Sample records for allied products wood

  1. Creating Value Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louisiana Forest Products Development Center #12;2 Louisiana is blessed with quality timberland for the Wood Products Industry The forest industry contributes more than 50 percent of the total value of all for quality information, research and education in forest products in Louisiana, recognized regionally

  2. WOOD PRODUCTS AND UTILIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    not require extensive cultivation and extraction methods, and it uses less manmade energy to manufacture, these trees are a vital component of wildlife and plant ecosystems, water quality, recreation, and esthetic and firewood harvesting are two activities that consume large quantities of wood from oak woodlands. Finding

  3. Harvested Wood Products -an Incentive for Deforestation?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    1 Harvested Wood Products - an Incentive for Deforestation? Andreas Fischlin1 Abstract Mitigation for deforestation is real. To curb the disadvantages of HWP, some debiting of non-sustainable forest management activities are implemented that provide true disincentives to deforestation, HWP may continue to create some

  4. Fast Curing of Composite Wood Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this program is to develop low temperature curing technologies for UF and PF resins. This will be accomplished by: • Identifying the rate limiting UF and PF curing reactions for current market resins; • Developing new catalysts to accelerate curing reactions at reduced press temperatures and times. In summary, these new curing technologies will improve the strength properties of the composite wood products and minimize the detrimental effects of wood extractives on the final product while significantly reducing energy costs for wood composites. This study is related to the accelerated curing of resins for wood composites such as medium density fiberboard (MDF), particle board (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). The latter is frequently manufactured with a phenol-formaldehyde resin whereas ureaformaldehyde (UF) resins are usually used in for the former two grades of composite wood products. One of the reasons that hinder wider use of these resins in the manufacturing of wood composites is the slow curing speed as well as inferior bondability of UF resin. The fast curing of UP and PF resins has been identified as an attractive process development that would allow wood to be bonded at higher moisture contents and at lower press temperatures that currently employed. Several differing additives have been developed to enhance cure rates of PF resins including the use of organic esters, lactones and organic carbonates. A model compound study by Conner, Lorenz and Hirth (2002) employed 2- and 4-hydroxymethylphenol with organic esters to examine the chemical basis for the reported enhanced reactivity. Their studies suggested that the enhance curing in the presence of esters could be due to enhanced quinone methide formation or enhanced intermolecular SN2 reactions. In either case the esters do not function as true catalysts as they are consumed in the reaction and were not found to be incorporated in the polymerized resin product. An alternative approach to accelerated PF curing can be accomplished with the addition amines or amides. The later functionality undergoes base catalyzed hydrolysis yielding the corresponding carboxyl ate and free amine which rapidly reacts with the phenolic methylol groups facilitating polymerization and curing of the PF resin (Pizzi, 1997).

  5. An Overview of the Louisiana Primary Solid Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    goal of this second study is to profile the primary solid wood products industry. In addition (including pulp and paper) and secondary manufacturing establishments (Jacob et al. 1987). The forest

  6. Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Products Marketing And Value-Added Opportunities In Latin America: A Focus on Brazil Richard School of Renewable Natural Resources Louisiana State University Presented at: PANORAMA Curitiba, Brazil

  7. Method for lowering the VOCS emitted during drying of wood products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit (1832 Jacksons Creek Point, Marietta, GA 30068); Boerner, James Robert (154 Junedale Rd., Cincinnati, OH 45218); Su, Wei (2262 Orleans Ave., Marietta, GA 30062)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for removal of VOCs from wood products prior to drying the wood products. The method of the invention includes the steps of providing a chamber having an opening for receiving wood and loading the chamber with green wood. The wood is loaded to an extent sufficient to provide a limited headspace in the chamber. The chamber is then closed and the wood is heated in the chamber for a time and at a temperature sufficient to saturate the headspace with moisture and to substantially transfer VOCs from the wood product to the moisture in the headspace.

  8. Opportunities for UPC Product and Service Suppliers: The Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    product and service suppliers. #12;4 UPC Suppliers To The Wood Products Industry Twenty-seven companies.3 percent of all corporate sales for these 27 respondent companies. An additional 15 companies indicated, from the largest timbers to small lengths of wood moulding are complying with customer requirements

  9. CONTROLLING THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ILLEGALLY LOGGED TIMBER AND WOOD PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONTROLLING THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ILLEGALLY LOGGED TIMBER AND WOOD PRODUCTS A study prepared@riia.org February 2002 #12;Controlling the international trade in illegally logged timber and wood products Page 2...................................................................................................................... 11 ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES IN THE FOREST SECTOR

  10. Marketing of Tropical Hardwood Wood Products from Ghana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    productive · Causes: farming, bush fires, fuel wood, wasteful logging practices, mining and quarrying #12;Fuelwood #12;Current Industry Structure · 8% of GDP · 250 companies involved in primary operations · 180 companies in secondary operations · Over 200 companies involved in tertiary operations · General

  11. Pellet Production Wood Pellets are made by compressing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pellet Production Wood Pellets are made by compressing clean dry sawdust, under very high pressure into a pellet as it cools. The material used for producing pellets usually comes from industries who are already pellets reduces the volume of material they have to treat as waste, reducing landfill. Pellets have

  12. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is discussed for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700/sup 0/C to 1200/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  13. Production of chemical feedstock by the methanolysis of wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Fallon, Peter (East Moriches, NY)

    1984-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the production of ethylene, benzene and carbon monoxide from particulated biomass such as wood by reaction with methane at a temperature of from 700.degree. C. to 1200.degree. C., at a pressure of from 20 psi to 100 psi for a period of from 0.2 to 10 seconds.

  14. Management of Discarded Treated Wood Products: A Resource Guide for Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Management of Discarded Treated Wood Products: A Resource Guide for Generators Prepared by have been conducting research on treated wood since 1996. During the course of the research, there have been numerous inquiries about the disposal and management options for treated wood products. There has

  15. Rational production of veneer by IR-heating of green wood during peeling: Modeling experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (0)3 85 59 53 85 E-mail: anna.dupleix@ensam.eu Abstract Heating green wood logs by infrared (IR-line IR heating system installed on the peeling lathe. Keywords: green wood; heating; infrared; modelingRational production of veneer by IR-heating of green wood during peeling: Modeling experiments Anna

  16. Attitudes and Awareness about Treated Wood Products: The U.S. South Homeowner Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    Attitudes and Awareness about Treated Wood Products: The U.S. South Homeowner Perspective is preservative-treated (SFPA 2004). In light of increasing market penetration from non-wood alternatives homeowner attitudes and awareness about using treated wood Strategic decisions can be made to better

  17. Name: Qinglin Wu Title: Roy O Martin Sr. Professor, Composites and Engineered Wood Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (ASTM), Philadelphia, PA · Forest Products Society, Madison, WI · Society of Wood and Science Technology Organizations · International Research Group in Wood Preservation, Stockholm, Sweden · American Chemical Society (ACS) · American Wood Preservation Association (AWPA) · American Society for Testing and Materials

  18. Determination of VOC emissions from French wood products Christophe YRIEIX *, Franois MAUPETIT **, Olivier RAMALHO **

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    wood manufacturers to determine IAQ performances of their products and to confront them with other quality (IAQ). Indeed, building products are significant sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs. This is particularly important for French wood manufacturers to determine IAQ performances of their products

  19. Influences of Government Interventions on Increasing Value-Added Wood Product Exports from Ghana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influences of Government Interventions on Increasing Value-Added Wood Product Exports from Ghana exporting raw materials such lumber to exporting processed or value-added wood products. In the mid-1990s on increasing value-added exports. These actions are: 1) the imposition of a levy on air-dried lumber exports, 2

  20. Ergonomic Solutions for the Secondary Wood Products Industry On October 17th

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gazo, Rado

    Ergonomic Solutions for the Secondary Wood Products Industry On October 17th and 18th , 2001, you are invited to a conference entitled: Ergonomic Solutions for the Secondary Wood Products Industry. This seminar will be held at Executive Inn, in Louisville, Kentucky. Hear the latest developments in ergonomics

  1. CONTROLLING THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ILLEGALLY LOGGED TIMBER AND WOOD PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONTROLLING THE INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ILLEGALLY LOGGED TIMBER AND WOOD PRODUCTS A study prepared@riia.org February 2002 http://www.illegal-logging.info/uploads/1_ControllingTrade.pdf #12;Controlling the international trade in illegally logged timber and wood products Page 2 Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  2. Forestry building a future in the South Southern Wood Council Forest Products Scholarship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Forestry ­ building a future in the South Southern Wood Council Forest Products Scholarship attached): A written submission (no more than 1 page double sided) on why you are pursuing Forestry APPLICATIONS WILL BE ACCEPTED #12; Forestry ­ building a future in the South SOUTHERN WOOD COUNCIL FOREST

  3. WPMT (Fall 2009) Page 1 June 8, 2009 Wood Products Manufacturing Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    positions in wood products manufacturing, particularly for the hardwood cabinet and furniture industries to Lean Manufacturing (3) MET 14100 Materials I (4) Physics elective3 (3) STAT 30100 Elementary Sixth Semester (3) ECON 21000 Principles of Economics (3) FNR 31100 Wood Structure, Identification

  4. Seismic design of a current woodframe structure and study of innovative products and damping systems in wood construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahjoub, Nina A. (Nina Azadeh)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood structures have seen resurgence in popularity over the past several decades, especially in Western States of America, such as California. The industry keeps creating new structural wood products of exceptional strength, ...

  5. Critical Issues for Success in the International Markets for Wood Products: Lessons Learned from Bolivia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Critical Issues for Success in the International Markets for Wood Products: Lessons Learned from, where forest certification may provide an advantage. 4. Learned Lessons from the Bolivian Case 4

  6. Disentangling Biodiversity and Climatic Determinants of Wood Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    an important role in carbon sequestration. Methodology/Principal Findings: We tested whether tree wood incorporating the role of biodiversity in management and policy plans for forest carbon sequestration. Citation

  7. Exploring Age-Related Environmental Attitudes in the Context of Wood Product Certification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    environmental standards, which companies could follow in the growing and harvesting of timber. Those that follow including environmental organizations, retailers and wood product companies are interested in developing'. Companies that certify their products encourage environmentally minded consumers to buy their products over

  8. An Additive Resin Reaction Product, a Method of Treating a Wood Product,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta FeAuthorization forAmesAmmaropticaland a Wood

  9. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report No. 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, W.; Yan, H.; Hooda, U.; Wild, M.P.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Shmulsky, R.; Thompson, A.; Ingram, L.; Conners, T. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)] [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was initiated by an Institute of Paper Science and Technology finding that heating softwood in a low-headspace environment removed much of the VOCs without removing the water. This offered the possibility of removing VOCs from wet wood, capturing them as a product, and then drying the VOC-depleted wood conventionally with little or no VOC controls. Two means of low-headspace heating were explored: steam and radiofrequency (RF). It was found in the previous year, that while both steam and RF were able to drive out VOCs, steam was impracticably slow for lumber. Hence the effect of RF or microwave on wood was the principal focus of the work reported here. Finally, in order to understand the mechanism of VOC release, the transport of the VOCs in wood was studied, together with the seasonal effects that influence VOC concentration in trees.

  10. Feasibility study of wood-fired cogeneration at a Wood Products Industrial Park, Belington, WV. Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasenda, S.K.; Hassler, C.C.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Customarily, electricity is generated in a utility power plant while thermal energy is generated in a heating/cooling plant; the electricity produced at the power plant is transmitted to the heating/cooling plant to power equipments. These two separate systems waste vast amounts of heat and result in individual efficiencies of about 35%. Cogeneration is the sequential production of power (electrical or mechanical) and thermal energy (process steam, hot/chilled water) from a single power source; the reject heat of one process issued as input into the subsequent process. Cogeneration increases the efficiency of these stand-alone systems by producing these two products sequentially at one location using a small additional amount of fuel, rendering the system efficiency greater than 70%. This report discusses cogeneration technologies as applied to wood fuel fired system.

  11. Environmental-performance research priorities: Wood products. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a research plan to establish environmental, energy, and economic performance measures for renewable building materials, and to identify management and technology alternatives to improve environmental performance in a cost-effective manner. The research plan is designed to: (1) collect environmental and economic data on all life-cycle stages of the materials, (2) ensure that the data follows consistent definitions and collection procedures, and (3) develop analytical procedures for life-cycle analysis to address environmental performance questions. The research will be subdivided into a number of individual project modules. The five processing stages of wood used to organize the research plan are: (1) resource management and harvesting; (2) processing; (3) design and construction of structures; (4) use, maintenance, and disposal; and (5) waste recycling. Individual research module descriptions are provided in the report, as well as assessment techniques, research standards and protocol, and research management. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. The Case for Certified Wood Forest products deemed sustainable are a growing part of today's green buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and explain the need for responsible forestry practices that keep wood building materials a truly green choiceThe Case for Certified Wood Forest products deemed sustainable are a growing part of today's green buildings October 2008 Sponsored by JELD-WEN® Windows and Doors The demand in the United States

  13. Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

  14. 1 Savcor Indufor Oy 2006 Value-added Wood Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    © Savcor Indufor Oy 2006 Role of China Furniture industry success: low production costs, especially labour, the UK, Germany, France, Japan) Role of China Trade Policy #12;INDUFOR 4© Savcor Indufor Oy 2006 Wooden $15.1 bill. China's and Asia's deliveries continue to increase to major EU markets after capturing

  15. Life in the woods : production and consumption of the urban forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volicer, Nadine (Nadine M.)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of wood is fraught with paradox. Wood as a building material is embraced for its naturalness, while the cutting of trees is indicted as a destruction of nature. Wood is lauded for its structural properties and ...

  16. Alternatives for balanced production of fibers, chemicals, and energy from wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjoestroem, E.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increased oil prices and shortage of fossil materials have recently focused interest on the possibilities of conversion of wood to various forms of fuels and chemicals. It is to be expected that new approaches are emerging from the totality of the research effort now in progress. However, irrespective of this, the function of wood as a construction material and a source for fibers presumably remains unchanged or even becomes more important in the future. In regard to the principal pulping methods for production of fibers, no abrupt changes in current practices are probable, apart from important progress in energy saving. In a very favorable situation of the kraft process, when surplus energy generated from the burning of black liquor is availiable, a partial recovery of dissolved organic solids, such as lignin and carbohydrates and their degradation products, becomes more attractive. Quite different is the case of the conventional sulfite process when evaporation and burning of the spent liquor result in severe air pollution. Successful recovery, conversion, and marketing of the dissolved solids can then be the only way to compensate for the expense of using external fuel. Alternatives for production of organic chemicals from kraft and sulfite spent liquors are discussed by taking into consideration the fiber production, composition of dissolved solids, energy requirements, pollution problems, and recovery of inorganic pulping chemicals. 11 references, 10 figures, 5 tables

  17. Home Page > Business > Industrial > Global Trade Of Wood Chips Down 26% In 2009 As Pulpmills Reduce Production Worldwide, Reports Wood Resources International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Europe searching for additional sources of woody biomass, it is likely that trade with wood chips On March 16-17, 2010, the 4th Global Wood Fiber Conference: Trade in Wood chips and Biomass worldwide, European demand for pellets and biomass chips, outlook for plantation wood chip supply, ocean

  18. Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood This article has been Contact us My IOPscience #12;Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood K to recover energy from biomass. The Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion

  19. FAO Forestry Department Wood Energy WISDOM Slovenia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in developing pellet production and district heating systems; the formulation of a national wood energy strategyFAO ­ Forestry Department ­ Wood Energy WISDOM ­ Slovenia Spatial woodfuel production Rudi Drigo Forestry Specialist - Wood energy planning and forest resources monitoring Zivan Veseli

  20. Table 8. Summary list of tools exclusively for either wood or paper-based products Procurement Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SOLID WOOD The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)® Green Building Rating System US products only from verifiably legal and SFM. Management system compliant with UK central government Trade Traceability Monitoring and verification Legality SFM Geographic areas of interest Main issues

  1. Forest carbon storage in the northeastern United States: Net effects of harvesting frequency, post-harvest retention, and wood products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    26 December 2009 Keywords: Carbon sequestration Wood products Structural retention Harvesting tradeoffs among scenarios using a factorial treatment design and two-way ANOVA. Mean carbon sequestrationForest carbon storage in the northeastern United States: Net effects of harvesting frequency, post

  2. Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Successful biomass (wood pellets ) implementation in Estonia Biomass Utilisation of Local of primary energy in Estonia ! Wood fuels production ! Pellet firing projects in Estonia ­ SIDA Demo East Production of wood fuels in Estonia in 2002 Regional Energy Centres in Estonia Wood pellets production

  3. The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand uniformity on wood production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Binkley, Dan

    The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand, Brazil f Veracel Celulose, Eunapolis, Bahia, Brazil g International Paper do Brasil, Mogi Guacu, Sao Paulo, Brazil h Suzano Papel e Celulose, Teixeira de Freitas, Bahia, Brazil i CENIBRA, Ipatinga, Minas

  4. SOLID WOOD PRODUCTS I TECHNICAL NOTE CALIBRATION OF MOISTURE METERS FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    tanks, and boats, the kiln and allowed to cool. They were content (MC) of wood. However, the cor and electrical resis- cypress have been supplied by moisture handled or conditioned. One moisture tance

  5. The Impact of the Russian Tariff on Japanese Demand for Wood Products CINTRAFOR News is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    far from the main demand markets. During the post-war era, Japan went from being essentially self and it is one of the few countries in Asia that favor wood frame construction. In the early 1960's, over 80

  6. Wood Resources International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .3% Sweden 5.3% Finland 4.1% Russia 13.8% US 37.3% Germany 3.3% France 2.8% Poland 2.1% Other Europe 14 International Wood Fuel Removals in Europe 2002 Turkey 12.2% Poland 3.6% Romania 5.3% Hungary 4.1% Germany 7;Wood Resources International Production of energy from wood fuels in 2000 Source: EUBIONET 0 50 100 150

  7. Analysis of wood-energy production and consumption strategies among small-scale farmers in central Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mwangi, A.M.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study focuses on wood-energy production and consumption strategies among small-scale farm households in central Kenya. The specific objective were: (1) to determine how households had responded to specific wood-energy policies; (2) to identify factors associated with household adoption or non-adoption of the strategies. Different programs aimed at addressing wood-energy shortages in Kenya were initiated or strengthened during the 1980s: fuelwood or multipurpose tree planting; development and dissemination of improved stoves and fireplaces; promotion of increased accessibility to wood-energy substitutes. Household adoption levels for policy-supported strategies have remained low despite promotion. Survey data from two villages in Nyeri district were collected to determine the factors associated with adoption of the Kenya Ceramic Jiko, the [open quotes]Kuni Mbili[close quotes] stove/fireplace, kerosene stoves, electric cookers, and fuelwood or multipurpose tree planting. Adoption rates varied from as low as 1 percent for electricity to 43 percent for the Kenya Ceramic Jiko. Important policy variables included extension visits per year, income levels, years of formal education received by head of household, access to different fuels, area of farm-land owned, household size, and locational characteristics of the villages. Policy recommendations included: use of research results to direct policy; improvement of information flows between policy makers, extension agents, and technology-users; increased support of agroforestry; and better program coordination. Recommendations for further research included: examining more areas where efficiency gains in energy production and consumption can be made, extending the study to cover the drier parts of central Kenya, and conducting regular case studies in order to better understand the adoption process over time.

  8. Power Ally | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroupPerfectenergyInformation to ReducePoseidonPowder RiverPowellAlly Jump

  9. CHEMISTRY AND STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, H.G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis of the wood-oil product derived from the above2 g It is probable that oil products with oxygen contentscollected with the wood-oil product. The condensate contains

  10. automatic wood furnaces: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pressure differences that included standard rating points 11 Wood Products 201213 Student Handbook Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Wood Products 201213 Student...

  11. Workshop: Natural Allies: Training Other Professionals Who Impact...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Natural Allies: Training Other Professionals Who Impact the Solar Industry Workshop: Natural Allies: Training Other Professionals Who Impact the Solar Industry May 22, 2014 2:30PM...

  12. Building Profits and Goodwill in the Wood Product Industry with Time-Of-Use Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, W. K.

    utilities across the U.S. are searching for alternatives to building generating plants. One of the alternatives used by Carolina Power & Light Company is Time-of-Use Rates. These rates give monetary incentives to customers who change their electrical... nationally known wood pro ducts manufacturer with a 235-employee plywood plant located in Moncure, North Carolina. The plant receives electric ser vice from Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L), an investor-owned electric utility serving over 825...

  13. Low VOC drying of lumber and wood panel products. Progress report number 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooda, U.; Banerjee, S. [Inst. of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ingram, L.; Conners, T. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is based on the finding that brief microwave or RF-treatment of wood under low-headspace conditions leads to the release of VOCs. On occasion the authors have found that prolonged irradiation increases turpentine yield much more than anticipated from a simple mass balance; i.e., more pinene appeared to be released than was present in the wood in the first place. If taken at face value, this suggests that brief low-headspace irradiation removes VOCs, while prolonged exposure creates it. While seemingly improbable, this could follow if dielectric heating exposed regions of wood that were otherwise inaccessible to the solvent used for extraction (unlikely), or if the irradiation induced depolymerization of terpene dimers or higher polymers. In this report the authors attempt to identify the conditions that lead to this apparent enhancement of terpene yield, by constructing relationships between yield and irradiation parameters. The tentative conclusions are that this enhancement only occurs with relatively wet heartwood, and only under prolonged irradiation. An additional conclusion is that continuing analyses of twelve trees in the MSU forest confirm that the absence of a significant seasonal influence on turpentine content. An apparatus for permeability testing has been constructed, and work is underway.

  14. An Overview of the Louisiana Forest Products Development Center &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Engineered Wood Products #12;Thermal-bonded Wood/ Bagasse Nonwoven Thermal-bonded Wood/Bagasse Composite

  15. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. James A. Burger

    2002-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first quarterly Technical Report for the period October-December, 2003. A kick-off meeting was held with NETL administrators and scientists at Morgantown, WV, on December 2, 2002. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. During this first quarterly reporting period, five Graduate Research Assistants were recruited, an MOA was drafted between Virginia Tech and three industry cooperators, preliminary field locations for controlled studies were located, and a preliminary analysis of a carbon inventory of forest sites on mined land was made.

  16. Structure-Infesting Wood-Boring Beetles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackman, John A.

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Several kinds of beetles damage stored wood, structural timbers and other wood products. This publication explains how to detect, identify, prevent and control powderpost beetle, old house borer and others....

  17. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Aggett

    2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this segment of work, our goal was to review methods for estimating tree survival, growth, yield and value of forests growing on surface mined land in the eastern coalfields of the USA, and to determine the extent to which carbon sequestration is influenced by these factors. Public Law 95-87, the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), mandates that mined land be reclaimed in a fashion that renders the land at least as productive after mining as it was before mining. In the central Appalachian region, where prime farmland and economic development opportunities for mined land are scarce, the most practical land use choices are hayland/pasture, wildlife habitat, or forest land. Since 1977, the majority of mined land has been reclaimed as hayland/pasture or wildlife habitat, which is less expensive to reclaim than forest land, since there are no tree planting costs. As a result, there are now hundreds of thousands of hectares of grasslands and scrublands in various stages of natural succession located throughout otherwise forested mountains in the U.S. A literature review was done to develop the basis for an economic feasibility study of a range of land-use conversion scenarios. Procedures were developed for both mixed hardwoods and white pine under a set of low product prices and under a set of high product prices. Economic feasibility is based on land expectation values. Further, our review shows that three types of incentive schemes might be important: (1) lump sum payment at planting (and equivalent series of annual payments); (2) revenue incentive at harvest; and (3) benefit based on carbon volume.

  18. The Asian Wood Pellet Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Asian Wood Pellet Markets Joseph A. Roos and Allen M. Brackley United States Department Wood Pellet plant in North Pole, Alaska. Clockwise from upper left: pelleting machine; pellets bagged for home use; a Superior Pellet Fuels bag; inventory of product ready for shipment to retailers. Upper

  19. GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GLOBAL WOOD SUPPLY Sten Nilsson Biomass and Resource Efficiency: the need for a supply led approach the wood come from? Western EU Deficit Eastern EU Deficit Rest of Eastern Europe Balanced Russia Rest of Eastern Europe Balanced Russia Is probably at production ceiling under current conditions Japan

  20. Freeing France: The Allies, the Résistance, and the JEDBURGHs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Benjamin Forrest

    2008-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    General Dwight D. Eisenhower used the Forces Françaises de l'Intérieur to conduct a guerilla war against German forces during the Allied campaigns in France. The study below examines the Allied politics, the nature and the ...

  1. allied health students: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    two exciting events since moving to our Cui, Yan 5 Department of Allied Health Sciences Physics Websites Summary: Department of Allied Health Sciences UNC Chapel Hill "It was the...

  2. allied health services: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: the critical role allied health professionals play as members of the health care team. Students were on handGood Things Are Happening in the College of Allied...

  3. allied health providers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: the critical role allied health professionals play as members of the health care team. Students were on handGood Things Are Happening in the College of Allied...

  4. allied health sciences: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: the critical role allied health professionals play as members of the health care team. Students were on handGood Things Are Happening in the College of Allied...

  5. allied health science: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: the critical role allied health professionals play as members of the health care team. Students were on handGood Things Are Happening in the College of Allied...

  6. allied health occupations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: the critical role allied health professionals play as members of the health care team. Students were on handGood Things Are Happening in the College of Allied...

  7. allied health personnel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: the critical role allied health professionals play as members of the health care team. Students were on handGood Things Are Happening in the College of Allied...

  8. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration potential of forests growing on 14 mined sites in a seven-state region in the Midwestern and Eastern Coalfields. Carbon contents of these forests were compared to adjacent forests on non-mined land. The study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each location. The treatments include three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Soil samples were collected from each plot to characterize the sites prior to treatment. Analysis of soil samples was completed and these data are being used to prepare fertilizer prescriptions. Fertilizer prescripts will be developed for each site. Fertilizer will be applied during the second quarter 2004. Data are included as appendices in this report. As part of our economic analysis of mined land reforestation, we focused on the implications of a shift in reforestation burden from the landowner to the mine operator. Results suggest that the reforestation of mined lands as part of the mining operation creates a viable and profitable forest enterprise for landowners with greater potential for carbon sequestration.

  9. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  10. North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash North American wood markets hit by United States housing crash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    themes were: 1. softwood market developments, and 2. wood energy and wood mobilization. The main use of wood for energy throughout the UNECE region, driven by policy measures and high oil prices development, which will have to try to balance the needs of the established wood products sector and the bio-energy

  11. Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC "Illegal" Logging and Global Wood Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC SUMMARY "Illegal" Logging and Global Resources International, LLC Illegal Logging and Global Wood Markets: The Competitive Impacts on the U.S. Wood Products Industry1 Summary Study Objectives Illegal logging and illegal forest activities, in one

  12. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. During the reporting period (October-December 2004) we completed the validation of a forest productivity classification model for mined land. A coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) of 0.68 confirms the model's ability to predict SI based on a selection of mine soil properties. To determine carbon sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio (Figure 1), West Virginia (Figure 2), and Virginia (Figure 3). The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). For hybrid poplar, total plant biomass differences increased significantly with the intensity of silvicultural input. Root, stem, and foliage biomass also increased with the level of silvicultural intensity. Financial feasibility analyses of reforestation on mined lands previously reclaimed to grassland have been completed for conversion to white pine and mixed hardwood species. Examination of potential policy instruments for promoting financial feasibility also have been completed, including lump sum payments at time of conversion, annual payments through the life of the stand, and payments based on carbon sequestration that provide both minimal profitability and fully offset initial reforestation outlays. We have compiled a database containing mine permit information obtained from permitting agencies in Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky. Due to differences and irregularities in permitting procedures between states, we found it necessary to utilize an alternative method to determine mined land acreages in the Appalachian region. We have initiated a proof of concept study, focused in the State of Ohio, to determine the feasibility of using images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and/or Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) to accurately identify mined lands.

