilic alpha-zirconium phosphate (OZrP) was used to improve the thermal and fire retardant behaviors of the phenyl di(acryloyloxyethyl)phosphate (PDHA)-triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA)-2-phenoxyethyl acrylate (PHEA) (PDHA-TGICA-PHEA) coating. The morphology of nanocomposite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of OZrP on the flame retardancy, thermal stability, fireproofing time and char formation of the coatings was investigated by microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The results showed that by adding OZrP, the peak heat release rate and total heat of combustion were significantly reduced. The highest improvement was achieved with 0.5 wt% OZrP. XPS analysis indicated that the performance of anti-oxidation of the coating was improved with the addition of OZrP, and SEM images showed that a good synergistic effect was obtained through a ceramic-like layer produced by OZrP covered on the surface of char.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum phosphate nanoparticles as carriers for 223Ra and 225Ra for targeted alpha therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rojas Marin, Jessika V; Woodward, Jonathan; Chen, Nan; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Castano, Carlos H; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) has the potential for killing specific tumor cells with minimum collateral damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Radionuclides such as 223Ra, 225Ra, and 225Ac are of special interest for radiotherapeutic applications as they emit multiple -particles during their decay. Utilizing appropriate carriers capable of retaining both the parent radioisotope as well as daughter products is important for the effective delivery of the radioisotope to the tumor site while mitigating global in vivo radiotoxicity. Methods. In this work, core and core+2 shells (NPs with 2 additional layers of cold LaPO4 deposited on the core surfaces) LaPO4 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized containing either 223Ra or 225Ra/225Ac and the retention of the parents and daughters within the NPs in vitro was investigated. Results. The NPs crystallized in rhabdophane phase with mean diameters of 3.4 and 6.3 nm for core and core+2 shells, respectively. The core LaPO 4 NPs retained up to 88% of 223Ra over 35 days. However, in the core+2 shell NPs, the retention of 223Ra and its daughter, 211Pb, was improved to > 99.9% over 27 days. Additionally, the retention of 225Ra/225Ac parents was > 99.98% and ~80% for the 221Fr and 213Bi daughters over 35 days for the core+2 shell NPs. Conclusions. These results suggest that LaPO4 NPs are potentially effective carriers of radium isotopes.

  9. Behavior of intruder based states in light Bi and Tl isotopes: the study of {sup 187 Bi} {alpha} decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batchelder, J.C.; Zganjar, E.F.

    1997-01-01

    Intruder state excitation energies in odd-mass nuclei just outside a closed proton shell plotted versus neutron number generally exhibit parabola-shaped curves with minima near neutron mid-shells. The Bi isotopes, however, do not seem to follow this trend. Recent experiments performed at Argonne National Laboratory have identified the previously unobserved {sup 187}Bi ground state (h{sub 9/2}) to {sup 183}TI ground state s{sub 1/2} {alpha} transition. Its energy when combined with those of two earlier known transitions, namely {sup 187}Bi (h{sub 9/2}) {yields} {sup 183m}Tl (h{sub 9/2}) and {sup 187m}Bi (s{sub 1/2}) {yields} {sup 183}Tl(s{sub 1/2}), establishes the excitation energies of the {sup 183m}Tl and {sup 187m}Bi to be 620(20) keV and 110(20) keV, respectively. This value for {sup 187m}Bi is 80 keV lower than the excitation energy of the same intruder level in {sup 189}Bi. Implications of this result with respect to intruder-state systematics are discussed.

  10. Influence of plasma parameters on the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, X. Yu, L.; Zhao, X.

    2014-12-15

    In tokamaks, fusion generated ? particles may absorb lower hybrid (LH) wave energy, thus reducing the LH current drive efficiency. The absorption coefficient ?{sub ?} of LH waves due to ? particles changing with some typical parameters is calculated in this paper. Results show that ?{sub ?} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ?}, while decreases with the frequency of LH waves ? over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption. The absorption coefficient ?{sub ?} increases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} ? 8 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}, while decreases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} becomes larger, and there is a peak value of ?{sub ?} when n{sub e} ? 8 10{sup 19} m{sup ?1} for the ITER-like scenario. The influence of spectral broadening in parametric decay instabilities on the absorption coefficient is evaluated. The value of ?{sub ?} with n{sub ?} being 2.5 is almost two times larger than that with n{sub ?} being 2.0 and is even lager in the case of 2.9, which will obviously increase the absorption of the LH power by alpha particles.

  11. Shock-induced irreversible transition from {alpha}-quartz to CaCl{sub 2}-like silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berterretche, P.; Resseguier, T. de; Hallouin, M.; Petitet, J. P.

    2004-10-15

    Previous analyses of quartz samples recovered after being submitted to laser shocks of very short duration (nanosecond order) have shown the presence of CaCl{sub 2}-like silica [T. de Resseguier, P. Berterretche, M. Hallouin, and J. P. Petitet, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2123 (2003)]. To date, this transition has never been observed under shocks of longer duration (microsecond order) generated by explosives or plate impacts. While this phase is produced from stishovite under static compression at very high pressure (above 50 GPa) and disappears on pressure release, it is observed after low pressure laser shocks (below 5 GPa) and it is quenched to ambient conditions. The origins of these differences are still unclear. This paper presents complementary laser shock experiments involving setups to provide additional information on the influence of various shock parameters. The results suggest a direct transition from {alpha}-quartz to CaCl{sub 2}-type silica following a diffusionless mechanism involving high shear strains. They also show the presence of vitreous silica characterized by an 'organized' ringlike structure, and we propose that this amorphous phase is an intermediate structure between the quartz lattice and grains of the high-pressure phase.

  12. HYDRODYNAMIC AND RADIATIVE MODELING OF TEMPORAL H{alpha} EMISSION V/R VARIATIONS CAUSED BY DISCONTINUOUS MASS TRANSFER IN BINARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chadima, Pavel; Harmanec, Petr; Wolf, Marek; Firt, Roman; Ruzdjak, Domagoj; Bozic, Hrvoje; Koubsky, Pavel

    2011-07-15

    H{alpha} emission V/R variations caused by discontinuous mass transfer in interacting binaries with a rapidly rotating accreting star are modeled qualitatively for the first time. The program ZEUS-MP was used to create a non-linear three-dimensional hydrodynamical model of a development of a blob of gaseous material injected into an orbit around a star. It resulted in the formation of an elongated disk with a slow prograde revolution. The LTE radiative transfer program SHELLSPEC was used to calculate the H{alpha} profiles originating in the disk for several phases of its revolution. The profiles have the form of a double emission and exhibit V/R and radial velocity variations. However, these variations should be a temporal phenomenon since imposing a viscosity in the given model would lead to a circularization of the disk and fading-out of the given variations.

  13. Resonances in (11)C observed in the (4)He((7)Be, alpha)(7)Be and (4)He((7)Be, p)(10)B reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freer, M.; Ashwood, N. I.; Curtis, N.; Malcolm, J.; Munoz-Britton, T.; Price, D.; Wheldon, C.; Achouri, N. L.; Demaret, P.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Pain, Steven D; Brown, S.; Catford, W.; Harlin, Christopher W; Thomas, J. S.; Wilson, G.; Chipps, K.; Milin, M.; Raabe, R.; Soic, N.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of the {sup 4}He({sup 7}Be,{alpha}){sup 7}Be and {sup 4}He({sup 7}Be,p){sup 10}B reactions were performed using {sup 7}Be beam energies of 7.1 and 23 MeV and a helium-4 target, employing the thick target technique. Resonances were observed between E{sub x}({sup 11}C) = 8.6 to 13.8 MeV. An R-matrix analysis was performed to characterize the spins and partial widths. This analysis showed that the observed sequence of states was consistent with that found for {sup 7}Li + {alpha} resonant scattering populating resonances in {sup 11}B. A comparison of the proposed partial widths for decay with the Wigner limit indicates that several of the states are associated with cluster-like structures.

  14. Final Environmental Impact Statement for Treating Transuranic (TRU)/Alpha Low-level Waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2000-06-30

    The DOE proposes to construct, operate, and decontaminate/decommission a TRU Waste Treatment Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The four waste types that would be treated at the proposed facility would be remote-handled TRU mixed waste sludge, liquid low-level waste associated with the sludge, contact-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids, and remote-handled TRU/alpha low-level waste solids. The mixed waste sludge and some of the solid waste contain metals regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and may be classified as mixed waste. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with five alternatives--No Action, the Low-Temperature Drying Alternative (Preferred Alternative), the Vitrification Alternative, the Cementation Alternative, and the Treatment and Waste Storage at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Alternative.

