National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for alluvial fan deposits

  1. VARIATION IN EROSION/DEPOSITION RATES OVER THE LAST FIFTTY YEARS ON ALLUVIAL FAN SURFACES OF L. PLEISTOCENE-MID HOLOCENE AGE, ESTIMATIONS USING 137CS SOIL PROFILE DATA, AMARGOSA VALLEY, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Harrington; R. Kelly; K.T. Ebert

    2005-08-26

    Variations in erosion and deposition for the last fifty years (based on estimates from 137Cs profiles) on surfaces (Late Pleistocene to Late Holocene in age) making up the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan south of Yucca Mountain, is a function of surface age and of desert pavement development or absence. For purposes of comparing erosion and deposition, the surfaces can be examined as three groups: (1) Late Pleistocene surfaces possess areas of desert pavement development with thin Av or sandy A horizons, formed by the trapping capabilities of the pavements. These zones of deposition are complemented by coppice dune formation on similar parts of the surface. Areas on the surface where no pavement development has occurred are erosional in nature with 0.0 +/- 0.0 cm to 1.5 +/- 0.5 cm of erosion occurring primarily by winds blowing across the surface. Overall these surfaces may show either a small net depositional gain or small erosional loss. (2) Early Holocene surfaces have no well-developed desert pavements, but may have residual gravel deposits in small areas on the surfaces. These surfaces show the most consistent erosional surface areas on which it ranges from 1.0 +/-.01 cm to 2.0+/- .01 cm. Fewer depositional forms are found on this age of surface so there is probably a net loss of 1.5 cm across these surfaces. (3) The Late Holocene surfaces show the greatest variability in erosion and deposition. Overbank deposition during floods cover many edges of these surfaces and coppice dune formation also creates depositional features. Erosion rates are highly variable and range from 0.0 +/- 0.0 to a maximum of 2.0+/-.01. Erosion occurs because of the lack of protection of the surface. However, the common areas of deposition probably result in the surface having a small net depositional gain across these surfaces. Thus, the interchannel surfaces of the Fortymile Wash fan show a variety of erosional styles as well as areas of deposition. The fan, therefore, is a dynamic

  2. Uranium-series comminution ages of continental sediments: Case study of a Pleistocene alluvial fan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Victoria E.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Christensen, John N.

    2010-04-30

    Obtaining quantitative information about the timescales associated with sediment transport, storage, and deposition in continental settings is important but challenging. The uranium-series comminution age method potentially provides a universal approach for direct dating of Quaternary detrital sediments, and can also provide estimates of the sediment transport and storage timescales. (The word"comminution" means"to reduce to powder," reflecting the start of the comminution age clock as reduction of lithic parent material below a critical grain size threshold of ~;;50 mu m.) To test the comminution age method as a means to date continental sediments, we applied the method to drill-core samples of the glacially-derived Kings River Fan alluvial deposits in central California. Sediments from the 45 m core have independently-estimated depositional ages of up to ~;;800 ka, based on paleomagnetism and correlations to nearby dated sediments. We characterized sequentially-leached core samples (both bulk sediment and grain size separates) for U, Nd, and Sr isotopes, grain size, surface texture, and mineralogy. In accordance with the comminution age model, where 234U is partially lost from small sediment grains due to alpha recoil, we found that (234U/238U) activity ratios generally decrease with age, depth, and specific surface area, with depletions of up to 9percent relative to radioactive equilibrium. The resulting calculated comminution ages are reasonable, although they do not exactly match age estimates from previous studies and also depend on assumptions about 234U loss rates. The results indicate that the method may be a significant addition to the sparse set of available tools for dating detrital continental sediments, following further refinement. Improving the accuracy of the method requires more advanced models or measurements for both the recoil loss factor fa and weathering effects. We discuss several independent methods for obtaining fa on individual samples

  3. Geologic Characterization of Young Alluvial Basin-Fill Deposits from Drill Hole Data in Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald S. Sweetkind; Ronald M. Drake II

    2007-01-22

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada, that has been the site of numerous underground nuclear tests; many of these tests occurred within the young alluvial basin-fill deposits. The migration of radionuclides to the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through this thick, heterogeneous section of Tertiary and Quaternary rock. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of young alluvial basin-fill deposits will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating ground-water flow in the Yucca Flat area. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, presents data and interpretation regarding the three-dimensional variability of the shallow alluvial aquifers in areas of testing at Yucca Flat, data that are potentially useful in the understanding of the subsurface flow system. This report includes a summary and interpretation of alluvial basin-fill stratigraphy in the Yucca Flat area based on drill hole data from 285 selected drill holes. Spatial variations in lithology and grain size of the Neogene basin-fill sediments can be established when data from numerous drill holes are considered together. Lithologic variations are related to different depositional environments within the basin including alluvial fan, channel, basin axis, and playa deposits.

  4. Reservoir Characterization, Production Characteristics, and Research Needs for Fluvial/Alluvial Reservoirs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Jackson, S.R.; Madden, M.P.; Raw-Schatzinger, V.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.; Young, M.A.

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oil Recovery Field Demonstration Program was initiated in 1992 to maximize the economically and environmentally sound recovery of oil from known domestic reservoirs and to preserve access to this resource. Cost-shared field demonstration projects are being initiated in geology defined reservoir classes which have been prioritized by their potential for incremental recovery and their risk of abandonment. This document defines the characteristics of the fifth geological reservoir class in the series, fluvial/alluvial reservoirs. The reservoirs of Class 5 include deposits of alluvial fans, braided streams, and meandering streams. Deposit morphologies vary as a complex function of climate and tectonics and are characterized by a high degree of heterogeneity to fluid flow as a result of extreme variations in water energy as the deposits formed.

  5. Sequence stratigraphy and depositional systems of the paleocene submarine fans in the central North Sea: The evolution of a shelf-to-basin system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinsborough, B.C.; Galloway, W.E. )

    1993-09-01

    Slope/basin depositional systems consist of combinations of facies, including slump lobes; chute, flute, and channel fills; mounded turbidite lobes; sheet turbidites; low-density turbidite sheets and fills; hemipelagic drapes; and contourite mounds. Specific facies associations are determined by the nature (point source or linear source) and caliber (volume, grain size, sand:mud) of sediment supply to the slope. The extensive well-log, seismic, and core database was used to dissect the stratal and facies architecture of the Andrew depositional system and characterize a logical evolution of the sand-rich shelf-to-basin depositional systems tract. The andrew consists of upper and lower depositional units bounded by downlap terminations and high-gamma marker beds. The lower Andrew displays three distinct sand-rich lobes, delineated by isopach, sand percent, log motif, and seismic facies maps Proximal, mounded, sand-rich units disperse into unchannelized sheet turbidites in the basin. No extensive incised submarine valleys feed this unit, which is characterized by coarsening and thickening-upward log responses and hummocky to discontinuous reflectors. The upper Andrew downlaps the lower unit and a single, linear sediments source was centered in the Witch ground graben. The dispersal pattern and internal character suggest the upper unit is a proximal slope apron, downlapping and filling interlobe bathymetric lows of the underlying unit. Sharp-based, blocky/digitate log signatures, discontinuous chaotic reflectors, and coarse-grained sediment characterize this unit. The lower Andrew represents a structurally focused, sand-rich lobe complex, without associated incised canyons. The Andrew system evolved as the delta platform expanded onto the proximal fan, resulting in a linear sediment source spilling over the slope as a fringing slope apron.

  6. Debris-flow benches: Dune-contact deposits record paleo-sand dune positions in north Panamint Valley, Inyo County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S.P. (Univ., of California, Berkeley (USA)); Anderson, R.S. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Debris flows debouching onto the alluvial fan at the north end of Panamint Valley, California, have been episodically impounded behind sand dunes, resulting in boulder-strewn, nearly flat topped deposits in irregular basins upslope of the dune, whose upper surface is higher than the adjacent fan surface. Upslope migration of the dune field over and beyond these deposits eventually leaves them as debris-flow benches rising above the general fan surface. These features are therefore dune-contact forms, analogous to ice-contact forms such as kame terraces, in that both involve deposition against ephemeral barriers. Benches punctuate the alluvial-fan surface for 5 km downfan from the modern dune field. Clast seismic velocities of boulders on these benches indicate that bench ages increase monotonically with distance from the present dunes, implying that the dune field has migrated up the fan. Because the oldest bench is below the altitude of the highest pluvial lake shoreline in Panamint Valley (Gale Stage, ca. 50 ka) and slightly above the latest lakeshore (I Stage, ca. 14 ka), it seems likely that the dunes originated near the shore of the latest lake and have moved upfan at an average rate of 0.8 m/yr.

  7. Giant landslide deposits in northwest Argentina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauque, L.; Strecker, M.R.; Bloom, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Giant Quaternary landslide deposits occur along mountain fronts in the structural transition zone between the high-angle reverse-fault-bounded Sierras Pampeanas and the low-angle thrust belt of the Sierras Subandinas. There are two modes of occurrence: (1) chaotic masses without distinct geometry, and (2) masses with distinct lobate geometry similar to glacial moraines. Type (1) deposits occur where the moving rock mass followed a narrow valley and blocked the drainage. Many of these caused subsequent formation of lakes and changed the sedimentation processes on pediments at the mountain fronts. In type (2) deposits, lateral and frontal ridges are up to 10 m higher than the interior parts; in some places pressure ridges within the lobes are well preserved. Type (2) deposits show reverse grading and were deposited on relatively smooth pediments or alluvial fans. The lobate geometry strongly suggests that type (2) deposits are a product of flowage and are debris stream or sturzstrom deposits (sense of Heim, 1932 and Hsu, 1975). All investigated deposits occur in areas of demonstrated Quaternary faulting and are interpreted as the result of tectonic movements, although structural inhomogeneities in the source area may have been a significant factor for some of the landslides. No datable materials have yet been found associated with the deposits.

  8. Composite fan blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farr, J.D.

    1993-08-31

    A composite fan blade is described for a prop fan engine comprising: a support disk having a plurality of hinge lugs formed therein, the disk being connected to an engine drive means; a bushing element; a fan blade formed from a first set of radially oriented unidirectional layers of fibers, the first set of layers of fibers being wrapped around the bushing element to form an elongated front side, an elongated back side, and a portion encompassing the bushing element; a blade platform formed from a second set of unidirectional layers of fibers having a first and a second end which are both wrapped around respective resin filler elements to form resin filled support pockets, the second set of unidirectional layers of fibers being wrapped around the portion of the fan blade encompassing the bushing element to place the resin filled support pockets against the portion of the fan blade encompassing the bushing element, wherein the fan blade and the blade platform form a fan blade assembly, the fan blade assembly having a plurality of hinge slots formed therein; and a pin element extending through the hinge formed by the plurality of hinge lugs in the support disk and the plurality of hinge slots in the fan blade assembly for attaching the fan blade assembly to the support disk.

  9. Record of Communication Concerning Ceiling Fan and Ceiling Fan...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Record of Communication Concerning Ceiling Fan and Ceiling Fan Light Kit Framework Document-Docket No. EERE-2012-BT-STD-0045 Record of Communication Concerning Ceiling Fan and ...

  10. Fan Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fan Systems Fan Systems Dramatic energy and cost savings can be achieved in motor systems by applying best energy management practices and purchasing energy-efficiency equipment. Use the software tools, training, and publications listed below to save energy in fan systems. Fan Tools Tools to Assess Your Energy System Fan System Assessment Tool (FSAT) Qualified Specialists Qualified Specialists have passed a rigorous competency examination on a specific industrial system assessment tool. Locate a

  11. Alluvial plains and earthquake recurrence at the Coalinga anticline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, A.B. ); Donahue, D.J.; Jull, A.J.T ); Payen, L.A. ); Atwater, B.F.; Trumm, D.A.; Tinsley, J.C. III; Stein, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Having approached 0.5 m during the May 2 earthquake, the uplift of Quaternary deposits on the Coalinga anticline may provide evidence of the average repeat time of similar earthquakes during the recent geologic past. Stein and King (1984) estimated the average late Quaternary repeat time to be 500 to 1,500 yr from the degree of folding in the upper Pliocene and Pleistocene Tulare Formation; in addition, they estimated the average Holocene repeat time to be at least 200 to 600 yr on the basis of an alluvial-plain profile near Los Gatos Creek, whose arroyo extends across the Coalinga anticline from the synclinal Pleasant Valley into the synclinal San Joaquin Valley. In this chapter, the authors estimate an average repeat time from the stratigraphy of Holocene alluvium exposed in the walls of that arroyo. Largely deposited overbank, this alluvium reveals the approximate configuration of former alluvial plains whose present configuration over the anticline should reflect the rate of anticlinal growth. Resulting constraints on the Holocene uplift rate, though made uncertain by possible differences in the initial configuration of the alluvial plains, suggest an average repeat time of at least 200 to 1,000 yr for major (M = 6-7) Coalinga-area earthquakes during the late Holocene.

  12. Smart Fan Modules And System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cipolla, Thomas M.; Kaufman, Richard I.; Mok, Lawrence S.

    2003-07-15

    A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals. A fan module including: two or more individual fans, each fan having an air movement means and a motor engaged with the air movement means for accelerating air entering each of the two or more individual fans; a temperature sensor for sensing a temperature associated with the two or more fans and for outputting a first signal corresponding to the temperature; rotational speed sensor for outputting a second signal corresponding to a rotational speed of each of the two or more fans; and a processor for receiving the first and second signals and controlling the two or more individual fans based on the first and second signals.

  13. Fan System Assessment Tool (FSAT)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fan System Assessment Tool (FSAT) is a free online software tool that helps industrial users quantify energy use and savings opportunities in industrial fan systems. Use FSAT to understand how...

  14. Fan System Assessment Tool Introduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an introduction to the Fan System Assessment Tool (FSAT). With FSAT, users can calculate the amount of energy used by their fan system; determine system efficiency; and quantify the savings potential of an upgraded system.

  15. Fans for Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Cooling Systems » Fans for Cooling Fans for Cooling Ceiling fans circulate air in a room to help keep occupants cool. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/jimkruger Ceiling fans circulate air in a room to help keep occupants cool. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/jimkruger Circulating fans include ceiling fans, table fans, floor fans, and fans mounted to poles or walls. These fans create a wind chill effect that will make you more comfortable in your home, even if it's

  16. A passive margin-type submarine fan complex, Permian Ecca Group, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wickens, H.D. ); Bouma, A.H. )

    1991-03-01

    A submarine fan complex, comprising five arenaceous fan systems separated by basinal shale units, occurs in the southwestern part of the intracratonic Karoo basin in South Africa. Although basin development is related to a subduction zone bordering the palaeo-Pacific ocean to the south of Gondwanaland and the evolution of the Cape Fold Belt, the entire Lower Permian Ecca Group basin-fill succession reflects depositional characteristics of a passive-margin setting. The submarine fan complex, 250 m thick, originated from sediments supplied by Mississippi-type deltas dominating the Ecca coastline. The fine grain-size and low sand/shale ratio of the submarine fan and deltaic deposits reflect the maturity of the ancient river systems. Outcrops of the fan complex are well exposed and cover an area of 650 km{sup 2}. The strata are not affected by folding, and deep erosion allows three-dimensional viewing of mid-fan to outer-fan deposits. Features of interest include stacked lobe deposits displayed along 2.5 km of a 60 m high cliff section, and a transverse cliff section through channel-fill deposits 500 m wide. Paleocurrent directions reveal that each sequence had its own main source area located to the northwest and south of its present geographic location. The cyclic nature of the fan complex is attributed to relative sea-level changes; deposition took place on the basin floor in water depths that do not exceed 500 m. Shoaling of the basin to wave base depths is reflected in the pro-delta and delta front deposits overlying the uppermost fan sequence. Major factors in controlling direction of fan progradation were delta switching and basin floor topography.

  17. THE WORLD'S Biggest Fan Collection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WORLD'S Biggest Fan Collection If you only know the Big Ass Fan Company as the preeminent designer and manufacturer of high volume, low speed fans for factories and cows, it's time you get to know us better. While we continue to lead the way in industrial and agricultural air movement, we've also refined these designs to bring the same innovation and benefits of our famous fans to circulate an ocean of air in sound-sensitive commercial spaces and homes. And when our customers said they wanted

  18. Hunter Fan: Order (2014-CE-32008)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Hunter Fan Company to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Hunter Fan had failed to certify that certain models of ceiling fans comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  19. Fan System Assessment- End User Training

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Optimizing industrial fan systems can take on many forms, but any fan optimization project must meet the needs of the process. This self-paced workshop highlights the benefits of fan system...

  20. Training: Fan Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fan Systems Training: Fan Systems April 16, 2014 - 6:33pm Addthis Learn about the diverse training sessions offered. The courses are taught by highly qualified instructors who have met rigorous standards. View additional fan system resources. Fan System Assessment Tool - 2-hour webcast Availability: Online webcast AMO offers a convenient, introductory, two-hour webcast on the use of the DOE's Fan System Assessment Tool (FSAT). This session introduces the tool and presents the basics-and the

  1. Enforcement Policy: Certain Ceiling Fans and Certain Ceiling Fan Light Kits

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Certain Ceiling Fans and Certain Ceiling Fan Light Kits Enforcement Policy: Certain Ceiling Fans and Certain Ceiling Fan Light Kits Issued: December 15, 2015 Revised: March 15, 2016 DOE announced an enforcement policy in a Federal Register notice published on December 24, 2015. This document provides additional information about how DOE plans to implement the policy. This policy is limited to certain ceiling fans and certain ceiling fan light kits manufactured prior to

  2. Fan System Assessment Tool Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet Fan System Assessment Tool Fact Sheet Fact sheet describing how industrial plants can improve their fan system performance using AMO's Fan System Assessment Tool (FSAT). ...

  3. Matthews Fan: Proposed Penalty (2014-CE-32012)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Matthews-Gerbar, Ltd. d/b/a Matthews Fan Company failed to certify a variety of ceiling fans as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  4. Hunter Fan: Proposed Penalty (2014-CE-32008)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Hunter Fan Company failed to certify a variety of ceiling fans as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  5. Sound maintenance practices protect fan investments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, M.

    2009-11-15

    Since underground coal miners depend on axial fans, lack of maintenance could prove costly. A number of pre-emptive actions that can help keep fans running at optimal performance can also be taken. 2 photos.

  6. Characteristics of some submarine fan channels, Permian Ecca Group, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouma, A.H. ); Dev Wickens, H. )

    1991-03-01

    The vary well exposed submarine fan complex in the southwestern part of the Karoo basin permits close examination of channel-fills and in places their associated overbank deposits. The complex comprises five arenaceous fan systems some of which attain 60 m in thickness. The fans are vertically stacked and separated by basinal shale deposits; each system with its own direction of growth. The association of channelized sandstone bodies and thin-bedded sandstone and shale packages in an updip position from predominantly stacked lobe deposits suggest preservation of middle fan settings. A 500 m wide, 20 m thick channel-fill consisting massive amalgamated sandstone beds occupying the channel thalweg occurs in a setting dominated by thin-bedded, ripple-laminated sandstone and shale. Gradual thinning of the channel-fill beds toward the channel edges, lack of internal lateral accretion, and a high width to depth ratio suggests a low sinuous to straight channel. The channel-fill is capped by an abandonment facies characterized by ripple-laminated sandstone and shale. Stacked, laterally offset channel-fill deposits with highly erosional contacts and typical well-bedded overbank deposits form channel-overbank complexes and characterize the mid-fan region of the uppermost fan system. Palaeocurrent directions and gradual diminishing of bed-thickness away from the generally massively bedded, amalgamated channel-fill sandstones confirm a simultaneous channel/overbank origin for these deposits. Levee morphology has not been recognized. Both examples of channel-fills cited reveal part of the complexity of the channelized portions of submarine fans and hence the implications thereof in exploring for hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  7. Advanced low noise cooling fans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spek, H.F. van der; Nelissen, P.J.M.

    1995-02-01

    The results from an intensive research program show that it is possible to reduce the sound power level of cooling fans by 15 dB(A) by altering blade cord width and swept leading and trailing edge lines. Combination with the reduction of the pressure drop can result in a step of 20 dB(A) and a reduction with 25 percent of the absorbed power. Testing was conducted in accordance with recognized international measuring standards and the results will be presented, including consequences for cooling tower and condenser design.

  8. Fan System Assessment Tool User Manual | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    User Manual Fan System Assessment Tool User Manual This user manual will help users understand how to use AMO's Fan System Assessment Tool. Fan System Assessment Tool User Manual ...

  9. Matthews Fan: Order (2014-CE-32012)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Matthews-Gerbar, Ltd. d/b/a Matthews Fan Company to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Matthews had failed to certify that certain models of ceiling fans comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  10. Fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Rajeev R.; Cowan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.

  11. Fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, R.R.; Cowan, T.E.

    1996-06-11

    Disclosed are fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate. 3 figs.

  12. Cooling with a Whole House Fan | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    circulating fans provide acceptable summer comfort for many families, even in hot weather. In addition to whole house fans, the ducts of your central heating and cooling...

  13. Shanghai Fan Qie Trading Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Shanghai Fan Qie Trading Ltd Place: Shanghai Municipality, China Sector: Solar Product: Solar panel wholesaler and system integrator. References: Shanghai Fan Qie Trading Ltd1...

  14. Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans ceiling fans nopr.pdf (1.68 MB) More Documents & Publications Energy Conservation Program: Final Rule; Test Procedures

  15. Cooling with a Whole House Fan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Cooling Systems » Cooling with a Whole House Fan Cooling with a Whole House Fan This whole-house fan is installed on the ceiling between the attic and living space. The louvers close when the fan is not operating. | Photo courtesy of Allison Casey. This whole-house fan is installed on the ceiling between the attic and living space. The louvers close when the fan is not operating. | Photo courtesy of Allison Casey. Whole house cooling using a whole house fan can

  16. Fans for Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... If that's not practical, you may want to independently ventilate each level of your home with separate fans. Depending on the layout of your home, you might want to use several ...

  17. Fan System Assessment Tool Introduction - Webcast

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and other instruments as measurement tools in a fan performance test Develop a ... optimization savings When using FSAT keep in mind that: FSAT is best for the big picture. ...

  18. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  19. Performance Assessment of Photovoltaic Attic Ventilator Fans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A case study of photovoltaic attic ventilator fans was conducted on an occupied single family home in Central Florida. Two fans were installed at mid-summer in an instrumented home where attic air temperature, meteorological conditions and space cooling electric power were measured. The home already had an attic radiant barrier, but still experienced attic air temperatures in excess of 130oF.

  20. Facies architecture of Spraberry submarine fan reservoirs (Permian), Midland basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guevara, E.H.; Tyler, N.

    1989-03-01

    Facies of mud-rich submarine fans of the Spraberry formation (Permian, Leonardian) form oil reservoirs in the central part of the Midland basin, west Texas. The principal reservoirs are submarine-channel and associated facies in the upper parts of generally upward-coarsening and upward-thickening sequences of the Jo Mill (lower Spraberry) and Driver and overlying Floyd (upper Spraberry) fans. They are naturally fractured, massive and laminated, very fine-grained, calcareous sandstones and siltstones usually occurring in beds 2 to approximately 12 ft thick. Two main subdivisions, inner and middle to outer fan, are recognized using isoliths, log motifs, and cores of predominantly terrigenous clastic, mostly basin-wide genetic intervals. The boundary between the subdivisions approximately coincides with the location of the subjacent Horseshoe atoll (Pennsylvanian). The narrow range in grain size of the fans results in limited basinward variations in texture and sedimentary structures and paucity of Bouma sequences. Facies architecture strongly influences hydrocarbon distribution and recovery. Wells having the best cumulative productions generally occur in sandstone depositional axes. Most accumulations in inner fan facies are scattered structural traps having relatively high recovery efficiencies (24%, Jo Mill field). The largest accumulations in mid to outer fan facies are stratigraphic traps in meandering to anastomosing channel sandstone belts 1-3 mi wide occurring in a widespread area. Recovery efficiencies range from 5% (Spraberry trend, stratigraphic trap) to 15% (Benedum field, combined stratigraphic-structural trap). Additional reserves can be recovered from partly drained and untapped reservoir compartments, especially in layered and compartmentalized middle to outer fan facies.

  1. Reservoir characterization of a Permian Slope Fan/basin-floor fan complex: Cherry Canyon Formation, Ward County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spain, D.R. )

    1990-05-01

    The Cherry Canyon Formation consists of a 925-ft- (280-m) thick section of up to 25 different sandstone and siltstone units that were deposited in a deep-water environment in the Delaware basin. Lowstand sedimentation by fluid density currents with periodic turbidity currents resulted in a broad-migrating channelized slope fan/basin-floor fan complex interpreted to exhibit an intricate reservoir geometry. Thirteen lithofacies are identified. Primary reservoirs are found in massive channel sandstones, and beds of lesser reservoir quality are present in laminated overbank/interchannel sandstones. Original depositional fabric modified by diagenetic cements and authigenic clays created three petrophysical rock types. Type I reservoirs contain intergranular macroporosity relatively free of carbonate cement and authigenic clay. Types II and III reservoirs contain mesoporosity and abundant microporosity created by moderate to abundant carbonate cementation and plugging of pore throats by authigenic grain-coating chlorite and pore-bridging fibrous illite. Depositional and diagenetic factors combine with insufficient oil column height to yield low initial oil saturations that decrease with depth in a hydrocarbon-water transition zone. Mercury injection capillary pressure measurements illustrate the vertical stratification of petrophysical rock types that exist in the section; reservoirs which contain all water are interbedded with reservoirs containing mostly oil. Subsequently, a slight change in height above free water can drive production from all water to all oil. Hydrocarbon column heights greater than 60 ft are required to establish water-free oil production. Accurate reservoir water saturations can be derived using Archie's equation; when combined with a movable oil analysis and drainage relative permeability/fractional flow curves, initial water cuts can be predicted to maximize deliverability.

  2. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-05-10

    A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

  3. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  4. Improving Fan System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-04-01

    This is one of a series of sourcebooks on motor-driven equipment produced by the Industrial Technologies Program. It provides a reference for industrial fan systems users, outlining opportunities to improve fan system performance.

  5. Solar Decathlon 2015: Energy.gov Fan Favorite Poll Results |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Decathlon 2015: Energy.gov Fan Favorite Poll Results Solar Decathlon 2015: Energy.gov Fan Favorite Poll Results October 22, 2015 - 10:10am Addthis West Virginia University...

  6. Fan-In Communications On A Cray Gemini Interconnect (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Using the Cray Gemini interconnect as our platform, we present a study of an important class of communication operations the fan-in communication pattern. By its nature, fan-in ...

  7. DOE Publishes Request for Information for Ceiling Fans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy has published a request for information regarding energy conservation standards for ceiling fans.

  8. Improving Fan System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Fan System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry Improving Fan System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry This sourcebook is designed to provide fan system users with a reference outlining opportunities to improve system performance. It is not intended to be a comprehensive technical text on improving fan systems, but rather a document that makes users aware of potential performance improvements, provides some practical guidelines, and details where the user can find more help.

  9. List of Whole House Fans Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    upgrades Water Heaters Whole House Fans LED Exit Signs CHPCogeneration Biomass Photovoltaics Yes Georgia Environmental Finance Authority - Residential Energy Efficiency...

  10. Hexahedron Projection by Triangle Fans and Strips

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-05-10

    The program divides the projection of a hexahedron with not-necessarily-planar quadrilateral faces, such as would arise in a curvilinear grid, by the projections of its edges, into polygons overlapped by a single front-facing and a single back-facing face. These polygons are further organized into triangle strips and fans, for rapid volume rendering in graphics hardware.

  11. Energy Conservation Program: Final Rule; Test Procedures for Ceiling Fans |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Final Rule; Test Procedures for Ceiling Fans Energy Conservation Program: Final Rule; Test Procedures for Ceiling Fans Ceiling Fans TP Final_Rule (601.19 KB) More Documents & Publications Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards

  12. Prop-fan with improved stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothman, E.A.; Violette, J.A.

    1988-03-15

    A prop-fan is described comprising swept, rotatable airfoil blades pivotally mounted to a hub for pitch change movement with respect thereto, and having a solidity ratio of 1.0 or greater at the roots of the blades and less than 1.0 at the tips of the blades. The prop fan is operable at or above critical Mach numbers and at transonic or supersonic tip speeds, and is characterized by: each of the blades having a leading edge. The leading edge, from a location thereon at approximately a midportion of the span and the blade, outwardly to the tip thereof, is curved in a chordal direction to define blade sweep while exhibiting no significant offset curvature in a span-wise direction.

  13. Submitting Organization Hongyou Fan Sandia National Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

     2007 R&D 100 Award Entry Form  Submitting Organization Hongyou Fan Sandia National Laboratories Advanced Materials Laboratory 1001 University Boulevard SE Albuquerque, NM 87106, USA 505-272-7128 (phone) 505-272-7336 (fax) hfan@sandia.gov AFFIRMATION: I affirm that all information submitted as a part of, or supplemental to, this entry is a fair and accurate represen- tation of this product. Submitter's signature_______________________________ Earl Stromberg Lockheed Martin

  14. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners Case study describes various concepts for more cost-effective cooling solutions in data centers, while keeping in mind that the reliability of computing systems and their respective cooling systems is always a key criterion. Download the Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners case study. (352.57 KB) More Documents &

  15. DOE Publishes Final Rule for Residential Furnace Fan Test Procedure |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Publishes Final Rule for Residential Furnace Fan Test Procedure DOE Publishes Final Rule for Residential Furnace Fan Test Procedure January 3, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The Department of Energy (DOE) has published a final rule regarding test procedures for residential furnace fans. 79 FR 500 (January 3, 2014). Find more information on the rulemaking, including milestones, statutory authority, rulemaking documents, and any other related rulemakings. All notices, public

  16. Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fan Light Kits Notice...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Kits notice of proposed rulemaking More Documents & Publications ISSUANCE 2015-06-25: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fan Light Kits,...

  17. QM Power Inc: Commercial Refrigeration Fan Applications | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy QM Power Inc: Commercial Refrigeration Fan Applications QM Power Inc: Commercial Refrigeration Fan Applications Q-Sync High Efficiency 9-12 Watt Fan Motors Q-Sync High Efficiency 9-12 Watt Fan Motors Performer: QM Power Inc. - Lee's Summit, MO Partners: Oak Ridge National Labs - Oak Ridge, TN DOE Funding: $1,004,653 Cost Share: $1,004,653 Project Term: October 1, 2014 - March 31, 2018 Funding Opportunity: DE-FOA-0001084 - Commercial Building Technology Demonstrations PROJECT OBJECTIVE

  18. Prop-Fan technical progress leading to technology readiness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gatzen, B.S.; Adamson, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Technical activity on Prop-Fan propulsion has reached an impotant milestone. The analytical and scale model efforts now provide verification of design techniques necessary to initiate the large scale rotor technology demonstration required to achieve Prop-Fan technology readiness. Small scale model rotor programs have demonstrated high uninstalled Prop-Fan efficiency, reduced source noise with swept blades, and satisfactory structural dynamics. This paper presents the technical progress to date and the need to conduct a large scale program. The key element of the large scale program is a high speed flight test of the Prop-Fan rotor mounted on a swept wing. 74 refs.

  19. Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Brian Fortenbery Synapsense: Garret Smith, Patricia Nealon Vigilent: Corinne Vita ... Figure 1. Fan power as a function of speed (the "cube law"). (Credit: Smith, 2013) It ...

  20. Choosing the right boiler air fans at Weston 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spring, N.

    2009-04-15

    When it came to choosing the three 'big' boiler air fans - forced draft, induced draft and primary air, the decision revolved around efficiency. The decision making process for fan selection for the Western 4 supercritical coal-fired plant is described in this article. 3 photos.

  1. Microsoft Word - Ex Parte Memo re October 28, 2014 Meeting on Fans

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Council Date November 4, 2014 Re Ex Parte Communication On Tuesday, October 28, 2014, several representatives of fan manufacturers and energy efficiency advocates met with the Department of Energy to discuss potential standards for commercial and industrial fans. The fan manufacturers and energy efficiency advocates presented information concerning the fan market, fan energy-efficiency and the most promising means of designing federal efficiency standards for commercial and industrial fans. The

  2. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  3. Method for fabricating fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Rajeev R.; Cowan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate.

  4. Method for fabricating fan-fold shielded electrical leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, R.R.; Cowan, T.E.

    1994-12-27

    Fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate. 3 figures.

  5. Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ground-Water Table and Chemical Changes in an Alluvial Aquifer During Sustained Pumping at the Monticello, Utah, Zero-Valent Iron Treatment Cells Ground-Water Table and Chemical ...

  6. Improving Fan System Performance - A Sourcebook for Industry

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... DWDI-double-width, double-inlet fans dynamic balance-the mechanical balancing of a ... express the relation between velocity, viscosity, density, and dimensions in a system of ...

  7. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercCirculationFans | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    sePercCirculationFans" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 18.6715328229 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building...

  8. Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercFans | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SPElectrtyUsePercFans" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 7.29539104961 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 16.7673965927 + Sweden...

  9. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Furnace Fans to Reduce Carbon...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    more than a year's carbon pollution from the entire U.S. electricity system. Furnace fans are used to circulate air through ductwork in residential heating and cooling equipment. ...

  10. Record of Communication Concerning Ceiling Fan and Ceiling Fan Light Kit Framework Document—Docket No. EERE-2012-BT-STD-0045

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This memo provides an overview of communications made to DOE staff on the subject of possible changes to standards and test procedures for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits.

  11. Photo of the Week: Fan-tastic | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fan-tastic Photo of the Week: Fan-tastic August 17, 2012 - 10:30am Addthis In Jonesboro, Arkansas, a Nordex USA employee stands between utility-scale components that will eventually make up a completed wind turbine. Under the Recovery Act, Nordex USA received a tax credit to assist in the creation of the Jonesboro manufacturing facility, which opened in October 2010. | Photo courtesy of Nordex USA. In Jonesboro, Arkansas, a Nordex USA employee stands between utility-scale components that will

  12. 2014-10-27 Issuance: Test Procedure for Ceiling Fan Light Kits...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    7 Issuance: Test Procedure for Ceiling Fan Light Kits; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-10-27 Issuance: Test Procedure for Ceiling Fan Light Kits; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking ...

  13. How Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your Home? How Has a Ceiling Fan Affected the Way You Heat and Cool Your Home? September 23, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis On Monday, ...

  14. Development of an Innovative, High-Efficiency Radon Fan | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy an Innovative, High-Efficiency Radon Fan Development of an Innovative, High-Efficiency Radon Fan Mechanical Solutions Inc. will use the latest modeling techniques, in combination with decades of experience and market leader Fantech, to produce a high-efficiency radon fan design. Source: Mechanical Solutions Inc. Mechanical Solutions Inc. will use the latest modeling techniques, in combination with decades of experience and market leader Fantech, to produce a high-efficiency radon fan

  15. DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Residential Furnace Fans Energy Conservation Standards

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Department of Energy has published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for residential furnace fans.

  16. Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fan Light Kits Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fan Notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR) and announcement of public meeting.

  17. Pump and Fan Technology Characterization and R&D Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report provides the Building Technologies Office (BTO) and the research and development (R&D) community with a technical and market analysis of pumps and fans as they pertain to commercial and residential buildings as well as key conclusions regarding the R&D opportunities that can help achieve BTO’s energy savings goals.