  13. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we compiled and evaluated all soil properties measured on the study sites. Statistical analysis of the properties was conducted, and first year survival and growth of white pine, hybrid poplars, and native hardwoods was assessed. Hardwood species survived better at all sites than white pine or hybrid poplar. Hardwood survival across treatments was 80%, 85%, and 50% for sites in Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio, respectively, while white pine survival was 27%, 41%, and 58%, and hybrid poplar survival was 37%, 41%, and 72% for the same sites, respectively. Hybrid poplar height and diameter growth were superior to those of the other species tested, with the height growth of this species reaching 126.6cm after one year in the most intensive treatment at the site in Virginia. To determine carbon in soils on these sites, we developed a cost-effective method for partitioning total soil carbon to pedogenic carbon and geogenic carbon in mine soils. We are in the process of evaluating the accuracy and precision of the proposed carbon partitioning technique for which we are designing an experiment with carefully constructed mine soil samples. In a second effort, as part of a mined land reforestation project for carbon sequestration in southwestern Virginia we implemented the first phase of the carbon monitoring protocol that was recently delivered to DOE.

  14. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. Regression models of chemical and physical soil properties were created in order to estimate the SOC content down the soil profile. Soil organic carbon concentration and volumetric percent of the fines decreased exponentially down the soil profile. The results indicated that one-third of the total SOC content on mined lands was found in the surface 0-13 cm soil layer, and more than two-thirds of it was located in the 0-53 cm soil profile. A relative estimate of soil density may be best in broad-scale mine soil mapping since actual D{sub b} values are often inaccurate and difficult to obtain in rocky mine soils. Carbon sequestration potential is also a function of silvicultural practices used for reforestation success. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Relative to carbon value, our analysis this quarter shows that although short-rotation hardwood management on reclaimed surface mined lands may have higher LEVs than traditional long-rotation hardwood management, it is only profitable in a limited set of circumstances.

  15. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2004-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots requires 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site requires 13.5 acres. The plots at all three locations have been installed and the plot corners marked with PVC stakes. GPS coordinates of each plot have been collected. Tree survival, height and diameter were measured after the first growing season. There were significant treatment and treatment x site interactions. A STELLA{reg_sign}-based model helped us develop insight as to whether it is possible to differentiate the permanent SOC from the C contained in the labile forms of SOM. The model can be used for predicting the amount of C sequestered on mine lands, and the amount of C that is expected to reside in the mine soil for more than 1,000 years. Based on our work, it appears that substantial carbon payments to landowners would be required to reach ''profitability'' under present circumstances. However, even though the payments that we examine could generate non-negative LEVs, there is no guarantee that the payments will actually cause landowners to reforest in practice. It is landowner utility associated with forestland profitability that will be the determining factor in actual conversion--utility that likely would include cash flow timing, amenities, and even the credit position of the landowner.

  16. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the Earth’s atmosphere have increased dramatically in the past 100 years due to deforestation, land use change, and fossil fuel combustion. These humancaused, higher levels of CO{sub 2} may enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect and may contribute to climate change. Many reclaimed coal-surface mine areas in the eastern U.S. are not in productive use. Reforestation of these lands could provide societal benefits, including sequestration of atmospheric carbon. The goal of this project was to determine the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on the tens of thousands of hectares of mined land and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from large-scale application of forest restoration procedures. We developed a mine soil quality model that can be used to estimate the suitability of selected mined sites for carbon sequestration projects. Across the mine soil quality gradient, we tested survival and growth performance of three species assemblages under three levels of silvicultural. Hardwood species survived well in WV and VA, and survived better than the other species used in OH, while white pine had the poorest survival of all species at all sites. Survival was particularly good for the site-specific hardwoods planted at each site. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Grassland to forest conversion costs may be a major contributor to the lack of reforestation of previously reclaimed mine lands in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Otherwise profitable forestry opportunities may be precluded by these conversion costs, which for many combinations of factors (site class, forest type, timber prices, regeneration intensity, and interest rate) result in negative land expectation values. Improved technology and/or knowledge of reforestation practices in these situations may provide opportunities to reduce the costs of converting many of these sites as research continues into these practices. It also appears that in many cases substantial payments, non-revenue values, or carbon values are required to reach “profitability” under the present circumstances. It is unclear when, or in what form, markets will develop to support any of these add-on values to supplement commercial forestry revenues. However, as these markets do develop, they will only enhance the viability of forestry on reclaimed mined lands, although as we demonstrate in our analysis of carbon payments, the form of the revenue source may itself influence management, potentially mitigating some of the benefits of reforestation. For a representative mined-land resource base, reforestation of mined lands with mixed pine-hardwood species would result in an average estimated C accumulation in forms that can be harvested for use as wood products or are likely to remain in the soil C pool at ~250 Mg C ha{sup -1} over a 60 year period following reforestation. The “additionality” of this potential C sequestration was estimated considering data in scientific literature that defines C accumulation in mined-land grasslands over the long term. Given assumptions detailed in the text, these lands have the potential to sequester ~180 Mg C ha{sup -1}, a total of 53.5 x 10{sup 6} Mg C, over 60 years, an average of ~900,000 Mg C / yr, an amount equivalent to about 0.04% of projected US C emissions at the midpoint of a 60-year period (circa 2040) following assumed reforestation. Although potential sequestration quantities are not great relative to potential national needs should an energy-related C emissions offset requirement be developed at some future date, these lands are available and unused for other economically valued purposes and many possess soil and site properties that are well-suited to reforestation. Should such reforestation occur, it would also produce ancillary benefits by providing env

  17. Allied Sun Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,AlleghanyAllianceAllied Sun

  18. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  19. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, James A

    2005-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we determined that by grinding the soil samples to a finer particle size of less than 250 ?m (sieve No. 60), the effect of mine soil coal particle size on the extent to which these particles will be oxidized during the thermal treatment of the carbon partitioning procedure will be eliminated, thus making the procedure more accurate and precise. In the second phase of the carbon sequestration project, we focused our attention on determining the sample size required for carbon accounting on grassland mined fields in order to achieve a desired accuracy and precision of the final soil organic carbon (SOC) estimate. A mine land site quality classification scheme was developed and some field-testing of the methods of implementation was completed. The classification model has been validated for softwoods (white pine) on several reclaimed mine sites in the southern Appalachian coal region. The classification model is a viable method for classifying post-SMCRA abandoned mined lands into productivity classes for white pine. A thinning study was established as a random complete block design to evaluate the response to thinning of a 26-year-old white pine stand growing on a reclaimed surface mine in southwest Virginia. Stand parameters were projected to age 30 using a stand table projection. Site index of the stand was found to be 32.3 m at base age 50 years. Thinning rapidly increased the diameter growth of the residual trees to 0.84 cm yr{sup -1} compared to 0.58 cm yr{sup -1} for the unthinned treatment; however, at age 26, there was no difference in volume or value per hectare. At age 30, the unthinned treatment had a volume of 457.1 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} but was only worth $8807 ha{sup -1}, while the thinned treatment was projected to have 465.8 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1}, which was worth $11265 ha{sup -1} due to a larger percentage of the volume being in sawtimber size classes.

  20. Department of Forest and Wood Science Academic Programmes for 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geldenhuys, Jaco

    ; harvesting and supply; biomass conversion; energy production; marketing of bio-energy; economicsDepartment of Forest and Wood Science Academic Programmes for 2014 Postgraduate Diploma Enquiries: Head of Department Contact details: Department of Forest and Wood Science Stellenbosch University

  1. FIEA Advancing Wood Technology Forest Industry Engineering Scholarship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    year. Forestry and wood products companies, key product suppliers, researchers and technology qualification. This FIEA Scholarship has also been set up to encourage and support an outstanding student

  2. European Panel FederationEuropean Panel Federation viewpoint on wood energy policiesviewpoint on wood energy policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    --called "green energy"called "green energy" ·· Simultaneously, the taxes on the use of fossil fuelsSimultaneously, the taxes on the use of fossil fuels increaseincrease ·· This leads to increasing costs for wood productsIncreasing use of wood for energy production ·· Governments in Europe are granting subsidies for

  3. Wood Burning Combined Cycle Power Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culley, J. W.; Bourgeois, H. S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined cycle power plant utilizing wood waste products as a fuel has been designed. This plant will yield a 50% efficiency improvement compared to conventional wood-fueled steam power plants. The power plant features an externally-fired gas...

  4. arsenate cca wood: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Renewable Energy Websites Summary: of primary energy in Estonia Wood fuels production Pellet firing projects in Estonia - SIDA Demo East firing projects in...

  5. anisotropic olivier wood: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Renewable Energy Websites Summary: of primary energy in Estonia Wood fuels production Pellet firing projects in Estonia - SIDA Demo East firing projects in Estonia:...

  6. Alaska Wood Biomass Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan Bolling

    2009-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the Craig Wood Fired Boiler Project is to use waste wood from local sawmilling operations to provide heat to local public buildings, in an effort to reduce the cost of operating those buildings, and put to productive use a byproduct from the wood milling process that otherwise presents an expense to local mills. The scope of the project included the acquisition of a wood boiler and the delivery systems to feed wood fuel to it, the construction of a building to house the boiler and delivery systems, and connection of the boiler facility to three buildings that will benefit from heat generated by the boiler: the Craig Aquatic Center, the Craig Elementary School, and the Craig Middle School buildings.

  7. 21 July 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    increased the most. Global Timber and Wood Products Market Update - a news brief from Wood Resources statistics for sawlogs, wood pellets and wood chips. Contact Information Wood Resources International LLC PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER - FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP 3 Copyright © 2014 Wood

  8. Residential Wood Residential wood combustion (RWC) is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Residential Wood Combustion Residential wood combustion (RWC) is increasing in Europe because PM2.5. Furthermore, other combustion- related sources of OA in Europe may need to be reassessed. Will it affect global OA emission estimates? Combustion of biofuels is globally one of the major OA sources

  9. Impact of in-woods product merchandizing on profitable logging opportunities in southern upland hardwood forests. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, D.M.; LeDoux, C.B.; Tansey, J.B.; Widmann, R.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report estimates profitable logging opportunities existing in upland hardwood forests in 14 Southern States and demonstrates the impact of three alternative product-merchandizing options on profitable logging opportunities and profit margins.

  10. Emerging Markets for Wood Energy Richard Vlosky, Director

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) are Woody Biomass Utilization Grants (Woody BUG) and Biomass Crop Assistance Program (BCAP) Renewable Fuel · The Louisiana Forest Products Development Center · Wood-to-Energy · Wood Biomass · Energy Options · Current Forest Products Development Center School of Renewable Natural Resources, LSU AgCenter & School

  11. allied health care: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    allied health care First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Good Things Are Happening in the...

  12. Presentation 2.6: Wood waste for energy: lessons learnt from tropical regions Paul Vantomme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presentation 2.6: Wood waste for energy: lessons learnt from tropical regions Paul Vantomme of forest products with more value adding, and promoting the use of wood waste to increase energy efficiency to promote the use of wood waste for energy production. Not only the financial viability of the process needs

  13. Woodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2012 I Hudson Consulting I November 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    furnish of 150k odt/yr in 2012. 9. Including wood going for the production of pellets, usage of wood in progress 3.3. Wood fuel usage by fuel category 3.4. Pellet plants 3.5. Greenhouse gas emissions 4 to 1.073 million odt in 2014. 8. Four wood pellet manufacturing plants in Scotland used in total some

  14. Allied Resource Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat Place: Wayne, Pennsylvania Product: Pennsylvania-based global

  15. Corrosion behavior of 8090 Al-Li alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Z.Q.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.L. (Academia Sinica, Shenyang (China). Inst. of Metal Research); Zhu, Z.Y. (Academia Sinica, Shenyang (China). Inst. of Corrosion and Protection of Metals)

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation was conducted of the corrosion behavior of 8090 aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloy (UNS A98090), when aged under various conditions and subjected to corrosion in a solution of 3.5% NaCl + 1% H[sub 2]O[sub 2]. Susceptibility to pitting, intergranular corrosion, and exfoliation corrosion was shown to be influenced by heat treatment, which reduced from natural aging, through overaging to peak aging, Materials with peak aging showed low corrosion resistance. The decreased corrosion resistance corresponded to decreased corrosion potential of the alloy. Insoluble constituents were susceptible to corrosion. The corrosion extended along grain boundaries. Al-Li alloys showed mismatched tensile strength and stress corrosion resistance. The growth rate of stress corrosion cracks was large in the peak-aged state. The growth rate was strengthened by overaging, but tensile strength was reduced. That problem was solved by retrogression and reaging processing.

  16. Field testing of an automated wood-combustion system and development of business plan for commercialization of production. Final report for period ending August 1, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1983-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A tunnel burner for burning wood chips has been installed and tested at a school building in Durham, NC. The test revealed many problems which did not exist while testing a prototype in laboratories. Controls were found to work reliably. A business plan was developed and is appended. (LEW)

  17. International Trade of Wood Pellets (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The production of wood pellets has increased dramatically in recent years due in large part to aggressive emissions policy in the European Union; the main markets that currently supply the European market are North America and Russia. However, current market circumstances and trade dynamics could change depending on the development of emerging markets, foreign exchange rates, and the evolution of carbon policies. This fact sheet outlines the existing and potential participants in the wood pellets market, along with historical data on production, trade, and prices.

  18. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -product of combustion from wood-fired boilers, at a typical paper mills and other wood burning facilities. Approximately %) of wood ash and coal fly ash; (3) non-air- entrained structural-grade concrete (up to 60 MPa 28-day compressive strength) with wood ash or its blends with coal fly ash (up to 40 %) as partial replacement

  19. Relative Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity of Pressure-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Relative Leaching and Aquatic Toxicity of Pressure-Treated Wood Products Using Batch Leaching Tests treated with one of five different waterborne chemical preservatives, were leached using 18-h batch- treated wood at concentrations above the U.S. federal toxicity characteristic limit (5 mg/L). All

  20. James F. Wood

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    James F. Wood is currently Deputy Assistant Secretary for Clean Coal in the Office of Fossil Energy (FE). In this position, he is responsible for the management and direction of the Office's...

  1. CORRUPTION AND ILLEGAL LOGGING IN THE WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettenella, Davide

    CORRUPTION AND ILLEGAL LOGGING IN THE WOOD PRODUCTS MARKET: the Italian experience in controlling Science 7 May 2004 Paper organization 1. State of the problem 2. Are Italian companies involved in deforestation and trade of illegal logging? 3. Which are the most affected countries? 4. Why do we need

  2. Journal of Hazardous Materials A135 (2006) 2131 Leaching of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Monofills are a type of landfill designed and operated to dispose a single waste type, such as ash, tires-treated wood is commingled with untreated wood as part of recycling operations, the mulch product produced

  3. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  4. Rheological Model for Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Masoud Hassani; Falk K. Wittel; Stefan Hering; Hans J. Herrmann

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood as the most important natural and renewable building material plays an important role in the construction sector. Nevertheless, its hygroscopic character basically affects all related mechanical properties leading to degradation of material stiffness and strength over the service life. Accordingly, to attain reliable design of the timber structures, the influence of moisture evolution and the role of time- and moisture-dependent behaviors have to be taken into account. For this purpose, in the current study a 3D orthotropic elasto-plastic, visco-elastic, mechano-sorptive constitutive model for wood, with all material constants being defined as a function of moisture content, is presented. The corresponding numerical integration approach, with additive decomposition of the total strain is developed and implemented within the framework of the finite element method (FEM). Moreover to preserve a quadratic rate of asymptotic convergence the consistent tangent operator for the whole model is derived. Functionality and capability of the presented material model are evaluated by performing several numerical verification simulations of wood components under different combinations of mechanical loading and moisture variation. Additionally, the flexibility and universality of the introduced model to predict the mechanical behavior of different species are demonstrated by the analysis of a hybrid wood element. Furthermore, the proposed numerical approach is validated by comparisons of computational evaluations with experimental results.

  5. Microsoft PowerPoint - Converting Sustainable Forest Products...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Petroleum, NG...) Fossil Fuel Production (Coal, Petroleum, NG...) Environmental, Social, Ecological, and Economic Sustainability What are Wood Pellets? * Wood pellets are...

  6. An economical and market analysis of Canadian wood pellets.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study systematically examined the current and future wood pellet market, estimated the cost of Canadian torrefied pellets, and compared the torrefied pellets with the conventional pellets based on literature and industrial data. The results showed that the wood pellet industry has been gaining significant momentum due to the European bioenergy incentives and the rising oil and natural gas prices. With the new bioenergy incentives in USA, the future pellets market may shift to North America, and Canada can potentially become the largest pellet production centre, supported by the abundant wood residues and mountain pine beetle (MPB) infested trees.

  7. NRRI Scientist Victor Krause provides product testing for Minnesota's secondary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Netoff, Theoden

    NRRI Scientist Victor Krause provides product testing for Minnesota's secondary wood product Mapping hot rocks Johnson leads environmental center Land on the chopping block 4 6 7 8 9 Wood pellets paper thin, real wood veneers "the last gold nugget in the wood products industry." NRRI scientist Matt

  8. Volatile constituents in a wood pyrolysis oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Shih-Chien

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , 1958]. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Pyrolysis products of cellulose and treated cellulose at 600oC f Chin, 1973]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Pyrolysis products of lignin at 450-550 C [Allen and Nattil a, 1971] Properties of wood pyrolysis oil. 12... and decom- 0 poses at 225-325 C. Cellulose decompos s at higher temp- eratures within a narrow range of 320-375 C. In other 0 words, the cell wall polysaccharides provide most of the vol ati) e products, while lignin predominantly forms a charred...

  9. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    ash to solve the concerns associated with its disposal. Wood ash consists of two different types ash and coal fly ash for use in concrete, was used to determine general suitability of wood ashCenter for By-Products Utilization WOOD ASH: A NEW SOURCE OF POZZOLANIC MATERIAL By Tarun R. Naik

  10. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    beneficial uses of wood ash to meet the challenges associated with its disposal. Wood ash consists of two C 618 [13] developed for volcanic ash and coal fly ash for use in concrete, was used to determineCenter for By-Products Utilization RECYCLING OF WOOD ASH IN CEMENT-BASED CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS

  11. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    wood with supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke by pulp and paper mills and wood, knots, chips, etc. with other supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke to generateCenter for By-Products Utilization DEVELOPMENT OF CLSM USING COAL ASH AND WOOD ASH, A SOURCE OF NEW

  12. Wood residuals find big uses in small pieces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn, J.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With a history of finding economic uses for leftovers, the wood industry explores sustainable options for creating higher value products. Years ago, companies saw the use - any use - of residues as a sound, economic business practice. Today, many companies are looking to go beyond low value products such as mulch, animal bedding and fuel, and market to higher value end users. Additionally, with so much material from the primary industries already accounted for, consumers of wood residue are in need of additional supply from sources such as secondary mills (furniture manufacturers, etc.), as wells as the C&D and MSW streams. This paper discusses these products and markets.

  13. Preliminary Notice of Violation,Western Allied Mechanical, Inc.- WEA-2009-03

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Issued to Western Allied Mechanical, Inc. related to a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe explosion that occurred in Sector 30 of the linear accelerator facility at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC).

  14. Brook Muller Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, School of Architecture and Allied Arts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) College of Architecture and Environmental Design Sustainable Environments Program, California Polytechnic1 Brook Muller Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, School of Architecture and Allied Arts Associate Professor, Architecture Director, Graduate Certificate Program in Ecological Design Core Faculty

  15. DIVISION 6 -WOOD AND PLASTICS 06000 GENERAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DIVISION 6 - WOOD AND PLASTICS ________________________________________________________________________ 06000 GENERAL 1. For both woods and plastics, special attention is called to matters of flame spread-dried. 3. For exterior wood or plastic framed structures, see Division 4 for dimensions of Sample Panel

  16. U.S. Homeowner of Perceptions of Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U.S. Homeowner of Perceptions of Treated Wood Todd F. Shupe Extension Specialist Forest Products% Naturally durable species (cedar, redwood) 19% 56% 25% Treated lumber products 18% 67% 15% Untreated lumber Stating Agree or Strongly Agree Plastic 3.6 55% Steel 3.4 48% Treated Lumber 3.3 38% Concrete 2.8 24

  17. Beverly Woods | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beverly Woods Beverly Woods Oral History Videos Speakers INTRODUCTION Ed Bailey Jim Bailey Kay Bailey Ken Bernander Willard Brock Wilma Brooks Elmer Brummitt Naomi Brummitt Blake...

  18. STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Hubert G.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    assumption that the overall non-gaseous product has the same analysis as that reported for recovered product oil

  19. Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Environmental Impacts of Treated Wood 6495_C000.fm Page iii Wednesday, February 1, 2006 5:48 PM #12 through the Florida Center for Environmental Solutions, National Science Foundation Grant No. 0126172. Any of treated-wood research and their efforts in organizing the con- ference entitled Environmental Impacts

  20. Modern Wood Energy Systems and Markets 16-17 September 2008, Timisoara, Romania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    overcoming a rise in European and CIS). · Oil prices soared, stimulating wood-based biofuels and policies 16-17 September 2008, Timisoara, Romania Oil prices 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 2004 2005 2006 2007 with countries in the UNECE region continues to increase. · In Europe, wood products prices generally rose

  1. Perception Drivers for Treated Wood by U.S. South Homebuilders and Remodelers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Qinglin

    Perception Drivers for Treated Wood by U.S. South Homebuilders and Remodelers Sanna M. Kallioranta1 for the use of treated wood products in construction is considerable, especially in the U.S. South for termite protection and to mitigate moisture related decay. This research investigates the perception about treated

  2. Wood Fuel Task Force Response 2 | Wood Fuel Task Force Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Fuel Task Force Response #12;2 | Wood Fuel Task Force Response #12;Wood Fuel Task Force Response | 3 Wood Fuel Task Force Response Scottish Government response by Minister for Environment, Michael Russell I am pleased to present on behalf of the Scottish Government our response to the Wood Fuel

  3. CCA-Treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW landfill disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    CCA-Treated wood disposed in landfills and life-cycle trade-offs with waste-to-energy and MSW February 2007 Available online 9 April 2007 Abstract Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood is a preservative treated wood construction product that grew in use in the 1970s for both residential

  4. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  5. Textile Drying Via Wood Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGowan, T. F.; Jape, A. D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was carried out to investigate the possibility of using wood gas as a direct replacement for natural gas in textile drying. The Georgia Tech updraft gasifier was used for the experimental program. During preliminary tests, the 1 million...

  6. Integrated Industrial Wood Chip Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, E. T.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sources of supply of wood residues for energy generation are described and the rationale for exploring the potential available from forest harvesting is developed. Details of three industrial-scale projects are presented and the specific...

  7. The Shanghai Six:The Shanghai Six: Milit Th t E i Alli ?Milit Th t E i Alli ?Military Threat or Economic Alliance?Military Threat or Economic Alliance?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    The Shanghai Six:The Shanghai Six: Milit Th t E i Alli ?Milit Th t E i Alli ?Military Threat or Economic Alliance?Military Threat or Economic Alliance? Anna BrownAnna Brown #12;Maps courtesy of Google Maps. #12;Is the SCO a Military Threat?Is the SCO a Military Threat?Is the SCO a Military Threat

  8. Superplastic forming characteristics of 2090 (OE-16) and 8090 (SP) Al-Li alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khazi-Syed, Razaq H.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SUPERPLASTIC FORMING CHARACTERISTICS OF 2090 (OE-16) AND 8090 (SP) AL-LI ALLOYS A Thesis by RAZAQ H. KHAZI-SYED Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering SUPERPLASTIC FORMING CHARACTERISTICS OF 2090(OE-16) AND 8090 (SP) AL-LI ALLOYS A Thesis by RAZAQ H. KHAZI-SYED Approved as to style and content by: R. E. Goforth (Chair...

  9. The Wood-Based Biorefinery in a Petroleum Depleted World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, Avik P.

    3 Year Old Willow #12;14 14 Woody Biomass Feedstocks Sustainably harvested low value wood from, Sustainable Bioproducts: Fuels, Chemicals, Materials Renewable Resources to "Green" Bio-Products Woody Biomass Feedstock #12;5 5 Spindletop at Beaumont, TX Circa late 1890's Birth of the Petroleum Industry in Texas

  10. Where Wood Works Harnessing the Energy of Woody Biomass in Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    resources such as wind, solar ­ and biomass. Part of Our Rural Economy ­ forest product companies now can Energy CO2 CO2 Wood Fuel Nutrients AshNutrients Woody biomass is stored solar energy that is available 24

  11. The Allied Health Faculty Organization invited Representative Ed Bryant (7th Congressional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yan

    The Allied Health Faculty Organization invited Representative Ed Bryant (7th Congressional District) to visit the University and discuss such topics as health and education. Representative Bryant is a member Commerce Committee Prescription Drug Task Force. Prior to his service in the House, Representative Bryant

  12. UWM's Global Studies program is recognized nation-ally for its comprehensive approach to interdisciplinary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    of globalization on business and the world economy, will prepare students as future managers capable of analyzingUWM's Global Studies program is recognized nation- ally for its comprehensive approach to interdisciplinary globalization studies, combining studying abroad, master- ing a foreign language, learning about

  13. Above Ground Geothermal and Allied Technologies Masters Scholarship in Energy & Materials: design of a rig

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Above Ground Geothermal and Allied Technologies Masters Scholarship in Energy & Materials: design into the largest green energy resources; industrial waste heat, biomass combustion and geothermal energy. Research of geothermal energy after completing the degree. Proficiency in English is essential. Contact: mark

  14. Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera Z.W. de Beer1*,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redefining Ceratocystis and allied genera Z.W. de Beer1*,3 , T.A. Duong2,3 , I. Barnes2 , B), University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa *Correspondence: Z.W. de Beer. wilhelm, Nomenclature, Multigene analyses, Taxonomy. Taxonomic novelties: New genera: Davidsoniella Z.W. de Beer, T

  15. ON THE APPLICATION OF LOAD RELAXATION IN CHARACTERIZING SUPERPLASTIC Al-Li 8090

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garmestani, Hamid

    ON THE APPLICATION OF LOAD RELAXATION IN CHARACTERIZING SUPERPLASTIC Al-Li 8090 F. Booeshaghi and H is typically calculated as the slope of the log versus log curve where is the steady state flow stress test, and load relaxation tests. In this paper, the use of the load relaxation experiment to obtain

  16. Prisoners of War-Cold War Allies: The Anglo-American Relationship with Wehrmacht Generals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallett, Derek Ray

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................................................................ 1 II FROM NORTH AFRICA TO NORTH LONDON ............................. 32 III HITLER?S GENERALS IN AMERICA.............................................. 77 IV ?GUESTS? OF THE BRITISH............................................................... 121 V THE CAROUSEL AT CAMP NO. 11................................................. 166 VI THE SEEDS OF THE AMERICAN TRANSFORMATION.............. 218 VII RE-EDUCATING HITLER?S GENERALS?...................................... 267 VIII COLD WAR ALLIES...