  15. In-111 chelate conjugates of human transferrin (HTr) and mouse monoclonal anti human transferrin receptor antibody (. cap alpha. HTrR MoAb) for tumor imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, D.A.; Meares, C.F.; Diamanti, C.I.; McCall, M.; McTigue, M.; Torti, F.; Martin, B.

    1984-01-01

    At least one of the major pathways of uptake of the commonly used tumor scanning agent Ga-67 is via the transferrin receptor. This suggested the use of stably radio-labeled HTr, and ..cap alpha..HTrR MoAb for tumor imaging in humans. HTr and mouse ..cap alpha..HTrR MoAb were alkylated with 1-(parabromacetamidobenzyl)-EDTA. The mM Alkylproteins, approx. =1 chelate/molecule were labeled with 1-3 mCi In-111 citrate pH/sub 5/ (Sp Act approx. = 100-300 Ci/m mole). Images were made 24 hours after 1 mCi IV and in some patients blood levels, urine excretion and digitized whole body scans were obtained at 1, 24,48 and 96 hours post injection. Ten patients with biopsy proven prostate cancer were studied with In-111 HTr, and four with In-111 ..cap alpha.. HTrR MoAb; all had positive mets on bone scan. In-111 HTr persisted in the circulation with a T1/2 of approx. = four days, approx. = 5%/day being excreted in the urine, to a total of approx. = 60% in 21 days. Nine of ten scans were false negative due to the high blood background. In-111 ..cap alpha..HTrR disappeared rapidly from the blood; with most in the bone marrow at 24 hours. ROI analysis of three patients showed whole body 94% at 24 hours, 89% at 48 hours, and 82% at 96 hours (T1/2 = 10.7 days); liver 19% at 1 hour, 25% at 24 hours, and 21% at 96 hours; spleen 3% at 1 hour, 8% at 24 hours, 7.3% at 48 hours, and 3% at 96 hours. The high bone marrow background allowed only a few of the bone mets seen as bone scan to be visualized. Other tumor types not located in bone may be more easily seen.

  16. A photon shield capsule design for an {sup 241}Am/Be ({alpha},n) source using high density tungsten alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clement, R.S.; Hsu, H.H.; Olsher, R.S.; Aikin, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    A photon shield capsule made of high density tungsten alloy was designed for a 400 GBq {sup 241}Am/Be ({alpha},n) NIST-traceable source using Monte Carlo calculations. The {sup 241}Am/Be ({alpha},n) source replaces a {sup 239}Pu/Be ({alpha},n) source used in the Los Alamos Neutron Well for dose rate calibrations of portable and fixed neutron rem meters. Potential operator exposure due to {sup 241}Am photon emission (E{sub {gamma}} = 59.5 keV, Y{sub {gamma}} = 0.357 {gamma} d{sup -1}) is a major practical concern in using this type of source. This has been recognized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 8529:1989), which recommends wrapping the source in a 1 mm thick lead shield. However, the optimum photon shield capsule design depends on source construction and other considerations. These considerations include minimizing source spectrum degradation and inelastic gamma production from shielding, structural integrity, toxicity, and cost effectiveness of available materials and construction. Investigations of several materials and combinations using stainless steel, high density tungsten alloy (composed of 90%W, 6% Ni and 4% Cu) and lead with various capsule thicknesses were simulated using the Los Alamos Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code. The final design was based on a 2 mm thick capsule using the high density tungsten alloy. This material resulted in a small change in the neutron spectrum accompanied with only a slight increase in inelastic gamma production, and unobservable 59.5 keV photon emissions compared to the bare {sup 241}Am/Be ({alpha},n) source.

  17. The Structure and Function of an Arabinan-specific [alpha]-1,2-Arabinofuranosidase Identified from Screening the Activities of Bacterial GH43 Glycoside Hydrolases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cartmell, Alan; McKee, Lauren S.; Pena, Maria J.; Larsbrink, Johan; Brumer, Harry; Kaneko, Satoshi; Ichinose, Hitomi; Lewis, Richard J.; Vikso-Nielsen, Anders; Gilbert, Harry; Marles-Wright, Jon

    2012-03-26

    Reflecting the diverse chemistry of plant cell walls, microorganisms that degrade these composite structures synthesize an array of glycoside hydrolases. These enzymes are organized into sequence-, mechanism-, and structure-based families. Genomic data have shown that several organisms that degrade the plant cell wall contain a large number of genes encoding family 43 (GH43) glycoside hydrolases. Here we report the biochemical properties of the GH43 enzymes of a saprophytic soil bacterium, Cellvibrio japonicus, and a human colonic symbiont, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. The data show that C. japonicus uses predominantly exo-acting enzymes to degrade arabinan into arabinose, whereas B. thetaiotaomicron deploys a combination of endo- and side chain-cleaving glycoside hydrolases. Both organisms, however, utilize an arabinan-specific {alpha}-1,2-arabinofuranosidase in the degradative process, an activity that has not previously been reported. The enzyme can cleave {alpha}-1,2-arabinofuranose decorations in single or double substitutions, the latter being recalcitrant to the action of other arabinofuranosidases. The crystal structure of the C. japonicus arabinan-specific {alpha}-1,2-arabinofuranosidase, CjAbf43A, displays a five-bladed {beta}-propeller fold. The specificity of the enzyme for arabinan is conferred by a surface cleft that is complementary to the helical backbone of the polysaccharide. The specificity of CjAbf43A for {alpha}-1,2-L-arabinofuranose side chains is conferred by a polar residue that orientates the arabinan backbone such that O2 arabinose decorations are directed into the active site pocket. A shelflike structure adjacent to the active site pocket accommodates O3 arabinose side chains, explaining how the enzyme can target O2 linkages that are components of single or double substitutions.

  18. Highly chemoselective palladium-catalyzed conjugate reduction of. cap alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated carbonyl compounds with silicon hydrides and zinc chloride cocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keinan, E.; Greenspoon, N.

    1986-11-12

    A three-component system comprised of a soluble palladium catalyst, hydridosilane, and zinc chloride is capable of efficient conjugate reduction of ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated ketones and aldehydes. The optimal set of conditions includes diphenylsilane as the most effective hydride donor, any soluble palladium complex in either the O or II oxidation state, when it is stabilized by phosphine ligands, and ZnCl/sub 2/ as the best Lewis acid cocatalyst. The reaction is very general with respect to a broad range of unsaturated ketones and aldehydes, and it is highly selective for these Michael acceptors, as reduction of ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated carboxylic acid derivatives is very sluggish under these conditions. When dideuteriodiphenylsilane is used to reduce unsaturated ketones, deuterium is stereoselectivity introduced at the less-hindered fact of the substrate and regioselectively at the ..beta..-position. Conversely, when reductions are carried out in the presence of traces of D/sub 2/O, deuterium incorporation occurs at the ..cap alpha..-position. On the basis of deuterium-incorporation experiments and /sup 1/H NMR studies a catalytic cycle is postulated in which the first step involves reversible coordination of the palladium complex to the electron-deficient olefin and oxidative addition of silicon hydride to form a hydridopalladium olefin complex.