  18. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range

  19. A simple model simulating a fan as a source of axial and circumferential body forces

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-07-01

    This software can be used in a computational fluids dynamics (CFD) code to represent a fan as a source of axial and circumferential body forces. The combined software can be used effectively in car design analyses that involve many underhood thermal management simulations. FANMOD uses as input the rotational speed of the fan, geometric fan data, and the lift and drag coefficients of the blades, and predicts the body forces generated by the fan inmore » the axial and circumferential directions. These forces can be used as momentum forces in a CFD code to simulate the effect of the fan in an underhood thermal management simulation.« less

  20. ISSUANCE: 2014-12-03 Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Fans and Blowers: Availability of Provisional Analysis Tools

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Fans and Blowers: Availability of Provisional Analysis Tools

  1. ISSUANCE 2015-04-21: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Fans and Blowers: Availability of Provisional Analysis Tools

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Fans and Blowers: Availability of Provisional Analysis Tools

  2. ISSUANCE 2015-06-25: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fan Light Kits, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fan Light Kits, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  3. Saturation of the fan instability: Nonlinear merging of resonances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.; Zaslavsky, A.

    2005-11-15

    A Hamiltonian self-consistent wave-particle model has been built in order to study the nonlinear interaction of a packet of waves with a nonequilibrium electron distribution in a magnetized background plasma. In particular, this model and the corresponding numerical code allow us to study in detail the excitation by the fan instability of lower hybrid waves interacting resonantly with a strongly anisotropic electron velocity distribution. This paper points out the essential role played by the process of ''dynamical merging of resonances,'' which results from an instability of the trapped particles' motion, leading, in its explosive stage, to the amplification of the waves' amplitudes. Moreover the relaxation phase of the fan instability is shown to lead to a universal distribution of the particles' velocities, which does not depend on the number of waves and on their distribution in the k space.

  4. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.; Williamson, J.

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3 (tm) replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost-effectiveness. The results of this study are intended to be useful to home performance contractors, HVAC contractors, and home efficiency program stakeholders. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Average fan power reductions were approximately 126 Watts during heating and 220 Watts during cooling operation. Over the course of entire heating and cooling seasons, these translated into average electric energy savings of 163 kWh. Average cost savings were $20 per year. Homes where the fan was used outside of heating and cooling mode saved an additional $42 per year on average. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost-effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  5. 2014-10-27 Issuance: Test Procedure for Ceiling Fan Light Kits; Notice of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proposed Rulemaking | Department of Energy 7 Issuance: Test Procedure for Ceiling Fan Light Kits; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-10-27 Issuance: Test Procedure for Ceiling Fan Light Kits; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for ceiling fan light kits, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on October 27, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any

  6. 2015-03-26 Issuance: Fans and Blowers ASRAC Working Group; Notice of Intent

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Issuance: Fans and Blowers ASRAC Working Group; Notice of Intent 2015-03-26 Issuance: Fans and Blowers ASRAC Working Group; Notice of Intent This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Notice of Intent regarding establishment of an ASRAC Working Group for Fans and Blowers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 26, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and

  7. Hunter Fan Company DOE Ex Parte Meeting Memo | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fan Company DOE Ex Parte Meeting Memo Hunter Fan Company DOE Ex Parte Meeting Memo This memo provides a summary of the communications made to the DOE staff regarding proposed rules on ceiling fan test procedures. June 7 Hunter DOE Ex Parte Meeting (120.19 KB) More Documents & Publications Hunter DOE Ex Parte Communication Summary July 30 2015 ISSUANCE 2015-05-26: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Ceiling Fans, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rule 2014-09-19 Issuance: Energy

  8. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldrich, R.; Williamson, J.

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3™ replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost effectiveness. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  9. Clay mineralogy of Lower Cretaceous deep-sea fan sediments, western North Atlantic basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, M.A.

    1986-05-01

    The Lower Cretaceous of the eastern North American continent was a time of extensive deltaic progradation. The effects of deltaic deposition on sedimentation in the western North Atlantic were unknown until May 1982, when, at Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 603 off Cape Hatteras, over 260 m of micaceous, muddy turbidites were recovered that correlate with deltaic progradation on eastern North America. The results of clay mineral studies from onshore and offshore equivalents indicate that during the Cretaceous, some sorting of clay minerals by transport processes occurred. Kaolinite tends to accumulate in continental environments, illite in transitional to marine environments, and smectite in deep sea sediments as pelagic clay. In the sediments from the western North Atlantic, illite tended to be more abundant in thick bedded sandy muds, whereas kaolinite tended to be more abundant in thin bedded muddy sands. Although the occurrence of illite and kaolinite in pelagic sediments indicates a general increased terrigenous influence, the results of this study indicate that these two clays behave independently in these sediments. The presence of large amounts of kaolinite at certain levels in these sediments corresponds to phases of maximum deep-sea fan development, and so indicates a more direct input of continental material, with less sorting of sediments by continental and shelf processes (pericontinental fractionation) prior to redeposition.

  10. Sequence stratigraphic framework and exploration potential of lower Permian (Wolfcampian) gravity-flow deposits, eastern Midland Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, W.A.; Clopine, W.W. ); Kokkoros, G.F.; Wiley, B.H. )

    1996-01-01

    Eight major Wolfcampian sequences (W1-W8) have been identified on seismic data and well logs in a 1500 square mile study area along the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin. These sequences compose two lower frequency sequences (W1-W5 W6-W8) which are separated by a major erosional surface associated with a sea-level fall near the time of the early-middle Wolfcampian boundary. Sea-level falls associated with sequences W5 and W6 resulted in significant erosion of platform-margin deposits, incision of a submarine canyon several miles into the Eastern Shelf, and deposition of carbonate gravity flows in the Midland Basin. Gravity flows entered the basin via the submarine canyon and fed basin-floor fan systems which extend up to 25 miles basinward of the toe-of-slope. Within the study area, production from carbonate gravity-flow deposits is mostly from three submarine fan systems within sequences W5 and W6 - the Credo (10 MMBOER) fan (oldest) , the Triple M (5 MMBOER)-Howard Glasscock (7 MMBOER) fan, and the Hutto (5 MMBOER) fan (youngest). The maximum gross thickness of the fans ranges from 100 to 200 feet. Regional isolith and seismic amplitude data were used to high-grade a 70 square mile area in the vicinity of Triple M and Howard Glasscock fields. Model-based velocity inversions, constrained by sonic and density data from 52 wells, were performed utilizing a grid of 2-D seismic data and a 3-D survey. Both Triple M and Howard Glasscock fields are clearly defined by high-velocity anomalies within the productive basin-floor fan interval of sequence W6. An untested high-velocity anomaly with a velocity signature and stratal geometry similar to the two fields, and estimated reserves of 5 MMBOER, is scheduled to be drilled in 1995.

  11. Sequence stratigraphic framework and exploration potential of lower Permian (Wolfcampian) gravity-flow deposits, eastern Midland Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, W.A.; Clopine, W.W.; Kokkoros, G.F.; Wiley, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    Eight major Wolfcampian sequences (W1-W8) have been identified on seismic data and well logs in a 1500 square mile study area along the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin. These sequences compose two lower frequency sequences (W1-W5 & W6-W8) which are separated by a major erosional surface associated with a sea-level fall near the time of the early-middle Wolfcampian boundary. Sea-level falls associated with sequences W5 and W6 resulted in significant erosion of platform-margin deposits, incision of a submarine canyon several miles into the Eastern Shelf, and deposition of carbonate gravity flows in the Midland Basin. Gravity flows entered the basin via the submarine canyon and fed basin-floor fan systems which extend up to 25 miles basinward of the toe-of-slope. Within the study area, production from carbonate gravity-flow deposits is mostly from three submarine fan systems within sequences W5 and W6 - the Credo (10 MMBOER) fan (oldest) , the Triple M (5 MMBOER)-Howard Glasscock (7 MMBOER) fan, and the Hutto (5 MMBOER) fan (youngest). The maximum gross thickness of the fans ranges from 100 to 200 feet. Regional isolith and seismic amplitude data were used to high-grade a 70 square mile area in the vicinity of Triple M and Howard Glasscock fields. Model-based velocity inversions, constrained by sonic and density data from 52 wells, were performed utilizing a grid of 2-D seismic data and a 3-D survey. Both Triple M and Howard Glasscock fields are clearly defined by high-velocity anomalies within the productive basin-floor fan interval of sequence W6. An untested high-velocity anomaly with a velocity signature and stratal geometry similar to the two fields, and estimated reserves of 5 MMBOER, is scheduled to be drilled in 1995.

  12. Bicarbonate Impact on U(VI) Bioreduction in a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, L.; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al. 2003, Williams et al. 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al. 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, that the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ~3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in aquifers.

  13. 2015-03-26 Issuance: Fans and Blowers ASRAC Working Group; Notice...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document. ASRAC Fans and Blowers Working Group Notice of ...

  14. fan blades Karr, O.F.; Brooks, J.B.; Seay, E. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    draft fan blades Karr, O.F.; Brooks, J.B.; Seay, E. 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 42 ENGINEERING NOT INCLUDED IN OTHER...

  15. Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2CirculationFans...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    eKwhM2CirculationFans" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 13.3422495258 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building...

  16. Fan System Optimization Improves Production and Saves Energy at Ash Grove Cement Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-05-01

    This case study describes an optimization project implemented on a fan system at Ash Grove Cement Company, which led to annual energy and maintenance savings of $16,000 and 175,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh).

  17. Engine having hydraulic and fan drive systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    An engine comprises a hydraulic system attached to an engine housing that includes a high pressure pump and a hydraulic fluid flowing through at least one passageway. A fan drive system is also attached to the engine housing and includes a hydraulic motor and a fan which can move air over the engine. The hydraulic motor includes an inlet fluidly connected to the at least one passageway.

  18. Stabilization of the fan instability: Electron flux relaxation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.

    2006-12-15

    This paper presents some relevant simulation results on the interaction between electrostatic waves and suprathermal electron fluxes at anomalous cyclotron and Landau resonances. In particular, the case of a dense and continuous wave spectrum is studied. It is shown that, after the waves excited by the fan instability at anomalous cyclotron resonances have reached a first saturation stage due to particle trapping, the process of 'dynamical resonance merging' takes place, which leads to a strong amplification of the waves' amplitudes. The Landau resonances do not play an essential role in the total energy exchange between the particles and the waves, as they mainly help to smooth the peaks rising during the evolution of the electron parallel velocity distribution and contribute to damping. Moreover, the paper shows that at the asymptotic stage of the interaction, when the waves' amplitudes are saturated and the electron flux is relaxed, some physical features clearly do not fit the predictions of the well-known quasilinear theory. The careful examination of a huge number of trajectories of particles moving in the effective field of the wave packet allows to state that most of the particles involved in the resonant interactions are trapped by several waves simultaneously. In this so-called 'multitrapping' process, the particles perform complex oscillatory motions which are far from what is expected from the quasilinear theory, where the diffusive behavior of the particles in the velocity space results from small successive random steps.

  19. Parametric System Curves: Correlations Between Fan Pressure Rise and Flow for Large Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Wray, Craig

    2010-05-19

    A substantial fraction of HVAC energy use in large commercial buildings is due to fan operation. Fan energy use depends in part on the relationship between system pressure drop and flow through the fan, which is commonly called a "system curve." As a step toward enabling better selections of air-handling system components and analyses of common energy efficiency measures such as duct static pressure reset and duct leakage sealing, this paper shows that a simple four-parameter physical model can be used to define system curves. Our model depends on the square of the fan flow, as is commonly considered. It also includes terms that account for linear-like flow resistances such as filters and coils, and for supply duct leakage when damper positions are fixed or are changed independently of static pressure or fan flow. Only two parameters are needed for systems with variable-position supply dampers (e.g., VAV box dampers modulating to control flow). For these systems, reducing or eliminating supply duct leakage does not change the system curve. The parametric system curve may be most useful when applied to field data. Non-linear techniques could be used to fit the curve to fan pressure rise and flow measurements over a range of operating conditions. During design, when measurements are unavailable, one could use duct design calculation tools instead to determine the coefficients.

  20. Preliminary Aging Assessment of Nuclear Air-Treatment and Cooling System Fans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winegardner,, W. K.

    1995-07-01

    A preliminary aging assessment of the fans used in nuclear air treatment and cooling systems was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. Details from guides and standards for the design, testing, and installation of fans; results of failure surveys; and information concerning stressors, related aging mechanisms, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM) were compiled. Failure surveys suggest that about half of the failures reported for fans are primarily associated with aging. Aging mechanisms associated with the various fan components and resulting from mechanical, thermal, and environmental stressors include wear, fatigue, corrosion, and erosion of metals and the deterioration of belts and lubricants. A bearing is the component most frequently linked to fan failure. The assessment also suggests that ISMM that will detect irregularities arising from improper lubrication, cooling, alignment, and balance of the various components should aid in counteracting many of the aging effects that could impair fan performance. An expanded program, to define and evaluate the adequacy of current ISMM and maintenance practices and to include a documented Phase I aging assessment, is recommended.

  1. LETTER REPORT INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING PROJECT FAN HOUSE, BUILDING 704 BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.C. Weaver

    2010-10-22

    5098-LR-01-0 -LETTER REPORT INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION OF THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR DECOMMISSIONING PROJECT FAN HOUSE, BUILDING 704 BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

  2. Ground penetrating radar surveys over an alluvial DNAPL site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, P.J. |; Doll, W.E.; Phillips, B.E.

    1994-09-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys were used to map shallow sands and gravels which are DNAPL migration pathways at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky. The sands and gravels occur as paleochannel deposits, at depths of 17-25 ft, embedded in Pleistocene lacustrine clays. More than 30 GPR profiles were completed over the Drop Test Area (DTA) to map the top and base of the paleochannel deposits, and to assess their lateral continuity. A bistatic radar system was used with antenna frequencies of 25 and 50 MHz. An average velocity of 0.25 ft/ns for silty and clayey materials above the paleochannel deposits was established from radar walkaway tests, profiles over culverts of known depth, and comparison of radar sections with borings. In the south portion of the DTA, strong reflections corresponded to the water table at approximately 9-10 ft, the top of the paleochannel deposits at approximately 18 ft, and to gravel horizons within these deposits. The base of these deposits was not visible on the radar sections. Depth estimates for the top of the paleochannel deposits (from 50 records) were accurate to within 2 ft across the southern portion of the DTA. Continuity of these sands and gravels could not be assessed due to interference from air-wave reflections and lateral changes in signal penetration depth. However, the sands and gravels appear to extend across the entire southern portion of the DTA, at depths as shallow as 17 ft. Ringing, air-wave reflections and diffractions from powerlines, vehicles, well casings, and metal equipment severly degraded GPR profiles in the northern portion of the DTA; depths computed from reflection times (where visible) were accurate to within 4 ft in this area. The paleochannel deposits are deeper to the north and northeast where DNAPL has apparently pooled (DNAPL was not directly imaged by the GPR, however). Existing hydrogeological models of the DTA will be revised.

  3. Asymmetrical-fan tranmission CT on SPECT to derive {mu}-maps for attenuation correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loncaric, S.; Huang, G.; Ni, B. [Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke`s Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    For proper attenuation correction of SPECT images, an appropriate {mu}-map properly registered with each imaging slices is needed. Among the many techniques for {mu}-map derivation, simultaneous or sequential fan-beam transmission CT (TCT), on the same SPECT system with the same acquisition settings, have advantages of being practical while ensuring registration. However, the problems are: (1) limited FOV for thoracic imaging, projection would be truncated with a typical size detector, (2) lack of room for placing the transmission source in many SPECT systems. We have developed a new sampling scheme to solve the problems mentioned above. This scheme uses an asymmetrical-fan geometry (AFG), which samples only half of the field, the other half would be sampled after an 180{degrees} detector rotation. This technique completes the minimum sampling requirement in a 360{degrees} detector rotation and yields a relatively large FOV defined by the outside edge of the sampling fan. We have confirmed the feasibility of the AFG sampling on a 3-head SPECT system to provide a large FOV for TCT of most patient. The TCT sampling scheme is achieved with an asymmetrical-fan collimator. We have developed the required new reconstruction algorithms and derived excellent reconstructed images of phantoms and human subjects. We propose to have this technique implemented in a short and fast transmission scan in a multi-head SPECT system, after emission imaging, because the detectors have to be pulled out to make room for the transmission source. The imaging field can even exceed the full field size of the detector. MS would be possible when an obtuse sampling fan is formed by shifting the source outward further, provided the central FOV is properly covered with a supplementary sampling scheme, e.g., using another TCT with a fan-beam collimator on another one of the detectors.

  4. Controls of alluvial stratigraphy in the Upper Pennsylvania-Lower Permian Dunkard Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominic, D.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The Casselman, Pittsburgh, and Waynesburg formations exposed in northern West Virginia were deposited within a foreland basin adjacent to the Alleghenian fold and thrust belt. Sandstones were deposited in fluvial channels on an aggrading and prograding coastal plain. however, unlike mid-continental cyclothems, these channels were isolated from eustatic changes because previous delta progradation had blocked circulation between the local depositional basin and the larger mid-continental sea. Thus, eustatic changes had no direct or strong influence on Dunkard basin deposition, a conclusion supported by interbasinal correlation. Also, climate was largely stable during this interval. The evolution of channel properties, therefore, most likely reflects the influence of intrabasinal controls and possibly tectonism. Detailed correlation indicates that coeval channel belts were separated by about 50 km with an intervening area of slower subsidence and deposition. Quantitative reconstruction of bankfull hydraulics and geometry indicates that channels were of moderate sinuosity, were not braided, and were of two distinct sizes (average widths, 80 and 250 m, respectively). An overall decrease in discharge in the smaller channels throughout the studied interval may be attributed to a slowing of subsidence rates as the locus of sedimentation prograded beyond the northwestern margin of the Rome Trough or to thrustward migration of a forebulge following episodic thrusting. The increase in size and discharge of channels in the uppermost Waynesburg Formation is attributed to progradation of the upper fluvial-deltaic plain over the lower fluvial-deltaic plain, a progradation that may likewise have been promoted by thrusting.

  5. Ex Parte discussion of commercial fan and blower rulemaking | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy discussion of commercial fan and blower rulemaking Ex Parte discussion of commercial fan and blower rulemaking On November 3rd, Jordan Doria, Manager of Stakeholder Engagement, Ingersoll Rand, convened a teleconference with John Cymbalsky and Daniel Cohen of DOE. IR_ex_parte_discussion_3NOV2014 (101.77 KB) More Documents & Publications Meeting Summary Memo Ex Parte Communications, Docket Number EERE-2008-BT-STD-0005, RIN 1904-AB57 ASE/CAGI Meeting about Compressors and Compressed

  6. Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal This paper reports ...

  7. ISSUANCE 2015-08-21: Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Notice of Open Meetings for the Fans and Blowers Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Notice of Open Meetings for the Fans and Blowers Working Group

  8. Comparison of test particle acceleration in torsional spine and fan reconnection regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosseinpour, M. Mehdizade, M.; Mohammadi, M. A.

    2014-10-15

    Magnetic reconnection is a common phenomenon taking place in astrophysical and space plasmas, especially in solar flares which are rich sources of highly energetic particles. Torsional spine and fan reconnections are important mechanisms proposed for steady-state three-dimensional null-point reconnection. By using the magnetic and electric fields for these regimes, we numerically investigate the features of test particle acceleration in both regimes with input parameters for the solar corona. By comparison, torsional spine reconnection is found to be more efficient than torsional fan reconnection in an acceleration of a proton to a high kinetic energy. A proton can gain as high as 100?MeV of relativistic kinetic energy within only a few milliseconds. Moreover, in torsional spine reconnection, an accelerated particle can escape either along the spine axis or on the fan plane depending on its injection position. However, in torsional fan reconnection, the particle is only allowed to accelerate along the spine axis. In addition, in both regimes, the particle's trajectory and final kinetic energy depend on the injection position but adopting either spatially uniform or non-uniform localized plasma resistivity does not much influence the features of trajectory.

  9. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces Fans; Correction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On January 3, 2014 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a final rule in the Federal Register that established the test procedure for residential furnace fans. Due to drafting errors, that document inadvertently removed necessary incorporation by reference material in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). This final rule rectifies this error by once again adding the removed material.

  10. Turning on the Fan and Turning off the A/C

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As part of some recent money- and energy-savings improvements I've been making to my home, a couple of weeks ago I installed a ceiling fan in my main living room. Part of my research led me to...

  11. Income Tax Deduction for Solar-Powered Roof Vents or Fans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The taxpayer must provide proof of the taxpayer’s costs for installation of a solar powered roof vent or fan and a list of the persons or corporations that supplied labor or materials for the solar...

  12. Deposition head for laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Gary K. (Los Alamos, NM); Less, Richard M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

  13. direct_deposit_111609

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: DO NOT complete this form until you are ready to submit it to the Payroll Department. DIRECT DEPOSIT REQUEST Directions: 1. Provide required information neatly, legibly; 2. If Checking Account Direct Deposit, include a voided check. a. DO NOT submit a deposit slip! 3. If Savings Account Direct Deposit, include a copy of savings card. 4. Sign this form; 5. Inter-office mail it to Craft Payroll at "P238." DIRECT DEPOSITION AUTHORIZATION I hereby

  14. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike L. Laue

    1997-05-30

    The distal fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economical to develop using vertical wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  15. HEPA Filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System Functional Requirements and Technical Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TUCK, J.A.

    2000-05-11

    Double-shell tanks (DSTs) and Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs) are actively ventilated, along with certain single-shell tanks (SSTs) and other RPP facilities. The exhaust air stream on a typical primary ventilation system is drawn through two stages of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration to ensure confinement of airborne radioactive materials. Active ventilation exhaust stacks require a stack CAM interlock to detect releases from postulated accidents, and to shut down the exhaust fan when high radiation levels are detected in the stack airstream. The stack CAM interlock is credited as a mitigating control to stop continued unfiltered radiological and toxicological discharges from the stack, which may result from an accident involving failure of a HEPA filter. This document defines the initial technical design baseline for a HEPA filter AP fan interlock system.

  16. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The team evaluated a market-available through-wall air transfer fan system that provides air to the bedrooms.The relative ability of this system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability.

  17. Design, testing and two-dimensional flow modeling of a multiple-disk fan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engin, Tahsin; Oezdemir, Mustafa; Cesmeci, Sevki

    2009-11-15

    A multiple-disk Tesla type fan has been designed, tested and analyzed two-dimensionally using the conservation of angular momentum principle. Experimental results showed that such multiple-disk fans exhibited exceptionally low performance characteristics, which could be attributed to the low viscosity, tangential nature of the flow, and large mechanical energy losses at both suction and discharge sections that are comparable to the total input power. By means of theoretical analysis, local and overall shearing stresses on the disk surfaces have been determined based on tangential and radial velocity distributions of the air flow of different volume flow rates at prescribed disk spaces and rotational speeds. Then the total power transmitted by rotating disks to air flow, and the power acquired by the air flow in the gap due to transfer of angular momentum have been obtained by numerically integrating shearing stresses over the disk surfaces. Using the measured shaft and hydraulic powers, these quantities were utilized to evaluate mechanical energy losses associated with the suction and discharge sections of the fan. (author)

  18. Experimental optimization of cooling-tower-fan control based on field data. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, D.L.

    1991-04-01

    Energy costs continue to play an important role in the decision-making process for building design and operation. Since the chiller, cooling tower fans, and associated pumps consume the largest fraction of energy in a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, the control of these components is of major importance in determining building energy use. A significant control parameter for the chilled water system is the minimum entering condenser water set point temperature at which the cooling tower fans are cycled on and off, several studies have attempted to determine the optimum value for this minimum set point temperature, but direct measurements are not available to validate these studies. The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine the optimum minimum entering condenser water set point temperature from field data based on minimum energy consumption and to validate a chilled water system analytical model previously developed in earlier work. The total chiller system electrical consumption (chiller and cooling tower fan energy) was measured for four entering condensor water set point temperatures (70, 75, 80, and 85 deg F). The field results were compared to results obtained using an analytical model previously developed in a thesis entitled Optimized Design of a Commercial Building Chiller/Cooling Tower System, written by Joyce.

  19. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using Hig Angle Wells Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-11-21

    The Yowlumne field is a giant field in the southern San Joaquin basin, Kern County, California. It is a deep (13,000 ft) waterflood operation that produces from the Miocene- aged Stevens Sand. The reservoir is interpreted as a layered, fan-shaped, prograding turbidite complex containing several lobe-shaped sand bodies that represent distinct flow units. A high ultimate recovery factor is expected, yet significant quantities of undrained oil remain at the fan margins. The fan margins are not economic to develop using vertical wells because of thinning pay, deteriorating rock quality, and depth. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the northeast distal fan margin through the use of a high- angle well completed with multiple hydraulic- fracture treatments. A high-angle well offers greater pay exposure than can be achieved with a vertical well. Hydraulic-fracture treatments will establish vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at a cost of approximately two vertical wells. The near-horizontal well penetrated the Yowlumne sand; a Stevens sand equivalent, in the distal fan margin in the northeast area of the field. The well was drilled in a predominately westerly direction towards the interior of the field, in the direction of improving rock quality. Drilling and completion operations proved to be very challenging, leading to a number of adjustments to original plans. Hole conditions resulted in obtaining less core material than desired and setting intermediate casing 1200 ft too high. The 7 in. production liner stuck 1000 ft off bottom, requiring a 5 in. liner to be run the rest of the way. The cement job on the 5 in. liner resulted in a very poor bond, which precluded one of three hydraulic fracture treatments originally planned for the well. Openhole logs confirmed most expectations going into the project about basic

  20. Subsurface Biogeochemical Heterogeneity (Field-scale removal of U(VI) from groundwater in an alluvial aquifer by electron donor amendment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.; N'Guessan, A. L.; Nevin, Kelly; Resch, C. T.; Arntzen, Evan; Druhan, Jenny; Peacock, Aaron; Baldwin, Brett; Dayvault, Dick; Holmes, Dawn; Williams, Ken; Hubbard, Susan; Yabusaki, Steve; Fang, Yilin; White, D. C.; Komlos, John; Jaffe, Peter

    2006-06-01

    Determine if biostimulation of alluvial aquifers by electron donor amendment can effectively remove U(VI) from groundwater at the field scale. Uranium contamination in groundwater is a significant problem at several DOE sites. In this project, the possibility of accelerating bioreduction of U(VI) to U(IV) as a means of decreasing U(VI) concentrations in groundwater is directly addressed by conducting a series of field-scale experiments. Scientific goals include demonstrating the quantitative linkage between microbial activity and U loss from groundwater and relating the dominant terminal electron accepting processes to the rate of U loss. The project is currently focused on understanding the mechanisms for unexpected long-term ({approx}2 years) removal of U after stopping electron donor amendment. Results obtained in the project successfully position DOE and others to apply biostimulation broadly to U contamination in alluvial aquifers.

  1. Science on Saturday attracts science fans of all ages | Princeton Plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physics Lab Science on Saturday attracts science fans of all ages By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe January 28, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Joshua E. G. Peek, a Hubble Fellow at Columbia University's Department of Astronomy and son of PPPL physicist and former director Robert Goldston, discusses "Outer Space!" (Photo by Elle Starkman/PPPL Office of Communications) Joshua E. G. Peek, a Hubble Fellow at Columbia University's Department of Astronomy and son of PPPL

  2. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. Four air-based HVAC distribution systems were assessed:-a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  3. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  4. Solution deposition assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roussillon, Yann; Scholz, Jeremy H; Shelton, Addison; Green, Geoff T; Utthachoo, Piyaphant

    2014-01-21

    Methods and devices are provided for improved deposition systems. In one embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system is provided for use with a solution and a substrate. The system comprises of a solution deposition apparatus; at least one heating chamber, at least one assembly for holding a solution over the substrate; and a substrate curling apparatus for curling at least one edge of the substrate to define a zone capable of containing a volume of the solution over the substrate. In another embodiment of the present invention, a deposition system for use with a substrate, the system comprising a solution deposition apparatus; at heating chamber; and at least assembly for holding solution over the substrate to allow for a depth of at least about 0.5 microns to 10 mm.

  5. Observations of supra-arcade fans: instabilities at the head of reconnection jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Innes, D. E.; Guo, L.-J.; Schmit, D.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Huang, Y.-M.

    2014-11-20

    Supra-arcade fans are bright, irregular regions of emission that develop during eruptive flares above flare arcades. The underlying flare arcades are thought to be a consequence of magnetic reconnection along a current sheet in the corona. At the same time, theory predicts plasma jets from the reconnection sites which are extremely difficult to observe directly because of their low densities. It has been suggested that the dark supra-arcade downflows (SADs) seen falling through supra-arcade fans may be low-density jet plasma. The head of a low-density jet directed toward higher-density plasma would be Rayleigh-Taylor unstable, and lead to the development of rapidly growing low- and high-density fingers along the interface. Using Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 131 images, we show details of SADs seen from three different orientations with respect to the flare arcade and current sheet, and highlight features that have been previously unexplained, such as the splitting of SADs at their heads, but are a natural consequence of instabilities above the arcade. Comparison with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations suggests that SADs are the result of secondary instabilities of the Rayleigh-Taylor type in the exhaust of reconnection jets.

  6. CNEEC - Atomic Layer Deposition Tutorial by Stacey Bent

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Layer Deposition

  7. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Furnace Fans to Reduce Carbon Pollution, Help Americans Save on Energy Bills

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    WASHINGTON – As part of President Obama’s Climate Action Plan, the Energy Department today announced a new energy efficiency standard for furnace fans, the latest of eight finalized standards and nine proposed standards issued since the Climate Action Plan was announced last year.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of fan/filter units' aerodynamic and energy performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang; Jeng, Ming-Shan

    2004-07-27

    The paper discusses the benefits of having a consistent testing method to characterize aerodynamic and energy performance of FFUs. It presents evaluation methods of laboratory-measured performance of ten relatively new, 1220 mm x 610 mm (or 4 ft x 2 ft) fan-filter units (FFUs), and includes results of a set of relevant metrics such as energy performance indices (EPI) based upon the sample FFUs tested. This paper concludes that there are variations in FFUs' performance, and that using a consistent testing and evaluation method can generate compatible and comparable FFU performance information. The paper also suggests that benefits and opportunities exist for our method of testing FFU energy performance to be integrated in future recommended practices.

  9. Development of a Fan-Filter Unit Test Standard, LaboratoryValidations, and its Applications across Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang

    2006-10-20

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is now finalizing the Phase 2 Research and Demonstration Project on characterizing 2-foot x 4-foot (61-cm x 122-cm) fan-filter units in the market using the first-ever standard laboratory test method developed at LBNL.[1][2][3] Fan-filter units deliver re-circulated air and provide particle filtration control for clean environments. Much of the energy in cleanrooms (and minienvironments) is consumed by 2-foot x 4-foot (61-cm x 122-cm) or 4-foot x 4-foot (122-cm x 122-cm) fan-filter units that are typically located in the ceiling (25-100% coverage) of cleanroom controlled environments. Thanks to funding support by the California Energy Commission's Industrial Program of the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, and significant participation from manufacturers and users of fan-filter units from around the world, LBNL has developed and performed a series of standard laboratory tests and reporting on a variety of 2-foot x 4-foot (61-cm x 122-cm) fan-filter units (FFUs). Standard laboratory testing reports have been completed and reported back to anonymous individual participants in this project. To date, such reports on standard testing of FFU performance have provided rigorous and useful data for suppliers and end users to better understand, and more importantly, to quantitatively characterize performance of FFU products under a variety of operating conditions.[1] In the course of the project, the standard laboratory method previously developed at LBNL has been under continuous evaluation and update.[2][3] Based upon the updated standard, it becomes feasible for users and suppliers to characterize and evaluate energy performance of FFUs in a consistent way.

  10. Depositional systems and hydrocarbon resource potential of the Pennsylvanian system, Palo Duro and Dalhart Basins, Testas Panhandle. Geological Circular 80-8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutton, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    Pennsylvanian clastic and carbonate strata were deposited in a variety of environments within the Palo Duro Basin. Maximum accumulation (totalling 750 m or 2400 ft) occurred along a northwest-southeast axis. Major facies include fan-delta sandstone and conglomerate, shelf and shelf-margin carbonate, deltaic sandstone and shale, and basinal shale and fine-grained sandstone. Erosion of Precambrian basement in the adjacent Amarillo and Sierra Grande Uplifts supplied arkosic sand (granite wash) to fan deltas along the northern margin of the basin. Distal fan-delta sandstones grade laterally and basinward into shallow-shelf limestone. Deep basinal shales were deposited only in a small area immediately north of the Matador Arch. Increased subsidence deepened and enlarged the basin throughout late Pennsylvanian time. Ultimately, the basin axis trended east-west with a narrow northwest extension. A carbonate shelf-margin complex having 60 to 120 m (200 to 400 ft) of depositional relief developed around the basin margin. The eastern shelf margin remained stationary, but the western shelf margin retreated landward throughout late Pennsylvanian time. Porous, dolomitized limestone occurs in a belt 16 to 32 km (10 to 20 mi) wide along the shelf margin. High-constructive elongate deltas prograded into the Palo Duro Basin from the east during late Pennsylvanian time. Prodelta mud and thin turbidite sands entered the basin through breaks in the eastern carbonate shelf margin. Potential hydrocarbon reservoirs re shelf-margin dolomite, fan-delta sandstone, and high-constructive delta sandstone. Basinal shales are fair to good hydrocarbon source rocks on the basis of total organic carbon content. Kerogen color and vitrinite reflectance data indicate that source beds may have reached the early stages of hydrocarbon maturation.

  11. Stratigraphy of Pennsylvanian detrital reservoirs, Permian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Der Loop, M. )

    1992-04-01

    Significant oil reserves have been found to date in stratigraphic traps in Pennsylvanian detrital reservoirs on the Central Basin platform and Reagan uplift of the Permian basin. The 32 MMBOEG Arenoso field area, discovered in 1966, is the largest producing field. Along a 75 mi northwest-southeast trend, 23 other smaller fields will produce an average 850 MBOEG each, for a total estimated ultimate recovery to date in the trend of 52 MMBOEG. These stratigraphic traps are elusive and complex. However, reservoir quality is excellent, and because of the poorly understood trap types, significant reserves remain to be found in the trend. The Pennsylvanian detrital consists of chert cobble conglomerates, coarse sands, red shales, and gray limestones deposited in an environment that grades seaward from alluvial fan to braided stream to shallow marine. The chert cobble conglomerates of the alluvial fan facies and the coarse sands of the braided stream facies are the highest quality pay zones. Porosities range from 5 to 20%, with permeability ranging up to 26 d. The total unit is seldom more than 400 ft thick; reservoir rock thicknesses within the unit range up to 100 ft. Because of the complex nature of the alluvial fan and braided stream deposits, dry development wells can be expected within fields. These Strawn deposits are located adjacent to and overlying the eroded lower Paleozoic uplifts of the southern Central Basin platform. The major source of the chert cobbles is erosion of the Devonian tripolitic chert. Renewed structural uplift combined with sea level drop in the middle Wolfcampian locally truncated some Pennsylvanian detrital alluvial fan deposits, and complicated or destroyed a potential trap by depositing Wolfcamp chert conglomerates on top of the Pennsylvanian conglomerates.

  12. Overview of calcite/opal deposits at or near the proposed high-level nuclear waste site, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA: Pedogenic, hypogene, or both?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, C.A.; Dublyansky, Y.V.; Harmon, R.S.