  17. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    ash or CFAs. Based on these properties, a number of constructive use options such as #12;pollution by saw mills, pulp mills, and the wood-products industry, by burning a combination of wood products control [3], land application [9,10,11], construction materials [13,14], have been reported. However, most

  18. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    . Naik, Rudolph N. Kraus, Shiw S. Singh, Lori- Lynn C. Pennock, and Bruce Ramme Report No. CBU-2001 with numerous projects on the use of by-product materials including utilization of used foundry sand and fly ash;2 INTRODUCTION Wood FA is generated due to combustion of wood for energy production at pulp and paper mills, saw

  19. Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The County of Marin has created a rebate program to encourage homeowners to remove or replace non-EPA certified wood-burning heaters (wood stoves and fireplace inserts) with cleaner burning stoves...

  20. Leonard Wood and the American Empire 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruitt, James Herman

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    During the ten years following the Spanish American War (1898 to 1908), Major General Leonard Wood served as the primary agent of American imperialism. Wood was not only a proconsul of the new American Empire; he was a ...

  1. Decreasing the leachibility of boron wood preservatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gezer, Engin Derya

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of boron in wood preservatives has been growing since the 1930s, primarily in various boric acid/borax mixtures. Boron preservatives have several advantages for application as wood preservatives including a broad spectrum of activity...

  2. Emerging Technologies in Wood Energy Wood can already be used to produce heat and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    established technologies of District Energy and Combined Heat and Power plants. Using wood to makeEmerging Technologies in Wood Energy Wood can already be used to produce heat and electricity using such as flooring and siding. In Europe, torrefaction has been explored to produce an improved wood pellet

  3. Forest Products Supply Chain --Availability of Woody Biomass in Indiana for Bioenergy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forest Products Supply Chain -- Availability of Woody Biomass in Indiana for Bioenergy Production or wood waste biomass · Map Indiana's wood waste for each potential bioenergy supply chain · Develop break-even analyses for transportation logistics of wood waste biomass Isaac S. Slaven Abstract: The purpose

  4. Wood Energy Production Credit | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley NickellApril 16, 2008Ms. KesslerKimWomenTina

  5. 10 February 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CENTER - FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP 2 Wood Pellets Out of 80.9 MGT of wood expected to be consumed by viable projects, wood pellet production is expected to hold the largest share at 34.2 MGT, most10 February 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER - FOREST SECTOR

  6. Optical computing Damien Woods a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woods, Damien

    Optical computing Damien Woods a aDepartment of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Institute, Vierimaantie 5, 84100 Ylivieska, Finland Abstract In this survey we consider optical computers of such optical computing archi- tectures, including descriptions of the type of hardware commonly used in optical

  7. Optical computing Damien Woods a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woods, Damien

    Optical computing Damien Woods a aDepartment of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Institute, Vierimaantie 5, 84100 Ylivieska, Finland Abstract We consider optical computers that encode data using images and compute by transforming such images. We give an overview of a number of such optical

  8. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

  9. Integrating Molecular Evolution and Morphology to Study the Evolutionary History of Lizardfishes and Their Allies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Matthew P.

    2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    INTEGRATING MOLECULAR EVOLUTION AND MORPHOLOGY TO STUDY THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF LIZARDFISHES AND THEIR ALLIES by Matthew P. Davis B.S., Regis University, 2004 Submitted to the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology... origin for the order (e.g., Rosen 1973, Fielitz 2004) in a marine environment. Aulopiformes are classified within the Superorder Cyclosquamata, and are currently divided into four monophyletic suborders as shown in Figure 1.2 (Baldwin & Johnson 1996...

  10. Vertical feed stick wood fuel burning furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, Richard C. (Orono, ME)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stove or furnace for efficient combustion of wood fuel includes a vertical feed combustion chamber (15) for receiving and supporting wood fuel in a vertical attitude or stack. A major upper portion of the combustion chamber column comprises a water jacket (14) for coupling to a source of water or heat transfer fluid for convection circulation of the fluid. The locus (31) of wood fuel combustion is thereby confined to the refractory base of the combustion chamber. A flue gas propagation delay channel (34) extending laterally from the base of the chamber affords delayed travel time in a high temperature refractory environment sufficient to assure substantially complete combustion of the gaseous products of wood burning with forced air prior to extraction of heat in heat exchanger (16). Induced draft draws the fuel gas and air mixture laterally through the combustion chamber and refractory high temperature zone to the heat exchanger and flue. Also included are active sources of forced air and induced draft, multiple circuit couplings for the recovered heat, and construction features in the refractory material substructure and metal component superstructure.

  11. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    the concerns associated with its disposal. Wood ash consists of two different types of materials: fly ash for use as construction materials. Therefore, ASTM C 618, developed for volcanic ash and coal fly ashCenter for By-Products Utilization WOOD ASH: A NEW SOURCE OF POZZOLANIC MATERIAL By Tarun R. Naik

  12. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Review of Oak Ridge process and QC activities by David Wood,...

  13. The conservation of waterlogged wood using sucrose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parrent, James Michael

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such as resins or creosote, which are 13 volatilized by heating, the standard methods for moisture determination yield false values (Panshin a de Zeeuw 1980:203). This should not be a problem when working with waterlogged wood since only small samples... water. Formation of hydrogen bonds releases energy which can be measured as the "heat of wetting" for dry wood. In turn, energy must be supplied to wet wood to remove any water that is present. 14 "The forces of attraction between dry wood and water...

  14. One on One- Douglas K Woods

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A September 2014 interview with Douglas K Woods, the President of the Association for Manufacturing Technology, on the state of US manufacturing.

  15. WoodPolymer Composites Prepared by the In Situ Polymerization of Monomers Within Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood­Polymer Composites Prepared by the In Situ Polymerization of Monomers Within Wood Yong-Feng Li in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). ABSTRACT: Wood­polymer composites (WPCs) were prepared words: composites; mechanical properties; modifi- cation; monomers; renewable resources INTRODUCTION

  16. Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC "Illegal" Logging and Global Wood Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seneca Creek Associates, LLC Wood Resources International, LLC "Illegal" Logging and Global Wood@aol.com; hekstrom@wri-ltd.com October, 2004 #12;Page ES - 1 Illegal Logging and Global Wood Markets: The Competitive, LLC Executive Summary Illegal logging has been high on the agenda, if not directly at the center

  17. Productivity and Firm Size Distribution: Evidence from India's Organized and Unorganized Manufacturing Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nataraj, Shanthi

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic Fibers Jute and Vegetable Fibers Textile Products Wood Paper Leather Basic Chemicals Rubber,Synthetic Textiles Jute, Vegetable Fiber Textile Products Wood, Furniture, Fixtures Paper, Printing, Finishing Leather Basic Chemicals Rubber,Synthetic Textiles Jute, Vegetable Fiber Textile Products Wood, Furniture, Fixtures Paper, Printing, Finishing Leather Basic Chemicals Rubber,

  18. Daniel Wood | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management Fermi SitePARTOfficeOctoberDaniel Wood About Us Daniel

  19. Automated accountability of hazardous materials at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Depew, P.L.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Kansas City Plant (KCP), currently operated by AlliedSignal Inc. has developed a comprehensive Hazardous Material Information System (HMIS). The purpose of this system is to provide a practical and automated method to collect, analyze and distribute hazardous material information to DOE, KCP associates, and regulatory agencies. The drivers of the HMIS are compliance with OSHA Hazard Communications, SARA reporting, pollution prevention, waste minimization, control and tracking of hazards, and emergency response. This report provides a discussion of this system.

  20. Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Forest Products:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Work Plans Trees, wood and paper products are natural, renewable, and recyclable resources that help reduce greenhouse gases by removing and storing CO2 from the atmosphere and...

  1. Overview of NEMS-H2, Version 1.0 Frances Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ConsumptionForm/Place Transformations Electricity Generation and Transmission Hydrogen Oil and Gas ProductionOverview of NEMS-H2, Version 1.0 Frances Wood OnLocation, Inc., Energy Systems Consulting (fwood markets ­ Focus is on economic, not engineering, aspects of hydrogen production, delivery, and consumption

  2. Autonomy for Aurora's Mars Missions Mark Woods,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Michael

    Autonomy for Aurora's Mars Missions Mark Woods, SciSys Ltd., Clothier Road, Bristol, UK BS4 5SS Email: mark.woods@scisys.co.uk Tel: +44 117 9717251 ESA's Aurora programme incorporates a strategy for European involvement in future robotic and human exploration of our Solar System. The Aurora roadmap calls

  3. Leonard Wood and the American Empire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pruitt, James Herman

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    During the ten years following the Spanish American War (1898 to 1908), Major General Leonard Wood served as the primary agent of American imperialism. Wood was not only a proconsul of the new American Empire; he was a symbol of the empire...

  4. QUALITY OF WOOD PELLETS PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR EXPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumuluru, J.S. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Lim, C. Jim [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lau, A.K. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Oveisi, E. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  5. Quality of Wood Pellets Produced in British Columbia for Export

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. S. Tumuluru; S. Sokhansanj; C. J. Lim; T. Bi; A. Lau; S. Melin; T. Sowlati; E. Oveisi

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood pellet production and its use for heat and power production are increasing worldwide. The quality of export pellets has to consistently meet certain specifications as stipulated by the larger buyers, such as power utilities or as specified by the standards used for the non-industrial bag market. No specific data is available regarding the quality of export pellets to Europe. To develop a set of baseline data, wood pellets were sampled at an export terminal in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The sampling period was 18 months in 2007-2008 when pellets were transferred from storage bins to the ocean vessels. The sampling frequency was once every 1.5 to 2 months for a total of 9 loading/shipping events. The physical properties of the wood pellets measured were moisture content in the range of 3.5% to 6.5%, bulk density from 728 to 808 kg/m3, durability from 97% to 99%, fines content from 0.03% to 0.87%, calorific value as is from 17 to almost 18 MJ/kg, and ash content from 0.26% to 0.93%.The diameter and length were in the range of 6.4 to 6.5 mm and 14.0 to 19.0 mm, respectively. All of these values met the published non-industrial European grades (CEN) and the grades specified by the Pellet Fuel Institute for the United States for the bag market. The measured values for wood pellet properties were consistent except the ash content values decreased over the test period.

  6. Health assessment for Allied Corp. Kalamazoo Plant, Kalamazoo, Kalamazoo County, Michigan, Region 5. CERCLIS No. MID006007306. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Allied Paper/Portage Creek/Kalamazoo River Superfund site is listed on the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) National Priorities List (NPL). Extensive contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been found in the water, sediments, and fauna of the river and the creek since sampling started in 1971. A number of remedial actions are being planned or are in process in the site area. The site is a public health hazard due to the threat to health from contact with and incidental ingestion and inhalation of contaminated soils and ingestion of contaminated biota. In addition, abandoned structures, irregular terrain, and unstable land on the Allied Paper, Inc. Residual Disposal Area site present physical hazards to members of the public who might use the area. The Allied Paper, Inc. Residual Disposal Area has been fenced.

  7. Disposal of CCA-treated Wood: An Evaluation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Disposal of CCA-treated Wood: An Evaluation of Existing and Alternative Management Options (FINAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CCA-TREATED WOOD ASH II.1 Sample Preparation 10 II.2 Laboratory Methods 15 II.3 Laboratory Results 24 CHAPTER III, SORTING TECHNOLOGIES FOR SEPARATING TREATED WOOD FROM UNTREATED WOOD III.1

  8. 18 March 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of forests in mitigating climate change. Wood may be one of the world's oldest building materials PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP 2 overall strategy to promote the use of wood as a green building material. USDA Announces Support for Innovative, Sustainable Wood Building Materials to Protect Environment and Create Jobs

  9. 17 February 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -governmental organizations is that whole mature trees are being used to make wood pellets, and that this results in carbon to multiple negative stories in the press, resulting in public relations problems for wood pellet in manufacturing the wood, paper and energy products we all rely on. The following infographic illustrates

  10. From the Woods to the Refinery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2D—Building Market Confidence and Understanding II: Carbon Accounting and Woody Biofuels From the Woods to the Refinery Stephen S. Kelley, Principal and Department Head, Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University

  11. Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New York exempts retail sales of wood used for residential heating purposes from the state sales tax. The law also permits local governments (municipalities and counties) to grant an exemption from...

  12. Wood Fired Steam Plants in Georgia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulpitt, W. S.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    suppliers. Based upon the designs submitted and subsequent negotiations, the Applied Engineering Company (APCO) in Orangeburg, South Carolina, was chosen to do the job. Applied Engineering has been working on wood gasification systems for several years...-20, 1983 company has a large manufacturing plant in Orange burg and is fully capable of fabricating large pressure vessels and heavy industrial equipment. The overall wood gasification system is shown in Figure 1. The fuel for the gasifier is green...

  13. A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

    A WOOD-FIRED GAS TURBINE PLANT Sam H. Powell, Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, Tennessee Joseph T. Hamrick, Aerospace Research Corporation, RBS Electric, Roanoke, VA Abstract This paper covers the research and development of a wood...-fired gas turbine unit that is used for generating electricity. The system uses one large cyclonic combustor and a cyclone cleaning system in series to provide hot gases to drive an Allison T-56 aircraft engine (the industrial version is the 50l-k). A...

  14. Science Highlight June 2011 Chromium forms in coal and wood and their converted forms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    as a component in fly-ash, the major waste product from coal combustion. Disposal practices for coal-derived fly-ash Science Highlight ­ June 2011 Chromium forms in coal and wood and their converted forms in fly-ash(VI) in Coal-Derived Fly-Ash The two common chromium oxidation states, Cr(III) and Cr(VI), differ greatly

  15. Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Closed Loop Recycling of PreservativeClosed Loop Recycling of Preservative Treated WoodTreated Wood.2 million cubic meters) of lumber treated with CCA are produced annually in the United States (Micklewright 1998). ·In 1997, for example, some 581.4 million cu. ft. was treated with waterborne preservatives

  16. Forest products markets badly hit by the crisis but use of wood energy on the rise -UNECE/FAO http://www.portofentry.com/site/root/resources/industry_news/8067.html[10/1/2009 8:21:58 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , albeit from a low level. The fall in demand has pushed real prices of building materials to their lowest driven by the sharp decline in the construction of new houses in North-America and Europe. Housing construction is the main driver of forest products markets, especially for the main forest product: sawn

  17. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    -fired power plants derive energy by burning coal in their furnaces. These power plants generally use either. The by-product materials include coal combustion by-products, wood ash, pulp and paper industry by recycling and research needs are discussed. #12;3 2.0 MATERIALS 2.1 COAL-COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS Coal

  18. 1 April 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP 1 Global Timber and Wood Products Market Update - a news brief from Wood. As a consequence, the GSPI price index has move upward to reach its highest level in eight years. Log prices / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP 2 ___________________________________________ Richard P. Vlosky, Ph

  19. Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trends and Market Effects of Wood Energy Policies Bengt Hillring SLU SWEDEN http://www.unece.org/trade/timber/docs/tc-sessions/tc-61/presentations/10-hillring.pdf #12;Introduction · Industrial use of wood fibre has increased · Oil

  20. A study of the molecular mechanics of wood cell walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, David, S.M. (David C.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood is the original structural material, developed by nature to support tall plants. Every advantageous feature of wood as used in artificial structures is rooted in the plant's evolved capability to withstand the conditions ...

  1. Method of predicting mechanical properties of decayed wood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining the mechanical properties of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms, comprising: a) illuminating a surface of decayed wood that has been exposed to wood decay microorganisms with wavelengths from visible and near infrared (VIS-NIR) spectra; b) analyzing the surface of the decayed wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra region; and c) using a multivariate analysis to predict mechanical properties of decayed wood by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference decay wood, the second spectral data being correlated with a known mechanical property analytical result obtained from the reference decayed wood.

  2. Assembly history dictates ecosystem functioning: evidence from wood decomposer communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruns, Tom

    ForReview Only Assembly history dictates ecosystem functioning: evidence from wood decomposer change, community assembly, ecosystem functioning, New Zealand Nothofagus (beech) forests, priority dictates ecosystem functioning: evidence from wood decomposer communities Tadashi Fukami1,2,3 , Ian A

  3. Clean-Burning Wood Stove Grant Program (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) now offers the Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program as part of its Residential Clean Energy Grant Program. The Clean Burning Wood Stove Grant program...

  4. Guide to Using Wood Ash as an Agricultural Soil Amendment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    from larger commercial sources such as wood-burning biomass plants which produce heat or electricity in the soil. Wood ash is more soluble and reactive than ground limestone, and brings about a Benefits Recycles

  5. The Storage and Seasoning of Pecan Bud Wood.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brison, Fred R. (Fred Robert)

    1933-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    be returned to cold storage and will remain ready for use at a later date. It has been found that bud wood cut late in the dormant period seasons in a shorter time than that cut early. Bud wood of the Delmas variety seasons more readiIy than that of Stuart... _._-_._.--__..__------~-..._..--_...._.--_.....-. Relation of Time of Cutting Bud Wood to Seasoning ._.__....._._-___._------------ ., Relative Response of Stuart and Delmas in Seasoning _---..__._.__....._.---....-....--.- 10 Number of Days for Seasoning Bud Wood During Different Months .... 12 Storage...

  6. APPLIED ISSUES Effects of agriculture on wood breakdown and microbial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Jackson R.

    creating the potential for recovery of ecosystem processes. 2. We examined wood breakdown and microbial breakdown. Wood may not be desirable as a tool for Correspondence: M. E. McTammany, Biology DepartmentAPPLIED ISSUES Effects of agriculture on wood breakdown and microbial biofilm respiration

  7. Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Landfill Disposal of CCA-Treated Wood with Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris: Arsenic phased out of many residential uses in the United States, the disposal of CCA-treated wood remains. Catastrophic events have also led to the concentrated disposal of CCA-treated wood, often in unlined landfills

  8. Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text December 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Web Text 31st December 2010 Wood Fuel Future: The Potential Wood Fuel Future : The Potential Renewable Energy is a key part of our Energy Policy. This UK Government by 2020. This should reduce carbon emissions from fossil fuel by 60% by the year 2050. The Welsh Assembly

  9. Center for Wood Utilization Progress Report for Fiscal Year 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    , Asia, and Latin America. A business plan was developed to capture 1% of the $2.5 billion h manufacturing; and (c) lead to more efficient use of renewable wood-based materials for the benefit of Americans. Renewable wood is essential to human existence. Wood utilization research is critical to national needs

  10. Wood Fired Steam Plants in Georgia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulpitt, W. S.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Shortly after that time, Georgia Tech and the Georgia Forestry Commission embarked on a number of projects directed toward providing the use of wood as an industrial energy source. This paper will present an overview of these programs with an emphasis...

  11. Woods Safety SFRC UF 7/09

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    Woods Safety SFRC UF 7/09 #12;Working alone #12;Poison Plants Poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) Poison oak (Toxicodendron pubescens) #12;Commonly Mistaken Plants Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) Blackberry (Rubus spp.) Three leaflets let it be! #12;Poison Ivy/Oak Prevention: · Wear long

  12. Updated 1-12 Bryan H. Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as an attorney with the Department of the Navy's Office of the General Counsel (OGC). Initially appointed as ONR Counsel in 2007, he was the first Navy OGC attorney to deploy to a combat zone in his civilian OGC Force-Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) in Djibouti, Africa. Mr. Wood began his career with Navy OGC

  13. A Wood-Fired Gas Turbine Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, S. H.; Hamrick, J. T.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper covers the research and development of a wood-fired gas turbine unit that is used for generating electricity. The system uses one large cyclonic combustor and a cyclone cleaning system in series to provide hot gases to drive an Allison T...

  14. PASSION FOR WOOD THE DLH GROUP 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    countries on 5 continents · 19 timber merchant companies in Denmark, 10 of which have do-it-yourself stores Division consists of 19 timber merchant companies in Denmark, just over half of which have an adjacent doPASSION FOR WOOD THE DLH GROUP 2006 #12;54% 21% 25% ONE OF THE WORLD'S MAJOR TIMBER WHOLESALERS

  15. Energie-Cits 2001 BIOMASS -WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energie-Cités 2001 BIOMASS - WOOD Gasification / Cogeneration ARMAGH United Kingdom Gasification is transferring the combustible matters in organic waste or biomass into gas and pure char by burning the fuel via it allows biomass in small-scaled engines and co-generation units ­ which with conventional technologies

  16. Factors affecting the availability of wood energy from nonindustrial private forest lands in the Northeast. Forest Service Resource Bulletin (Final)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, J.J.; Gilbert, A.H.; Birch, T.W.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes the factors that affect the availability of fuelwood from NIPF lands in the Northeastern United States (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania). It is part of a comprehensive wood-for-energy study entitled 'The Production, Consumption, and Marketing of Wood for Energy in the Northeast (Northeast Regional Study 142).'' The study is designed to: (1) Estimate the demand for wood energy in the Northeast by consuming sectors, state, and region; (2) Analyze the managment and supply of wood for energy processing as well as marketing structures; (3) Identify goals and effectiveness of actual and alternative local, state, and Federal forest policies and contrast these with the objectives of forest owners with regard to the use of wood for energy. The objective of the study is to analyze the supply of wood energy, that is, to identify and describe the factors that influence NIPF owners to harvest, or permit the harvest, of fuelwood from their land.

  17. Public/private sector cooperation to promote industrial energy efficiency: Allied partners and the US Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKane, Aimee; Cockrill, Chris; Tutterow, Vestal; Radspieler, Anthony

    2003-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1996, the US Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (USDOE) has been involved in a unique voluntary collaboration with industry called the Allied Partner program. Initially developed under the Motor Challenge program, the partnership concept continues as a central element of USDOE's BestPractices, which in 2001 integrated all of USDOE's near-term industrial program offerings including those in motors, compressed air, pump, fan, process heating and steam systems. Partnerships are sought with end use industrial companies as well as equipment suppliers and manufacturers, utilities, consultants, and state agencies that have extensive existing relationships with industrial customers. Partners are neither paid nor charged a fee for participation. Since the inception of Allied Partners, the assumption has been that these relationships could serve as the foundation for conveying a system energy-efficiency message to many more industrial facilities than could be reached through a typical government-to-end-user program model. An independent evaluation of the Motor Challenge program, reported at the last EEMODS conference, attributed US $16.9 million or nearly 67 percent of the total annual program energy savings to the efforts of Allied Partners in the first three years of operation. A recent evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenger, which grew out of the former Motor Challenger program, attribute additional energy savings from compressed air training alone at US $12.1 million per year. Since the reorganization under BestPractices, the Allied Partner program has been reshaped to extend the impact of all BestPractices program activities. This new model is more ambitious than the former Motor Challenge program concerning the level of collaborative activities negotiated with Allied Partners. This paper describes in detail two new types of program initiatives involving Allied Partners: Qualified Specialist Training and Energy Events. The Qualified Specialist activity was conceived as a way of engaging the supply side of industry, consultants, and utilities to greatly increase use of decision making software developed by USDOE to assist industrial facilities in assessing the energy efficiency of their energy-using systems. To date, USDOE has launched Qualified Specialist training with member companies of the Hydraulic Institute (HI) and with distributors and consultants associated with the Compressed Air Challenge. These activities train and qualify industry professionals to use and to train customers to use USDOE's Pumping System Assessment Tool (PSAT) and AIRMaster + software programs, respectively. The industry experts provide a public benefit by greatly increasing customer access to the software and assessment techniques. Participating Specialists anticipate a business benefit by providing a valuable service to key customers that is associated with USDOE. The Energy Event concept was developed in 2001 in cooperation with the California Energy Commission in response to the state's energy crisis and has been extended to other geographic areas during 2002. The three California events, named ''Energy Solutions for California Industry,'' relied on Allied Partners to provide system-based solutions to industrial companies as both speakers and exhibitors. These one-day events developed a model for a serious solutions-oriented format that avoids the typical trade show atmosphere through strict exhibitor guidelines, careful screening of speaker topics, and reliance on case studies to illustrate cost- and energy-saving opportunities from applying a systems approach. Future plans to use this activity model are discussed as well as lessons learned from the California series.

  18. Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2002

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","TypeWyoming"5 Selected Byproducts in Fuel6

  19. Table 3.6 Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API Gravity Period:Dakota" "megawatthours" ,"Entity","TypeWyoming"5 Selected Byproducts in

  20. Table N5.2. Selected Wood and Wood-Related Products in Fuel Consumption, 1998

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality", 2013,Iowa"Dakota" ,"FullWestQuantity of2".9..1.1..3.3.1.2.

  1. 2 March 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP 1 Webinar Archive The Transatlantic Trade in Wood for Energy Slides complex sustainability issues related to the growing trade in wood pellets between the U.S. and Europe2 March 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER - FOREST SECTOR

  2. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of...

  3. Generation, Use, Disposal, and Management Options for CCA-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Generation, Use, Disposal, and Management Options for CCA-Treated Wood May 1998 Helena Solo, INVENTORY OF CCA-TREATED WOOD IN FLORIDA II.1 Characteristics of the Florida Wood Treatment Industry in 1996 10 II.2 Generation and Disposal of Cca-treated Wood 14 II.3 Disposal Reservoirs for Cca-treated Wood

  4. Society of Wood Science and Technology State-of-the-Art Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Society of Wood Science and Technology State-of-the-Art Review CHEMICAL COUPLING IN WOOD FIBER. In this paper, we review coupling agents, pretreatment, and mixing technology for wood fiber and polymer and adhesion Wood ond trhc,r S c r r ~ ~ Society of Wood Sclencc

  5. Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Algae production R&D focuses on exploring resource use and availability, algal biomass development and improvements, characterizing algal biomass components, and the ecology and engineering of cultivation systems.

  6. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  7. Final Report: Development of Renewable Microbial Polyesters for Cost Effective and Energy- Efficient Wood-Plastic Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, David N.; Emerick, Robert W.; England, Alfred B.; Flanders, James P.; Loge, Frank J.; Wiedeman, Katherine A.; Wolcott, Michael P.

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, we proposed to produce wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (WFRTCs) using microbial thermoplastic polyesters in place of petroleum-derived plastic. WFRTCs are a rapidly growing product area, averaging a 38% growth rate since 1997. Their production is dependent on substantial quantities of petroleum based thermoplastics, increasing their overall energy costs by over 230% when compared to traditional Engineered Wood Products (EWP). Utilizing bio-based thermoplastics for these materials can reduce our dependence on foreign petroleum. We have demonstrated that biopolymers (polyhydroxyalkanoates, PHA) can be successfully produced from wood pulping waste streams and that viable wood fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite products can be produced from these materials. The results show that microbial polyester (PHB in this study) can be extruded together with wastewater-derived cell mass and wood flour into deck products having performance properties comparable to existing commercial HDPE/WF composite products. This study has thus proven the underlying concept that the microbial polyesters produced from waste effluents can be used to make cost-effective and energy-efficient wood-plastic composites. The cost of purified microbial polyesters is about 5-20 times that of HDPE depending on the cost of crude oil, due to high purification (40%), carbon substrate (40%) and sterilized fermentation (20%) costs for the PHB. Hence, the ability to produce competitive and functional composites with unpurified PHA-biomass mixtures from waste carbon sources in unsterile systems—without cell debris removal—is a significant step forward in producing competitive value-added structural composites from forest products residuals using a biorefinery approach. As demonstrated in the energy and waste analysis for the project, significant energy savings and waste reductions can also be realized using this approach. We recommend that the next step for development of useful products using this technology is to scale the technology from the 700-L pilot reactor to a small-scale production facility, with dedicated operation staff and engineering controls. In addition, we recommend that a market study be conducted as well as further product development for construction products that will utilize the unique properties of this bio-based material.