  19. Method for characterization of a spherically bent crystal for K.alpha. X-ray imaging of laser plasmas using a focusing monochromator geometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kugland, Nathan; Doeppner, Tilo; Glenzer, Siegfried; Constantin, Carmen; Niemann, Chris; Neumayer, Paul

    2015-04-07

    A method is provided for characterizing spectrometric properties (e.g., peak reflectivity, reflection curve width, and Bragg angle offset) of the K.alpha. emission line reflected narrowly off angle of the direct reflection of a bent crystal and in particular of a spherically bent quartz 200 crystal by analyzing the off-angle x-ray emission from a stronger emission line reflected at angles far from normal incidence. The bent quartz crystal can therefore accurately image argon K.alpha. x-rays at near-normal incidence (Bragg angle of approximately 81 degrees). The method is useful for in-situ calibration of instruments employing the crystal as a grating by first operating the crystal as a high throughput focusing monochromator on the Rowland circle at angles far from normal incidence (Bragg angle approximately 68 degrees) to make a reflection curve with the He-like x-rays such as the He-.alpha. emission line observed from a laser-excited plasma.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus contains an epitope immunoreactive with thymosin. cap alpha. /sub 1/ and the 30-amino acid synthetic p17 group-specific antigen peptide HGP-30

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naylor, P.H.; Naylor, C.W.; Badamchian, M.; Wada, S.; Goldstein, A.L.; Wang, S.S.; Sun, D.K.; Thornton, A.H.; Sarin, P.S.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have reported that an antiserum prepared against thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ (which shares a region of homology with the p17 protein of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated human immunodeficiency virus) effectively neutralized the AIDs virus and prevented its replication in H9 cells. Using HPLC and immunoblot analysis, they have identified from a clone B, type III human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-IIIB) extracts a protein with a molecular weight of 17,000 that is immunoreactive with thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/. In contrast, no immunoreactivity was found in retroviral extracts from a number of nonhuman species including feline, bovine, simian, gibbon, and murine retroviruses. Heterologous antiserum prepared against a 30-amino acid synthetic peptide analogue (HGP-30) does not cross-react with thymosin ..cap alpha../sub 1/ but does react specifically with the p17 protein of the AIDS virus in a manner identical to that seen with an HTLV-IIIB p17-specific monoclonal antibody. The demonstration that this synthetic analogue is immunogenic and that antibodies to HGP-30 cross-react not only with synthetic peptide but also with the HTLV-IIIB p17 viral protein provides an additional, and potentially more specific, candidate for development of a synthetic peptide vaccine for AIDS. In addition, the p17 synthetic peptide (HGP-3) may prove to be useful in a diagnostic assay for the detection of AIDS virus infection in seronegative individuals.

  1. Rotational spectrum of the molecular ion NH{sup +} as a probe for {alpha} and m{sub e}/m{sub p} variation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beloy, K.; Borschevsky, A.; Hauser, A. W.; Schwerdtfeger, P.; Kozlov, M. G.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2011-06-15

    We identify the molecular ion NH{sup +} as a potential candidate for probing variations in the fine-structure constant {alpha} and electron-to-proton mass ratio {mu}. NH{sup +} has an anomalously low-lying excited {sup 4}{Sigma}{sup -} state, being only a few hundred cm{sup -1} above the ground {sup 2}{Pi} state. Being a light molecule, this proximity is such that rotational levels of the respective states are highly intermixed for low angular momenta. We find that several low-frequency transitions within the collective rotational spectrum experience enhanced sensitivity to {alpha} and {mu} variation. This is attributable to the close proximity of the {sup 2}{Pi} and {sup 4}{Sigma}{sup -} states, as well as the ensuing strong spin-orbit coupling between them. Suggestions that NH{sup +} may exist in interstellar space and recent predictions that trapped-ion precision spectroscopy will be adaptable to molecular ions make NH{sup +} a promising system for future astrophysical and laboratory studies of {alpha} and {mu} variation.

  2. Effect of secondary structure on the potential of mean force for poly-L-lysine in the alpha-Helix and beta-sheet conformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grigsby, J.J.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    2001-10-30

    Because poly-L-lysine (PLL) can exist in the {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet conformation depending on solution preparation and solution conditions, PLL is a suitable candidate to probe the dependence of protein interactions on secondary structure. The osmotic second virial coefficient and weight-average molecular weight are reported from low-angle laser-light scattering measurements for PLL as a function of NaCl concentration, pH, and {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet content. Interactions between PLL molecules become more attractive as salt concentration increases due to screening of PLL charge by salt ions and at low salt concentration become more attractive as pH increases due to decreased net charge on PLL. The experimental results show that interactions are stronger for the {beta}-sheet conformation than for the {alpha}-helix conformation. A spherically-symmetric model for the potential of mean force is used to account for specific interactions not described by DLVO theory and to show how differences in secondary structure affect PLL interactions.

  3. Method for the preparation of radon-211

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Geerd-J.; Lambrecht, Richard M.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the production of .sup.211 Rn comprising bombarding .sup.209 Bi with .sup.7 Li particles utilizing the nuclear reaction .sup.209 Bi(.sup.7 Li,5n).sup.211 Rn. The method provides a simple spectrum from which .sup.211 Rn can be easily isolated in a highly pure condition.

  4. DETECTIONS OF FAINT Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 5.7: GALAXY BUILDING BLOCKS AND ENGINES OF REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick; Martin, Crystal L.; Henry, Alaina; Sawicki, Marcin E-mail: sawicki@ap.smu.ca

    2011-10-20

    We report results of an unprecedentedly deep, blind search for Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z = 5.7 using the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS), with the goal of identifying missing sources of reionization that could also be basic building blocks for today's L* galaxies. We describe how improvements in wide field imaging with the Baade telescope, upgrades to IMACS, and the accumulation of {approx}20 hr of integration per field in excellent seeing led to the detection of single-emission-line sources as faint as F {approx} 2 x 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, a sensitivity five times deeper than our first search. A reasonable correction for foreground interlopers implies a steep rise of approximately an order of magnitude in source density for a factor of four drop in flux, from F = 10{sup -17.0} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} to F = 10{sup -17.6} (2.5 x 10{sup -18}) erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}. At this flux the putative LAEs have reached a surface density of {approx}1 arcmin{sup -2}-a comoving volume density of 4 x 10{sup -3} Mpc{sup -3}, several times the density of L* galaxies today. Such a population of faint LAEs would account for a significant fraction of the critical flux density required to complete reionization at this epoch, and would be good candidates for building blocks of stellar mass {approx}10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} M{sub sun} for the young galaxies of this epoch.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of lanthanum phosphate nanoparticles as carriers for 223Ra and 225Ra for targeted alpha therapy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rojas Marin, Jessika V; Woodward, Jonathan; Chen, Nan; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Castano, Carlos H; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) has the potential for killing specific tumor cells with minimum collateral damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Radionuclides such as 223Ra, 225Ra, and 225Ac are of special interest for radiotherapeutic applications as they emit multiple -particles during their decay. Utilizing appropriate carriers capable of retaining both the parent radioisotope as well as daughter products is important for the effective delivery of the radioisotope to the tumor site while mitigating global in vivo radiotoxicity. Methods. In this work, core and core+2 shells (NPs with 2 additional layers of cold LaPO4 deposited on the core surfaces) LaPO4 nanoparticlesmore » (NPs) were synthesized containing either 223Ra or 225Ra/225Ac and the retention of the parents and daughters within the NPs in vitro was investigated. Results. The NPs crystallized in rhabdophane phase with mean diameters of 3.4 and 6.3 nm for core and core+2 shells, respectively. The core LaPO 4 NPs retained up to 88% of 223Ra over 35 days. However, in the core+2 shell NPs, the retention of 223Ra and its daughter, 211Pb, was improved to > 99.9% over 27 days. Additionally, the retention of 225Ra/225Ac parents was > 99.98% and ~80% for the 221Fr and 213Bi daughters over 35 days for the core+2 shell NPs. Conclusions. These results suggest that LaPO4 NPs are potentially effective carriers of radium isotopes.« less

  6. GDP-L-fucose: .beta.-D-galactoside 2-.alpha.-L-fucosyltransferases, DNA sequences encoding the same, method for producing the same and a method of genotyping a person

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowe, John B.; Lennon, Gregory; Rouquier, Sylvie; Giorgi, Dominique; Kelly, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    The gene encoding GDP-L-fucose: .beta.-D-Galactoside 2-.alpha.-L-fucosyltransferase has been cloned, and a mutation in this gene has been found to be responsible for an individual being a non-secretor.

  7. GDP-L-fucose: {beta}-D-galactoside 2-{alpha}-Lfucosyltransferases, DNA sequences encoding the same, method for producing the same and a method of genotyping a person

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowe, J.B.; Lennon, G.; Rouquier, S.; Giorgi, D.; Kelly, R.J.

    1998-09-15

    The gene encoding GDP-L-fucose: {beta}-D-Galactoside 2-{alpha}-Lfucosyltransferase has been cloned, and a mutation in this gene has been found to be responsible for an individual being a non-secretor. 30 figs.

  8. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Alpha Solarco Model 104 solar collector with 0. 125-inch Schott low-iron glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-04-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Alpha Solarco Model 104 solar collector, with 0.125-inch Schott low-iron glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  9. 2MASS 22344161+4041387AB: A WIDE, YOUNG, ACCRETING, LOW-MASS BINARY IN THE LkH{alpha}233 GROUP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allers, K. N.; Liu, Michael C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Mathews, Geoffrey S.; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Reid, I. Neill; Cruz, Kelle L.; Vacca, W. D.