    1995-09-01

    Calcite/opal deposits (COD) at Yucca Mountain were studied with respect to their regional and field geology, petrology and petrography, chemistry and isotopic geochemistry, and fluid inclusions. They were also compared with true and pedogenic deposits (TPD), groundwater spring deposits (GSD), and calcite vein deposits (CVD) in the subsurface. Some of the data are equivocal and can support either a hypogene or pedogenic origin for these deposits. However, Sr-, C-, and O-isotope, fluid inclusion, and other data favor a hypogene interpretation. A hypothesis that may account for all currently available data is that the COD precipitated from warm, CO{sub 2}-rich water that episodically upwelled along faults during the Pleistocene, and which, upon reaching the surface, flowed down-slope within existing alluvial, colluvial, eluvial, or soil deposits. Being formed near, or on, the topographic surface, the COD acquired characteristics of pedogenic deposits. This subject relates to the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a high-level nuclear waste site. 64 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. A prototype fan-beam optical CT scanner for 3D dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Warren G.; Rudko, D. A.; Braam, Nicolas A.; Jirasek, Andrew [University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2 (Canada); Wells, Derek M. [British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria, British Columbia V8R 6V5 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this work is to introduce a prototype fan-beam optical computed tomography scanner for three-dimensional (3D) radiation dosimetry. Methods: Two techniques of fan-beam creation were evaluated: a helium-neon laser (HeNe, {lambda} = 543 nm) with line-generating lens, and a laser diode module (LDM, {lambda} = 635 nm) with line-creating head module. Two physical collimator designs were assessed: a single-slot collimator and a multihole collimator. Optimal collimator depth was determined by observing the signal of a single photodiode with varying collimator depths. A method of extending the dynamic range of the system is presented. Two sample types were used for evaluations: nondosimetric absorbent solutions and irradiated polymer gel dosimeters, each housed in 1 liter cylindrical plastic flasks. Imaging protocol investigations were performed to address ring artefacts and image noise. Two image artefact removal techniques were performed in sinogram space. Collimator efficacy was evaluated by imaging highly opaque samples of scatter-based and absorption-based solutions. A noise-based flask registration technique was developed. Two protocols for gel manufacture were examined. Results: The LDM proved advantageous over the HeNe laser due to its reduced noise. Also, the LDM uses a wavelength more suitable for the PRESAGE{sup TM} dosimeter. Collimator depth of 1.5 cm was found to be an optimal balance between scatter rejection, signal strength, and manufacture ease. The multihole collimator is capable of maintaining accurate scatter-rejection to high levels of opacity with scatter-based solutions (T < 0.015%). Imaging protocol investigations support the need for preirradiation and postirradiation scanning to reduce reflection-based ring artefacts and to accommodate flask imperfections and gel inhomogeneities. Artefact removal techniques in sinogram space eliminate streaking artefacts and reduce ring artefacts of up to {approx}40% in magnitude. The

  14. 2014-09-16 Issuance: Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans: Public Meeting and Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans: Public Meeting and Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document.

  15. Economic recovery of oil trapped at fan margins using high angle wells and multiple hydraulic fractures. Quarterly report, Apr 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-08-31

    This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting thin-layered, low-energy deposits at the distal margin of a prograding turbidite complex through the use of hydraulically-fractured horizontal or high-angle wells. The combination of a horizontal or high-angle well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. A high-angle well will be drilled in the fan-margin portion of a slope-basin clastic reservoir and will be completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. Geologic modeling, reservoir characterization, and fine-grid reservoir simulation will be used to select the well location and orientation. Design parameters for the hydraulic-fracture treatments will be determined, in part, by fracturing an existing test well. Fracture azimuth will be predicted by passive seismic monitoring of a fracture-stimulation treatment in the test well using logging tools in an offset well. The long radius, near-horizontal well has been drilled and completion operations are in progress. Upon initial review of log data, two hydraulic fracture treatments were planned. However, the probability of the lower frac growing into thick sands previously swept by waterflood has called for additional information to be obtained prior to proceeding with hydraulic fracture treatments. Should permeabilities prove to be as favorable as some data indicate, produced water volumes could be excessively high. Prior to pumping the first frac, the well will be perforated and produced from lower pay intervals. These perfs will not impact future frac work. Rate data and pressure transient analysis will dictate the need for the lower frac.

  16. Final Report Independent Verification Survey of the High Flux Beam Reactor, Building 802 Fan House Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harpeneau, Evan M.

    2011-06-24

    On May 9, 2011, ORISE conducted verification survey activities including scans, sampling, and the collection of smears of the remaining soils and off-gas pipe associated with the 802 Fan House within the HFBR (High Flux Beam Reactor) Complex at BNL. ORISE is of the opinion, based on independent scan and sample results obtained during verification activities at the HFBR 802 Fan House, that the FSS (final status survey) unit meets the applicable site cleanup objectives established for as left radiological conditions.

  17. Toward green systems for cleanrooms: Energy efficient fan-filter units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeng, Ming-Shan; Xu, Tengfang; Lan, Chao-Ho

    2004-07-12

    The paper presents results of laboratory-measured performance of fan-filter units (FFUs) used for cleanrooms. A total of twenty FFUs collected from the market were tested, including thirteen 1220 mm x 610 mm (or 4 ft x 2 ft) units and seven 1220 mm x 1220 mm (or 4 ft x 4 ft) units. The paper concludes that there are wide variations in FFUs energy performance, and that there are opportunities in improving energy efficiency and lowering operating costs of FFUs. Furthermore, the paper suggests the benefits of having a uniform method for testing and reporting FFU performance. Such a testing method and recommended practice guideline is under development, with heavy input from FFU suppliers, users, and independent institutions that include Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), and Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology (IEST). An integrated approach with the participation from designers, suppliers, users, and utility companies can help to identify energy-efficient FFUs that are required for many cleanroom applications.

  18. Characterization of dynamic change of Fan-delta reservoir properties in water-drive development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Shenghe; Xiong Qihua; Liu Yuhong

    1997-08-01

    Fan-delta reservoir in Huzhuangji oil field of east China, is a typical highly heterogeneous reservoir. The oil field has been developed by water-drive for 10 years, but the oil recovery is less than 12%, and water cut is over 90%, resulting from high heterogeneity and serious dynamic change of reservoir properties. This paper aims at the study of dynamic change of reservoir properties in water-drive development. Through quantitative imaging analysis and mercury injection analysis of cores from inspection wells, the dynamic change of reservoir pore structure in water-drive development was studied. The results show that the {open_quotes}large pore channels{close_quotes} develop in distributary channel sandstone and become larger in water-drive development, resulting in more serious pore heterogeneity. Through reservoir sensitivity experiments, the rock-fluid reaction in water-drive development is studied. The results show the permeability of some distal bar sandstone and deserted channel sandstone becomes lower due to swelling of I/S clay minerals in pore throats. OD the other hand, the permeability of distributary channel and mouth bar sandstone become larger because the authigenic Koalinites in pore throats are flushed away with the increase of flow rate of injection water. Well-logging analysis of flooded reservoirs are used to study the dynamic change of reservoir properties in various flow units. The distribution of remaining oil is closely related to the types and distribution of flow units.

  19. Fan-beam multiplexed Compton scatter tomography for single-sided noninvasive inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, B.L.

    1999-04-01

    Multiplexed Compton Scatter Tomography (MCST) is explored as a method of nondestructively generating cross-sectional images of a sample's electron density. MCST is viable when access is available to only one side of the sample because it registers scattered gamma radiation. Multiplexing in scattered photon energy and in detector position allows simultaneous interrogation of many voxels with comparatively wide collimation. Primary components include a radioisotope source, fan beam collimators, and energy-discriminating detectors. The application of MCST to inspecting aluminum airframes for corrosion is considered. This application requires source gammas near 100 keV where the scattered gamma energy is severely broadened by the momentum of electrons in the target. A deterministic system model is developed to map the sample's voxel densities to the instrument's measurements. The model incorporates advanced features to avoid using a detector response function. Two image reconstruction methods are developed and investigated: filtered backprojection and iterative reconstruction. A demonstration MCST system is assembled from components available commercially. It is used to image several aluminum phantoms and to validate the system model and iterative image reconstruction algorithm. A next-generation MCST system is modeled. Issues are considered such as efficiency, counting time, and contrast recovery in various samples.

  20. Chrome Deposit Corporation and the University of Delaware IAC...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... The company insulated tanks and pipes, installed covers on plant exhaust fans, reduced compressed air pressure, and replaced motor drive belts with energy efficient pulleys and ...

  1. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Richard L.; Jeffrey, Frank R.; Westerberg, Roger K.

    1989-06-27

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  2. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Richard L.; Jeffrey, Frank R.; Westerberg, Roger K.

    1989-10-17

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  3. Megabreccia deposits in an extensional basin: The Miocene-Pliocene Horse Camp Formation, east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, J.G.; Brown, C.L. )

    1991-06-01

    Three varieties of megabreccia deposits are present in alluvial-lacustrine extensional basin fill of the Miocene-Pliocene Horse Camp Formation of east-central Nevada. Coherent debris sheets (150-300 m thick; up to 1,500 m long) consist of Oligocene-Miocene volcanic rock masses which are internally fractured yet retain their stratigraphic integrity. Fracture zones show variable amounts of displacement (up to 5 cm) and brecciation. These debris sheets overlie horizontally stratified sandstone and laminated claystone interpreted as playa deposits and are overlain by lithified grus. Emplacement of these coherent debris sheets was by landslide or block slide. Associated deposits of large boulders within playa facies suggest gliding of blocks broken from the edges of the landslides across wet playa surfaces. Large (1.6 - 2.4 km-long) allochthonous blocks consist of intact Paleozoic and Tertiary volcanic stratigraphic sequences which are brecciated and attenuated. Brecciation is accompanied in places by incorporation of muddy sand matrix. These blocks may be fragments of the upper plate of low-angle detachment faults which broke away as gravity-driven blocks from the nearby Horse Range and slid along the uplifted former detachment surface into the adjacent Horse Camp basin. Megabreccia deposits characterize Teritary extensional basins in western North America. Detailed analysis of their stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and structural relations can provide a better understanding of the complex tectonosedimentary history of these basins.

  4. Deposition System Controller

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-10-01

    This software is a complete thin film deposition controller. The software takes as its input a script file that dictates enablinig/disabling of sputtering power supplies, pause times, velocities and distances to move a substrate. An emulator has been created and built into the software package that can debug in advance any deposition script and decide if there is an overrun condition, accidental infinite look, and can estimate a time for completion. All necessary process variablesmore » are data logged and recorded for later inspection. This emulator currently interfaces to a Parker-Compumotor SX6 stepper moror indexer, but the software is written in such a way that it is easily modifiable for interface to othe brand and models of motor drivers. Other process I/O variables may be easily added. The software uses any multifunction DAQ card from National Instruments via their free NIDAQ API package, but again, the software is written such that othe brand DAQ cards may be used.« less

  5. Issuance 2014-11-21:Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans: Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document, Notice of Comment Period Extension

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans: Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document, Notice of Comment Period Extension

  6. ISSUANCE 2015-08-19: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Fans and Blowers: Availability of Provisional Analysis Tools and Notice of Data Availability, Close of Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Fans and Blowers: Availability of Provisional Analysis Tools and Notice of Data Availability, Close of Comment Period

  7. Momentum Deposition in Curvilinear Coordinates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleveland, Mathew Allen; Lowrie, Robert Byron; Rockefeller, Gabriel M.; Thompson, Kelly Glen; Wollaber, Allan Benton

    2015-08-03

    The momentum imparted into a material by thermal radiation deposition is an important physical process in astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion (ICF) simulations. In recent work we presented a new method of evaluating momentum deposition that relies on the combination of a time-averaged approximation and a numerical integration scheme. This approach robustly and efficiently evaluates the momentum deposition in spherical geometry. Future work will look to extend this approach to 2D cylindrical geometries.

  8. Biocompatible Coating (Parylene) Deposition System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Containing Diamond-Like Carbon Deposition System Varshni Singh and Jost Goettert Center for Advanced Microstructures & Devices, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Hwy., Baton Rouge, LA-70806 Summary CAMD/LSU received funds from the Board of Regents' Enhancement Program for modifying and upgrading of a diamond like carbon (DLC) deposition system. This included a magnetron with shield, DC power supply and pulsing unit, mass flow controllers and in-situ thin film deposition

  9. Carbonate Deposition | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alteration Products Carbonate deposits come in many forms and sometimes develop into spectacular colorful terraces such as these at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National...

  10. Deposited films with improved microstructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patten, James W.; Moss, Ronald W.; McClanahan, Edwin D.

    1984-01-01

    Methods for improving microstructures of line-of-sight deposited films are described. Columnar growth defects ordinarily produced by geometrical shadowing during deposition of such films are eliminated without resorting to post-deposition thermal or mechanical treatments. The native, as-deposited coating qualities, including homogeneity, fine grain size, and high coating-to-substrate adherence, can thus be retained. The preferred method includes the steps of emitting material from a source toward a substrate to deposit a coating non-uniformly on the substrate surface, removing a portion of the coating uniformly over the surface, again depositing material onto the surface, but from a different direction, and repeating the foregoing steps. The quality of line-of-sight deposited films such as those produced by sputtering, progressively deteriorates as the angle of incidence between the flux and the surface becomes increasingly acute. Depositing non-uniformly, so that the coating becomes progressively thinner as quality deteriorates, followed by uniformly removing some of the coating, such as by resputtering, eliminates the poor quality portions, leaving only high quality portions of the coating. Subsequently sputtering from a different direction applies a high quality coating to other regions of the surface. Such steps can be performed either simultaneously or sequentially to apply coatings of a uniformly high quality, closed microstructure to three-dimensional or large planar surfaces.

  11. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaonan; Sheldon, Peter

    1998-01-01

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  12. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  13. Method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit for in situ retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Arthur E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit that has been formed in alternate horizontal layers of rich and lean shale, including the steps of driving a horizontal tunnel along the lower edge of a rich shale layer of the deposit, sublevel caving by fan drilling and blasting of both rich and lean overlying shale layers at the distal end of the tunnel to rubblize the layers, removing a substantial amount of the accessible rubblized rich shale to permit the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form a column of lean shale, performing additional sublevel caving of rich and lean shale towards the proximate end of the tunnel, removal of a substantial amount of the additionally rubblized rich shale to allow the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form another column of rubblized lean shale, similarly performing additional steps of sublevel caving and removal of rich rubble to form additional columns of lean shale rubble in the rich shale rubble in the tunnel, and driving additional horizontal tunnels in the deposit and similarly rubblizing the overlying layers of rich and lean shale and forming columns of rubblized lean shale in the rich, thereby forming an in situ oil shale retort having zones of lean shale that remain permeable to hot retorting fluids in the presence of high rubble pile pressures and high retorting temperatures.

  14. Underground geologic evaluation of the Grossschloppen vein-uranium deposit, West Germany

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, S.C.; Erickson, A.J.; Kolb, S.G.; Maclean, C.J.

    1983-10-01

    The Grossschloppen vein-uranium deposit, Bavaria, West Germany, was examined utilizing underground workings during 1980-82 by Esso Er/ZETA/ GMbH, an affiliate of Exxon Minerals Company (EMC). Geologic evaluation entailed dense drilling of a portion of the deposit from workings constructed specifically for the program. Discovered in 1977, the deposit was initially explored by surface diamond drillholes which allowed definition of a 30-60 m wide vein system discontinuously mineralized along a 1000 m strike length and to at least a 450 m depth. The underground program was conceived as a cost effective procedure to answer questions on vein correlation, grade continuity and variability. A 1200 m decline allowed access for detailed sampling of approximately 10% of the known area of mineralization. Fanned drillholes, logged by gamma probe, were spaced to provide intersections of veins at 10 to 20 m intervals. Six cross cuts also penetrate the pitchblende and uranophane mineralization which occurs in 0.1 to 2.5 m thick quartz veins. Detailed cross-sections and level plans were constructed for resource estimates of the intensively studied portion of the vein system. The program resulted in the discovery of local, high grade areas and an average grade in the evaluated area nearly double that expected from surface drilling.

  15. Direct Deposit Form | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Deposit Form Direct Deposit Form Direct Deposit Form (66.61 KB) More Documents & Publications Employee In-Processing Forms Agreement for Minority Financial Institutions Participation in the Bank Deposit Financial Assistance Program Agreement for Minority Financial Institutions Participation in the Bank Deposit Financial Assistance Program

  16. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on

  17. MACCS2/Deposition Velocity Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Department of Energy’s Chief of Nuclear Safety hosted a MACCS2/Deposition Velocity Workshop on June 5-6, 2012, in Germantown, Maryland. Approximately 70 participants attended. The purpose of...

  18. Suspension- and current-deposit reservoirs in the Delaware basin: Trends and cycles in siltstones of the Permian Bone Spring Limestone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, J.C. ); Brooks, L.L. )

    1990-05-01

    Cores show that siltstone to very fine-grained sandstone oil reservoirs within the Permian Bone Spring Limestone are composed of submillimeter- to centimeter-thick sedimentation laminae. Blanketing of small-scale topography suggests that the laminae were deposited over wide areas as sediment settled vertical to the sea floor. Superimposed on the event laminae, were (1) background sedimentation of dolomitic, organic-rich, mudstone, (2) invertebrate burrowing, and (3) reworking by gentle bottom currents. Currents produced wispy ripply bedding and starved ripple forms that were draped by later deposits. Paleoflow was subparallel to the basin margin. Several sedimentation patterns occur within the formation. Three clastic intervals 25-50-m thick are interbedded with dolomitic mudstones of similar thickness. The clastic intervals are composed of three to six siltstone beds, each up to 25-m thick. Upsection within the beds increases in event-laminae, thickness, bioturbation, and current reworking. Other reports have suggested that these are turbidite-fan deposits, but locally, paleocurrent orientations and the lack of diagnostic assemblages and sequences of sedimentary structures argue against this interpretation. Rather, some of these deposits compare favorably with the few existing sedimentologic descriptions of Quaternary dust storm deposition in marine basins. The siltstone beds may also record deflation of the exposed adjacent shelf during lowered sea level. Very fine grain size and extensive carbonate cementation produce 5-10 pd permeability and 4-15% porosity. Sedimentary laminations cause significantly reduced vertical permeability where they are not disrupted by bioturbation, but permeability may be enhanced by natural fractures. Some reservoir thickenings are attributed to the formation of giant ripples by bottom currents, dictating a different exploration rationale than the turbidite-fan model.

  19. Chemical enhancement of surface deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, K.D.; Morgan, D.T.

    1997-07-29

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector. 16 figs.

  20. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocher, Jr., John M.; Veigel, Neil D.; Landrigan, Richard B.

    1983-04-19

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  1. Chemical enhancement of surface deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, Keith D.; Morgan, Dean T.

    1997-07-29

    A method and apparatus for increasing the deposition of ions onto a surface, such as the adsorption of uranium ions on the detecting surface of a radionuclide detector. The method includes the step of exposing the surface to a complexing agent, such as a phosphate ion solution, which has an affinity for the dissolved species to be deposited on the surface. This provides, for example, enhanced sensitivity of the radionuclide detector.

  2. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and ... and depositing the material onto surfaces of the particles of the impurity to form ...

  3. TULSA UNIVERSITY PARAFFIN DEPOSITION PROJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cem Sarica; Michael Volk

    2004-06-01

    As oil and gas production moves to deeper and colder water, subsea multiphase production systems become critical for economic feasibility. It will also become increasingly imperative to adequately identify the conditions for paraffin precipitation and predict paraffin deposition rates to optimize the design and operation of these multi-phase production systems. Although several oil companies have paraffin deposition predictive capabilities for single-phase oil flow, these predictive capabilities are not suitable for the multiphase flow conditions encountered in most flowlines and wellbores. For deepwater applications in the Gulf of Mexico, it is likely that multiphase production streams consisting of crude oil, produced water and gas will be transported in a single multiphase pipeline to minimize capital cost and complexity at the mudline. Existing single-phase (crude oil) paraffin deposition predictive tools are clearly inadequate to accurately design these pipelines, because they do not account for the second and third phases, namely, produced water and gas. The objective of this program is to utilize the current test facilities at The University of Tulsa, as well as member company expertise, to accomplish the following: enhance our understanding of paraffin deposition in single and two-phase (gas-oil) flows; conduct focused experiments to better understand various aspects of deposition physics; and, utilize knowledge gained from experimental modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for predicting paraffin deposition in single and two-phase flow environments. These refined computer models will then be tested against field data from member company pipelines.

  4. Vapor deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.C.; Pattillo, S.G.; Laia, J.R. Jr.; Sattelberger, A.P.

    1990-10-05

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl){sub 3}, iridium(allyl){sub 3}, molybdenum(allyl){sub 4}, tungsten(allyl){sub 4}, rhenium (allyl){sub 4}, platinum(allyl){sub 2}, or palladium(allyl){sub 2} are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  5. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  6. Fluidized bed deposition of diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Carroll, David W.; Trkula, Mitchell; Anderson, Wallace E.; Valone, Steven M.

    1998-01-01

    A process for coating a substrate with diamond or diamond-like material including maintaining a substrate within a bed of particles capable of being fluidized, the particles having substantially uniform dimensions and the substrate characterized as having different dimensions than the bed particles, fluidizing the bed of particles, and depositing a coating of diamond or diamond-like material upon the substrate by chemical vapor deposition of a carbon-containing precursor gas mixture, the precursor gas mixture introduced into the fluidized bed under conditions resulting in excitation mechanisms sufficient to form the diamond coating.

  7. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1985-01-01

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  8. Economic recovery of oil trapped at fan margins using high angle wells and multiple hydraulic fractures. Annual report, September 28, 1995--September 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemeyer, B.L.

    1997-09-01

    The digital fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economic to develop using verticle wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional verticle wells while maintaining verticle communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three verticle wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  9. Deposition

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Reporting Company 866.488.DEPO www.CapitalReportingCompany.com 1 DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 1 2 PROPOSED CHANGES FOR DOE PART 810 3 ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES 4 5 NNSA - SNOPR ROLLOUT MEETING 6 7 Department of Energy 8 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. 9 Forrestal Building 10 Washington, D.C. 11 12 13 Monday, August 5, 2013 14 1:00 p.m. 15 16 17 18 19 Reported by: Natalia Thomas, 20 Capital Reporting Company 21 22 Capital Reporting Company 866.488.DEPO www.CapitalReportingCompany.com 2 A P

  10. Deposition

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... 9 take a look at a rule that really no longer reflected 10 how proliferation was being conducted or how we saw 11 proliferation and, yet, also how industry was moving 12 forward. ...

  11. Deep-water density current deposits of Delaware Mountain Group (Permian), Delaware basin, Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harms, J.C.; Williamson, C.R.

    1988-03-01

    The Guadalupian Delaware Mountain Group is a 1000-1600-m (3281-5250-ft) thick section of siltstone and sandstone deposited in a deep-water density-stratified basin surrounded by carbonate banks or reefs and broad shallow evaporite-clastic shelves. The most prevalent style of basinal deposition was suspension settling of silt. Laminated siltstone beds are laterally extensive and cover basin-floor topographic irregularities and flat-floored channels as much as 30 m (99 ft) deep and 1 km or more wide. Channels can be observed in outcrop at the basin margin and can be inferred from closely spaced wells in the basin. The channels are straight to slightly sinuous, trend at high angles to the basin margin, and extend at least 70 km (43 mi) into the basin. Sandstone beds, confined to channels, form numerous stratigraphic traps. Hydrocarbon sealing beds are provided by laminated organic siltstone, which laterally can form the erosional margin where channels are cut into siltstone beds. Thick beds of very fine-grained sandstones fill the channels. These sandstones contain abundant large and small-scale traction-current-produced stratification. These sandy channel deposits generally lack texturally graded sedimentation units and show no regular vertical sequence of stratification types or bed thickness. Exploration predictions based on submarine fan models formed by turbidity currents would anticipate very different proximal-distal changes in sandstone geometry and facies. 16 figures.

  12. Measuring temperature-dependent propagating disturbances in coronal fan loops using multiple SDO/AIA channels and the surfing transform technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Ofman, Leon; Davila, Joseph M.; Viall, Nicholeen M.

    2013-11-20

    A set of co-aligned high-resolution images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory is used to investigate propagating disturbances (PDs) in warm fan loops at the periphery of a non-flaring active region NOAA AR 11082. To measure PD speeds at multiple coronal temperatures, a new data analysis methodology is proposed enabling a quantitative description of subvisual coronal motions with low signal-to-noise ratios of the order of 0.1%. The technique operates with a set of one-dimensional 'surfing' signals extracted from position-time plots of several AIA channels through a modified version of Radon transform. The signals are used to evaluate a two-dimensional power spectral density distribution in the frequency-velocity space that exhibits a resonance in the presence of quasi-periodic PDs. By applying this analysis to the same fan loop structures observed in several AIA channels, we found that the traveling velocity of PDs increases with the temperature of the coronal plasma following the square-root dependence predicted for slow mode magneto-acoustic waves which seem to be the dominating wave mode in the loop structures studied. This result extends recent observations by Kiddie et al. to a more general class of fan loop system not associated with sunspots and demonstrating consistent slow mode activity in up to four AIA channels.

  13. Chemical vapor deposition of sialon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.; Casey, A.W.

    A laminated composite and a method for forming the composite by chemical vapor deposition are described. The composite includes a layer of sialon and a material to which the layer is bonded. The method includes the steps of exposing a surface of the material to an ammonia containing atmosphere; heating the surface to at least about 1200/sup 0/C; and impinging a gas containing N/sub 2/, SiCl/sub 4/, and AlCl/sub 3/ on the surface.

  14. Zinc deposition in acid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.; Gannon, E.

    1981-01-01

    In the past decade, two aqueous zinc/halogen batteries, the zinc/chlorine, and the zinc/bromine systems, have been considered for load-leveling and vehicular applications. Even though considerable progress has been made in engineering these batteries, several problems related to the zinc electrode have yet to be solved. These are related to the growth of dendritic zinc and a maldistribution of the zinc deposit that can occur during cycling. Both problems are exacerbated by recharge of the battery after partial discharge of the zinc deposit. A survey of the literature indicates that a more desireable zinc morphology can be achieved by use of inorganic additives, fluorinated surfactants, and A-C modulation of the charging current. In this investigation, the deposition of zinc from zinc bromide and zinc chloride electrolytes was investigated under conditions that precluded dendrite growth. The techniques used were cyclic voltammetry, the potential step technique and scanning electron microscopy. The variables investigated were the substrate (zinc and dense graphite), electrolyte pH, inorganic additives (Pb/sup + +/ and Bi/sup 3 +/) and A-V modulation of the charging potential by superimposed square waves.

  15. Crediting Tritium Deposition in Accident Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    2001-06-20

    This paper describes the major aspects of tritium dispersion phenomenology, summarizes deposition attributes of the computer models used in the DOE Complex for tritium dispersion, and recommends an approach to account for deposition in accident analysis.

  16. Regional basinal sandstone depositional patterns during the Guadalupian (Late Permian), Delaware basin, west Texas-New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisen, J.H.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Examination of well logs from more than 300 Delaware basin wells penetrating the Bell Canyon and Brushy Canyon formations has allowed definition of regional depositional patterns during the Late Permian (Guadalupian). Characteristic gamma-ray hot-kicks mark thin but widespread calcareous shales or limestones representing starved basin sedimentation during sea level highstands. Correlation of such markers along three strike and ten dip lines permitted isopaching of intervening lowstand clastic wedges. The low-stand wedges typically thin significantly from basin margin to basin center and are marked by a prominent linearity oriented perpendicular to the margin. These lineations probably represent channelized turbidite and grain-flow deposits. Most intervals show dozens of such lineations indicating multiple input points for terrigenous detritus rather than just a few major point sources of debris. The resulting deposits appear to be more apron-like than fan-like and coalesce into broad, sheetlike deposits toward the basin center. Isopach thicks vary in position through time, but terrigenous sediment transport is predominantly from northerly directions throughout the analyzed interval. Thus, the filling of the Midland basin at the close of Cherry Canyon deposition did not result in a major new source of terrigenous debris from the east (Central Basin platform). The well-sorted nature of the basinal sands, their widely distributed input points, apron-like geometry, and other factors argue for migration of eolian dunes to the shelf margin during sea level lowstands. Transport of these well-sorted, unconsolidated sands into the basin was not however, mainly by direct eolian processes as has been proposed recently, but must have involved submarine current mechanisms.

  17. Ion beam assisted deposition of thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Youchison, Dennis L.; McDonald, Jimmie M.; Lutz, Thomas J.; Gallis, Michail A.

    2010-11-23

    Methods and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine blades and vanes using Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD) combined with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD).

  18. Chemical vapor deposition of epitaxial silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berkman, Samuel

    1984-01-01

    A single chamber continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor is described for depositing continuously on flat substrates, for example, epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials. The single chamber reactor is formed into three separate zones by baffles or tubes carrying chemical source material and a carrier gas in one gas stream and hydrogen gas in the other stream without interaction while the wafers are heated to deposition temperature. Diffusion of the two gas streams on heated wafers effects the epitaxial deposition in the intermediate zone and the wafers are cooled in the final zone by coolant gases. A CVD reactor for batch processing is also described embodying the deposition principles of the continuous reactor.

  19. Chemical vapor deposition of sialon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, Richard L.; Casey, Alton W.

    1982-01-01

    A laminated composite and a method for forming the composite by chemical vapor deposition. The composite includes a layer of sialon and a material to which the layer is bonded. The method includes the steps of exposing a surface of the material to an ammonia containing atmosphere; heating the surface to at least about 1200.degree. C.; and impinging a gas containing in a flowing atmosphere of air N.sub.2, SiCl.sub.4, and AlCl.sub.3 on the surface.

  20. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  1. Local deposition of high-purity Pt nanostructures by combining electron beam induced deposition and atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackus, A. J. M.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de; Kessels, W. M. M.; Mulders, J. J. L.

    2010-06-15

    An approach for direct-write fabrication of high-purity platinum nanostructures has been developed by combining nanoscale lateral patterning by electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with area-selective deposition of high quality material by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Because virtually pure, polycrystalline Pt nanostructures are obtained, the method extends the application possibilities of EBID, whereas compared to other area-selective ALD approaches, a much higher resolution is attainable; potentially down to sub-10 nm lateral dimensions.

  2. Modeling particle deposition on HVAC heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, J.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Fouling of fin-and-tube heat exchangers by particle deposition leads to diminished effectiveness in supplying ventilation and air conditioning. This paper explores mechanisms that cause particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces. We present a model that accounts for impaction, diffusion, gravitational settling, and turbulence. Simulation results suggest that some submicron particles deposit in the heat exchanger core, but do not cause significant performance impacts. Particles between 1 and 10 {micro}m deposit with probabilities ranging from 1-20% with fin edge impaction representing the dominant mechanism. Particles larger than 10 {micro}m deposit by impaction on refrigerant tubes, gravitational settling on fin corrugations, and mechanisms associated with turbulent airflow. The model results agree reasonably well with experimental data, but the deposition of larger particles at high velocities is underpredicted. Geometric factors, such as discontinuities in the fins, are hypothesized to be responsible for the discrepancy.

  3. 2014-09-16 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans; Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of Preliminary Technical Support Document

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting and availability of preliminary technical support document regarding energy conservation standards for ceiling fans, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary on September 16, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  4. 2014-10-27 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fan Light Kits; Notice of Public Meeting and Availability of the Preliminary Technical Support Document

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting and availability of the preliminary technical support document regarding energy conservation standards for ceiling fan light kits, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on October 27, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  5. 2014-12-31 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Fans and Blowers; Extension of Comment Period for Notice of Data Availability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register extension of comment period for notice of data availability regarding energy conservation standards for commercial and industrial fans and blowers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on December 31, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  6. Other Hydrothermal Deposits | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capping Other Hydrothermal Alteration Products Colorful hydrothermal deposits dot the landscape at the Hverir Geothermal Area, Iceland. Photo by Darren Atkins User-specified field...

  7. Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications NREL senior scientist, Robert Tenent, Ph.D., with equipment for low cost processing (deposition) of window coatings materials. Dynamic Windows ...

  8. Hydrothermally Deposited Rock | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at Paleochori, Milos, Greece. http:www.photovolcanica.comVolcanoInfoMilosMilos.html Hydrothermally deposited rock includes rocks and minerals that have precipitated from...

  9. Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This content will become publicly available on June 5, 2017 Title: Selective deposition of nanostructured ruthenium oxide using Tobacco mosaic virus for micro-supercapacitors in ...

  10. Quaternary history of the northeastern Bighorn Basin based on a climatically-controlled process-response model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdseye, R.U.

    1985-01-01

    The highest surfaces and oldest Pleistocene sediments in the northeastern Bighorn Basin are associated with the 600 kya North Kane Ash. Subsequent climatically-induced periods of aggradation and incision produced the remaining geomorphic elements. Processes associated with a typical interglacial-glacial cycle include: (1) interglacial stability with Bighorn River alluviation, pedimentation, and eolian deposition; (2) late-interglacial to early-glacial incision; (3) alluvial fan extension and increased landslide development during glacial intervals; and (4) an early-interglacial return to more stable conditions. Frequent stream captures during interglacial times were caused by the out-of-phase relationships between the Bighorn River and its tributaries. Quaternary climates of a given type have not been of equal magnitude or duration in the northeastern Bighorn Basin. The most intense glacial climates from which sediments are preserved are believed to have occurred ca. 600 kya, 440 kya an d140 kya. An abnormally dry climate existed between 400 kya and 275 kya, while extremely wet interglacial conditions prevailed about 100 kya. The last complete climatic cycle was the Bull Lake. The subsequent Holocene interglacial has been unusually dry. Thus not all Pleistocene climates have been capable of generating terraces of extensive alluvial fans.

  11. Assessing Reservoir Depositional Environments to Develop and Quantify Improvements in CO2 Storage Efficiency. A Reservoir Simulation Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okwen, Roland; Frailey, Scott; Leetaru, Hannes; Moulton, Sandy

    2014-09-30

    The storage potential and fluid movement within formations are dependent on the unique hydraulic characteristics of their respective depositional environments. Storage efficiency (E) quantifies the potential for storage in a geologic depositional environment and is used to assess basinal or regional CO2 storage resources. Current estimates of storage resources are calculated using common E ranges by lithology and not by depositional environment. The objectives of this project are to quantify E ranges and identify E enhancement strategies for different depositional environments via reservoir simulation studies. The depositional environments considered include deltaic, shelf clastic, shelf carbonate, fluvial deltaic, strandplain, reef, fluvial and alluvial, and turbidite. Strategies considered for enhancing E include CO2 injection via vertical, horizontal, and deviated wells, selective completions, water production, and multi-well injection. Conceptual geologic and geocellular models of the depositional environments were developed based on data from Illinois Basin oil fields and gas storage sites. The geologic and geocellular models were generalized for use in other US sedimentary basins. An important aspect of this work is the development of conceptual geologic and geocellular models that reflect the uniqueness of each depositional environment. Different injection well completions methods were simulated to investigate methods of enhancing E in the presence of geologic heterogeneity specific to a depositional environment. Modeling scenarios included horizontal wells (length, orientation, and inclination), selective and dynamic completions, water production, and multiwell injection. A Geologic Storage Efficiency Calculator (GSECalc) was developed to calculate E from reservoir simulation output. Estimated E values were normalized to diminish their dependency on fluid relative permeability. Classifying depositional environments according to

  12. Microfaunal evidence of age and depositional environments of the Cerro Prieto section (Plio-Pleistocene), Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ingle, J.C. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Microfossils including benthic and planktic foraminifera, ostracodes, calcareous algae, fish skeletal material, and fragments of pelecypods were found in 14 core samples from depths of 185 to 1952 m in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, providing evidence of both the age and depositional history of sediments comprising the 3000-m-thick Pliocene and Pleistocene section in this area. Ostracodes of brackish water and marine origin constitute the most common microfossils present in this sequence occurring in 8 samples; in situ littoral and neritic species of benthic foraminifera occur in 5 samples with planktic species present in 2 samples. Distributional patterns of ostracodes and foraminifera together with previously analyzed lithofacies (Lyons and van de Kamp, 1980) indicate that the Cerro Prieto section represents an intertonguing complex of alluvial, deltaic, estuarine, and shallow marine environments deposited along the front of the Colorado River delta as it prograded across the Salton Trough during Pliocene and Pleistocene time. Foraminiferal evidence indicates that a sand and shale unit commonly present at depths between 700 and 1100 m represents a significant mid-Pleistocene marine incursion in the Cerro Prieto area. Tentative correlation of the Cerro Prieto section with the well dated Palm Springs Formation of the Imperial Valley, California area suggests that the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary occurs at a depth of approximately 2000 m in the area of well M-93. Reworked specimens of Cretaceous foraminifera and fragments of the Cretaceous pelecypod Inoceramus were found in five samples further substantiating the Colorado Plateau provenance of a significant portion of the Colorado River deltaic sediments in the Cerro Prieto area.