  8. Wood-boring Insects of Trees and Shrubs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drees, Bastiaan M.; Jackman, John A.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication explains how to identify and control wood-boring insects that invade shrubs and shade trees in Texas. 12 pages, 9 figures, 6 photographs, 1 table...

  9. From: FERGAS To: Wood, Natalie (CONTR); Moore, Larine Subject...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Wood, Natalie (CONTR); Moore, Larine Subject: FW: FE Docket No. 14-96-LNG Date: Friday, October 24, 2014 3:17:49 PM Attachments: image001.png ---...

  10. Microsoft Word - CX-Murray-CusterWoodPoles_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Covington SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Steve Scott Line Foreman III - TFNF-Snohomish Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement at selected locations along the...

  11. How Wood Chip Size Affects Pretreatment Effectiveness of Woody Biomass for Biological Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Jerry

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature treatment of aspen. Wood Sci Technol 40:371-391size- reduction of Poplar and Aspen wood. Biotechnology andHydrothermal Pretreatment of Aspen Wood Chips 5.1. Abstract

  12. An Overview of the Louisiana Secondary Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the State of Louisiana. In addition, because the origin of material purchased from in-state suppliers cannot of the development of buying or manufacturing cooperatives that could create purchasing and sales/marketing leverage

  13. Wood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin: Energy Resources JumpWood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources Jump

  14. Wood3 Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 Wind Project JumpWisconsin: Energy ResourcesWolverineWood3

  15. Wood Energy Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapers Home Kyoung's pictureWindManitoba,WisconsinWonder SourceWood

  16. Wood To Fuel LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlinPapers Home Kyoung's pictureWindManitoba,WisconsinWonderWood To Fuel

  17. Lithium Ion Production NDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations David Wood, Debasish Mohanty, Jianlin Li, and Claus Daniel 12/9/13 EERE Quality Control Workshop #12;2 Presentation name Lithium Ion Electrode to be meaningful and provide electrode and cell QC. #12;3 Presentation name New Directions in Lithium Ion Electrode

  18. Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood-Fiber/High-Density-Polyethylene Composites: Compounding Process J. Z. Lu,1 Q. Wu,1 I. I strength and flexural modulus of the resultant composites. With 50 wt % wood fiber, the optimum compounding of the modified blends and the dynamic mechanical properties of the resultant composites. The melt torque

  19. Wood for energy at Bedgebury Forest Bedgebury visitor centre's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood for energy at Bedgebury Forest Bedgebury visitor centre's woodfuel boiler provides a renewable source of energy and demonstrates that locally- produced wood has economic and sustainable value is stored outside but stacked off the ground to allow air to circulate. It is essential that the chips

  20. SECO - Dow Corning's Wood Fueled Industrial Cogeneration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betts, W. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1979, Dow Corning Corporation decided to build a wood fueled steam and electric cogeneration (SECO) power plant at Midland, Michigan. This decision was prompted by the high cost of oil and natural gas, an abundant supply of wood in mid Michigan...

  1. Wood, energy and households: Perspectives on rural Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, C.; Ensminger, J.; O'Keefe, P.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book presents papers on the use of wood fuels in Kenya. Topics considered include domestic energy consumption, historical aspects, the Kenyan economy, ecology, supply and demand, forests, aspects of energy consumption in a pastoral ecosystem, estimation of present and future demand for wood fuels, and energy source development.

  2. SECO - Dow Corning's Wood Fueled Industrial Cogeneration Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betts, W. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1979, Dow Corning Corporation decided to build a wood fueled steam and electric cogeneration (SECO) power plant at Midland, Michigan. This decision was prompted by the high cost of oil and natural gas, an abundant supply of wood in mid Michigan...

  3. Wood-based Energy Technologies Michigan offers some significant advantages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    quality stan- dards. Wood pellets are an attractive alternative for home heating or for larger individual--ground wood. Pellet storage area. #12;distributed through a District Energy grid. Efficiencies are high on municipal solid waste. Both district heating and CHP plants can also pro- duce pellets for local housing

  4. A Chemical Stain for Identifying Arsenic-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    A Chemical Stain for Identifying Arsenic-Treated Wood (FINAL) Submitted June 23, 2006 Amy Omae.2 Motivation 4 I.3 Objectives 5 CHAPTER II, DEVELOPMENT OF A CHEMICAL STAIN FOR IDENTIFYING ARSENIC-TREATED Applications 22 II.5 Resulting Stain to Identify Arsenic-Treated Wood and Methods of Testing 25 CHAPTER III

  5. FAO Forestry Department Wood Energy WISDOM East Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FAO ­ Forestry Department ­ Wood Energy WISDOM ­ East Africa Woodfuel Integrated Supply and Tropical Southern Africa woodfuels, mainly fuelwood, contribute from 75 to 86 percent of total primary African countries Rudi Drigo Consultant - Wood energy planning and forest resources monitoring August 2005

  6. SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF CHEMICALLY MODIFIED WOOD: DYNAMIC WETTABILITY1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    wetting slope and K value) were used to illustrate the dynamic wetting process. Dynamic contact angle the dynamic wettability of wood surfaces modified with different coupling agents. Keywords: Chemical articles on dynamic wetting process for wood adhesion have been published (Scheikl and Dunky 1998

  7. Modelling piloted ignition of wood and plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blijderveen, Maarten van [TNO, Schoemakerstraat 97, 2628 VK Delft (Netherlands); University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Bramer, Eddy A. [University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands); Brem, Gerrit, E-mail: g.brem@utwente.nl [University of Twente, Department of Thermal Engineering, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model piloted ignition times of wood and plastics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is applied on a packed bed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When the air flow is above a critical level, no ignition can take place. - Abstract: To gain insight in the startup of an incinerator, this article deals with piloted ignition. A newly developed model is described to predict the piloted ignition times of wood, PMMA and PVC. The model is based on the lower flammability limit and the adiabatic flame temperature at this limit. The incoming radiative heat flux, sample thickness and moisture content are some of the used variables. Not only the ignition time can be calculated with the model, but also the mass flux and surface temperature at ignition. The ignition times for softwoods and PMMA are mainly under-predicted. For hardwoods and PVC the predicted ignition times agree well with experimental results. Due to a significant scatter in the experimental data the mass flux and surface temperature calculated with the model are hard to validate. The model is applied on the startup of a municipal waste incineration plant. For this process a maximum allowable primary air flow is derived. When the primary air flow is above this maximum air flow, no ignition can be obtained.

  8. Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely reliant on wood chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomass plants face wood supply risks Report warns giant new biomass power plants will be hugely's biomass energy sector could be undermined unless businesses move to resolve the supply chain issues-scale biomass plants will leave generators largely reliant on biomass from overseas such as wood chips, elephant

  9. al-li control rod: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is modified to increase the productivity. The new fixture design is carried out by using CATIA V5 modeling software and it is critically evaluated for the failure of piston rod...

  10. Multipass comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel.

  11. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal effects; Method 25A emissions from lumber drying can be modeled from a knowledge of the airflow through the kiln; A heat transfer model shows that VOCs released during hot-pressing mainly originate from the surface of the board; and Boiler ash can be used to adsorb formaldehyde from air streams.

  12. Wood for Good S O L U T I O N S F O R D E F O R E S T A T I O N -F R E E W O O D P R O D U C T S

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate and Energy Program. TFCI analyzes and promotes ways to cut global warming pollution by reducing of the Tropics CHAPTER TWO 6 Wood Production and Its Impacts on Tropical Forests 6 Deforestation Causes Carbon Emissions 6 Logged Forests Can Be Lost Forests 7 Illegal Logging 8 The Role of Tropical Wood in a Global

  13. Depositional environments of Wood Siding Formation and Onaga Shale (Pennsylvanian-Permian), northeast Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bisby, C.G.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eastern Kansas sedimentary deposits of the Wood Siding Formation and the Onaga Shale are recognized as products of Late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian cyclic sedimentation. Reconstruction of depositional events associated with the units is important in understanding cyclic sedimentation in the Mid-Continent. In Kansas, the Wood Siding Formation-Onaga Shale outcrop belt trends nearly parallel to the Nemaha anticline in an approximately northeast-southwest direction. Detailed field studies of 26 stratigraphic sections (nine measured and described in detail) in the northeastern part of this belt provide the basis for interpretation of the depositional environments of the two formations. Results of this study indicate that variations in water depth/distance from shore, controlled by late Paleozoic structural features and eustatic sea level changes, were the major factors controlling sedimentation. On the basis of lithologic and paleontologic characteristics, four fifth-order transgressive-regressive (T-R) units, with periodicities of 300,000 to 500,000 years, have been identified within the Wood Siding Formation and the Onaga Shale. At least five sixth-order T-R units, with periodicities of 50,000 to 130,000 years or less, have also been identified within the two formations. The boundaries between sixth-order T-R units are represented by thin, laterally persistent marine units or by climate change surfaces. Paleogeographic reconstructions, based on the correlation of sixth-order T-R units, provide strong evidence for a northeast-southwest-trending shoreline during Wood Siding-Onaga time. The most marine sedimentary rocks are in the southern part of the study area and contain a diverse marine fossil assemblage. Channel facies with pyritized and coalified plant fossils are more common in the northern part of the outcrop belt and suggest marshy to swampy depositional conditions.

  14. Copyright (to be inserted by Humphrey) Thermal and Dynamic-mechanical Properties of Wood-PVC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Citation & Copyright (to be inserted by Humphrey) Thermal and Dynamic-mechanical Properties of Wood-PVC properties, maleation, thermal analysis, wood veneer, wood-PVC composites ABSTRACT The influence of maleation on thermal and dynamic-mechanical properties of wood-PVC composites was investigated in this study

  15. Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood plastic composites based on microfibrillar blends of high density polyethylene January 2010 Keywords: Wood plastic composites Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Polyethylene Extrusion a b into wood plastic composites through a two-step reactive extrusion technology. Wood flour was added into pre

  16. Jmtland County Energy Agency Comfortable use of wood pellets in one-family houses in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jämtland County Energy Agency Sweden 1 Comfortable use of wood pellets in one-family houses-operation with the Swedish Energy Agency, carried through the project "Comfortable use of wood pellets in one-family houses of one-family houses to start using wood pellets and an increase of the use of wood pellets in one

  17. Dynamics of wood recruitment in streams of the northeastern US Dana R. Warren a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Clifford E.

    : Large woody debris LWD Riparian forest Wood recruitment Wood dynamics Stream restoration Debris dam restoration efforts often incorporate large wood. In most cases, however, stream restoration projectsDynamics of wood recruitment in streams of the northeastern US Dana R. Warren a, *, Clifford E

  18. Author's personal copy Evaluation of methods for sorting CCA-treated wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Author's personal copy Evaluation of methods for sorting CCA-treated wood Gary Jacobi a , Helena contains treated wood including wood treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). Many recycling options of sorting methods for identifying treated wood. Sorting methods evaluated included visual sorting and visual

  19. PROPERTIES OF HDPE/CLAY/WOOD NANOCOMPOSITES , C. M. Clemons 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from wood, kenaf, flax, hemp, cotton, Kraft pulp, coconut husk, areca fruit, pineapple leaf, oil palm

  20. A Preliminary Study of Oxidation of Lignin from Rubber Wood to Vanillin in Ionic Liquid Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamsuri, A A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, lignin was oxidised to vanillin by means of oxygen in ionic liquid (1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate) medium. The parameters of the oxidation reaction that have been investigated were the following: concentration of oxygen (5, 10, 15 and 20 ft3 h-1), reaction time (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h) and reaction temperature (25, 40, 60, 80 and 100{\\deg}C). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet-visible analyses were used to characterise the product. The results revealed vanillin as the product obtained via the oxidation reaction. The optimum parameters of vanillin production were 20 ft3 h-1 of oxygen for 10 h at 100{\\deg}C. In conclusion, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methylsulphate could be used as an oxidation reaction medium for the production of vanillin from rubber wood lignin.

  1. Wood Gasification: Where It's At, Where It's Going

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the principles and practice of various designs of biomass/wood gasifiers. In general, the basic principle of gasification is reviewed. A look at existing gasifier schemes, including packed bed updraft, downdraft, and fluidized...

  2. Wood Gasification: Where It's At, Where It's Going 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, M. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the principles and practice of various designs of biomass/wood gasifiers. In general, the basic principle of gasification is reviewed. A look at existing gasifier schemes, including packed bed updraft, downdraft, and fluidized...

  3. The Honorable John T. 'Gregorio 301 N. Wood Avenue

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Wood Avenue Linden, 'New Jersey 07036 d. Dear Mayor Gregorio: ,' ,' .' , Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary has announced a new approach to openness, in the'llepartment' of...

  4. Seismic rehabilitation of wood diaphragms in unreinforced masonary buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grubbs, Amber Jo

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of existing and rehabilitated wood floor and roof diaphragms in typical pre-1950's, unreinforced masonry (URM) buildings found in the Central and Eastern portions of the United States...

  5. aspen wood chips: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT APPROACHES FOR THE SIMULATION OF BOILERS USING OIL, GAS, PELLETS OR WOOD CHIPS CiteSeer Summary: A detailed model for the simulation of boilers using...

  6. Kilowatts From Waste Wood In The Furniture Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nailen, R. L.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    recently, the Singer Furniture Co., Lenoir, N. Carolina, purchased a 450 kilowatt steam turbine/induction generator set to use extra steam - produced by 'free' waste wood fuel - in generating 15% of the plant's electrical energy demand. The turbine...

  7. An Overview of the U.S. Wood Preserving Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preservatives · Oilborne Preservatives · Creosote Treatments · Fire Retardants · Additives · Concluding Comments · Waterborne Preservatives · Oilborne Preservatives · Creosote Treatments · Fire Retardants · Additives a baselinewas to develop a baseline profile of the treated woodprofile of the treated wood manufacturing

  8. RFPs Due for Hazardous Fuel Wood to Energy Grant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Forest Service requests proposals for the 2014 Hazardous Fuel Wood to Energy (W2E) Grant.  The outcome anticipated under this funding mechanism will advance the United States Department of...

  9. RFPs Due for Statewide Wood Energy Cooperative Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Forest Service requests proposals for the 2014 Statewide Wood Energy Teams (SWET) Cooperative Agreement. The outcome anticipated under this funding mechanism will advance the United States...

  10. Long-term lime pretreatment of poplar wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., poplar wood) provides a unique and sustainable resource for environmentally safe organic fuels and chemicals. The core of this study is the pretreatment step involved in bioconversion processes. Pretreatment...

  11. Long-term lime pretreatment of poplar wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., poplar wood) provides a unique and sustainable resource for environmentally safe organic fuels and chemicals. The core of this study is the pretreatment step involved in bioconversion processes. Pretreatment...

  12. Photo by Helvetas Moambique Architecture, Wood and Civil Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Photo by Helvetas Moçambique Architecture, Wood and Civil Engineering #12;IWRM in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without CAS consists of the following units: - Basic knowledge in order to follow the class

  13. Insight into trade-off between wood decay and parasitism from the genome of a fungal forest pathogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, Ake; Aerts, Andrea; Asiegbu, Fred; Belbahri, Lassaad; Bouzid, Ourdia; Broberg, Anders; Canback, Bjorn; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Cullen, Dan; Dalman, Kerstin; Deflorio, Giuliana; van Diepen, Linda T. A.; Dunand, Christophe; Duplessis, Sebastien; Durling, Mikael; Gonthier, Paolo; Grimwood, Jane; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar; Hansson, David; Henrissat, Bernard; Hietala, Ari; Himmelstrand, Kajsa; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Hogberg, Nils; James, Timothy Y.; Karlsson, Magnus; Kohler, Annegret; Lucas, Susan; Lunden, Karl; Morin, Emmanuelle; Murat, Claude; Park, Jongsun; Raffaello, Tommaso; Rouze, Pierre; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Solheim, Halvor; Stahlberg, Jerry; Velez, Heriberto; de Vries, Ronald P.; Wiebenga, Ad; Woodward, Steve; Yakovlev, Igor; Garbelotto, Matteo; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Stenlid, Jan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parasitism and saprotrophic wood decay are two fungal strategies fundamental for succession and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems. An opportunity to assess the trade-off between these strategies is provided by the forest pathogen and wood decayer Heterobasidion annosum sensu lato. We report the annotated genome sequence and transcript profiling, as well as the quantitative trait loci mapping, of one member of the species complex: H. irregulare. Quantitative trait loci critical for pathogenicity, and rich in transposable elements, orphan and secreted genes, were identified. A wide range of cellulose-degrading enzymes are expressed during wood decay. By contrast, pathogenic interaction between H. irregulare and pine engages fewer carbohydrate-active enzymes, but involves an increase in pectinolytic enzymes, transcription modules for oxidative stress and secondary metabolite production. Our results show a trade-off in terms of constrained carbohydrate decomposition and membrane transport capacity during interaction with living hosts. Our findings establish that saprotrophic wood decay and necrotrophic parasitism involve two distinct, yet overlapping, processes.

  14. Habitat selection of the Wood Thrush nesting in east Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrie, Neil Ross

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HABITAT SELECTION OF THE WOOD THRUSH NESTING IN EAST TEXAS A Thesis by NEIL ROSS CARRIE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1995 Major Subject: Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences HABITAT SELECTION OF THE WOOD THRUSH NESTING IN EAST TEXAS A Thesis by NEIL ROSS CARRIE Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  15. Kinetic Modeling and Assessment of Lime Pretreatment of Poplar Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    biomass is one of the most promising feedstocks for producing biofuels through fermentation processes. Among lignocellulose choices, poplar wood is appealing because of high energy potential, above-average carbon mitigation potential, fast growth... KINETIC MODELING AND ASSESSMENT OF LIME PRETREATMENT OF POPLAR WOOD A Dissertation by ROCIO SIERRA RAMIREZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  16. CHEMISTRY AND STOICHIOMETRY OF WOOD LIQUEFACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, H.G.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thereby converted into a heavy oil, soluble in such organicliquefaction product is a heavy oil or bitumen which would

  17. Depth distribution of lithium in oxidized binary Al-Li alloys determined by secondary ion mass spectrometry and neutron depth profiling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soni, K.K. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)); Williams, D.B. (Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)); Newbury, D.E.; Chi, P.; Downing, R.G.; Lamaza, G. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation of binary Al-Li alloys during short exposures at 530 C and long exposures at 200 C was studied with regard to the Li distribution. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and neutron depth profiling (NDP) were used to obtain quantitative Li depth profiles across the surface oxide layer and the underlying alloy. The underlying alloy was depleted in Li as a result of oxidation at 530 and 200 C. The SIMS and NDP results showed good mutual agreement and were used to evaluate the oxide thickness, the Li concentration at the oxide-ally interface, and the mass balance between oxide and alloy. The Li depletion profiles in the alloy were also calculated using the interdiffusion coefficients reported in the literature and compared with the measured profiles; the two profiles differed at 530 C but showed good agreement at 200 C.

  18. Presentation 2.7: Energy and the Forest Products Industry in Malaysia Zulkifli Bin Ahmad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    balanced utilization of oil, gas, hydro & coal To prolong lifespan of Malaysia's oil reserves for future in the production of wood products are collected to be used as raw materials to produce fibre boards

  19. The Social Complexity of Renewable Energy Production in the Countryside

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunze, Conrad; Busch, Henner

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in one case. Biomass or Biogas plants for electricityand heat production 24 Biogas plants use manure and energythat they do not run on biogas but biological waste or wood.

  20. Hours contributed annually by College of Allied Health Sciences dental hygiene students to Urban Smiles...............2,300 Total tutoring hours contributed in 2007 by UTHSC employees volunteering for Our Children -Our Future................750

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yan

    · Hours contributed annually by College of Allied Health Sciences dental hygiene students to Urban Smiles is the Department of Dental Hygiene's clinical practice in which faculty, staff and students use

  1. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation Into the Technology Behind the Manufacturing of Sugar Cane and Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . To compensate for the increasing demand in paper and wood fibre pulp, sugar cane paper, which uses bagasse, has been introduced to the market. Bagasse is a by-product that remains after sugarcane and sorghum stalks worldwide has come from agricultural crops, such as bagasse. Currently, an increasing number of companies

  2. Moisture Distribution and Flow During Drying of Wood and Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zink-Sharp, Audrey; Hanna, Robert B.

    2001-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    New understanding, theories, and techniques for moisture flow and distribution were developed in this research on wood and wood fiber. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of flake drying has been provided. Observations of flake drying and drying rate curves revealed that rate of moisture loss consisted of two falling rate periods and no constant rate drying period was observed. Convective heat transfer controls the first period, and bound water diffusion controls the second period. Influence of lower drying temperatures on bending properties of wood flakes was investigated. Drying temperature was found to have a significant influence on bending stiffness and strength. A worksheet for calculation of the energy required to dry a single strandboard flake was developed but has not been tested in an industrial setting yet. A more complete understanding of anisotropic transverse shrinkage of wood is proposed based on test results and statistical analysis. A simplified mod el of a wood cell's cross-section was drawn for calculating differential transverse shrinkage. The model utilizes cell wall thickness and microfibrillar packing density and orientation. In spite of some phenomena of cell wall structure not yet understood completely, the results might explain anisotropic transverse shrinkage to a major extent. Boundary layer theory was found useful for evaluating external moisture resistance during drying. Simulated moisture gradients were quire comparable to the actual gradients in dried wood. A mathematical procedure for determining diffusion and surface emission coefficients was also developed. Thermal conductivity models of wood derived from its anatomical structure were created and tested against experimental values. Model estimations provide insights into changes in heat transfer parameters during drying. Two new techniques for measuring moisture gradients created in wood during drying were developed. A new technique that utilizes optical properties of cobalt chloride was developed for nondestructive determination of surface moisture content. Fundamental new understanding of drying characteristics in wood and fiber has been provided that can be used by researchers to improve drying of wood and fiber. The three techniques for measuring moisture content and gradients provided in this study are efficient, practical, and economical - easy to apply by industry and researchers. An energy consumption worksheet is provided as a first step toward reducing energy consumed during drying of lumber and strandboard flakes. However, it will need additional verification and testing.

  3. Reservoir characterization and performance predictions for the E.N. Woods lease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aka-Milan, Francis A.

    2000-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The task of this work was to evaluate the past performance of the E.N. WOODS Unit and to forecast its future economic performance by taking into consideration the geology, petrophysics and production history of the reservoir. The Decline Curve Analysis feature of the Appraisal of Petroleum Properties including Taxation Systems (EDAPT) software along with the Production Management Systems (PMS) software were used to evaluate the original volume of hydrocarbon in place and estimate the reserve. The Black Oil Simulator (BOAST II) was then used to model the waterflooding operation and estimate the incremental oil production attributable to the water injection. BOAST II was also used to predict future performance of the reservoir.

  4. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  5. Ionic liquid pretreatment of poplar wood at room temperature: swelling and incorporation of nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, Marcel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macdonald, Brian A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wagner, Gregory L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Joyce, Steven A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rector, Kirk D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass represents a potentially sustainable source of liquid fuels and commodity chemicals. It could satisfy the energy needs for transportation and electricity generation, while contributing substantially to carbon sequestration and limiting the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Potential feedstocks are abundant and include crops, agricultural wastes, forest products, grasses, and algae. Among those feedstocks, wood is mainly constituted of three components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The conversion process of lignocellulosic biomass typically consists of three steps: (1) pretreatment; (2) hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars; and (3) fermentation of the sugars into liquid fuels (ethanol) and other commodity chemicals. The pretreatment step is necessary due to the complex structure of the plant cell wall and the chemical resistance of lignin. Most current pretreatments are energy-intensive and/or polluting. So it is imperative to develop new pretreatments that are economically viable and environmentally friendly. Recently, ionic liquids have attracted considerable interest, due to their ability to dissolve biopolymers, such as cellulose, lignin, native switchgrass, and others. Ionic liquids are also considered green solvents, since they have been successfully recycled at high yields for further use with limited efficiency loss. Also, a few microbial cellulases remain active at high ionic liquid concentration. However, all studies on the dissolution of wood in ionic liquids have been conducted so far at high temperatures, typically above 90 C. Development of alternative pretreatments at room temperature is desirable to eliminate the additional energy cost. In this study, thin sections of poplar wood were swollen at room temperature by a 3 h ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate or EMIMAc) pretreatment. The pretreated sample was then exposed to an aqueous suspension of nanoparticles that resulted in the sample contraction and the deposition of nanoparticles onto the surface and embedded into the cell wall. To date, both silver and gold particles ranging in size from 40-100 nm have been incorporated into wood. Penetration of gold nanoparticles of 100 nm diameter in the cell walls was best confirmed by near-infrared confocal Raman microscopy, since the deposition of gold nanoparticles induces a significant enhancement of the Raman signal from the wood in their close proximity, an enhancement attributed to the surface-enhanced Raman effect (SERS). After rinsing with water, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman images of the same areas show that most nanoparticles remained on the pretreated sample. Raman images at different depths reveal that a significant number of nanoparticles were incorporated into the wood sample, at depths up to 4 {micro}m, or 40 times the diameter of the nanoparticles. Control experiments on an untreated wood sample resulted in the deposition of nanoparticles only at the surface and most nanoparticles were removed upon rinsing. This particle incorporation process enables the development of new pretreatments, since the nanoparticles have a high surface-to-volume ratio and could be chemically functionalized. Other potential applications for the incorporated nanoparticles include isotope tracing, catalysis, imaging agents, drug-delivery systems, energy-storage devices, and chemical sensors.

  6. Experience with improved charcoal and wood stoves for households and institutions in Kenya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyman, E.L.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts at promoting more fuel-efficient charcoal stoves to replace traditional charcoal stoves in Kenya offer some lessons for the dissemination of appropriate technologies. This paper looks at the market-based approach which has made the Kenyan charcoal stoves project a success. Trends in woodfuels (wood and charcoal) consumption in Kenya are identified; the traditional technology for charcoal combustion and the upgraded traditional technologies are described; production achievement and the dissemination and promotion strategy used are examined; and a financial and economic analysis is performed with social, health and environmental effects assessed. Other ways to achieve a more favourable balance between woodfuels consumption and supply are then discussed looking at more efficient charcoal kilns and household woodstoves, improved institutional stoves and increased wood production. The replication potential of the Kenya experiment in other countries is also explored. The lessons learnt from the the Kenya experience concern the relationship between technology, choice and delivery systems as they interact with, economic, institutional, and policy factors. In this case, the design work accepted the traditional technology as a starting point which helped ensure widespread acceptance by households. The potential desirability of relying on local artisans to manufacture consumer durables using existing private sector channels to market these goods is also shown. It also highlights the importance of going beyond a laissez-faire approach and supporting training, demonstration, and publicity to faciliate the workings of the private sector. In the Kenyan case, technology choice was relatively unsubsidized and left ot the preferences of consumers.