    2009-05-20

    We report the discovery of a young, 0.''16 binary, 2M2234+4041AB, found as the result of a Keck laser guide star adaptive optics imaging survey of young field ultracool dwarfs. Spatially resolved near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy indicate that the luminosity and temperature ratios of the system are near unity. From optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we determine a composite spectral type of M6 for the system. Gravity-sensitive spectral features in the spectra of 2M2234+4041AB are best matched to those of young objects ({approx}1 Myr old). A comparison of the T {sub eff} and age of 2M2234+4041AB to evolutionary models indicates that the mass of each component is 0.10{sup +0.075} {sub -0.04} M {sub sun}. Emission lines of H{alpha} in the composite optical spectrum of the system and Br{gamma} in spatially resolved near-IR spectra of the two components indicate that the system is actively accreting. Both components of the system have IR excesses, indicating that they both harbor circumstellar disks. Though 2M2234+4041AB was originally identified as a young field dwarf, it lies 1.'5 from the well-studied Herbig Ae/Be star, LkH{alpha}233. The distance to LkH{alpha}233 is typically assumed to be 880 pc. It is unlikely that 2M2234+4041AB could be this distant, as it would then be more luminous than any known Taurus objects of similar spectral type. We re-evaluate the distance to the LkH{alpha}233 group and find a value of 325{sup +72} {sub -50} pc, based on the Hipparcos distance to a nearby B3-type group member (HD 213976). 2M2234+4041AB is the first low-mass star to be potentially associated with the LkH{alpha}233 group. At a distance of 325 pc, its projected physical separation is 51 AU, making it one of the growing number of wide, low-mass binaries found in young star-forming regions.

  10. Tencor Alpha-Step

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    500 Surface Profiler talpha.jpg (59238 bytes) Description: The Tencor Profiler is a metrology tool that generates a 2 dimensional profile of the surface of a sample. This is done...

  11. Link Alpha N

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Subscribe to Lab News Email list Nobel Laureates Nondisclosure Agreements Notaries Public Nuclear Science Division (NSD) Nuclear Science: Relativistic Nuclear Collisions...

  12. Link Alpha G

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (EESA) Geophysics Department (EESA) GERT - General Employee Radiological Training (English) Gift Acceptance Information Glenn T. Seaborg Center Gmail (Google Mail)...

  13. Link Alpha R

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W Y Z Radiation Protection Group (EH&S) Radiation Safety Committee Charter Radiation Safety Committee Members Receiving Recovery...

  14. Link Alpha B

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Access at the Lab Building Emergency Team Building Managers Building Technology and Urban Systems Division (ETA) Buildings: Ventilation & Infiltration Buses: Lab Shuttle Bus...

  15. Link Alpha S

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Glenn Seaborg's Life & Contributions Search lab-wide web sites Security Access Managers (SAM) Security and Emergency Operations SECURITY CALL x4050 Security Operations Security:...

  16. Link Alpha P

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sciences Workplace Life Physics Division Physics Division Seminars (RPM - Research Progress Meetings) Physics Division: CDF Experiment at the FERMILAB Tevatron...

  17. Link Alpha A

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alvarez Physics Memos AmeriFlux Animal Welfare and Research Committee (AWRC) Anti-virus software Apartment Retrofits for Energy and Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)...

  18. Link Alpha M

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    S T U V W Y Z Macintosh User Group (LBNL-MUG) Mail Services (Facilities Dep't.) MalwareVirus Protection and Prevention Mammary: Human Mammary Epithelial Cell (HMEC) Map: Berkeley...

  19. Link Alpha L

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accommodation Program Laser Ablation: Advanced Laser Technologies Lab Laser Management System (Laser Inventory) Laser Safety Web Page Lasers, Optical Accelerator Systems...

  20. Link Alpha C

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Geologic CO2 (EFRC) Center for Research and Education on Aging (CREA) Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO) Certification of Invoices Charity: SHARES Charitable Giving Campaign at...

  1. Link Alpha E

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Markets and Policy Electricity: Standby Power ... Environmental Management System Environmental Report for Laboratory Site Environmental Restoration Program Equal Employment ...

  2. Link Alpha H

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hands-on Universe (HOU) Program Harassment Prevention and Harassment Complaint Process HARP Hazard Management System (HMS) Hazardous Waste Requisition Health Services at the Lab...

  3. Link Alpha T

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Routes & Schedules Transportation: Maps and Directions to Berkeley Lab Transporting Hazardous Materials Trash (Recycling and Composting) Travel Office Tuition Assistance Program...

  4. Link Alpha O

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (OSPIP) Office of the Chief Financial Officer (OCFO) Ombudsman - Technology Transfer Innovation and Partnerships Office One Minute 4 HR Onestop: LBLnet host block query...

  5. Link Alpha F

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Verification Project FAQ on Computing Topics Financial Compliance Financial Management System (FMS 8.8 - FY14 and Prior) Financial Management System (FMS 9.2 - FY15+)...

  6. Link Alpha W

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Online Reporting Whistleblower Policy Windchill (Windchill Account Required, contact cad@lbl.gov) Windows & Daylighting Wireless Networking Women @ The Lab Women Scientist &...

  7. Hydrated goethite ([alpha]-FeOOH) (1 0 0 ) interface structure: Ordered water and surface functional groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghose, Sanjit K.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Trainor, Thomas P.; Eng, Peter J.

    2010-03-16

    Goethite({alpha}-FeOOH), an abundant and highly reactive iron oxyhydroxide mineral, has been the subject of numerous studies of environmental interface reactivity. However, such studies have been hampered by the lack of experimental constraints on aqueous interface structure, and especially of the surface water molecular arrangements. Structural information of this type is crucial because reactivity is dictated by the nature of the surface functional groups and the structure or distribution of water and electrolyte at the solid-solution interface. In this study we have investigated the goethite (1 0 0) surface using surface diffraction techniques, and have determined the relaxed surface structure, the surface functional groups, and the three dimensional nature of two distinct sorbed water layers. The crystal truncation rod (CTR) results show that the interface structure consists of a double hydroxyl, double water terminated interface with significant atom relaxations. Further, the double hydroxyl terminated surface dominates with an 89% contribution having a chiral subdomain structure on the (1 0 0) cleavage faces. The proposed interface stoichiometry is ((H{sub 2}O)-(H{sub 2}O)-OH{sub 2}-OH-Fe-O-O-Fe-R) with two types of terminal hydroxyls; a bidentate (B-type) hydroxo group and a monodentate (A-type) aquo group. Using the bond-valence approach the protonation states of the terminal hydroxyls are predicted to be OH type (bidentate hydroxyl with oxygen coupled to two Fe{sup 3+} ions) and OH{sub 2} type (monodentate hydroxyl with oxygen tied to only one Fe{sup 3+}). A double layer three dimensional ordered water structure at the interface was determined from refinement of fits to the experimental data. Application of bond-valence constraints to the terminal hydroxyls with appropriate rotation of the water dipole moments allowed a plausible dipole orientation model as predicted. The structural results are discussed in terms of protonation and H-bonding at the interface, and the results provide an ideal basis for testing theoretical predictions of characteristic surface properties such as pK{sub a}, sorption equilibria, and surface water permittivity.

  8. THE FIRST OBSERVATIONS OF LOW-REDSHIFT DAMPED Ly{alpha} SYSTEMS WITH THE COSMIC ORIGINS SPECTROGRAPH: CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES AND AFFILIATED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battisti, A. J.; Meiring, J. D.; Tripp, T. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Prochaska, J. X.; Werk, J. K. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Observatories-Lick Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Jenkins, E. B. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Lehner, N. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Tumlinson, J.; Thom, C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We present Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) measurements of metal abundances in eight 0.083 < z{sub abs} < 0.321 damped Ly{alpha} (DLA) and sub-DLA absorption systems serendipitously discovered in the COS-Halos survey. We find that these systems show a large range in metallicities, with -1.10 < [Z/H] < 0.31, similar to the spread found at higher redshifts. These low-redshift systems on average have subsolar metallicities, but do show a rise in metallicity over cosmic time when compared to higher-redshift systems. We find that the average sub-DLA metallicity is higher than the average DLA metallicity at all redshifts. Nitrogen is underabundant with respect to {alpha}-group elements in all but perhaps one of the absorbers. In some cases, [N/{alpha}] is significantly below the lowest nitrogen measurements in nearby galaxies. Systems for which depletion patterns can be studied show little, if any, depletion, which is characteristic of Milky Way halo-type gas. We also identify affiliated galaxies for three of the sub-DLAs using spectra obtained from a Keck/Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS). None of these sub-DLAs arise in the stellar disks of luminous galaxies; instead, these absorbers may exist in galaxy halos at impact parameters ranging from 38 to 92 kpc. Multiple galaxies are present near two of the sub-DLAs, and galaxy interactions may play a role in the dispersal of the gas. Many of these low-redshift absorbers exhibit simple kinematics, but one sub-DLA has a complicated mix of at least 13 components spread over 150 km s{sup -1}. We find three galaxies near this sub-DLA, which also suggests that galaxy interactions roil the gas. This study reinforces the view that DLAs have a variety of origins, and low-redshift studies are crucial for understanding absorber-galaxy connections.