  13. Optical Properties of Zn(O,S) Thin Films Deposited by RF Sputtering, Atomic Layer Deposition, and Chemical Bath Deposition: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Glynn, S.; Christensen, S.; Mann, J.; To, B.; Ramanathan, K.; Noufi, R.; Furtak, T. E.; Levi, D.

    2012-06-01

    Zn(O,S) thin films 27 - 100 nm thick were deposited on glass or Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2/Molybdenum/glass with RF sputtering, atomic layer deposition, and chemical bath deposition.

  14. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-12-13

    A method is described for depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates. 1 figure.

  15. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L.; Martin, Frank S.

    1994-12-13

    A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

  16. Chemical vapor deposition of mullite coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod (Lexington, MA); Mulpuri, Rao (Boston, MA)

    1998-01-01

    This invention is directed to the creation of crystalline mullite coatings having uniform microstructure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The process comprises the steps of establishing a flow of reactants which will yield mullite in a CVD reactor, and depositing a crystalline coating from the reactant flow. The process will yield crystalline coatings which are dense and of uniform thickness.

  17. Atomic Layer Deposition | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Layer Deposition New nanophase thin film materials with properties tailored to specifically meet the needs of industry New software simulates ALD over multiple length scale, saving industry time and money on developing specialized tools PDF icon Atomic_Layer_Deposition

  18. Apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buhrmaster, Carol L.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment with the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspenion of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite.

  19. Method for gas-metal arc deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buhrmaster, Carol L.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1990-01-01

    Method and apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment wiht the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspension of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite.

  20. Method for gas-metal arc deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buhrmaster, C.L.; Clark, D.E.; Smartt, H.B.

    1990-11-13

    Method and apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites are disclosed. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment with the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspension of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite. 1 fig.

  1. Photobiomolecular deposition of metallic particles and films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2005-02-08

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  2. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films Title: Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal ...

  3. Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Ronald A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

  4. Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, R.A.

    1986-05-15

    A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus is described. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

  5. Role of diffusion in irreversible deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luthi, P.O.; Ramsden, J.J.; Chopard, B.

    1997-03-01

    The adsorption of spheres onto solid surfaces is investigated using a cellular automaton model of diffusion deposition. Unlike previous models, the diffusive transport of the particles from the bulk to the surface as well as their interaction with adsorbed particles are explicitly considered at a microscopic level. We study the initial time regime, which determines the subsequent evolution and during which the particle flux at the surface is not constant. We observe that diffusion-driven adsorption differs significantly from random sequential adsorption (RSA) when particles diffuse in a two-dimensional bulk and are adsorbed on a one-dimensional substrate. We also find that the microscopic details of the diffusive motion influence both the kinetics of deposition and the jamming limit of the coverage. The RSA model appears to be a good approximation, especially for two-dimensional deposition, but cannot generally represent diffusion deposition. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Method of deposition by molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chalmers, Scott A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Lear, Kevin L.

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for reproducibly controlling layer thickness and varying layer composition in an MBE deposition process. In particular, the present invention includes epitaxially depositing a plurality of layers of material on a substrate with a plurality of growth cycles whereby the average of the instantaneous growth rates for each growth cycle and from one growth cycle to the next remains substantially constant as a function of time.

  7. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2001-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  8. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2002-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  9. Method of deposition by molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chalmers, S.A.; Killeen, K.P.; Lear, K.L.

    1995-01-10

    A method is described for reproducibly controlling layer thickness and varying layer composition in an MBE deposition process. In particular, the present invention includes epitaxially depositing a plurality of layers of material on a substrate with a plurality of growth cycles whereby the average of the instantaneous growth rates for each growth cycle and from one growth cycle to the next remains substantially constant as a function of time. 9 figures.

  10. Energy deposition in STARFIRE reactor components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohar, Y.; Brooks, J.N.

    1985-04-01

    The energy deposition in the STARFIRE commercial tokamak reactor was calculated based on detailed models for the different reactor components. The heat deposition and the 14 MeV neutron flux poloidal distributions in the first wall were obtained. The poloidal surface heat load distribution in the first wall was calculated from the plasma radiation. The Monte Carlo method was used for the calculation to allow an accurate modeling for the reactor geometry.

  11. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell; Anthony K.; Jia; Quanxi; Lin; Yuan

    2009-10-20

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films and the like. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  12. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

    2008-04-29

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  13. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  14. Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films: Growth and properties Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Low-temperature plasma-deposited silicon epitaxial films:...

  15. CFD Analysis of Particle Deposition During DPF Filtration Processes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Particle Deposition During DPF Filtration Processes CFD Analysis of Particle Deposition During DPF Filtration Processes A 3-D DPF model is developed to predict ...

  16. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having ...

  17. Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible substrates using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spatial atomic layer deposition on flexible substrates using a modular rotating cylinder reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial atomic layer deposition on...

  18. Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers...

  19. Geology and Mineral Deposits of Churchill County, Nevada | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mineral Deposits of Churchill County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geology and Mineral Deposits of Churchill County, Nevada...

  20. Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials Title Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2015 Authors...

  1. Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This paper reports on studies carried out at ORNL to examine the shear force required to remove particles from a well-developed EGR cooler deposit.

  2. A modeling study of the effect of depth of burial of depleted uranium and thorium on radon gas flux at a dry desert alluvial soil radioactive waste management site (RWMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-08-01

    An integral part of designing low-level waste (LLW) disposal pits and their associated closure covers in very dry desert alluvium is the use of a radon gas transport and fate model. Radon-222 has the potential to be a real heath hazard. The production of radon-222 results from the radioactive decay (a particle emission) of radium-226 in the uranium-235 and 238 Bateman chains. It is also produced in the thorium-230 series. Both long lived radionuclides have been proposed for disposal in the shallow land burial pits in Area 5 RWMS compound of Nevada Test Site (NTS). The constructed physics based model includes diffusion and barometric pressure-induced advection of an M-chain of radionuclides. The usual Bateman decay mechanics are included for each radionuclide. Both linear reversible and linear irreversible first order sorption kinetics are assumed for each radionuclide. This report presents the details of using the noble gas transport model, CASCADR9, in an engineering design study mode. Given data on the low-level waste stream, which constitutes the ultimate source of radon-222 in the RWMS, CASCADR9 is used to generate the surface flux (pCi/cm{sup 2}-sec) of radon-222 under the realistic atmospheric and alluvial soil conditions found in the RWMS at Area 5, of the NTS. Specifically, this study examines the surface flux of radon-222 as a function of the depth of burial below the land surface.

  3. Reservoir compartmentalization caused by mass transport deposition Northwest Stevens pool, Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserves, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milliken, M.D.; McJannet, G.S.; Shiflett, D.W.; Deutsch, H.A.

    1996-12-31

    The {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} sands of the Northwest Stevens Pool consist of six major subdivisions (A1-A6) and numerous sublayers. These sands are above the {open_quotes}N Point{close_quotes} stratigraphic marker, making them much younger than most other Stevens sands at Elk Hills. Cores show the A1-A3 sands to be possibly mass transport deposition, primarily debris flows, slumps, and sand injection bodies. The A4-A6 sands are characterized by normally graded sheet-like sand bodies Hospital of traditional outer fan turbidite lithofacies. Most current production from the A1-A2 interval comes from well 373A-7R, are completed waterflood wells that came on line in 1992 at 1400 BOPD. Well 373A-7R is an anomaly in the A1-A2 zone, where average production from the other ten wells is 200 BOPD. Other evidence for compartmentalization in the A1-A2 interval includes sporadic oil-water contacts and drawdown pressures, difficult log correlations, and rapid thickness changes. In 1973, well 362-7R penetrated 220 ft of wet Al sand. The well was redrilled updip and successfully completed in the A1, where the oil-water contact is more than 130 ft lower than the original hole and faulting is not apparent. In 1992, horizontal well 323H-7R unexpectedly encountered an entirely wet Al wedge zone. Reevaluation of the A1-A3 and other sands as mass transport origin is important for modeling initialization and production/development strategies.

  4. Reservoir compartmentalization caused by mass transport deposition Northwest Stevens pool, Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserves, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milliken, M.D.; McJannet, G.S. ); Shiflett, D.W. ); Deutsch, H.A. )

    1996-01-01

    The [open quotes]A[close quotes] sands of the Northwest Stevens Pool consist of six major subdivisions (A1-A6) and numerous sublayers. These sands are above the [open quotes]N Point[close quotes] stratigraphic marker, making them much younger than most other Stevens sands at Elk Hills. Cores show the A1-A3 sands to be possibly mass transport deposition, primarily debris flows, slumps, and sand injection bodies. The A4-A6 sands are characterized by normally graded sheet-like sand bodies Hospital of traditional outer fan turbidite lithofacies. Most current production from the A1-A2 interval comes from well 373A-7R, are completed waterflood wells that came on line in 1992 at 1400 BOPD. Well 373A-7R is an anomaly in the A1-A2 zone, where average production from the other ten wells is 200 BOPD. Other evidence for compartmentalization in the A1-A2 interval includes sporadic oil-water contacts and drawdown pressures, difficult log correlations, and rapid thickness changes. In 1973, well 362-7R penetrated 220 ft of wet Al sand. The well was redrilled updip and successfully completed in the A1, where the oil-water contact is more than 130 ft lower than the original hole and faulting is not apparent. In 1992, horizontal well 323H-7R unexpectedly encountered an entirely wet Al wedge zone. Reevaluation of the A1-A3 and other sands as mass transport origin is important for modeling initialization and production/development strategies.

  5. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E.; McLean, II, William

    1996-01-01

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus.

  6. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; McLean, W. II

    1996-02-13

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus. 9 figs.

  7. Patterns of permeability in eolian deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goggin, D.J.; Chandler, M.A.; Kocurek, G.; Lake, L.W.

    1988-06-01

    The eolian, Jurassic Page sandstone of northeastern Arizona is marked by a highly ordered heterogeneity. The heterogeneity is expressed by the intricate association of stratification types, which are a direct result of the depositional processes. The dominant stratification types in eolian reservoirs are grainflow, grainfall, and wind-ripple deposits, which form on the lee faces of migrating dunes; interdune deposits, which form between migrating dunes; and extra-erg deposits, which occur sporadically when other depositional environments encroach upon an eolian system. These stratification types each have a unique permeability range, which implies that the fluid migration routes in eolian reservoirs will be dictated by the geometry and types of stratification present. One of the most important aspects of this study is the correlation of qualitative geologic descriptions with quantitative variables such as permeability. About 2,000 measurements were made with a field minipermeameter on an outcrop of the Page sandstone. These data show that three distinct permeability modes directly relate to the different stratification types.

  8. Geological characterization of permian submarine fan reservoirs of the driver waterflood unit, Spraberry Trend, Midland Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guevara, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the geological characterization and assessment of the relationship between reservoir stratigraphy and oil recovery of the Driver waterflood unit of the Spraberry Trend, Midland Basin, West Texas. In this study , the author focuses on the Driver waterflood unit, which is located in Midland, Glasscock, Upton, and Reagan Counties and is part of the giant Spraberry Trend currently being studied by the Bureau. Gamma-ray logs and scout cards from more than 350 wells and slabbed cores from 2 wells, along with core analyses and production data, provided the main sources of information for the study. Fifteen log-defined genetic-stratigraphic operational units were delineated in the Spraberry Formation and were correlated throughout the study area to define the stratigraphic framework. The text presents net sandstone and siltstone maps, cross sections, depth plots of core analyses, and maps of production data. The author describes the depositional systems and hydrocarbon distribution in the Driver unit (currently operated by Standard Oil), details the influence of reservoir stratigraphy on oil recovery, and outlines opportunities for additional recovery. He notes that reservoir management strategies must take into account the stratigraphic heterogeneities of accumulations in the unit. He concludes that a program of selective recompletions and infill drilling based on knowledge of both reservoir stratigraphy and natural fractures is the key to improving oil recovery from the Driver unit in particular and from the Spraberry Trend in general.

  9. Method and apparatus for conducting variable thickness vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nesslage, G.V.

    1984-08-03

    A method of vapor depositing metal on a substrate in variable thickness comprises conducting the deposition continuously without interruption to avoid formation of grain boundaries. To achieve reduced deposition in specific regions a thin wire or ribbon blocking body is placed between source and substrate to partially block vapors from depositing in the region immediately below.

  10. Line-of-sight deposition method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patten, James W.; McClanahan, Edwin D.; Bayne, Michael A.

    1981-01-01

    A line-of-sight method of depositing a film having substantially 100% of theoretical density on a substrate. A pressure vessel contains a target source having a surface thereof capable of emitting particles therefrom and a substrate with the source surface and the substrate surface positioned such that the source surface is substantially parallel to the direction of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface, the distance between the most remote portion of the substrate surface receiving the particles and the source surface emitting the particles in a direction parallel to the substrate surface being relatively small. The pressure in the vessel is maintained less than about 5 microns to prevent scattering and permit line-of-sight deposition. By this method the angles of incidence of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface are in the range of from about 45.degree. to 90.degree. even when the target surface area is greatly expanded to increase the deposition rate.

  11. Line-of-sight deposition method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patten, J.W.; McClanahan, E.D.; Bayne, M.A.

    1980-04-16

    A line-of-sight method of depositing a film having substantially 100% of theoretical density on a substrate. A pressure vessel contains a target source having a surface thereof capable of emitting particles therefrom and a substrate with the source surface and the substrate surface positioned such that the source surface is substantially parallel to the direction of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface, the distance between the most remote portion of the substrate surface receiving the particles and the source surface emitting the particles in a direction parallel to the substrate surface being relatively small. The pressure in the vessel is maintained less than about 5 microns to prevent scattering and permit line-of-sight deposition. By this method the angles of incidence of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface are in the range of from about 45/sup 0/ to 90/sup 0/ even when the target surface area is greatly expanded to increase the deposition rate.

  12. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbil, Ahmet

    1989-01-01

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula (I) ##STR1## where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula I is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula I and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  13. Glow discharge plasma deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weakliem, Herbert A. (Pennington, NJ); Vossen, Jr., John L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

    1984-05-29

    A glow discharge plasma reactor for deposition of thin films from a reactive RF glow discharge is provided with a screen positioned between the walls of the chamber and the cathode to confine the glow discharge region to within the region defined by the screen and the cathode. A substrate for receiving deposition material from a reactive gas is positioned outside the screened region. The screen is electrically connected to the system ground to thereby serve as the anode of the system. The energy of the reactive gas species is reduced as they diffuse through the screen to the substrate. Reactive gas is conducted directly into the glow discharge region through a centrally positioned distribution head to reduce contamination effects otherwise caused by secondary reaction products and impurities deposited on the reactor walls.

  14. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Watkins, Arthur D.

    1999-01-01

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube.

  15. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1999-05-25

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube. 8 figs.

  16. Supplemental heating of deposition tooling shields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlhausen, James A. (Albuquerque, NM); Peebles, Diane E. (Albuquerque, NM); Hunter, John A. (Albuquerque, NM); Eckelmeyer, Kenneth H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A method of reducing particle generation from the thin coating deposited on the internal surfaces of a deposition chamber which undergoes temperature variation greater than 100.degree. C. comprising maintaining the temperature variation of the internal surfaces low enough during the process cycle to keep thermal expansion stresses between the coating and the surfaces under 500 MPa. For titanium nitride deposited on stainless steel, this means keeping temperature variations under approximately 70.degree. C. in a chamber that may be heated to over 350.degree. C. during a typical processing operation. Preferably, a supplemental heater is mounted behind the upper shield and controlled by a temperature sensitive element which provides feedback control based on the temperature of the upper shield.

  17. Chemical vapor deposition of fluorinated polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, J.A.; Lang, C.I.; Lu, T.M.; You, L.

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the authors` work directed toward the deposition of fluorinated polymers by condensation of thermally or photochemically generated intermediates directly from the vapor state will be presented. Previously known materials such as Teflon AF{reg_sign} and Parylene AF{sub 4} have been successfully deposited and are being evaluated for microelectronic application as on-chip dielectrics. A novel, one-step route to Parylene AF{sub 4} will be described which obviates the necessity of multistep organic synthesis to prepare precursors. A new, partially fluorinated parylene obtained from tetrafluoro-p-xylene will be described. It has also been observed that ultraviolet irradiation of the vapor of dimethyl tetrafluorobenzocyclobutene causes the deposition of an insoluble film which contains fluorine.

  18. Forming aspheric optics by controlled deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, Andrew M.

    1998-01-01

    An aspheric optical element formed by depositing material onto a spherical surface of an optical element by controlled deposition to form an aspheric surface of desired shape. A reflecting surface, single or multi-layer, can then be formed on the aspheric surface by evaporative or sputtering techniques. Aspheric optical elements are suitable for deep ultra-violet (UV) and x-ray wavelengths. The reflecting surface may, for example, be a thin (.about.100 nm) layer of aluminum, or in some cases the deposited modifying layer may function as the reflecting surface. For certain applications, multi-layer reflective surfaces may be utilized, such as chromium-carbon or tungsten-carbon multi-layer, with the number of layers and thickness being determined by the intended application.

  19. Forming aspheric optics by controlled deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.

    1998-04-28

    An aspheric optical element is disclosed formed by depositing material onto a spherical surface of an optical element by controlled deposition to form an aspheric surface of desired shape. A reflecting surface, single or multi-layer, can then be formed on the aspheric surface by evaporative or sputtering techniques. Aspheric optical elements are suitable for deep ultra-violet (UV) and x-ray wavelengths. The reflecting surface may, for example, be a thin ({approx}100 nm) layer of aluminum, or in some cases the deposited modifying layer may function as the reflecting surface. For certain applications, multi-layer reflective surfaces may be utilized, such as chromium-carbon or tungsten-carbon multi-layer, with the number of layers and thickness being determined by the intended application. 4 figs.

  20. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbil, A.

    1989-11-21

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  1. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creighton, J.R.; Dominguez, F.; Johnson, A.W.; Omstead, T.R.

    1997-09-02

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten. 2 figs.

  2. Method for deposition of a conductor in integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creighton, J. Randall; Dominguez, Frank; Johnson, A. Wayne; Omstead, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    A method is described for fabricating integrated semiconductor circuits and, more particularly, for the selective deposition of a conductor onto a substrate employing a chemical vapor deposition process. By way of example, tungsten can be selectively deposited onto a silicon substrate. At the onset of loss of selectivity of deposition of tungsten onto the silicon substrate, the deposition process is interrupted and unwanted tungsten which has deposited on a mask layer with the silicon substrate can be removed employing a halogen etchant. Thereafter, a plurality of deposition/etch back cycles can be carried out to achieve a predetermined thickness of tungsten.

  3. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey,Thomas M.; Burrell,Anthony K.; Jia,Quanxi; Lin,Yuan

    2012-02-28

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal nitride films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere to yield metal nitride films and the like. Such films can be conformal on a variety of substrates including non-planar substrates. In some instances, the films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  4. Ruthenium / aerogel nanocomposits via Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biener, J; Baumann, T F; Wang, Y; Nelson, E J; Kucheyev, S O; Hamza, A V; Kemell, M; Ritala, M; Leskela, M

    2006-08-28

    We present a general approach to prepare metal/aerogel nanocomposites via template directed atomic layer deposition (ALD). In particular, we used a Ru ALD process consisting of alternating exposures to bis(cyclopentadienyl)ruthenium (RuCp{sub 2}) and air at 350 C to deposit metallic Ru nanoparticles on the internal surfaces of carbon and silica aerogels. The process does not affect the morphology of the aerogel template and offers excellent control over metal loading by simply adjusting the number of ALD cycles. We also discuss the limitations of our ALD approach, and suggest ways to overcome these.

  5. New Methods In Exploration At The Socorro Peak Kgra- A Gred Iii...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    NW-SE through M-mountain as well as blind faults projected through the alluvial fan. IR remote sensing has also located elevated surface temperatures (<12 C above background)...

  6. Title

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN AUGUST, 1991 BY E G 8 G ENERGY MEASUREMENTS, INC. TION ALLUVIAL FAN ... AT DESIRED CALCULATION INTERVAL LOSS RATE:GREEN AND AMPT INFILTRATION KINEMATIC WAVE: NEW ...

  7. Dual ion beam assisted deposition of biaxially textured template layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groves, James R.; Arendt, Paul N.; Hammond, Robert H.

    2005-05-31

    The present invention is directed towards a process and apparatus for epitaxial deposition of a material, e.g., a layer of MgO, onto a substrate such as a flexible metal substrate, using dual ion beams for the ion beam assisted deposition whereby thick layers can be deposited without degradation of the desired properties by the material. The ability to deposit thicker layers without loss of properties provides a significantly broader deposition window for the process.

  8. Plasma deposition of amorphous metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hays, Auda K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    Amorphous metal alloy coatings are plasma-deposited by dissociation of vapors of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides in the presence of a reducing gas, using a glow discharge. Tetracarbonylnickel, phosphine, and hydrogen constitute a typical reaction mixture of the invention, yielding a NiPC alloy.

  9. Plasma deposition of amorphous metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hays, A.K.

    1979-07-18

    Amorphous metal alloy coatings are plasma-deposited by dissociation of vapors of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides in the presence of a reducing gas, using a glow discharge. Tetracarbonylnickel, phosphine, and hydrogen constitute a typical reaction mixture of the invention, yielding a NiPC alloy.

  10. Chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy; Kramer, Keith; Liu, Xinye

    2000-01-01

    An aluminum oxide film is deposited on a heated substrate by CVD from one or more alkylaluminum alkoxide compounds having composition R.sub.n Al.sub.2 (OR').sub.6-n, wherein R and R' are alkyl groups and n is in the range of 1 to 5.

  11. Atomic layer deposition of nanoporous biomaterials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayan, R. J.; Adiga, S. P.; Pellin, M. J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N. A.; Brigmon, R. L.; Elam, J. W.; Univ. of North Carolina; North Carolina State Univ.; Eastman Kodak Co.; North Dakota State Univ.; SRL

    2010-03-01

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials. Nanoporous alumina, also known as anodic aluminum oxide (AAO), is a nanomaterial that exhibits several unusual properties, including high pore densities, straight pores, small pore sizes, and uniform pore sizes. In 1953, Keller et al. showed that anodizing aluminum in acid electrolytes results in a thick layer of nearly cylindrical pores, which are arranged in a close-packed hexagonal cell structure. More recently, Matsuda & Fukuda demonstrated preparation of highly ordered platinum and gold nanohole arrays using a replication process. In this study, a negative structure of nanoporous alumina was initially fabricated and a positive structure of a nanoporous metal was subsequently fabricated. Over the past fifteen years, nanoporous alumina membranes have been used as templates for growth of a variety of nanostructured materials, including nanotubes, nanowires, nanorods, and nanoporous membranes.

  12. Defect distributions in weld-deposited cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.Y.; Mabe, W.R.

    1998-11-01

    Defect distributions in stainless steel and nickel-chromium alloy weld-deposited cladding over a low alloy steel base were characterized by destructive evaluation (DE). An evaluation of the observed defects was conducted to characterize the defects by type or classification. Size distributions of cladding defect types were developed from the information obtained. This paper presents the results of the cladding evaluation.

  13. Panel 1 - comparative evaluation of deposition technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenske, G.R.; Stodolsky, F.; Benson, D.K.; Pitts, R.J.; Bhat, D.G.; Yulin Chen; Gat, R.; Sunkara, M.K.; Kelly, M.; Lawler, J.E.; Nagle, D.C.; Outka, D.; Revankar, G.S.; Subramaniam, V.V.; Wilbur, P.J.; Mingshow Wong; Woolam, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    This working group attempted to evaluate/compare the different types of deposition techniques currently under investigation for depositing diamond and diamond-like carbon films. A table lists the broad types of techniques that were considered for depositing diamond and diamond-like carbon films. After some discussion, it was agreed that any evaluation of the various techniques would be dependent on the end application. Thus the next action was to list the different areas where diamond and DLC films could find applications in transportation. These application areas are listed in a table. The table intentionally does not go into great detail on applications because that subject is dealt with specifically by Panel No. 4 - Applications To Transportation. The next action concentrated on identifying critical issues or limitations that need to be considered in evaluating the different processes. An attempt was then made to rank different broad categories of deposition techniques currently available or under development based on the four application areas and the limitations. These rankings/evaluations are given for diamond and DLC techniques. Finally, the working group tried to identify critical development and research issues that need to be incorporated into developing a long-term program that focuses on diamond/DLC coatings for transportation needs. 5 tabs.

  14. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, T.; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of fan powered infrared burner (PIR) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances in containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. During this period, experimental setup with optical and electronic instrumentation that is necessary for measuring the radiant heat output and the emission gas output of the burner has been established. The radiation measurement instrument, an FTIR, has been purchased and installed in the porous burner experimental system. The radiation measurement capability of the FTIR was tested and found to be satisfactory. A standard blackbody source, made by Graseby Infrared, was employed to calibrate the FTIR. A collection duct for emission gas measurement was fabricated and connected to the existing Horiba gas analyzer. Test runs are being conducted for flue gas analysis. A number of published research papers on modeling of porous burners were reviewed. The physical mechanism and theoretical analysis of the combustion process of the PIR burner was formulated. The numerical modeling, and implementation of a PIR burner code at CAU`s computing facility is in progress.

  15. Method for depositing layers of high quality semiconductor material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi C.

    2001-08-14

    Plasma deposition of substantially amorphous semiconductor materials is carried out under a set of deposition parameters which are selected so that the process operates near the amorphous/microcrystalline threshold. This threshold varies as a function of the thickness of the depositing semiconductor layer; and, deposition parameters, such as diluent gas concentrations, must be adjusted as a function of layer thickness. Also, this threshold varies as a function of the composition of the depositing layer, and in those instances where the layer composition is profiled throughout its thickness, deposition parameters must be adjusted accordingly so as to maintain the amorphous/microcrystalline threshold.

  16. Filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R.

    1999-01-01

    A filtered cathodic arc deposition method and apparatus for the production of highly dense, wear resistant coatings which are free from macro particles. The filtered cathodic arc deposition apparatus includes a cross shaped vacuum chamber which houses a cathode target having an evaporable surface comprised of the coating material, means for generating a stream of plasma, means for generating a transverse magnetic field, and a macro particle deflector. The transverse magnetic field bends the generated stream of plasma in the direction of a substrate. Macro particles are effectively filtered from the stream of plasma by traveling, unaffected by the transverse magnetic field, along the initial path of the plasma stream to a macro particle deflector. The macro particle deflector has a preformed surface which deflects macro particles away from the substrate.

  17. Process for depositing Cr-bearing layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Eshelman, Mark A.

    1995-05-09

    A method of applying a Cr-bearing layer to a substrate, comprises introducing an organometallic compound, in vapor or solid powder form entrained in a carrier gas to a plasma of an inductively coupled plasma torch or device to thermally decompose the organometallic compound and contacting the plasma and the substrate to be coated so as to deposit the Cr-bearing layer on the substrate. A metallic Cr, Cr alloy or Cr compound such as chromium oxide, nitride and carbide can be provided on the substrate. Typically, the organometallic compound is introduced to an inductively coupled plasma torch that is disposed in ambient air so to thermally decompose the organometallic compound in the plasma. The plasma is directed at the substrate to deposit the Cr-bearing layer or coating on the substrate.

  18. Methods for patterned deposition on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye, R.R.; Ricco, A.J.; Hampden-Smith, M.J.; Kodas, T.T.

    1995-01-10

    A method is described for patterned depositions of a material onto a substrate. A surface of a polymeric substrate is first etched so as to form an etched layer having enhanced adhesions characteristics and then selected portions of the etched layer are removed so as to define a pattern having enhanced and diminished adhesion characteristics for the deposition of a conductor onto the remaining etched layer. In one embodiment, a surface of a PTFE substrate is chemically etched so as to improve the adhesion of copper thereto. Thereafter, selected portions of the etched surface are irradiated with a laser beam so as to remove the etched selected portions of the etched surface and form patterns of enhanced and diminished adhesion of copper thereto. 5 figures.

  19. Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2002-01-01

    Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Process for depositing Cr-bearing layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, T.W.; Lograsso, T.A.; Eshelman, M.A.

    1995-05-09

    A method of applying a Cr-bearing layer to a substrate, comprises introducing an organometallic compound, in vapor or solid powder form entrained in a carrier gas to a plasma of an inductively coupled plasma torch or device to thermally decompose the organometallic compound and contacting the plasma and the substrate to be coated so as to deposit the Cr-bearing layer on the substrate. A metallic Cr, Cr alloy or Cr compound such as chromium oxide, nitride and carbide can be provided on the substrate. Typically, the organometallic compound is introduced to an inductively coupled plasma torch that is disposed in ambient air so to thermally decompose the organometallic compound in the plasma. The plasma is directed at the substrate to deposit the Cr-bearing layer or coating on the substrate. 7 figs.

  1. Surface acoustic wave dust deposition monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, G.E.; Smith, N.S. Jr.

    1988-02-12

    A system is disclosed for using the attenuation of surface acoustic waves to monitor real time dust deposition rates on surfaces. The system includes a signal generator, a tone-burst generator/amplifier connected to a transmitting transducer for converting electrical signals into acoustic waves. These waves are transmitted through a path defining means adjacent to a layer of dust and then, in turn, transmitted to a receiving transducer for changing the attenuated acoustic wave to electrical signals. The signals representing the attenuated acoustic waves may be amplified and used in a means for analyzing the output signals to produce an output indicative of the dust deposition rates and/or values of dust in the layer. 8 figs.

  2. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Steve R. (111 Beryl St., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  3. Methods for patterned deposition on a substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM); Hampden-Smith, M. J. (Albuquerque, NM); Kodas, T. T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A method is described for patterned depositions of a material onto a substrate. A surface of a polymeric substrate is first etched so as to form an etched layer having enhanced adhesions characteristics and then selected portions of the etched layer are removed so as to define a pattern having enhanced and diminished adhesion characteristics for the deposition of a conductor onto the remaining etched layer. In one embodiment, a surface of a PTFE substrate is chemically etched so as to improve the adhesion of copper thereto. Thereafter, selected portions of the etched surface are irradiated with a laser beam so as to remove the etched selected portions of the etched surface and form patterns of enhanced and diminished adhesion of copper thereto.

  4. Apparatus and method for photochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jackson, Scott C.; Rocheleau, Richard E.

    1987-03-31

    A photochemical vapor deposition apparatus includes a reactor housing having a window in one wall above a reaction chamber in the housing. A transparent curtain divides the reaction chamber into a reaction zone and a flush zone. At least one substrate is mounted in the reaction zone in light communication with the window so that ultraviolet radiation may penetrate through the window into the reaction zone. The window is kept clear by a gas flowing through the flush zone.

  5. Stationary phase deposition based on onium salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheeler, David R.; Lewis, Patrick R.; Dirk, Shawn M.; Trudell, Daniel E.

    2008-01-01

    Onium salt chemistry can be used to deposit very uniform thickness stationary phases on the wall of a gas chromatography column. In particular, the stationary phase can be bonded to non-silicon based columns, especially microfabricated metal columns. Non-silicon microfabricated columns may be manufactured and processed at a fraction of the cost of silicon-based columns. In addition, the method can be used to phase-coat conventional capillary columns or silicon-based microfabricated columns.

  6. Nanotube array controlled carbon plasma deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, Shi; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Xuanyong; Ding, Chuanxian

    2013-06-17

    Finding approaches to control the elementary processes of plasma-solid interactions and direct the fluxes of matter at nano-scales becomes an important aspect in science. This letter reports that, by taking advantages of the spacing characteristics of discrete TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays, the flying trajectories and the subsequent implantation and deposition manner of energetic carbon ions can be directed and controlled to fabricate hollow conical arrays. The study provides an alternative method for plasma nano-manufacturing.

  7. DEPOSITION OF METAL ON NONMETAL FILAMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magel, T.T.

    1959-02-10

    A method is described for purifying metallic uranium by passing a halogen vapor continuously over the impure uranium to form uranium halide vapor and immediately passing the halide vapor into contact with a nonmetallic refractory surface which is at a temperature above the melting point of uranium metal. The halide is decomposed at the heated surface depositing molten metal, which collects and falls into a receiver below.

  8. Electrostatic force assisted deposition of graphene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Xiaogan

    2011-11-15

    An embodiment of a method of depositing graphene includes bringing a stamp into contact with a substrate over a contact area. The stamp has at least a few layers of the graphene covering the contact area. An electric field is developed over the contact area. The stamp is removed from the vicinity of the substrate which leaves at least a layer of the graphene substantially covering the contact area.

  9. Chemical deposition methods using supercritical fluid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sievers, Robert E.; Hansen, Brian N.

    1990-01-01

    A method for depositing a film of a desired material on a substrate comprises dissolving at least one reagent in a supercritical fluid comprising at least one solvent. Either the reagent is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the solvent to form the desired product, or at least one additional reagent is included in the supercritical solution and is capable of reacting with or is a precursor of a compound capable of reacting with the first reagent or with a compound derived from the first reagent to form the desired material. The supercritical solution is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol and a chemical reaction is induced in the vapor or aerosol so that a film of the desired material resulting from the chemical reaction is deposited on the substrate surface. In an alternate embodiment, the supercritical solution containing at least one reagent is expanded to produce a vapor or aerosol which is then mixed with a gas containing at least one additional reagent. A chemical reaction is induced in the resulting mixture so that a film of the desired material is deposited.

  10. System and Method for Sealing a Vapor Deposition Source - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An apparatus for movably sealing a deposition chamber from the rest of a fabrication ... there is a need to seal the deposition chamber from the rest of the system under vacuum. ...

  11. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films You are accessing a ...

  12. Polymer-assisted deposition of films and preparation of carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polymer-assisted deposition of films and preparation of carbon nanotube arrays using the films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polymer-assisted deposition of films and ...

  13. Microsoft Word - Deposition Request Form Rev10-12.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Deposition Request Form rev10/12-sm Personal Contact Information Date: ____/____/______ Name:_________________________________ Phone #__________________ E-Mail_____________________________ Project Reference Number: _________________________ Dept _________________ Professor _____________________________ Professor Email ________________________________ Substrate Description ( substrate provided by user) Total Number of Substrates: ________ Deposition Specifications Film

  14. Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers | ANSER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers

  15. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullendore, A.W.

    1988-03-18

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides,e.g., transition metal carbonyl, such as nickel carbonyl and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit. 1 fig.