  7. Solar energy for wood drying using direct or indirect collection with supplemental heating: a computer analysis. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tschernitz, J.L.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to judge solar drying on a more quantitative basis, the Forest Products Laboratory has developed a computer analysis for calculating the energy demands in the restricted cases of direct and indirect solar wood dryers using supplemental energy. Calculated energy balances are reported including percent fuel savings compared to the net energy used in conventional dryer operation. Six dryer sizes are considered. Seasonal variation of performance is noted for each of 12 months, in 96 locations throughout the United States. Also discussed is variation of cover thermal properties as these influence the effectiveness of operation. The report attempts to organize these economic elements so that the reader can make reasonable choices for any wood-drying requirements.

  8. Comminution process to produce precision wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from wood chips

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of comminution of wood chips (C) having a grain direction to produce a mixture of wood particles (P), wherein the wood chips are characterized by an average length dimension (L.sub.C) as measured substantially parallel to the grain, an average width dimension (W.sub.C) as measured normal to L.sub.C and aligned cross grain, and an average height dimension (H.sub.C) as measured normal to W.sub.C and L.sub.C, and wherein the comminution process comprises the step of feeding the wood chips in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of wood chip travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (T.sub.D), and wherein at least one of L.sub.C, W.sub.C, and H.sub.C is greater than T.sub.D.

  9. Properties of concrete containing wood/coal fly ash mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boylan, D.M.; Larrimore, C.L.; Fouad, F.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilities are increasingly interested in co-firing wood with coal in existing pulverized coal units. The co-firing technology is a means of developing a relatively low-cost renewable energy resource, as well as of supporting customers and community by making energy with biomass that might otherwise have been land-filled. However, recent changes in the ASTM C618 standard for fly ash as cement replacement restrict the definition of fly ash that includes non-coal sources. As a result, wood co-firing could affect the market for the fly ash, reducing ash sales revenue, increasing ash disposal costs, and overall substantially increasing the cost of the co-firing technology. In order to address concerns about the effect of wood ash/coal ash mixtures on concrete properties, a study was conducted by University of Alabama at Birmingham, Southern Company, EPRI, and the State of Alabama. This study compared the effects on properties of concrete made with fly ash from coal and made with fly ash from co-firing up to 30% wood with coal. Fly ashes from three plants were used, with two of the ashes from actual co-firing experience and the third an artificial blend of wood and coal ash. Concrete test cylinders were made of several cement/fly ash mixes, and enough were made to allow testing periodically over a one year time period. Test measurements included workability, setting time, air content, compressive and flexural strength, rapid chloride permeability and freeze thaw. It was concluded on the basis of these tests that the wood ash content had no detrimental effect on the plastic and hardened properties of the concrete.

  10. Modification of alkaline pulping to facilitate the isolation of aliphatic acids. Part 1. Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of pine wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alen, R.; Niemelae, K.; Sjoestroem, E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pretreating pine chips (Pinus sylvestris) with sodium hydroxide prior to the alkaline delignification kraft, kraft-anthraquinone, and soda-anthraquinone) can facilitate the recovery of the carbohydrate degradation products from alkaline pulping liquors. Under suitable pretreatment conditions large amounts of carbohydrate degradation products (alipahtic acids) were formed relative to lignin. The lignin fraction was composed of comparatively low-molecular-weight fragments. Although the delignification was considerably retarded and the yield (based on wood) was decreased by 1-3%, the properties of the resulting pulp were essentially maintained despite pretreatment. Finally, data are given for the composition of aliphatic acids in liquors resulting from pretreatments.

  11. Analytical Modeling of Wood Frame Shear Walls Subjected to Vertical Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyendinh, Hai

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    referred to as Analytical Model of wood frame SHEar walls subjected to Vertical load (AMSHEV) is based on the kinematic behavior of wood frame shear walls and captures significant characteristics observed from experimental testing through appropriate...

  12. Metals Concentrations in Soils Below Decks Made of CCA-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Metals Concentrations in Soils Below Decks Made of CCA-Treated Wood This report is an excerpt from the report titled: New Lines of CCA-Treated Wood Research, In-Service and Disposal Issues Which was finalized

  13. Simulating the dynamics of flexible wood pulp fibres in suspension John M. Stockie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    , including wood pulp processing, polymer composites, and formation of fibre-reinforced materials elements to form a surface that re- sists bending and stretching. This is a natural construction for wood

  14. SECTION 50 Table of Contents 50 Lake Rufus Woods Management Plan .........................................................2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and formation of the Subbasin Work Teams and the process used to develop and adopt the management plan can50-1 SECTION 50 ­ Table of Contents 50 Lake Rufus Woods Management Plan .........................................................................28 #12;50-2 50 Lake Rufus Woods Management Plan The Lake Rufus Woods Subbasin Management Plan

  15. European Institute for Wood Preservation Congress 4-6 September 2008, Lausanne, Switzerland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    developments A. Wood raw materials (roundwood) B. Sawn softwood C. Wood energy V. Conclusions VI" · In 2007, US housing construction continued its sharp decline, severely impacting world markets. · Green building systems are a market driver, but also a constraint. · UNECE region consumption of wood and paper

  16. EFFECTS OF SAMPLE SIZE ON CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PARTICLE LENGTH DISTRIBUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECTS OF SAMPLE SIZE ON CHARACTERIZATION OF WOOD-PARTICLE LENGTH DISTRIBUTION Quang V. Cao of sample size on fitting length distribution of wood particles used for manufacturing wood-based composites moments and the ability of the sample distributions to characterize the population represented

  17. Matrix penetration in the bulk:In uence of humidity: Morphological analysis of wood welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalang, Robert C.

    Matrix penetration in the bulk:In uence of humidity: Morphological analysis of wood welding.pichelin@b .ch Context: Wood can be welded using linear vibration welding tech- niques similar to the ones in plastic and metal industry[1] . Wood welding allows bonding strength similar to glued joints. However, due

  18. Streamlined LCA of Wood Pellets: Export and Possible Utilization in UBC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streamlined LCA of Wood Pellets: Export and Possible Utilization in UBC Boiler House CHBE 573 Ann Pa May 15, 2009 #12;2 | P a g e INTRODUCTION Wood pellets are a type of biofuels and are often made. Like all biofuels, wood pellets are carbon- neutral and renewable and are very popular in Europe

  19. Net carbon fluxes at stand and landscape scales from wood bioenergy harvests in the US Northeast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    gas emissions implications of wood biomass (`bioenergy') harvests are highly uncer- tain yet of great') on long-term green- house gas emissions are uncertain (McKechnie et al., 2011), yet demand for wood (C) emitted from wood bioenergy may eventually be re-sequestered through regeneration and increased

  20. Alternative Chemicals and Improved Disposal-End Management Practices for CCA-treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Alternative Chemicals and Improved Disposal-End Management Practices for CCA-treated Wood (FINAL Importation Associated with CCA-Treated Wood Use APPENDIX B: MSDS Sheets for Alternative Chemicals APPENDIX C Members A-1 B-1 C-1 D-1 E-1 F-1 G-1 ATTACHMENT: Treated Wood Resource Book #12;ii This page left

  1. Preservative leaching from weathered CCA-treated wood Timothy Townsenda,*, Brajesh Dubeya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Preservative leaching from weathered CCA-treated wood Timothy Townsenda,*, Brajesh Dubeya , Thabet copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood in landfills raises concerns with respect to leaching of preservative compounds. When unweathered CCA-treated wood is leached using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure

  2. Implications for the Future of Treated Wood in Four U.S. Demand Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Implications for the Future of Treated Wood in Four U.S. Demand Sectors Todd F. Shupe Associate extends the life span of lumber, but the Environmental Protection Agency says arsenic treated wood might arsenic-treated wood from Florida's public playgrounds failed to pass. "Wave of opponents kills Crow

  3. U.S. Playground Equipment Manufacturer and Purchaser Perceptions of Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U.S. Playground Equipment Manufacturer and Purchaser Perceptions of Treated Wood Todd F. Shupe treated wood might cut life short for our children. "EPA chops down potential killer", 24 Hour News 8, Florida, after his bill to ban arsenic-treated wood from Florida's public playgrounds failed to pass

  4. Quantities of Arsenic-Treated Wood in Demolition Debris Generated by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Research Quantities of Arsenic-Treated Wood in Demolition Debris Generated by Hurricane Katrina B R of the demolition debris is wood waste of which a significant proportion is treated with preservatives, including preservatives containing arsenic. As a result of the large scale destruction of treated wood structures

  5. Mechanical characteristics of aged Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) wood from Japanese historical buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    historical buildings -Comparative analyses with accelerated aging wood- Misao YOKOYAMA*1 , Joseph GRIL*1 Abstract Wood is present in many cultural heritage objects thanks to its capacity to resist odvantage with mechanical characteristics of aged hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) wood of Japanese historical buildings

  6. Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepcin, Chile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile Global #12;Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile Subjects;Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile Main sources

  7. Final Independent External Peer Review Report Melvin Price Wood River Underseepage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Project Background and Purpose The purpose of the Melvin Price Wood River Underseepage Price Wood River LRR and the overall scope of the project, the final panel members were selectedFinal Independent External Peer Review Report Melvin Price Wood River Underseepage Limited

  8. Allies in Sport Organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melton, Elizabeth

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOSPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, George B. Cunningham Committee Members, Kathi Miner Gregg... Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. George B. Cunningham Employee support is a key factor in creating more welcoming and accepting work environments for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals in sport. As such, organizations need...

  9. Effect of Nd:YAG laser welding on microstructure and hardness of an Al-Li based alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Li, E-mail: cuili@bjut.edu.cn [Beijing University of Technology (China)] [Beijing University of Technology (China); Li, Xiaoyan, E-mail: xyli@bjut.edu.cn [Beijing University of Technology (China)] [Beijing University of Technology (China); He, Dingyong, E-mail: dyhe@bjut.edu.cn [Beijing University of Technology (China)] [Beijing University of Technology (China); Chen, Li, E-mail: ouchenxi@163.com [AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute (China)] [AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute (China); Gong, Shuili, E-mail: gongshuili@sina.com [AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute (China)] [AVIC Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute (China)

    2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Butt joints of 3.0 mm thick sheets of an Al-Li based alloy have been produced using Nd:YAG laser welding without filler metals. The hardness distribution and microstructure of the alloy and welded joints were investigated. The changes in the grain shapes, grain orientations, microtexture, and precipitates of the fusion zone were analyzed using optical microscope, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that Nd:YAG laser welding leads to a change of the microhardness, grain shape, grain orientations, and a disappearance of the microtexture and precipitates. A narrow band of EQZ along the fusion boundary and a predominantly equiaxed dendritic structure are developed in the fusion zone. The formation of the predominately equiaxed dendritic grains is due to a heterogeneous nucleation mechanism aided by equilibrium A1{sub 3}Zr phases as well as the growth of pre-existing nuclei created by dendrite fragmentation, or by grain detachment resulted from Nd:YAG laser welding processes. In addition, Nd:YAG laser welding produces lower Vickers hardness than that of the base metal due to the decrease in the in quantity of {delta} Prime precipitates in the fusion zone. - Graphical Abstract: The grain shapes, grain orientations, microtexture, and precipitates of the solidified fusion zone were investigated and compared with the base metal using optical microscope, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). EBSD orientation map of laser welded joint in 5A90 alloys is presented in Fig. 3. It clearly shows that a narrow band EQZ along the fusion boundary and the predominantly equiaxed grains have been developed in the fusion zone of 5A90 alloys. Also, it is clear that the microstructure of the base metal is characterized by laminated grains with preferred orientations, whereas the fusion zone is predominately equiaxed grains in different colors having random orientations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The predominantly equiaxed dendritic structure is developed in the fusion zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fusion zone with equiaxed grains shows random orientations and microtexture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The loss in hardness in the fusion zone is due to the decrease in {delta} Prime precipitates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The non-epitaxial growth occurs at fusion boundary. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The equilibrium A1{sub 3}Zr phases maybe the nuclei of new grains in the fusion zone.

  10. APPLICATION OF NELSON'S SORPTION ISOTHERM TO WOOD COMPOSITES AND OVERLAYS'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPLICATION OF NELSON'S SORPTION ISOTHERM TO WOOD COMPOSITES AND OVERLAYS' Qinglin Wu Assistant. It was found that Nelson's model can be used to describe the experimental data from different composite composite materials (Suchsland 1972). These relationships, known as sorption isotherms, greatly affect

  11. Influence of Nanoclay on Properties of HDPE/Wood Composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of Nanoclay on Properties of HDPE/Wood Composites Yong Lei,1 Qinglin Wu,1 Craig M Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 2 Performance Engineered Composites, USDA Forest ServiceScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). ABSTRACT: Composites based on high density polyeth- ylene (HDPE), pine

  12. Bryan H. Wood Assistant Deputy Commandant of the Marine Corps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and stations throughout the world and for the operating forces across the U.S. Marine Corps. Mr. Wood advisor to the Commander, Combined Joint Task Force- Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) in Djibouti, Africa. Mr as the Environmental Law Section Head and Senior Associate Counsel (Environment/ Safety), Naval Sea Systems Command

  13. AN EXAMINATION OF WOOD RECYCLING PROVISIONS IN NORTH AMERICAN GREEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American green building standards, with use of such materials awarded or specified. Construction-consumer materials shall be considered as recycled. In addition to reviewing provisions of various green building! ! ! AN EXAMINATION OF WOOD RECYCLING PROVISIONS IN NORTH AMERICAN GREEN BUILDING PROGRAMS DR. JIM

  14. Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture L. CURRY WOODS III*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamza, Iqbal

    Physiological Insights Towards Improving Fish Culture L. CURRY WOODS III* Department of Animal, and American Fisheries Society (AFS) Fish Culture Section, was held February 26 through March 2, 2007, in San Antonio, Texas. At this meeting, the AFS Fish Culture and Fish Physiol- ogy Sections co

  15. Wood Residues as Fuel Source for Lime Kilns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; Philp, R. J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the main obstacles to total energy self sufficiency of kraft mills appears to be the fossil fuel requirements of the lime kilns. If an economical technology can be developed which allows fossil fuel to be replaced in whole or in part by wood...

  16. Measuring Interfacial Stiffness of Adhesively-Bonded Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nairn, John A.

    , the interfaces will fail, the elements will cease to share load, and the composite will have poor properties property. Nearly all methods for characterizing wood adhesive bonds consider only strength of the bonds. Typically a bond line is loaded until failure and the final load at failure is recorded. Some common

  17. 14 November 2010 Wood SA & Timber Times FOREST HEALTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    14 November 2010 Wood SA & Timber Times FOREST HEALTH Aprogramme that begun based on a very small other disciplines within reach of a dynamic forestry industry. Three South African forestry companies was formally launched in 1990.The research directors of these companies Neville Denison (Mondi),Mike Shaw

  18. Performance of Wood-Frame Structures during Hurricane Katrina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Dan

    Performance of Wood-Frame Structures during Hurricane Katrina John W. van de Lindt, M.ASCE1 ; Andrew Graettinger, M.ASCE2 ; Rakesh Gupta, M.ASCE3 ; Thomas Skaggs, M.ASCE4 ; Steven Pryor, M.ASCE5 ; and Kenneth J. Fridley, M.ASCE6 Abstract: The costliest natural disaster in U.S. history was Hurricane Katrina

  19. Practical Approach to Designing Wood Roof Truss Assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Practical Approach to Designing Wood Roof Truss Assemblies Rakesh Gupta, M.ASCE1 ; and Pranueng to evaluate "system effects" in light-frame roof truss assemblies. The goal of this study was to develop an improved and practical design method for 3D roof truss assemblies used in residential construction. A truss

  20. Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Galaxy Carpet Corporation installed a coal and wood waste fired boiler approximately twelve months ago. Its first year net savings were $195,000.00 Total capital investment was paid off in 1.9 years. 20% investment tax credits were granted...

  1. HISTORICAL WOOD COLLECTION AT THE DENDROCHRONOLOGY LABORATORY, VYTAUTAS MAGNUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    investigations. Subfossil oaks from river gravels, pines from peat bogs and wood from archeological excavations.) samples were collected in two peat bogs with pine trunks embedded in oligotrophic peat layers. One more than 300 samples of pine stumps and stems preserved in oligotrophic peat layers were coll

  2. In-Depth Temperature Profiles in Pyrolyzing Wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reszka, Pedro

    of experimental in-depth temperature measurements were done in wood samples exposed to various intensities of radiant heat fluxes, with clearly defined boundary conditions that allow a proper input for pyrolysis models. The imposed heat fluxes range from 10 k...

  3. INFLUENCE OF TORREFACTION TREATMENT ON WOOD POWDER PROPERTIES M. Almendrosa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    INFLUENCE OF TORREFACTION TREATMENT ON WOOD POWDER PROPERTIES M. Almendrosa , O. Bonnefoyb , A de Saint-Etienne (EMSE), 158, Cours Fauriel, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, France ABSTRACT: Torrefaction and makes the grinding easier. Our project deals with the study of the effects of the combined torrefaction

  4. Page 2 of 4 TREE Cookies Etc. Got Woods -continued

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    of a forester is to help sell timber, though they can and should be used to write management plans, manage tree plantings, implement intermediate tending treatments to improve the woods, design soil stabilization the tree, the rays (the lateral transporting structures for water and nutrients) are blocked. Finally

  5. ERDCTR-14-3 Leonard Wood Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    through biogas. The project focused on laboratory studies to evaluate the treatment of applicable wastes and determine gas production. The study found that food waste is very effectively treated, and generates in particular uses a mix of wastes, along with food, and this mixture should improve stability and increase

  6. Exergy analysis of the Chartherm process for energy valorization and material recuperation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosmans, A., E-mail: anouk.bosmans@mech.kuleuven.be [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Auweele, M. Vanden; Govaerts, J.; Helsen, L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chartherm process (Thermya, Bordeaux, France) is a thermochemical conversion process to treat chromated copper arsenate (CCA) impregnated wood waste. The process aims at maximum energy valorization and material recuperation by combining the principles of low-temperature slow pyrolysis and distillation in a smart way. The main objective of the exergy analysis presented in this paper is to find the critical points in the Chartherm process where it is necessary to apply some measures in order to reduce exergy consumption and to make energy use more economic and efficient. It is found that the process efficiency can be increased with 2.3-4.2% by using the heat lost by the reactor, implementing a combined heat and power (CHP) system, or recuperating the waste heat from the exhaust gases to preheat the product gas. Furthermore, a comparison between the exergetic performances of a 'chartherisation' reactor and an idealized gasification reactor shows that both reactors destroy about the same amount of exergy (i.e. 3500 kW kg{sub wood}{sup -1}) during thermochemical conversion of CCA-treated wood. However, the Chartherm process possesses additional capabilities with respect to arsenic and tar treatment, as well as the extra benefit of recuperating materials.

  7. Demonstration Results From Greenhouse Heating with Liquified Wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steele, Philip; Parish, Don; Cooper, Jerome

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A boiler fuel known as Lignocellulosic Boiler Fuel (LBF) was developed at the Department of Forest Products, Mississippi State University for potential application for heating agricultural buildings. LBF was field tested to heat green houses in cooperation with Natchez Trace Greenhouses (NTG) located in Kosciusko, Mississippi. MSU modified an idled natural gas boiler located at NTG to combust the LBF. Thirty gallons of bio-oil were produced at the MSU Bio-oil Research Laboratory. The bio-oil was produced from the fast-pyrolysis of southern pine (15 gal) and white oak (15 gal) feedstocks and subsequently upgraded by a proprietary process. Preliminary field testing was conducted at (NTG). The LBF was produced from each wood species was tested separately and co-fed with diesel fuel to yield three fuel formulations: (1) 100% diesel; (2) 87.5% LBF from southern pine bio-oil co-fed with 12.5% diesel and (3) 87.5% LBF from white oak co-fed with 12.5% diesel fuel formulations. Each fuel formulation was combusted in a retrofit NTG boiler. Fuel consumption and water temperature were measured periodically. Flue gas from the boiler was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The 100% diesel fuel increased water temperature at a rate of 4 ���°F per min. for 35 min. to achieve the target 140 ���°F water temperature increase. The 87.5% pine LBF fuel cofed with 12.5%) diesel attained the 140 ���°F water temperature increase in 62 min. at a rate of 2.3 ���°F per min. The 87.5% white oak LBF fuel co-fed with 12.5% diesel reached the 140 ���°F water temperature increase in 85 min. at a rate of 1.6 ���°F per min. Fuel that contained 87.5% pine LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 5.3 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 22.2. Fuel formulations that contained 87.5% white oak LBF co-fed with 12.5% diesel yielded nitrogen and oxygen at a ratio of 4.9 and carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide at a ratio of 16.4. Neither the pine LBF nor the white oak LBF fuel showed any measureable methane emissions from the NTG boiler flue gas. These results indicate a viable potential for mildly upgraded bio-oil to become an alternative fuel source for greenhouse operations.

  8. MAST 1 purchased products--components. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, R.J.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division, the production agency, was provided with funding to acquire purchased product components in support of the MAST (Multi-Application Surety Technology) Program. Implementation efforts, closing procurement status, and proposals for improvements in the procurement process are presented. The intent of this project was to fund the Purchased Product Team`s traditional procurement of components, with significantly reduced flowtime, in accordance with the Qualification Evaluation System, and to exercise the system to the extent possible. When funding was reduced, it became obvious that full implementation of the Qualification Evaluation System could not be achieved due to limited resources.

  9. 5 February 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP 1 Title: Social network media in the forest products industry: A look Manufacturers Inc. (AHMI) surveyed a group of their members to determine if social media was being used, and exporting. Seven appendixes list resources and agencies that provide assistance to wood products companies

  10. U.S. Home Builder Perceptions about Treated Wood:Summary Richard P. Vlosky, Ph.D.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U.S. Home Builder Perceptions about Treated Wood:Summary Richard P. Vlosky, Ph.D.1 Professor for wood. In areas subject to a high risk of decay, wood that is preservative treated is often recommended alternatives to treated wood in certain applications, but this may result in higher costs, higher energy

  11. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase I of this project began by obtaining R&D variances for permits at the NIOSH boilerplant (NBP), Emery Tree Service (ETS) and the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC) for their portions of the project. Wood for the test burn was obtained from the JARC inventory (pallets), Thompson Properties and Seven D Corporation (construction wood), and the Arlington Heights Housing Project (demolition wood). The wood was ground at ETS and JARC, delivered to the Three Rivers Terminal and blended with coal. Three one-day tests using wood/coal blends of 33% wood by volume (both construction wood and demolition wood) were conducted at the NBP. Blends using hammermilled wood were operationally successful. Emissions of SO{sub 2} and NOx decreased and that of CO increased when compared with combusting coal alone. Mercury emissions were measured and evaluated. During the first year of Phase II the principal work focused upon searching for a replacement boilerplant and developing a commercial supply of demolition wood. The NBP withdrew from the project and a search began for another stoker boilerplant in Pennsylvania to replace it on the project. Three potential commercial demolition wood providers were contacted. Two were not be able to supply wood. At the end of the first year of Phase II, discussions were continuing with the third one, a commercial demolition wood provider from northern New Jersey. During the two-and-a-third years of the contract extension it was determined that the demolition wood from northern New Jersey was impractical for use in Pittsburgh, in another power plant in central New Jersey, and in a new wood gasifier being planned in Philadelphia. However, the project team did identify sufficient wood from other sources for the gasifier project. The Principal Investigator of this project assisted a feasibility study of wood gasification in Clarion County, Pennsylvania. As a result of the study, an independent power producer in the county has initiated a small wood gasification project at its site. Throughout much of this total project the Principal Investigator has counseled two small businesses in developing a waxed cardboard pellet business. A recent test burn of this biofuel appears successful and a purchase contract is anticipated soon. During the past two months a major tree-trimming firm has shown an active interest in entering the wood-chip fuel market in the Pittsburgh area and has contacted the NBP, among others, as potential customers. The NBP superintendent is currently in discussion with the facilities management of the Bruceton Research Center about resuming their interest in cofiring this renewable fuel to the stoker there.

  12. Cost, time, and benefit measures for personal use fuel-wood collection in Colorado. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betters, D.R.; Markstrom, D.C.; Aukerman, R.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average fuel-wood collector is willing to pay, beyond current perceived costs, an additional $21 to $29 per cord in order to continue collecting fuel-wood. The difference between willingness-to-pay estimates for fuel-wood collection and for wood purchased from a commercial vendor is assumed to present recreational value of fuel-wood collection. On that basis, the recreation values for the average collection is estimated to be between $6 and $12 per cord.

  13. Wood-boring Insects of Trees and Shrubs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drees, Bastiaan M.; Jackman, John A.; Merchant, Michael E.

    2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    termites, carpenter bees and carpenter ants. Many other insects live in dying or dead trees, including natural enemies (predators and parasites) of the insect borers, sap or fungi feeders, or species which merely use the spaces provided by the tunnels... segments behind the head capsule. While tunneling, larvae continually pack their tunnels with excrement (frass), which looks like compressed wood fibers, or push frass out of the holes they pro- duce. This excrement, along with the sap exuded by the plant...

  14. Performance of bolted wood connections using supplemental confining devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stromatt, Rebecca Faye

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (1994) currently restricts the use of 2x dimensioned lumber for sill plates (nominal lumber thickness of The style and format of this thesis follow the Journal of Structural Engineering. 38. 1 mm [1. 5 in]) and requires the use of 3x dimensioned... lumber (nominal lumber thickness of 63. 5 mm [2. 5 in]). While a thicker wood member would increase the strength capacity of the connection according to analytical strength models, the ultimate failure mode under extreme loading conditions can still...

  15. An evaluation of atmospheric evaporation for treating wood preserving wastes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shack, Pete A

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    i. hat a constant rate of total organi carbon and chemical oxygen demand removal occurred as the wastewai. r was evaporated. A procedure for designing atmospheric evaporation ponds was developed and applied to a hypothetical wood preserving plant.... From this example design estimates of equivalent hydrocarbon concentrations in the air downwind of the pond are made. Various other design con- siderations such as the input data, modifications to the design pro- cedure, solids accumulation...

  16. The treatment of wood preserving wastes with activated carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pence, Robert Fuller

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    requirement and treatment schemes should be based on these combined requirements. Current treatment schemes employed in the wood preserving industry combine physical, chemical, and biological processes and operations in treating wastewaters. Jones, et al...-five of the plants performed secondary treatment on-site of which 32 used biological methods. Only 6 per- cent discharged their wastewaters directly to the environment without any form of treatment and approximately 40 percent of the plants planned to change...

  17. Barge loading facilities in conjunction with wood chipping and sawlog mill, Tennessee River Mile 145. 9R: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to evaluate the environmental consequences of approving, denying, or adopting reasonable alternatives to a request for barge loading facilities. These facilities would serve a proposed wood chipping and sawlog products operation at Tennessee River Mile (TRM) 145.9, right descending bank, (Kentucky Lake), in Perry County, Tennessee. The site is located between Short Creek and Peters Landing. The applicant is Southeastern Forest Products, L.P. (SFP), Box 73, Linden, Tennessee and the proposed facilities would be constructed on or adjacent to company owned land. Portions of the barge terminal would be constructed on land over which flood easement rights are held by the United States of America and administered by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The US Army Corps of Engineers (CE) and TVA have regulatory control over the proposed barge terminal facilities since the action would involve construction in the Tennessee River which is a navigable water of the United States. The wood chipping and sawlog products facilities proposed on the upland property are not regulated by the CE or TVA. On the basis of the analysis which follows, it has been determined that a modified proposal (as described herein) would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment, and does not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement. 8 refs.

  18. NRDC: Good Wood: How Forest Certification Helps the Environment The Natural Resources Defense Council works to protect wildlife and wild places and to ensure a healthy environment for all life on earth.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Health Environmental Justice U.S. Law & Policy Nuclear Weapons, Waste & Energy Smart Growth their buying power for good. 1. Why is it important to protect forests? 2. What is forest certification and how I buy FSC-certified wood products? 1. Why is it important to protect forests? Forests are more than

  19. Method for predicting dry mechanical properties from wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R.; Kelley, Stephen S.

    2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood comprising: illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with light between 350-2,500 nm, the wood having a green moisture content; analyzing the surface using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data, and using a multivariate analysis to predict the dry mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral data correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from a reference wood when dried and having a dry moisture content.

  20. Colorado School of Mines Nov-12 Cylindrical or mortise lock aluminum, wood or steel door

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado School of Mines Nov-12 Cylindrical or mortise lock aluminum, wood or steel door Hinges 4 cylindrical or mortise lock aluminum, wood or steel door Hinges 4.5"x4.5" Ives 5BB1HW El Hinge 4.5"x4 FS18S OR FS444 #12;Colorado School of Mines Nov-12 Aluminum, wood or steel door with panic bar Hinges

  1. Li overlayer formation, oxidation and sputtering characteristics of Al-Li alloys and W/Al-Li composites for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauss, A.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); DeWald, A.B.; Scott, P.; Savage, H. (Corium Industries, Inc., Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The next generation of long pulse fusion devices will impose severe requirements on the properties of plasma-facing materials. In devices such as ITER, a divertor design is being considered, using a divertor plate which would be either tungsten or a low-Z material such as graphite or beryllium. Strongly segregating lithium alloys have been proposed as a means of producing a self-sustaining low-Z overlayer which lowers plasma Z{sub eff} and resists self-sputtering. Aluminum-lithium alloys are among the better-characterized lithium-bearing alloys, and it has been demonstrated that lithium segregates strongly in aluminum. However, aluminum has a relatively low melting point, and for low lithium concentrations, the lithium diffusion rate is too slow to replenish lithium at the rate at which it is eroded by the incoming plasma. It has been suggested previously that the superionic {beta} phase Al-Li alloy (48--54 at. % Li) should have high enough diffusivity to be able to replenish surface lithium, and that incorporation of the {beta}-phase AlLi in a composite with tungsten would provide high temperature strength and melt layer stability, along with significantly better thermal conductivity than pure tungsten. Such a composite has been fabricated, as well as a variation containing titanium as a means of controlling oxidation at grain boundaries. The Li overlayer formation, erosion, and replenishment are characterized for the {beta}-phase LiAl alloy, and W-AlLi and W-Ti-AlLi composites. It is found that if there is no oxide layer to inhibit the Li segregation, Li diffusion is extremely rapid, and an oxygen-free Li overlayer is formed which is stable under continuous ion beam sputtering. 21 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Issues in the use of wood as an energy source in the northeastern US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, J.S. (ed.)

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes some of the concerns surrounding the use of wood for energy in the Northeast. It reviews the information on resource availability and ownership patterns in the Northeast, then focuses on New England, to assess the affect of potential resource constraints on the supply of wood available for energy and the effects of wood energy use on land use patterns. Finally, the application of specific technologies in settings that may experience significant wood energy use in the future is considered, including an assessment of the regional employment and income benefits of a major woodfuel installation.

  3. A review of "The Life of Anthony Wood In His Own Words" edited by Nicholas Kiessling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paleit, Edward

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    authors exasperating, it is a vital form of exasperation. And whatever the exasperation, Genre and Women?s Life Writing in Early Modern England is much better reading than most blogs. Nicholas Kiessling, ed. #31;e Life of Anthony Wood In His Own Words...;#30;#21;#31; until retrieved by more recent scholarship, especially in the case of women. Anthony Wood, or as he later called himself, ? Wood, the historian of Oxford University and biographer of its alumni, was more fortunate. Wood wrote two manuscript...

  4. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chau, J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Preto, F. [Natural Resources Canada; Melin, Staffan [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  5. Microsoft Word - CX-RedmondWoodPoles_multiSub_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Celilo SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Darrell Aaby Line Foreman III - TFDF-Redmond Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement at selected...

  6. Microsoft Word - CX-FY11PascoDistrictWoodPoleReplacement_WEB...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-PASCO SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Toby Cossairt Lineman Foreman III - TFPF-PASCO Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement and minor...

  7. Microsoft Word - CX-AlveyDistrictWoodPoles-FY14_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    8, 2014 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Alvey SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Stacey Hensley Project Manager - TEP-TPP-4 Proposed Action: 2014 Alvey District Wood Pole...

  8. Microsoft Word - CX-BigEddy-RedmondWoodPoles_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Celilo SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Darrell Aaby Line Foreman III - TFDF-Redmond Proposed Action: Wood pole replacements at select locations...

  9. Microsoft Word - CX-FY11WenatcheeDistrictWoodPoleReplacement...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    4, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-PASCO SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Terry Kugler Lineman Foreman III - TFWF-SCHULTZ Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement and minor...

  10. Microsoft Word - CX-CowlitzTaptoChehalis-CovingtonWoodPoles_WEB...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    8, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-Covington SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Clay Grande Line Foreman III - TFCF-Covington Proposed Action: Wood pole replacement at...

  11. Microsoft Word - CX-RossDistrictWoodPolesFY13_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    9, 2013 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Alvey SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Stacie Hensley Realty Specialist - TEP-TPP-4 Proposed Action: 2013 Ross District Wood Pole...

  12. Microsoft Word - CX-PilotButte-LaPine-WoodPoles-FY13_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3, 2013 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Richard Heredia Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: Wood pole replacements on Bonneville Power...

  13. Microsoft Word - CX-Chehalis-CentraliaNo2WoodPolesFY12_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0, 2012 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPROlympia SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Ryan Brady Line Foreman III - TFOK-Chehalis Proposed Action: Wood pole structure replacements on...

  14. Microsoft Word - CX-KalispellTLMDistrictFY11WoodPoleReplacement...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bell-1 SUBJECT: Environmental Cleareance Memorandum Michael Stolfus Lineman Foreman III - TFKF-Kalispell Kurt Marsh Lineman Foreman I - TFKF-Kalispell Proposed Action: Wood pole...

  15. WOODS FOR LEARNING ACTION PLAN 2010-2013 Objective National Indicators Specific actions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WOODS FOR LEARNING ACTION PLAN 2010-2013 Objective National Indicators Specific actions Lead positive inspection reports Develop Forest Kindergarten with nurseries in both private and state sectors

  16. A Current Overview of Forest Products Certification Shadia Duery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    manufacturing industry developed to track certified forest products from the forest through the supply chain management (Ozanne and Vlosky 1997). In addition to reducing negative perceptions by consumers in the wood manufacturing industry developed to verify certified forest products. CoC works as a control

  17. Global Forest Products Trade by Ed Pepke, EFI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    change policies: escalation of wood energy production, consumption and trade 3. Globalization of forest, 22 June 2011 Ed.Pepke@efi.int 1 Global forest products market trends by Dr. Ed Pepke Senior Timber European Forest Institute Contents I. Introduction II. Global market drivers III. Global trade trends IV

  18. 11 September 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    supply. Biomass Power Secure is ensuring their wood supply is of high quality and environmentally the biomass is #12;11 September 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER11 September 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER - FOREST SECTOR

  19. Laguna Woods, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to: navigation,working-groups <LackawannaLago Vista, Texas:Hills,Woods,

  20. Water Sampling At International Geothermal Area, New Zealand (Wood, 2002) |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTED Jump to: navigation,Area (Wood, 2002) Jump to: navigation,Open

  1. Wood-Ridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin: Energy Resources JumpWood, Wisconsin: Energy Resources

  2. Wood County, Ohio: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 Wind Project JumpWisconsin: Energy ResourcesWolverine JumpWood

  3. Lake of the Woods, California: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, searchOf Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii9969995°,ILEDSGP/joinHavasuPalmdaleLakeWoods,

  4. Woods County, Oklahoma: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin: Energy ResourcesWoods County, Oklahoma: Energy Resources Jump

  5. Woods Hole, Massachusetts: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin: Energy ResourcesWoods County, Oklahoma: Energy Resources

  6. Wood and Pellet Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 Russian Nuclear Warheads|ofEvents »SSL BasicsKawtarSue CangeWendeWood and Pellet

  7. Hancock-Wood Electric Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG| Open EnergyGuntersvilleHallandaleHamlinHanauOhio:Hancock-Wood

  8. Meadow Woods, Florida: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio: Energy8429°, -88.864698° ShowMeade County, Kansas:Acres,Woods,

  9. Wood-Composites Industry Benefits from ALS Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat is abig worldFélicieTeresaConcernswithWood

  10. Development of palm oil-based UV-curable epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins for wood coating application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tajau, Rida; Mahmood, Mohd Hilmi; Salleh, Mek Zah; Salleh, Nik Ghazali Nik [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ibrahim, Mohammad Izzat [Faculty of Science, University of Malaya (UM), 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yunus, Nurulhuda Mohd [Faculty of Science and Technology, National University Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The trend of using renewable sources such as palm oil as raw material in radiation curing is growing due to the demand from the market to produce a more environmental friendly product. In this study, the radiation curable process was done using epoxy acrylate and urethane acrylate resins which are known as epoxidised palm olein acrylate (EPOLA) and palm oil based urethane acrylate (POBUA), respectively. The purpose of the study was to investigate curing properties and the application of this UV-curable palm oil resins for wood coating. Furthermore, the properties of palm oil based coatings are compared with the petrochemical-based compound such as ebecryl (EB) i.e. EB264 and EB830. From the experiment done, the resins from petrochemical-based compounds resulted higher degree of crosslinking (up to 80%) than the palm oil based compounds (up to 70%), where the different is around 10-15%. The hardness property from this two type coatings can reached until 50% at the lower percentage of the oligomer. However, the coatings from petrochemical-based have a high scratch resistance as it can withstand at least up to 3.0 Newtons (N) compared to the palm oil-based compounds which are difficult to withstand the load up to 1.0 N. Finally, the test on the rubber wood substrate showed that the coatings containing benzophenone photoinitiator give higher adhesion property and their also showed a higher glosiness property on the glass substrate compared to the coatings containing irgacure-819 photoinitiator. This study showed that the palm oil coatings can be a suitable for the replacement of petrochemicals compound for wood coating. The palm oil coatings can be more competitive in the market if the problems of using high percentage palm oil oligomer can be overcome as the palm oil price is cheap enough.

  11. International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy LIGNA+Hannover, Germany, 17-18 May 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy LIGNA+Hannover, Germany, 17-18 May 2007 Photo: NTC+Hannover, Germany, 17-18 May 2007 Photo: NTC Photo: Stora Enso Photo: Stora Enso Topics I. Background for bioenergy;International Conference on Wood-based Bioenergy LIGNA+Hannover, Germany, 17-18 May 2007 Photo: NTC Photo: Stora

  12. Mid-infrared absorption properties of green wood Anna Dupleix Domingos De Sousa Meneses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ORIGINAL Mid-infrared absorption properties of green wood Anna Dupleix · Domingos De Sousa Meneses and the amount of energy absorbed by green wood under infrared (IR) radiation. This lack of knowledge is a potential barrier to the development of IR heating as an alternative to soaking as a means of warming logs

  13. Field Document No.50 REGIONAL WOOD ENERGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME IN ASIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AND TOMORROW IN ASIA #12;This publication is printed by the FAO Regional Wood Energy Development Programme wood energy data, leading to best estimates of future consumption. It also tries to estimate development in other relevant sectors like agriculture and energy is also strongly recommended. The document

  14. ECOLOGICAL NOTES ON THE SIREX WOOD WASPS AND THEIR By H. S. HANSON.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    27 ECOLOGICAL NOTES ON THE SIREX WOOD WASPS AND THEIR PARASITES. By H. S. HANSON. Farnham House on the ecology of the Sirex wood-wasps and their parasites have been collected during a period of several years. The preliminary investigations were carried out by Dr. J. G. Myers, of Farnham House Laboratory, in collaboration

  15. INTRODUCTION Red wood ants play an important role in the ecology of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Len

    INTRODUCTION Red wood ants play an important role in the ecology of woodland ecosystems by virtue the ecological impor- tance of red wood ants (Gösswald, 1989) and the conser- vation concern for some species.borkin@clear.net.nz 2 Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Etive House, Beechwood Park, Inverness, IV2 3BW, UK; e

  16. Solar energy and multi-storey residential buildings Larry Hughes and Tylor Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    ERG/200702 Solar energy and multi-storey residential buildings Larry Hughes and Tylor Wood Energy.hughes@dal.ca 26 March 2007 #12;Hughes and Wood: Solar energy and multi-storey residential buildings 1 Summary This report considers the limitations on solar energy in new, multi-storey residential buildings. In a time

  17. Historical changes in the distribution and functions of large wood in Puget Lowland rivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    Historical changes in the distribution and functions of large wood in Puget Lowland rivers Brian D and functions in Puget Lowland rivers from the last ~150 years of land use by comparing field data from an 11-km and with archival data from several Puget Lowland rivers. Current wood abundance is one to two orders of magnitude

  18. Uses and Desirable Properties of Wood in the 21st Century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of social, economic, and environmental factors that influence wood-use trends. This article discusses plantations. Advances in biotechnology will enable tailoring wood properties of plantation trees and short are driven by social, economic, and environmental factors generally beyond the control of forest sector

  19. EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    EFFECTS OF RESIN AND WAX ON THE WATER UPTAKE BEHAVIOR OF WOOD STRANDS Yang2hang1 Post and wax are essential additives in the manufactureof composite panels such as OSB. Resin binds wood elements together while wax acts as a water repellent. The objective of this study was to investigate

  20. Cancer Mortality and Wood Dust Exposure Among Participants in the American Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salzman, Daniel

    Cancer Mortality and Wood Dust Exposure Among Participants in the American Cancer Society Cancer and Paolo Boffetta, MD, MPH3 In 1994, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified wood dust as a human carcinogen, based on very strong evidence of a carcinogenic risk of sino-nasal cancer

  1. Biomimetic soy protein nanocomposites with calcium carbonate crystalline arrays for use as wood adhesive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biomimetic soy protein nanocomposites with calcium carbonate crystalline arrays for use as wood 2010 Available online 21 March 2010 Keywords: Wood glue Calcium carbonate Gecko adhesion Soy protein crosslinking of calcium, carbonate, hydroxyl ions in the adhesive greatly improving the water- resistance

  2. Research Article Fibre wall and lumen fractions drive wood density variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Ian

    with hydraulic strategies. Denser woods tend to operate at more negative water potentials (Ackerly 2004; Bucci et et al. 2011). Wood density has been studied in relation to hydraulic conductivity but the results.s.zieminska@gmail.com Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. This is an Open Access

  3. New Lines of CCA-Treated Wood Research: In-Service and Disposal Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    New Lines of CCA-Treated Wood Research: In-Service and Disposal Issues Submitted March 19, 2001 Objectives 2 I.3 Background 4 CHAPTER II, METALS CONCENTRATIONS IN SOILS BELOW DECKS MADE OF CCA-TREATED WOOD Results from Soil Core Samples 24 II.7 Summary and Conclusions 28 CHAPTER III, INVENTORY OF CCA-TREATED

  4. A pilot study of children's exposure to CCA-treated wood from playground equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    A pilot study of children's exposure to CCA-treated wood from playground equipment S.L. Shalat Arsenic from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, widely used in playgrounds and other outdoor associated with children playing on CCA- treated playgrounds. In a Pilot Study, 11 children (13­71 months

  5. A pilot study of children's exposure to CCA-treated wood from playground equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    A pilot study of children's exposure to CCA-treated wood from playground equipment S.L. Shalat online 17 February 2006 Abstract Arsenic from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, widely used possible health risks associated with children playing on CCA- treated playgrounds. In a Pilot Study, 11

  6. Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    authorities CHP Planning issues Transport companies District Heating Sustainable communities Utilities Solar the object of interest of municipalities and management of companies, is the issue of how to reconstruct out. Wood exploitation is well developed: many forestry and wood processing companies are represented

  7. DNA Extraction From Processed Wood: A Case Study for the Identification of an Endangered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Protocols DNA Extraction From Processed Wood: A Case Study for the Identification of an Endangered to the extraction of whole genomic DNA from processed wood samples to explore the possibility of identifying an endangered trop- ical timber species by using DNA sequencing technology. High-yield and high-quality DNA

  8. Illegal loggin and wood energy: UNECE Timber Committee discusses policy issues of the day SEARCH SITEMAP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    activities). Wood energy: "Biomass is one of the renewable energies with the greatest potential for expansion, and wood is by far the largest component of biomass energy" says Kit Prins, Chief of the UNECE Timber/FAO Timber Section Trade Development and Timber Division United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Palais

  9. A review of "John Lowin and the English Theatre, 1603-1647" by Barbara Wooding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bunker, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    assumed a more active role as a citizen with duties and responsibility over apprentices and financial oversight in the rebuilding of the Globe. Wooding’s commentary on the first decade 213 seventeenth-century news of Lowin’s career advocates for his...

  10. Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA Submitted to Dr. Bi By Bernard Chan Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas" By Bernard Chan, Brian Chan, and Christopher Young Abstract This report studies the feasibility of replacing natural gas with wood pellets for UBC boilers. A gasification

  11. Seismic Screening, Evaluation, Rehabilitation, and Design Provisions for Wood-Framed Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Seismic Screening, Evaluation, Rehabilitation, and Design Provisions for Wood-Framed Structures Preston Baxter, M.ASCE1 ; Thomas H. Miller, M.ASCE2 ; and Rakesh Gupta, M.ASCE3 Abstract: Seismic Database subject headings: Seismic analysis; Seismic design; Wood structures; Shear walls; Diaphragms

  12. Provenance study and environments of deposition of the Pennslyvanian-Permian Wood River Formation, south-central Idaho, and the paleotectonic character of the Wood River basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, Christopher William

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and provenance of the conglomerates in the Big Wood River and Fish Creek Reservoir regions of south-central Idaho is needed. Distinguishing between marine and non-marine strata and determining source terranes will aid in reconstructing Wood River basin... paleogeography and paleo- tectonics. Three source areas have been postulated in recent years: 1, The Antler highland to the west, containing volcanics and low grade metamorphic rocks (Bissell, 1960; Churkin, 1962; Roberts and Thomasson, 1964). 2. The stable...

  13. Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pallin, Simon B [ORNL; Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

  14. Journal of Hazardous Materials B114 (2004) 7591 Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications for waste disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    Journal of Hazardous Materials B114 (2004) 75­91 Leaching of CCA-treated wood: implications, and copper from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood poses possible environmental risk when disposed. Samples of un-weathered CCA-treated wood were tested using a variety of the US regulatory leaching

  15. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into the Red Listed Material: Pressure Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    into the Red Listed Material: Pressure Treated Wood (Preservative Infused) and Possible Alternatives Abby Yuen of a project/report". #12;APSC 261 An Investigation into the Red Listed Material: Pressure Treated Wood. Pressure treated wood, a commonly used building material in British Columbia, is a red-listed material

  16. Metal Bioavailability and Speciation in a Wetland Tailings Repository Amended with Biosolids Compost, Wood Ash, and Sulfate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    Compost, Wood Ash, and Sulfate Pam S. DeVolder, Sally L. Brown,* Dean Hesterberg, and Kumi Pandya ABSTRACT tundra swans surface amendments: (i) biosolids compost plus wood ash, (ii) and other animals found in the area have tested positive compost wood ash a low SO2 4 addition as K2SO4, and (iii) for Pb poisoning

  17. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Xiaoming, E-mail: xwang25@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Padgett, Jennifer M. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Powell, John S. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Campus Box 7905, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7905 (United States); Barlaz, Morton A. [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup ?1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than previously reported.

  18. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Allied Paper/Portage Creek/Kalamazoo River, Operable Unit 3, Kalamazoo, MI, February 10, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action (RA) for the King Highway Landfill-Operable Unit 3 (KHL-OU3) and the Georgia-Pacific former lagoons 1,2,3,4, and 5, (five former lagoons) of the Allied Paper, Inc./Portage Creek/Kalamazoo River Superfund site (site). The purpose of this remedy is to eliminate or reduce the potential migration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the Kalamazoo River and to reduce the risk associated with exposure to the PCB-contaminated materials. This RA includes excavation and on-site containment of PCB-contaminated soils, sediments and paper residuals (residuals) from the landfill berms (berms), the five former lagoons, as well as from the river and floodplains adjacent to the KHL. The RA addresses the following migration pathways from the KHL-OU3 and the five former lagoons: release of leachate to groundwater, surface water, and surface sediments; and the release of PCB-contaminated residuals/soils to surface water by erosion, surface run-off, and berm failure.

  19. Fusion-fission reactions with modified Woods-Saxon potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ning Wang; Kai Zhao; Werner Scheid; Xizhen Wu

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A modified Woods-Saxon potential model is proposed for a unified description of the entrance channel fusion barrier and the fission barrier of fusion-fission reactions based on the Skyrme energy-density functional approach. The fusion excitation functions of 120 reactions have been systematically studied. The fusion (capture) cross sections are well described with the calculated potential and an empirical barrier distribution. Incorporating a statistical model (HIVAP code) for describing the decay of the compound nucleus, the evaporation residue (and fission) cross sections of 51 fusion-fission reactions have been systematically investigated. Optimal values of some key parameters of the HIVAP code are obtained based on the experimental data of these reactions. The experimental data are reasonably well reproduced by the calculated results. The upper and lower confidence limits of the systematic errors of the calculated results are given.

  20. Urban Wood-Based Bio-Energy Systems in Seattle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan Gent, Seattle Steam Company

    2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Seattle Steam Company provides thermal energy service (steam) to the majority of buildings and facilities in downtown Seattle, including major hospitals (Swedish and Virginia Mason) and The Northwest (Level I) Regional Trauma Center. Seattle Steam has been heating downtown businesses for 117 years, with an average length of service to its customers of 40 years. In 2008 and 2009 Seattle Steam developed a biomass-fueled renewable energy (bio-energy) system to replace one of its gas-fired boilers that will reduce greenhouse gases, pollutants and the amount of waste sent to landfills. This work in this sub-project included several distinct tasks associated with the biomass project development as follows: a. Engineering and Architecture: Engineering focused on development of system control strategies, development of manuals for start up and commissioning. b. Training: The project developer will train its current operating staff to operate equipment and facilities. c. Flue Gas Clean-Up Equipment Concept Design: The concept development of acid gas emissions control system strategies associated with the supply wood to the project. d. Fuel Supply Management Plan: Development of plans and specifications for the supply of wood. It will include potential fuel sampling analysis and development of contracts for delivery and management of fuel suppliers and handlers. e. Integrated Fuel Management System Development: Seattle Steam requires a biomass Fuel Management System to track and manage the delivery, testing, processing and invoicing of delivered fuel. This application will be web-based and accessed from a password-protected URL, restricting data access and privileges by user-level.

  1. Continuous on-line measurement of lignin concentration in wood pulp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffers, L.A.; Roman, G.W.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We are working toward the development of an instrument for the continuous, on-line measurement of the lignin concentration in wood pulp. The instrument is based on laser induced fluorescence of the wood pulp and is to be used as a primary sensor for both feedback control of the pulping and feedforward control of bleaching. We report here the results of a series of laboratory tests that characterized the fluorescence properties of wood pulp and demonstrated a correlation between various fluorescence functions and the Kappa number of the pulps as determined by TAPPI Procedure T236.

  2. PSNH's Northern Wood power project repowers coal-fired plant with new fluidized-bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, R.

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Northern Wood Power project permanently replaced a 50-MW coal-burning boiler (Unit 5) at Public Service of New Hampshire's Schiller station with a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed wood-burning boiler of the same capacity. The project, completed in December 2006, reduced emissions and expanded the local market for low-grade wood. For planning and executing the multiyear, $75 million project at no cost to its ratepayers, PSNH wins Power's 2007 Marmaduke Award for excellence in O & M. The award is named for Marmaduke Surfaceblow, the fictional marine engineer/plant troubleshoot par excellence. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Climate change risk assessment: Missing the wood for the trees?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevenson, Paul

    outlook"... Model simulations of future annual energy production at Kairakkum, Tajikistan. Source: EBRD

  4. Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2010-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Pre-extraction–kraft studies of hardwoods showed that when extracting about 10% of the wood, the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could only be maintained at a level similar to that of regular kraft pulp when the final extract pH was close to neutral. This so-called “near neutral” pre-extraction condition at a level of 10% wood dissolution was achieved by contacting the wood chips with green liquor (GL) at a charge of about 3% (as Na2O on wood) at 160 °C for almost 2 hours (or an H-factor of about 800 hrs.). During subsequent kraft cooking of the pre-extracted hardwood chips the effective alkali charge could be reduced by about 3% (as Na2O on wood) and the cooking time shortened relative to that during regular kraft cooking, while still producing the same bleachable grade kappa number as the kraft control pulp. For softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered in the present investigation whereby both the final kraft pulp yield and physical properties could be maintained at a level similar to that of regular softwood kraft pulp. Therefore for hardwoods the “near- neutral green liquor pre-extraction conditions do meet the requirements of the IFPR concept, while for softwood, no extraction conditions were discovered which do meet these requirements. Application of simulated industrial GL at an extraction H-factor of about 800 hrs and 3% GL charge in a recirculating digester produced an hardwood extract containing about 4% (on wood) of total anhydro-sugars, 2% of acetic acid, and 1.3% of lignin. Xylan comprised of 80% of the sugars of which about 85% is oligomeric. Since only polymeric hemicelluloses and lignin may be adsorbed on pulp (produced at a yield of about 50% from the original wood), the maximum theoretical yield increase due to adsorption may be estimated as 10% on pulp (or 5% on wood). However, direct application of raw GL hardwood extract for hemicelluloses adsorption onto hardwood kraft pulp led to a yield increase of only about 1% (on pulp). By using the wet-end retention aid guar gum during the adsorption process at a charge of 0.5% on pulp the yield gain may be increased to about 5%. Unfortunately, most of this yield increase is lost during subsequent alkaline treatments in the pulp bleach plant. It was found that by performing the adsorption at alkaline conditions the adsorption loss during alkaline treatment in the bleach plant is mostly avoided. Thus a permanent adsorption yield of about 3 and 1.5% (on pulp) was obtained with addition of guar gum at a charge of 0.5 and 0.1% respectively during adsorption of GL hardwood extract on pre-extracted kraft pulp at optimal conditions of pH 11.5, 90 C for 60 minutes at 5% consistency. The beatability of the adsorbed kraft pulps was improved. Also, significant physical strength improvements were achieved. Further study is needed to determine whether the improvements in pulp yield and paper properties make this an economic IFPR concept. Application of the wood solids of a hot water extract of Acer rubrum wood strands as a substitute for polystyrene used for production of SMC maintained the water adsorption properties of the final product. Further work on the physical properties of the hemicellulose containing SMCs need to be completed to determine the potential of wood extracts for the production of partially renewable SMCs. The discovery of the “near-neutral” green liquor extraction process for hardwood was formed the basis for a commercial Integrated Biorefinery that will extract hemicelluloses from wood chips to make biofuels and other specialty chemicals. The pulp production process will be maintained as is proposed in the present researched IFBR concept. This Integrated Biorefinery will be constructed by Red Shield Acquisition LLC (RSA) at the Old Town kraft pulp mill in Maine. RSA in collaboration with the University of Maine will develop and commercialize the hemicellulose extraction process, the conversion of the hemicellulose sugars into butanol by fermentation, and the separation of specialty chemicals such as acetic acid fr

  5. Electricity from wood powder report on a TPV generator in progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broman, L.; Jarefors, K. [Solar Energy Research Center (SERC), University College of Falun Borlange (UCFB), Box 10044, S-781 10 Borlange (Sweden); Marks, J. [Department of Operational Efficiency, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Herrgardsv 122, S-776 98 Garpenberg (Sweden); Wanlass, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden, Colorado 80401-3393, United States of America

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A joint project between NREL, SLU, and UCFB aims at building a wood powder fueled TPV generator. The progress of the project is presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. A study of owner preferences for steel and wood framed homes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Bruce Whitney

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that purchased steel framed homes (SFHS) and those households that purchased wood framed homes (WFHs). The objectives of the study were (1) to determine if there were any significant differences in the demographic profiles of the two study groups, (2...