  9. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SPECTROSCOPICALLY CONFIRMED GALAXIES AT z {>=} 6. II. MORPHOLOGY OF THE REST-FRAME UV CONTINUUM AND Ly{alpha} EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Linhua; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, Seth H.; Mechtley, Matthew; Egami, Eiichi; Fan Xiaohui; Dave, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-20

    We present a detailed structural and morphological study of a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies at z {>=} 6 using deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) near-IR broad-band images and Subaru Telescope optical narrow-band images. The galaxy sample consists of 51 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 5.7, 6.5, and 7.0, and 16 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at 5.9 {<=} z {<=} 6.5. These galaxies exhibit a wide range of rest-frame UV continuum morphology in the HST images, from compact features to multiple component systems. The fraction of merging/interacting galaxies reaches 40%-50% at the brightest end of M{sub 1500} {<=} -20.5 mag. The intrinsic half-light radii r{sub hl,in}, after correcting for point-spread function (PSF) broadening, are roughly between r{sub hl,in} {approx_equal} 0.''05 (0.3 kpc) and 0.''3 (1.7 kpc) at M{sub 1500} {<=} -19.5 mag. The median r{sub hl,in} value is 0.''16 ({approx}0.9 kpc). This is consistent with the sizes of bright LAEs and LBGs at z {>=} 6 found in previous studies. In addition, more luminous galaxies tend to be larger and exhibit a weak size-luminosity relation, r{sub hl,in}{proportional_to}L {sup 0.14} at M{sub 1500} {<=} -19.5 mag. The slope of 0.14 is significantly flatter than those in fainter LBG samples. We discuss the morphology of z {>=} 6 galaxies with nonparametric methods, including the concentration, asymmetry, and smoothness system and the Gini and M{sub 20} parameters, and demonstrate their validity through simulations. We search for extended Ly{alpha} emission halos around LAEs at z {approx_equal} 5.7 and 6.5 by stacking a number of narrow-band images. We do not find evidence of extended Ly{alpha} halos predicted by cosmological simulations. Such halos, if they exist, could be weaker than predicted. Finally, we investigate positional misalignment between the UV continuum and Ly{alpha} emissions in LAEs. While the two positions are generally consistent, several merging galaxies show significant positional differences. This is likely caused by a disturbed interstellar medium distribution due to merging activity.

  10. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SPECTROSCOPICALLY CONFIRMED GALAXIES AT z {>=} 6. I. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REST-FRAME UV CONTINUUM AND Ly{alpha} EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Linhua; Mechtley, Matthew; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Egami, Eiichi; Fan Xiaohui; Dave, Romeel; Finlator, Kristian; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ouchi, Masami; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope near-IR and Spitzer mid-IR observations of a large sample of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies at z {>=} 6. The sample consists of 51 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 5.7, 6.5, and 7.0, and 16 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at 5.9 {<=} z {<=} 6.5. The near-IR images were mostly obtained with WFC3 in the F125W and F160W bands, and the mid-IR images were obtained with IRAC in the 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m bands. Our galaxies also have deep optical imaging data from Subaru Suprime-Cam. We utilize the multi-band data and secure redshifts to derive their rest-frame UV properties. These galaxies have steep UV-continuum slopes roughly between {beta} {approx_equal} -1.5 and -3.5, with an average value of {beta} {approx_equal} -2.3, slightly steeper than the slopes of LBGs in previous studies. The slope shows little dependence on UV-continuum luminosity except for a few of the brightest galaxies. We find a statistically significant excess of galaxies with slopes around {beta} {approx_equal} -3, suggesting the existence of very young stellar populations with extremely low metallicity and dust content. Our galaxies have moderately strong rest-frame Ly{alpha} equivalent width (EW) in a range of {approx}10 to {approx}200 A. The star formation rates are also moderate, from a few to a few tens of solar masses per year. The LAEs and LBGs in this sample share many common properties, implying that LAEs represent a subset of LBGs with strong Ly{alpha} emission. Finally, the comparison of the UV luminosity functions between LAEs and LBGs suggests that there exists a substantial population of faint galaxies with weak Ly{alpha} emission (EW < 20 A) that could be the dominant contribution to the total ionizing flux at z {>=} 6.

  11. Collective relaxation, single particle motion and short range order in. cap alpha. '-NbD/sub x/: A quasielastic neutron scattering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hempelmann, R.; Richter, D.; Faux, D.A.; Ross, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    Applying both incoherent and coherent quasielastic neutron scattering we have studied simultaneously single particle motion, collective relaxation and short range order of deuterium in ..cap alpha..'-NbD/sub x/. A comparison with recent Monte Carlo simulations lead to a consistent description of all results in terms of strongly repulsive deuterium-deuterium interactions. Relating the independently determined tracer and chemical diffusion coefficients with the also measured structure factor we show experimentally that for lattice gases the de Gennes narrowing Ansatz needs to be modified by correlation factors. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. d-alpha correlation functions and collective motion in Xe+Au collisions at E/A=50 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verde, G; Danielewicz, P; Lynch, W; Chan, C; Gelbke, C; Kwong, L; Liu, T; Liu, X; Seymour, D; Tan, W; Tsang, M; Wagner, A; Xu, H; Brown, D; Davin, B; Larochelle, Y; de Souza, R; Charity, R; Sobotka, L

    2006-07-27

    The interplay of the effects of geometry and collective motion on d-{alpha} correlation functions is investigated for central Xe+Au collisions at E/A=50 MeV. The data cannot be explained with out collective motion, which could be partly along the beam axis. A semi-quantitative description of the data can be obtained using a Monte -Carlo model, where thermal emission is superimposed on collective motion. Both the emission volume and the competition between the thermal and collective motion influence significantly the shape of the correlation function, motivating new strategies for extending intensity interferometry studies to massive particles.

  13. Alpha spectrometric characterization of process-related particle size distributions from active particle sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranium foundry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plionis, Alexander A; Peterson, Dominic S; Tandon, Lav; Lamont, Stephen P

    2009-01-01

    Uranium particles within the respirable size range pose a significant hazard to the health and safety of workers. Significant differences in the deposition and incorporation patterns of aerosols within the respirable range can be identified and integrated into sophisticated health physics models. Data characterizing the uranium particle size distribution resulting from specific foundry-related processes are needed. Using personal air sampling cascade impactors, particles collected from several foundry processes were sorted by activity median aerodynamic diameter onto various Marple substrates. After an initial gravimetric assessment of each impactor stage, the substrates were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the uranium content of each stage. Alpha spectrometry provides rapid nondestructive isotopic data that can distinguish process uranium from natural sources and the degree of uranium contribution to the total accumulated particle load. In addition, the particle size bins utilized by the impactors provide adequate resolution to determine if a process particle size distribution is: lognormal, bimodal, or trimodal. Data on process uranium particle size values and distributions facilitate the development of more sophisticated and accurate models for internal dosimetry, resulting in an improved understanding of foundry worker health and safety.

  14. A homozygous nonsense mutation in the {alpha}3 chain gene of laminin 5 (LAMA3) in Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa: Prenatal exclusion in a fetus at risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrath, J.A.; Ciatti, S.; Christiano, A.M.