  16. NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Materials Deposition

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Device Fabrication in the Atmospheric Processing Platform Materials Deposition and Device Fabrication in the Atmospheric Processing Platform This page provides details on materials deposition and device fabrication in the Atmospheric Processing platform. The four techniques highlighted are robotic inkjet printing, large-area ultrasonic spray deposition, sputtering, and thermal evaporator deposition. Photo of the shiny back of the glove box behind a close-up of an unenclosed inkjet

  17. Success Story: Chrome Deposit Corporation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chrome Deposit Corporation Success Story: Chrome Deposit Corporation This case study describes how Chrome Deposit Corporation was able to reduce plant-wide energy use, minimize its environmental impact, and improve energy management practices amidst ongoing growth. Success Story: Chrome Deposit Corporation (February 2011) (1.7 MB) More Documents & Publications Energy Exchange 2015 Speaker Biographies Energy Storage Systems 2012 Peer Review Presentations - Poster Session 2 (Day 2): University

  18. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullendore, Arthur W.

    1990-01-01

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures or organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides, e.g., transition metal carbonyl such as nickel carbonyl, and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit.

  19. Microstructural Evolution of EGR Cooler Deposits | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evolution of EGR Cooler Deposits Microstructural Evolution of EGR Cooler Deposits Characterize the thermo-physical properties of the deposit under different operating conditions on model EGR cooler tube and determine the long-term changes in deposit properties due to thermal cycling and water/HC condensation deer09_lance.pdf (5.25 MB) More Documents & Publications Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Materials Issues Associated with EGR

  20. Low-Temperature Engineering Algorithm of Deposition Risk

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-12-08

    LEADER is designed to qualitatively predict the potential coal ash deposition in an utility boiler in convective pass heat exchange surfaces below 1850 F. This program concentrates on those deposits which develop their strength through sulfation and not silicate sintering. Massive deposits that form on the upstream sides of boiler tubes at higher temperatures are not considered in this model.

  1. Comparisons of wet and dry deposition derived from the first year of trial dry deposition monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hicks, B.B.; Hosker, R.P. Jr.; Womack, J.D.

    1986-04-01

    In general, the turbulent exchange of trace gas and aerosol particles cannot always be assumed to be downwards. For many trace gases, the surface constitutes both a source and a sink, leading to wide temporal variations in both the direction and the magnitude of the net exchange. For some chemical species, however, the surface can be assumed to be a continuing sink. Such species include several chemical compounds of current importance, such as sulfur dioxide, nitric acid vapor, and ozone. In such instances, dry deposition fluxes to natural surfaces can be inferred from air concentration data, provided accurate evaluations are available of the efficiency with which the surface scavenges pollutants from the air to which it is exposed. This simple approach is the foundation for the so-called concentration monitoring or inferential method for assessing dry deposition. The inferential method relies upon the availability of accurate concentration data and corresponding deposition velocities. Knowledge of these properties alone does not permit the desired deposition data to be computed. As an extension of dry deposition research programs, a trial network has been set up to test the inferential method. Here, the scientific basis for the network operation is discussed, and preliminary data presented.

  2. Effects of Ar plasma treatment for deposition of ruthenium film by remote plasma atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Taeyong; Lee, Jaesang; Park, Jingyu; Jeon, Heeyoung; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Lee, Ki-Hoon; Cho, Byung-Chul; Kim, Moo-Sung; Ahn, Heui-Bok

    2012-01-15

    Ruthenium thin films were deposited on argon plasma-treated SiO{sub 2} and untreated SiO{sub 2} substrates by remote plasma atomic layer deposition using bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium [Ru(EtCp){sub 2}] as a Ru precursor and ammonia plasma as a reactant. The results of in situ Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis indicate that the initial transient region of Ru deposition was decreased by Ar plasma treatment at 400 deg. C, but did not change significantly at 300 deg. C The deposition rate exhibited linearity after continuous film formation and the deposition rates were about 1.7 A/cycle and 0.4 A/cycle at 400 deg. C and 300 deg. C, respectively. Changes of surface energy and polar and dispersive components were measured by the sessile drop test. The quantity of surface amine groups was measured from the surface nitrogen concentration with AES. Furthermore, the Ar plasma-treated SiO{sub 2} contained more amine groups and less hydroxyl groups on the surface than on untreated SiO{sub 2}. Auger spectra exhibited chemical shifts by Ru-O bonding, and larger shifts were observed on untreated substrates due to the strong adhesion of Ru films.

  3. Alluvial Groundwater -- Upgradient -- 92-05&

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... Measurements Alkalinity mgL 302 370 291 250 362 276 Conductivity c mhoscm 1894 1947 1670 1605 1752 2295 DO c mgL 4.35 6.01 -- 2.33 -- -- ORP c mV 151 123.5 93 105.2 75 64 ...

  4. Early Pennsylvanian wrenching along the Red River-Matador Arch: Formation of a pull-apart basin, Depocenter for Atokan to Lower Des Moines (bend) clastics, Cottle County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, W.C. Jr.; Gunn, R.D.

    1995-06-01

    Early Pennsylvanian wrenching along the Red River-Matador Arch (Tectonic Zone) created a braided series of en echelon faults and folds with associated pop-up structures and pull-apart basins. Local extension, or overstepping, in Southeast Cottle County, Texas, has produced the deepest pull-apart basin along the arch with over 10,000` of structural relief. The emerging Wichita-Amarillo Uplift, to the north, provided an abundant sediment source, which prograded rapidly southward as an alluvial fan-braided river complex. Exposure of basement rocks and lower Paleozoic sediments along the Red River-Matador Arch, also contributed to the basin fill. Syntectonic sedimentation led to the accumulation of over 6000` of Bend (Atoka-lower Des Moines) sediments within the basin. Deposition was dominated initially by alluvial fan to fluvial siliciclastics. As basin subsidence was further amplified by sediment loading, accommodation exceeded sedimentation capturing a large segment of the southward prograding Wichita-Amarillo derived clastic wedge. Encroachment of the late Atoka to lower Des Moines epeiric sea promoted further evolution of depositional environments to fan deltas, marine dominated clastics and, later, localized carbonate development. Type III kerogen rich organic shales produced abundant gas prone source rocks. The extreme depth of the basin combined with the local geothermal gradient provided for significant hydrocarbon generation. By early 1988 new well control helped revise previous stratigraphic correlation demonstrating a rapidly expanding lower Des Moines to Atokan section. The drilling of the Gunn Oil Company-Brothers No. 1 to a total depth of 10,301` in the Mississippian Chappel Limestone, encountered 2025` of Bend sediments, with 279` of gross Bend Conglomerate (162` of net pay). The Brothers No. 1 was potentialled on 11/19/89 with a CAOF of 6.0 MMCFD and filed as the field discovery for the Broken Bone (Bend Conglomerate) field.

  5. Marginal erg facies: A trial approach toward a descriptive classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caputo, M.V. ); Langford, R.P. )

    1991-03-01

    During the late 1970s and early 1980s, sedimentologists began recognizing the margins of eolian sand seas as separate, components which differed from interior sand seas in geometry, extent, and facies. Stratigraphers have now observed these differences in eolian rocks. Erg margins may be grouped in five ways: (1) by associations with extradunal environments-coastal plain, lacustrine, periglacial, marine (tidal flat, coastal sabkha, beach, and lagoon), and arid alluvial (alluvial fan, fluvial, playa, inland sabkha); (2) by allocyclic controls-eustasy, plate tectonism, and climate; (3) by autocyclic controls-local tectonism, topography, vegetation, hydrology, structure, sediment source and supply, and wind regime; (4) by geographic position-upwind, downwind, and along-wind margins; and (5) by sedimentary facies-texture and architecture. In contrast with erg interiors, erg margins are characterized by smaller, less complex dune-forms related to thinner sand accumulation; elementary dune architecture; more vegetation and bioturbation; high occurrence of sand sheet, zibar, and serir facies; expansive, low-relief interdunes with widely distributed dunes; and a greater proportion of interbedded extradunal deposits. Some of the published studies on ancient eolian systems have identified erg margin facies that have been influences by marine and arid alluvial processes. Few reports have described lacustrine-eolian and periglacial-eolian interactions. This study is an attempt to organize known features of modern and ancient erg margins into a scheme based on erg margin controls.

  6. Vapor-deposited porous films for energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Hayes, Jeffrey P.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2005-07-05

    Metallic films are grown with a "spongelike" morphology in the as-deposited condition using planar magnetron sputtering. The morphology of the deposit is characterized by metallic continuity in three dimensions with continuous and open porosity on the submicron scale. The stabilization of the spongelike morphology is found over a limited range of the sputter deposition parameters, that is, of working gas pressure and substrate temperature. This spongelike morphology is an extension of the features as generally represented in the classic zone models of growth for physical vapor deposits. Nickel coatings were deposited with working gas pressures up 4 Pa and for substrate temperatures up to 1000 K. The morphology of the deposits is examined in plan and in cross section views with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The parametric range of gas pressure and substrate temperature (relative to absolute melt point) under which the spongelike metal deposits are produced appear universal for other metals including gold, silver, and aluminum.

  7. On the dry deposition of submicron particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wesely, M. L.

    1999-10-08

    The air-surface exchange of particles can have a strong role in determining the amount, size, and chemical composition of particles in the troposphere. Here the authors consider only dry processes (deposition processes not directly aided by precipitation) and mostly address particles less than about 2 {micro}m in diameter (often referred to as submicron particles because most of such particles are less than 1 {micro}m in diameter). The processes that control the dry exchange of particulate material between the atmosphere and the surface of the Earth are numerous, highly varied, and sometimes poorly understood. As a result, determining which of the surface processes to parameterize or simulate in modeling the tropospheric mass budget of a particulate substance can be a significant challenge. Dry deposition, for example, can be controlled by a combination of Brownian diffusion, impaction, interception, and gravitational settling, depending on the size of the particles, the roughness of the surface on both micrometeorological and microscopic scales, the geometrical structure of vegetative canopies, and other surface characteristics such as wetness. Particles can be added to the lower atmosphere by resuspension from land surfaces and sea spray. The roles of rapid gas-to-particle conversion and growth or shrinkage of particles as a result of water condensation or evaporation in the lower few meters of the atmosphere can also have a significant impact on particle concentrations in the lower atmosphere. Here, a few micrometeorological observations and inferences on particle air-surface exchange are briefly addressed.

  8. APPARATUS FOR VACUUM DEPOSITION OF METALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Milleron, N.

    1962-03-13

    An apparatus and a method are described for continuous vacuum deposition of metals for metallic coatings, for ultra-high vacuum work, for purification of metals, for maintaining high-density electron currents, and for other uses. The apparatus comprises an externally cooled feeder tube extending into a container and adapted to feed metal wire or strip so that it emerges in a generally vertical position therein. The tube also provides shielding from the heat produced by an electron beam therein focused to impinge from a vertical direction upon the tip of the emerging wire. By proper control of the wire feed, coolant feed, and electron beam intensity, a molten ball of metal forms upon the emerging tip and remains self-supported thereon by the interaction of various forces. The metal is vaporized and travels in a line of sight direction, while additional wire is fed from the tube, so that the size of the molten ball remains constant. In the preferred embodiments, the wire is selected from a number of gettering metals and is degassed by electrical resistance in an adjacent chamber which is also partially evacuated. The wire is then fed through the feed tube into the electron beam and vaporizes and adsorbs gases to provide pumping action while being continuously deposited upon surfaces within the chamber. Ion pump electrodes may also be provided within line of sight of the vaporizing metal source to enhance the pumping action. (AEC)

  9. Aerosol deposition in bends with turbulent flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, A.R.; Gong, H.; Wente, W.B.

    1997-08-01

    The losses of aerosol particles in bends were determined numerically for a broad range of design and operational conditions. Experimental data were used to check the validity of the numerical model, where the latter employs a commercially available computational fluid dynamics code for characterizing the fluid flow field and Lagrangian particle tracking technique for characterizing aerosol losses. Physical experiments have been conducted to examine the effect of curvature ratio and distortion of the cross section of bends. If it curvature ratio ({delta} = R/a) is greater than about 4, it has little effect on deposition, which is in contrast with the recommendation given in ANSI N13.1-1969 for a minimum curvature ratio of 10. Also, experimental results show that if the tube cross section is flattened by 25% or less, the flattening also has little effect on deposition. Results of numerical tests have been used to develop a correlation of aerosol penetration through a bend as a function of Stokes number (Stk), curvature ratio ({delta}) and the bend angle ({theta}). 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Hydroquinone-ZnO nano-laminate deposited by molecular-atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jie; Lucero, Antonio T.; Cheng, Lanxia; Kim, Jiyoung; Hwang, Hyeon Jun; Ha, Min-Woo

    2015-03-23

    In this study, we have deposited organic-inorganic hybrid semiconducting hydroquinone (HQ)/zinc oxide (ZnO) superlattices using molecular-atomic layer deposition, which enables accurate control of film thickness, excellent uniformity, and sharp interfaces at a low deposition temperature (150 °C). Self-limiting growth of organic layers is observed for the HQ precursor on ZnO surface. Nano-laminates were prepared by varying the number of HQ to ZnO cycles in order to investigate the physical and electrical effects of different HQ to ZnO ratios. It is indicated that the addition of HQ layer results in enhanced mobility and reduced carrier concentration. The highest Hall mobility of approximately 2.3 cm{sup 2}/V·s and the lowest n-type carrier concentration of approximately 1.0 × 10{sup 18}/cm{sup 3} were achieved with the organic-inorganic superlattice deposited with a ratio of 10 ZnO cycles to 1 HQ cycle. This study offers an approach to tune the electrical transport characteristics of ALD ZnO matrix thin films using an organic dopant. Moreover, with organic embedment, this nano-laminate material may be useful for flexible electronics.

  11. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, J.D.

    1995-03-07

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of ``standard`` polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  12. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, John D. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of "standard" polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  13. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of "standard" polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal or oxide may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  14. Vacuum deposition and curing of liquid monomers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, J.D.

    1993-11-09

    The present invention is the formation of solid polymer layers under vacuum. More specifically, the present invention is the use of standard polymer layer-making equipment that is generally used in an atmospheric environment in a vacuum, and degassing the monomer material prior to injection into the vacuum. Additional layers of polymer or metal may be vacuum deposited onto solid polymer layers. Formation of polymer layers under a vacuum improves material and surface characteristics, and subsequent quality of bonding to additional layers. Further advantages include use of less to no photoinitiator for curing, faster curing, fewer impurities in the polymer electrolyte, as well as improvement in material properties including no trapped gas resulting in greater density, and reduced monomer wetting angle that facilitates spreading of the monomer and provides a smoother finished surface.

  15. Electro-deposition of superconductor oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.

    2001-01-01

    Methods for preparing high quality superconducting oxide precursors which are well suited for further oxidation and annealing to form superconducting oxide films. The method comprises forming a multilayered superconducting precursor on a substrate by providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a substrate electrode, and providing to the bath a plurality of precursor metal salts which are capable of exhibiting superconducting properties upon subsequent treatment. The superconducting precursor is then formed by electrodepositing a first electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the substrate electrode, followed by depositing a layer of silver onto the first electrodeposited (ED) layer, and then electrodepositing a second electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the Ag layer. The multilayered superconducting precursor is suitable for oxidation at a sufficient annealing temperature in air or an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form a crystalline superconducting oxide film.

  16. Method and apparatus for electrospark deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Roger N.; Park, Walter R.; Munley, John T.

    2004-12-28

    A method and apparatus for controlling electrospark deposition (ESD) comprises using electrical variable waveforms from the ESD process as a feedback parameter. The method comprises measuring a plurality of peak amplitudes from a series of electrical energy pulses delivered to an electrode tip. The maximum peak value from among the plurality of peak amplitudes correlates to the contact force between the electrode tip and a workpiece. The method further comprises comparing the maximum peak value to a set point to determine an offset and optimizing the contact force according to the value of the offset. The apparatus comprises an electrode tip connected to an electrical energy wave generator and an electrical signal sensor, which connects to a high-speed data acquisition card. An actuator provides relative motion between the electrode tip and a workpiece by receiving a feedback drive signal from a processor that is operably connected to the actuator and the high-speed data acquisition card.

  17. Nanostructure templating using low temperature atomic layer deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubbs, Robert K.; Bogart, Gregory R.; Rogers, John A.

    2011-12-20

    Methods are described for making nanostructures that are mechanically, chemically and thermally stable at desired elevated temperatures, from nanostructure templates having a stability temperature that is less than the desired elevated temperature. The methods comprise depositing by atomic layer deposition (ALD) structural layers that are stable at the desired elevated temperatures, onto a template employing a graded temperature deposition scheme. At least one structural layer is deposited at an initial temperature that is less than or equal to the stability temperature of the template, and subsequent depositions made at incrementally increased deposition temperatures until the desired elevated temperature stability is achieved. Nanostructure templates include three dimensional (3D) polymeric templates having features on the order of 100 nm fabricated by proximity field nanopatterning (PnP) methods.

  18. Ceiling Fan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Category: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

  19. Current Mode Logic Fan Out

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-05-07

    Current mode logic is used in high speed timing systems for particle accelerators due to the fast rise time of the electrical signal. This software provides the necessary documentation to produce multiple copies of a single input for distribution to multiple devices. This software supports the DOE mission by providing a method for producing high speed signals in accelerator timing systems.

  20. Deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, George C.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1987-01-01

    An improved deposition method for producing silicon carbide high-temperature semiconductor material comprising placing a semiconductor substrate composed of silicon carbide in a fluidized bed silicon carbide deposition reactor, fluidizing the bed particles by hydrogen gas in a mildly bubbling mode through a gas distributor and heating the substrate at temperatures around 1200.degree.-1500.degree. C. thereby depositing a layer of silicon carbide on the semiconductor substrate.

  1. Reduction of particle deposition on substrates using temperature gradient control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rader, Daniel J.; Dykhuizen, Ronald C.; Geller, Anthony S.

    2000-01-01

    A method of reducing particle deposition during the fabrication of microelectronic circuitry is presented. Reduction of particle deposition is accomplished by controlling the relative temperatures of various parts of the deposition system so that a large temperature gradient near the surface on which fabrication is taking place exists. This temperature gradient acts to repel particles from that surface, thereby producing cleaner surfaces, and thus obtaining higher yields from a given microelectronic fabrication process.

  2. Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Ozone | Argonne National Laboratory Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium and Ozone Title Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium and Ozone Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2016 Authors Mane, AU, Allen, AJ, Kanjolia, RK, Elam, JW Journal Journal of Physical Chemistry C Volume 120 Start Page 9874 Issue 18 Pagination 10 Date Published 04182016 Abstract We investigated the atomic layer deposition (ALD)

  3. Deposition of copper coatings in a magnetron with liquid target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumarkin, A. V. Kaziev, A. V.; Kolodko, D. V.; Pisarev, A. A.; Kharkov, M. M.; Khodachenko, G. V.

    2015-12-15

    Copper coatings were deposited on monocrystalline Si substrates using a magnetron discharge with a liquid cathode in the metal vapour plasma. During the deposition, the bias voltage in the range from 0 V to–400 V was applied to the substrate. The prepared films were investigated by a scanning electron microscope, and their adhesive properties were studied using a scratch tester. It was demonstrated that the adhesion of the deposited films strongly depends on the bias voltage and varies in a wide range.

  4. Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    events in irradiated liquid water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated liquid water You are accessing a ...

  5. Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    events in irradiated liquid water Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spatial correlation of energy deposition events in irradiated liquid water Monte Carlo electron ...

  6. Remote Detection of Quaternary Borate Deposits with ASTER Satellite...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Deposits with ASTER Satellite Imagery as a Geothermal Exploration Tool Abstract In the Great Basin of the western United States, geothermal fluids are sometimes associated with...

  7. Analysis Of Hot Springs And Associated Deposits In Yellowstone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Airborne VisibleIR Image Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were used to characterize hot spring deposits in the...

  8. Plasma sprayed and electrospark deposited zirconium metal diffusion barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollis, Kendall J; Pena, Maria I

    2010-01-01

    Zirconium metal coatings applied by plasma spraying and electrospark deposition (ESD) have been investigated for use as diffusion barrier coatings on low enrichment uranium fuel for research nuclear reactors. The coatings have been applied to both stainless steel as a surrogate and to simulated nuclear fuel uranium-molybdenum alloy substrates. Deposition parameter development accompanied by coating characterization has been performed. The structure of the plasma sprayed coating was shown to vary with transferred arc current during deposition. The structure of ESD coatings was shown to vary with the capacitance of the deposition equipment.

  9. Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Amorphous Silicon...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes Atomic Layer Deposition for Stabilization of Silicon Anodes Development of Industrially Viable Battery Electrode ...

  10. Rhyolites and Associated Deposits of the Valles-Toledo Caldera...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Complex Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Rhyolites and Associated Deposits of the Valles-Toledo Caldera Complex Abstract...

  11. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickboldt, Paul; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Ellingboe, Albert R.

    2008-01-01

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

  12. CHEMICAL SOLUTION DEPOSITION BASED OXIDE BUFFERS AND YBCO COATED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to obtain the flexible, biaxially oriented copper, nickel or nickel-alloy substrates. Buffers and Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconductors have been deposited ...

  13. Atomic Layer Deposition and in Situ Characterization of Ultraclean...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydroxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atomic Layer Deposition and in Situ Characterization of Ultraclean Lithium Oxide and Lithium Hydroxide Authors: Kozen,...

  14. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and ...

  15. EGR Cooler Fouling- Visualization of Deposition and Removal Mechanis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents experimental data on exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) cooler fouling using new test apparatus that allows for in-situ observation of deposition and removal processes

  16. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickboldt, P.; Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Ellingboe, A.R.

    1999-06-29

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique is disclosed. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques. 2 figs.

  17. Deposition of dopant impurities and pulsed energy drive-in

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickboldt, Paul; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Ellingboe, Albert R.

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor doping process which enhances the dopant incorporation achievable using the Gas Immersion Laser Doping (GILD) technique. The enhanced doping is achieved by first depositing a thin layer of dopant atoms on a semiconductor surface followed by exposure to one or more pulses from either a laser or an ion-beam which melt a portion of the semiconductor to a desired depth, thus causing the dopant atoms to be incorporated into the molten region. After the molten region recrystallizes the dopant atoms are electrically active. The dopant atoms are deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) or other known deposition techniques.

  18. USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

    2010-02-08

    Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

  19. Quick, Efficient Film Deposition for Nanomaterials - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Quick, Efficient Film Deposition for Nanomaterials Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This ...

  20. Liquid Metal Heat Exchanger for Geologic Deposits - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid Metal Heat Exchanger for Geologic Deposits Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ... The apparatus provides more efficient heat transfer than existing technologies for ...

  1. Active Geothermal Systems And Associated Gold Deposits In The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Systems And Associated Gold Deposits In The Great Basin Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Active Geothermal Systems...

  2. Eulerian CFD Models to Predict Thermophoretic Deposition of Soot...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This paper describes an Eulerian axisymmetric method in Fluent(R) to predict the overall heat transfer reduction of a surrogate tube due to thermophoretic deposition of submicron ...

  3. Method of depositing a high-emissivity layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickersham, Charles E.; Foster, Ellis L.

    1983-01-01

    A method of depositing a high-emissivity layer on a substrate comprising RF sputter deposition of a carbide-containing target in an atmosphere of a hydrocarbon gas and a noble gas. As the carbide is deposited on the substrate the hydrocarbon gas decomposes to hydrogen and carbon. The carbon deposits on the target and substrate causing a carbide/carbon composition gradient to form on the substrate. At a sufficiently high partial pressure of hydrocarbon gas, a film of high-emissivity pure carbon will eventually form over the substrate.

  4. OLEDWORKS DEVELOPS INNOVATIVE HIGH-PERFORMANCE DEPOSITION TECHNOLOGY...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    high-performance deposition technology that addresses two major aspects of this manufacturing cost: the expense of organic materials per area of useable product, and the...

  5. Electroless Atomic Layer Deposition: A Scalable Approach to Surface...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electroless Atomic Layer Deposition: A Scalable Approach to Surface Modified Metal Powders. Abstract not provided. Authors: Cappillino, Patrick ; Robinson, David ; El Gabaly ...

  6. CFD Analysis of Particle Deposition During DPF Filtration Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A 3-D DPF model is developed to predict thermo-physical properties during filtration processes and to quantitatively investigate particle deposition regarding its size and number distribution.

  7. Liquid-Phase Deposition of Silicon Nanocrystal Films - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Liquid-Phase Deposition of Silicon Nanocrystal Films University of Minnesota DOE Grant Recipients Contact GRANT About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Silicon ...

  8. A radon progeny deposition model (Journal Article) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by the long half life (22 y) of sup 210Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. ... RADIATION; CLEAN ROOMS; DEPOSITION; HALF-LIFE; PROGENY; RADIATION DETECTORS; RADON; ...

  9. EGR Cooler Fouling - Visualization of Deposition and Removal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presents experimental data on exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) cooler fouling using new test apparatus that allows for in-situ observation of deposition and removal processes ...

  10. Fabrication of Conductive Paths on a Fused Deposition Modeling Substrate using Inkjet Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wenchao; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Duty, Chad E.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2015-01-15

    Inkjet deposition is one of the most attractive fabrication techniques for producing cost efficient and lightweight electronic devices on various substrates with low environmental impact. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the most used and reliable additive manufacturing processes by extrusion of wire-shaped thermoplastic materials, which provides an opportunity for embedding printed electronics into mechanical structures during the building process and enables the design of compact smart structures that can sense and adapt to their own state and the environment. This paper represents one of the first explorations of integrating inkjet deposition of silver nanoparticle inks with the FDM process for making compact electro-mechanical structures. Three challenges have been identified and investigated, including the discontinuity of the printed lines resulting from the irregular surface of the FDM substrate, the non-conductivity of the printed lines due to the particle segregation during the droplet drying process, and the slow drying process caused by the skinning effect . Two different techniques are developed in this paper to address the issue of continuity of the printed lines, including surface ironing and a novel thermal plow technique that plows a channel in the FDM substrate to seal off the pores in the substrate and contain the deposited inks. Two solutions are also found for obtaining conductivity from the continuous printed lines, including porous surface coating and using a more viscous ink with larger nanoparticle size. Then the effects of the printing and post-processing parameters on the conductivity are examined. It is found that post-processing is a dominant factor in determining the conductivity of the printed lines.

  11. Fabrication of Conductive Paths on a Fused Deposition Modeling Substrate using Inkjet Deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Wenchao; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Duty, Chad E.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2015-01-15

    Inkjet deposition is one of the most attractive fabrication techniques for producing cost efficient and lightweight electronic devices on various substrates with low environmental impact. Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is one of the most used and reliable additive manufacturing processes by extrusion of wire-shaped thermoplastic materials, which provides an opportunity for embedding printed electronics into mechanical structures during the building process and enables the design of compact smart structures that can sense and adapt to their own state and the environment. This paper represents one of the first explorations of integrating inkjet deposition of silver nanoparticle inks with the FDMmore » process for making compact electro-mechanical structures. Three challenges have been identified and investigated, including the discontinuity of the printed lines resulting from the irregular surface of the FDM substrate, the non-conductivity of the printed lines due to the particle segregation during the droplet drying process, and the slow drying process caused by the skinning effect . Two different techniques are developed in this paper to address the issue of continuity of the printed lines, including surface ironing and a novel thermal plow technique that plows a channel in the FDM substrate to seal off the pores in the substrate and contain the deposited inks. Two solutions are also found for obtaining conductivity from the continuous printed lines, including porous surface coating and using a more viscous ink with larger nanoparticle size. Then the effects of the printing and post-processing parameters on the conductivity are examined. It is found that post-processing is a dominant factor in determining the conductivity of the printed lines.« less

  12. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Auciello, O.

    1990-05-08

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams. 10 figs.

  13. Method of depositing epitaxial layers on a substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, Amit

    2003-12-30

    An epitaxial article and method for forming the same includes a substrate having a textured surface, and an electrochemically deposited substantially single orientation epitaxial layer disposed on and in contact with the textured surface. The epitaxial article can include an electromagnetically active layer and an epitaxial buffer layer. The electromagnetically active layer and epitaxial buffer layer can also be deposited electrochemically.

  14. Methods for making deposited films with improved microstructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patten, James W.; Moss, Ronald W.; McClanahan, Edwin D.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for improving microstructures of line-of-sight deposited films are described. Columnar growth defects ordinarily produced by geometrical shadowing during deposition of such films are eliminated without resorting to post-deposition thermal or mechanical treatments. The native, as-deposited coating qualities, including homogeneity, fine grain size, and high coating-to-substrate adherence, can thus be retained. The preferred method includes the steps of emitting material from a source toward a substrate to deposit a coating non-uniformly on the substrate surface, removing a portion of the coating uniformly over the surface, again depositing material onto the surface, but from a different direction, and repeating the foregoing steps. The quality of line-of-sight deposited films such as those produced by sputtering, progressively deteriorates as the angle of incidence between the flux and the surface becomes increasingly acute. Depositing non-uniformly, so that the coating becomes progressively thinner as quality deteriorates, followed by uniformly removing some of the coating, such as by resputtering, eliminates the poor quality portions, leaving only high quality portions of the coating. Subsequently sputtering from a different direction applies a high quality coating to other regions of the surface. Such steps can be performed either simultaneously or sequentially to apply coatings of a uniformly high quality, closed microstructure to three-dimensional or larger planar surfaces.

  15. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R.; Auciello, Orlando

    1990-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams.

  16. Electrophoretic deposition of composite hydroxyapatite-silica-chitosan coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandfield, K.; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2008-01-15

    Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method has been developed for the fabrication of nanocomposite silica-chitosan coatings. Cathodic deposits were obtained on various conductive substrates using suspensions of silica nanoparticles in a mixed ethanol-water solvent, containing dissolved chitosan. Co-deposition of silica and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles resulted in the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings. The deposition yield has been studied at a constant voltage mode at various deposition durations. The method enabled the formation of coatings of different thickness in the range of up to 100 {mu}m. Deposit composition, microstructure and porosity can be varied by variation of HA and silica concentration in the suspensions. It was demonstrated that EPD can be used for the fabrication of HA-silica-chitosan coatings of graded composition and laminates. The method enabled the deposition of coatings containing layers of silica-chitosan and HA-chitosan nanocomposites using suspensions with different HA and silica content. Obtained coatings were studied by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The mechanism of deposition is discussed.

  17. Electroplating method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruddy, Francis H.

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing ultralow-mass fissionable deposits for nuclear reactor dosimetry is described, including the steps of holding a radioactive parent until the radioactive parent reaches secular equilibrium with a daughter isotope, chemically separating the daughter from the parent, electroplating the daughter on a suitable substrate, and holding the electroplated daughter until the daughter decays to the fissionable deposit.

  18. Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowden, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide.

  19. Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansure, A.J.; Spates, J.J.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-10-27

    Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated. 5 figs.

  20. Method of and apparatus for determining deposition-point temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansure, Arthur J.; Spates, James J.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Acoustic-wave sensor apparatus and method for analyzing a normally liquid petroleum-based composition for monitoring deposition-point temperature. The apparatus includes at least one acoustic-wave device such as SAW, QCM, FPM, TSM or APM type devices in contact with the petroleum-based composition for sensing or detecting the surface temperature at which deposition occurs and/or rate of deposition as a function of temperature by sensing an accompanying change in frequency, phase shift, damping voltage or damping current of an electrical oscillator to a known calibrated condition. The acoustic wave device is actively cooled to monitor the deposition of constituents such as paraffins by determining the point at which solids from the liquid composition begin to form on the acoustic wave device. The acoustic wave device can be heated to melt or boil off the deposits to reset the monitor and the process can be repeated.

  1. How to make deposition of images a reality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guss, J. Mitchell; McMahon, Brian

    2014-10-01

    An analysis is performed of the technical and financial challenges to be overcome if deposition of primary experimental data is to become routine. The IUCr Diffraction Data Deposition Working Group is investigating the rationale and policies for routine deposition of diffraction images (and other primary experimental data sets). An information-management framework is described that should inform policy directions, and some of the technical and other issues that need to be addressed in an effort to achieve such a goal are analysed. In the near future, routine data deposition could be encouraged at one of the growing number of institutional repositories that accept data sets or at a generic data-publishing web repository service. To realise all of the potential benefits of depositing diffraction data, specialized archives would be preferable. Funding such an initiative will be challenging.

  2. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  3. Risk assessment based on point source deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chadwick, G.F.

    1997-12-31

    The International Joint Commission (IJC) in a recently published report states that various clean-up techniques have resulted in significantly cleaner lakes than 20 years ago. Both the US EPA and Environment Canada have passed laws that require emissions controls on significant sources of contaminants. Improved emission controls have played a large part in the reduced pollution levels to the Great Lakes. Improved controls have significantly reduced the pollutants deposited to both land and water. This paper will discuss a Risk Analysis for the emissions from a Hospital in Rochester, New York. Current New York Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) regulations require emission controls on such incinerators. This hospital has added both a scrubber and a bag house to control emissions. Twenty years ago, such incinerators, like many other emission sources would not have had control devices. New York`s Department of Environmental Conservation requires, as part of the Permitting process, that an Impact Analysis and if required, a multipathway Health Risk Assessment (HRA) be performed for all Medical Waste Incinerators before a Permit can be issued. This insures that the emissions will not create a health hazard to humans. Such an analysis was performed for a new 1,000 lb/hr Medical Waste Incinerator (MWI) installed in the North-East part of Rochester, New York. An Air Quality Impact Assessment (AQIA) based on an actual stack test indicated that this facility`s dioxin emissions would exceed the NY DEC Guideline levels. The Carcinogenic Risk (of death) for our most exposed individual (MEI) was calculated to be 8.75 E{sup {minus}06} (<1:100,000). The Hazard Index calculated for this MEI was 0.43. Hazard Index`s less then 1 are considered a reasonable risk. Health risk assessments are by design, very conservative. EPA sources have concluded that calculated death risks between one (1) and one hundred (100) per million are not excessive.

  4. Fluorine contamination in yttrium-doped barium zirconate film deposited by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An Jihwan; Beom Kim, Young; Sun Park, Joong; Hyung Shim, Joon; Guer, Turgut M.; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2012-01-15

    The authors have investigated the change of chemical composition, crystallinity, and ionic conductivity in fluorine contaminated yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BYZ) fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). It has been identified that fluorine contamination can significantly affect the conductivity of the ALD BYZ. The authors have also successfully established the relationship between process temperature and contamination and the source of fluorine contamination, which was the perfluoroelastomer O-ring used for vacuum sealing. The total removal of fluorine contamination was achieved by using all-metal sealed chamber instead of O-ring seals.

  5. Vacuum deposited polymer/metal films for optical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Affinito, J.D.; Martin, P.M.; Gross, M.E.; Coronado, C.; Greenwell, E.

    1995-04-01

    Vacuum deposited Polymer/Silver/Polymer reflectors and Tantalum/Polymer/Aluminum Fabry-Perot interference filters were fabricated in a vacuun web coating operation on polyester substrates with a new, high speed deposition process. Reflectivities were measured in the wavelength range from 0.3 to 0.8{mu}m. This new vacuum processing technique has been shown to be capable of deposition line speeds in excess of 500 linear meters/minute. Central to this technique is a new position process for the high rate deposition of polymer films. This polymer process involves the flash evaporation of an acrylic monomer onto a moving substrate. The monomer is subsequently cured by an electron beam or ultraviolet light. This high speed polymer film deposition process has been named the PML process -- for Polymer Multi-Layer. Also, vacuum deposited, index matched, polymer/CaF{sub 2} composites were fabricated from monomer slurries that were subsequently cured with LTV light. This second technique is called the Liquid Multi-Layer (or LML) process. Each of these polymer processes is compatible with each other and with conventional vacuum deposition processes such as sputtering or evaporation.