  7. Structural timber and wood procurement at the NAN Ranch Ruin in Grant County, New Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruno, Henry Lee

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the field by Goodyear (1975) and tested against experimental data on lithic use- wear (Bayham 1976). Scraping and chopping were shown to leave different 13 edge wear patterns and to vary with different species of wood. The literature contains...

  8. Kevin Wood Landscape: a study in Texas Hill Country landscape design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Secker, William Walker

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kevin Wood Landscape resides in Austin, Texas as the premier residential landscape design firm. The firm, although small in stature, tackles a variety of projects throughout Austin and the immediate Hill Country. Close inspection within...

  9. Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The...

  10. Thermal properties of structural details in wood frame homes : analysis and recommendations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graybeal, Alexander Kung

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The wood platform frame home is the dominant design in the United States when it comes to single family housing. Introduced during the mid-nineteenth century, the scheme is a cheap, fast, and proven design that takes ...

  11. Microsoft Word - CX-Redmond-PilotButte-WoodPoleFY12_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3, 2012 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Richard Heredia Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: Redmond-Pilot Butte No. 1 Wood Pole...

  12. Microsoft Word - CX-Driscoll-NaselleWood PolesFY12_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPAlvey SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Ryan Brady Line Foreman III - TFOK-Chehalis Proposed Action: In-kind wood pole replacements as needed on...

  13. Microsoft Word - CX-OregonCity-ChemawaWoodPolesFY12_WEB .docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    31, 2012 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Alvey SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum James Semrau Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: Oregon City-Chemawa 2 Wood Pole...

  14. Microsoft Word - CX-LaPine-ChiloquinWoodPoleFY12_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Richard Heredia Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: La Pine-Chiloquin No. 1 Wood Pole Replacement...

  15. Microsoft Word - CX-AlveyDistWoodPoles_FY13_WEB.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Alvey District Wood Pole Replacement Projects PP&A Project No.: 2663 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance Location: Various...

  16. Microsoft Word - CX-Big Eddy-Redmond-WoodPolesFY13_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    4, 2013 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Richard Heredia Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: Big Eddy-Redmond No. 1 Wood Pole...

  17. Microsoft Word - CX-SpokaneDistrictWoodPoleReplacementsFY13_WEB...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1, 2013 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-Bell-1 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Amanda Williams Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: 2013 Spokane District Wood Pole...

  18. Microsoft Word - CX-Brasada-Harney-WoodPoles_FY13_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2, 2013 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Richard Heredia Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: Brasada-Harney No. 1 Wood Pole Replacement...

  19. Microsoft Word - CX-NorthBendWoodPoles_FY13_WEB.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    North Bend District Wood Pole Replacement Projects PP&A Project No.: 2658 Categorical Exclusion Applied (from Subpart D, 10 C.F.R. Part 1021): B1.3 Routine maintenance Location:...

  20. Microsoft Word - CX-PilotButte-LaPineWoodPoleFY12_WEB.docx

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0, 2012 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEPR-4 SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Richard Heredia Project Manager - TEP-TPP-1 Proposed Action: Pilot Butte-La Pine No. 1 Wood Pole...

  1. Microsoft Word - CX-AlveyDistrict_2011WoodPoles_No1957_WEB.doc

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0, 2011 REPLY TO ATTN OF: KEP-Alvey SUBJECT: Environmental Clearance Memorandum Nick Wenzl John Carter Line Foreman III-TFE-Alvey Line Foreman I-TFE-Alvey Proposed Action: Wood...

  2. Ground penetrating radar characterization of wood piles and the water table in Back Bay, Boston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LeFrançois, Suzanne O'Neil, 1980-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys are performed to determine the depth to the water table and the tops of wood piles beneath a residential structure at 122 Beacon Street in Back Bay, Boston. The area of Boston known ...

  3. Microsoft Word - CX-ChemawaWoodPolesCT-KFG12-KOCFGT-FY12_WEB...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Chemawa District Wood Pole Replacement Projects PP&A Project No.: 2325 (Carlton-Tillamook 1, Keeler-Forest Grove 2, Keeler-Oregon City 2, Keeler-Forest Grove 1, Forest...

  4. Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

  5. 5 February 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ), a world leader in third-party sustainability certification. ` GTFF is managed by GreenWood Resources, Inc, and benefit the community. "While biofuels for both transportation and energy production offer promise resources," said Neil Mendenhall, Manager of Supply Chain Services at SCS. "GWR is demonstrating

  6. 31 October 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the materials from the forests through the supply chain. Brian Condon, the wood procurement manager for Bio pointed out they have foresters working every day making sure the biomass plant is maintaining31 October 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER - FOREST SECTOR

  7. 31 October 2014 SENT TO LSU AGCENTER/LOUISIANA FOREST PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENT CENTER -FOREST SECTOR / FORESTY PRODUCTS INTEREST GROUP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    building material made from lumber might catapult Oregon wood products to the forefront of construction buildings, CLT becomes a cost-effective replacement for steel or concrete, and using it in construction there is a growing buzz around using CLT because it "meets or beats" traditional construction materials on every

  8. Brief Survey of Wood Adhesives By Carl A. Eckelman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on synthetic resins derived from petroleum, natural gas, and coal, i.e., products of the petrochemical

  9. Ambient RFID Services Infrastructure & RFID Deployment in Wood industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a comparative study of different control systems, like Holonic Manufacturing Systems (HMS) or Product workshop and the planning system, has been developed to answer to a mass production context, that is to say of the bottleneck and the service level. To achieve to these objectives a Product information based control project

  10. Essays on productivity, technology, and economic fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christiansen, Lone Engbo

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPUSTAT ALLIEDSIGNAL (now Honeywell) AIRCRAFT PARTS, AUXOFFICE EQUIPMENT HONEYWELL INC (pre 1999) AUTOMATICGeneral Electric TRW Inc Honeywell Inc- AlliedSignal Textron

  11. 120 Forest Products Company Gather to Combat Illegal Logging March 20, 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    120 Forest Products Company Gather to Combat Illegal Logging March 20, 2005 Geneva - More than 120 wood flooring companies in China. "We all must work together to eliminate illegal logging. Government forest products company representatives, government officials and conservationists gathered this week

  12. RobertWoodJohnson I MEDICINE 23RobertWoodJohnson I MEDICINE 23 SurgeryThat's Minimizing Everything but Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    - ic surgery. Thyroidectomy. Urethral suspension. Hip arthroplasty. Video- assisted thoracic surgery;RobertWoodJohnson I MEDICINE 25 MIS Applications Are Burgeoning Locally A drian Balica, MD, assistant conservation procedures, such as endometrial ablation, using radio frequency are commonplace. "Robotic surgery

  13. Journal of Materials Education Vol. 32 (3-4): 125 -138 (2010) WOOD AND WOOD DERIVED MATERIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with current synthetic products - and at the same time have the benefits of reducing dependence on foreign oil of cellulose, and its fermentation products (ethanol, acetone, butanol) could become basic feed stocks for petroleum-based products. The present and future opportunities for biocomposite materials for transportation

  14. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment V. The Florida eucalyptus energy farm: environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall environmental impact of the eucalyptus to methanol energy system in Florida is assessed. The environmental impacts associated with the following steps of the process are considered: (1) the greenhouse and laboratory; (2) the eucalyptus plantation; (3) transporting the mature logs; (4) the hammermill; and (5) the methanol synthesis plant. Next, the environmental effects of methanol as an undiluted motor fuel, methanol as a gasoline blend, and gasoline as motor fuels are compared. Finally, the environmental effects of the eucalypt gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to the coal liquefaction and conversion system.

  15. Managing for water-use efficient wood production in Eucalyptus globulus plantations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    b Whitegum Forest and Natural Resources Pty. Ltd., PO Box 3269, Midland, Western Australia 6056 Farm Industries, Stirling Hwy, Nedlands, Western Australia 6009, Australia e NREL, Colorado State, Dwellingup, Western Australia 6213, Australia g Forest Quality Pty. Ltd., PO Box 293, Huonville, Tasmania

  16. Identifying Employment Structure and Training Needs In the Louisiana Value-Added Wood Products Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Manufacturing Today ___________________________ 62 Most Pressing Issues in Manufacturing in 5 Years ................................................................................70 VI. References and Additional Literature..........................................................................71 References _____________________________________________________ 71 Additional Literature

  17. Stabilizing effects of diversity on aboveground wood production in forest ecosystems: linking patterns and processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jucker, Tommaso; Bouriaud, Olivier; Avacaritei, Daniel; Coomes, David A.

    2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    determining which processes drive stability. In grasslands, the stabilizing effects of diversity 66 hinge on the assumption that composition is flexible among years (Gonzalez & Loreau 2009; 67 Allan et al. 2011; Mariotte et al. 2013). How does the slower... al. 2013; Vilà et al. 2013), mixed-species stands may 85 well exhibit greater stability as a result of faster rates of AWP. Nonetheless, additional 86 drivers of overyielding, such as asynchrony itself (e.g., Allan et al. 2011), are unlikely to 87...

  18. Estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from United States Forest Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Region, 1911-2012 Dan Loeffler Nathaniel Anderson Keith Stockmann Ken Skog Sean Healey J. Greg Jones, Missoula, MT. and cooperator with the Rocky Mountain Research Station, Missoula, MT. Nathaniel Anderson down stand on the Chippewa National Forest in north central Minnesota. Photo courtesy of Mary Nordeen

  19. Global Trade of Wood and Paper Products Analysis by: Dr. Ed K. Pepke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and exporting regions of North America, Latin America (combining Central and South America), Europe renewable energy sources in light of escalating fossil fuel prices, have created new international trade

  20. 3219," Other Wood Products",0,0,0

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi" ,"Plant","Primary1. TotalRevenueTotal97.10.35 Relative

  1. 3219," Other Wood Products",41,43,0,58

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi" ,"Plant","Primary1. TotalRevenueTotal97.10.35 Relative3

  2. 3219," Other Wood Products",5,0,41,0,5

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi" ,"Plant","Primary1. TotalRevenueTotal97.10.35

  3. 3219," Other Wood Products",7,12,8

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi" ,"Plant","Primary1. TotalRevenueTotal97.10.351 Relative

  4. Fuel switching from wood to LPG can benefit the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nautiyal, Sunil [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany)], E-mail: sunil.nautiyal@zalf.de; Kaechele, Harald [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Institute of Socioeconomics, Eberswalder Str. 84, 15374 Muencheberg (Germany)

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Himalaya in India is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. Various scientific studies have reported and proven that many factors are responsible for the tremendous decline of the Himalayan forests. Extraction of wood biomass from the forests for fuel is one of the factors, as rural households rely entirely on this for their domestic energy. Efforts continue for both conservation and development of the Himalayan forests and landscape. It has been reported that people are still looking for more viable solutions that could help them to improve their lifestyle as well as facilitate ecosystem conservation and preservation of existing biodiversity. In this direction, we have documented the potential of the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), which is one of the solutions that have been offered to the local people as a substitute for woodfuel to help meet their domestic energy demand. The results of the current study found dramatic change in per capita woodfuel consumption in the last two decades in the villages where people are using LPG. The outcome showed that woodfuel consumption had been about 475 kg per capita per year in the region, but after introduction of LPG, this was reduced to 285 kg per capita per year in 1990-1995, and was further reduced to 46 kg per capita per year in 2000-2005. Besides improving the living conditions of the local people, this transformation has had great environmental consequences. Empirical evidence shows that this new paradigm shift is having positive external effects on the surrounding forests. Consequently, we have observed a high density of tree saplings and seedlings in adjacent forests, which serves as an assessment indicator of forest health. With the help of the current study, we propose that when thinking about a top-down approach to conservation, better solutions, which are often ignored, should be offered to local people.

  5. Correlating benzene, total hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from wood-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, A.J.; Grande, D.E.; Berens, J.R. [Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison, WI (United States); Piotrowski, J. [Tenneco Packaging, Inc., Tomahawk, WI (United States)

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hazardous air pollutants, including benzene, are generated by the incomplete combustion of fuels. Organic compound emissions, which are generally products of incomplete combustion, are reduced by promoting high quality combustion, for example by controlling furnace exit temperatures and establishing minimum residence times. Monitoring carbon monoxide (CO) emissions is important since the amount of carbon monoxide emitted represents the quality of combustion which in turn represents the amount of hazardous air pollutants being generated. Total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions are also related to the quality of combustion. Recently the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR) measured the benzene and total hydrocarbon emissions from two large industrial wood fired boilers. These boilers are located at Tenneco Packaging, a container board manufacturing facility in northern Wisconsin. Temperature, oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations were sampled continuously by Tenneco Packaging`s emission monitoring system. The Department`s team used an organic vapor analyzer to continuously measure concentrations of total hydrocarbons (THC). The Department`s team also used a modified USEPA Method 18 sampling train to capture organic vapors for subsequent analysis by gas chromatography. The data show correlations between benzene and carbon monoxide, and between benzene and THC concentrations. The emissions sampling occurred both upstream of the particulate emissions control system as well as at the stack. The CO variations during actual boiler operation appeared to be well correlated with changes in boiler steam load. That is, increases in CO generally accompanied a change, either up or down, in boiler load. Lower concentrations of CO were associated with stable combustion, as indicated by periods of constant or nearly constant boiler load.

  6. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they do?t compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  7. Precision wood particle feedstocks with retained moisture contents of greater than 30% dry basis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  8. Wood decomposition after five years in anaerobic nitrate rich groundwaters: Implications for lifetime of NitrexTM Permeable Reactive Barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    decomposition at the WB barrier. Sulfate reduction: SO4 2- + 2CH2O + 2H+ 2CO2 + H2S + 2H2O 1.2. Questions 2 Abstract Permeable reactive barriers can benefit aquatic ecosystems by using wood chips to remove carbon was more important in the wood from the barriers. Keywords Nitrate removal, Permeable Reactive

  9. Extending the Place Glacier mass-balance record to AD 1585, using tree rings and wood density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Dan

    Extending the Place Glacier mass-balance record to AD 1585, using tree rings and wood density Lisa August 2011 Keywords: Dendroclimatology Glacier mass balance Tree rings Wood density Place Glacier Recognizing that climate influences both annual tree-ring growth and glacier mass balance, changes in the mass

  10. Identification of environmental issues: Hybrid wood-geothermal power plant, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California: First phase report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a 55 MWe power plant in Lassen County, California, has been proposed. The proposed power plant is unique in that it will utilize goethermal heat and wood fuel to generate electrical power. This report identifies environmental issues and constraints which may impact the proposed hybrid wood-geothermal power plant. (ACR)

  11. Woodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2011 I Hudson Consulting I September 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy sectors of the Scottish market) to 30 December 2010. The information gained from the study is usedWoodfuel Usage Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2011 I Hudson Consulting I September 2011 Woodfuel Demand and Usage in Scotland Report 2011 #12;Woodfuel Usage Update 2 I Wood fuel use in Scotland

  12. Woodfuel Use Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2009 I Hudson Consulting I August 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the commercial, industrial and electrical energy sectors of the Scottish market) to March 2009. The informationWoodfuel Use Update 1 I Wood fuel use in Scotland 2009 I Hudson Consulting I August 2009 Woodfuel Demand and Usage in Scotland Update Report to March 2009 #12;Woodfuel Use Update 2 I Wood fuel use

  13. A comprehensive multilocus phylogeny for the wood-warblers and a revised classification of the Parulidae (Aves)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Kevin J.

    Research Institute, Balboa, Panama a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 2 March 2010 Revised 22 the New World warblers or wood-warblers--are a classic model radiation for studies of ecological of the genera or species in this otherwise well-studied radiation. Wood-warblers are small, primarily

  14. High Fuel Costs Spark Increased Use of Wood for Home Heating by Brian Handwerk for National Geographic News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    South Bohemia, University of

    's Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), which provides data on how Americans heat their homes. According of the 2009 RECS show that wood is a significant source of heat in many U.S. homes, and wood consumption is almost as much as heating oil consumption," Berry said. Sometimes-Forgotten Fuel Ackerly

  15. Wood density in forests of Brazil's `arc of deforestation': Implications for biomass and flux of carbon from land-use change in Amazonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camara, Gilberto

    Wood density in forests of Brazil's `arc of deforestation': Implications for biomass and flux of deforestation'', where most of the carbon flux from land-use change takes place. This paper presents new wood of deforestation, using locally collected species weighted by their volume in large local inventories. Mean wood

  16. A statistical method for estimating wood thermal diffusivity and probe geometry using in situ heat response curves from sap flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xingyuan; Miller, Gretchen R.; Rubin, Yoram; Baldocchi, Dennis

    2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat pulse method is widely used to measure water flux through plants; it works by inferring the velocity of water through a porous medium from the speed at which a heat pulse is propagated through the system. No systematic, non-destructive calibration procedure exists to determine the site-specific parameters necessary for calculating sap velocity, e.g., wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing. Such parameter calibration is crucial to obtain the correct transpiration flux density from the sap flow measurements at the plant scale; and consequently, to up-scale tree-level water fluxes to canopy and landscape scales. The purpose of this study is to present a statistical framework for estimating the wood thermal diffusivity and probe spacing simutaneously from in-situ heat response curves collected by the implanted probes of a heat ratio apparatus. Conditioned on the time traces of wood temperature following a heat pulse, the parameters are inferred using a Bayesian inversion technique, based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling method. The primary advantage of the proposed methodology is that it does not require known probe spacing or any further intrusive sampling of sapwood. The Bayesian framework also enables direct quantification of uncertainty in estimated sap flow velocity. Experiments using synthetic data show that repeated tests using the same apparatus are essential to obtain reliable and accurate solutions. When applied to field conditions, these tests are conducted during different seasons and automated using the existing data logging system. The seasonality of wood thermal diffusivity is obtained as a by-product of the parameter estimation process, and it is shown to be affected by both moisture content and temperature. Empirical factors are often introduced to account for the influence of non-ideal probe geometry on the estimation of heat pulse velocity, and they are estimated in this study as well. The proposed methodology can be applied for the calibration of existing heat ratio sap flow systems at other sites. It is especially useful when an alternative transpiration calibration device, such as a lysimeter, is not available.

  17. Development of METHANE de-NOX Reburn Process for Wood Waste and Biomass Fired Stoker Boilers - Final Report - METHANE de-NOX Reburn Technology Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Rabovitser; B. Bryan; S. Wohadlo; S. Nester; J. Vaught; M. Tartan (Gas Technology Institute); R. Glickert (ESA Environmental Solutions)

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the METHANE de-NOX® (MdN) Reburn process in the Forest Products Industry (FPI) to provide more efficient use of wood and sludge waste (biosolids) combustion for both energy generation and emissions reduction (specifically from nitrogen oxides (NOx)) and to promote the transfer of the technology to the wide range of wood waste-fired stoker boilers populating the FPI. This document, MdN Reburn Commercial Technology Manual, was prepared to be a resource to promote technology transfer and commercialization activities of MdN in the industry and to assist potential users understand its application and installation requirements. The Manual includes a compilation of MdN commercial design data from four different stoker boiler designs that were baseline tested as part of the development effort. Design information in the Manual include boiler CFD model studies, process design protocols, engineering data sheets and commercial installation drawings. Each design package is unique and implemented in a manner to meet specific mill requirements.

  18. Attention design: Eight issues to consider Sharon Wood *, Richard Cox, Peter Cheng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Peter

    Attention design: Eight issues to consider Sharon Wood *, Richard Cox, Peter Cheng Representation and Cognition Group, Department of Informatics, University of Sussex, Falmer, BN1 9QH, United Kingdom Available for specific applica- tions. We present eight issues relevant to this endeavour: What is attention? How can

  19. SUPPORTING GROUP APPLICATIONS VIA SATELLITE CONSTELLATIONS WITH MULTICAST L. Wood, H. Cruickshank, Z. Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Lloyd

    SUPPORTING GROUP APPLICATIONS VIA SATELLITE CONSTELLATIONS WITH MULTICAST L. Wood, H. Cruickshank) to low-altitude low earth orbit (LEO). However, support for low-latency group applications Teledesic satellite has eight intersatellite links, in the 60GHz band, to its two nearest neighbours in each

  20. Ecological consequences of dead wood extraction in an arid Diego P. Vzquez,a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vazquez, Diego

    -nesting bees Introduction Extraction activities such as mining, fisheries, logging and harvesting are amongEcological consequences of dead wood extraction in an arid ecosystem1 Diego P. Vázquez,a,b * Juan A development, storing nutrients and water, providing a major source of energy and nutrients, serving

  1. Development of a Software System to Facilitate Implementation of Coal and Wood Co-Fired Bilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalakrishnan, B.; Gump, C. D.; Gupta, D. P.; Chaudhari, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal and wood co-fired boiler technology has improved significantly over the years. The term "co-firing", when used by members of the biomass or utility communities, has come to mean mixing a modest amount of clean, dry sawdust with coal and burning...

  2. Processes in microbial transport in the natural subsurface Timothy R. Ginn a,*, Brian D. Wood b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clement, Prabhakar

    Processes in microbial transport in the natural subsurface Timothy R. Ginn a,*, Brian D. Wood b microbial transport in the saturated subsurface. We begin with the conceptual models of the biophase of bioremediation and pathogen transport in the natural subsurface. Ã? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

  3. 36.258 UE -Woods calibrates instru-ment on NASA's new solar observa-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Eric

    the stored magnetic energy is converted and released into the heliosphere and geospace in the form of solar36.258 UE - Woods calibrates instru- ment on NASA's new solar observa- tory. Photosby,000 visitors. The Colorado Space Grant Consortium has outlined a concept for a University Ride Share

  4. SIDA DemoEast programme in Estonia. Supply, delivery and installation of wood pellet burning equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by light fuel oil. The annual light oil consumption is approx. 50 tons and the maximum heat demand capacity and Kiltsi light oil fired boilers have been converted to wood pellets burning. The supplier oil fuelling) and 26NOVA (with the capacity 700 kW with light oil fuelling). The boilers are fuelled

  5. Plant traits and wood fates across the globe: rotted, burned, or consumed?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    German, Donovan P.

    zz§ § *Biodiversity Research Centre, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Blvd., Vancouver, USA Abstract Wood represents the defining feature of forest systems, and often the carbon in woody turnover and its feedback to climate. Keywords: C cycle, carbon, decomposition, fire, microbial decay

  6. Brazil closes down illegal timber operation, seizes wood Rhett A. Butler, mongabay.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Amazonas state, told Michael Astor of the Associated Press that the Norte Wood logging company in the forest reserve, but companies must file management plans to show their logging is carried out, 2006 Brazilian environmental authorities closed down an illegal logging operation in the Amazon

  7. SHRINK-FITTING AND DOWEL WELDING IN MORTISE AND TENON STRUCTURAL WOOD JOINTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SHRINK-FITTING AND DOWEL WELDING IN MORTISE AND TENON STRUCTURAL WOOD JOINTS E.Mougel1 , C.Segovia1 welded dowels. Increasing the number of welded dowels, however, produced joints of higher strength than those bonded just by shrink-fitting. Combining in the same joint both dowel welding and shrink

  8. Volatilit du dpt actif du thorium Par T. BARRATT et A. B. WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    198 Volatilité du dépôt actif du thorium Par T. BARRATT et A. B. WOOD [Woolwich Polytechnic]. Marsden et Darwini avaient proposé pour la série de transformations du thorium A le schéma suivant, Cet et thoriums C faites par Mlle Meitner 2 et Marsden et Wilson3ayant donné des résultats contradictoires, les

  9. National Woodfuels and Wood Energy Information Analysis Prepared by: Sok Bun Heng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and electricity. However, whilst a higher consumption of LPG has been used to complement wood fuels. Such energy. The per capita energy consumption is lower compared to developed countries, but high consumption for income generation. II)- Energy Consumption There is no proper study or database about energy consumption

  10. Woodfuel community heating at Kielder A wood-fired district heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodfuel community heating at Kielder A wood-fired district heating system, one of the first of its kind in Britain, provides a low- carbon source of heating to the Kielder village community Kielder-fired district heating system was installed in 2004 as a practical low-carbon solution to providing heat and hot

  11. Continuous On-Line Measurement of Lignin Concentration in Wood Pulp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeffers, L. A.; Roman, G. W.

    spanning the range of Kappa numbers from approximately 15 to 55. The range of Kappa numbers was achieved by removing samples from the digester at different times so that within a set. each of the samples came from the same parent wood-chip stock...

  12. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan.

  13. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350 and 375 C to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan. 2 figs.

  14. On the computational power of photosynthesis Niall Murphy, Damien Woods and Thomas J. Naughton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Niall

    On the computational power of photosynthesis Niall Murphy, Damien Woods and Thomas J. Naughton County Kildare, Ireland #12;Abstract We describe a simplified explanation of photosynthesis. We charac- terise the complexity of photosynthesis by interpreting its chemical equa- tion as a language acceptance

  15. Potential of distributed wood-based biopower systems serving basic electricity needs in rural Uganda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    October 2009 Revised 8 January 2010 Accepted 9 January 2010 Keywords: Rural electrification Gasification supply. Although virtually non-existent, rural electrification is receiving very little attentionPotential of distributed wood-based biopower systems serving basic electricity needs in rural

  16. Development of a Software System to Facilitate Implementation of Coal and Wood Co-Fired Bilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalakrishnan, B.; Gump, C. D.; Gupta, D. P.; Chaudhari, S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal and wood co-fired boiler technology has improved significantly over the years. The term "co-firing", when used by members of the biomass or utility communities, has come to mean mixing a modest amount of clean, dry sawdust with coal and burning...