    1995-09-01

    Mutations in the three genes (LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2) that encode the three chains ({alpha}3, {Beta}3, and {gamma}2, respectively) of laminin 5, a protein involved in epidermal-dermal adhesion, have been established as the genetic basis for the inherited blistering skin disorder, Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa (H-JEB). In this study, we performed mutational analysis on genomic DNA from a child with H-JEB and identified a nonsense mutation in the {alpha}3 chain gene (LAMA3) consisting of a homozygous C-to-T transition resulting in a premature termination codon (CGA {r_arrow} TGA) on both alleles. The parents were shown to be heterozygous carriers of the same mutation. Direct mutation analysis was used to perform DNA-based prenatal diagnosis from a chorionic villus biopsy at 10 weeks` gestation in a subsequent pregnancy. The fetus was predicted to be genotypically normal with respect to the LAMA3 mutation. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  15. {gamma}-ray production by proton and {alpha}-particle induced reactions on {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 24}Mg, and Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belhout, A.; Kiener, J.; Coc, A.; Duprat, J.; Engrand, C.; Fitoussi, C.; Gounelle, M.; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A.; Sereville, N. de; Tatischeff, V.; Thibaud, J.-P.; Chabot, M.; Hammache, F.; Benhabiles-Mezhoud, H.

    2007-09-15

    {gamma}-ray production cross sections for proton and {alpha}-particle interactions with {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 24}Mg, and Fe have been measured in the energy range 5-25 MeV with proton beams and 5-40 MeV with {alpha}-particle beams. Isotopically pure foils of {sup 24}Mg and foils of natural isotopical composition of C, MgO, and Fe have been used. {gamma}-ray angular distributions were obtained with five high-purity Ge detectors with bismuth germanate Compton shields placed at angles of 45 deg. to 157.5 deg. Cross sections for more than 50 different {gamma}-ray transitions were extracted, and for many of them no data have been published before. Comparison of present data with data available in the literature shows mostly good to excellent agreement. In addition to the production cross sections, high-statistics, low-background line shapes of the 4.438 MeV {sup 12}C {gamma} ray from inelastic scattering off {sup 12}C and spallation of {sup 16}O were obtained. Comparison with nuclear reaction calculations shows that these data place interesting constraints on nuclear reaction models.

  16. Impact of parton distribution function and {alpha}{sub s} uncertainties on Higgs boson production in gluon fusion at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demartin, Federico; Mariani, Elisa [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Forte, Stefano; Vicini, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Rojo, Juan [INFN, Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    We present a systematic study of uncertainties due to parton distributions (PDFs) and the strong coupling on the gluon-fusion production cross section of the standard model Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC colliders. We compare procedures and results when three recent sets of PDFs are used, CTEQ6.6, MSTW08, and NNPDF1.2, and we discuss specifically the way PDF and strong coupling uncertainties are combined. We find that results obtained from different PDF sets are in reasonable agreement if a common value of the strong coupling is adopted. We show that the addition in quadrature of PDF and {alpha}{sub s} uncertainties provides an adequate approximation to the full result with exact error propagation. We discuss a simple recipe to determine a conservative PDF+{alpha}{sub s} uncertainty from available global parton sets, and we use it to estimate this uncertainty on the given process to be about 10% at the Tevatron and 5% at the LHC for a light Higgs.

  17. Experimental investigations of electron capture from atomic hydrogen and deuterium by alpha particles. Annual progress report, 15 September 1991--14 September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gay, T.J.; Park, J.T.

    1992-11-01

    We report progress made during the period 15 September 1991--14 September 1992 on the project ``Experimental Investigations of Electron Capture from Atomic Hydrogen and Deuterium by Alpha Particles``. In the past year we have developed reliable, narrow energy spread, high-current sources of He{sup ++} based on direct-current magentron and electron-cyclotron resonance discharges. These sources have been proven on our test bench accelerator which has been upgraded to also allow us to test atomic hydrogen effusive targets. We have thus made substantial progress toward our goal of studying single electron capture from atomic hydrogen by doubly-ionized helium. A research plan for the upcoming year is also presented.

  18. Complete (O{sub 7},O{sub 8}) contribution to B{yields}X{sub s{gamma}} at O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asatrian, H. M.; Ewerth, T.; Ferroglia, A.; Greub, C.; Ossola, G.

    2010-10-01

    We calculate the set of O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) corrections to the branching ratio and to the photon energy spectrum of the decay process B{yields}X{sub s{gamma}} originating from the interference of diagrams involving the electromagnetic dipole operator O{sub 7} with diagrams involving the chromomagnetic dipole operator O{sub 8}. The corrections evaluated here are one of the elements needed to complete the calculations of the B{yields}X{sub s{gamma}} branching ratio at next-to-next-to-leading order in QCD. We conclude that this set of corrections does not change the central value of the standard model prediction for Br(B{yields}X{sub s{gamma}}) by more than 1%.

  19. Suppression of the Critical Temperature of Superconducting NdFeAs(OF) Single Crystals by Kondo-Like Defect Sites Induced by {alpha}-Particle Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarantini, C.; Gurevich, A.; Larbalestier, D. C.; Putti, M.; Shen, Y.; Singh, R. K.; Rowell, J. M.; Newman, N.; Cheng Peng; Jia Ying; Wen Haihu

    2010-02-26

    We report the effect of {alpha}-particle irradiation on the reduction of the critical temperature T{sub c} of a NdFeAs(OF) single crystal. Our data indicate that irradiation defects cause both nonmagnetic and magnetic scattering, resulting in the Kondo-like excess resistance {Delta}{rho}(T)propor tolnT over 2 decades in temperatures above T{sub c}. The critical density of magnetic irradiation defects which suppresses T{sub c} is found to be much higher than those for cuprates and multiband BCS superconductors. We suggest that such anomalously weak pair breaking by irradiation defects indicates that magnetic scattering in pnictides is coupled with pairing interactions mediated by spin fluctuations.

  20. Development of a He{sup -} and He{sup 0} beam source for alpha particle measurement in a burning plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, N.; Sasao, M.; Terai, K.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S.; Yamaoka, H.; Wada, M.

    2012-02-15

    Proof of principle experiments of neutral helium beam production for alpha particle diagnostics was carried out on a test stand. Negative helium ions were produced in the Li charge exchange cell, in which stable and long time operation was possible. He{sup -} beam was accelerated to 157 keV. Finally, He{sup 0} beam was successfully produced after the flight in the drift-tube through the auto-electron-detachment process from He{sup -} to He{sup 0}. A neutral beam detector using a pyroelectric device was also developed to measure He{sup 0} beam intensity. The metastable component in the neutral helium beam was found to be less than 2%.

  1. Isolation and Puification of Uranium Isotopes for Measurement by Mass-Spectrometry (233, 234, 235, 236, 238U) and Alpha Spectrometry (232U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinelli, R; Hamilton, T; Brown, T; Marchetti, A; Williams, R; Tumey, S

    2006-05-30

    This report describes a standardized methodology used by researchers from the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) (Energy and Environment Directorate) and the Environmental Radiochemistry Group (Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the full isotopic analysis of uranium from solution. The methodology has largely been developed for use in characterizing the uranium composition of selected nuclear materials but may also be applicable to environmental studies and assessments of public, military or occupational exposures to uranium using in-vitro bioassay monitoring techniques. Uranium isotope concentrations and isotopic ratios are measured using a combination of Multi Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC ICP-MS), Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Alpha Spectrometry.

  2. Thin film growth of boron nitride on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0 0 1) substrates by reactive sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anzai, Atsushi; Nishiyama, Fumitaka; Yamanaka, Shoji; Inumaru, Kei

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A BN film grown on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0 0 1) had a structure in which h-BN sheet stacking continued through almost the whole film thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction, ATR-IR, and XPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tauc plots suggested the film had direct band gap and the optical band gap was close to that of bulk h-BN. -- Abstract: Boron nitride thin films were grown on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0 0 1) substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering. Infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectra of the films gave an intense signal associated with in-plane B-N stretching TO mode of short range ordered structure of BN hexagonal sheets. X-ray diffraction for the film prepared at a low working pressure (ca. 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} Torr) gave a diffraction peak at slightly lower angle than that corresponding to crystal plane h-BN (0 0 2). It is notable that crystal thickness calculated from X-ray peak linewidth (45 nm) was close to film thickness (53 nm), revealing well developed sheet stacking along the direction perpendicular to the substrate surface. When the substrates of MgO (0 0 1) and Si (0 0 1) were used, the short-range ordered structure of h-BN sheet was formed but the films gave no X-ray diffraction. The film showed optical band gap of 5.9 eV, being close to that for bulk crystalline h-BN.

  3. Phosphine nickel complex as catalyst in reactions of organic bromides RBr with {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated ketones, nitriles, and esters. Conjugate addition of R group and H atom across the C=C bond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, S.A.; Lopatina, V.S.; Petrov, E.S.