  6. Atomic and molecular layer deposition for surface modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vh-Nissi, Mika; Sievnen, Jenni; Salo, Erkki; Heikkil, Pirjo; Kentt, Eija; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koskinen, Jorma T.; Harlin, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD and MLD, respectively) techniques are based on repeated cycles of gassolid surface reactions. A partial monolayer of atoms or molecules is deposited to the surface during a single deposition cycle, enabling tailored film composition in principle down to molecular resolution on ideal surfaces. Typically ALD/MLD has been used for applications where uniform and pinhole free thin film is a necessity even on 3D surfaces. However, thin even non-uniform atomic and molecular deposited layers can also be used to tailor the surface characteristics of different non-ideal substrates. For example, print quality of inkjet printing on polymer films and penetration of water into porous nonwovens can be adjusted with low-temperature deposited metal oxide. In addition, adhesion of extrusion coated biopolymer to inorganic oxides can be improved with a hybrid layer based on lactic acid. - Graphical abstract: Print quality of a polylactide film surface modified with atomic layer deposition prior to inkjet printing (360 dpi) with an aqueous ink. Number of printed dots illustrated as a function of 0, 5, 15 and 25 deposition cycles of trimethylaluminum and water. - Highlights: ALD/MLD can be used to adjust surface characteristics of films and fiber materials. Hydrophobicity after few deposition cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to e.g. complex formation. Same effect on cellulosic fabrics observed with low temperature deposited TiO{sub 2}. Different film growth and oxidation potential with different precursors. Hybrid layer on inorganic layer can be used to improve adhesion of polymer melt.

  7. Deposition and diagenesis in a marine-to-evaporite sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, R.S.; Posey, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Wolfcamp-to-Wichita lithologic transition provides an excellent record of the depositional and diagenetic processes that occur as depositional environments change from normal marine to marine evaporite. In this book, depositional and diagenetic sequences were established from lithologic and mineralogic examinations of core and thin section, and geochemical conditions were interpreted from isotopic (C, O, S, and Sr) compositions of calcite, dolomite, and anhydrite. The age of the Wolfcamp-Wichita transition was determined using sulfur and strontium isotopic chronostratigraphy. The timing of formation of various types of anhydrite was inferred from textural and isotopic relations between anhydrite varieties and the host carbonate rocks.

  8. Patterned electrochemical deposition of copper using an electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heijer, Mark den; Shao, Ingrid; Reuter, Mark C.; Ross, Frances M.; Radisic, Alex

    2014-02-01

    We describe a technique for patterning clusters of metal using electrochemical deposition. By operating an electrochemical cell in the transmission electron microscope, we deposit Cu on Au under potentiostatic conditions. For acidified copper sulphate electrolytes, nucleation occurs uniformly over the electrode. However, when chloride ions are added there is a range of applied potentials over which nucleation occurs only in areas irradiated by the electron beam. By scanning the beam we control nucleation to form patterns of deposited copper. We discuss the mechanism for this effect in terms of electron beam-induced reactions with copper chloride, and consider possible applications.

  9. Cathodic deposition of amorphous alloys of silicon, carbon, and fluorine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, C.H.; Kroger, F.A.

    1982-05-01

    Amorphous silicon containing fluorine and carbon, pure and doped with boron or phosphorus, was deposited cathodically from solutions of K/sub 2/SiF/sub 6/ in acetone with HF. The conditions for optimum deposition were determined, and the deposits were characterized by electron microprobe x-ray emission, electrical conductivity, and infrared absorption. Doping with phosphorus causes a change from p- to n-type semiconductor behavior, with a maximum of resistivity >10/sup 13/ /OMEGA/ cm at the compensation point. 48 refs.

  10. Method for depositing high-quality microcrystalline semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi C.; Yan, Baojie

    2011-03-08

    A process for the plasma deposition of a layer of a microcrystalline semiconductor material is carried out by energizing a process gas which includes a precursor of the semiconductor material and a diluent with electromagnetic energy so as to create a plasma therefrom. The plasma deposits a layer of the microcrystalline semiconductor material onto the substrate. The concentration of the diluent in the process gas is varied as a function of the thickness of the layer of microcrystalline semiconductor material which has been deposited. Also disclosed is the use of the process for the preparation of an N-I-P type photovoltaic device.

  11. Microstructural and optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnO deposited onto vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by physical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borkar, Tushar; Chang, Won Seok; Hwang, Jun Yeon; Shepherd, Nigel D.; Banerjee, Rajarshi

    2012-10-15

    Nanocrystalline ZnO films with thicknesses of 5 nm, 10 nm, 20 nm, and 50 nm were deposited via magnetron sputtering onto the surface of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The ZnO/CNTs heterostructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. No structural degradation of the CNTs was observed and photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the nanostructured ZnO layers show that the optical properties of these films are typical of ZnO deposited at low temperatures. The results indicate that magnetron sputtering is a viable technique for growing heterostructures and depositing functional layers onto CNTs.

  12. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John; Bhardwaj, Sunil; Cepek, Cinzia

    2014-04-14

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  13. High-rate reactive sputter deposition of zirconium dioxide (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The films are deposited by sputtering a Zr target in an oxygen--argon plasma. The Zr target remains in the metallic state. The films are characterized by measuring the ...

  14. Electrostatic particle trap for ion beam sputter deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, Stephen P.; Burkhart, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the interception and trapping of or reflection of charged particulate matter generated in ion beam sputter deposition. The apparatus involves an electrostatic particle trap which generates electrostatic fields in the vicinity of the substrate on which target material is being deposited. The electrostatic particle trap consists of an array of electrode surfaces, each maintained at an electrostatic potential, and with their surfaces parallel or perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. The method involves interception and trapping of or reflection of charged particles achieved by generating electrostatic fields in the vicinity of the substrate, and configuring the fields to force the charged particulate material away from the substrate. The electrostatic charged particle trap enables prevention of charged particles from being deposited on the substrate thereby enabling the deposition of extremely low defect density films, such as required for reflective masks of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system.

  15. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films Citation Details ... DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type: Patent Research Org: LANL (Los Alamos ...

  16. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brian, Riley; Szreders, Bernard E.

    1989-01-01

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (approximately 1100.degree.-1300.degree. C.) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20-50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  17. Method of depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured metal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    eu; gd; tb; tm; resup1subx; resup2sub1-xsub2; osub3; buffer; layer; deposited; sol-gel; metal-organic; decomposition; laminate; article; layer; ybco; resup1subx; ...

  18. Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro

    2015-02-03

    Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.

  19. Methods of coping with silica deposition - the PNOC experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candelaria, M.N.R.; Garcia, S.E.; Baltazar, A.D.J. Jr.; Solis, R.P.

    1996-12-31

    Several methods of coping with silica deposition from geothermal waters have been undertaken by PNOC-EDC to maximize Power Output from these fluids. Initially, the problem of amorphous silica deposition in surface pipelines and the reinjection well was prevented by operating the production separators at pressures higher or equal to amorphous silica saturation. However, increasing demands for additional power and stringent environmental controls have dictated the need to find alternative methods of coping with silica deposition. Several options have been studied and tested to be able to optimize fluid utilization for production. These include: acid treatment polymerization and deposition of silica in surface ponds or sumps, and chemical inhibition. As each brine is unique, methodologies used for mitigation of the silica problem have been varied.

  20. Geology of the Florida Canyon gold deposit, Pershing County,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pershing County, Nevada, in: Gold and Silver Deposits of Western Nevada Authors Hastings, J.S., Burkhart, T.H., and Richardson and R.E. Published Geological Society of Nevada 1993...

  1. Fabrication of solid oxide fuel cell by electrochemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riley, B.; Szreders, B.E.

    1988-04-26

    In a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), the deposition of an impervious high density thin layer of electrically conductive interconnector material, such as magnesium doped lanthanum chromite, and of an electrolyte material, such as yttria stabilized zirconia, onto a porous support/air electrode substrate surface is carried out at high temperatures (/approximately/1100/degree/ /minus/ 1300/degree/C) by a process of electrochemical vapor deposition. In this process, the mixed chlorides of the specific metals involved react in the gaseous state with water vapor resulting in the deposit of an impervious thin oxide layer on the support tube/air electrode substrate of between 20--50 microns in thickness. An internal heater, such as a heat pipe, is placed within the support tube/air electrode substrate and induces a uniform temperature profile therein so as to afford precise and uniform oxide deposition kinetics in an arrangement which is particularly adapted for large scale, commercial fabrication of SOFCs.

  2. Programmable nanometer-scale electrolytic metal deposition and depletion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu; Greenbaum, Elias

    2002-09-10

    A method of nanometer-scale deposition of a metal onto a nanostructure includes the steps of: providing a substrate having thereon at least two electrically conductive nanostructures spaced no more than about 50 .mu.m apart; and depositing metal on at least one of the nanostructures by electric field-directed, programmable, pulsed electrolytic metal deposition. Moreover, a method of nanometer-scale depletion of a metal from a nanostructure includes the steps of providing a substrate having thereon at least two electrically conductive nanostructures spaced no more than about 50 .mu.m apart, at least one of the nanostructures having a metal disposed thereon; and depleting at least a portion of the metal from the nanostructure by electric field-directed, programmable, pulsed electrolytic metal depletion. A bypass circuit enables ultra-finely controlled deposition.

  3. Vanadium dioxide film protected with an atomic-layer-deposited...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In this work, the authors deposited an ultrathin Alsub 2Osub 3 film with atomic layer ... heated at 350 C. However, in a humid environment at prolonged durations, a thicker ALD ...

  4. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin ...

  5. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts: Connectors, bends anddeveloping flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2004-03-01

    In ventilation duct flow the turbulent flow profile is commonly disturbed or not fully developed and these conditions are likely to influence particle deposition to duct surfaces. Particle deposition rates at eight S-connectors, in two 90{sup o} duct bends and in two ducts where the turbulent flow profile was not fully developed were measured in a laboratory duct system with both galvanized steel and internally insulated ducts with hydraulic diameters of 15.2 cm. In the steel duct system, experiments with nominal particle diameters of 1, 3, 5, 9 and 16 {micro}m were conducted at each of three nominal air speeds: 2.2, 5.3 and 9.0 m/s. In the insulated duct system, deposition of particles with nominal diameters of 1, 3, 5, 8 and 13 {micro}m was measured at nominal air speeds of 2.2, 5.3 and 8.8 m/s. Fluorescent techniques were used to directly measure the deposition velocities of monodisperse fluorescent particles to duct surfaces. Deposition at S-connectors, in bends and in straight ducts with developing turbulence was often greater than deposition in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence for equal particle sizes, air speeds and duct surface orientations. Deposition rates at all locations were found to increase with an increase in particle size or air speed. High deposition rates at S-connectors resulted from impaction and these rates were nearly independent of the orientation of the S-connector. Deposition rates in the two 90{sup o} bends differed by more than an order of magnitude in some cases, probably because of the difference in turbulence conditions at the bend inlets. In straight steel ducts where the turbulent flow profile was developing, the deposition enhancement relative to fully developed turbulence generally increased with air speed and decreased with downstream distance from the duct inlet. This enhancement was greater at the duct ceiling and wall than at the duct floor. In insulated ducts, deposition enhancement was less pronounced overall

  6. Process for thin film deposition of cadmium sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muruska, H. Paul; Sansregret, Joseph L.; Young, Archie R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention teaches a process for depositing layers of cadmium sulfide. The process includes depositing a layer of cadmium oxide by spray pyrolysis of a cadmium salt in an aqueous or organic solvent. The oxide film is then converted into cadmium sulfide by thermal ion exchange of the O.sup.-2 for S.sup.-2 by annealing the oxide layer in gaseous sulfur at elevated temperatures.

  7. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

    2013-09-10

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  8. Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Blades -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Wind Energy Wind Energy Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Deposition of Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas Turbine Blades Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (825 KB) Technology Marketing SummarySandia has developed a method and apparatus for depositing thermal barrier coatings on gas turbine

  9. Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing of OLED Lighting | Department of Energy Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost Manufacturing of OLED Lighting Innovative High-Performance Deposition Technology for Low-Cost Manufacturing of OLED Lighting Lead Performer: OLEDWorks, LLC - Rochester, NY DOE Total Funding: $1,046,452 Cost Share: $1,046,452 Project Term: October 1, 2013 - December 31, 2015 Funding Opportunity: SSL Manufacturing R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-FOA-000079

  10. Molybdenum enhanced low-temperature deposition of crystalline silicon nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowden, R.A.

    1994-04-05

    A process for chemical vapor deposition of crystalline silicon nitride is described which comprises the steps of: introducing a mixture of a silicon source, a molybdenum source, a nitrogen source, and a hydrogen source into a vessel containing a suitable substrate; and thermally decomposing the mixture to deposit onto the substrate a coating comprising crystalline silicon nitride containing a dispersion of molybdenum silicide. 5 figures.

  11. 1987 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.

    1990-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1987 and spatial patterns for 1987. The report investigates the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Data are from the Acid Deposition System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data which includes the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), the MAP3S precipitation chemistry network, the Utility Acid Precipitation Study Program (UAPSP), the Canadian Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN), and the daily and 4-weekly Acidic Precipitation in Ontario Study (APIOS-D and APIOS-C). Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1987 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 39 sites over a 9-year (1979--1987) period and an expanded subset of 140 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 6-year (1982--1987) period. 68 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. 1986 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, A.R.

    1989-07-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1986 and spatial patterns for 1986. The report provides statistical distribution summaries of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. The data in the report are from the Acid Depositing System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data. Isopleth maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1986 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 30 sites over an 8-year (1979-1986) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 5-year (1982-1986) period. The 8-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data unavailable that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. 19 refs., 105 figs., 29 tabs.

  13. Process maps for plasma spray. Part II: Deposition and properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    XIANGYANG,JIANG; MATEJICEK,JIRI; KULKARNI,ANAND; HERMAN,HERBERT; SAMPATH,SANJAY; GILMORE,DELWYN L.; NEISER JR.,RICHARD A

    2000-03-28

    This is the second paper of a two part series based on an integrated study carried out at the State University of New York at Stony Brook and Sandia National Laboratories. The goal of the study is the fundamental understanding of the plasma-particle interaction, droplet/substrate interaction, deposit formation dynamics and microstructure development as well as the deposit property. The outcome is science-based relationships, which can be used to link processing to performance. Molybdenum splats and coatings produced at 3 plasma conditions and three substrate temperatures were characterized. It was found that there is a strong mechanical/thermal interaction between droplet and substrate, which builds up the coatings/substrate adhesion. Hardness, thermal conductivity, and modulus increase, while oxygen content and porosity decrease with increasing particle velocity. Increasing deposition temperature resulted in dramatic improvement in coating thermal conductivity and hardness as well as increase in coating oxygen content. Indentation reveals improved fracture resistance for the coatings prepared at higher deposition temperature. Residual stress was significantly affected by deposition temperature, although not significant by particle energy within the investigated parameter range. Coatings prepared at high deposition temperature with high-energy particles suffered considerably less damage in wear tests. Possible mechanisms behind these changes are discussed within the context of relational maps which are under development.

  14. Natural mercury isotope variation in coal deposits and organic soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abir, Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bridget A. Bergquist; Gerald J. Keeler; Zhouqing Xie

    2008-11-15

    There is a need to distinguish among sources of Hg to the atmosphere in order to more fully understand global Hg pollution. In this study we investigate whether coal deposits within the United States, China, and Russia-Kazakhstan, which are three of the five greatest coal-producing regions, have diagnostic Hg isotopic fingerprints that can be used to discriminate among Hg sources. We also investigate the Hg isotopic composition of modern organic soil horizons developed in areas distant from point sources of Hg in North America. Mercury stored in coal deposits displays a wide range of both mass dependent fractionation and mass independent fractionation. {delta}{sup 202}Hg varies in coals by 3{per_thousand} and {Delta}{sup 201}Hg varies by 0.9{per_thousand}. Combining these two Hg isotope signals results in what may be a unique isotopic 'fingerprint' for many coal deposits. Mass independent fractionation of mercury has been demonstrated to occur during photochemical reactions of mercury. This suggests that Hg found in most coal deposits was subjected to photochemical reduction near the Earth's surface prior to deposition. The similarity in MDF and MIF of modern organic soils and coals from North America suggests that Hg deposition from coal may have imprinted an isotopic signature on soils. This research offers a new tool for characterizing mercury inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere and provides new insights into the geochemistry of mercury in coal and soils. 35 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Depositional patterns of kerogen, Atlantic Margin, North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armentrout, J.M.

    1985-02-01

    Geochemical and biostratigraphic data from offshore wells along the Atlantic margin of North America define a depositional history dominated by coastal-plain and shallow-shelf facies containing degraded and residual continent-derived kerogen. Exceptions to this generalization are 4 depositional facies containing hydrogen-rich amorphous kerogen assemblages. The rocks containing hydrogen-rich amorphous kerogen assemblages are: (1) Upper Jurassic inner-shelf facies probably deposited in algal-rich lagoonlike environments, (2) Lower Cretaceous nonmarine coaly facies, probably deposited in algal-rich swamplike environments, (3) middle Cretaceous abyssal-plain facies probably deposited by turbidity currents that originated on an algal-rich slope, and (4) Miocene outer-shelf to upper-slope facies probably deposited under algal-rich upwelling systems. Correlations of these facies to seismic packages allows for extrapolation of probable organic facies distribution throughout the continental margin. Such modeling of organic facies distributions in conjunction with plate-tectonic and ocean-circulation models permits refinement of strategies for hydrocarbon exploration.

  16. Analysis of gallium arsenide deposition in a horizontal chemical vapor deposition reactor using massively parallel computations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salinger, A.G.; Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the deposition of gallium from trimethylgallium (TMG) and arsine in a horizontal CVD reactor with tilted susceptor and a three inch diameter rotating substrate is performed. The three-dimensional model includes complete coupling between fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and species transport, and is solved using an unstructured finite element discretization on a massively parallel computer. The effects of three operating parameters (the disk rotation rate, inlet TMG fraction, and inlet velocity) and two design parameters (the tilt angle of the reactor base and the reactor width) on the growth rate and uniformity are presented. The nonlinear dependence of the growth rate uniformity on the key operating parameters is discussed in detail. Efficient and robust algorithms for massively parallel reacting flow simulations, as incorporated into our analysis code MPSalsa, make detailed analysis of this complicated system feasible.

  17. Ground Gravity Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Schaefer...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    m of alluvial and lacustrine deposits. The model also indicated that the central depression of the valley is offset to the west closer to the Stillwater Range. References...

  18. Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate ... Title: Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and ...

  19. Underpotential Deposition-Mediated Layer-by-Layer Growth of Thin...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First a monolayer of a sacrificial base metal such as copper or lead is deposited onto a ... Description This invention utilizes copper underpotential deposition (UPD) potential ...

  20. Deposition of cobalt atoms onto Alq 3 films: A molecular dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Deposition of cobalt atoms onto Alq 3 films: A molecular dynamics study Prev Next Title: Deposition of cobalt atoms onto Alq 3 films: A molecular dynamics study Authors: ...

  1. Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Simon; Langford, Alison A.

    1989-01-01

    Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate.

  2. Method and apparatus for removing and preventing window deposition during photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, S.; Langford, A.A.

    1989-03-28

    Unwanted build-up of the film deposited on the transparent light-transmitting window of a photochemical vacuum deposition (photo-CVD) chamber is eliminated by flowing an etchant into the part of the photolysis region in the chamber immediately adjacent the window and remote from the substrate and from the process gas inlet. The respective flows of the etchant and the process gas are balanced to confine the etchant reaction to the part of the photolysis region proximate to the window and remote from the substrate. The etchant is preferably one that etches film deposit on the window, does not etch or affect the window itself, and does not produce reaction by-products that are deleterious to either the desired film deposited on the substrate or to the photolysis reaction adjacent the substrate. 3 figs.

  3. Ash Deposit Formation and Deposit Properties. A Comprehensive Summary of Research Conducted at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry L. Baxter

    2000-08-01

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work performed at Sandia's Combustion Research Facility over the past eight years on the fate of inorganic material during coal combustion. This work has been done under four broad categories: coal characterization, fly ash formation, ash deposition, and deposit property development. The objective was to provide sufficient understanding of these four areas to be able to predict coal behavior in current and advanced conversion systems. This work has led to new characterization techniques for fuels that provide, for the first time, systematic and species specific information regarding the inorganic material. The transformations of inorganic material during combustion can be described in terms of the net effects of the transformations of these individual species. Deposit formation mechanisms provide a framework for predicting deposition rates for abroad range of particle sizes. Predictions based on these rates many times are quite accurate although there are important exceptions. A rigorous framework for evaluating deposit has been established. Substantial data have been obtained with which to exercise this framework, but this portion of the work is less mature than is any other. Accurate prediction of deposit properties as functions of fuel properties, boiler design, and boiler operating conditions represents the single most critical area where additional research is needed.

  4. Uranium deposition study on aluminum: results of early tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, M.R.; Nolan, T.A.

    1984-06-19

    Laboratory experiments to quantify uranium compound deposition on Aluminum 3003 test coupons have been initiated. These experiments consist of exposing the coupons to normal assay UF/sub 6/ (0.7% /sup 235/U) in nickel reaction vessels under various conditions of UF/sub 6/ pressure, temperature, and time. To-date, runs from 5 minutes to 2000 hr have been completed at a UF/sub 6/ pressure of 100 torr and at a temperature of 60/sup 0/C. Longer exposure times are in progress. Initial results indicated that a surface film of uranium, primarily as uranyl fluoride (UO/sub 2/F/sub 2/), is deposited very soon after exposure to UF/sub 6/. In a five minute UF/sub 6/ exposure at a temperature of 60/sup 0/C, an average of 2.9 ..mu..g U/cm/sup 2/ was deposited; after 24 hr the deposit typically increased to 5.0 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/ and then increased to 10.4 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2/ after 2000 hr. This amount of deposit (at 2000 hr exposure) would contribute roughly 10 to 20% to the total 186 keV gamma signal obtained from a GCEP product header pipe being operated at UF/sub 6/ pressures of 2 to 5 torr. The amount of isotopic exchange which would occur in the deposit in the event that HEU and LEU productions were alternated is considered. It is felt that isotopic exchange would not occur to any significant amount within the fixed deposit during relatively short HEU production periods since the HEU would be present primarily as adsorbed UF/sub 6/ molecules on the surface of the deposit. The adsorbed HEU molecules would be removed by evacuation and diluted by LEU production. Major increases in the deposit count would be observed if a leak occurred or moisture was introduced into the system while HEU was being produced.

  5. Concept for lightweight spaced-based deposition technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fulton, Michael; Anders, Andre

    2006-02-28

    In this contribution we will describe a technology path to very high quality coatings fabricated in the vacuum of space. To accomplish the ambitious goals set out in NASA's Lunar-Mars proposal, advanced thin-film deposition technology will be required. The ability to deposit thin-film coatings in the vacuum of lunar-space could be extremely valuable for executing this new space mission. Developing lightweight space-based deposition technology (goal:<300 g, including power supply) will enable the future fabrication and repair of flexible large-area space antennae and fixed telescope mirrors for lunar-station observatories. Filtered Cathodic Arc (FCA) is a proven terrestrial energetic thin-film deposition technology that does not need any processing gas but is well suited for ultra-high vacuum operation. Recently, miniaturized cathodic arcs have already been developed and considered for space propulsion. It is proposed to combine miniaturized pulsed FCA technology and robotics to create a robust, enabling space-based deposition system for the fabrication, improvement, and repair of thin films, especially of silver and aluminum, on telescope mirrors and eventually on large area flexible substrates. Using miniature power supplies with inductive storage, the typical low-voltage supply systems used in space are adequate. It is shown that high-value, small area coatings are within the reach of existing technology, while medium and large area coatings are challenging in terms of lightweight technology and economics.

  6. Electron microscopy study of direct laser deposited IN718

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, R.G.; Huang, Z.W.; Li, H.Y.; Mitchell, I.; Baxter, G.; Bowen, P.

    2015-08-15

    The microstructure of direct laser deposited (DLD) IN718 has been investigated in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results confirm that the dendrite core microstructure can be linked to the cooling rate experienced during the deposition. A ~ 100 μm wide δ partially dissolved region in the IN718 substrate was observed close to the substrate/deposit boundary. In the deposited IN718, γ/Laves eutectic constituent is the predominant minor microconstituent. Irregular and regular (small) (Nb,Ti)C carbides and a mixture of the carbides and Laves were observed. Most M{sub 3}B{sub 2} borides were nucleated around a (Nb,Ti)C carbide. Needles of δ phase precipitated from the Laves phase were also observed. A complex constituent (of Laves, δ, α-Cr, γ″, and γ matrix) is reported in IN718 for the first time. The formation of α-Cr particles could be related to Cr rejection during the formation and growth of Cr-depleted δ phase. - Highlights: • Secondary phases in IN718 deposits were identified using electron diffraction and EDS. • MC, M{sub 3}B{sub 2}, γ/Laves eutectic and γ/NbC/Laves eutectic were observed. • Needle-like δ phases were precipitated from the Laves phase. • A complex constituent (Laves, δ, α-Cr, γ″ and γ) was reported for the first time.

  7. MODELING OF THERMOPHORETIC SOOT DEPOSITION ANDHYDROCARBON CONDENSATION IN EGR COOLERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abarham, Mehdi; Hoard, John W.; Assanis, Dennis; Styles, Dan; Curtis, Eric W.; Ramesh, Nitia; Sluder, Scott; Storey, John Morse

    2009-01-01

    EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40-90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature. Thermal properties of fouled layer are calculated based on mass fraction of deposited soot and hydrocarbons. The experiments with the same conditions ran to validate the model. Hot EGR gases flow through the inner pipe and the coolant circulates around it in the outer pipe to keep a constant wall temperature. Effectiveness, deposited soot mass, condensed hydrocarbon mass, and pressure drop across the cooler are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a reasonably good agreement with the experimental results although there are some fields that need to be studied in future to improve the model.

  8. Nanosecond laser-induced phase transitions in pulsed laser deposition-deposited GeTe films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xinxing Thelander, Erik; Lorenz, Pierre; Gerlach, Jürgen W.; Decker, Ulrich; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2014-10-07

    Phase transformations between amorphous and crystalline states induced by irradiation of pulsed laser deposition grown GeTe thin films with nanosecond laser pulses at 248 nm and pulse duration of 20 ns are studied. Structural and optical properties of the Ge-Te phase-change films were studied by X-ray diffraction and optical reflectivity measurements as a function of the number of laser pulses between 0 and 30 pulses and of the laser fluence up to 195 mJ/cm². A reversible phase transition by using pulse numbers ≥ 5 at a fluence above the threshold fluence between 11 and 14 mJ/cm² for crystallization and single pulses at a fluence between 162 and 182 mJ/cm² for amorphization could be proved. For laser fluences from 36 up to 130 mJ/cm², a high optical contrast of 14.7% between the amorphous and crystalline state is measured. A simple model is used that allows the discussion on the distribution of temperature in dependency on the laser fluence.

  9. Plasma deposited diamond-like carbon films for large neutralarrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, I.G.; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Galvin, J.E.; Monteiro, O.R.; Sangyuenyongpipat, S.

    2004-07-15

    To understand how large systems of neurons communicate, we need to develop methods for growing patterned networks of large numbers of neurons. We have found that diamond-like carbon thin films formed by energetic deposition from a filtered vacuum arc carbon plasma can serve as ''neuron friendly'' substrates for the growth of large neural arrays. Lithographic masks can be used to form patterns of diamond-like carbon, and regions of selective neuronal attachment can form patterned neural arrays. In the work described here, we used glass microscope slides as substrates on which diamond-like carbon was deposited. PC-12 rat neurons were then cultured on the treated substrates and cell growth monitored. Neuron growth showed excellent contrast, with prolific growth on the treated surfaces and very low growth on the untreated surfaces. Here we describe the vacuum arc plasma deposition technique employed, and summarize results demonstrating that the approach can be used to form large patterns of neurons.

  10. The NSLS-II Multilayer Laue Lens Deposition System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conley, R.; Bouet, N.; Biancarosa, J.; Shen, Q.; Boas, L.; Feraca, J.; Rosenbaum, L.

    2009-08-02

    The NSLS-II[1] program has a requirement for an unprecedented level of x-ray nanofocusing and has selected the wedged multilayer Laue lens[2,3] (MLL) as the optic of choice to meet this goal. In order to fabricate the MLL a deposition system is required that is capable of depositing depth-graded and laterally-graded multilayers with precise thickness control over many thousands of layers, with total film growth in one run up to 100?m thick or greater. This machine design expounds on the positive features of a rotary deposition system[4] constructed previously for MLLs and will contain multiple stationary, horizontally-oriented magnetron sources where a transport will move a substrate back and forth in a linear fashion over shaped apertures at well-defined velocities to affect a multilayer coating.

  11. Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahan, Archie H.; Carapella, Jeffrey C.; Gallagher, Alan C.

    1995-01-01

    A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH.sub.4) over a high temperature, 2000.degree. C., tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400.degree. C., substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20-30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content.

  12. Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahan, A.H.; Carapella, J.C.; Gallagher, A.C.

    1995-03-14

    A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH{sub 4}) over a high temperature, 2,000 C, tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400 C, substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20--30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content. 7 figs.

  13. Low Speed Carbon Deposition Process for Hermetic Optical Fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ABRAMCZYK,JAROSLAW; ARTHUR,SARA E. TALLANT,DAVID R.; HIKANSSON,ADAM S.; LINDHOLM,ERIC A.; LO,JIE

    1999-09-29

    For optical fibers used in adverse environments, a carbon coating is frequently deposited on the fiber surface to prevent water and hydrogen ingression that lead respectively to strength degradation through fatigue and hydrogen-induced attenuation. The deposition of a hermetic carbon coating onto an optical fiber during the draw process holds a particular challenge when thermally-cured specialty coatings are subsequently applied because of the slower drawing rate. In this paper, we report on our efforts to improve the low-speed carbon deposition process by altering the composition and concentration of hydrocarbon precursor gases. The resulting carbon layers have been analyzed for electrical resistance, Raman spectra, coating thickness, and surface roughness, then compared to strength data and dynamic fatigue behavior.

  14. Influence of substrate temperature and deposition rate on the structure of erbium films deposited on glass and a -C substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savaloni, H.; Player, M.A.; Gu, E.; Marr, G.V. )

    1992-01-01

    The structure of erbium films of 600 nm thickness deposited onto carbon ({ital a}-C) and glass substrates at 0.55 and 2.5 nm/s deposition rates for varying substrate temperatures is investigated. The cross section and surface structures are examined by electron microscope. Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction is utilized for the structure analysis of these films. Results are compared with the results presented in H. Savaloni, M. A. Player, E. Gu, and G. V. Marr (to be published), for erbium films on molybdenum substrates. It is found that to produce films with strong preferred orientation on glass substrates low deposition rate (0.55 nm/s) is favorable. This is opposite to erbium on molybdenum substrates. The grain size of erbium films produced at higher deposition rate is much larger than those at lower deposition rate. The structure of thin films has implications for performance of multilayer reflectors, and preferred orientation may have other applications to x-ray instrumentation.

  15. Paragenesis and Geochronology of the Nopal I Uranium Deposit, Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Fayek; M. Ren

    2007-02-14

    Uranium deposits can, by analogy, provide important information on the long-term performance of radioactive waste forms and radioactive waste repositories. Their complex mineralogy and variable elemental and isotopic compositions can provide important information, provided that analyses are obtained on the scale of several micrometers. Here, we present a structural model of the Nopal I deposit as well as petrography at the nanoscale coupled with preliminary U-Th-Pb ages and O isotopic compositions of uranium-rich minerals obtained by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). This multi-technique approach promises to provide ''natural system'' data on the corrosion rate of uraninite, the natural analogue of spent nuclear fuel.

  16. Atomic Layer Deposition of L-Alanine Polypeptide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fu, Yaqin; Li, Binsong; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Dunphy, Darren R.; Tsai, Andy; Tam, Siu-Yue; Fan, Hongyou Y.; Zhang, Hongxia; Rogers, David; Rempe, Susan; et al

    2014-10-30

    L-Alanine polypeptide thin films were synthesized via atomic layer deposition (ALD). Rather, instead of using an amino acid monomer as the precursor, an L-alanine amino acid derivatized with a protecting group was used to prevent self-polymerization, increase the vapor pressure, and allow linear cycle-by-cycle growth emblematic of ALD. Moreover, the successful deposition of a conformal polypeptide film has been confirmed by FTIR, TEM, and Mass Spectrometry, and the ALD process has been extended to polyvaline.

  17. Practical silicon deposition rules derived from silane monitoring during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartlome, Richard De Wolf, Stefaan; Demaurex, Bénédicte; Ballif, Christophe; Amanatides, Eleftherios; Mataras, Dimitrios

    2015-05-28

    We clarify the difference between the SiH{sub 4} consumption efficiency η and the SiH{sub 4} depletion fraction D, as measured in the pumping line and the actual reactor of an industrial plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. In the absence of significant polysilane and powder formation, η is proportional to the film growth rate. Above a certain powder formation threshold, any additional amount of SiH{sub 4} consumed translates into increased powder formation rather than into a faster growing Si film. In order to discuss a zero-dimensional analytical model and a two-dimensional numerical model, we measure η as a function of the radio frequency (RF) power density coupled into the plasma, the total gas flow rate, the input SiH{sub 4} concentration, and the reactor pressure. The adjunction of a small trimethylboron flow rate increases η and reduces the formation of powder, while the adjunction of a small disilane flow rate decreases η and favors the formation of powder. Unlike η, D is a location-dependent quantity. It is related to the SiH{sub 4} concentration in the plasma c{sub p}, and to the phase of the growing Si film, whether the substrate is glass or a c-Si wafer. In order to investigate transient effects due to the RF matching, the precoating of reactor walls, or the introduction of a purifier in the gas line, we measure the gas residence time and acquire time-resolved SiH{sub 4} density measurements throughout the ignition and the termination of a plasma.

  18. Method of deposition of silicon carbide layers on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angelini, P.; DeVore, C.E.; Lackey, W.J.; Blanco, R.E.; Stinton, D.P.

    1982-03-19

    A method for direct chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide to substrates, especially nuclear waste particles, is provided by the thermal decomposition of methylsilane at 800 to 1050/sup 0/C when the substrates have been confined within a suitable coating environment.

  19. Enhanced selectivity of zeolites by controlled carbon deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.; Kartin, Mutlu

    2006-05-09

    A method for carbonizing a zeolite comprises depositing a carbon coating on the zeolite pores by flowing an inert carrier gas stream containing isoprene through a regenerated zeolite at elevated temperature. The carbonized zeolite is useful for the separation of light hydrocarbon mixtures due to size exclusion and the differential adsorption properties of the carbonized zeolite.

  20. Tritium labeling of organic compounds deposited on porous structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ehrenkaufer, Richard L. E.; Wolf, Alfred P.; Hembree, Wylie C.

    1979-01-01

    An improved process for labeling organic compounds with tritium is carried out by depositing the selected compound on the extensive surface of a porous structure such as a membrane filter and exposing the membrane containing the compound to tritium gas activated by the microwave discharge technique. The labeled compound is then recovered from the porous structure.

  1. Molecular layer deposition of alucone films using trimethylaluminum and hydroquinone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, Devika; Sarkar, Shaibal K.; Mahuli, Neha

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid organicinorganic polymer film grown by molecular layer deposition (MLD) is demonstrated here. Sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum [Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] and hydroquinone [C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}] are used to deposit the polymeric films, which is a representative of a class of aluminum oxide polymers known as alucones. In-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies are employed to determine the growth characteristics. An average growth rate of 4.1 per cycle at 150?C is obtained by QCM and subsequently verified with x-ray reflectivity measurements. Surface chemistry during each MLD-half cycle is studied in depth by in-situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) vibration spectroscopy. Self limiting nature of the reaction is confirmed from both QCM and FTIR measurements. The conformal nature of the deposit, typical for atomic layer deposition and MLD, is verified with transmission electron microscopy imaging. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements confirm the uniform elemental distribution along the depth of the films.