  17. Ciguatera in the Eastern Caribbean DAVID A. OLSEN, DAVID W. NELLIS, and RICHARD S. WOOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciguatera in the Eastern Caribbean DAVID A. OLSEN, DAVID W. NELLIS, and RICHARD S. WOOD a feature of human use of Caribbean marine resources since pre-Columbian times (Price, 1966). Resource use patterns by the Carib and Arawak Indians who inhab- ited the eastern Caribbean would indi- cate that they

  18. Damage and Damage Prediction for Wood Shearwalls Subjected to Simulated Earthquake Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Damage and Damage Prediction for Wood Shearwalls Subjected to Simulated Earthquake Loads John W damaged resulting in large financial losses. Societal demands for damage-limiting design philosophies and better predict damage to woodframe structures. This paper examines damage to the lateral load carrying

  19. Genetic variation of hydraulic and wood anatomical traits in hybrid poplar and trembling aspen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacke, Uwe

    Genetic variation of hydraulic and wood anatomical traits in hybrid poplar and trembling aspen November 2010 New Phytologist (2011) 190: 150­160 doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03594.x Key words: aspen forestry systems and breeding programs often include either native aspen or hybrid poplar clones

  20. WOOD RESOURCE John R. Jones, Norbert V. DeByle, and Robert P. Winokur

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WOOD RESOURCE John R. Jones, Norbert V. DeByle, and Robert P. Winokur Aspen has not been cut, the aspen harvest from National Forests in four Forest Service regions in the Rocky Mountain area was 7 aspen forests. The net bole volume of aspen growing stock2 in the in- terior West was nearly 4

  1. Laboratory Reports for the Development of a Chemical Stain to Identify Arsenic-Treated Wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    A-1 APPENDIX A Laboratory Reports for the Development of a Chemical Stain to Identify Arsenic-Treated CCA-Treated, 9.6 kg/m3 CCA-Treated, 40 kg/m3 CCA-Treated, and Weathered Wood. · Group 1 ­ Blank o

  2. In situ 3D characterization of historical coatings and wood using multimodal nonlinear optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    In situ 3D characterization of historical coatings and wood using multimodal nonlinear optical optical imaging of historical artifacts by combining Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Two commonly encountered in coatings of cultural heritage artifacts by analyzing one- and multi-layered model

  3. Slovak Centre of Biomass Use for Energy Wood Fired Heating Plant in Slovakia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    authorities CHP Planning issues Transport companies District Heating Sustainable communities Utilities Solar the object of interest of municipalities and management of companies, is the issue of how to reconstruct out processing companies are represented in the region. Forest sector produces about 1.5 million m3 of wood

  4. Use of handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometry units for identification of arsenic in treated wood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    ; accepted 19 November 2006 Handheld XRF analyzers provided quantitative results for the amount of arsenic of handheld XRF analyzers on wood that has been treated with a preservative containing arsenic. Experiments of the XRF ar- senic readings. Results showed that the precision of the XRF improved with increased sample

  5. alternative is rock or other noncombustible material; avoid bark or wood chip mulch in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    alternative is rock or other noncombustible material; avoid bark or wood chip mulch in this area. 6 needles and leaves to eliminate an ignition source for firebrands, especially during the hot, dry weather escape drill. Know where safety areas are within your subdivision. Meadows, rock outcrops, and wide roads

  6. Wood Supply Chain Optimisation 2010Forest to Market Innovations to Improve Logistics & Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Supply Chain Optimisation 2010Forest to Market ­ Innovations to Improve Logistics & Operations INTERNATIONALTRENDS IN LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT 9.30am Managing Supply Chain Emissions to Gain and GPS tracking to Improve transport logistics. A case study on HVP Plantations implementation of a new

  7. Effect of CO2 on wood properties of Liquidambar styraciflua after

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    1/18/2010 1 Effect of CO2 on wood properties of Liquidambar styraciflua after 10 years-Knoxville face.ornl.gov IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction FACEFACEFACEFACE The free air CO2 enrichment experiment on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park The effect of CO2 enrichment

  8. Stem wood properties of Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Acer saccharum saplings after 3 years of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    years of treatments to elevated carbon dioxide and ozone S E I J A K A A K I N E N *1 , K AT R I K O the Earth's surface (IPCC, 2001). Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the dominant human-influenced greenhouse gasStem wood properties of Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Acer saccharum saplings after 3

  9. National Woodfuels and Wood Energy Information Analysis Prepared by: Muhammad Iqbal Sial PhD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .5. Black liquor 2 2. TRENDS IN CONSUMPTION 2 2.1. Consumption by geographical location 3 2.2. Consumption. Province/territory wise distribution of wild lands. 13 10. National energy consumption by source. 20 112nd Draft Desk Study on National Woodfuels and Wood Energy Information Analysis PAKISTAN Prepared

  10. POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES FILLED WITH STEAM-EXPLODED WOOD FIBERS FROM BEETLE-KILLED LOBLOLLY PINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Siqun

    POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES FILLED WITH STEAM-EXPLODED WOOD FIBERS FROM BEETLE-KILLED LOBLOLLY PINE of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 37996 (Received October 2005) ABSTRACT Beetle-killed loblolly pine chips were steam. Keywords: Beetle-killed pine, steam explosion, polypropylene composite, compatibilizer, flexural prop

  11. Delivery Plan 2008-2012 England's Trees, Woods and Forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strategy into action on the ground. The Plan brings together an impressive range of actions, from a wide and forests can help them achieve their aims. The second theme is targeting: of time, energy and resources of more shade in our cities and the production of renewable woodfuel. The Delivery Plan responds

  12. Wood Residues as Fuel Source for Lime Kilns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; Philp, R. J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    product discharge end of the lime kiln. Thus far we have carried out two series of tests using two different pilot-scale kilns and dry limestone in the first test series and mill produced lime mud in the second test series. Mill scale trials have just been...

  13. Use of a region of the visible and near infrared spectrum to predict mechanical properties of wet wood and standing trees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meglen, Robert R. (Boulder, CO); Kelley, Stephen S. (Evergreen, CO)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a method for determining the dry mechanical strength for a green wood, the improvement comprising: (a) illuminating a surface of the wood to be determined with a reduced range of wavelengths in the VIS-NIR spectra 400 to 1150 nm, said wood having a green moisture content; (b) analyzing the surface of the wood using a spectrometric method, the method generating a first spectral data of a reduced range of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra; and (c) using a multivariate analysis technique to predict the mechanical strength of green wood when dry by comparing the first spectral data with a calibration model, the calibration model comprising a second spectrometric method of spectral data of a reduced range of wavelengths in VIS-NIR spectra obtained from a reference wood having a green moisture content, the second spectral being correlated with a known mechanical strength analytical result obtained from the reference wood when dried and a having a dry moisture content.

  14. Summary We evaluated annual productivity and carbon fluxes over the Fontainebleau forest, a large heterogeneous for-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and water and mineral resources. The model is a physiological process-based forest ecosystem model coupled for effects of global climatic change. Recently de- veloped process-based forest ecosystem models couple water production at regional and global scales. Myneni et al. (2001) have found that the wood biomass of northern

  15. Ash-Based Building Panels Production and Demonstration of Aerock Decking Building Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan E. Bland; Jesse Newcomer

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute (WRI) of Laramie, Wyoming and AeRock, LLC of Eagar, Arizona (formerly of Bellevue, Washington) partnered, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (U.S. DOE-NETL), to support the development of rapid-setting, ash-based, fiber-incorporated ''green'' building products. Green building materials are a rapidly growing trend in the building and construction industry in the US. A two phase project was implemented wherein Phase I assessed, through chemical and physical testing, ash, ash-based cement and fiber composites exhibiting superior structural performance when applied to the AeRock mixing and extrusion process and involved the conduct of pilot-scale production trials of AeRock products, and wherein Phase II involved the design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale plant to confirm production issues and to produce panels for performance evaluations. Phase I optimized the composite ingredients including ash-based cement, Class F and Class C DFGD ash, and various fiber reinforcements. Additives, such as retardants and accelerators, were also evaluated as related to extruder performance. The optimized composite from the Phase I effort was characterized by a modulus of rupture (MOR) measured between 1,931 and 2,221 psi flexural strength, comparable to other wood and non-wood building materials. Continuous extrusion of the optimum composite in the AeRock pilot-scale facility produced an excellent product that was assembled into a demonstration for exhibit and durability purposes. Finishes, from plain to marbled, from bright reds to muted earth tones and with various textures, could easily be applied during the mixing and extrusion process. The successful pilot-scale demonstration was in turn used to design the production parameters and extruder dies for a commercial scale demonstration at Ultrapanel Pty, Ltd of Ballarat, Australia under Phase II. The initial commercial-scale production trials showed green product sagging, as a result of the die design. After the third die was acquired and fitted to the extruder, satisfactory decking and structural panels were produced. Cured decking was shipped to the US but experienced significant breakage and damage during transport. Subsequent evaluations concluded that an alternative die design was needed that would produce a more robust product resistant to damage. In summary, AeRock Decking can be a commercially-viable non-wood alternative decking product. This project has provided WRI and AeRock the knowledge and understanding to make AeRock Decking a commercial success. However, a commercial demonstration that produces quality product and the subsequent evaluation of its performance is needed before commercial acceptance of the AeRock product.

  16. Dear colleagues, With the first newsletter "Tackle Climate Change: Use Wood" I intended to inform you on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on January 10th 2007 . Global warming and climate change should to be dealt are pioneers in the field of energy and electricity generation based on biomass. The use of wood both

  17. Understanding wood-pool dynamics using long-term monitoring data from the Gualala River Watershed: What can we learn?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, Tamara

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of riparian and stream restoration in the western UnitedA. Grant. 2010. Do in-stream restoration structures enhanceuse of large wood in stream restoration: experiences from 50

  18. Wood-Producing Sunflower? Mining Genetic Diversity in Desert-Dwelling Wild Species (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Knapp, Steve

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Steve Knapp from Monsanto on "Wood-Producing Sunflower? Mining Genetic Diversity in Desert-Dwelling Wild Species" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  19. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Sugar Cane versus Wood Fiber Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and benefits. If true, then risk of serious respiratory illness caused by working with bagasse should Fig. 2: Composition comparison between bagasse and wood fibre paper (Pulp and Paper Resources the inhaled air. Bagasse A

  20. Dover Textiles - A Case History on Retrofitting Factories with a Boiler System Fueled on Coal, Wood and Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a coal, wood, and waste fired boiler system to serve two plants. This case history will document payback periods of less than three years; return on investments of 20% plus; benefits of North Carolina and federal investment tax credits; EPA...

  1. Cloning, characterization, and expression of glucose transporter 2 in the freeze-tolerant wood frog, Rana sylvatica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee Jr., Richard E.

    Cloning, characterization, and expression of glucose transporter 2 in the freeze-tolerant wood frog. sylvatica suggests that these transporters contribute importantly to freezing survival. General significance Available online 21 December 2013 Keywords: Anuran Cryoprotectant Ecogeography freeze tolerance Glucose

  2. Comminution process to produce engineered wood particles of uniform size and shape with disrupted grain structure from veneer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Comminution process of wood veneer to produce wood particles, by feeding wood veneer in a direction of travel substantially normal to grain through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of veneer travel, wherein the cutting discs have a uniform thickness (Td), to produce wood particles characterized by a length dimension (L) substantially equal to the Td and aligned substantially parallel to grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) substantially equal to the veneer thickness (Tv) and aligned normal to W and L, wherein the W.times.H dimensions define a pair of substantially parallel end surfaces with end checking between crosscut fibers.

  3. Improved Wood Properties Through Genetic Manipulation: Engineering of Syringyl Lignin in Softwood Species Through Xylem-Specific Expression of Hardwood Syringyl Monolignol Pathway Genes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandrashekhar P. Joshi; Vincent L. Chiang

    2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Objective: Our long-term goal is to genetically engineer higher value raw materials with desirable wood properties to promote energy efficiency, international competitiveness, and environmental responsiveness of the U.S. forest products industry. The immediate goal of this project was to produce the first higher value softwood raw materials engineered with a wide range of syringyl lignin quantities. Summary: The most important wood property affecting directly the levels of energy, chemical and bleaching requirements for kraft pulp production is lignin. Softwoods contain almost exclusively chemically resistant guaiacyl (G) lignin, whereas hardwoods have more reactive or easily degradable lignins of the guaiacyl (G)-syringyl (S) type. It is also well established that the reactive S lignin component is the key factor that permits much lower effective alkali and temperature, shorter pulping time and less bleaching stages for processing hardwoods than for softwoods. Furthermore, our pulping kinetic study explicitly demonstrated that every increase in one unit of the lignin S/G ratio would roughly double the rate of lignin removal. These are clear evidence that softwoods genetically engineered with S lignin are keys to revolutionizing the energy efficiency and enhancing the environmental performance of this industry. Softwoods and hardwoods share the same genetic mechanisms for the biosynthesis of G lignin. However, in hardwoods, three additional genes branch out from the G-lignin pathway and become specifically engaged in regulating S lignin biosynthesis. In this research, we simultaneously transferred aspen S-specific genes into a model softwood, black spruce, to engineer S lignin.

  4. Baseline effects on carbon footprints of biofuels: The case of wood

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric, E-mail: johnsonatlantic@gmail.com [Atlantic Consulting, 8136 Gattikon (Switzerland); Tschudi, Daniel [ETH, Berghaldenstrasse 46, 8800 Thalwil (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As biofuel usage has boomed over the past decade, so has research and regulatory interest in its carbon accounting. This paper examines one aspect of that carbon accounting: the baseline, i.e. the reference case against which other conditions or changes can be compared. A literature search and analysis identified four baseline types: no baseline; reference point; marginal fossil fuel; and biomass opportunity cost. The fourth one, biomass opportunity cost, is defined in more detail, because this is not done elsewhere in the literature. The four baselines are then applied to the carbon footprint of a wood-fired power plant. The footprint of the resulting wood-fired electricity varies dramatically, according to the type of baseline. Baseline type is also found to be the footprint's most significant sensitivity. Other significant sensitivities are: efficiency of the power plant; the growth (or re-growth) rate of the forest that supplies the wood; and the residue fraction of the wood. Length of the policy horizon is also an important factor in determining the footprint. The paper concludes that because of their significance and variability, baseline choices should be made very explicit in biofuel carbon footprints. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four baseline types for biofuel footprinting are identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One type, 'biomass opportunity cost', is defined mathematically and graphically. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Choice of baseline can dramatically affect the footprint result. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 'no baseline' approach is not acceptable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Choice between the other three baselines depends on the question being addressed.

  5. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

    1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

  6. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jeffers, Larry A. (Washington Township, Stark County, OH); Malito, Michael L. (Liberty Township, Trumbull County, OH)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method.

  7. Process Optimization Assessments at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri and Fort Carson, Colorado

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, M.; Vavrin, J.; Smith, W.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process Optimization Assessments at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri and Fort Carson, Colorado Mike C.J. Lin U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research Development Center, Construction Engineering Research Laboratory Champaign, Illinois... a specific Level II scope of work, respective roles, and the most expeditious path forward. This begins with a formal review of this report, combined with a planning session to organize the Level II program. REFERENCES 1. Lin, Mike C.J., et...

  8. Effects of Framing on the Thermal Performance of Wood and Steel-Framed Walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosny, J.; Yarbrough, D. W.; Childs, P.; Mohiuddin, S. A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the consequences of installation imperfections in cavity insulation on thermal performance are analyzed. The results of the study demonstrated significant sensitivity in some configurations of residential walls to the framing factor and insulation installation... imperfections. Keywords R-value, Framing Factor, Cavity Insulation, Framing Effect Coefficient, Steel Frame walls, Wood-frame walls TERMINOLOGY OF THE WHOLE WALL R-VALUE PROCEDURE USED IN THIS PAPER The following list of thermal performance...

  9. Gene Expression Analyses and Association Studies of Wood Development Genes in Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palle, Sreenath Reddy

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................................ 58 7 Model of the association between the AIP and PRT genes ........................ 64 8 Pathways demonstrating the indirect role of CGS and the direct role of CAD in lignin biosynthesis... complex and therefore the molecular mechanisms governing the differentiation of wood tissues are complicated. Several researchers have identified a number of genes involved in the biosynthesis of polysaccharides, lignins and cell wall proteins in forest...

  10. Bioremediation: a study of genotoxicity of soil and groundwater from a former wood treatment facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gomez, Cristi Lea Rysc

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , 2001). PAHs are commonly found in wood treatment and petroleum waste. The goal of bioremediation is to completely mineralize hazardous constituents into carbon dioxide, water, and other less toxic compounds by way of microbial degradation...). Bioventing aerates contaminated soils by forcing oxygen into the unsaturated soil. The addition of oxygen stimulates aerobic degradation. Other in situ treatments include biosparging, phytoremediation, and slurry-phase lagoon aeration. The USEPA lists...

  11. Metagenomic and functional analysis of hindgut microbiota of a wood-feeding higher termite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warnecke, Falk; Warnecke, Falk; Luginbuhl, Peter; Ivanova, Natalia; Ghassemian, Majid; Richardson, Toby H.; Stege, Justin T.; Cayouette, Michelle; McHardy, Alice C.; Djordjevic, Gordana; Aboushadi, Nahla; Sorek, Rotem; Tringe, Susannah G.; Podar, Mircea; Martin, Hector Garcia; Kunin, Victor; Dalevi, Daniel; Madejska, Julita; Kirton, Edward; Platt, Darren; Szeto, Ernest; Salamov, Asaf; Barry, Kerrie; Mikhailova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Matson, Eric G.; Ottesen, Elizabeth A.; Zhang, Xinning; Hernandez, Myriam; Murillo, Catalina; Acosta, Luis G.; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Tamayo, Giselle; Green, Brian D.; Chang, Cathy; Rubin, Edward M.; Mathur, Eric J.; Robertson, Dan E.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Leadbetter, Jared R.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From the standpoints of both basic research and biotechnology, there is considerable interest in reaching a clearer understanding of the diversity of biological mechanisms employed during lignocellulose degradation. Globally, termites are an extremely successful group of wood-degrading organisms and are therefore important both for their roles in carbon turnover in the environment and as potential sources of biochemical catalysts for efforts aimed at converting wood into biofuels. Only recently have data supported any direct role for the symbiotic bacteria in the gut of the termite in cellulose and xylan hydrolysis. Here we use a metagenomic analysis of the bacterial community resident in the hindgut paunch of a wood-feeding Nasutitermes species to show the presence of a large, diverse set of bacterial genes for cellulose and xylan hydrolysis. Many of these genes were expressed in vivo or had cellulase activity in vitro, and further analyses implicate spirochete and fibrobacter species in gut lignocellulose degradation. New insights into other important symbiotic functions including H{sub 2} metabolism, CO{sub 2}-reductive acetogenesis and N{sub 2} fixation are also provided by this first system-wide gene analysis of a microbial community specialized towards plant lignocellulose degradation. Our results underscore how complex even a 1-{micro}l environment can be.

  12. A study of over-production and enhanced secretion of enzymes. Quarterly report 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dashek, W.V.

    1993-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is concerned with the over-production of ligno-cellulolytic enzymes which are relevant to the paper-pulp industry and agricultural community. Since ligno-cellulosics are components of wood, the project involves the forest, a renewable energy resource. Attention is focused on the following: over-production of polyphenol oxidase; establishment of the route of polyphenol oxidase secretion; regulation of polyphenol oxidase secretion; purification of extracellular oxidase.

  13. Modeling the profitability of power production from short-rotation woody crops in Sub-Saharan Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    is a prerequisite to enable economic development and reduce poverty. Renewable sources such as wood-fueled power% and 41% of total costs, respectively. Plantation productivity, carbon credit sales as well as land, fuel to electricity it is difficult to attain the Millennium Development Goals on poverty reduction and environmental

  14. IDENTIFICATION, PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL LIGNASE PROTEINS FROM TERMITES FOR DEPOLYMERIZATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SLACK, JEFFREY, M.

    2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood is a potential source for biofuels such as ethanol if it can be digested into sugars and fermented by yeast. Biomass derived from wood is a challenging substrate for ethanol production since it is made of lignin and cellulose which cannot be broken down easily into fermentable sugars. Some insects, and termites in particular, are specialized at using enzymes in their guts to digest wood into sugars. If termite gut enzymes could be made abundantly by a recombinant protein expression vector system, they could be applied to an industrial process to make biofuels from wood. In this study, a large cDNA library of relevant termite genes was made using termites fed a normal diet, or a diet with added lignin. A subtracted library yielded genes that were overexpressed in the presence of lignin. Termite gut enzyme genes were identified and cloned into recombinant insect viruses called baculoviruses. Using our PERLXpress system for protein expression, these termite gene recombinant baculoviruses were prepared and used to infect insect larvae, which then expressed abundant recombinant termite enzymes. Many of these expressed enzymes were prepared to very high purity, and the activities were studied in conjunction with collaborators at Purdue University. Recombinant termite enzymes expressed in caterpillars were shown to be able to release sugars from wood. Mixing different combinations of these enzymes increased the amount of sugars released from a model woody biomass substrate. The most economical, fastest and energy conserving way to prepare termite enzymes expressed by recombinant baculoviruses in caterpillars was by making crude liquid homogenates. Making enzymes stable in homogenates therefore was a priority. During the course of these studies, improvements were made to the recombinant baculovirus expression platform so that caterpillar-derived homogenates containing expressed termite enzymes would be more stable. These improvements in the baculoviruses included significantly reducing proteases and preventing blackening immune reactions that occur when caterpillars are homogenized. Proteases may degrade enzymes and immune reaction blackening may inactivate enzymes thus compromising the ability of these crude recombinant expressed termite enzyme preparations to release sugars. Commercial preparations of fungal enzymes currently are used to digest wood for ethanol production. We demonstrated in this study that termite enzymes could improve the efficiency of fungal enzyme cocktails. Although the economic feasibility of using caterpillar expressed termite enzymes alone to treat wood was not proven, this work points to the potential to combine C-PERLXpressed insect enzymes with industrial enzyme cocktails to boost their efficiency at treating wood for biofuels.

  15. Industrial Energy-Efficiency Improvement Program. Annual report to the Congress and the President 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The industrial energy efficiency improvement program to accelerate market penetration of new and emerging industrial technologies and practices which will improve energy efficiency; encourage substitution of more plentiful domestic fuels; and enhance recovery of energy and materials from industrial waste streams is described. The role of research, development, and demonstration; technology implementation; the reporting program; and progress are covered. Specific reports from the chemicals and allied products; primary metals; petroleum and coal products; stone, clay, and glass, paper and allied products; food and kindred products; fabricated metals; transportation equipment; machinery (except electrical); textile mill products; rubber and miscellaneous plastics; electrical and electronic equipment; lumber and wood; and tobacco products are discussed. Additional data from voluntary submissions, a summary on progress in the utilization of recovered materials, and an analysis of industrial fuel mix are briefly presented. (MCW)

  16. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    slurry(Controlled Low Strength Materials, CLSM) through an initial laboratory evaluation followed advantage of available alkalies in wood ash to activate the Class C coal ash for enhanced performance. Three

  17. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    ) and flowable slurry (Controlled Low Strength Materials, CLSM) through an initial laboratory evaluation followed in wood ash to activate coal ash. Based on the results of lab manufacturing of CLSM and concrete mixtures

  18. The O{sub 2}-enriched air gasification of coal, plastics and wood in a fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastellone, Maria Laura, E-mail: mlaura.mastellone@unina2.it [Department of Environmental Sciences-Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43 81100 Caserta (Italy); Zaccariello, Lucio; Santoro, Donato; Arena, Umberto [Department of Environmental Sciences-Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi, 43 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of the O{sub 2} in the gasification stream of a BFB gasifier has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main advantage of the O{sub 2}-enriched air is the increasing of the bed temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No remarkable effects on tar reduction. Decreasing of recognized PAHs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gasification reactions completed inside the dense bed and splashing zone. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polycondensation reactions occur mainly in the freeboard region. - Abstract: The effect of oxygen-enriched air during fluidized bed co-gasification of a mixture of coal, plastics and wood has been investigated. The main components of the obtained syngas were measured by means of on-line analyzers and a gas chromatograph while those of the condensate phase were off-line analysed by means of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The characterization of condensate phase as well as that of the water used as scrubbing medium completed the performed diagnostics. The experimental results were further elaborated in order to provide material and substances flow analyses inside the plant boundaries. These analyses allowed to obtain the main substance distribution between solid, gaseous and condensate phases and to estimate the conversion efficiency of carbon and hydrogen but also to easily visualise the waste streams produced by the process. The process performance was then evaluated on the basis of parameters related to the conversion efficiency of fuels into valuable products (i.e. by considering tar and particulate as process losses) as well as those related to the energy recovery.

  19. PROSPECTS FOR CO-FIRING OF CLEAN COAL AND CREOSOTE-TREATED WASTE WOOD AT SMALL-SCALE POWER STATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janis Zandersons; Aivars Zhurinsh; Edward Someus

    If a small-scale clean coal fu eled power plant is co-fu eled with 5 % of cre o-sote-treated used-up sleeper wood, the de con tam i na tion by carbonisation at 500 °C in an in di rectly heated ro tary kiln with the di am e ter 1.7 m and ef fec-tive length 10 m can be real ised. It should be in cluded in the “3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant ” sys tem, which pro cesses coal. It will im prove the heat bal ance of the sys tem, since the carbonisation of wood will de liver a lot of high caloricity pyroligneous vapour to the joint fur nace of the “3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant”. Pine wood sleeper sap wood con tains 0.25 % of sul phur, but the av er age pine sleeper wood (sap wood and heart wood) 0.05% of sul phur. Most of the sul phur is lost with the pyroligneous vapour and burned in the fur nace. Since the “3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant ” is equipped with a flue gases clean ing sys tem, the SO2 emis sion level will not ex-ceed 5 mg/m 3. The char coal of the sap wood por tion of sleep ers and that of the av er age sleeper wood will con tain 0.22 % and 0.035 % of sul phur, re spec-tively. The in crease of the carbonisation tem per a ture does not sub stan tially de crease the sul phur con tent in char coal, al though it is suf fi ciently low, and the char coal can be co-fired with clean coal. The con sid ered pro cess is suit-able for small power plants, if the bio mass in put in the com mon en ergy bal-ance is 5 to 10%. If the mean dis tance of sleep ers trans por ta tion for Cen tral and East ern Eu-rope is es ti mated not to ex ceed 200 km, the co-com bus tion of clean coal and carbonised sleep ers would be an ac cept able op tion from the en vi ron men tal and eco nomic points of view.

  20. Bedrock erosion in the lower Big Wood River channel, southcentral Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maley, T.S.; Oberlindacher, P. (Bureau of Land Management, Boise, ID (United States))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Big Wood River, which is fed from the mountains to the north of the Snake River Plain, cuts through 0.8 m.y. old basalt in an area north and east of Shoshone, Idaho. The basalt channel carved by the Big Wood River exhibits remarkable and unusual bedrock erosional features. Approximately 10,000 years ago, nearby Black Butte shield volcano erupted basaltic lave which rerouted the Big Wood River. At the time the new river channel formed 10,000 years ago, alpine glaciers in the mountains were also beginning to melt. High flows of water from the melting glaciers during the next few thousand years carried large sediment loads and were instrumental in developing the spectacular potholes now found in the channel. Most of the scouring agents are pebbles and cobbles derived from quartzite, granitic, and gneissic rocks. As potholes began to develop, they were closely spaced and generally less than 1 m apart. However, as the potholes enlarged and expanded both horizontally and vertically, they coalesced with one another. The merging process occurred when the walls of two or more adjacent potholes were breached by the outward expansion of each pothole. The deeper of the two potholes captured the pebbles of the adjacent pothole. When pebbles are captured, pothole growth is terminated and the more shallow pothole was gradually cannibalized. All of the features within the channel are overprinted with a strong asymmetry caused by the current-driven pebbles against the upstream side of the features. Consequently, the upstream side of the features tends to be smooth, convex and rounded; whereas, the downstream side tends to be concave with the leading edge of the feature pointing in the downstream direction.