    1995-09-10

    Reactions of organic bromides, particularly of secondary and tertiary alkyl bromides, with {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and acrylonitrile in the presence of the catalytic system nickel complex-zinc. The products correspond to the conjugate addition of the organic moiety of the bromide and a hydrogen atom across the C=C double bond of the unsaturated substrate. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Direct Observations of the (Alpha to Gamma) Transformation at Different Input Powers in the Heat Affected Zone of 1045 C-Mn Steel Arc Welds Observed by Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, T A; Elmer, J W

    2005-03-16

    Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (SRXRD) experiments have been performed during Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) welding of AISI 1045 C-Mn steel at input powers ranging from 1000 W to 3750 W. In situ diffraction patterns taken at discreet locations across the width of the heat affected zone (HAZ) near the peak of the heating cycle in each weld show regions containing austenite ({gamma}), ferrite and austenite ({alpha}+{gamma}), and ferrite ({alpha}). Changes in input power have a demonstrated effect on the resulting sizes of these regions. The largest effect is on the {gamma} phase region, which nearly triples in width with increasing input power, while the width of the surrounding two phase {alpha}+{gamma} region remains relatively constant. An analysis of the diffraction patterns obtained across this range of locations allows the formation of austenite from the base metal microstructure to be monitored. After the completion of the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} transformation, a splitting of the austenite peaks is observed at temperatures between approximately 860 C and 1290 C. This splitting in the austenite peaks results from the dissolution of cementite laths originally present in the base metal pearlite, which remain after the completion of the {alpha} {yields} {gamma} transformation, and represents the formation of a second more highly alloyed austenite constituent. With increasing temperatures, carbon, originally present in the cementite laths, diffuses from the second newly formed austenite constituent to the original austenite constituent. Eventually, a homogeneous austenitic microstructure is produced at temperatures of approximately 1300 C and above, depending on the weld input power.

  5. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  6. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  7. Fuel additives: Excluding aviation fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning compositions, applications and performance of additives in fuels. Evaluations and environmental testing of additives in automotive, diesel, and boiler fuels are discussed. Additive effects on air pollution control, combustion stability, fuel economy and fuel storage are presented. Aviation fuel additives are covered in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Fuel additives: Excluding aviation fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning compositions, applications and performance of additives in fuels. Evaluations and environmental testing of additives in automotive, diesel, and boiler fuels are discussed. Additive effects on air pollution control, combustion stability, fuel economy and fuel storage are presented. Aviation fuel additives are covered in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 231 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Denitrification in wastewater treatment (excluding biological methods). (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning chemical and physical methods for the removal of nitrogen-containing compounds from wastewater. Filtration, absorption, air-lift loop reactors, and fluidized bed processes are among the techniques presented. The citations cover process design, evaluation, economic analysis, and applications in the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewaters. Special attention is given to the use of computers for process automation and mathematical simulation of denitrification processes. Biological denitrification methods are referenced in a related bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Denitrification in wastewater treatment (excluding biological methods). (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning chemical and physical methods for the removal of nitrogen-containing compounds from wastewater. Filtration, absorption, air-lift loop reactors, and fluidized bed processes are among the techniques presented. The citations cover process design, evaluation, economic analysis, and applications in the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewaters. Special attention is given to the use of computers for process automation and mathematical simulation of denitrification processes. Biological denitrification methods are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 130 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

  12. STELLAR POPULATIONS OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx} 6-7: CONSTRAINTS ON THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING PHOTONS FROM GALAXY BUILDING BLOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Sadanori; Masami Ouchi; Dunlop, James; Farrah, Duncan; McLure, Ross

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the stellar populations of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z = 5.7 and 6.6 in a 0.65 deg{sup 2} sky of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) Field, using deep images taken with the Subaru/Suprime-Cam, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope/Wide Field Infrared Camera, and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). We produce stacked multiband images at each redshift from 165 (z = 5.7) and 91 (z = 6.6) IRAC-undetected objects to derive typical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of z {approx} 6-7 LAEs for the first time. The stacked LAEs have as blue UV continua as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) z-dropout galaxies of similar M{sub UV}, with a spectral slope {beta} {approx} -3, but at the same time they have red UV-to-optical colors with detection in the 3.6 {mu}m band. Using SED fitting we find that the stacked LAEs have low stellar masses of {approx}(3-10) x 10{sup 7} M{sub sun}, very young ages of {approx}1-3 Myr, negligible dust extinction, and strong nebular emission from the ionized interstellar medium, although the z = 6.6 object is fitted similarly well with high-mass models without nebular emission; inclusion of nebular emission reproduces the red UV-to-optical colors while keeping the UV colors sufficiently blue. We infer that typical LAEs at z {approx} 6-7 are building blocks of galaxies seen at lower redshifts. We find a tentative decrease in the Ly{alpha} escape fraction from z = 5.7 to 6.6, which may imply an increase in the intergalactic medium neutral fraction. From the minimum contribution of nebular emission required to fit the observed SEDs, we place an upper limit on the escape fraction of ionizing photons of f {sup ion}{sub esc} {approx} 0.6 at z = 5.7 and {approx}0.9 at z = 6.6. We also compare the stellar populations of our LAEs with those of stacked HST/WFC3 z-dropout galaxies.

  13. Hydrogenation of the alpha,beta-Unsaturated Aldehydes Acrolein, Crotonaldehyde, and Prenal over Pt Single Crystals: A Kinetic and Sum-Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kliewer, C.J.; Somorjai, G.A.

    2008-11-26

    Sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) and kinetic measurements using gas chromatography have been used to study the surface reaction intermediates during the hydrogenation of three {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and prenal, over Pt(111) at Torr pressures (1 Torr aldehyde, 100 Torr hydrogen) in the temperature range of 295K to 415K. SFG-VS data showed that acrolein has mixed adsorption species of {eta}{sub 2}-di-{sigma}(CC)-trans, {eta}{sub 2}-di-{sigma}(CC)-cis as well as highly coordinated {eta}{sub 3} or {eta}{sub 4} species. Crotonaldehyde adsorbed to Pt(111) as {eta}{sub 2} surface intermediates. SFG-VS during prenal hydrogenation also suggested the presence of the {eta}{sub 2} adsorption species, and became more highly coordinated as the temperature was raised to 415K, in agreement with its enhanced C=O hydrogenation. The effect of catalyst surface structure was clarified by carrying out the hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde over both Pt(111) and Pt(100) single crystals while acquiring the SFG-VS spectra in situ. Both the kinetics and SFG-VS showed little structure sensitivity. Pt(100) generated more decarbonylation 'cracking' product while Pt(111) had a higher selectivity for the formation of the desired unsaturated alcohol, crotylalcohol.

  14. Glomerular-specific imprinting of the mouse Gs{alpha} gene: How does this relate to hormone resistance in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, C.M.; Dutton, E.R.; Seymour, A.

    1996-09-01

    The gene for alpha-stimulating guanine-nucleotide binding polypeptide, Gnas, has been considered as a candidate for the imprinting effects ascribed to distal mouse Chromosome (Chr) 2. Its human homologue (GNAS1) appears, from clinical and biochemical studies of patients with Albright hereditary ostodystrophy, to be paternally imprinted. GNAS1 maps to 20q13, a region that shows linkage conservation with distal mouse Chr 2. We have mapped Gnas within the imprinting region on distal Chr 2 by linkage analysis. To establish if Gnas is imprinted, we have looked for expression differences in tissues taken from mice carrying maternal duplication/paternal deficiency for distal Chr 2 (MatDp2) and its reciprocal (PatDp2). RNA in situ hybridization revealed high levels of Gnas mRNA in glomeruli of PatDp2 embryos at late gestation and lower levels in glomeruli of MatDp2 embryos. These results strongly suggest that Gnas is maternally imprinted and suggest that the mouse gene may be imprinted in a manner opposite the predicted in human. 42 refs., 4 figs.

  15. ALPHA SPECTROMETRIC EVALUATION OF SRM-995 AS A POTENTIAL URANIUM/THORIUM DOUBLE TRACER SYSTEM FOR AGE-DATING URANIUM MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beals, D.