  2. Deposition of biological aerosols on HVAC heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Ian

    2001-09-01

    Many biologically active materials are transported as bioaerosols 1-10 {micro}m in diameter. These particles can deposit on cooling and heating coils and lead to serious indoor air quality problems. This paper investigates several of the mechanisms that lead to aerosol deposition on fin and tube heat exchangers. A model has been developed that incorporates the effects of several deposition mechanisms, including impaction, Brownian and turbulent diffusion, turbophoresis, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, and gravitational settling. The model is applied to a typical range of air velocities that are found in commercial and residential HVAC systems 1 - 6 m/s (200 - 1200 ft/min), particle diameters from 1 - 8 {micro}m, and fin spacings from 3.2 - 7.9 fins/cm (8 - 16 fins/inch or FPI). The results from the model are compared to results from an experimental apparatus that directly measures deposition on a 4.7 fins/cm (12 FPI) coil. The model agrees reasonably well with this measured data and suggests that cooling coils are an important sink for biological aerosols and consequently a potential source of indoor air quality problems.

  3. Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1991-10-29

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figures.

  4. Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, P.L.; Giammarise, A.W.

    1995-02-21

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice`s interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas. 2 figs.

  5. Apparatus for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, Paul L.; Giammarise, Anthony W.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance to erosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

  6. Nuclear stopping and energy deposition into the central rapidity region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zingman, J.A.

    1987-08-03

    Nuclear stopping and energy deposition into the central rapidity region of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions are studied through the application of a model incorporating hydrodynamic baryon flow coupled to a self-consistent field calculated in the flux tube model. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions are modeled in which the nuclei have passed through each other and as a result are charged and heated.

  7. Nitrogen Deposition: A Component of Global Change Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norby, Richard J.

    1997-12-31

    The global cycles of carbon and nitrogen are being perturbed by human activities that increase the transfer from large pools of nonreactive forms of the elements to reactive forms that are essential to the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere. The cycles are closely linked at all scales, and global change analyses must consider carbon and nitrogen cycles together. The increasing amount of nitrogen originating from fossil fuel combustion and deposited to terrestrial ecosystems as nitrogen oxides could increase the capacity of ecosystems to sequester carbon thereby removing some of the excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and slowing the development of greenhouse warming. Several global and ecosystem models have calculated the amount of carbon sequestration that can be attributed to nitrogen deposition based on assumptions about the allocation of nitrogen among ecosystem components with different carbon-nitrogen ratios. They support the premise that nitrogen deposition is responsible for a an increasing terrestrial carbon sink since industrialization began, but there are large uncertainties related to the continued capacity of ecosystems to retain exogenous nitrogen. Whether terrestrial ecosystems continue to sequester additional carbon will depend in part on their response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, which is widely thought to be constrained by limited nitrogen availability. Ecosystem models generally support the conclusion that the responses of ecosystems to increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide will be larger, and the range of possible responses will be wider, in ecosystems with increased nitrogen inputs originating as atmospheric deposition.

  8. R&D ERL: Photocathode Deposition and Transport System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pate, D.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, R.; Todd, R.; Smedley, J.; Holmes, D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the photocathode deposition and transport system is to (1) produce a robust, high yield multialkali photocathode and (2) have a method of transporting the multialkali photocathode for insertion into a super conducting RF electron gun. This process is only successful if a sufficient quantum efficiency lifetime of the cathode, which is inserted in the SRF electron gun, is maintained. One important element in producing a multialkali photocathode is the strict vacuum requirements of 10{sup -11} torr to assure success in the production of longlived photocathodes that will not have their QE or lifetime depleted due to residual gas poisoning in a poor vacuum. A cutaway view of our third generation deposition system is shown in figure 1. There are certain design criteria and principles required. One must be able to install, remove, rejuvenate and replace a cathode without exposing the source or cathode to atmosphere. The system must allow one to deposit Cs, K, and Sb on a cathode tip surface at pressures in the 10{sup -10} to 10{sup -9} torr range. The cathode needs to be heated to as high as 850 C for cleaning and maintained at 130 C to 150 C during deposition. There should also be the capability for in-situ QE measurements. In addition the preparation of dispenser photocathodes must be accounted for, thus requiring an ion source for cathode cleaning. Finally the transport cart must be mobile and be able to negotiate the ERL facility labyrinth.

  9. Direct chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuegang; Ismach, Ariel

    2014-04-29

    A substrate is provided that has a metallic layer on a substrate surface of a substrate. A film made of a two dimensional (2-D) material, such as graphene, is deposited on a metallic surface of the metallic layer. The metallic layer is dewet and/or removed to provide the film on the substrate surface.

  10. An Optimized Nanoparticle Separator Enabled by Electron Beam Induced Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Rack, P. D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Size based separations technologies will inevitably benefit from advances in nanotechnology. Direct write nanofabrication provides a useful mechanism to deposit/etch nanoscale elements in environments otherwise inaccessible to conventional nanofabrication techniques. Here, electron beam induced deposition (EBID) was used to deposit an array of nanoscale features in a 3D environment with minimal material proximity effects outside the beam interaction region (BIR). Specifically, the membrane component of a nanoparticle separator was fabricated by depositing a linear array of sharply tipped nanopillars, with a singular pitch, designed for sub 50nm nanoparticle permeability. The nanopillar membrane was used in a dual capacity to control the flow of nanoparticles in the transaxial direction of the array while facilitating the sealing of the cellular sized compartment in the paraxial direction. An optimized growth recipe resulted which (1) maximized the growth efficiency of the membrane (which minimizes proximity effects), (2) preserved the fidelity of spacing between nanopillars (which maximizes the size based gating quality of the membrane) while (3) maintaining sharp nanopillar apexes for impaling an optically transparent polymeric lid critical for device sealing.

  11. Development of Highly Selective Oxidation Catalysts by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to use Atomic Layer Deposition to construct nanostructured catalysts to improve the effectiveness of oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes. More effective catalysts could enable higher specific conversion rates and result in drastic energy savings - up to 25 trillion Btu per year by 2020.

  12. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.; Kodas, Toivo T.

    1994-01-01

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the field of film coating deposition techniques, and more particularly to the deposition of multicomponent metal oxide films by aerosol chemical vapor deposition. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  13. Deposition of cesium iodide on Parylene-N pellicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tassano, P.L.

    1985-09-01

    During the development of a photocathode for a streak camera, Cesium Iodide was vacuum coated onto Parylene-N pellicles. This paper outlines the handling and vacuum evaporation coating techniques which were used to deposit CsI upon Parylene-N and presents a comparison of results between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory produced foils and those which were commercially available. (AIP)

  14. Process for depositing hard coating in a nozzle orifice

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flynn, Paul L.; Giammarise, Anthony W.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for coating the interior surfaces of an orifice in a substrate that forms a slurry fuel injection nozzle. In a specific embodiment, the nozzle is part of a fuel injection system for metering a coal-water slurry into a large, medium-speed, multi-cylinder diesel engine. In order to retard erosion of the orifice, the substrate is placed in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reaction chamber. A reaction gas is passed into the chamber at a gas temperature below its reaction temperature and is directed through the orifice in the substrate. The gas reaction temperature is a temperature at and above which the reaction gas deposits as a coating, and the reaction gas is of a composition whereby improved resistance toerosion by flow of the particulates in the slurry fuel is imparted by the deposited coating. Only the portion of the substrate in proximity to the orifice to be coated is selectively heated to at least the gas reaction temperature for effecting coating of the orifice's interior surfaces by the vapor deposited coating formed from the reaction gas.

  15. Method of depositing wide bandgap amorphous semiconductor materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Jr., Frank B.; Delahoy, Alan E.

    1987-09-29

    A method of depositing wide bandgap p type amorphous semiconductor materials on a substrate without photosensitization by the decomposition of one or more higher order gaseous silanes in the presence of a p-type catalytic dopant at a temperature of about 200.degree. C. and a pressure in the range from about 1-50 Torr.

  16. Computational Model of Magnesium Deposition and Dissolution for Property

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Determination via Cyclic Voltammetry - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research June 23, 2016, Research Highlights Computational Model of Magnesium Deposition and Dissolution for Property Determination via Cyclic Voltammetry Top: Example distributions of the charge transfer coefficient and standard heterogeneous rate constant, obtained from fitting Bottom: Comparison between experimental and simulated voltammograms, demonstrating good agreement Scientific Achievement A computationally

  17. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, DeQuan; Jia, Quanxi

    2003-07-08

    An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal oxide thin films is presented. The process includes aqueous solutions of necessary metal precursors and an aqueous solution of a water-soluble polymer. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is fired at high temperatures to yield optical quality metal oxide thin films.

  18. Prevention of deleterious deposits in a coal liquefaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Norman L.; Prudich, Michael E.; King, Jr., William E.; Moon, William G.

    1984-07-03

    A process for preventing the formation of deleterious coke deposits on the walls of coal liquefaction reactor vessels involves passing hydrogen and a feed slurry comprising feed coal and recycle liquid solvent to a coal liquefaction reaction zone while imparting a critical mixing energy of at least 3500 ergs per cubic centimeter of reaction zone volume per second to the reacting slurry.

  19. Chemical vapor deposition of fluorine-doped zinc oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, Roy G.; Kramer, Keith; Liang, Haifan

    2000-06-06

    Fims of fluorine-doped zinc oxide are deposited from vaporized precursor compounds comprising a chelate of a dialkylzinc, such as an amine chelate, an oxygen source, and a fluorine source. The coatings are highly electrically conductive, transparent to visible light, reflective to infrared radiation, absorbing to ultraviolet light, and free of carbon impurity.

  20. CHEMICAL SOLUTION DEPOSITION BASED OXIDE BUFFERS AND YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans

    2011-01-01

    We have reviewed briefly the growth of buffer and high temperature superconducting oxide thin films using a chemical solution deposition (CSD) method. In the Rolling-Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS) process, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, utilizes the thermo mechanical processing to obtain the flexible, biaxially oriented copper, nickel or nickel-alloy substrates. Buffers and Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconductors have been deposited epitaxially on the textured nickel alloy substrates. The starting substrate serves as a template for the REBCO layer, which has substantially fewer weak links. Buffer layers play a major role in fabricating the second generation REBCO wire technology. The main purpose of the buffer layers is to provide a smooth, continuous and chemically inert surface for the growth of the REBCO film, while transferring the texture from the substrate to the superconductor layer. To achieve this, the buffer layers need to be epitaxial to the substrate, i.e. they have to nucleate and grow in the same bi-axial texture provided by the textured metal foil. The most commonly used RABiTS multi-layer architectures consist of a starting template of biaxially textured Ni-5 at.% W (Ni-W) substrate with a seed (first) layer of Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3), a barrier (second) layer of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), and a Cerium Oxide (CeO2) cap (third) layer. These three buffer layers are generally deposited using physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques such as reactive sputtering. On top of the PVD template, REBCO film is then grown by a chemical solution deposition. This article reviews in detail about the list of oxide buffers and superconductor REBCO films grown epitaxially on single crystal and/or biaxially textured Ni-W substrates using a CSD method.

  1. Underpotential deposition-mediated layer-by-layer growth of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jia Xu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-05-19

    A method of depositing contiguous, conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin films with atomic-level control is described. The process involves the use of underpotential deposition of a first element to mediate the growth of a second material by overpotential deposition. Deposition occurs between a potential positive to the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element where a full monolayer of mediating element forms, and a potential which is less than, or only slightly greater than, the bulk deposition potential of the material to be deposited. By cycling the applied voltage between the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element and the material to be deposited, repeated desorption/adsorption of the mediating element during each potential cycle can be used to precisely control film growth on a layer-by-layer basis. This process is especially suitable for the formation of a catalytically active layer on core-shell particles for use in energy conversion devices such as fuel cells.

  2. Fundamental studies of the mechanisms of slag deposit formation: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, L.G.; Benson, S.; Rabinovich, A.; Tangsathitkulchai, M.; Schobert H.H.

    1987-07-01

    The kinetics of ash deposition on utility boilers have been studied. A heated tube furnace system was used in the study. Areas of consideration in the deposition mechanics were: close space knowledge of chemical composition and distribution of inorganic constituents in coal, transformations and reactions of the inorganic constituents in the flame, ash transport mechanisms, initial adhesion of ash particles to heat transfer surfaces and subsequently to each other to form a deposit, and further interactions of the deposited ash to grow a strong deposit. Interactions of deposited ash that cause changes in physical and chemical properties in an aged deposit are due to processes such as sintering, chemical reactions, and melting. The degree of these changes increases as the deposit grows from the heat transfer surfaces where it forms. All of these changes during the deposit formation process are coal-specific and are strongly dependent on the boiler configuration and operating conditions. 18 refs., 55 figs., 42 tabs.

  3. Electroactive polyaniline film deposited from nonaqueous media; Effect of mixed organic solvent on polyaniline deposition and its battery performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osaka, T.; Nakajima, T.; Shiota, K.; Momma, T. )

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports on electroactive polyaniline (PAn) films which were deposited from PC (propylene carbonate)-Ec (thylene carbonate) and PC-DME (1, 2-dimethoxyethane) mixed polymerization solutions containing aniline, CF{sub 3}COOH, and LiClO{sub 4}. Higher dielectric constant solvents are necessary to deposit the PAn film where protons, dissociated from the acid, initiate the polymerization of aniline. Various PAn films deposited in the PC, the PC-EC (50 mole percent), and the PC-DME (50 volume percent) solutions were used for the cathode materials of the rechargeable lithium batteries. Charge capacity and discharge ability of the Li/PAn batteries in the PC-LiClO{sub 4} electrolyte solution are almost the same, regardless of the polymerization solvents such as PC {approx} PC-EC {ge} PC-DME and PC-EC {ge} PC-DME {approx} PC. The mixed solvent electrolyte solution effect on the Li/PAn (polymerized in the PC solution) batteries becomes much larger such as PC-DME {gt} PC-EC {gt} PC. Moreover, the electrochemical kinetic factors of the PAn films deposited in the various mixed polymerization solutions and also in the different electrolytes were experimentally determined by measuring the ac impedance. The results of the ac impedance analysis of each PAn film correlate well with the battery performances of Li/PAn cells.

  4. Characteristics and origin of Earth-mounds on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tullis, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Earth-mounds are common features on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The mounds are typically round or oval in plan view, <0.5 m in height, and from 8 to 14 m in diameter. They are found on flat and sloped surfaces, and appear less frequently in lowland areas. The mounds have formed on deposits of multiple sedimentary environments. Those studied included alluvial gravel terraces along the Big Lost River (late Pleistocene/early Holocene age), alluvial fan segments on the flanks of the Lost River Range (Bull Lake and Pinedale age equivalents), and loess/slopewash sediments overlying basalt flows. Backhoe trenches were dug to allow characterization of stratigraphy and soil development. Each mound has features unique to the depositional and pedogenic history of the site; however, there are common elements to all mounds that are linked to the history of mound formation. Each mound has a {open_quotes}floor{close_quotes} of a sediment or basement rock of significantly different hydraulic conductivity than the overlying sediment. These paleosurfaces are overlain by finer-grained sediments, typically loess or flood-overbank deposits. Mounds formed in environments where a sufficient thickness of fine-grained sediment held pore water in a system open to the migration to a freezing front. Heaving of the sediment occurred by the growth of ice lenses. Mound formation occurred at the end of the Late Pleistocene or early in the Holocene, and was followed by pedogenesis. Soils in the mounds were subsequently altered by bioturbation, buried by eolian deposition, and eroded by slopewash runoff. These secondary processes played a significant role in maintaining or increasing the mound/intermound relief.

  5. ZrN coatings deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purandare, Yashodhan Ehiasarian, Arutiun; Hovsepian, Papken; Santana, Antonio

    2014-05-15

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings were deposited on 1??m finish high speed steel and 316L stainless steel test coupons. Cathodic Arc (CA) and High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS) + Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering (UBM) techniques were utilized to deposit coatings. CA plasmas are known to be rich in metal and gas ions of the depositing species as well as macroparticles (droplets) emitted from the arc sports. Combining HIPIMS technique with UBM in the same deposition process facilitated increased ion bombardment on the depositing species during coating growth maintaining high deposition rate. Prior to coating deposition, substrates were pretreated with Zr{sup +} rich plasma, for both arc deposited and HIPIMS deposited coatings, which led to a very high scratch adhesion value (L{sub C2}) of 100 N. Characterization results revealed the overall thickness of the coatings in the range of 2.5??m with hardness in the range of 3040?GPa depending on the deposition technique. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and tribological experiments such as dry sliding wear tests and corrosion studies have been utilized to study the effects of ion bombardment on the structure and properties of these coatings. In all the cases, HIPIMS assisted UBM deposited coating fared equal or better than the arc deposited coatings, the reasons being discussed in this paper. Thus H+U coatings provide a good alternative to arc deposited where smooth, dense coatings are required and macrodroplets cannot be tolerated.

  6. Inert gas enhanced laser-assisted purification of platinum electron-beam-induced deposits

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stanford, Michael G.; Lewis, Brett B.; Noh, Joo Hyon; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Rack, Philip D.

    2015-06-30

    Electron-beam-induced deposition patterns, with composition of PtC5, were purified using a pulsed laser-induced purification reaction to erode the amorphous carbon matrix and form pure platinum deposits. Enhanced mobility of residual H2O molecules via a localized injection of inert Ar–H2 (4%) is attributed to be the reactive gas species for purification of the deposits. Surface purification of deposits was realized at laser exposure times as low as 0.1 s. The ex situ purification reaction in the deposit interior was shown to be rate-limited by reactive gas diffusion into the deposit, and deposit contraction associated with the purification process caused some lossmore » of shape retention. To circumvent the intrinsic flaws of the ex situ anneal process, in situ deposition and purification techniques were explored that resemble a direct write atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. First, we explored a laser-assisted electron-beam-induced deposition (LAEBID) process augmented with reactive gas that resulted in a 75% carbon reduction compared to standard EBID. Lastly, a sequential deposition plus purification process was also developed and resulted in deposition of pure platinum deposits with high fidelity and shape retention.« less

  7. Inert gas enhanced laser-assisted purification of platinum electron-beam-induced deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanford, Michael G.; Lewis, Brett B.; Noh, Joo Hyon; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Rack, Philip D.

    2015-06-30

    Electron-beam-induced deposition patterns, with composition of PtC5, were purified using a pulsed laser-induced purification reaction to erode the amorphous carbon matrix and form pure platinum deposits. Enhanced mobility of residual H2O molecules via a localized injection of inert Ar–H2 (4%) is attributed to be the reactive gas species for purification of the deposits. Surface purification of deposits was realized at laser exposure times as low as 0.1 s. The ex situ purification reaction in the deposit interior was shown to be rate-limited by reactive gas diffusion into the deposit, and deposit contraction associated with the purification process caused some loss of shape retention. To circumvent the intrinsic flaws of the ex situ anneal process, in situ deposition and purification techniques were explored that resemble a direct write atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. First, we explored a laser-assisted electron-beam-induced deposition (LAEBID) process augmented with reactive gas that resulted in a 75% carbon reduction compared to standard EBID. Lastly, a sequential deposition plus purification process was also developed and resulted in deposition of pure platinum deposits with high fidelity and shape retention.

  8. Process for electrolytic deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaghy, Robert E.

    1979-01-30

    A process for the electrolytic deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electrolytic plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article in the presence of an electrode receiving current.

  9. Process for electroless deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaghy, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the electroless deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electroless plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article upon sufficient contact with the article.

  10. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY AND PURIFICATION OF URANIUM DEPOSITS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J.M.; Kamen, M.D.

    1958-10-14

    A process is presented for recovering uranium values from UCl/sub 4/ deposits formed on calutrons. Such deposits are removed from the calutron parts by an aqueous wash solution which then contains the uranium values in addition to the following impurities: Ni, Cu, Fe, and Cr. This impurity bearing wash solution is treated with an oxidizing agent, and the oxidized solution is then treated with ammonia in order to precipitate the uranium as ammonium diuranate. The metal impurities of iron and chromium, which form insoluble hydroxides, are precipitated along with the uranium values. The precipitate is separated from the solution, dissolved in acid, and the solution again treated with ammonia and ammonium carbonate, which results in the precipitation of the metal impurities as hydroxides while the uranium values remain in solution.

  11. Apparatus and process for deposition of hard carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyaiesh, Ali R.; Garwin, Edward L.

    1989-01-01

    A process and an apparatus for depositing thin, amorphous carbon films having extreme hardness on a substrate is described. An enclosed chamber maintained at less than atmospheric pressure houses the substrate and plasma producing elements. A first electrode is comprised of a cavity enclosed within an RF coil which excites the plasma. A substrate located on a second electrode is excited by radio frequency power applied to the substrate. A magnetic field confines the plasma produced by the first electrode to the area away from the walls of the chamber and focuses the plasma onto the substrate thereby yielding film deposits having higher purity and having more rapid buildup than other methods of the prior art.

  12. Apparatus and process for deposition of hard carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyaiesh, Ali R.; Garwin, Edward L.

    1989-01-03

    A process and an apparatus for depositing thin, amorphous carbon films having extreme hardness on a substrate is described. An enclosed chamber maintained at less than atmospheric pressure houses the substrate and plasma producing elements. A first electrode is comprised of a cavity enclosed within an RF coil which excites the plasma. A substrate located on a second electrode is excited by radio frequency power applied to the substrate. A magnetic field confines the plasma produced by the first electrode to the area away from the walls of the chamber and focuses the plasma onto the substrate thereby yielding film deposits having higher purity and having more rapid buildup than other methods of the prior art.

  13. Substrates suitable for deposition of superconducting thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Roeland; Boatner, Lynn A.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  14. MODELING TRITIUM TRANSPORT, DEPOSITION AND RE-EMISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viner, B.

    2012-04-03

    The atmospheric release of tritium oxide (HTO) potentially impacts human health, typically through inhalation or absorption. Due to HTO's similarity to water, vegetation will absorb HTO by solution in the leaf water and then re-emit it, creating a number of secondary sources of HTO. Currently, models used for emergency response at Savannah River Site incorporate the transport and deposition of HTO but do not provide estimates for its potential re-emission from vegetation or soil surface though re-emission could result in prolonged exposure and greater than predicted dose for an individual downwind. A simple model of HTO transport, deposition and re-emission has been developed to examine the potential increase in exposure and dose. The model simulates an initial release of HTO that moves with a mean wind and expands through diffusion as a Gaussian puff. Deposition is modeled using previous estimates of deposition velocity for HTO and re-emission is modeled using a time constant that describes how quickly HTO is transferred between the surface and atmosphere. Additional puffs are created to simulate re-emission of HTO as well as horizontal diffusion across model grid cells. An evaluation of field data indicates that the use of a re-emission module tends to improve model predictions through improved prediction of peak concentration magnitude and location. When considering dose, nearly all of the released material is included in the dose calculation when re-emission is included. Although exposure to HTO through re-emission occurs over a few hours, the incremental increase in dose is relatively small because the atmospheric concentration of re-emitted HTO is much lower than the initial release.

  15. Purified Silicon Production and Depositing System - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Purified Silicon Production and Depositing System National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Within the photovoltaic (PV) industry, the supply of the required metallurgical-grade (MG) Si feedstock at an acceptable cost is a pain point for manufacturers. One current method for the production and purification of this feedstock is the repetitive porous

  16. PROJECT PROFILE: Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project is focused on novel approaches to remove risk related to the development of hybrid perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). Researchers will synthesize a new and chemically stable hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite that eliminates decomposition of the absorber layer upon exposure to water vapor, which is a chief obstacle to widespread use of HPSC technology. They will also demonstrate a unique and industrially-scalable chemical vapor deposition method without halides or iodine, which are the main contributors to perovskite degradation.

  17. Freeze drying for gas chromatography stationary phase deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sylwester, Alan P.

    2007-01-02

    The present disclosure relates to methods for deposition of gas chromatography (GC) stationary phases into chromatography columns, for example gas chromatography columns. A chromatographic medium is dissolved or suspended in a solvent to form a composition. The composition may be inserted into a chromatographic column. Alternatively, portions of the chromatographic column may be exposed or filled with the composition. The composition is permitted to solidify, and at least a portion of the solvent is removed by vacuum sublimation.

  18. Understanding the Initial Stages of Reversible Mg Deposition and Stripping

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Inorganic Nonaqueous Electrolytes - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research April 8, 2015, Research Highlights Understanding the Initial Stages of Reversible Mg Deposition and Stripping in Inorganic Nonaqueous Electrolytes MgCl+ Desolvation Diagram Scientific Achievement The chemical species at the Mg-anode surface in the presence of Magnesium Aluminum-Chloro complex (MACC) electrolyte were identified. While solvent molecules (THF and DME) are loosely bound at the Mg(0001) surface, the

  19. Molten carbonate fuel cell reduction of nickel deposits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Zwick, Stanley A. (Darien, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A molten carbonate fuel cell with anode and cathode electrodes and an eleolyte formed with two tile sections, one of the tile sections being adjacent the anode and limiting leakage of fuel gas into the electrolyte with the second tile section being adjacent the cathode and having pores sized to permit the presence of oxygen gas in the electrolyte thereby limiting the formation of metal deposits caused by the reduction of metal compositions migrating into the electrolyte from the cathode.

  20. Hydrogen Absorption Induced Metal Deposition on Palladium and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Palladium-Alloy Particles - Energy Innovation Portal Hydrogen Absorption Induced Metal Deposition on Palladium and Palladium-Alloy Particles Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology <p> High resolution electron micrograph of a palladium nanoparticle coated with a monolayer of platinum</p> High resolution electron micrograph of a palladium nanoparticle coated with a monolayer of platinum Technology Marketing Summary Platinum is an excellent catalyst for

  1. Mechanisms controlling soil carbon sequestration under atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.L. Sinsabaugh; D.R. Zak; D.L. Moorhead

    2008-02-19

    Increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can alter the processing and storage of organic carbon in soils. In 2000, we began studying the effects of simulated atmospheric N deposition on soil carbon dynamics in three types of northern temperate forest that occur across a wide geographic range in the Upper Great Lakes region. These ecosystems range from 100% oak in the overstory (black oak-white oak ecosystem; BOWO) to 0% overstory oak (sugar maple-basswood; SMBW) and include the sugar maple-red oak ecosystem (SMRO) that has intermediate oak abundance. The leaf litter biochemistry of these ecosystems range from highly lignified litter (BOWO) to litter of low lignin content (SMBW). We selected three replicate stands of each ecosystem type and established three plots in each stand. Each plot was randomly assigned one of three levels of N deposition (0, 30 & 80 kg N ha-1 y-1) imposed by adding NaNO3 in six equal increments applied over the growing season. Through experiments ranging from the molecular to the ecosystem scales, we produced a conceptual framework that describes the biogeochemistry of soil carbon storage in N-saturated ecosystems as the product of interactions between the composition of plant litter, the composition of the soil microbial community and the expression of extracellular enzyme activities. A key finding is that atmospheric N deposition can increase or decrease the soil C storage by modifying the expression of extracellular enzymes by soil microbial communities. The critical interactions within this conceptual framework have been incorporated into a new class of simulations called guild decomposition models.

  2. Quantitative study on the chemical solution deposition of zinc oxysulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinisch, Michael; Perkins, Craig L.; Steirer, K. Xerxes

    2015-11-21

    Zinc Oxysulfide (ZnOS) has demonstrated potential in the last decade to replace CdS as a buffer layer material since it is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with performance advantages over CdS (Eg = 2.4 eV) in the near UV-range for solar energy conversion. However, questions remain on the growth mechanisms of chemical bath deposited ZnOS. In this study, a detailed model is employed to calculate solubility diagrams that describe simple conditions for complex speciation control using only ammonium hydroxide without additional base. For these conditions, ZnOS is deposited via aqueous solution deposition on a quartz crystal microbalance in a continuous flow cell. Data is used to analyze the growth rate dependence on temperature and also to elucidate the effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) when used as a co-solvent. Activation energies (EA) of ZnOS are calculated for different flow rates and solution compositions. As a result, the measured EA relationships are affected by changes in the primary growth mechanism when DMSO is included.

  3. Quantitative study on the chemical solution deposition of zinc oxysulfide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reinisch, Michael; Perkins, Craig L.; Steirer, K. Xerxes

    2015-11-21

    Zinc Oxysulfide (ZnOS) has demonstrated potential in the last decade to replace CdS as a buffer layer material since it is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with performance advantages over CdS (Eg = 2.4 eV) in the near UV-range for solar energy conversion. However, questions remain on the growth mechanisms of chemical bath deposited ZnOS. In this study, a detailed model is employed to calculate solubility diagrams that describe simple conditions for complex speciation control using only ammonium hydroxide without additional base. For these conditions, ZnOS is deposited via aqueous solution deposition on a quartz crystal microbalance in a continuous flow cell.more » Data is used to analyze the growth rate dependence on temperature and also to elucidate the effects of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) when used as a co-solvent. Activation energies (EA) of ZnOS are calculated for different flow rates and solution compositions. As a result, the measured EA relationships are affected by changes in the primary growth mechanism when DMSO is included.« less

  4. Microenergetic shock initiation studies on deposited films of PETN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Gregory T.; Knepper, Robert; Jones, David Alexander; Brundage, Aaron L.; Trott, Wayne Merle; Wixom, Ryan R.; Tappan, Alexander Smith

    2009-07-01

    Films of the high explosive PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate) up to 500-{micro}m thick have been deposited through physical vapor deposition, with the intent of creating well-defined samples for shock-initiation studies. PETN films were characterized with surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and focused ion beam nanotomography. These high-density films were subjected to strong shocks in both the in-plane and out-of-plane orientations. Initiation behavior was monitored with high-speed framing and streak camera photography. Direct initiation with a donor explosive (either RDX with binder, or CL-20 with binder) was possible in both orientations, but with the addition of a thin aluminum buffer plate (in-plane configuration only), initiation proved to be difficult due to the attenuated shock and the high density of the PETN films. Mesoscale models of microenergetic samples were created using the shock physics code CTH and compared with experimental results. The results of these experiments will be discussed in the context of small sample geometry, deposited film morphology, and density.

  5. Hot wire deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahan, A.H.; Nelson, B.P.; Iwaniczko, E.; Wang, Q.; Molenbroek, E.C.; Asher, S.E.; Reedy, R.C. Jr.; Crandall, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper details preliminary results obtained in incorporating low H content, high substrate temperature hot wire (HW) deposited amorphous silicon material into a substrate solar cell structure. By necessity, since the learning curve for this complete structure involves metal/{ital n}-{ital i}/Schottky barrier structure optimization, a large part of the results are focused on this (partial) structure. We have found that the treatment of the top surface of the HW {ital i} layer during cooling is crucial to device performance. Without any particular attention paid to the treatment of this surface while the sample is cooling from its high deposition temperature, a significant amount of H diffuses out of the sample during the cooling process, particularly near the surface, resulting in devices with very poor photovoltaic properties. By designing a surface treatment to address this problem, we have been able to deposit HW Schottky structures with device characteristics as good as the best glow discharge devices produced in our laboratory. We present data concerning these surface treatments, and how they influence the H content at the {ital i}/Pd interface. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Hot wire deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahan, A.H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Nelson, B.P.; Reedy, R.C., Jr.; Unold, T.; Crandall, R.S.; Guha, S.; Yang, J. |

    1997-02-01

    This paper details the results of a study in which low H content, high deposition rate hot wire (HW) deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has been incorporated into a substrate solar cell. We find that the treatment of the top surface of the HW i-layer while it is cooled from its high deposition temperature is crucial to device performance. We present data concerning these surface treatments, and correlate these treatments with Schottky device performance. We also present first generation HW n-i-p solar cell data, where a glow discharge (GD) {mu}c-Si(p) layer completes the partial devices. No light trapping layer is used to increase the device Jsc. Our preliminary results yield efficiencies of up to 6.8{percent} for a cell with a 4000 {Angstrom} thick HW i-layer, which degrade less than 10{percent} after a 900h AM1 light soak. We suggest areas for further improvement of our devices. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Hot wire deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahan, A.H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Nelson, B.P.; Reedy, R.C. Jr.; Crandall, R.S.; Guha, S.; Yang, J.

    1996-09-01

    This paper details the results of a study in which low H content, high deposition rate hot wire (HW) deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has been incorporated into a substrate solar cell. The authors find that the treatment of the top surface of the HW i layer while it is being cooled from its high deposition temperature is crucial to device performance. They present data concerning these surface treatments, and they correlate these treatments with Schottky device performance. They also present first generation HW n-i-p solar cell efficiency data, where a glow discharge (GD) {mu}c-Si(p) layer was added to complete the partial devices. No light trapping layer was used to increase the device Jsc. The preliminary investigations have yielded efficiencies of up to 6.8% for a cell with a 4,000 {angstrom} thick HW i-layer, which degrade less than 10% after a 900 hour light soak. They suggest avenues for further improvement of the devices.

  8. Inkjet Deposition of Layer-by-Layer Assembled Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andres, C. M.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2010-09-23

    Layer-by-layer assembly (LBL) can create advanced composites with exceptional properties unavailable by other means, but the laborious deposition process and multiple dipping cycles hamper their utilization in microtechnologies and electronics. Multiple rinse steps provide both structural control and thermodynamic stability to LBL multilayers, but they significantly limit their practical applications and contribute significantly to the processing time and waste. Here we demonstrate that by employing inkjet technology one can deliver the necessary quantities of LBL components required for film buildup without excess, eliminating the need for repetitive rinsing steps. This feature differentiates this approach from all other recognized LBL modalities. Using a model system of negatively charged gold nanoparticles and positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride, the material stability, nanoscale control over thickness, and particle coverage offered by the inkjet LBL technique are shown to be equal or better than the case of multilayers made with traditional dipping cycles. The opportunity for fast deposition of complex metallic patterns using a simple inkjet printer is also shown. The additive nature of LBL deposition based on the formation of insoluble nanoparticle-polyelectrolyte complexes of various compositions provides an excellent opportunity for versatile, multicomponent, and noncontact patterning for the simple production of stratified patterns that are much needed in advanced devices.

  9. Vacuum deposited polymer films: Past, present, and future applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Affinito, J.; Martin, P.; Gross, M.; Bennett, W.

    1994-11-01

    Two extremely high rate processes have been developed for the vacuum deposition of polymer thin films. Dubbed the PML (for Polymer Multi-Layer) and LML (for Liquid Multi-Layer) processes, the PML technique was originally developed for the manufacture of polymer/aluminum surface mount capacitors while the LML method arose from a need to fabricate lithium polymer batteries. These processes have since been found to be compatible with most other vacuum deposition techniques in, integrated, in-line coating processes. Battelle has developed an extensive program, and a great deal of hardware, to pursue a wide variety of PML and LML applications which integrate these two process technologies with other, conventional, vacuum deposition methods. The historical development of the technologies is reviewed and the Battelle PML/LML facilities are described. Current Battelle work involving solar thermal control films, PML QWOTs, and polymer/metal high reflectors are also discussed. Battelle PML work that is just starting, involving non-linear optical materials/devices, lithium polymer battery fabrication, electrochromic devices, and polymer/oxide multilayers, is discussed as well.

  10. Studies on atomic layer deposition of IRMOF-8 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmi, Leo D. Heikkil, Mikko J.; Vehkamki, Marko; Puukilainen, Esa; Ritala, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo

    2015-01-15

    Deposition of IRMOF-8 thin films by atomic layer deposition was studied at 260320?C. Zinc acetate and 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid were used as the precursors. The as-deposited amorphous films were crystallized in 70% relative humidity at room temperature resulting in an unknown phase with a large unit cell. An autoclave with dimethylformamide as the solvent was used to recrystallize the films into IRMOF-8 as confirmed by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. The films were further characterized by high temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA), nanoindentation, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. HTXRD measurements revealed similar behavior to bulk IRMOF-8. According to TOF-ERDA and FTIR, composition of the films was similar to IRMOF-8. Through-porosity was confirmed by loading the films with palladium using Pd(thd){sub 2} (thd?=?2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) as the precursor.

  11. Hot wire deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahan, A.H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Nelson, B.P.; Reedy, R.C. Jr.; Crandall, R.S.

    1996-05-01

    This paper details the results of a study in which low H content, high deposition rate hot wire (HW) deposited amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has been incorporated into a substrate solar cell. The authors find that the treatment of the top surface of the HW i layer while it is being cooled from its high deposition temperature is crucial to device performance. They present data concerning these surface treatments, and correlate these treatments with Schottky device performance. The authors also present first generation HW n-i-p solar cell efficiency data, where a glow discharge (GD) {mu}c-Si(p) layer was added to complete the partial devices. No light trapping layer was used to increase the device Jsc. Their preliminary investigations have yielded efficiencies of up to 6.8% for a cell with a 4000 {Angstrom} thick HW i-layer, which degrade less than 10% after a 900 hour light soak. The authors suggest avenues for further improvement of their devices.

  12. Droplet sizes, dynamics and deposition in vertical annular flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopes, J C.B.; Dukler, A E

    1985-10-01

    The role of droplets in vertical upwards annular flow is investigated, focusing on the droplet size distributions, dynamics, and deposition phenomena. An experimental program was performed based on a new laser optical technique developed in these laboratories and implemented here for annular flow. This permitted the simultaneous measurement of droplet size, axial and radial velocity. The dependence of droplet size distributions on flow conditions is analyzed. The Upper-Log Normal function proves to be a good model for the size distribution. The mechanism controlling the maximum stable drop size was found to result from the interaction of the pressure fluctuations of the turbulent flow of the gas core with the droplet. The average axial droplet velocity showed a weak dependence on gas rates. This can be explained once the droplet size distribution and droplet size-velocity relationship are analyzed simultaneously. The surprising result from the droplet conditional analysis is that larger droplet travel faster than smaller ones. This dependence cannot be explained if the drag curves used do not take into account the high levels of turbulence present in the gas core in annular flow. If these are considered, then interesting new situations of multiplicity and stability of droplet terminal velocities are encountered. Also, the observed size-velocity relationship can be explained. A droplet deposition is formulated based on the particle inertia control. This permitted the calculation of rates of drop deposition directly from the droplet size and velocities data.

  13. Nitrogen Deposition to and Cycling in a Deciduous Forest

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pryor, Sara C.; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Carreiro, Margaret; Davis, Melissa L.; Hartley, Anne; Jensen, Bjame; Oliphant, Andrew; Randolph, Melissa J. C.; Schoof, Justin T.

    2001-01-01

    The project described here seeks to answer questions regarding the role increased nitrogen (N) deposition is playing in enhanced carbon (C) sequestration in temperate mid-latitude forests, using detailed measurements from an AmeriFlux tower in southern Indiana (Morgan-Monroe State Forest, or MMSF). The measurements indicate an average atmosphere-surface N flux of approximately 6 mg-N m -2 day -1 during the 2000 growing season, with approximately 40% coming from dry deposition of ammonia (NH 3 ), nitric acid (HNO 3 ), and particle-bound N. Wet deposition and throughfall measurements indicate significant canopy uptake of N (particularly NH 4 +) at themore » site, leading to a net canopy exchange (NCE) of –6 kg-N ha -1 for the growing season. These data are used in combination with data on the aboveground C:N ratio, litterfall flux, and soil net N mineralization rates to indicate the level of potential perturbation of C sequestration at this site.« less

  14. Method for materials deposition by ablation transfer processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, K.H.

    1996-04-16

    A method in which a thin layer of semiconducting, insulating, or metallic material is transferred by ablation from a source substrate, coated uniformly with a thin layer of said material, to a target substrate, where said material is desired, with a pulsed, high intensity, patternable beam of energy. The use of a patternable beam allows area-selective ablation from the source substrate resulting in additive deposition of the material onto the target substrate which may require a very low percentage of the area to be covered. Since material is placed only where it is required, material waste can be minimized by reusing the source substrate for depositions on multiple target substrates. Due to the use of a pulsed, high intensity energy source the target substrate remains at low temperature during the process, and thus low-temperature, low cost transparent glass or plastic can be used as the target substrate. The method can be carried out atmospheric pressures and at room temperatures, thus eliminating vacuum systems normally required in materials deposition processes. This invention has particular application in the flat panel display industry, as well as minimizing materials waste and associated costs. 1 fig.

  15. Method for materials deposition by ablation transfer processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    1996-01-01

    A method in which a thin layer of semiconducting, insulating, or metallic material is transferred by ablation from a source substrate, coated uniformly with a thin layer of said material, to a target substrate, where said material is desired, with a pulsed, high intensity, patternable beam of energy. The use of a patternable beam allows area-selective ablation from the source substrate resulting in additive deposition of the material onto the target substrate which may require a very low percentage of the area to be covered. Since material is placed only where it is required, material waste can be minimized by reusing the source substrate for depositions on multiple target substrates. Due to the use of a pulsed, high intensity energy source the target substrate remains at low temperature during the process, and thus low-temperature, low cost transparent glass or plastic can be used as the target substrate. The method can be carried out atmospheric pressures and at room temperatures, thus eliminating vacuum systems normally required in materials deposition processes. This invention has particular application in the flat panel display industry, as well as minimizing materials waste and associated costs.

  16. Apparatus for depositing a low work function material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balooch, Mehdi; Dinh, Long N.; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.

    2006-10-10

    Short-wavelength photons are used to ablate material from a low work function target onto a suitable substrate. The short-wavelength photons are at or below visible wavelength. The elemental composition of the deposit is controlled by the composition of the target and the gaseous environment in which the ablation process is performed. The process is carried out in a deposition chamber to which a short-wavelength laser is mounted and which includes a substrate holder which can be rotated, tilted, heated, or cooled. The target material is mounted onto a holder that spins the target during laser ablation. In addition, the deposition chamber is provided with a vacuum pump, an external gas supply with atomizer and radical generator, a gas generator for producing a flow of molecules on the substrate, and a substrate cleaning device, such as an ion gun. The substrate can be rotated and tilted, for example, whereby only the tip of an emitter can be coated with a low work function material.

  17. Continuous production of nanostructured particles using spatial atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ommen, J. Ruud van Kooijman, Dirkjan; Niet, Mark de; Talebi, Mojgan; Goulas, Aristeidis

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a novel spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) process based on pneumatic transport of nanoparticle agglomerates. Nanoclusters of platinum (Pt) of ?1?nm diameter are deposited onto titania (TiO{sub 2}) P25 nanoparticles resulting to a continuous production of an active photocatalyst (0.120.31?wt. % of Pt) at a rate of about 1?g min{sup ?1}. Tuning the precursor injection velocity (1040?m s{sup ?1}) enhances the contact between the precursor and the pneumatically transported support flows. Decreasing the chemisorption temperature (from 250 to 100?C) results in more uniform distribution of the Pt nanoclusters as it decreases the reaction rate as compared to the rate of diffusion into the nanoparticle agglomerates. Utilizing this photocatalyst in the oxidation reaction of Acid Blue 9 showed a factor of five increase of the photocatalytic activity compared to the native P25 nanoparticles. The use of spatial particle ALD can be further expanded to deposition of nanoclusters on porous, micron-sized particles and to the production of coreshell nanoparticles enabling the robust and scalable manufacturing of nanostructured powders for catalysis and other applications.

  18. Rhodium coated mirrors deposited by magnetron sputtering for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marot, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Oelhafen, P.; Covarel, G.; Litnovsky, A.

    2007-10-15

    Metallic mirrors will be essential components of all optical spectroscopy and imaging systems for ITER plasma diagnostics. Any change in the mirror performance, in particular, its reflectivity, due to erosion of the surface by charge exchange neutrals or deposition of impurities will influence the quality and reliability of the detected signals. Due to its high reflectivity in the visible wavelength range and its low sputtering yield, rhodium appears as an attractive material for first mirrors in ITER. However, the very high price of the raw material calls for using it in the form of a film deposited onto metallic substrates. The development of a reliable technique for the preparation of high reflectivity rhodium films is therefore of the highest importance. Rhodium layers with thicknesses of up to 2 {mu}m were produced on different substrates of interest (Mo, stainless steel, Cu) by magnetron sputtering. Produced films exhibit a low roughness and crystallite size of about 10 nm with a dense columnar structure. No impurities were detected on the surface after deposition. Scratch tests demonstrate that adhesion properties increase with substrate hardness. Detailed optical characterizations of Rh-coated mirrors as well as results of erosion tests performed both under laboratory conditions and in the TEXTOR tokamak are presented in this paper.

  19. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

    2002-01-01

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  20. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

    2005-01-25

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  1. Electrophoretic deposition of composite hydroxyapatite-chitosan coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pang Xin; Zhitomirsky, Igor . E-mail: zhitom@mcmaster.ca

    2007-04-15

    Cathodic electrophoretic deposition has been utilized for the fabrication of composite hydroxyapatite-chitosan coatings on 316L stainless steel substrates. The addition of chitosan to the hydroxyapatite suspensions promoted the electrophoretic deposition of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and resulted in the formation of composite coatings. The obtained coatings were investigated by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, potentiodynamic polarization measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was shown that the deposit composition can be changed by a variation of the chitosan or hydroxyapatite concentration in the solutions. Experimental conditions were developed for the fabrication of hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocomposites containing 40.9-89.8 wt.% hydroxyapatite. The method enabled the formation of adherent and uniform coatings of thicknesses up to 60 {mu}m. X-ray studies revealed that the preferred orientation of the hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in the chitosan matrix increases with decreasing hydroxyapatite content in the composite coatings. The obtained coatings provided the corrosion protection for the 316L stainless steel substrates00.

  2. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, David P.

    2001-01-01

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  3. Experimental study on the particles deposition in the sampling duct

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vendel, J.; Charuau, J.

    1995-02-01

    A high standard of protection against the harmful effects of radioactive aerosol dissemination requires a measurement, as representative as possible, of their concentration. This measurement depends on the techniques used for aerosol sampling and transfer to the detector, as well as on the location of the latter with respect to the potential sources. The aeraulic design of the apparatus is also an important factor. Once collected the aerosol particles often have to travel through a variably shaped duct to the measurement apparatus. This transport is responsible for losses due to the particles deposition on the walls, leading to a distortion on the concentration measurements and a change in the particle size distribution. To estimate and minimize measurement errors it is important to determine the optimal transport conditions when designing a duct; its diameter and material, the radius of curvature of the bends and the flow conditions must be defined in particular. This paper presents an experimental study in order to determine, for each deposition mechanism, the retained fraction, or the deposition velocity for different flow regimes. This study has pointed out that it exists a favourable flow regime for the particle transport through the sampling ducts (2 500 < Re < 5 000). It has been established, for any particle diameters, equations to predict the aerosol penetration in smooth-walled cylindrical metal ducts.

  4. Supercritical fluid molecular spray film deposition and powder formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Solid films are deposited, or fine powders formed, by dissolving a solid material into a supercritical fluid solution at an elevated pressure and then rapidly expanding the solution through a short orifice into a region of relatively low pressure. This produces a molecular spray which is directed against a substrate to deposit a solid thin film thereon, or discharged into a collection chamber to collect a fine powder. Upon expansion and supersonic interaction with background gases in the low pressure region, any clusters of solvent are broken up and the solvent is vaporized and pumped away. Solute concentration in the solution is varied primarily by varying solution pressure to determine, together with flow rate, the rate of deposition and to control in part whether a film or powder is produced and the granularity of each. Solvent clustering and solute nucleation are controlled by manipulating the rate of expansion of the solution and the pressure of the lower pressure region. Solution and low pressure region temperatures are also controlled.

  5. Microreactor-Assisted Nanomaterial Deposition for Photovoltaic Thin-Film Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a scalable microreactor-assisted nanomaterial deposition pilot platform for the production, purification, functionalization, and solution deposition of nanomaterials for PV applications.

  6. Liquid precursor for deposition of copper selenide and method of preparing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Franciscus Antonius Maria Van Hest, Marinus; Ginley, David S.; Hersh, Peter A.; Eldada, Louay; Stanbery, Billy J.

    2015-09-08

    Liquid precursors containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semiconductor applications are disclosed. Methods of preparing such liquid precursors and methods of depositing a precursor on a substrate are also disclosed.

  7. Sol-gel deposition of buffer layers on biaxially textured metal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sol-gel deposition of buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substances Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sol-gel deposition of buffer layers on biaxially textured ...

  8. Dendrite-free Li deposition using trace-amounts of water as an...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dendrite-free Li deposition using trace-amounts of water as an electrolyte additive ... Title: Dendrite-free Li deposition using trace-amounts of water as an electrolyte additive ...

  9. Pulsed laser deposition of Mn doped CdSe quantum dots for improved...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pulsed laser deposition of Mn doped CdSe quantum dots for improved solar cell performance Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pulsed laser deposition of Mn doped CdSe ...

  10. Property transformation of graphene with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited directly by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Li; Cao, Duo; Wang, Zhongjian; Xia, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, SIMIT, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng, Xinhong, E-mail: xh-cheng@mail.sim.ac.cn; Yu, Yuehui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, SIMIT, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shen, Dashen [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

    2014-01-13

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are deposited directly onto graphene by H{sub 2}O-based atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the films are pinhole-free and continuously cover the graphene surface. The growth process of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films does not introduce any detective defects in graphene, suppresses the hysteresis effect and tunes the graphene doping to n-type. The self-cleaning of ALD growth process, together with the physically absorbed H{sub 2}O and oxygen-deficient ALD environment consumes OH{sup ?} bonds, suppresses the p-doping of graphene, shifts Dirac point to negative gate bias and enhances the electron mobility.

  11. Maskless deposition technique for the physical vapor deposition of thin film and multilayer coatings with subnanometer precision and accuracy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, Stephen P.; Ceglio, Natale M.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is a method for the production of axially symmetric, graded and ungraded thickness thin film and multilayer coatings that avoids the use of apertures or masks to tailor the deposition profile. A motional averaging scheme permits the deposition of uniform thickness coatings independent of the substrate radius. Coating uniformity results from an exact cancellation of substrate radius dependent terms, which occurs when the substrate moves at constant velocity. If the substrate is allowed to accelerate over the source, arbitrary coating profiles can be generated through appropriate selection and control of the substrate center of mass equation of motion. The radial symmetry of the coating profile is an artifact produced by orbiting the substrate about its center of mass; other distributions are obtained by selecting another rotation axis. Consequently there is a direct mapping between the coating thickness and substrate equation of motion which can be used to tailor the coating profile without the use of masks and apertures.

  12. Deposition of sodium sulfate from salt-seeded combustion gases of a high velocity burner rig

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santoro, G.J.; Goekoglu, S.A.; Kohl, F.J.; Stearns, C.A.; Rusner, D.E.

    1984-09-01

    This paper addresses the corrosion which is caused on vanes and blades by combustion products in the hot section of turbine engines. Such deposits cause an accelerated metal wastage called hot corrosion. The mechanism of sodium sulfate deposition was studied under controlled lab conditions. Deposition rates and dew point temperatures were determined. These tests, along with thermodynamic and transport calculations, were used in the interpretation of the deposition results.

  13. Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition chamber and process with multiple gas inlets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming; Povolny, Henry S.

    2004-06-29

    A thin film deposition method uses a vacuum confinement cup that employs a dense hot filament and multiple gas inlets. At least one reactant gas is introduced into the confinement cup both near and spaced apart from the heated filament. An electrode inside the confinement cup is used to generate plasma for film deposition. The method is used to deposit advanced thin films (such as silicon based thin films) at a high quality and at a high deposition rate.

  14. Method and apparatus for recovery of oil, gas and mineral deposits by panel opening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, F. D.

    1984-10-30

    A method for oil, gas and mineral recovery by panel opening drilling including providing spaced injection and recovery drill holes which respectively straddle a deposit bearing underground region, each drill hole including a panel shaped opening substantially facing the deposit bearing region and injecting the injection hole with a fluid under sufficient pressure to uniformly sweep the deposits in the underground region to the recovery hole for recovery of the deposits therefrom. An apparatus for creating such panel shaped is also provided.

  15. Passivation layer on polyimide deposited by combined plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition and cathodic vacuum arc technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Z. J.; Tay, B. K.; Sze, J. Y.; Ha, P. C. T.

    2007-05-15

    A thin passivation layer of aluminum oxide was deposited on polyimide by using the combined plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D) and cathodic vacuum arc technique. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy C 1s spectra showed that the carbonyl bond (C=O) and ether group (C-O-C and C-N-C) presented in pristine polyimide were damaged by implantation of aluminum ions and deposition of an aluminum oxide passivation layer. O 1s and Al 2p spectra confirmed the formation of a thin aluminum oxide passivation layer. This passivation layer can be implemented in aerospace engineering where polyimide may suffer degradation from fast atomic oxygen in the low-earth-orbit environment. To test the protection of this passivation layer to energetic oxygen ions, a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system was used to simulate the oxygen-ion irradiation, and the results showed that a higher weight occurred for passivated samples compared to pristine ones. X-ray diffraction showed that Al peaks were presented on the surface region, but no aluminum oxide peak was detected. The authors then concluded that Al clusters were formed in polyimide besides aluminum oxide, which was in an x-ray amorphous state. Furthermore, contact-angle measurements showed a reduced contact angle for passivated polyimide from a pristine value of 78 deg. to 20 deg. by using deionized water. Several discussions have been made on the surface chemical and structural property changes by using the combined PIII and D and cathodic vacuum arc technique.

  16. All-Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition a-Si:H Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwaniczko, E.; Wang, Q.; Xu, Y.; Nelson, B. P.; Mahan, A. H.; Crandall, R. S.; Branz, H. M.

    2000-01-01

    Efficient hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) nip solar cells have been fabricated with all doped and undoped a-Si:H layers deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). The total deposition time of all layers, except the top ITO-contact, is less than 4 minutes.

  17. A-Si:H solar cells deposited by the hot wire method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwaniczko, E.; Nelson, B.P.; Molenbroek, E.C.; Schropp, R.; Crandall, R.S.; Mahan, A.H. )

    1994-06-30

    We demonstrate the deposition of a hybrid a-Si:H solar cell in a new research reactor, where we deposit the doped layers by glow discharge and the intrinsic layer by hot wire. After only 10 depositions, we obtained solar cell conversion efficiencies of 7%. We are currently pursuing research avenues which we expect will lead to higher efficiencies.

  18. Apparatus and method for selective area deposition of thin films on electrically biased substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuhr, Raymond A.; Haynes, Tony E.; Golanski, Andrzej

    1994-01-01

    An ion beam deposition process for selective area deposition on a polarized substrate uses a potential applied to the substrate which allows the ionized particles to reach into selected areas for film deposition. Areas of the substrate to be left uncoated are held at a potential that repells the ionized particles.

  19. Apparatus and method for selective area deposition of thin films on electrically biased substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuhr, Raymond A.; Haynes, Tony E.; Golanski, Andrzej

    1999-01-01

    An ion beam deposition process for selective area deposition on a polarized substrate uses a potential applied to the substrate which allows the ionized particles to reach into selected areas for film deposition. Areas of the substrate to be left uncoated are held at a potential that repells the ionized particles.

  20. Apparatus and method for selective area deposition of thin films on electrically biased substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuhr, R.A.; Haynes, T.E.; Golanski, A.

    1999-06-08

    An ion beam deposition process for selective area deposition on a polarized substrate uses a potential applied to the substrate which allows the ionized particles to reach into selected areas for film deposition. Areas of the substrate to be left uncoated are held at a potential that repels the ionized particles. 3 figs.

  1. Microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, III, Jerome J.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for fabricating thin film materials utilizing high speed gas dynamics relies on supersonic free jets of carrier gas to transport depositing vapor species generated in a microwave discharge to the surface of a prepared substrate where the vapor deposits to form a thin film. The present invention generates high rates of deposition and thin films of unforeseen high quality at low temperatures.

  2. Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, W. S. Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H.; Zhang, J.; Luo, J. K.; Institute of Renewable Energy and Environment Technology, Bolton University, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5 AB

    2014-02-15

    Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

  3. Improved process for the preparation of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites by chemical vapor deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackey, W.J. Jr.; Caputo, A.J.

    1984-09-07

    A specially designed apparatus provides a steep thermal gradient across the thickness of fibrous preform. A flow of gaseous ceramic matrix material is directed into the fibrous preform at the cold surface. The deposition of the matrix occurs progressively from the hot surface of the fibrous preform toward the cold surface. Such deposition prevents the surface of the fibrous preform from becoming plugged. As a result thereof, the flow of reactant matrix gases into the uninfiltrated (undeposited) portion of the fibrous preform occurs throughout the deposition process. The progressive and continuous deposition of ceramic matrix within the fibrous preform provides for a significant reduction in process time over known chemical vapor deposition processes.

  4. Palladium catalysts synthesized by atomic layer deposition for methanol decomposition.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, J. W.; Feng, H.; Stair, P. C.; Libera, J. A.; Setthapun, W.; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-05-25

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) palladium films were deposited at 200 C on various ALD metal oxide surfaces using sequential exposures to Pd(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Pd(hfac)2) and formalin. In situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements as well as ex situ measurements performed on planar substrates revealed that the Pd growth begins with a relatively slow nucleation process and accelerates once an adequate amount of Pd has deposited on the surface. Furthermore, the Pd nucleation is faster on ALD ZnO surfaces compared to ALD Al2O3 surfaces. ALD was utilized to synthesize highly dispersed, uniform Pd nanoparticles (1 to 2 nm in diameter) on ALD ZnO and Al2O3 coated mesoporous silica gel, and the catalytic performances of these samples were compared in the methanol decomposition reaction. The ALD Pd-Al2O3 showed high activity and hydrogen selectivity at relatively low temperatures while the ALD Pd-ZnO showed very low activity as well as quick deactivation. In situ extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurement revealed that the Pd supported on ZnO 'dissolves' into the substrate during the methanol decomposition reaction which accounts for the gradual disappearance of its catalytic activity. By applying one cycle of ALD Al2O3 on top of the Pd-ZnO catalyst, the activity was enhanced and the catalyst deactivation was mitigated. This Al2O3 overcoating method stabilizes the Pd-ZnO and effectively prevents the dissolution of Pd into the ZnO substrate.

  5. Ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion in conventional boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, S.A.; Jones, M.L.

    1995-12-01

    The inorganic components (ash-forming species) associated with coals significantly affect boiler design, efficiency of operation, and lifetimes of boiler parts. During combustion in conventional pulverized fuel boilers, the inorganic components are transformed into inorganic gases, liquids, and solids. This partitioning depends upon the association of the inorganic components in the coal and combustion conditions. The inorganic components are associated as mineral grains and as organically associated elements, and these associations of inorganic components in the fuel directly influence their fate upon combustion. Combustion conditions, such as temperature and atmosphere, influence the volatility and the interaction of inorganic components during combustion and gas cooling, which influences the state and size composition distribution of the particulate and condensed ash species. The intermediate species are transported with the bulk gas flow through the combustion systems, during which time the gases and entrained ash are cooled. Deposition, corrosion, and erosion occur when the ash intermediate species are transported to the heat-transfer surface, react with the surface, accumulate, sinter, and develop strength. Research over the past decade has significantly advanced understanding of ash formation, deposition, corrosion, and erosion mechanisms. Many of the advances in understanding and predicting ash-related issues can be attributed to advanced analytical methods to determine the inorganic composition of fuels and the resulting ash materials. These new analytical techniques have been the key to elucidation of the mechanisms of ash formation and deposition. This information has been used to develop algorithms and computer models to predict the effects of ash on combustion system performance.

  6. Energy Deposition and Radiological Studies for the LBNF Hadron Absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakhno, I. L.; Mokhov, N. V.; Tropin, I. S.; Eidelman, Y. I.

    2015-06-25

    Results of detailed Monte Carlo energy deposition and radiological studies performed for the LBNF hadron absorber with the MARS15 code are described. The model of the entire facility, that includes a pion-production target, focusing horns, target chase, decay channel, hadron absorber system – all with corresponding radiation shielding – was developed using the recently implemented ROOT-based geometry option in the MARS15 code. Both normal operation and accidental conditions were studied. Results of detailed thermal calculations with the ANSYS code helped to select the most viable design options.

  7. Formation of carbon deposits from coal in an arc plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, B.; Tian, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhu, S.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Xie, K.

    2007-07-01

    The issue of deposited carbon (DC) on a reactor wall during the production of acetylene by the coal/arc plasma process is a potential obstacle for the industrialization process. The formation mechanism of DC is very difficult to reveal because the high complexity of coal and the volatile matter. Combining with quenching technique, the methane, liquid petroleum gas and benzene were employed as the model materials to roughly act as the light gas, chain and aromatic subcomponents of volatile matter, and then the reasonable formation mechanism of DC was subtly speculated accordingly.

  8. Chemical surface deposition of ultra-thin semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCandless, Brian E.; Shafarman, William N.

    2003-03-25

    A chemical surface deposition process for forming an ultra-thin semiconducting film of Group IIB-VIA compounds onto a substrate. This process eliminates particulates formed by homogeneous reactions in bath, dramatically increases the utilization of Group IIB species, and results in the formation of a dense, adherent film for thin film solar cells. The process involves applying a pre-mixed liquid coating composition containing Group IIB and Group VIA ionic species onto a preheated substrate. Heat from the substrate causes a heterogeneous reaction between the Group IIB and VIA ionic species of the liquid coating composition, thus forming a solid reaction product film on the substrate surface.

  9. Optical excitation of paramagnetic nitrogen in chemical vapor deposited diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graeff, C.F.; Rohrer, E.; Nebel, C.E.; Stutzmann, M.; Guettler, H.; Zachai, R.

    1996-11-01

    Investigations of polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited diamond films by electron-spin-resonance (ESR), light-induced (L)ESR, and the constant photoconductivity method have identified dispersed substitutional nitrogen (P1 center) as the main paramagnetic form of N incorporated in the CVD diamond. The density of N-related paramagnetic states is strongly affected by illumination and heat treatment. It is found that the P1 center in CVD diamond gives rise to a deep donor state about 1.5 eV below the conduction band. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Method of depositing a catalyst on a fuel cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dearnaley, Geoffrey; Arps, James H.

    2000-01-01

    Fuel cell electrodes comprising a minimal load of catalyst having maximum catalytic activity and a method of forming such fuel cell electrodes. The method comprises vaporizing a catalyst, preferably platinum, in a vacuum to form a catalyst vapor. A catalytically effective amount of the catalyst vapor is deposited onto a carbon catalyst support on the fuel cell electrode. The electrode preferably is carbon cloth. The method reduces the amount of catalyst needed for a high performance fuel cell electrode to about 0.3 mg/cm.sup.2 or less.

  11. Chemical Vapor Deposited Zinc Sulfide. SPIE Press Monograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCloy, John S.; Tustison, Randal W.

    2013-04-22

    Zinc sulfide has shown unequaled utility for infrared windows that require a combination of long-wavelength infrared transparency, mechanical durability, and elevated-temperature performance. This book reviews the physical properties of chemical vapor deposited ZnS and their relationship to the CVD process that produced them. An in-depth look at the material microstructure is included, along with a discussion of the material's optical properties. Finally, because the CVD process itself is central to the development of this material, a brief history is presented.

  12. Deposition of thin silicon layers on transferred large area graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupina, Grzegorz Kitzmann, Julia; Lukosius, Mindaugas; Dabrowski, Jarek; Wolff, Andre; Mehr, Wolfgang

    2013-12-23

    Physical vapor deposition of Si onto transferred graphene is investigated. At elevated temperatures, Si nucleates preferably on wrinkles and multilayer graphene islands. In some cases, however, Si can be quasi-selectively grown only on the monolayer graphene regions while the multilayer islands remain uncovered. Experimental insights and ab initio calculations show that variations in the removal efficiency of carbon residuals after the transfer process can be responsible for this behavior. Low-temperature Si seed layer results in improved wetting and enables homogeneous growth. This is an important step towards realization of electronic devices in which graphene is embedded between two Si layers.

  13. Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nam, Youngwoo, E-mail: youngwoo.nam@chalmers.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Park, Yung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-13

    We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.

  14. Josephson tunnel junctions with chemically vapor deposited polycrystalline germanium barriers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroger, H.; Jillie, D.W.; Smith, L.N.; Phaneuf, L.E.; Potter, C.N.; Shaw, D.M.; Cukauskas, E.J.; Nisenoff, M.

    1984-03-01

    High quality Josephson tunnel junctions have been fabricated whose tunneling barrier is polycrystalline germanium chemically vapor deposited on a NbN base electrode and covered by a Nb counterelectrode. These junctions have excellent characteristics for device applications: values of V/sub m/ (the product of the critical current and the subgap resistance measured at 2 mV and 4.2 K) ranging between 35--48 mV, ideal threshold curves, a steep current rise at the gap voltage, and Josephson current densities from 100 to 1100 A/cm/sup 2/.

  15. Theoretical study of energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhilin; Peng, Shuming; Meng, Dan; He, Yuehong; Wang, Heyi

    2013-10-15

    Energy deposition in ionization chambers has been theoretically studied for tritium measurements in gaseous form. A one-dimension model is introduced to establish the quantitative relationship between energy deposition rate and many factors, including carrier gas, gas pressure, wall material, chamber size, and gas temperature. Energy deposition rate has been calculated at pressure varying from 5 kPa to 500 kPa based on some approximations. It is found that energy deposition rate varies greatly for different parameters, especially at low gas pressure. For the same chamber, energy deposition rate in argon is much higher than in deuterium, as much as 70.7% higher at 5 kPa. Gold plated chamber gives highest energy deposition rate in the calculations while aluminum chamber results in the lowest. As chamber size gets smaller, β ray emitted by tritium will deposit less energy in the sensitive region of the chamber. For chambers flowing through with the same gas, energy deposition rate in a 10 L chamber is 23.9% higher than in a 0.05 L chamber at 5 kPa. Gas temperature also places slight influence on energy deposition rate, and 373 K will lead to 6.7% lower deposition rate than 233 K at 5 kPa. In addition, experiments have been performed to obtain energy deposition rate in a gold plated chamber, which show good accordance with theoretical calculations.

  16. Zinc Oxide Thin Films Fabricated with Direct Current Magnetron Sputtering Deposition Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoon, Jian-Wei; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Krishnasamy, Jegenathan; Tou, Teck-Yong

    2011-03-30

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a very promising material for emerging large area electronic applications including thin-film sensors, transistors and solar cells. We fabricated ZnO thin films by employing direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition technique. ZnO films with different thicknesses ranging from 100 nm to 1020 nm were deposited on silicon (Si) substrate. The deposition pressure was varied from 12 mTorr to 25 mTorr. The influences of the film thickness and the deposition pressure on structural properties of the ZnO films were investigated using Mahr surface profilometer and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The experimental results reveal that the film thickness and the deposition pressure play significant role in the structural formation of the deposited ZnO thin films. ZnO films deposited on Si substrates are promising for variety of thin-film sensor applications.

  17. Process for ion-assisted laser deposition of biaxially textured layer on substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russo, Richard E.; Reade, Ronald P.; Garrison, Stephen M.; Berdahl, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A process for depositing a biaxially aligned intermediate layer over a non-single crystal substrate is disclosed which permits the subsequent deposition thereon of a biaxially oriented superconducting film. The process comprises depositing on a substrate by laser ablation a material capable of being biaxially oriented and also capable of inhibiting the migration of substrate materials through the intermediate layer into such a superconducting film, while simultaneously bombarding the substrate with an ion beam. In a preferred embodiment, the deposition is carried out in the same chamber used to subsequently deposit a superconducting film over the intermediate layer. In a further aspect of the invention, the deposition of the superconducting layer over the biaxially oriented intermediate layer is also carried out by laser ablation with optional additional bombardment of the coated substrate with an ion beam during the deposition of the superconducting film.

  18. Process for ion-assisted laser deposition of biaxially textured layer on substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russo, R.E.; Reade, R.P.; Garrison, S.M.; Berdahl, P.

    1995-07-11

    A process for depositing a biaxially aligned intermediate layer over a non-single crystal substrate is disclosed which permits the subsequent deposition thereon of a biaxially oriented superconducting film. The process comprises depositing on a substrate by laser ablation a material capable of being biaxially oriented and also capable of inhibiting the migration of substrate materials through the intermediate layer into such a superconducting film, while simultaneously bombarding the substrate with an ion beam. In a preferred embodiment, the deposition is carried out in the same chamber used to subsequently deposit a superconducting film over the intermediate layer. In a further aspect of the invention, the deposition of the superconducting layer over the biaxially oriented intermediate layer is also carried out by laser ablation with optional additional bombardment of the coated substrate with an ion beam during the deposition of the superconducting film. 8 figs.

  19. Lower Permian facies of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas: depositional systems, shelf-margin evolution, paleogeography, and petroleum potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handford, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    A Palo geological study suggests that potential hydrocarbon reservoirs occur in shelf-margin carbonates, delta-front sandstones, and fan-delta arkoses. Zones of porous (greater than 10 percent) dolomite are concentrated near shelf margins and have configurations similar to productive Lower Permian shelf-margin trends in New Mexico. Delta-front sandstones (log-computed porosity of 18 to 25 percent) are similar to producing deltaic sandstones of Morris Buie-Blaco Fields in North-Central Texas. Porous (18 percent) fan-delta sandstones along the south flank of the Amarillo Uplift may form reservoirs similiar to that of the Mobeetie Field on the north side of the Amarillo Uplife in Wheeler County, Texas. Potential hydrocarbon source beds occur in slope and basinal environments. Total organic carbon generally ranges from 1 to 2.3 percent by weight and averages 0.589 percent by weight.

  20. Long-term elemental dry deposition fluxes measured around Lake Michigan with an automated dry deposition sampler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahin, U. Yi, S.M.; Paode, R.D.; Holsen, T.M.

    2000-05-15

    Long-term measurements of mass and elemental dry deposition (MG, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, and Pb) were made with an automated dry deposition sampler (Eagle II) containing knife-edge surrogate surfaces during the Lake Michigan Mass Balance/Mass Budget Study. Measurements were made over a roughly 700-day period in Chicago, IL; in South Haven and Sleeping Bear Dunes, MI; and over Lake Michigan on the 68th Street drinking water intake cribs from December 1993 to October 1995. Average mass fluxes in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 65, 10, 3.6, and 12 mg m{sup {minus}2} day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Primarily crustal elemental fluxes were significantly smaller than the mass fluxes but higher than primarily anthropogenic elemental fluxes. For example, the average elemental flux of Al in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 1.0, 0.34, 0.074, and 0.34 mg m{sup {minus}2}day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The average Pb fluxes in Chicago, South Haven, Sleeping Bear Dunes, and the 68th Street crib were 0.038, 0.023, 0.035, and 0.032 mg m{sup {minus}2}day{sup {minus}1}, respectively. The measured fluxes at the various sites were used to calculate the dry deposition loadings to the lake. These estimated fluxes were highest for Mg and lowest for Cd.