    2011-12-06

    Uranium-233 (t{sub 1/2} {approx} 1.59E5 years) is an artificial, fissile isotope of uranium that has significant importance in nuclear forensics. The isotope provides a unique signature in determining the origin and provenance of uranium-bearing materials and is valuable as a mass spectrometric tracer. Alpha spectrometry was employed in the critical evaluation of a {sup 233}U standard reference material (SRM-995) as a dual tracer system based on the in-growth of {sup 229}Th (t{sub 1/2} {approx} 7.34E3 years) for {approx}35 years following radiochemical purification. Preliminary investigations focused on the isotopic analysis of standards and unmodified fractions of SRM-995; all samples were separated and purified using a multi-column anion-exchange scheme. The {sup 229}Th/{sup 233}U atom ratio for SRM-995 was found to be 1.598E-4 ({+-} 4.50%) using recovery-corrected radiochemical methods. Using the Bateman equations and relevant half-lives, this ratio reflects a material that was purified {approx} 36.8 years prior to this analysis. The calculated age is discussed in contrast with both the date of certification and the recorded date of last purification.

  16. Synthesis of 3-amino-4-hydroxylaminothiazolidine-2-thiones and 2,3-dimethyl-4. cap alpha. ,5-dihydro-7-thioxothiazolo(3,4-b)-1,2,4-triazines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epshtein, S.P.; Orlova, T.I.; Rukasov, A.F.; Tashchi, V.P.; Putsykin, Yu. G.

    1987-10-01

    The reaction of dimeric nitroso chlorides of olefins with potassium dithiocarbazate was used to synthesize 3-amino-4-hydroxylaminothiazolidine-2-thiones, which undergo rearrangement to 2-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazines on heating and react with butane-2,3-dione to give 2,3-dimethyl-4..cap alpha..,5-dihydro-7-thioxothiazolo(3,4-b)-1,2,4-triazine 4-oxides. The latter are reduced by sodium borohydride to the corresponding 3,4,4..cap alpha..,5-tetrahydro-7-thioxo derivatives. The IR spectra of KBr pellets of the compounds were recorded with a Perkin-Elmer spectrometer. The UV spectra of solutions in ethanol were obtained with a Specord UV spectrophotometer. The PMR spectra of solutions of the compounds in d/sub 6/-DMSO were obtained with a Varian FT-80A spectrometer with tetramethylsilane (TMS) as the internal standard.

  17. Polarity of annealing and structural analysis of the RNase H resistant alpha-5'-d(TACACA). beta-5'-r(AUGUGU) hybrid determined by high-field sup 1 H, sup 13 C, and sup 31 P NMR analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gmeiner, W.H.; Rao, K.E.; Rayner, B.; Vasseur, J.J.; Morvan, F.; Imbach, J.L.; Lown, J.W. )

    1990-11-13

    The novel hybrid duplex alpha-5'-d(TACACA)-3'.beta-5'-r(AUGUGU)-3' was analyzed extensively by 1D and 2D NMR methods. Two forms of the duplex exist in about an 80:20 ratio. Analysis of the exchangeable imino protons of the major component revealed that three AU and one AT base pair are present in addition to two GC base pairs, confirming that the duplex anneals in parallel orientation. The presence of the AT base pair, which can only be accounted for by a parallel duplex, was confirmed by a selective INEPT experiment, which correlated the thymidine imino proton to its C5 carbon. The lesser antiparallel form could be detected by exchangeable and nonexchangeable proton resonances in both strands. An exchange peak was observed in the NOESY spectrum for the thymidine methyl group resonance in both the predominant and lesser conformations, indicating the lifetime of the individual structures was on the millisecond time scale. The nonexchangeable protons of the predominant duplex were assigned by standard methods. The sugar pucker of the ribonucleosides was determined to be of the S type by a pseudorotation analysis according to Altona, with the J-couplings measured from the multiplet components of the phase-sensitive COSY experiment. The NOE pattern observed for the alpha-deoxynucleosides also suggested an S-type sugar pucker. The adoption of an S-type sugar pucker for both strands indicates that, in contrast to RNA.DNA duplexes formed exclusively from beta-nucleotides, the alpha-DNA.beta-RNA duplex may form a B-type helix. The 31P resonances of the alpha and beta strands have very different chemical shifts in the hybrid duplex and the difference persists above the helix melting temperature, indicating an intrinsic difference in 31P chemical shift for nucleotides differing only in the configuration about the glycosidic bond.

  18. Search for supersymmetry in hadronic final states with missing transverse energy using the variables AlphaT and b-quark multiplicity in pp collisions at 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2013-09-01

    An inclusive search for supersymmetric processes that produce final states with jets and missing transverse energy is performed in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 11.7 fb?1 collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. In this search, a dimensionless kinematic variable, ? T, is used to discriminate between events with genuine and misreconstructed missing transverse energy. The search is based on an examination of the number of reconstructed jets per event, the scalar sum of transverse energies of these jets, and the number of these jets identified as originating from bottom quarks. No significant excess of events over the standard model expectation is found. Exclusion limits are set in the parameter space of simplified models, with a special emphasis on both compressed-spectrum scenarios and direct or gluino-induced production of third-generation squarks. For the case of gluino-mediated squark production, gluino masses up to 9501125 GeV are excluded depending on the assumed model. For the direct pair-production of squarks, masses up to 450 GeV are excluded for a single light first- or second-generation squark, increasing to 600 GeV for bottom squarks.

  19. HEAD INJURY ASSESSMENT IN JUVENILE CHINOOK USING THE ALPHA II-SPECTRIN BIOMARKER: EFFECTS OF PRESSURE CHANGES AND PASSAGE THROUGH A REMOVABLE SPILLWAY WEIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonason, C.; Miracle, A.

    2009-01-01

    The cytoskeletal protein alpha II-spectrin has specifi c neurodegenerative mechanisms that allow the necrotic (injury-induced) and apoptotic (non-injury-induced) pathways of proteolysis to be differentiated in an immunoblot. Consequently, ?II-spectrin breakdown products (SBDPs) are potential biomarkers for diagnosing traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of the following investigation, consisting of two studies, was to evaluate the utility of the spectrin biomarker in diagnosing TBI in fi sh that travel through hydroelectric dams in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The fi rst study used hyperbaric pressure chambers to simulate the pressure changes that affect fi sh during passage through a Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Kaplan turbine. The second study tested the effect of a removable spillway weir (RSW) on the passage of juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). This study was conducted in tandem with a balloon-tag study by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Brain samples from fi sh were collected and analyzed using an immunoblot for SBDPs, and imaging software was used to quantify the protein band density and determine the ratio of cleaved protein to total protein. The biomarker analyses found higher SBDP expression levels in fi sh that were exposed to lower pressure nadirs and fi sh that passed through the RSW at a deep orientation. In general, the incidence of injuries observed after treatment positively correlated with expression levels, suggesting that the biomarker method of analysis is comparable to traditional methods of injury assessment. It was also found that, for some treatments, the 110 kDa spectrin fragment (SBDP 110) correlated more strongly with necrotic head injury incidence and mortality rates than did the total cleaved protein or the 120 kDa fragment. These studies will be informative in future decisions regarding the design of turbines and fi sh passage structures in hydroelectric dams and will hopefully contribute to the development of faster and more accurate techniques for diagnosing TBI in fi sh.

  20. Treatment of HER2-Expressing Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Cells With Alpha Particle-Emitting {sup 227}Th-Trastuzumab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyerdahl, Helen; Krogh, Cecilie; Borrebaek, Jorgen; Larsen, Asmund; Dahle, Jostein

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of low-dose-rate alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-DOTA-trastuzumab ({sup 227}Th-trastuzumab [where DOTA is 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid]) internalized by breast and ovarian cancer cell lines in order to assess the potential of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab as a therapeutic agent against metastatic cancers that overexpress the HER2 oncogene. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival and cell growth rates of breast cancer cells treated with {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab were compared with rates of cells treated with nonbinding {sup 227}Th-rituximab, cold trastuzumab, and X-radiation. Cell growth experiments were also performed with ovarian cancer cells. Cell-associated radioactivity was measured at several time points, and the mean radiation dose to cells was calculated. Results: SKBR-3 cells got 50% of the mean absorbed radiation dose from internalized activity and 50% from cell surface-bound activity, while BT-474 and SKOV-3 cells got 75% radiation dose from internalized activity and 25% from cell surface-bound activity. Incubation of breast cancer cells with 2.5 kBq/ml {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab for 1 h at 4{sup o}C, followed by washing, resulted in mean absorbed radiation doses of 2 to 2.5 Gy. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and an increase in apoptosis were induced in all cell lines. Conclusions: Clinically relevant activity concentrations of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab induced a specific cytotoxic effect in three HER2-expressing cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab was higher than that of single-dose X-radiation (relative biological effectiveness = 1.2). These results warrant further studies of treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer with {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab.