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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Anhydrous aluminum chloride as an alkylation catalyst: identification of mono- and dialkyl-benzenes from the condensation of tertiary butyl alcohol with benzene.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIBRARY a a w c"I. I. SI - O~ TI:YAf ANHYDROUS ALUMINUM CHLORIDE AS AN ALKYLATION CATALYST: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DIALKYIZENZENES FROM THE CONDENSATION QF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENKENE IACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS 4 A Thesis Submitted...: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DI~NZZNES FROM THE CONDENSATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENZENE A Thesis By LACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS Approved as to style and content hy: Chairman of Committee Head of Chemistry Department 1959 ACKNOWLEDGME1VTS The author...

Scoggins, Lacey E

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Alkylate  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Day) Day) Product: Alkylate Aromatics Asphalt & Road Oil Isomers Isobutane Isopentane & Isohexane Isooctane Lubricants Marketable Petroleum Coke Hydrogen Sulfur Period: Annual (as of January 1) Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 View History U.S. 1,260,985 1,260,923 1,248,514 1,262,443 1,246,875 1,269,361 1982-2013 PAD District 1 110,229 110,229 95,500 108,629 79,429 91,429 1982-2013 Delaware 11,729 11,729 0 11,729 11,729 11,729 1982-2013 Florida 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2013 Georgia 0 0 0 0 0 0 2006-2013 Maryland 0 0 0 0 0 0 2007-2013 New Jersey 40,200 40,200 36,200 37,200 37,200 37,200 1982-2013

3

Low cost benzene reduction for RFG  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the typical refinery benzene comes from several sources including: light straight run gasoline, isomerate, reformate, hydrocrackate, FCC gasoline, and coker gasoline. However the benzene from the reformer usually represents 50--80% of the total. As a result the reformate is the natural place to focus benzene reduction. The benzene content of the reformate is normally in the range of 2.5 to 8 volume %. The higher benzene concentrations occur in high pressure reformers due to hydrodealkylation of toluene and heavier alkylbenzenes. Benzene can be reduced in the reformate by removing benzene precursors such as cyclic C{sub 6}`s in the reformer feed. However, hydrodealkylation of other aromatics in the reformer will still leave a reformate benzene content of 1 to 1.5 volume %. More complete control of benzene can be achieved by removing it from the reformate rather than by treating the reformer feed stream. The paper describes the conventional benzene saturation process and the CDHydro process, which combines fractionation with hydrogenation. Capitalized costs are summarized. Refiners can maintain gasoline compositions with high aromatic contents by using the flexibility offered by the Complex Model. CDHydro provides a very cost effective method of benzene control for the refiner. Benzene reduction targets for both 1995 and 2000 are easily met. CDHydro can provide much higher benzene removal than required by the models, thus giving the refiner valuable options for averaging and trading credits.

Rock, K.L. [CDTECH, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Fuel Dependence of Benzene Pathways  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The relative importance of formation pathways for benzene, an important precursor to soot formation, was determined from the simulation of 22 premixed flames for a wide range of equivalence ratios (1.0 to 3.06), fuels (C{sub 1}-C{sub 12}), and pressures (20 to 760 torr). The maximum benzene concentrations in 15 out of these flames were well reproduced within 30% of the experimental data. Fuel structural properties were found to be critical for benzene production. Cyclohexanes and C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} fuels were found to be among the most productive in benzene formation; and long-chain normal paraffins produce the least amount of benzene. Other properties, such as equivalence ratio and combustion temperatures, were also found to be important in determining the amount of benzene produced in flames. Reaction pathways for benzene formation were examined critically in four premixed flames of structurally different fuels of acetylene, n-decane, butadiene, and cyclohexane. Reactions involving precursors, such as C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} species, were examined. Combination reactions of C{sub 3} species were identified to be the major benzene formation routes with the exception of the cyclohexane flame, in which benzene is formed exclusively from cascading fuel dehydrogenation via cyclohexene and cyclohexadiene intermediates. Acetylene addition makes a minor contribution to benzene formation, except in the butadiene flame where C{sub 4}H{sub 5} radicals are produced directly from the fuel, and in the n-decane flame where C{sub 4}H{sub 5} radicals are produced from large alkyl radical decomposition and H atom abstraction from the resulting large olefins.

Zhang, H; Eddings, E; Sarofim, A; Westbrook, C

2008-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

5

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

6

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

9

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1994-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

10

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

12

DUNCAN PRITCHARD Reforming Reformed Epistemology*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DUNCAN PRITCHARD Reforming Reformed Epistemology* 0. Introduction There has been a renaissance-called "reformed" defence of the rationality of reli- gious belief. The starting-point for this reformed conception concern here. Instead, I will be outlining one way in which the reformed epistemological stance can

Edinburgh, University of

13

Reforming Science: Structural Reforms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Managing the business of science. Physiology 24 :2-3. 7. Bush V . 1945. Science the endless frontier. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. 8. Casadevall...FC Fang. 2012. Reforming science: Methodological and culture...

Ferric C. Fang; Arturo Casadevall

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

14

Benzene release. status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scoping benzene release measurements were conducted on 4 wt percent KTPB `DEMO` formulation slurry using a round, flat bottomed 100-mL flask containing 75 mL slurry. The slurry was agitated with a magnetic stirrer bar to keep the surface refreshed without creating a vortex. Benzene release measurements were made by purging the vapor space at a constant rate and analyzing for benzene by gas chromatography with automatic data acquisition. Some of the data have been rounded or simplified in view of the scoping nature of this study.

Dworjanyn, L.O. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Rappe, K.G.; Gauglitz, P.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

15

Fractionation of reformate: A new variant of gasoline production technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery is the largest domestic producer of the unique high-octane unleaded automotive gasolines AI-93 and AI-95 and the aviation gasolines B-91/115 and B-92. The base component for these gasolines is obtained by catalytic reforming of wide-cut naphtha; this basic component is usually blended with certain other components that are expensive and in short supply: toluene, xylenes, and alkylate. For example, the unleaded gasoline AI-93 has been prepared by blending reformate, alkylate, and toluene in a 65:20:15 weight ratio; AI-95 gasoline by blending alkylate and xylenes in an 80:20 weight ratio; and B-91/115 gasoline by compounding a reformate obtained with light straight-run feed, plus alkylate and toluene, in a 55:35:10 weight ratio. Toluene and xylenes have been obtained by process schemes that include the following consecutive processes: redistillation of straight-run naphtha cuts to segregate the required narrow fraction; catalytic reforming (Platforming) of the narrow toluene-xylene straight-run fraction; azeotropic distillation of the reformate to recover toluene and xylenes. A new technology based on the use of reformate fractions is proposed.

Karakuts, V.N.; Tanatarov, M.A.; Telyashev, G.G. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Alkylating Properties of Phosphoramide Mustard  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...undergoes alkylation reactions as an intact molecule...rather than a direct SN2 displacement of the chlorine...undergoes alkylation reactions as an intact molecule...ylamine formed in the reaction of phosphoramide mustard...alkylation by direct (SN2) displacement of the...

Michael Colvin; Robert B. Brundrett; Man-Na N. Kan; Ian Jardine; and Catherine Fenselau

1976-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Combined isomerization of overhead cuts of straight-run naphtha and reformate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Technology was developed for combined isomerization of IBP-85°C overhead cuts of straight-run naphtha and reformate to reduce the benzene content in automotive gasolines. In comparison to the traditional technolo...

Nguen Van Ty

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Production of methyl tert-alkyl ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transition to the use of unleaded gasolines has required the replacement of tetraethyl lead by oxygen-containing compounds such as methanol, ethanol, and ethers, which are termed {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} in the technical literature. These may be used in commercial gasolines in amounts of 10-15% by volume, equivalent to 2% oxygen by weight. When methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is used, the oxygen content may amount to 2.7% by weight. This oxygenate gives a significant improvement of knock resistance of naphtha fractions, the greatest effects being observed for straight-run naphthas and reformer naphthas produced under normal conditions; the MTBE also improves the engine power and economy characteristics and lowers the carbon monoxide content in the exhaust by 15-30% and the hydrocarbon content by 7-8%. This paper describes methods for the production of MTBE and also methyl tert-alkyl ethers.

Trofimov, V.A.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Method of making alkyl esters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

Elliott, Brian (Wheat Ridge, CO)

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

20

Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50.degree. C. to 300.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Houston, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50 C to 300 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered. 2 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1995-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

22

Mild Catalytic methods for Alkyl-Alkyl Bond Formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Overview of Research Goals and Accomplishments for the Period 07/01/06 – 06/30/07: Our overall research goal is to transform the rapidly emerging synthetic chemistry involving alkyl-alkyl cross-couplings into more of a mechanism-based field so that that new, rationally-designed catalysts can be performed under energy efficient conditions. Our specific objectives for the previous year were 1) to obtain a proper electronic description of an active catalyst for alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions and 2) to determine the effect of ligand structure on the rate, scope, selectivity, and functional group compatibility of C(sp3)-C(sp3) cross-coupling catalysis. We have completed both of these initial objectives and established a firm base for further studies. The specific significant achievements of the current grant period include: 1) we have performed magnetic and computational studies on (terpyridine)NiMe, an active catalyst for alkyl-alkyl cross couplings, and have discovered that the unpaired electron resides heavily on the terpyridine ligand and that the proper electronic description of this nickel complex is a Ni(II)-methyl cation bound to a reduced terpyridine ligand; 2) we have for the first time shown that alkyl halide reduction by terpyridyl nickel catalysts is substantially ligand based; 3) we have shown by isotopic labeling studies that the active catalyst (terpyridine)NiMe is not produced via a mechanism that involves the formation of methyl radicals when (TMEDA)NiMe2 is used as the catalyst precursor; 4) we have performed an extensive ligand survey for the alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions and have found that electronic factors only moderately influence reactivity in the terpyridine-based catalysis and that the most dramatic effects arise from steric and solubility factors; 5) we have found that the use of bis(dialkylphosphino)methanes as ligands for nickel does not produce active catalysts for cross-coupling but rather leads to bridging hydride complexes of varying geometries; 6) we have determined that the geometry of aforementioned bridging hydride complexes is largely determined by external forces such as hydrogen bonding interactions and crystal packing forces; 7) we have found that the rate of reductive elimination of alkane from a (pyridyl-2-pyrrolide)AuMe2 complex is severely inhibited due to the rigid geometry of the pyridyl-2-pyrrolide ligand; 8) we have prepared, structurally characterized, and explored the reactivity of 1-adamantylzinc reagents as model nucleophiles for sterically challenging alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions. The continued success of this work will lead to alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling catalysts with broad scope and selectivities. The work has potential to significantly impact science and technologies of interest to the DOE as the chemistry is focused on developing useful reactions using reagents that can be directly prepared from petroleum and natural gas feedstocks. Moreover, the developing synthetic chemistry can profoundly affect the way materials, fine chemicals, and drugs are made. Since the methodology we are developing can shorten existing synthetic protocols, proceed at room temperature, and operate under environmentally benign conditions, it can greatly reduce energy expenditures, especially considering the contribution of the chemical manufacturing field to the gross domestic product.

David A Vicic

2009-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

23

Methane-steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A discussion covers steam reforming developments to the 1950's; the kinetics of methane-steam reforming, of the water-gas shift during methane-steam reforming, and of the carbon formation during methane-steam reforming, as approached by Akers and Camp.

Van Hook, J.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Benzene Dimer: Dynamic Structure and Thermodynamics Derived from...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Benzene Dimer: Dynamic Structure and Thermodynamics Derived from On-the-Fly ab initio DFT-D Molecular Dynamic Simulations. Benzene Dimer: Dynamic Structure and Thermodynamics...

25

Steam reforming analyzed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that maximum steam reformer operation without excessive coking reactions requires careful control of thermodynamic and kinetic conditions. Regardless of the syngas-based feedstock composition, carbon formation problems can be avoided while increasing reformer CO or H{sub 2} production. Steam reforming technology is best understood via: Primary steam reformer developments, Kinetics of methane steam reforming, Simulation of an industrial steam/CO{sub 2} reformer, Example conditions (steam/CO{sub 2} reforming), Thermodynamic approach (minimum to steam ratio). Hydrogen and carbon monoxide are two of the most important building blocks in the chemical industry. Hydrogen is mainly used in ammonia and methanol synthesis and petroleum refining. Carbon monoxide is used to produce pains, plastics, foams, pesticides and insecticides, to name a few. Production of H{sub 2} and CO is usually carried out by the following processes: Steam reforming (primary and secondary) of hydrocarbons, Partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, Coal gasification. Coal gasification and partial oxidation do not use catalysts and depend on partial combustion of the feedstock to internally supply reaction heat. Secondary (autothermal) reforming is a type of steam reforming that also uses the heat of partial combustion but afterwards uses a catalyst of promote the production of hydrogen and CO.

Wagner, E.S. (KTI Corp., San Dimas, CA (US)); Froment, G.F. (Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

The Mechanism of Action of Alkylating Agents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the Sn2 and Sn1 reactors with their known...alkylating agents on nuclear material and cell...the Sn@ and Sni reactors with their known...alkylating agents on nuclear material and cell...then there was de generation, whereas with x-rays...oegiants, although nuclear granulation similar...

G. P. Warwick

1963-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Marathon selects Shaw for benzene reduction work  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Shaw Group Inc's Energy & Chemicals Group is to provide project management, engineering and procurement services for the feasibility and definition phases of benzene reduction projects at Marathon Oil Corp's refineries in Robinson, Illinois; Garyville, Louisiana; and Catlettsburg, Kentucky.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hot effluent from the catalytic steam reforming of a major portion of a fluid hydrocarbon feed stream in the reformer tubes of a primary reformer, or said effluent after secondary reforming thereof, is mixed with the hot effluent from the catalytic steam reforming of the remaining portion of the feed discharged from the reformer tubes of a primary reformer-exchanger. The combined gas steam is passed on the shell side of the reformer-exchanger countercurrently to the passage of feed in the reformer tubes thereof, thus supplying the heat for the reforming of the portion of the feed passed through the reformer tubes of the reformerexchanger. At least about 2/3 of the hydrocarbon feed stream is passed to the reformer tubes of said primary reformer, heated by radiant heat transfer and/or by contact with combustion gases, at a steam/hydrocarbon mole ratio of about 2-4/1. The remainder of said feed stream is passed to the reformer tubes of said reformer -exchanger at a steam/hydrocarbon mole ratio of about 3-6/1. The reformer shell of the reformer-exchanger is internally insulated by a refractory lining or by use of a double shell with passage of water or a portion of the feed material between the inner and outer shells. There is no significant difference between the pressure inside and outside of the reformer tubes of said primary reformer-exchanger.

Fuderer, A.

1982-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

29

Detection of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, and Xylenes (BTEX) Using Toluene Dioxygenase-Peroxidase Coupling Reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bioassay may be suitable for field monitoring of BTEX to identify and track contaminated water and follow in contaminated water because of their accuracy and sensitivity. Although very sensitive, the cost associatedDetection of Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl Benzene, and Xylenes (BTEX) Using Toluene Dioxygenase

Chen, Wilfred

30

Pillars of reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... misgivings seem to have reached crisis point. China today is full of new initiatives, reforms and an anti-corruption drive that together aim to set the nation on the right ... to be monumental — if China follows it through. The nation is also right to reform how the Chinese Academy of Sciences supports promising research projects. And perhaps most boldly ...

2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

31

Natural Gas Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon the existing natural gas pipeline delivery infrastructure. Today, 95% of the hydrogen produced in the United States is made by natural gas reforming in large central plants. This technology is an important pathway for near-term hydrogen production.

32

NIH Peer Review Reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...EDITOR LETTER TO THE EDITOR NIH Peer Review Reform Marc C. Torjman Phone...Camden, NJ 08103 The editorial NIH Peer Review Reform-Change We Need, or Lipstick...better exposed the problems of grant peer review and, more importantly, the irreparable...

Marc C. Torjman

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Present and Future Alkylation Processes in Refineries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Present and Future Alkylation Processes in Refineries ... Second, an accident at a Texas refinery released considerable amounts of gaseous HF. ... In addition, following an accident, it is uncertain whether the sprays would still be operable. ...

Lyle F. Albright

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

34

Polyfunctional catalyst for processiing benzene fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A by-product of the coke industry is a raw benzene fraction benzene- 1 which may serve as for catalytic processes. The paper reports a study on the influence of the composition and temperatures on the activity and selectivity of NiO-V{sub 2}O{sub 6}-MoO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts and the corresponding binary and tertiary subsystems are studied by a pulse method in model reactions; the hydrodealkylating of toluene and the hydrodesulfurizing of thioprhene. The optimal catalyst composition is established. The new catalyst is compared with industrial catalysts.

G. Byakov; B.D. Zubitskii; B.G. Tryasunov; I.Ya. Petrov [Kuznetsk Basin State Technical University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Characterization of Micronuclei Induced in Human Lymphocytes by Benzene Metabolites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Department of Energy and Oak Ridge Associated Universities...human leukemogen. Workers occupationally exposed...benzene- exposed workers. Other metabolites...Department of Energy and Oak Ridge Associated Universities...benzene-exposed workers have re ported a...

Janice W. Yager; David A. Eastmond; Moire L. Robertson; William M. Paradisin; and Martyn T. Smith

1990-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Renewable Liquid Fuels Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Program anticipates that distributed reforming of biomass-derived liquid fuels could be commercial during the transition to hydrogen and used in the mid- and long-term time frames.

37

NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

None

2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

38

The development of a passive dosimeter for airborne benzene vapors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparison of the Measured vs. Cal- culated Iieight of Benzene Adsorbed in the 3. 5 cm Dosimeter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3. Comparison of the Measured vs. Cal- culated Igeight of Benzene Adsorbed in the 3. 5 cm Dosimeter with Alumina Pre 1 ayer.... 38 Comparison of the Measured vs. Cal- culated Weight of' Benzene Adsorbed in the 4. 5 cm Dosimeter. . . . . . . . . . . . . Comparison of the Measured vs. Cal- culated IJeight of Benzene Ad orbed in the 4. 5 cm Dosimeter with Alumina Prelayer...

Hager, David William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

39

Formation of benzene in the interstellar medium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...a closed shell hydrocarbon, which is associated...with unsaturated hydrocarbons shows that their rate constants...star thermally heats the grains thus...Interstellar Versus Combustion Chemistry. We would...of benzene under combustion relevant conditions...polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons...

Brant M. Jones; Fangtong Zhang; Ralf I. Kaiser; Adeel Jamal; Alexander M. Mebel; Martin A. Cordiner; Steven B. Charnley

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Natural Gas Reforming | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hydrogen Production Natural Gas Reforming Natural Gas Reforming Photo of Petroleum Refinery Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Highly Effective Gene Transfection In Vivo by Alkylated Polyethylenimine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We mechanistically explored the effect of increased hydrophobicity of the polycation on the efficacy and specificity of gene delivery in mice. N-Alkylated linear PEIs with varying alkyl chain lengths and extent of substitution ...

Fortune, Jennifer A.

42

Catalytic Synthesis of n-Alkyl Arenes through Alkyl Group Cross-Metathesis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

n-Alkyl arenes were prepared in a one-pot tandem dehydrogenation/olefin metathesis/hydrogenation sequence directly from alkanes and ethylbenzene. Excellent selectivity was observed when (tBuPCP)IrH[subscript 2] was paired ...

Dobereiner, Graham E.

43

FOOD REFORM MOVEMENTS Nicolas Larchet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOOD REFORM MOVEMENTS Nicolas Larchet Social historians have broadly defined two cycles of American history characterized by an efflorescence of social movements aiming to reform both the individual to the 1920s. The reform impulse thrived wherever there was a perceived vice, abuse or corruption

Boyer, Edmond

44

Reforming the Private Insurance Market  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SUMMARY s national health care reform efforts go forward, it is instructive to review states' experience INTRODUCTION he prospects for national health care reform are more promising than at any time since 1994. President Obama and Members of Congress have made health care reform a top priority and legislation

Kammen, Daniel M.

45

Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

Shah, Yatish T. [Norfolk State University; Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene near their Glass Transition Temperatures Investigated using Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene,...

47

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

50

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

51

Methane-steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The literature relating to the kinetics of methane-steam reforming involving integral and differential reactor data, porous nickel catalysts and nickel foil, and data over large ranges of temperature (500 to 1700/sup 0/F), pressure (0.01 to 50 atm), and intrinsic catalyst activities (200,000-fold) was reviewed. A simple reversible first-order kinetic expression for the steam-methane reaction appears to be applicable throughout the operable region of steam-to-carbon ratios. Internal pore diffusion limitation on the conversion rate, due to catalyst size and/or intrinsic catalyst activity and total operating pressure was underlined. S-shaped Arrhenium plots (changing activation energy) are obtained when steam reforming is conducted over a temperature range sufficient to produce intrinsic kinetics (low temperature, inactive catalyst, or small catalyst size), pore diffusional limitations, and reaction on the outside surface. Homogeneous gas-phase kinetics appear to contribute only at relatively high temperature (1400/sup 0/F). In steam reforming, the water-gas shift reaction departs from its equilibrium position, especially at low methane conversion level. A general correlation of approach to water-gas shift equilibration as a function of conversion level only was indicated. (DP) 18 figures, 6 tables.

Van Hook, J.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by NREL's Robert Evans at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

53

Anhydrous ferric chloride as an alkylation catalyst: The condensation of 2-methylpropene and benzene, preparation and identification of several fractions.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-butylbe!!zeno. i':o tri-t-buty''oe:&zones ar, fo& ~ ed d!&r-'n~ t ! &. s &. en c't i c&n 24. . ? Dej", e, J. . 'r . Ch. !-. oc. , 60 2079 , lot&7) 25. ? Price an Cir):o;;. .-:. ' i, ibid. , (0, 2! 9o (lo3&&) 26. ? Fairbrother, Trans. Fa~ra av '~oc. , 37, 7'. 3...

Mommessin, Pierre Robert

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

54

Renewable Hydrogen from Ethanol by Autothermal Reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...soy oil limits its economics. Ethanol is now...desirability of autothermal reforming of ethanol (10...reaction with water in the steam-reforming reaction (1113...partial oxidation with steam reforming and the WGS...

G. A. Deluga; J. R. Salge; L. D. Schmidt; X. E. Verykios

2004-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

55

What's right SHIP & Healthcare Reform Forum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

&Health Reform What's right for you SHIP & Healthcare Reform Forum: What's Right for You This session will help you: * demystify the healthcare reform changes * explore your options * learn how

Walker, Matthew P.

56

NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

defining early what contractors should accomplish < establishing contracts ahead of time < minimizing cost while maintaining quality by * maximizing competition and use of incentives * using past performance information in awarding work * managing the NEPA process as a project This guidance provides: < model statements of work < information on contract types and incentives < direction on effective NEPA contract management by the NEPA Document Manager < a system for measuring NEPA process costs < NEPA contractor evaluation procedures < details on the DOE NEPA Web site U.S. Department of Energy, Office of NEPA Policy and Assistance, December 1996 NEPA CONTRACTING REFORM GUIDANCE Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

57

Steam reforming process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methane-containing gases are produced by the catalytic-stream reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks using a catalyst which includes a group VIII metal such as nickel and alumina, and which in its calcined but unreduced precursor form has a pore size distribution defined as follows: (I) at least 55% of the pore volume of pores having a pore radius between 12 and 120 angstrom units is in the range of 12-30 angstrom units, and (II) the ratio of the pore volume contained in pores of 10-50 a to the pore volume contained in pores 50-300 a is at least 5:1.

Banks, R.G.; Williams, A.

1981-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

58

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkyl-tert alkyl ethers Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

> >> 1 7198 J. Org. Chem. 1995,60, 7198-7208 Gas Phase Decomposition of Conjugate Acid Ions of Simple Summary: of ProtonatedAlkyl tert-ButylEthers RO(H)C(CH&+ (To.6 Values in meV...

59

Sensitive Analysis of Alkyl Alcohols as Decomposition Products of Alkyl Nitrites in Human Whole Blood and Urine by Headspace Capillary GC with Cryogenic Oven Trapping  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......cryogenic oven trapping. | The abuse of alkyl nitrites is becoming...Sensitivity and Specificity The abuse of alkyl nitrites is becoming...them at common markets or by internet sales. The most popular alkyl...the detection of alkyl nitrite abuse in forensic science practice......

Kanako Watanabe-Suzuki; Robert R. Lemmer; Hideki Nozawa; Osamu Suzuki; Akira Ishii

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Distribution of Pendant Alkyl Groups in the Argonne Premium Coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Distribution of Pendant Alkyl Groups in the Argonne Premium Coals ... Chemistry Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, and Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 ... The ruthenium(VIII) oxidation reaction has been employed to determine the distribution of alkyl groups that are bonded to aromatic structural elements in lignin and the Argonne Premium Coals. ...

Marcus Obeng; Leon M. Stock

1996-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkyl amides derivatives Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

allylic alkylation Summary: Highly ecient kinetic resolution of 2-cyclohexenyl acetate in Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation James... been synthesized and employed in the...

62

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkyl chain bending Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

interacting alkyl substituents Source: Collection: Chemistry 74 Low absorption liquid crystals for mid-wave infrared applications Summary: (), while keeping the alkyl chain...

63

Multipath Curved Planar Reformation of the Peripheral  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multipath Curved Planar Reformation of the Peripheral Arterial Tree in CT Angiography1 Justus that cause artifacts in multipath curved planar reformations (MPCPRs) of the peripheral arterial tree in 10-oblique multiplanar reformations perpendicular to the ves- sel centerline (10), and curved planar reformations

64

Toward a Reformalization of QSIM Benjamin Shults  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Toward a Reformalization of QSIM Benjamin Shults Department of Mathematics University of Texas is to reformalize part of the framework of the Guaranteed Coverage Theorem for QSIM. The intention is not to reformalize every detail of the proof but merely to mention some areas whose reformalization lends deeper

Kuipers, Benjamin

65

Optimization of Multiplanar Reformations from Isotropic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of Multiplanar Reformations from Isotropic Data Sets Acquired with 16­ Detector Row coronal reformations at vari- ous thicknesses were ranked qualitatively by three radiol- ogists. Effective reformations of data acquired in the custom phantom were compared, coronal reformations obtained with the 16

66

Why Sequence a Benzene-Degrading Methanogenic Consortium?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a Benzene-Degrading Methanogenic Consortium? a Benzene-Degrading Methanogenic Consortium? As recently as the 1990's, aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene and toluene were thought to be resistant to degradation under anaerobic conditions. It is now appreciated that biodegradation in the absence of oxygen contributes significantly to the attenuation of hydrocarbons and other pollutants in the environment. Unravelling the yet unknown pathways and mechanisms of anaerobic benzene metabolism is a critical milestone for hydrocarbon bioremediation. While many pathways have been suggested, none has been proven, and no genes or enzymes are known. The elucidation of this pathway, including the identification of the genes and enzymes involved, is vital for the demonstration, validation, and regulatory acceptance of in-situ

67

Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Fractionation during Anaerobic Biodegradation of Benzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...modeling. Ground Water 27: 823-834...after active remediation. Biodegradation...intrinsic remediation of a BTEX...benzene in ground water beneath a...enrichment ground water hydrocarbons...reclamation remediation soils spectra...

Silvia A. Mancini; Ania C. Ulrich; Georges Lacrampe-Couloume; Brent Sleep; Elizabeth A. Edwards; Barbara Sherwood Lollar

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Hiring Reform | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hiring Reform Hiring Reform Hiring Reform President Obama's Memorandum dated May 11, 2010, Improving the Federal Recruitment and Hiring Process, is Phase I of the Administration's comprehensive initiative to address major, long-standing impediments to recruiting and hiring the best and the brightest into the Federal civilian workforce. The Memorandum is based on issues that DOE and others brought to the attention of OPM, and it is designed to help Agencies build the workforce you need to achieve your goals. The Presidential Memorandum launches the Obama Administration's flagship personnel policy reform initiative. It builds on a nearly year-long collaboration between OPM and Agencies aimed at streamlining the hiring process and recruiting top talent, especially for mission-critical jobs.

69

Applications of solar reforming technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Adsorption of alkyl amides: monolayer structures and mixing behaviour  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adsorbs hydrocarbons from liquid media [42-44]. Groszek [42] provided an explanation for the high affinity of the graphite surface for the hydrocarbons. The zigzag structure of the hydrocarbon fits well into the graphite hexagons (Figure 1... of the composition range. 1.3 Alkyl amides In this section the properties and applications of alkyl amides are explained, and a review of the adsorption of amides on different surfaces such as graphite, polymer surfaces and water is provided. The bulk...

Bhinde, Tej

2011-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

71

Final Technical Report [Development of Catalytic Alkylation and Fluoroalkylation Methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the early stages of this DOE-funded research project, we sought to prepare and study a well-defined nickel-alkyl complex containing tridentate nitrogen donor ligands. We found that reaction of (TMEDA)NiMe2 (1) with terpyridine ligand cleanly led to the formation of (terpyridyl)NiMe (2), which we also determined to be an active alkylation catalyst. The thermal stability of 2 was unlike that seen for any of the active pybox ligands, and enabled a number of key studies on alkyl transfer reactions to be performed, providing new insights into the mechanism of nickel-mediated alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions. In addition to the mechanistic studies, we showed that the terpyridyl nickel compounds can catalytically cross-couple alkyl iodides in yields up to 98% and bromides in yields up to 46 %. The yields for the bromides can be increased up to 67 % when the new palladium catalyst [(tpy’)Pd-Ph]I is used. The best route to the targeted [(tpy)NiBr] (1) was found to involve the comproportionation reaction of [(dme)NiBr{sub 2}] and [Ni(COD){sub 2}] in the presence of two equivalents of terpyridine. This reaction was driven to high yields of product formation (72 % isolated) by the precipitation of 1 from THF solvent.

Vicic, David A.

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Recover heat from steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam reforming is one of the most important chemical processes--it is used in the manufacture of ammonia, hydrogen, methanol, and many chemicals made from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Furthermore, many current trends will increase its importance. For example, methanol for addition to gasoline is likely to be produced by steam reforming. Because steam reforming occurs at high temperatures--typically 750 C--900 C--it generates a large amount of waste heat. Clearly, heat recovery is crucial to process economics. A typical 50,000 Nm[sup 3]/h hydrogen plant using natural gas feed has a radiant heat duty of about 50 MW. At a radiant efficiency of 50% and fuel cost of $3/GJ, this means that the reformer fires $9 million worth of fuel per year. Obviously, this amount of fuel justifies a close loot at ways to reduce costs. This article first provides a brief overview of steam reforming. It then outlines the available heat-recovery options and explains how to select the best method.

Fleshman, J.D. (Foster Wheeler USA Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Hydrogen Generation Via Fuel Reforming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reforming is the conversion of a hydrocarbon based fuel to a gas mixture that contains hydrogen. The H2 that is produced by reforming can then be used to produce electricity via fuel cells. The realization of H2?based power generation via reforming is facilitated by the existence of the liquid fuel and natural gas distribution infrastructures. Coupling these same infrastructures with more portable reforming technology facilitates the realization of fuel cell powered vehicles. The reformer is the first component in a fuel processor. Contaminants in the H2?enriched product stream such as carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) can significantly degrade the performance of current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s). Removal of such contaminants requires extensive processing of the H2?rich product stream prior to utilization by the fuel cell to generate electricity. The remaining components of the fuel processor remove the contaminants in the H2 product stream. For transportation applications the entire fuel processing system must be as small and lightweight as possible to achieve desirable performance requirements. Current efforts at Argonne National Laboratory are focused on catalyst development and reactor engineering of the autothermal processing train for transportation applications.

John F. Krebs

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Sensitive Analysis of Alkyl Alcohols as Decomposition Products of Alkyl Nitrites in Human Whole Blood and Urine by Headspace Capillary GC with Cryogenic Oven Trapping  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......470-1192, Japan The abuse of alkyl nitrites is...oven trapping. | The abuse of alkyl nitrites is...Sensitivity and Specificity The abuse of alkyl nitrites is...abused by inhalation among young people for their aphrodisiac...common markets or by internet sales. The most popular......

Kanako Watanabe-Suzuki; Robert R. Lemmer; Hideki Nozawa; Osamu Suzuki; Akira Ishii

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Safety and Security Directives Reform  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Reforming a "Mountain" of Policy Reforming a "Mountain" of Policy Beginning with his confirmation hearings in January 2009, Energy Secretary Steven Chu challenged the Department of Energy to take a fresh look at how we conduct business. This challenge provided the opportunity for DOE to put in place the most effective and efficient strategies to accomplish the Department's missions safely and securely. In response to the Secretary's challenge and building on the results of Deputy Secretary Poneman's Safety and Security Reform studies, the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) broadened its directives review activities during 2009. By November 2009 HSS had initiated a disciplined review of all health, safety, and security directives, which included a systematic review of the Department's safety and security regulatory model.

76

Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

Parent, Yves O. (Golden, CO); Magrini, Kim (Golden, CO); Landin, Steven M. (Conifer, CO); Ritland, Marcus A. (Palm Beach Shores, FL)

2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

77

Steam reformer study proposed by Battelle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steam reformer study proposed by Battelle ... At a meeting held at Battelle's Columbus, Ohio, laboratories, D. B. Roach told representatives of 24 firms involved in various aspects of steam reforming that, though production of hydrogen through steam reforming has been a highly successful process, "increased plant size and more severe operating conditions have given rise to serious problems." ...

1969-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

78

New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

Plasma catalytic reforming of methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This article describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius), and a high degree of dissociation and a substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (40% H2, 17% CO2 and 33% N2, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2–3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H2 with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content (?1.5%) with power densities of ?30 kW (H2 HHV)/l of reactor, or ?10 m3/h H2 per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

L Bromberg; D.R Cohn; A Rabinovich; N Alexeev

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Hydrology Days 2014 Thermally Enhanced Attenuation of Substituted Benzenes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a remediation technique for substituted benzenes, anaerobic soil microcosms were constructed using soils from at the field site. The device allows for the determination of water quality, temperature, and resistivity values as a function of depth. Additionally, carbon dioxide fluxes are being determined at the ground

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Contracting Reform Guidance Contracting Reform Guidance NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance This documents provides guidance on NEPA contracting strategy, including: defining the work of the contractor; establishing contracts ahead of time; minimizing cost while maintaining quality. Guidance also provides: model statements of work, direction on NEPA contract management by NEPA Document Manager; a system for measuring NEPA costs and for evaluating contractor procedures; details on the DOE NEPA website. NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance More Documents & Publications NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance (December 1996) Statement of Work-National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Support Services Acquisition: Preparation and Review of Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments, Environmental Reports, and other Environmental

82

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation The Department of Energy (DOE) today publishes a final statement of policy on intergovernmental consultation under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. The policy reflects the guidelines and instructions that the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) provided to each agency to develop, with input from State, local, and tribal officials, an intergovernmental consultation process with regard to significant intergovernmental mandates contained in a notice of proposed rulemaking. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation More Documents & Publications TEC Working Group Topic Groups Tribal Key Documents

83

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation | Department  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation The Department of Energy (DOE) today publishes a final statement of policy on intergovernmental consultation under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. The policy reflects the guidelines and instructions that the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) provided to each agency to develop, with input from State, local, and tribal officials, an intergovernmental consultation process with regard to significant intergovernmental mandates contained in a notice of proposed rulemaking. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation More Documents & Publications TEC Working Group Topic Groups Tribal Key Documents

84

Hydrocarbon steam reforming using series steam superheaters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a process for steam reforming of a hydrocarbon gas feedstream wherein: the hydrocarbon gas feedstream is partially reformed at elevated temperatures in indirect heat exchange with hot combustion gases in a direct fired primary reforming furnace provided with a convection section for recovery of excess heat from said combustion gases; and the partially reformed feedstream is then further reformed in the presence of an oxygen-containing gas and steam in a secondary reformer to form a secondary reformer gaseous effluent; the improvement which comprises recovering waste heat from said secondary reformer effluent gas and from said primary reforming combustion products by heating a high pressure saturated steam in a first steam superheating zone by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of said secondary reformer effluent gas to form a first superheated steam stream; and further heating said first superheated steam in a second steam superheating zone by indirect heat exchange with at least a portion of said primary reformer hot combustion gases for form a second superheated steam stream.

Osman, R. M.

1985-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

85

What Determines the Likelihood of Structural Reforms?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We use data for a panel of 60 countries over the period 1980-2005 to investigate the main drivers of the likelihood of structural reforms. We find that: (i) external debt crises are the main trigger of financial and banking reforms; (ii) inflation and banking crises are the key drivers of external capital account reforms; (iii) banking crises also hasten financial reforms; and (iv) economic recessions play an important role in promoting the necessary consensus for financial, capital, banking and trade reforms, especially in the group of OECD-countries. Additionally, we also observe that the degree of globalisation is relevant for financial reforms, in particular in the group of non-OECD countries. Moreover, an increase in the income gap accelerates the implementation of structural reforms, but increased political fragmentation does not seem to have a significant impact.

Luca Agnello; Vitor Castro; João Tovar Jalles; Ricardo M. Sousa

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

The infrared and Raman spectra of N-alkyl ethylenimines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mother, without wnose sacrifices and help none of this would have been possible. TABLE OF CONTLNTS THE INFPAR D AND P'u~'AN SP" CTPW OF N-ALKYL ETHYLENIYINES Pa8e I. Introduction. . . . , . . . . , II. Experimental. . . , . 3 III ' Discussion... be represented as follows, CH2 R ? ~ &CH 2 where R = CH3-, C2H5-, and (CH3)2CH-. It is assumed here that the alkyl group lies above the plane of the ring as does the N-H hydrogen in ethylenimine. ' ' This assumption has been supported 8 9, 11 in the case...

Ashby, Theodore Leroy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

87

E-Print Network 3.0 - allylic alkylations added Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

benzyl or allyl halides. s-Alkyl... -chiral center of high optical purity based on the SN2 displace- ment reaction of alkyl cuprates on chiral allyl... A Practical and Highly...

88

E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric allylic alkylation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

benzyl or allyl halides. s-Alkyl... -chiral center of high optical purity based on the SN2 displace- ment reaction of alkyl cuprates on chiral allyl... ) Examples of asymmetric...

89

Alcohol Chemistry on Rutile TiO2(110): The Influence of Alkyl...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Alcohol Chemistry on Rutile TiO2(110): The Influence of Alkyl Substituents on Reactivity and Selectivity. Alcohol Chemistry on Rutile TiO2(110): The Influence of Alkyl Substituents...

90

Highly Enantioselective sec-Alkyl Sulfatase Activity of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM 639  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Highly Enantioselective sec-Alkyl Sulfatase Activity of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM 639 ... rac-sec-Alkyl sulfate esters 1a?4a were resolved in high enantioselectivities with E-values up to >200 using whole cells of aerobically grown Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM 639. ... On the basis of vague hints on the stereospecific and enantioselective hydrolysis of alkyl sulfate esters,3 we recently reported an alkyl sulfatase (termed “RS2”) from Rhodococcus ruber DSM 44541. ...

Sabine R. Wallner; Bettina M. Nestl; Kurt Faber

2004-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

91

Conversion of hydrocarbons for fuel-cell applications. Part I. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids. Part II. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental autothermal reforming (ATR) results obtained in the previous phase of this work with sulfur-free pure hydrocarbon liquids are summarized. Catalyst types and configuration used were the same as in earlier tests with No. 2 fuel oil to facilitate comparisons. Fuel oil has been found to form carbon in ATR at conditions much milder than those predicted by equilibrium. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in ATR, and thus the formation of different carbon precursors, have been shown to be responsible for the observed carbon formation characteristics (fuel-specific). From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation in ATR. Effects of olefin (propylene) addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics (n-tetradecane and benzene) synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Comparisons of the No. 2 fuel oil data with the experimental results from this work with pure (and mixed) sulfur-free hydrocarbons indicate that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in conventional reformers is heat transfer limited. Steam reforming tasks performed have included performance comparisons between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts. Metal-supported monoliths offer higher structural stability than ceramic supports, and have a higher thermal conductivity. Data from two metal monoliths of different catalyst (nickel) loading were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Plasma catalytic reforming of methane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Alexeev, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Baikov Inst. of Metallurgy

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Microbial degradation of n-alkyl tetrahydrothiophenes found in petroleum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although n-alkyl-substituted tetrahydrothiophenes are found in nonbiodegraded petroleums, they are not found in petroleums which have undergone biodegradation in their reservoirs. These observations suggested that this group of compounds with alkyl chain lengths from approximately C/sub 10/ to at least C/sub 30/ is biodegradable. Two of these sulfides, 2-n-dodecyltetrahydrothiophene (DTHT) and 2-n-undecyltetrahydrothiophene, were synthesized, and their biodegradabilities were tested by using five gram-positive, n-alkane-degrading bacterial isolates. The alkyl side chains of these compounds were oxidized, and the major intermediates found in 2-n-undecyltetrahydrothiophene- and DTHT-metabolizing cultures were 2-tetrahydrothiophenecarboxylic acid (THTC) and 2-tetrahydrothiopheneacetic acid (THTA), respectively. Four n-alkane-degrading fungi were also shown to degrade DTHT, yielding both THTA and THTC. Quantitation of tetrahydrothiophene ring-containing products in 28-day-old bacterial and fungal cultures suggested that THTC and THTA were metabolized further to unidentified products. In addition, two of the bacterial isolates were shown to degrade a mixture of n-alkyl tetrahydrothiophenes isolated from Bellshill Lake crude oil.

Fedorak, P.M.; Payzant, J.D.; Montgomery, D.S.; Westlake, D.W.S.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Alkylation of Guanosine and Deoxyguanosine by Phosphoramide Mustard  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Phosphoramide mustard, an active metabolite of cyclophosphamide...Phosphoramide mustard, an active metabolite of cyclophos...acrolein (1) and an active alkylating agent, phosphoramide...adducts which it forms. MATERIALS AND METHODS Crystalline...field emitter anode and cathode; 8 kV acceler ating...

Jitendra R. Mehta; Michael Przybylski; and David B. Ludlum

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Environmental fiscal reform (EFR) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Environmental fiscal reform (EFR) Environmental fiscal reform (EFR) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Environmental fiscal reform (EFR) Agency/Company /Organization: Global Subsidies Initiative (GSI), International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), World Bank Phase: Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan, Develop Finance and Implement Projects Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Finance, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs References: Environmental fiscal reform - What should be done and how to achieve it[1] Reforming fiscal policies to close the gap between economic and ecological efficiencies[2] Overview "The term environmental fiscal reform (EFR) refers to: a range of taxation or pricing instruments that can raise revenue, while simultaneously furthering environmental goals. This is achieved by providing economic

96

Steam reforming utilizing high activity catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High activity, sulfur tolerant steam reforming catalysts are described comprising rhodium or nickel supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. The catalysts have improved activity over conventionally used catalysts in the presence of sulfur containing hydrocarbon fuel (such as No. 2 fuel oil) in a steam reforming environment. The material has particular utility in autothermal, tubular, cyclic and adiabatic steam reforming processes.

Setzer, H. J.

1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

97

In-situ cryocrystallization of 1,2-dimethyl-3-nitro­benzene and 2,4-dimethyl-1-nitro­benzene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The crystal structures of 1,2-dimethyl-3-nitro­benzene and 2,4-dimethyl-1-nitro­benzene, which are liquids at room temperature, have been obtained through in-situ cryocrystallization. Weak C-HO and - inter­actions have been identified in both compounds.

Sparkes, H.A.

2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

98

Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

99

Comparative case studies of health reform in England  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comparative case studies of health reform in England Report submitted to the Department of Health........................................................................................14 1.1 Presenting the Health System Reform policy agenda...................................14 1 ..........................................................................................64 Demand Side Reform.........................................

Birmingham, University of

100

How Not to Reform Medicare  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...private insurers would continue to compete primarily by trying to enroll the healthy and not the sick — a practice called risk selection. The result would be increased administrative costs, not improved quality. The elderly and disabled would face ever heavier financial burdens and larger risks as the... Medicare reform has become a hot political issue. The program is wildly popular but expensive. It is the principal source of projected increases in budget deficits. With deficits increasingly seen as a mortal economic threat, many believe that now is the ...

Aaron H.J.

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements Fuel Reformer, LNT and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirements...

102

Diesel Reforming for Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This objective of this project was to develop technology suitable for onboard reforming of diesel. The approach was to examine catalytic partial oxidation and steam reforming.

Borup, R.; Parkinson, W. J.; Inbody, M.; Brosha, E.L.; Guidry, D.R.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

103

DOE Safety and Security Reform Meeting | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

DOE Safety and Security Reform Meeting DOE Safety and Security Reform Meeting Meeting Date: August 13, 2010 HSS senior managers with lead responsibilities in DOE's safety and...

104

Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment 2003 DEER...

105

Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Reformate Cleanup: The Case for Microchannel Architecture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reformate Cleanup: The Case for Microchannel Architecture DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 2003 Annual for MicrochannelMicrochannel ArchitectureArchitecture DOE Hydrogen and Fuel CellsDOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells 2003, controls Integrated reformer/fuel cell demonstration at ~2 kWeFY 2002 WGS/PROX catalyst studies

107

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic benzene degradation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: anaerobic benzene degradation Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Biodegradation 11: 107116, 2000. 2001 Kluwer Academic...

108

REFORM, LOBBIES AND WELFARE: A COMMON AGENCY APPROACH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REFORM, LOBBIES AND WELFARE: A COMMON AGENCY APPROACH Cecilia TESTA London School of Economics are a reform and a compensating taxation. The main feature of the reform is that it creates gainers and losers on tax parameters. keywords: reform, lobbying, redistribution, economic welfare. 1 #12;Introduction

Royal Holloway, University of London

109

September 25, 2013 AFSCME Continues to Object to Pension Reform;  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

September 25, 2013 AFSCME Continues to Object to Pension Reform; UC Implements Latest Bargaining working conditions and reasonable pension reform. However, AFSCME has rejected UC's proposals. From the start, AFSCME leadership has objected to UC's responsible pension reform -- the kind of reform that

Leistikow, Bruce N.

110

AN UPDATE ON REFORM IN EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN UPDATE ON REFORM IN EASTERN EUROPE AND RUSSIA Jeffrey Sachs ABSTRACT: The paper reviews the experience of Poland and Russia with economic reform, with occasional comparison to China's experience. The author argues that macroeconomic chaos in Poland and Russia preceded reform and was allayed by reform

111

Diesel Reforming for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation discusses the development of a diesel reforming catalyst and catalytic system development.

Liu, D-J.; Sheen, S-H.; Krumpelt, M.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

112

Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal J.H. Williams, R. Ghanadan-oriented reforms in their electric power sectors. Despite the widespread adoption of a standard policy model features of non-OECD electricity reform and reappraises reform policies and underlying assumptions

Kammen, Daniel M.

113

Steam reforming utilizing iron oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High activity steam reforming iron oxide catalysts are described. Such catalysts can be unsupported utilizing at least 90% by weight iron oxide and various modifiers (Ai/sub 2/O/sub 3/, K/sub 2/O, CaO, SiO/sub 2/) or unmodified and supported on such things as alumina, CaO impregnated alumina, and lanthanum stabilized alumina. When used in steam reformers such as autothermal and tubular steam reformers, these catalysts demonstrate much improved resistance to carbon plugging.

Setzer, H. T.; Bett, J. A. S.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

114

Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement Reform, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, United States House of Representatives Written Statement By: Owen Barwell, Acting Chief Financial Officer, United States Department of Energy Subject: DOE Financial Information Systems Final_Testimony_for_Owen_Barwell.pdf More Documents & Publications AL2010-03.pdf Request for Information - Operations and Maintenance (O & M) Support

115

Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impact of Ethanol on Benzene Plume Lengths: Microbial and Modeling Studies Rula A. Deeb1 ; Jonathan with Federal Clean Air Act requirements for carbon monoxide and ozone attainment, ethanol is being considered as a replacement for MTBE. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential impact of ethanol on benzene

Alvarez, Pedro J.

116

Benzene Uptake in Hookah Smokers and Non-smokers Attending Hookah Social Events: Regulatory Implications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...SPMA levels in study populations, such as air pollution. For example, mean ambient air levels of benzene are reported to range from...particulate matter and high-level benzene urban air pollution in relation to oxidative DNA damage.Carcinogenesis...

Nada O.F. Kassem; Noura O. Kassem; Sheila R. Jackson; Sandy Liles; Reem M. Daffa; Adam T. Zarth; Maram A. Younis; Steven G. Carmella; C. Richard Hofstetter; Dale A. Chatfield; Georg E. Matt; Stephen S. Hecht; and Melbourne F. Hovell

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Modeling benzene plume elongation mechanisms exerted by ethanol using RT3D with a general  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of E10 gasoline (10% vol/vol ethanol), which compares favorably to field observations. For low benzene Act requirements. The widespread use of ethanol in gasoline has led to an increase in its potential E10 gasoline (i.e., a blend with 10% vol/vol ethanol/ gasoline) showed that mean benzene plume

Alvarez, Pedro J.

118

Femtosecond Near-Infrared Laser Desorption of Multilayer Benzene on Pt{111}: A Molecular Newton's Cradle?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Femtosecond Near-Infrared Laser Desorption of Multilayer Benzene on Pt{111}: A Molecular Newton Recently, the intense near-infrared laser desorption of intact benzene molecules has been reported.1 Three, 1999; In Final Form: February 11, 2000 Velocity distributions resulting from the intense, near-IR laser

Levis, Robert J.

119

Production of Benzene Polycarboxylic Acids from Lignite by Alkali-Oxygen Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Production of Benzene Polycarboxylic Acids from Lignite by Alkali-Oxygen Oxidation ... The oxidation of coal to produce high-valued benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), which are obtained currently from diminishing petroleum reserves, is a promising industrial process of the future. ...

Wenhua Wang; Yucui Hou; Weize Wu; Muge Niu; Weina Liu

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

120

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkylating agents synthesis Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Natural Product Leinamycin Summary: , the antitumor natural product leina- mycin (LM) (1, 2) is converted to a potent DNA-alkylating agent via... the sequence specificity...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkylating agents Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Natural Product Leinamycin Summary: , the antitumor natural product leina- mycin (LM) (1, 2) is converted to a potent DNA-alkylating agent via... the sequence specificity...

122

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkylating agents evaluacion Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Natural Product Leinamycin Summary: , the antitumor natural product leina- mycin (LM) (1, 2) is converted to a potent DNA-alkylating agent via... the sequence specificity...

123

Effects of welfare reform on women's crime  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We investigate the effects of broad-based work incentives on female crime by exploiting the welfare reform legislation of the 1990s, which dramatically increased employment among women at risk for relying on cash assistance. We base the analyses on the supply of crime model in the human capital literature which emphasizes the importance of employment prospects in the legal and illegal labor markets. We find suggestive evidence that welfare reform decreased female arrests for property crimes (by 4–5%), but that it did not affect arrests for other types of crimes. The effects appear to be stronger in states with larger welfare caseload declines. As welfare reform policies are targeted to females, it is empirically validating that we do not find any substantively or statistically significant effects of welfare reform on crime among males. The findings point to broad-based work incentives—and, by inference, employment—as an important determinant of female property crime.

Hope Corman; Dhaval M. Dave; Nancy E. Reichman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Physician payments under health care reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study examines the impact of major health insurance reform on payments made in the health care sector. We study the prices of services paid to physicians in the privately insured market during the Massachusetts health care reform. The reform increased the number of insured individuals as well as introduced an online marketplace where insurers compete. We estimate that, over the reform period, physician payments increased at least 11 percentage points relative to control areas. Payment increases began around the time legislation passed the House and Senate—the period in which their was a high probability of the bill eventually becoming law. This result is consistent with fixed-duration payment contracts being negotiated in anticipation of future demand and competition.

Abe Dunn; Adam Hale Shapiro

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

A Multistage Steam Reformer Utilizing Solar Heat  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Today a large amount of the required hydrogen or synthesis gas (mixture of hydrogen and carbonmonoxide) is won by steam reforming of low hydrocarbons, especially methane. Hereby the mixture of hydrocarbons and...

W. Jäger; U. Leuchs; W. Siebert

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Improve reformer operation with trace sulfur removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modern bimetallic reforming catalysts typically have feed specifications for sulfur of 0.5 to 1 wppm in the reformer naphtha carge. Sulfur in the raw naphtha is reduced to this level by naphtha hydrotreating. While most naphtha hydrotreating operations can usually obtain these levels without substantial problems. It is difficult to obtain levels much below 0.5 to 1 wppm with this process. Revamp of a constrained existing hydrotreater to reduce product sulfur slightly can be extremely costly typically entailing replacement or addition of a new reactor. At Engelhard the authors demonstrated that if the last traces of sulfur remaining from hydrotreating can be removed, the resulting ultra-low sulfur feed greatly improves the reformer operation and provides substantial economic benefit to the refiner. Removal of the remaining trace sulfur is accomplished in a simple manner with a special adsorbent bed, without adding complexity to the reforming operation.

McClung, R.G.; Novak, W.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Biogas fuel reforming for solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper strategies for biogas reforming and their ensuing effects on solid oxide fuel cell(SOFC) performance are explored. Synthesized biogas (65% CH4?+?35% CO2) fuel streams are reformed over a rhodium catalyst supported on a porous ?-alumina foam. Reforming approaches include steam reforming and catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) utilizing either air or pure oxygen as the oxidant. A computational model is developed and utilized to guide the specification of reforming conditions that maximize both CH4 and CO2 conversions. Model predictions are validated with experimental measurements over a wide range of biogas-reforming conditions. Higher reforming temperatures are shown to activate the biogas-borne CO2 to enable significant methane dry-reforming chemistry. Dry reforming minimizes the oxidant-addition needs for effective biogas conversion potentially decreasing the thermal requirements for reactant heating and improving system efficiency. Such high-temperature reforming conditions are prevalent during CPOX with a pure-O2 oxidant. While CPOX-with-O2 reforming is highly exothermic the endothermicity of dry-reforming chemistry can be exploited to ensure that catalyst temperatures do not reach levels which cause catalyst sintering and degradation. SOFCelectrochemical performance under biogas reformate is shown to vary substantially with reforming approach. Cell operation under CPOX-with-O2 reformate is found to be comparable to that under humidified hydrogen.

Danielle M. Murphy; Amy E. Richards; Andrew Colclasure; Wade A. Rosensteel; Neal P. Sullivan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Chemical Composition of the Organic Matter of Oil Shale (Kerogen-70) from Leningrad Oblast (Benzene-Ethanol Extract)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detailed data are reported on the chemical composition of the benzene-ethanol extract of oil shale (kerogen-70).

V. V. Platonov; V. A. Proskuryakov; A. V. Glybina

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

Grimble, Ralph E. (Finleyville, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing welfare reform Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

reventionscience.umn.edu Summary: , poverty, welfare reform, school reform, and health- care reform. An emphasis is given to large... , and dissemination of a variety of programs...

131

Nickel-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura reactions of unactivated halides with alkyl boranes and planar-chiral borabenzene catalysts for Diels-Alder reactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Part I describes the expansion in scope of a nickel-catalyzed coupling reaction of unactivated alkyl bromides and alkyl boranes to include unactivated alkyl chlorides. The new method is adapted for use outside of a glove ...

Lu, Zhe

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Year/PAD District Alkylates Aromatics Road Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Alkylates Alkylates Aromatics Road Oil and Lubricants Petroleum Coke (MMcfd) Hydrogen Sulfur (short tons/day) Production Capacity Asphalt Isomers Marketable Table 7. Operable Production Capacity of Petroleum Refineries, January 1, 1981 to January 1, 2013 (Thousand Barrels per Stream Day, Except Where Noted) a JAN 1, 1981 974 299 765 131 234 276 2,054 NA JAN 1, 1982 984 290 740 162 242 267 1,944 NA JAN 1, 1983 960 237 722 212 241 296 2,298 NA JAN 1, 1984 945 218 800 208 241 407 2,444 NA JAN 1, 1985 917 215 767 219 243 424 2,572 NA JAN 1, 1986 941 276 804 258 246 356 2,357 NA JAN 1, 1987 974 287 788 326 250 364 2,569 23,806 JAN 1, 1988 993 289 788 465 232 368 2,418 27,639 JAN 1, 1989 1,015 290 823 469 230 333 2,501 28,369 JAN 1, 1990 1,030 290 844 456 232 341 2,607 24,202

133

Enediolate-Dilithium Amide Mixed Aggregates in the Enantioselective Alkylation of Arylacetic Acids: Structural  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Despite remarkable progress in the field of catalytic asymmetric synthesis,1 asymmetric alkylations of lithium enolates are pre- dominantly based on covalent chiral auxiliaries even in the simplest functionalizations.2-5 Recently, we developed an alkylation of the dianions of aryl and heteroaryl acetic acids6

Collum, David B.

134

A Practical and Highly Stereoselective Umpolung Alternative to the Alkylation of Chiral Enolates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-chiral center of high optical purity based on the SN2 displace- ment reaction of alkyl cuprates on chiral allyl, the reaction sometimes leads to self-condensa- tion byproducts. The Lewis acid induced alkylation of silyl enol ethers allows reaction with SN1-prone electrophiles but is of limited use with ester or amide derived O

Spino, Claude

135

Low Cost Autothermal Diesel Reforming Catalyst Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalytic autothermal reforming (ATR) represents an important step of converting fossil fuel to hydrogen rich reformate for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The state-of-the-art reforming catalyst, at present, is a Rh based material which is effective but costly. The objective of our current research is to reduce the catalyst cost by finding an efficient ATR catalyst containing no rhodium. A group of perovskite based catalysts have been synthesized and evaluated under the reforming condition of a diesel surrogate fuel. Hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and conversion selectivity to carbon oxides of the catalyst ATR reaction are calculated and compared with the benchmark Rh based material. Several catalyst synthesis improvements were carried out including: 1) selectively doping metals on the A-site and B-site of the perovskite structure, 2) changing the support from perovskite to alumina, 3) altering the method of metal addition, and 4) using transition metals instead of noble metals. It was found that the catalytic activity changed little with modification of the A-site metal, while it displayed considerable dependence on the B-site metal. Perovskite supports performed much better than alumina based supports.

Shihadeh, J.; Liu, D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Simulation of Steam Reformers for Methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A model is developed for industrial steam reformers for both top fired and side fired furnaces. The catalyst tube model is a one-dimensional heterogeneous model with intra-particle diffusional resistances. The two point boundary value differential equations of the catalyst pellets are solved using a modified novel orthogonal collocation technique to obtain the effectiveness factor variation along the length of the reactor. The side fired furnace equations are algebraic equations, the top fired furnace equations are two-point boundary value differential equations which are solved using the orthogonal collocation technique. A recently developed more general rate expression is used. The model performance is checked against industrial steam reformers. The model is used to investigate the effect of various parameters on the behaviour of the catalyst tubes and the furnace. The effectiveness factor variation along the length of the catalyst tube is also analysed. Keywords: Steam Reforming, Reactor modeling, Digital Simulation, effectiveness factor

M.A. Soliman; S.S.E.H. El-Nashaie; A.S. Al-Ubaid; A. Adris

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

The atmospheric release of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene from contaminated soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the remediation of gasoline contaminated soils. Excavation and removal of soils containing hydrocarbons is the most widely used remediation technique because of immediate and total site cleanup. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) combined are from...

Ramsey, Ronald Roland

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Modeling Studies on the Transport of Benzene and H2S in CO2-Water Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

interest in subcritical (hot/liquid) water from 298 K to 473subcritical region. Modeling Studies on the Transport of Benzene and H 2 S in CO 2 -Water

Zheng, L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Gaseous phase benzene decomposition by non-thermal plasma coupled with nano titania catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synergistic effect of atmospheric non-thermal plasma generated by dielectric barrier discharge and nano ... degradation was visible by added photocatalyst in the plasma reactor. When concentration of benzene was ...

T. Zhu M. Sc.; J. Li Ph.D.; Y. Q. Jin…

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Hydrogen production from the reaction of solvated electrons with benzene in water-ammonia mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Product analysis data for the reaction of the ammoniated electron with benzene-water mixtures in liquid ammonia show that the dominant product is evolved hydrogen and not 1,4-cyclohexadiene.

Dewald, R.R.; Jones, S.R.; Schwartz, B.S.

1980-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Assessment of variations in benzene concentration produced from vehicles and gas stations in Tehran using GIS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigates the variations of benzene concentration levels in district 1, situated in the north part of Tehran, capital of Iran. Thirty-three stations in five categories, namely roadsides, busy ... ar...

F. Atabi; F. Moattar; N. Mansouri…

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Evaluation of genotoxic effects of benzene and its derivatives in workers of gas stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The search for reliable biomarkers of human exposure to benzene and its derivatives is still subject of research. Many of the proposed biomarkers have limitations ranging from the low sensitivity to the wide vari...

Patrícia Trevisan; Juliane Nascimento da Silva…

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

On-Board Ammonia Generation Using Delphi Diesel Fuel Reformer  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Fuel LNT (Generates Ammonia) Exhaust Selective Catalytic DPF Valve Reduction Catalyst (SCR) 2 DEER 2007 Bypass V2 LNT V1 Reformer SCR Bypass V2 LNT V1 SCR Reformer * NOx storage...

144

Does health reform affect self-employment? Evidence from Massachusetts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper evaluates whether the implementation of the 2006 Massachusetts health reform law affected the decision of taxpayers to ... Though tenuous, our results suggest that the reform led to a decline in the ra...

Bradley T. Heim; Ithai Z. Lurie

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Electricity reform in Chile : lessons for developing countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chile was the first country in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector in the recent period. Among developing countries only Argentina has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. ...

Pollitt, Michael G.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

The Effect of Welfare Reform on Childbirth, Marriage, and Divorce  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation contains two essays on the effect of welfare reform on child- birth, marriage, and divorce. In the first essay, I exploit the cross state variation in welfare reform implementation to identify its effect on birth rates. The results...

Pakdeethai, Pimrak

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

147

SECOND GENERATION REFORMS IN CHILE, POWER EXCHANGE MODEL. THE SOLUTION?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SECOND GENERATION REFORMS IN CHILE, POWER EXCHANGE MODEL. THE SOLUTION? David Watts Paulo Atienza to participate. Chile was the pioneer introducing this kind of reforms, through the application of a centralized

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

148

MORE HEALTH CARE REFORM By Victor R. Fuchs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MORE HEALTH CARE REFORM By Victor R. Fuchs #12;2 | MORE HEALTH CARE REFORM The Robert Wood Johnson?................................................................................... 8 Government Payment for Health Care -- Causes and Consequences....................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Health Care Is Different -- That's Why Expenditures Matter

Zalta, Edward N.

149

Methane, Nonmethane Hydrocarbons, Alkyl Nitrates, and Chlorinated Carbon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases in Whole-Air Samples Atmospheric Trace Gases in Whole-Air Samples Methane, Nonmethane Hydrocarbons, Alkyl Nitrates, and Chlorinated Carbon Compounds including 3 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113) in Whole-air Samples graphics Graphics data Data Investigator Donald Blake Department of Chemistry, University of California Irvine, California, 92697 USA Period of Record April 1979 - December 2012 Methods Whole-air samples are collected in conditioned, evacuated, 2-L stainless steel canisters; each canister is filled to ambient pressure over a period of about 1 minute (approximately 20 seconds to 2 minutes). These canisters are returned to the University of California at Irvine for chromatographic analysis. Analysis for methane includes gas chromatography with flame ionization, as

150

Determination of a peak benzene exposure to consumers at typical self-service gasoline stations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DETERMINATION OF A PEAK BENZENE EXPOSURE TO CONSUMERS AT TYPICAL SELF-SERVICE GASOLINE STATIONS A Thesis by TED CARAPEZZA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene DETERMINATION OF A PEAK BENZENE EXPOSURE TO CONSUMERS AT TYPICAL SELF-SERVICE GASOLINE STATIONS A Thesis by TED CARAPEZZA Approved as to style and content by: (. (iL, &? Chairman...

Carapezza, Ted

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

151

308 nm photochemical reaction of gaseous HNO3 and benzene on ?-Fe2O3 surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The 308 nm photochemical reactions of nitric acid (HNO3) and benzene in the gas phase and on ?-Fe2O3 surface at 298 K was investigated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The concentration and yield of HONO and p-nitrophenol (p-NP) had been examined as a function of reaction time, benzene initial concentration and relative humidity on photochemical reaction. The results showed that gaseous HNO3 did not directly react with benzene in the dark, and p-NP was formed irradiation under 308 nm UV light. When HNO3 initial concentration was 400 Pa and benzene was 300 Pa, the illumination time was 100 min, the concentration of p-NP produced from the photochemical reaction of HNO3 and benzene on ?-Fe2O3 surface was about 3.08 times higher than that in the gas phase. In the meantime, while reaction time was 40 min and relative humidity was 70%, the concentration of HONO and p-NP formed on ?-Fe2O3 surface were about 3.55 and 2.51 times higher than those in the gas phase, and the yield of p-NP was 3.74% and 2.99%, respectively. Surfaces effect played a leading role in photochemical reaction of HNO3 and benzene on ?-Fe2O3 surface.

Jun Zhao; Chengzhu Zhu; Jun Lu; Jiaji Zou; Shuchuan Peng; Tianhu Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

153

SECTORAL EFFECTS OF TAX REFORMS IN AN OPEN ECONOMY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SECTORAL EFFECTS OF TAX REFORMS IN AN OPEN ECONOMY Olivier CARDI Romain RESTOUT December, 2010 REFORMS IN AN OPEN ECONOMY Olivier CARDI Universit´e Panth´eon-Assas ERMES Ecole Polytechnique Romain with traded and non traded goods to in- vestigate the sectoral effects of three tax reforms: i) two revenue

Boyer, Edmond

154

the triple aim MEETING THE GOAL OF HEALTH REFORM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the triple aim MEETING THE GOAL OF HEALTH REFORM Produced by OHSU Strategic Communications -- emphasizing shared decision-making and coordination between providers -- could influence reform in a big way care. health reform is about getting better health outcomes for our communities, improving access

Chapman, Michael S.

155

Preliminary and incomplete A Modest Proposal for International Monetary Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Preliminary and incomplete A Modest Proposal for International Monetary Reform International Columbia University #12;- 1 - - 1 - #12;- 2 - A Modest Proposal for International Monetary Reform Bruce are fundamental aspects of the present system and that, without reform, they will continue to plague the global

Grishok, Alla

156

WHEN DOES FINANCIAL SECTOR (IN)STABILITY INDUCE FINANCIAL REFORMS?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WHEN DOES FINANCIAL SECTOR (IN)STABILITY INDUCE FINANCIAL REFORMS? Susie LEE Ingmar SCHUMACHER (in)stability induce financial reforms? Susie Lee1 Ingmar Schumacher2 October 26, 2011 Abstract The article studies whether financial sector (in)stability had an effect on reforms in the fi- nancial sector

Boyer, Edmond

157

health reform mattersTM alert ATTORNEY ADVERTISINGropesgray.com  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

health reform mattersTM alert ATTORNEY ADVERTISINGropesgray.com On March 23, President Obama signed is tracking the myriad other developments of the new health reform law. You can find a wide range of related material, including enacting language, implementing documents, and analysis through the Health Reform

Chapman, Michael S.

158

Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Ofqual: A level Reform Consultation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Ofqual: A level Reform Consultation September 2012 1 Ofqual: A Level Reform Consultation Response by the Wellcome Trust September 2012 Key Points National Subject to university. We are therefore pleased to respond to this consultation on reforming A levels. Our comments

Rambaut, Andrew

159

Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-mail:skoge@chemeng.ntnu.no) #12;Abstract The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high cases. #12;1 Introduction The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo-octane components for use in high-performance gasoline fuels. The reformer also has an important function

Skogestad, Sigurd

160

Land Reform and Exclusion of Poor Jagat Basnet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of effective land management, land administration and all land reform processes interrelated, by land reform, it is widely understood to be a process of confiscating someone's land and award or with the land reform because of historical reasons of a power nexus. 6.2 The Historical Process of Land

Richner, Heinz

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Alternative technologies to steam-methane reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam-methane reforming (SMR) has been the conventional route for hydrogen and carbon monoxide production from natural gas feedstocks. However, several alternative technologies are currently finding favor for an increasing number of applications. The competing technologies include: steam-methane reforming combined with oxygen secondary reforming (SMR/O2R); autothermal reforming (ATR); thermal partial oxidation (POX). Each of these alternative technologies uses oxygen as a feedstock. Accordingly, if low-cost oxygen is available, they can be an attractive alternate to SMR with natural gas feedstocks. These technologies are composed technically and economically. The following conclusions can be drawn: (1) the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies can be attractive if low-cost oxygen is available; (2) for competing technologies, the H{sub 2}/CO product ratio is typically the most important process parameter; (3) for low methane slip, the SMR/O2R, ATR and POX technologies are favored; (4) for full CO{sub 2} recycle, POX is usually better than ATR; (5) relative to POX, the ATR is a nonlicensed technology that avoids third-party involvement; (6) economics of each technology are dependent on the conditions and requirements for each project and must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

Tindall, B.M.; Crews, M.A. [Howe-Baker Engineers, Inc., Tyler, TX (United States)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Carbon deposition in steam reforming and methanation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this review is to survey recent studies of carbon deposition on metals used as catalysts in steam reforming and methanation, emphasizing research where significant progress has been made. Where possible, an attempt is made to treat the fundamental nature of carbon formation and deactivation by carbon and the relationships between these two phenomena. Steam reforming and methanation are emphasized in this review because (1) deactivation of catalysts by carbon deposits is a serious concern in both processes, (2) much of the previous research with carbon formation on metals involved one or the other of these two reactions, and (3) there are interesting differences and similarities between these two reactions; for example, methanation is typically carried out at moderate reaction temperatures (200-450/sup 0/C) while steam reforming is typically carried out at significantly higher reaction temperatures (600-900/sup 0/C). Yet the two reactions are very closely related, since methane steam reforming is the reverse of methanation of CO. Moreover, there is evidence that some of the carbons formed in these two different processes are similar in their morphology.

Bartholomew, C.H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Low severity hydrocarbon steam reforming process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for producing ammonia which comprises: (a) primary catalytically reforming at super atmospheric pressure in a direct-fired primary reforming zone, a hydrocarbon feedstock with steam to produce a gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen and methane; (b) secondary catalytically reforming the gas from step (a) by introducing air and bringing the mixture towards equilibrium thereby producing a secondary reformer effluent gas containing nitrogen, carbon oxides, hydrogen and a decreased quantity of methane; (c) converting carbon monoxide catalytically with steam to carbon dioxide and hydrogen; (d) removing carbon oxides to give an ammonia synthesis gas comprising nitrogen and hydrogen and compressing the gas to ammonia synthesis pressure; (e) reacting the synthesis gas in an ammonia synthesis zone to produce ammonia and recovering ammonia from the reacted gas to produce an ammonia-depleted gas stream; (f) recycling at least a portion of the ammonia-depleted gas stream to the ammonia synthesis zone; and (g) treating a sidestream of the ammonia-depleted gas to separate a stream enriched in hydrogen and an inerts-enriched gas stream, and returning the enriched hydrogen stream to the ammonia synthesis zone.

Osman, R.M.; Byington, R.G.

1986-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

164

Affordable Care Act & Medicaid Reform in Wisconsin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Affordable Care Act & Medicaid Reform in Wisconsin Enrollment Trends Chartpack 2013-2014 ACA Open,731 Wisconsinites Living in Poverty Access Health Care Through Medicaid," Press Release, May 19, 2014. http://walker.wi.gov/newsroom/press-release/81731-wisconsinites-living-poverty-access-health-care-through- Medicaid Medicaid & CHIP: April 2014

Sheridan, Jennifer

165

Test of electron beam technology on Savannah River Laboratory low-activity aqueous waste for destruction of benzene, benzene derivatives, and bacteria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High energy radiation was studied as a means for destroying hazardous organic chemical wastes. Tests were conducted at bench scale with a {sup 60}Co source, and at full scale (387 l/min) with a 1.5 MV electron beam source. Bench scale tests for both benzene and phenol included 32 permutations of water quality factors. For some water qualities, as much as 99.99% of benzene or 90% of phenol were removed by 775 krads of {sup 60}Co irradiation. Full scale testing for destruction of benzene in a simulated waste-water mix showed loss of 97% of benzene following an 800 krad dose and 88% following a 500 krad dose. At these loss rates, approximately 5 Mrad of electron beam irradiation is required to reduce concentrations from 100 g/l to drinking water quality (5 {mu}g/l). Since many waste streams are also inhabited by bacterial populations which may affect filtering operations, the effect of irradiation on those populations was also studied. {sup 60}Co and electron beam irradiation were both lethal to the bacteria studied at irradiation levels far lower than were necessary to remove organic contaminants.

Dougal, R.A. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Evaluation of the economic and environmental impact of combining dry reforming with steam reforming of methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lately, there has been considerable interest in the development of more efficient processes to generate syngas, an intermediate in the production of fuels and chemicals, including methanol, dimethyl ether, ethylene, propylene and Fischer–Tropsch fuels. Steam methane reforming (SMR) is the most widely applied method of producing syngas from natural gas. Dry reforming of methane (DRM) is a process that uses waste carbon dioxide to produce syngas from natural gas. Dry reforming alone has not yet been implemented commercially; however, a combination of steam methane reforming and dry reforming of methane (SMR + DRM) has been used in industry for several years. The aim of this work was to simulate both the SMR and SMR + DRM processes and to conduct an economic and environmental analysis to determine whether the SMR + DRM process is competitive with the more popular SMR process. The results indicate that the SMR + DRM process has a lower carbon footprint. Further research on DRM catalysts could make this process economically competitive with steam methane reforming.

Preeti Gangadharan; Krishna C. Kanchi; Helen H. Lou

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Distributed Reforming Targets Arlene F. Anderson Technology Development Manager, U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group and Hydrogen Production Technical Team Review November 6, 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), launched in October 2006, provides a forum for effective communication and collaboration among participants in DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program (HFCIT) cost-shared research directed at distributed bio-liquid reforming. The Working Group includes

168

March 16, 2010, Safety and Security Reform Roundtable - Agenda  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Safety and Security Reform Roundtable Safety and Security Reform Roundtable Forrestal Building, Washington, DC March 16 th , 2010 1:00 PM (EST) AGENDA * Introduction of Union Leaders Glenn Podonsky, Chief Health, Safety and Security Officer * Welcome/Introductory Remarks on Reform Goals Dan Poneman, Deputy Secretary * Reform Status and Approach - Oversight, Directives, Mission Support Glenn Podonsky, Chief Health, Safety and Security Officer * Discussion Forum - Union Feedback - Feedback on oversight reform initiatives - Priority safety issues - Experience in collaborative focus group efforts - Recommendations for a path forward * Operating Organization Perspectives 1. Tom D'Agostino Administrator, National Nuclear Security Administration 2. Steven Koonin Under Secretary for Science

169

Palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation via decarboxylative and retro-Claisen C-C cleavage methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Presented herein is the development of new methods for Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation with a central focus on reactions that generate molecular complexity rapidly with little waste byproduct. With this simply stated, yet ...

Grenning, Alexander James

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

170

Degradable Terpolymers with Alkyl Side Chains Demonstrate Enhanced Gene Delivery Potency and Nanoparticle Stability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Degradable, cationic poly(?-amino ester)s (PBAEs) with alkyl side chains are developed for non-viral gene delivery. Nanoparticles formed from these PBAE terpolymers exhibit significantly enhanced DNA transfection potency ...

Eltoukhy, Ahmed A.

171

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkylation response protein Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: -DNA methyltransferases such as Ada and Ogt in E. coli and MGMT (or AGT) in humans. These proteins directly remove alkyl... purified proteins have been reported only for...

172

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkylating agent monobromobimane Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Naphthoate and Central Amide in Sequence-Dependent Summary: . In these assays, a 100-fold excess of agents was used in order to provide measurable alkylation yields in single......

173

1208 Organometallics1988,7,1208-1213 Copper(I) Alkyls. Synthesis and Characterization of Tertiary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 Received December 28. 1986 Alkylation of copper(I1)acetate reflections and 62 variables. Introduction Lithium dialkylcuprates, LiCuR2,are used extensively in organic

Girolami, Gregory S.

174

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkyl methyl ketones Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

l S e m e s t e r 1 9 9 7 Summary: . These acetylides are nucleophilic enough to undergo SN2 reactions with alkyl halides. There are two steps involved... : (a) formation of the...

175

Electrophilic Metal Alkyl Chemistry in New Ligand Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of this project were to design new electrophilic metal alkyl complexes and to exploit these systems in fundamental studies of olefin polymerization and other important and new catalytic reactions. A key target reaction is insertion copolymerization of olefins and polar CH2=CHX vinyl monomers such as vinyl halides and vinyl ethers. During the period covered by this report we (i) investigated the properties of ortho-alkoxy-arylphosphine ligands in Ni-based olefin polymerization catalysts, (ii) studied the synthesis of double-end-capped polyethylene using group 4 metal catalysts that contain tris-pyrazolylborate ligands, (iii) explored the ethylene insertion reactivity of group 4 metal tris-pyrazolyl-borate complexes, (iv) showed that (?-diimine)PdMe{sup +} species undergo multiple insertion of silyl vinyl ethers, (v) synthesized and explored the reactivity of base-free Ni benzyl complexes that contain ortho-phosphino-arene sulfonate ligands, (vi) established the mechanism of the reaction of vinyl chloride with (?-diimine)PdMe{sup +} catalysts, (vii) explored the role of cationic polymerization and insertion chemistry in the reactions of vinyl ethers with (?-diimine)PdMe{sup +} species, (viii) discovered a new class of self-assembled tetranuclear Pd catalysts that produce high molecular weight linear polyethylene and copolymerize ethylene and vinyl fluoride, and (ix) developed model systems that enabled investigation of cis-trans isomerization of {phosphine-sulfonate}Pd(II) complexes.

Jordan, Richard F. [University of Chicago] University of Chicago

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

176

Simulation of steam reformers for methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model is developed for industrial steam reformers for both top fired and side fired furnaces. The catalyst tube model is a one-dimensional heterogeneous model with intra-particle diffusional resistances. The two point boundary value differential equations of the catalyst pellets are solved using a modified novel orthogonal collocation technique to obtain the effectiveness factor variation along the length of the reactor. The side fired furnace equations are algebraic equations, the top fired furnace equations are two-point boundary value differential equations which are solved using the orthogonal collocation technique. A recently developed more general rate expression is used. The model performance is checked against industrial steam reformers. The model is used to investigate the effect of various parameters on the behaviour of the catalyst tubes and the furnace. The effectiveness factor variation along the length of the catalyst tube is also analysed.

M.A. Soliman; S.S.E.H. El-Nashaie; A.S. Al-Ubaid; A. Adris

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

A study of the deactivation of low loading Ni/Al2O3 steam reforming catalyst by tetrahydrothiophene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The steam reforming (SR) of ethanol/phenol mixture (168 gTOT/N m3, ethanol:phenol 2:1 mol, GHSV = 54,000 h? 1), assumed as a model for tar mixtures, has been studied over a 5% Ni/Al2O3 catalyst (155 m2/g), in the presence and in the absence of 210 ppm tetrahydrothiophene (THT) as a sulphur containing contaminant. The sulphidation of the catalyst by THT has been studied by IR spectroscopy. Infrared spectra of CO adsorbed at low temperature over the oxidized, the reduced and the sulphurized catalyst have also been recorded. The catalyst acts as a bifunctional one, with the behaviour attributed to the uncovered support (alumina modified by nickel ions) at 773 K (dehydration of ethanol to ethylene, dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and alkylation of phenol with ethanol) that fully disappears at 973 K when steam reforming occurs very selectively. By lowering back the reaction temperature, the support behaviour reappears. THT poisons selectively the Ni component, thus causing the appearance of the support behaviour also at 973 K. IR experiments show that THT deposes sulphur at the catalyst surface with the production of gas-phase 1,3-butadiene, thus converting the catalyst into a “sulphided” SR-inactive state. The steam reforming activity of the poisoned catalyst progressively reappears upon feeding back S-free feed at 973 K. IR study suggests that steam “cleans” the catalyst surface by sulphur, generating a “disordered” surface with dispersed Ni2 + and Ni0 species, that could slowly re-approach the initial active state.

Gabriella Garbarino; Alvaro Romero Perez; Elisabetta Finocchio; Guido Busca

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

The Cost Implications of Health Care Reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...health insurance coverage. But there is concern about its implications for health care costs. These concerns have been heightened by a recent report from the actuary at the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), which shows that health care reform will cause an expansion of national health... Jonathan Gruber argues that by the second decade, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will have reduced national health care spending.

Gruber J.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

179

Cross-Couplings of Unactivated Secondary Alkyl Halides: Room-Temperature Nickel-Catalyzed Negishi Reactions of Alkyl Bromides and Iodides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-carbon bonds.1 To date, most studies of these processes have focused on forming Csp2-Csp2 (particularly biaryl-coupling catalysts for generating Csp3-Csp3 bonds.2 The availability of general methods for building the latter set to constructing Csp3-Csp3 bonds via metal- catalyzed cross-couplings of alkyl electrophiles with alkylmetals

Fu, Gregory C.

180

Determination of the structure of 2(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid)·1.5(pyrene)·2(methanol) and comparison with that of 2(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid)·pyrene·2(ethanol)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detailed comparison is made of the structures of 2(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid)·1.5(pyrene)·2(methanol) (new determination) and of 2(benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid)·pyrene·2(ethanol) (data from the literature).

Herbstein, F.H.

2001-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Methods of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov May 2012 Opportunity Research is currently active on the technology "Methods of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts." The technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview This invention discloses a method to reform hydrocarbon fuels using hexa- aluminate catalysts. In general, the method successfully disrupts the forma- tion of carbon that leads to the deactivation of the catalyst, a key element in the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. When researchers are designing catalysts to reform hydrocarbon fuels, one

182

Structural and regulatory reform in Turkey: Lessons form public utilities  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Turkey is one of the countries that recently initiated regulatory reform in public utilities. Although Turkey tried to introduce competition to many industries through a liberalization movement that started in the 1980s, utilities remained as monopolies until the early 2000s. In the beginning of the 2000s, reforms restructured the utilities through deregulation and competition policies and established independent regulatory agencies. Whereas the reforms have been successful in some aspects, they remain insufficient in others. This paper anecdotally investigates the effects of (de)regulation on selected public utility industries and analyzes the pros and cons of the reform process. Also, it presents a comparative analysis to better understand the current institutional and governmental issues in the reform process. The findings suggest that the recently changing stance of government towards the (de)regulatory process could thwart the success of reform.

Tamer Çetin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling the natural attenuation of benzene in groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuels: Effect of ethanol content on the lifespan and maximum length of benzene plumes Diego E. Gomez1 and Pedro 10 March 2009. [1] A numerical model was used to evaluate how the concentration of ethanol

Alvarez, Pedro J.

184

THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 134, 134701 (2011) Binding of hydrogen on benzene, coronene, and graphene from quantum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and graphene from quantum Monte Carlo calculations Jie Ma,1,2,3 Angelos Michaelides,2,3,4 and Dario Alfè3 the binding energy curves of hydrogen on benzene, coronene, and graphene. The DMC results on benzene agree well with MP2, giving an adsorption energy of 40 meV. For physisorbed hydrogen on graphene, DMC

Alfè, Dario

185

Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirement Damodara Poojary, Jacques Nicole,...

186

Solar Steam Reforming of Methane (SSRM) Program Proposals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Within the intended development work to supply solar HT process heat to industrial processes, especially chemical processes, the steam reforming process is considered suitable in particular.

A. Kalt

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Improved System Performance and Reduced Cost of a Fuel Reformer, LNT, and SCR Aftertreatment System Meeting Emissions Useful Life Requirement Improved System Performance and...

188

Review of Trajectories of Chemistry Education Innovation and Reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Review of Trajectories of Chemistry Education Innovation and Reform ... Trajectories of Chemistry Education Innovation and Reform began as a symposium at an American Chemical Society (ACS) meeting, honoring the efforts of Susan Hixon on the occasion of her retirement from the position of program officer in the Division of Undergraduate Education at the National Science Foundation (NSF). ... In addition to providing the reader with an overview of the history of chemical education as a research field, this book summarizes reform efforts in areas of curriculum design, pedagogical tools, and institutional reform. ...

Brittland K. DeKorver

2014-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

189

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by Arlene Anderson at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

190

FUEL CELLS – SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS | Internal and External Reformation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three basic concepts of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems operating on hydrocarbon fuels, with external, internal, and partial prereforming, respectively, are presented and discussed. Internal reforming of methane is advantageously used for additional cooling of the SOFC stack, thus increasing system efficiency. Basic thermodynamics, catalysis, and kinetics of the methane steam reforming process are presented. Examples of SOFC stacks operating on internal reforming of methane and simulated partial prereforming of mine gas and natural gas are discussed. The latter is used to illustrate the effect of internal methane reforming on heat management in SOFC stacks.

L.G.J. de Haart; R. Peters

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

192

Assuring Equity Through Health and Health Care Reform Conference Registration Information (Type or Print)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assuring Equity Through Health and Health Care Reform Conference Registration Information (Type Care Structural Reform: What's Happening in Albany and Washington? Changing the Social Determinants of Health Reform in the Pharmaceutical Industry Sustaining Community Health Workers Comparative

Brown, Lucy L.

193

Aligning modes of organization with technology: Critical transactions in the reform of infrastructures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Aligning modes of organization with technology: Critical transactions in the reform of their reform. Since infrastructures are characterized by strong technical complementarities, we explore the alignment between organization and technology and should be taken explicitly into account when reforming

Boyer, Edmond

194

Edinburgh Research Explorer Reforming State Pension provision in `Liberal' Anglo Saxon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Edinburgh Research Explorer Reforming State Pension provision in `Liberal' Anglo Saxon Countries, Vickerstaff, S & Loretto, W 2012, 'Reforming State Pension provision in `Liberal' Anglo Saxon Countries: Re University Press. Lain, D., Vickerstaff, S. & Loretto, W. 2012, "Reforming State Pension provision

Millar, Andrew J.

195

Reforming the EU: The Future of European Law and Policy IV CONFERENCE PROGRAMME  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reforming the EU: The Future of European Law and Policy IV CONFERENCE session "Reforming the EU" Chair: Dr Luca Rubini, Deputy Director Institute Rubini Reforming European competition law: should the European Commission have

Birmingham, University of

196

Experimental Research on Low-Temperature Methane Steam Reforming Technology in a Chemically Recuperated Gas Turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Under the operating parameters of a chemically recuperated gas turbine (CRGT), the low-temperature methane steam reforming test bench is designed and built; systematic experimental studies about fuel steam reforming are conducted. Four different reforming ...

Qian Liu; Hongtao Zheng

2014-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

197

Organosulfur chemistry on W(211) surfaces. 2. A comparison of benzene, thiophene, and tetrahydrothiophene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interactions of benzene, thiophene, and tetrahydrothiophene with clean, oxidized, and sulfided W(211) surfaces were studied with LEED, AES, and temperature programmed reaction. Benzene and thiophene appear to absorb as bases making -bonds to the surface. Benzene decomposed to yield adsorbed carbon and hydrogen. Thiophene appeared to undergo electrophilic attack at the 2-position forming a carbon bound surface intermediate. This surface intermediate was desulfurized and the resulting hydrocarbon surface intermediate underwent C-C bond scission forming C3 hydrocarbons as the dominate desorption product. The electrophilic attack at the 2-position was shown by methyl group elimination from 2,5-dimethylthiophene. Adsorbed oxygen and sulfur enhanced the adsorption of benzene and thiophene by making the surface more acidic. Tetrahydrothiophene (THT) appear to adsorb as a base, forming a bond between the S(3p) electrons and the surface. Desulfurization of adsorbed THT led to C4 hydrocarbons as the dominate desorption product. Adsorbed oxygen and sulfur inhibited reaction of THT. These results suggest that the surface reactivity and subsequent desulfurization of thiophene is controlled by electrophilic attack on the aromatic ring, and the ensuing reduction of resonance stabilization facilitates sulfur removal. 41 references, 8 figures, 4 tables.

Preston, R.E.; Benziger, J.B.

1985-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

198

Biomarkers of Leukemia Risk: Benzene Martyn T. Smith and Luoping Zhang  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomarkers of Leukemia Risk: Benzene as a Model Martyn T. Smith and Luoping Zhang Division://ehpnetl.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1998/Suppl-4/937-946smith/abstract.html Key words: genetic susceptibility, chemical exposure, molecular preparation. Address correspondence to M.T. Smith, Professor of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Division

California at Berkeley, University of

199

Two-dimensional 1,3,5-Tris(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene self-assembly at  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two-dimensional 1,3,5-Tris(4-carboxyphenyl)benzene self-assembly at the 1-phenyloctane and published work see http://pubs.rsc.org/en/journals/journalissues/tc. Two-dimensional (2D) self-assembly storage, selective ion exchange, high den- sity data storage, etc. Molecular self-assembly offers unique

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

200

UPTAKE, DISTRIBUTION, AND DEPURATION OF 14C-BENZENE IN NORTHERN ANCHOVY, ENGRAULIS MORDAX, AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bay areas. Al- though the chronic levels are low, if fish ac- cumulate benzene over field products was studied in two species of marine fish. Mature northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax, and juvenile. Increased drilling, transportation, and refining of crude oils near or on coastal waters has led to the need

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Accurately modeling benzene and alkylbenzenes using a group contribution based SAFT approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In recent work, the GC-SAFT-VR equation, which combines the SAFT equation for potentials of variable range (VR) with a group contribution (GC) approach, was proposed. Parameters for key functional groups (such as CH3, CH2, CH, CH2CH, CO, C6H5, ether, ester, OH, NH2, CHO, COOH) were obtained by fitting to experimental vapor pressure and saturated liquid density data for selected low molecular weight fluids and then used to predict the phase behavior of both pure non-associating and associating fluids and their mixtures, generally without adjusting the group parameters to binary mixture data. In the GC-SAFT-VR approach the benzene ring was modeled as a single group (C6H6 for benzene and C6H5, for alkylbenzenes) however, in common with other group-contribution based SAFT approaches, this approach fails to reproduce the correct curvature seen in the experimental liquid density of alkylbenzenes. In this work, to improve upon the model adopted for ring molecules, the benzene ring is explicitly considered through the connectivity of several smaller groups to more accurately capture the ?–? interactions. We demonstrate that the improved model better captures the curvature present in the experimental saturated liquid density data of pure alkylbenzenes. Additionally, mixtures of several non-associating and associating fluids with benzene and alklybenzenes are studied.

Gaurav Das; M. Carolina dos Ramos; Clare McCabe

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Dose-dependent cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of antineoplastic alkylating agents on human lymphoblastoid cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The alkylating agents in clinical use as antineoplastics are strongly implicated as human carcinogens on the basis of animal studies and human epidemiologic studies. However, there is little quantitative information on the extent to which exposure to these drugs is mutagenic for normal (non-malignant) cells and the extent to which such mutagenicity correlates with cytotoxicity of these agents. Human lymphoblastoid cells (WIL2-NS) were exposed to graded doses of eight antineoplastic alkylating agents. Dose-dependent decreases in survival were used to calculate IC{sub 50}s for each of the drugs tested. The mutagenicity of these agents is correlated strongly with cytotoxicity. These results quantitate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of these bifunctional alkylating agents on human cells. All are cytotoxic and mutagenic, although their mutagenic efficiency varies.

Sanderson, B.J.S.; Johnson, K.J.; Henner, W.D. (Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance (December 1996)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

defining early what contractors should accomplish defining early what contractors should accomplish < establishing contracts ahead of time < minimizing cost while maintaining quality by * maximizing competition and use of incentives * using past performance information in awarding work * managing the NEPA process as a project This guidance provides: < model statements of work < information on contract types and incentives < direction on effective NEPA contract management by the NEPA Document Manager < a system for measuring NEPA process costs < NEPA contractor evaluation procedures < details on the DOE NEPA Web site U.S. Department of Energy, Office of NEPA Policy and Assistance, December 1996 NEPA CONTRACTING REFORM GUIDANCE Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

204

E-Print Network 3.0 - act contracting reform Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

US Pricing Basics and What to Expect from Healthcare Reform By Jack Mycka... health care reform and pricing 12;3 MME LLC 2010 Applied Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes...

205

Effects of Current upon Electrochemical Catalytic Reforming of Anisole  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reforming of anisole (as model compound of bio-oil) was performed over the NiCuZn-Al2O3 catalyst, using a recently-developed electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR). The influence of the current on the anisole reforming in the ECR process has been investigated. It was observed that anisole reforming was significantly enhanced by the current approached over the catalyst in the electrochemical catalytic process, which was due to the non-uniform temperature distribution in the catalytic bed and the role of the thermal electrons originating from the electrified wire. The maximum hydrogen yield of 88.7% with a carbon conversion of 98.3% was obtained through the ECR reforming of anisole at 700°C and 4 A. X-ray diffraction was employed to characterize catalyst features and their alterations in the anisole reforming. The apparent activation energy for the anisole reforming is calculated as 99.54 kJ/mol, which is higher than ethanol, acetic acid, and light fraction of bio-oil. It should owe to different physical and chemical properties and reforming mechanism for different hydrocarbons.

Jia-xing Xiong; Tao Kan; Xing-long Li; Tong-qi Ye; Quan-xin Li

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

ISSN 1745-9648 Potential Impact of Electricity Reforms on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISSN 1745-9648 Potential Impact of Electricity Reforms on Turkish Households by Necmiddin Finance, Hacettepe University & Catherine Waddams Price ESRC Centre for Competition Policy and Norwich the potential effect of electricity reform on different households, using a series of potential scenarios

Feigon, Brooke

207

Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A fuel cell is claimed capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

Fraioli, A.V.; Young, J.E.

1984-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

208

Data reconciliation and optimal operation of a catalytic naphtha reformer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-mail:skoge@chemeng.ntnu.no) #12;Abstract The naphtha reforming process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high process converts low-octane gasoline blending compo- nents to high-octane components for use in high-octane components for use in high-performance gasoline fuels. The reformer also has a important function

Skogestad, Sigurd

209

Health Care Reform Challenge: Creating a High Performance Healthcare System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Health Care Reform Challenge: Creating a High Performance Healthcare System Tom Simmer, MD Chief;The Challenge of Reform: Accountable Care Organizations (ACO) · ACO's are provider organizations health care delivery Organized Systems of Care Population focus for primary care physicians, hospitals

Finley Jr., Russell L.

210

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Sector Reform in Greece by Ekaterini Iliadou Lawyer - Legal Department of the electricity market reform in Greece which started in 2001 and is still developing slowly. This is related to the persisting dominance of the incumbent company and the specificities of the electricity sector of Greece

Feigon, Brooke

211

University of Glasgow -1-Reform of Peer Review: Response to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

University of Glasgow -1- Reform of Peer Review: Response to Consultation Introduction & Summary The University of Glasgow welcomes the opportunity to comment on these proposals for the reform of peer review and the introduction of processes to scrutinise the economic impact of research within the peer review process and we

Glasgow, University of

212

Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorne Woods, IL); Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cell  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell is described capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

Young, J.E.; Fraioli, A.V.

1983-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

214

Effect of Polyethylene Glycol, Alkyl, and Oligonucleotide Spacers on the Binding, Secondary Structure, and Self-Assembly of Fractalkine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Polyethylene Glycol, Alkyl, and Oligonucleotide Spacers on the Binding, Secondary-amphiphiles with no spacer (NoSPR), polyethylene glycol (PEG4, PEG8, PEG24), alkyl (C12 and C24), or oligonucleotide (T10 a polyethylene glycol (PEG) or an oligo-T (thymine) spacer is added to the aptamer, especially when attaching

Kokkoli, Efie

215

Steam reforming utilizing sulfur tolerant catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a steam reforming process for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur which consists of: adding steam to the hydrocarbon material and passing the steam and hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity, sulfur tolerant catalyst of platinum supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. It also describes a steam process for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur which consists of steam to the hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity, sulfur tolerant catalysts consisting essentially of iridium supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. In addition a steam reforming process is described for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur comprising adding steam to the hydrocarbon material and passing the steam and hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity sulfur tolerant catalysts consisting essentially of palladium supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina.

Setzer, H.J.; Karavolis, S.; Bett, J.A.S.

1987-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

216

Reforming Power Markets in Developing Countries | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reforming Power Markets in Developing Countries Reforming Power Markets in Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Reforming Power Markets in Developing Countries Agency/Company /Organization: World Bank Sector: Energy Focus Area: Conventional Energy, Renewable Energy Topics: Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Publications, Lessons learned/best practices Website: siteresources.worldbank.org/INTENERGY/Resources/Energy19.pdf References: Reforming Power Markets in Developing Countries [1] Summary "This paper complements the World Bank's Operational Guidance Note by compiling lessons of this experience that help in applying the Note's guidance. These lessons are taken from the rapidly growing literature on power market reform in developing countries. They cover the range of issues

217

Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) This assessment determines the technology maturity level of the candidate Tank 48H treatment technologies that are being considered for implementation at DOE's SRS - specifically Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer System. Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) More Documents & Publications Technology Maturation Plan (TMP) Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) Technology for Tank 48H Treatment Project (TTP) SRS Tank 48H Waste Treatment Project Technology Readiness Assessment

218

Telecommunications reform and efficiency performance: Do good institutions matter?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Until recently, most studies investigating telecommunication reforms performance have failed to incorporate the importance of institutions into the empirical analysis. This study highlights the importance of institutional governance on telecommunications efficiency and provides empirical results for the impact of institutions on reform outcomes. It provides significant evidence that the institutional environment in which reform progress takes place is an important determinant for successful reform. This study uses the stochastic distance function approach to capture the role of institutions in explaining efficiency differences across 70 countries. The empirical analysis reveals that policy stability in the form of substantive checks and balances on executive power is the most important aspect for successful reform. Independently, legal integrity improves telecommunications efficiency through privatization, while greater freedom from corruption influences the effectiveness of a regulatory body.

Noorihsan Mohamad

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Steam reformers heated by helium from high temperature reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The manifold possibilities of the application of helium-heated steam reformers combined with high temperature nuclear reactors are elucidated in this article. It is shown that the thermodynamic interpretation of the processes does not cause difficulties because of the good heat transfer in helium at high pressure and that helium peak temperatures of 950°C are sufficient for carrying out the process. The mechanical design of the reformer tube does not lead to problems because the helium and process pressures are so chosen as to be approximately equal. The problems of hydrogen and tritium permeation as well as the contamination of the reformer tube with solid fission products seem to be solvable using the knowledge available at present. Furthermore, the various possibilities for the design arrangements of helium-heated reformer tube furnaces are shown. The status of development attained to date is outlined and in conclusion there is a survey regarding the next steps to be taken in steam reformer technology.

K. Kugeler; M. Kugeler; H.F. Niessen; K.H. Hammelmann

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Produce synthesis gas by steam reforming natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For production of synthesis gas from natural gas the steam reforming process is still the most economical. It generates synthesis gas for ammonia and methanol production as well as hydrogen, oxo gas and town gas. After desulfurization, the natural gas is mixed with steam and fed to the reforming furnace where decomposition of hydrocarbons takes place in the presence of a nickel-containing catalyst. Synthesis gas that must be free of CO and CO/sub 2/ is further treated in a CO shift conversion, a CO/sub 2/ scrubbing unit and a methanation unit. The discussion covers the following topics - reforming furnace; the outlet manifold system; secondary reformer; reformed gas cooling. Many design details of equipment used are given.

Marsch, H.D.; Herbort, H.J.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities At the request of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Research Universities, the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) have assembled a set of ten recommendations for regulatory reform that would improve research universities' ability to carry out their missions without requiring a significant financial investment by the Federal government. Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations

222

Process Reform, Security and Suitability - December 17, 2008 | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Process Reform, Security and Suitability - December 17, 2008 Process Reform, Security and Suitability - December 17, 2008 Process Reform, Security and Suitability - December 17, 2008 December 17, 2008 This is to report on the progress made to improve the timeliness and effectiveness of our hiring and clearing decisions and the specific plan to reform the process further, in accordance with our initial proposals made in April ofthis year. In response to significant, continuing security clearance timeliness concerns, Congress called for improvements and established specific timeliness goals as part of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA). Since the enactment of IRTPA, average timeliness for 90 percent of all clearance determinations reported has been substantially improved, from 265 days (in 2005) to 82 days (4th Quarter,

223

Gas/particle partitioning of total alkyl nitrates observed with TD-LIF in Bakersfield  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

total AN (gas + aerosol) and ANaer show that on average 21% of ANs are in the condensed phaseGas/particle partitioning of total alkyl nitrates observed with TD-LIF in Bakersfield A. W. Rollins samples. These measurements show that ANs are a ubiquitous component of the OA with the ­ONO2 subunit

Cohen, Ronald C.

224

Serendipitous alkylation of a Plk1 ligand uncovers a new binding channel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We obtained unanticipated synthetic byproducts from alkylation of the ?[superscript 1] nitrogen (N3) of the histidine imidazole ring of the polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1) polo-box domain (PBD)-binding peptide PLHSpT. For the ...

Lim, Dan

225

Oligonucleoside alkyl or arylphosphonate derivatives capable of crosslinking with or cleaving nucleic acids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for inactivating a target nucleic acid which comprises an oligonucleoside alkyl or arylphosphonate analogue which is complementary to the sequence of the target nucleic acid is provided. It includes a functional group which reacts with the target nucleic acid to render the target nucleic acid inactive or nonfunctional. 16 figs.

Miller, P.S.; Ts'o, P.O.P.

1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

Whitesides et al. f Reaction ctfAlkyl Halides with Magnesiunt Mechanismof Formationof GrignardReagents.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbanionsand carbonium ionsare not intermediates,and tliat the transition-itut. structuredoesnot resemblean SN2.rnagncsiumatom at the mctal surface(or possibly in solution) rrrrghtdisplacehelidefrotncarbonin an SN2-likc rcuctionor inrcrlWhitesides et al. f Reaction ctfAlkyl Halides with Magnesiunt Mechanismof Formationof Grignard

Prentiss, Mara

227

Hiring Reform Memoranda and Action Plan  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0585 0585 October 7, 2010 MEMORANDUM FOR HEADS OF ALL DEPARTMENTAL ELEMEI\lTS HUMAI\l RESOURCES DIRECTORS FROM: MICHAELC. KANE~~~ CHIEF HUMAN CAPITAL ~ c· SUBJECT: IMPROVING DOE RECRUITMENT AND HIRING PROCESSES This is a follow-up to the Deputy Secretary's Memorandum dated October 6, 2010 where he communicated the need to implement the Action Plan developed to improve the recruitment and hiring processes throughout the Department. One of the central tenets of the President's reform efforts and the Department's Action Plan is management's commitment and attention to an efficient and effective hiring process that yields quality employees. This was clearly articulated in the President's Memorandum dated May 11, 2010 where he directed that management be held accountable through the performance evaluation system for their role

228

Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described of providing a continuous supply of hydrogen fuel to a fuel cell system. The system comprises a heat exchanger, a burner, a catalytic reactor containing a catalyst bed for catalyzing the production of hydrogen from a gaseous mixture of water and methanol and a fuel cell comprised of a fuel electrode, an oxygen electrode and an electrolyte disposed therebetween. The process comprises: passing a gaseous mixture consisting essentially of water and methanol to the heat exchanger to heat the mixture to a superheated state, the temperature and composition of the superheated mixture being sufficient to supply at least about 90% of the heat required for reforming the methanol contained in the mixture by condensation.

Beshty, B.S.; Whelan, J.A.

1987-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

229

Catalyst for steam reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A catalyst's resistance to deactivation by polymer formation is vital to the successful gasification of heavy feedstocks such as kerosene and gas oil. The improved polymer-resistance performance of this steam-reforming catalyst is directly relate to the distribution of the pore sizes in its calcined (but unreduced) precursor form and to a certain pore-size ratio: 1) At least 55% of the pore volume of pores having a radius of between 12 and 120 A(2000A) is in the range of 12-30 A(2000A) and 2) the ratio of the pore volume contained in pores of 10-50 A(2000A) to the volume contained in pores of 50-300 A(2000A) is at least 5:1. The catalyst-preparation method involves coprecipitation with a minimum of heat treatment (at temperatures not greater than 140/sup 0/F or 60/sup 0/C).

Banks, R.G.S.; Williams, A.

1980-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

230

Performance tests for steam methane reformers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most of the synthesis gas plants in operation in the United States for production of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methanol, and ammonia use steam methane reforming (SMR). Economic projections indicate that the SMR plant may continue to be the most favorable process choice through the 1980s or until partial oxidation or coal gasification processes are technically proven. The complexity of an efficiently designed SMR plant for production of these chemicals requires a thorough understanding of many unit operations to correctly evaluate the performance of an operating plant. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) owns and operates various types of SMR plants for production of hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases for pipe line sales, liquid hydrogen for merchant sale, methanol and ammonia. Over the past few years, APCI has developed guidelines and procedures for plant performance tests done at its major SMR plants. This article documents the plant test procedure used in conducting onsite SMR plant performance tests.

Wang, S.I.; DiMartino, S.P.; Patel, N.M.; Smith, D.D.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Process for steam reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is provided for the steam reforming of normally liquid hydrocarbons to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which does not promote the deposition of carbonacious materials upon catalytic surfaces. The catalyst consists of nickel promoted with the oxides of iron and manganese within a specific manganese to iron ratio, said metal and metal oxides being supported upon a refractory support. The support is preferably aluminum oxide in its alpha phase having a surface area of more than 0.5 m2/gm but no more than 10 m2/gm. The metallic constituents are impregnated onto said refractory low surface area support as salts and are calcined at sufficiently high temperature to convert the salts to the oxide but at a sufficiently low temperature that they do not chemically react with the support.

Broughton, D.R.; Russ, K.J.

1980-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

232

The counting of naturally occuring radiocarbon in the form of benzene in a liquid scintillation counter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A counting system is described for C14 dating with a benzene scintillator solution. The single photomultiplier counter used is relatively simple and reliable. Different sizes and forms of the counting solution containers were investigated. A 6 ml cell with a background of 4?0 counts/min and a 45 per cent detection efficiency is recommended for routine C14 dating. A 60 ml cell with a background of 14?6 counts/min and a 45 per cent detection efficiency is capable of dating samples as old as 57,500 years (4 ? statistics, 48 hr counting). The calibration and operation of the counter is discussed. On comparison with standard gas counter methods, it is suggested that routine C14 dating by the benzene method is preferable in those cases where the laboratory personnel are more skilled in chemical manipulations than electronic technique.

C. Leger; M.A. Tamers

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Benzene Exposure and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Martyn T. Smith, Rachael M. Jones, and Allan H. Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Benzene Exposure and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Martyn T. Smith, Rachael M. Jones, and Allan H. Smith Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University

California at Berkeley, University of

234

Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Department for Education's reformed GCSE subject content  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

's reformed GCSE subject content consultation - August 2013 Department for Education: Reformed GCSE subject's reformed GCSE subject content consultation. The proposed changes to science qualifications promote reform and have enclosed a copy for information. 1 ` Direct assessment' is based on the direct assessment

Rambaut, Andrew

235

MOVIE "CHICAGO CITY COUNCIL: READY FOR REFORM?" (27 minutes/color)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, transportation, and health care. 8. Investigate how many of the reform proposals were in place twenty years afterMOVIE ­ "CHICAGO CITY COUNCIL: READY FOR REFORM?" (27 minutes/color) SYNOPSIS Following the death of Mayor Harold Washington, residents and reformers of Chicago still hoped for continued reform in Chicago

Illinois at Chicago, University of

236

The nuclear heated steam reformer — Design and semitechnical operating experiences  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Good operating experiences of the EVA I- and EVA II-plant have been described. Therin the comparison of the different catalyst concepts has been given. Further the behaviour of the bundle of EVA II plant by isolation of individual reformer tubes as well as the performance of the bundle under transient conditions have been explained. Different design concepts for a nuclear heated steam reformer based on the concentric tubes and baffles have been given. Main points of studies are constructional details, thermohydraulic of the bundle and stress analysis. It can be shown that the present standard of knowledge allows the application of the steam reformer for coal refinement with nuclear heat.

J. Singh; H.F. Niessen; R. Harth; H. Fedders; H. Reutler; W. Panknin; W.D. Müller; H.G. Harms

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An integrated process for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling.

Chen, Michael S. (Zionsville, PA); Painter, Corning F. (Allentown, PA); Pastore, Steven P. (Allentown, PA); Roth, Gary S. (Trexlertown, PA); Winchester, David C. (Allentown, PA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

Not Available

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Reforming The Government Hiring Process | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reforming The Government Hiring Process Reforming The Government Hiring Process Reforming The Government Hiring Process November 19, 2010 - 10:10am Addthis Rita Franklin Rita Franklin Deputy Chief Human Capital Officer What does this mean for me? In the video, Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman highlights the Department's "Time-to-Hire Tracking and Reporting System." The Department reduced the end-to-end time-to-hire from 174 calendar days for Fiscal Year FY 2009 to 100 days for FY 2010. Wednesday, Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman and I met with leaders from across the Federal government to share our progress in the our Department's hiring reform efforts. Six months ago, President Obama called on all executive departments and federal agencies to overhaul the way we recruit and hire. As the President

240

Intelligence Reform and Terroroism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Intelligence Reform and Terroroism Prevention Act - December 17, Intelligence Reform and Terroroism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 Intelligence Reform and Terroroism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 December 17, 2004 To reform the intelligence community and the intelligence and intelligence-related activities of the United States Government, and for other purposes. SEC. 102. (a) DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE.-(1) There is a Director of National Intelligence who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Any individual nominated for appointment as Director of National Intelligence shall have extensive national security expertise. ''(2) The Director of National Intelligence shall not be located within the Executive Office of the President. ''(b) PRINCIPAL RESPONSIBILITY.-Subject to the authority, direction,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Reforming The Government Hiring Process | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reforming The Government Hiring Process Reforming The Government Hiring Process Reforming The Government Hiring Process November 19, 2010 - 10:10am Addthis Rita Franklin Rita Franklin Deputy Chief Human Capital Officer What does this mean for me? In the video, Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman highlights the Department's "Time-to-Hire Tracking and Reporting System." The Department reduced the end-to-end time-to-hire from 174 calendar days for Fiscal Year FY 2009 to 100 days for FY 2010. Wednesday, Deputy Secretary Daniel Poneman and I met with leaders from across the Federal government to share our progress in the our Department's hiring reform efforts. Six months ago, President Obama called on all executive departments and federal agencies to overhaul the way we recruit and hire. As the President

242

A Compact and Efficient Steam Methane Reformer for Hydrogen Production.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A small-scale steam-methane reforming system for localized, distributed production of hydrogen offers improved performance and lower cost by integrating the following technologies developed at the… (more)

Quon, Willard

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Process Reform, Security and Suitability- December 17, 2008  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This is to report on the progress made to improve the timeliness and effectiveness of our hiring and clearing decisions and the specific plan to reform the process further, in accordance with our initial proposals made in April ofthis year.

244

Fuel reforming for scramjet thermal management and combustion optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fuel reforming for scramjet thermal management and combustion optimization E. DANIAU* , M. BOUCHEZ in a Scramjet combustion chamber. Another critical point is that mixing and combustion should be sufficiently

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

245

Experiences of niobium-containing alloys for steam reformers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Destructive testing of niobium alloys was made in steam reformer as well as the study of the effects of the chemical compositions on the creep rupture and tensile properties.

Shibasaki, T.; Takemura, K.; Kawai, T.; Mohri, T.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Deregulation, tax reform, and the use of consumer credit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article analyzes the probable effects of recent deregulation of consumer credit markets and tax reform on household credit-use decisions. The results of the analysis ... that deregulation of rates of charge ...

A. Charlene Sullivan; Debra Drecnik Worden

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

ISSN 1745-9648 Organisation and Reforms of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of liberalisation of the Slovenian electricity market to a large extent resembles what other EU countries were: electricity reform, restructuring, competition, South East Europe, liberalisation #12;2 Acknowledgements

Feigon, Brooke

248

ECONOMIC REFORM AND COMMUNIST REGIME SURVIVABILTY: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of their respective Politburos and may be described as not only ‘surviving’ but thriving, experiencing economic stability and enjoying high rates of growth. This study examines the ramifications of economic and political reform policies implemented by four collapsed...

Nelson, John

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

249

A cross country analysis of electricity market reforms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

econometric model based on Poisson regression with cross-section data covering 51 US states, 13 Canada states and 51 other countries. The results show that both the background of the chairperson of electricity market regulatory agency when reforms started...

Erdogdu, Erkan

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

250

Highly Active Steam Reforming Catalyst for Hydrogen and Syngas Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Toyo Engineering Corporation developed a steam reforming catalyst, which is four times as active as conventional catalysts, for hydrogen and syngas production from light natural gas. The catalyst has...3 plant. B...

Toru Numaguchi

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Distributed Ethanol Reforming  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids Bio-derived liquid fuels can be produced from renewable agricultural products, such as wood chips. Background Bio-derived renewable fuels are attractive for their high energy density and ease of transport. One scenario for a sustainable hydrogen economy considers that these bio-derived liquid fuels will be produced at plants close to the biomass resource, and then transported to distributed hydrogen production centers (e.g., hydrogen refueling stations), where the fuels will be reformed via the steam reforming process, similar to the current centralized production of hydrogen by the steam reforming of natural gas. Hydrogen produced by reforming these fuels must first be purified and compressed to appropriate storage and dispensing pressures. Compressing

252

Electrical Generation Tax Reform Act (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Generation Tax Reform Act (Montana) Generation Tax Reform Act (Montana) Electrical Generation Tax Reform Act (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Fed. Government Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Residential Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Low-Income Residential Schools Institutional Multi-Family Residential Systems Integrator Nonprofit General Public/Consumer Transportation Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Montana Program Type Fees Provider Montana Department of Revenue This Act reforms taxes paid by electricity generators to reduce tax rates and imposes replacement taxes in response to the 1997 restructuring of the

253

Integrated process and apparatus for the primary and secondary catalytic steam reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An apparatus is described for the essentially autothermal, integrated primary and secondary reforming of hydrocarbons comprising: (a) an internally insulated outer reactor shell adapted for the positioning of primary and secondary reforming zones therein; (b) means defining a primary reforming zone within the outer reactor shell and having catalyst-containing reformer tubes positioned therein, the primary reforming zone not requiring an external fuel fired source of heat for the endothermic primary reforming reaction occurring therein; (c) means for introducing a fluid hydrocarbon feed stream and steam to the outer reactor shell for passage through the reformer tubes in the primary reforming zone; (d) means defining a secondary reforming zone within the outer reactor shell comprising a secondary reforming catalyst bed, a catalyst-free reaction space defining a feed end adjacent to the catalyst bed and a discharge end at the opposite side of the secondary reforming catalyst bed to the feed end; and (e) conduit means positioned entirely within the outer reactor shell and extending through the secondary reforming catalyst bed for passing partly reformed product effluent from the primary reforming zone to the catalyst-free reaction space in the secondary reforming zone.

Fuderer, A.

1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

254

Experimental Study on Gasoline Reforming Assisted by Nonthermal Arc Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gasoline conversion efficiency decreased when the electric discharge regime was changing from continuous to gliding arc and from gliding to streamer. ... Compared with catalytic reformers, plasma devices have so far lower performances, which is explained by the early stage of research on nonthermal plasma reforming and the need of an external energy input (electricity). ... and design of the plasma reactor, composed of two gliding arc discharges in series, were detailed. ...

Jean-Damien Rollier; José Gonzalez-Aguilar; Guillaume Petitpas; Adeline Darmon; Laurent Fulcheri; Rudolf Metkemeijer

2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

255

Faculty perceptions of presidential leadership in urban school reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FACULTY PERCEPTIONS OF PRESIDENTIAL LEADERSHIP IN URBAN SCHOOL REFORM A Dissertation by RODNEY PRESCOTT McCLENDON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2007 Major Subject: Agricultural Education FACULTY PERCEPTIONS OF PRESIDENTIAL LEADERSHIP IN URBAN SCHOOL REFORM A Dissertation by RODNEY PRESCOTT McCLENDON Submitted...

McClendon, Rodney Prescott

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

256

Spin Crossover in a Series of Iron(II) Complexes of 2-(2-Alkyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1,10-phenanthroline: Effects of Alkyl Side  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spin Crossover in a Series of Iron(II) Complexes of 2-(2-Alkyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-1Versity, Beijing 100871, China Received October 27, 2006 2-(2H-Tetrazol-5-yl)-1,10-phenanthroline (HL0 ), its alkyl) at the 2H position of the tetrazole ring, and their iron(II) complexes (a for [Fe(L0 )2], na for [Fe(Ln)2

Gao, Song

257

Steam reforming of n-heptane at low concentration as a means for hydrogen injection into internal combustion engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam reforming of n-heptane at low concentration as a means for hydrogen injection into internal combustion engines, with the aim of running the engine at a lean fuel-air ratio (to reduce emissions and improve fuel economy), was studied in laboratory flow systems with both an integral and gradientless (Berty-type) fixed-bed reactor. The reaction kinetics were determined in the gradientless reactor over a Ni/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst at 632/sup 0/-679/sup 0/K, 1 atm total pressure, and 0.15-1.75 kPa partial pressure of n-heptane, with a recycling ratio of over 20:1. The reaction orders in hydrogen and n-heptane were 0.22 and -0.23, respectively, and the activation energy was 83.6 kj/mole. The reactant concentrations did not satisfy the equilibrium equations for the water-gas shift and methane-steam reactions at low conversions, but the agreement was good at high conversions. A small amount of benzene was produced, which decreased with increasing temperature, probably because of the polymerization, and ultimately, carbon formation.

Sjoestroem, K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Hydrogen plant expansion using oxygen secondary reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As crude oil feedstocks become heavier and more sour, the H/sub 2/ demands of a refinery increase. Heavier sour crudes require more H/sub 2/ for hydrodesulfurization, hydrocracking and hydrotreating to produce the lighter, high quality products currently in demand. In most cases, this additional H/sub 2/ requirement is satisfied by the generation of on purpose H/sub 2/. The on purpose H/sub 2/ demand is typically satisfied by steam methane reforming (SMR). The conventional SMR process, utilizing shift, CO/sub 2/ removal, and methanation for H/sub 2/ purification, can produce 90 to 98% pure H/sub 2/ at 150 to 400 psig at an energy efficiency of 410 Btu (HHV)/SCF H/sub 2/. An SMR process employing shift and pressure swing adsorption (PSA) for H/sub 2/ purification can produce H/sub 2/ at a purity up to 99.999% and an energy efficiency of 390 Btu (HHV)/SCF H/sub 2/. Two options available for satisfying an increased on purpose H/sub 2/ demand are the addition of a new SMR plant and the debottlenecking of an existing SMR. A new SMR plant is the most capital-intensive means of expanding H/sub 2/ capacity.

Snyder, G.D.; Wang, S.I.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

2003-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

260

THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Field Validation of Polyethylene Passive Air Samplers for Parent and Alkylated PAHs in Alexandria, Egypt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Field Validation of Polyethylene Passive Air Samplers for Parent and Alkylated PAHs in Alexandria, Egypt ... In Alexandria for example, eight monitoring stations were established for monitoring the atmospheric quality since the establishment of the Egyptian environmental Law (Law No. 4, 1994). ... Environmental Characterization of Alexandria, Egypt; Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency: Cairo, 2007; www.eeaa.gov.eg/English/reports/GovProfiles/final/Alex%20Des.pdf. ...

Mohammed A. Khairy; Rainer Lohmann

2012-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

262

Summary of Substitution and Elimination Reactions of Alkyl Halides Polar protic solvent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will come from E2 and/or SN2, or there will be no reaction, depending upon the structure of the alkyl halide­X E2, SN2, E1/SN1 First, you need to know which products to expect from each mechanism. Second, you: 1) 1° halides will give SN2 unless the halide is hindered on the backside by branching

Walba, David

263

Acute toxicity of toluene, hexane, xylene, and benzene to the rotifers Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus plicatilis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A large number of studies on the biological effects of oil pollution in the aquatic environment deal with the effects of whole crude or refined oils or their water-soluble fractions. However, low boiling, aromatic hydrocarbons, which are probably the most toxic constituents of oil, have until now not been examined in sufficient detail. Toluene, benzene and xylene, constitute a major component of various oils. They may be readily lost by weathering but are toxic in waters that are relatively stagnant and are chronically polluted. Korn et al. have stated that toluene is more toxic than many other hydrocarbons such as benzene, though the latter are more water-soluble. Report of the effects of exposure to organic solvents like hexane or toluene are still limited although organic solvents are a well-known group of neurointoxicants. Various benzene derivates continue to be used as chemical intermediates, solvents, pesticides, so on, in spite of incomplete knowledge of their chronic toxicity. The majority of toxicity studies about the effects of pollution on aquatic organisms under controlled conditions have used either fish or the cladoceran Daphnia magna and there are few studies reported using rotifers. The effects of herbicides on population variables of laboratory rotifer cultures have been investigated. Rotifers are one of the main sources of zooplankton production and they have an important ecological significance in the aquatic environment. The present work was designed to investigate the effect of short-term exposure to some petroleum derivates which might be expected to occur immediately under an oil-slick, on freshwater and brackish environment rotifers. 18 refs., 1 tab.

Ferrando, M.D.; Andreu-Moliner, E. (Univ. of Valencia (Spain))

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Reactions of the CN Radical with Benzene and Toluene: Product Detection and Low-Temperature Kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low temperature rate coefficients are measured for the CN + benzene and CN + toluene reactions using the pulsed Laval nozzle expansion technique coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection. The CN + benzene reaction rate coefficient at 105, 165 and 295 K is found to be relatively constant over this temperature range, 3.9 - 4.9 x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. These rapid kinetics, along with the observed negligible temperature dependence, are consistent with a barrierless reaction entrance channel and reaction efficiencies approaching unity. The CN + toluene reaction is measured to have a slower rate coefficient of 1.3 x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 105 K. At room temperature, non-exponential decay profiles are observed for this reaction that may suggest significant back-dissociation of intermediate complexes. In separate experiments, the products of these reactions are probed at room temperature using synchrotron VUV photoionization mass spectrometry. For CN + benzene, cyanobenzene (C6H5CN) is the only product recorded with no detectable evidence for a C6H5 + HCN product channel. In the case of CN + toluene, cyanotoluene (NCC6H4CH3) constitutes the only detected product. It is not possible to differentiate among the ortho, meta and para isomers of cyanotoluene because of their similar ionization energies and the ~;; 40 meV photon energy resolution of the experiment. There is no significant detection of benzyl radicals (C6H5CH2) that would suggest a H-abstraction or a HCN elimination channel is prominent at these conditions. As both reactions are measured to be rapid at 105 K, appearing to have barrierless entrance channels, it follows that they will proceed efficiently at the temperatures of Saturn?s moon Titan (~;;100 K) and are also likely to proceed at the temperature of interstellar clouds (10-20 K).

Trevitt, Adam J.; Goulay, Fabien; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Leone, Stephen R.

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

265

The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Surface Vibrational Spectroscopy Study of Benzene and 2,2,2-Trifluoroacetophenone on Pt(111)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Département de Chimie, Université Laval, Québec (Qc), Canada G1 V 0A6 ... Although benzene on Pt(111) has been studied experimentally by several techniques, including HREELS,(27-30) RAIRS,(31) STM,(32) LEED,(33) NEXAFS,(34) and ARUPS,(35) no firm consensus has been achieved concerning the adsorption site. ... The authors acknowledge financial support from the National Science and Engineering research Council (NSERC), the Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), and the Fonds québécois de la recherche sur la nature et les technologies (FQRNT) through support for the Centre in Green Chemistry and Catalysis (CCVC/CGCC). ...

Vincent Demers-Carpentier; Peter H. McBreen

2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

267

Mobility of Supercooled liquid Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Benzene near their Glass Transition Temperatures Investigated using Inert Gas Permeation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the mobility of supercooled liquid toluene, ethylbenzene, and benzene near their respective glass transition temperatures (Tg). The permeation rate of Ar, Kr, and Xe through the supercooled liquid created when initially amorphous overlayers heated above their glass transition temperature is used to determine the diffusivity. Amorphous benzene crystallizes at temperatures well below its Tg and as a result the inert gas underlayer remains trapped until the onset of benzene desorption. In contrast, for toluene and ethylbenzene the onset of inert gas permeation is observed at temperatues near Tg. The inert gas desorption peak temperature as a function of the heating rate and overlayer thickness is used to quantify the diffusivity of supercooled liquid toluene and ethylbenzene from 115 K to 135 K. In this temperature range, diffusivities are found to vary across five orders of magnitude (~10-14 to 10-9 cm2/s). These data are compared to viscosity measurements and used to determine the low temperature fractional Stokes-Einstein exponent. Efforts to determine the diffusivity of a mixture of benzene and ethylbenzene are detailed, and the effect of mixing these materials on benzene crystallization is explored using infrared spectroscopy.

May, Robert A.; Smith, R. Scott; Kay, Bruce D.

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

268

Walk the line: Conflict, state capacity and the political dynamics of reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper develops a dynamic framework to analyze the political sustainability of economic reforms in developing countries. First, we demonstrate that economic reforms that are proceeding successfully may run into a political impasse, with the reform's initial success having a negative impact on its political sustainability. Second, we demonstrate that greater state capacity, to make compensatory transfers to those adversely affected by reform, need not always help the political sustainability of reform, but can also hinder it. Finally, we argue that in ethnically divided societies, economic reform may be completed not despite ethnic conflict, but because of it.

Sanjay Jain; Sumon Majumdar; Sharun W Mukand

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

Jantzen, C

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

270

The use of advanced steam reforming technology for hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The demand for supplementary hydrogen production in refineries is growing significantly world-wide as environmental legislation concerning cleaner gasoline and diesel fuels is introduced. The main manufacturing method is by steam reforming. The process has been developed both to reduce the capital cost and increase efficiency, reliability and ease of operation. ICI Katalco`s Leading Concept Hydrogen or LCH process continues this process of improvement by replacing the conventional fired steam reformer with a type of heat exchange reformer known as the Gas Heated Reformer or GHR. The GHR was first used in the Leading Concept Ammonia process, LCA at ICI`s manufacturing site at Severnside, England and commissioned in 1988 and later in the Leading Concept Methanol (LCM) process for methanol at Melbourne, Australia and commissioned in 1994. The development of the LCH process follows on from both LCA and LCM processes. This paper describes the development and use of the GHR in steam reforming, and shows how the GHR can be used in LCH. A comparison between the LCH process and a conventional hydrogen plant is given, showing the benefits of the LCH process in certain circumstances.

Abbishaw, J.B.; Cromarty, B.J. [ICI Katalco, Billingham (United Kingdom)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Evolution of soot size distribution in premixed ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flames: Experimental and modeling study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of benzene concentration in the initial fuel on the evolution of soot size distribution in ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flat flames was characterized by experimental measurements and model predictions of size and number concentration within the flames. Experimentally, a scanning mobility particle sizer was used to allow spatially resolved and online measurements of particle concentration and sizes in the nanometer-size range. The model couples a detailed kinetic scheme with a discrete-sectional approach to follow the transition from gas-phase to nascent particles and their coagulation to larger soot particles. The evolution of soot size distribution (experimental and modeled) in pure ethylene and ethylene flames doped with benzene showed a typical nucleation-sized (since particles do not actually nucleate in the classical sense particle inception is often used in place of nucleation) mode close to the burner surface, and a bimodal behavior at greater height above burner (HAB). However, major features were distinguished between the data sets. The growth of nucleation and agglomeration-sized particles was faster for ethylene/benzene/air flames, evidenced by the earlier presence of bimodality in these flames. The most significant changes in size distribution were attributed to an increase in benzene concentration in the initial fuel. However, these changes were more evident for high temperature flames. In agreement with the experimental data, the model also predicted the decrease of nucleation-sized particles in the postflame region for ethylene flames doped with benzene. This behavior was associated with the decrease of soot precursors after the main oxidation zone of the flames. (author)

Echavarria, Carlos A.; Sarofim, Adel F.; Lighty, JoAnn S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); D'Anna, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita ''Federico II'' di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities January 21, 2011 Introduction At the request of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Research Universities, the Council on Governmental Relations (COGR), the Association of American Universities (AAU), and the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities (APLU) have assembled a set of ten recommendations for regulatory reform that would improve research universities' ability to carry out their missions without requiring a significant financial investment by the Federal government. We firmly believe that compliance and regulatory oversight are essential to the conduct of federally-supported research. Rationalizing the Federal regulatory infrastructure is essential to

273

Comments on Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Comments on Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Comments on Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform issued February 3, 2011 (Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 23 /Thursday, February 3, 2011 /Notices). Comments on Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform issued February 3, 2011 (Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 23 /Thursday, February 3, 2011 /Notices). I have reviewed the Request For Information regarding Reducing Regulatory Reform issued February 3, 2011 (Federal Register /Vol. 76, No. 23 /Thursday, February 3, 2011 /Notices). In the Department of Energy"s (DOE) attempt to meet its obligation to implement Executive Order 13563, ""Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review,"" issued by the President on January 18, 2011, I recommend DOE make a bold move to change

274

Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in Vietnam in Vietnam Jump to: navigation, search Name Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam Agency/Company /Organization Regional Community Forestry Training Center for Asia and the Pacific Sector Land Focus Area Forestry Topics Resource assessment, Background analysis Resource Type Lessons learned/best practices Website http://recoftc.org/site/filead Country Vietnam UN Region South-Eastern Asia References Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam[1] Forest Tenure Reform in Vietnam Screenshot Summary "This report presents a synthesis of findings from the two surveys undertaken in Dak Lak (by Dak Lak Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (DARD)) and Hoa Binh by VFU (See Annex A. for a list of members in the two research teams). It was prepared by Nguyen Quang Tan, Nguyen Ba

275

Steam methane reforming in molten carbonate salt. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the work accomplished on the project {open_quotes}Steam Methane Reforming in Molten Carbonate Salt.{close_quotes}. This effort has established the conceptual basis for molten carbonate-based steam reforming of methane. It has not proceeded to prototype verification, because corrosion concerns have led to reluctance on the part of large hydrogen producers to adopt the technology. Therefore the focus was shifted to a less corrosive embodiment of the same technology. After considerable development effort it was discovered that a European company (Catalysts and Chemicals Europe) was developing a similar process ({open_quotes}Regate{close_quotes}). Accordingly the focus was shifted a second time, to develop an improvement which is generic to both types of reforming. That work is still in progress, and shows substantial promise.

Erickson, D.C.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV); Haynes, Daniel (Morgantown, WV); Smith, Mark (Morgantown, WV); Spivey, James J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

277

High performance internal reforming unit for high temperature fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel reformer having an enclosure with first and second opposing surfaces, a sidewall connecting the first and second opposing surfaces and an inlet port and an outlet port in the sidewall. A plate assembly supporting a catalyst and baffles are also disposed in the enclosure. A main baffle extends into the enclosure from a point of the sidewall between the inlet and outlet ports. The main baffle cooperates with the enclosure and the plate assembly to establish a path for the flow of fuel gas through the reformer from the inlet port to the outlet port. At least a first directing baffle extends in the enclosure from one of the sidewall and the main baffle and cooperates with the plate assembly and the enclosure to alter the gas flow path. Desired graded catalyst loading pattern has been defined for optimized thermal management for the internal reforming high temperature fuel cells so as to achieve high cell performance.

Ma, Zhiwen (Sandy Hook, CT); Venkataraman, Ramakrishnan (New Milford, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT)

2008-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

278

Ghana-REDD Readiness Requires Radical Reform | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Readiness Requires Radical Reform Readiness Requires Radical Reform Jump to: navigation, search Name Ghana-REDD Readiness Requires Radical Reform Agency/Company /Organization UN-REDD Programme Sector Land Focus Area Forestry, Agriculture Topics Implementation, GHG inventory, Policies/deployment programs, Resource assessment, Pathways analysis, Background analysis Resource Type Maps, Guide/manual, Training materials Website http://environment.yale.edu/tf Country Ghana UN Region Western Africa References Ghana-REDD Readiness[1] Summary "The fundamental changes needed for sustainable forest management in Ghana have been known for years, and many large projects have been instigated accordingly. Yet real change has proved elusive. The key challenge now is to get REDD-plus right so that it makes a difference. Dialogue participants

279

GUIDANCE ON APPLICATION OF FEDERAL VACANCIES REFORM ACT OF 1998 Page 1 of 13  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

APPLICATION OF FEDERAL VACANCIES REFORM ACT OF 1998 Page 1 of 13 APPLICATION OF FEDERAL VACANCIES REFORM ACT OF 1998 Page 1 of 13 GUIDANCE ON APPLICATION OF FEDERAL VACANCIES REFORM ACT OF 1998 This memorandum provides guidance on the application of the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of1998 to vacancies in Senate-confirmed offices within the executive branch. March 22, 1999 MEMORANDUM FOR AGENCY GENERAL COUNSELS On October 21, 1998, the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998 ("Vacancies Reform Act" or "Act") was signed into law. ( ) The Vacancies Reform Act replaces the old Vacancies Act and alters the way in which vacancies in presidentially appointed, Senate- confirmed offices within the executive branch may be filled on a temporary basis. The following Q&As are intended to provide general guidance on the Vacancies Reform Act. If

280

A Comparative Study between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of Ethanol. A Comparative Study between Co and Rh for Steam Reforming of Ethanol. Abstract: Rh and Co-based catalyst performance was compared...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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281

Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on CoMgO catalysts . Catalytic roles of Co0 and Co2+ during steam reforming of ethanol on CoMgO catalysts . Abstract:...

282

The Fate of Obamacare: Racial Resentment, Ethnocentrism and Attitudes about Healthcare Reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Health care has been a contentious issue in American ... public support for, and opposition to, healthcare reform. Using national survey data, we measure ... and Ethnocentrism, on white support for healthcare reform

Angie Maxwell; Todd Shields

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Abstract 3727: Phase 0 trials, obligation to research and ethical implications of health-care reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...obligation to research and ethical implications of health-care reform Silvia Camporesi...are also at the core of the US Health Care reform. On the one hand...currently Special Advisor for Health Policy at the White House...

Silvia Camporesi and Matteo Mameli

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

284

Application of a Diesel Fuel Reformer for Tier 2 Bin 5 Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of a Diesel Fuel Reformer for Tier 2 Bin 5 Emissions APPROACH On-board diesel fuel reformation is being evaluated as an alternative to urea SCR to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions...

285

It’s About Time for Autism Reform Legislation in Utah  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On 3 April 2014, Governor Gary Herbert signed into law a health insurance reform bill that requires private insurers to cover ... and the District of Columbia have enacted insurance reform laws. Ensuring that chi...

Brian J. Shiozawa

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FLUIDIZABLE CATALYSTS FOR PRODUCING HYDROGEN BY STEAM REFORMING BIOMASS PYROLYSIS LIQUIDS Kimberly established that biomass pyrolysis oil could be steam-reformed to generate hydrogen using non pyrolysis oil could be almost stoichiometrically converted to hydrogen. However, process performance

287

Internal tar/CH4 reforming in a biomass dual fluidised bed gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An internal reformer is developed for in situ catalytic reforming of tar and methane (CH4) in allothermal gasifiers. The study has been performed in the ... 150 kW dual fluidised bed (DFB) biomass gasifier at Mid...

Kristina Göransson; Ulf Söderlind; Till Henschel…

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The fuel processor in which hydrogen is produced from fuels is an important unit in a fuel cell system. The aim of this study is to apply a thermodynamic concept to identify a suitable reforming process for an ethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Three different reforming technologies, i.e., steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming, are considered. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to determine an energy demand and to describe how efficiently the energy is supplied to the reforming process. Effect of key operating parameters on the distribution of reforming products, such as H2, CO, CO2 and CH4, and the possibility of carbon formation in different ethanol reformings are examined as a function of steam-to-ethanol ratio, oxygen-to-ethanol ratio and temperatures at atmospheric pressure. Energy and exergy analysis are performed to identify the best ethanol reforming process for SOFC applications.

Phanicha Tippawan; Amornchai Arpornwichanop

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

E-Print Network 3.0 - agricultural price reforms Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

T Y J A N U A R Y 1 1 , 2 0 1 0 You Get What You Pay For: The Obama Approach to Health Care Reform 12... fundamental issues in health care reform 12;Coverage is actually quite...

290

Steam reforming of carbo-metallic oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for economically converting carbo-metallic oils to liquid fuel products by bringing a converter feed containing 650/sup 0/ F. + material characterized by a carbon residue on pyrolysis of at least about 1 and by containing at least about 4 ppm of nickel equivalents of heavy metals, including nickel, into contact with a particulate cracking catalyst in a progressive flow type reactor having an elongated conversion zone. The suspension of catalyst and feed in the reactor has a vapor residence time in the range of about 0.5 to about 10 seconds, a temperature of about 900/sup 0/ F. to about 1400/sup 0/ F. and a pressure of about 10 to about 50 pounds per square inch absolute for causing a conversion per pass in the range of about 50 to about 90 percent while depositing nickel on the catalyst and coke on the catalyst in amounts in the range of about 0.3 to about 3 percent by weight. The coke-laden catalyst is separated from the resulting stream of hydrocarbons and regenerated by combustion of the coke with oxygen, the regenerated catalyst being characterized by deposited nickel in at least a partially oxidized state and a level of carbon on catalyst of about 0.25 percent by weight or less. The regenerated catalyst is contacted with a reducing gas under reducing conditions sufficient to reduce at least a portion of the oxidized nickel deposits to a reduced state and the regenerated catalyst with reduced nickel deposits is recycled to the conversion zone for contact with fresh feed. Water is also introduced into the reactor conversion zone and the amount of water and the amount of reduced nickel on the recycled catalyst are sufficient to provide a steam reforming reaction so that hydrogen deficient components of the feed are converted to products having higher hydrogen to carbon ratios and the amount of feed converted to coke is reduced. The amount of deposited nickel on catalyst is preferably in the range from about 2,000 to about 20,000 ppm.

Myers, G.D.; Hettinger, W.P. Jr.; Kovach, S.M.; Zandona, O.J.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

291

Health Insurance Reform and the Tensions of Federalism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...government will be able to navigate the political and policy-related shoals, but clearly, federal–state tensions are about to be seriously tested. Insurance-Market Reforms and Market-Stabilization Initiatives in the Health Care Reform Law.. Creation of high-risk pools — effective June 21, 2010 (90... Christopher Jennings and Katherine Hayes write that our ability to achieve a workable federal–state balance will be seriously tested as the Obama administration and the states define and apply their roles in implementing the myriad new policies for ...

Jennings C.C.; Hayes K.J.

2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

292

Medicare's Chronic Care Management Payment — Payment Reform for Primary Care  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...efforts to reform U.S. health care delivery focus on creating a high-performing primary care system that improves value through increased emphasis on access, prevention, and care coordination. Reformers recognize that the fee-for-service system, which restricts payments for primary care to office-based... In 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services will introduce a non–visit-based payment for chronic care management. The new policy reflects an investment in primary care that may contribute to the development of a value-oriented health system.

Edwards S.T.; Landon B.E.

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

293

High temperature gas cooled reactor steam-methane reformer design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concept of the long distance transportation of process heat energy from a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) heat source, based on the steam-methane reforming reaction, is being evaluated by the Department of Energy as an energy source/application for use early in the 21st century. This paper summaries the design of a helium heated steam reformer utilized in conjunction with an intermediate loop, 850/degree/C reactor outlet temperature, HTGR process heat plant concept. This paper also discusses various design considerations leading to the mechanical design features, the thermochemical performance, the materials selection and the structural design analysis. 12 refs.

Impellezzeri, J.R.; Drendel, D.B.; Odegaard, T.K.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

Misage, Robert (Manchester, CT); Scheffler, Glenn W. (Tolland, CT); Setzer, Herbert J. (Ellington, CT); Margiott, Paul R. (Manchester, CT); Parenti, Jr., Edmund K. (Manchester, CT)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

The Political Economy of India’s Fiscal Federal System and its Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for state governments’ capital expenditure. Tax Reform Taxborrow to finance capital expenditure, without underminingfinancing states’ capital expenditure through new borrowing

Rao, M. Govinda; Singh, Nirvikar

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Hydrogen Production by Noncatalytic Autothermal Reformation of Aviation Fuel Using Supercritical Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen Production by Noncatalytic Autothermal Reformation of Aviation Fuel Using Supercritical Water ... Energy Fuels, 2009, 23 (12), ...

Jason W. Picou; Jonathan E. Wenzel; H. Brian Lanterman; Sunggyu Lee

2009-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

297

Role of alkyl alcohol on viscosity of silica-based chemical gels for decontamination of highly radioactive nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Silica-based chemical gel for the decontamination of nuclear facilities was prepared by using fumed silica as a viscosifier, a 0.5 M Ce (IV) solution dissolved in concentrated nitric acid as a chemical decontamination agent, and tripropylene glycol butyl ether (TPGBE) as a co-viscosifier. A new effective strategy for the preparation of the chemical gel was investigated by introducing the alkyl alcohols as organic solvents to effectively dissolve the co-viscosifier. The mixture solution of the co-viscosifier and alkyl alcohols was more effective in the control of viscosity than that of the co-viscosifier only in gel. Here, the alkyl alcohols played a key role as an effective dissolution solvent for the co-viscosifier in the preparation of the chemical gel, resulting in a reducing of the amount of the co-viscosifier and gel time compared with that of the chemical gel prepared without the alkyl alcohols. It was considered that the alkyl alcohols contributed to the effective dissolution of the co-viscosifier as well as the homogeneous mixing in the formation of the gel, while the co-viscosifier in an aqueous media of the chemical decontamination agent solution showed a lower solubility. The decontamination efficiency of the chemical gels prepared in this work using a multi-channel analyzer (MCA) showed a high decontamination efficiency of over ca. 94% and ca. 92% for Co-60 and Cs-137 contaminated on surface of the stainless steel 304, respectively. (authors)

Choi, B. S.; Yoon, S. B.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Div. of Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Development, Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Inequality and the Politics of Social Policy Implementation: Gender, Age and Chile's 2004 Health Reforms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reforms CHRISTINA EWIG and GASTO´ N A. PALMUCCI * University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA Summary implementation. We examine the 2004 Chilean health reforms that sought to regulate private insurers, and measure their effects on gender and age inequality. We find that reforms intended to decrease these inequalities largely

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

299

WELLCOME TRUST CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WELLCOME TRUST CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England April 2013 1 Department for Education: Reform of the National Curriculum in England CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to the Reform of the National Curriculum in England April 2013 2

Rambaut, Andrew

300

DOES HOSPITAL COMPETITION SAVE LIVES? EVIDENCE FROM THE ENGLISH NHS PATIENT CHOICE REFORMS*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOES HOSPITAL COMPETITION SAVE LIVES? EVIDENCE FROM THE ENGLISH NHS PATIENT CHOICE REFORMS* Zack Cooper, Stephen Gibbons, Simon Jones and Alistair McGuire Recent substantive reforms to the English with fixed prices. This study investigates whether these reforms led to improvements in hospital quality. We

Mateo, Jill M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Even if it's not Bribery: The Case for Campaign Finance Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Even if it's not Bribery: The Case for Campaign Finance Reform Brendan Daley Erik Snowberg Duke reform alleviates this phenomenon and improves voter welfare at the expense of politicians. Thus, we expect successful politicians to oppose true campaign finance reform. We also show our model

Jensen, Grant J.

302

BEHIND THE VEIL THE REFORM OF ISLAM IN INTER-WAR ALBANIA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

107 BEHIND THE VEIL THE REFORM OF ISLAM IN INTER-WAR ALBANIA OR THE SEARCH FOR A "MODERN" of the country. The dominant role of secularist elites paved the way for the "reform of Islam." This process in the organization and reform of official religious institutions. For example, it interfered in the organization

Boyer, Edmond

303

August 15, 2013 Bargaining Update 8: UC stresses fair compensation and reasonable pension reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reform UC stressed with the California Nurses Association on Aug. 6-8, 2013 the need to reach a fair's market. UC's pension reform proposal calls for: · Employees hired before July 1, 2013: UC would in substantive negotiations over responsible and necessary pension reform. CNA has not accepted UC's pension

Leistikow, Bruce N.

304

Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Ofqual's GCSE reform consultation -August 2013  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Ofqual's GCSE reform consultation - August 2013 1 Ofqual: GCSE reform consultation Response by the Wellcome Trust August 2013 Key points and indirect practical assessment in its reform proposals. The total contribution of direct and indirect

Rambaut, Andrew

305

Using a CSCL-Driven Shift in Agency to Undertake Educational Reform1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Using a CSCL-Driven Shift in Agency to Undertake Educational Reform1 Mark Guzdial1, Matthew educational reform efforts, but there are many challenges to face before achieving that vision. Two attempting to use this tool to leverage a particular kind of educational reform goal: Achieving integration

Guzdial, Mark

306

Enviro-Friendly Hydrogen Generation From Steel Mill-Scale via Metal-Steam Reforming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enviro-Friendly Hydrogen Generation From Steel Mill-Scale via Metal-Steam Reforming Abdul of certain metals with steam, called metal- steam reforming (MSR). This technique does not gen- erate any: hydrogen generation; metal-steam reform- ing; mill-scale; nanoscale iron; electron microscopy Hydrogen

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

307

Running Head: Mental Health and Welfare Reform MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Running Head: Mental Health and Welfare Reform MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE MOTHERS Pennsylvania State University #12;Mental Health and Welfare Reform/2 MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG SINGLE outcomes. #12;Mental Health and Welfare Reform/3 INTRODUCTION The Personal Responsibility and Work

Shyy, Wei

308

THE CALIFORNIAN MODEL AS THE PARADIGM FOR SECOND GENERATION REFORMS IN LATINAMERIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE CALIFORNIAN MODEL AS THE PARADIGM FOR SECOND GENERATION REFORMS IN LATINAMERIC Hugh Rudnick for a second stage of reform, establishing highly flexible mechanisms of decentralised exchanges, and achieving about the validity of this new paradigm for second stage reforms. They question themselves

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

309

the great invisible pension reform in the uni ted states the economics of social insurance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

126 the great invisible pension reform in the uni ted states 127 the economics of social insurance: 4 the great InvIsIble PensIon reForm In the unIted states Krzysztof Ostaszewski Is the US bankrupt failure around the world 128 the great invisible pension reform in the uni ted states 129 · every working

Ostaszewski, Krzysztof M.

310

Fiscal Sustainability and Retirement Security: A Reform Proposal for the Illinois State Universities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

situation: health care and retirement. First, Medicaid expenditures, already a substantial share of state1 Fiscal Sustainability and Retirement Security: A Reform Proposal for the Illinois State errors, are those of the authors alone. I.The Urgent Need for Reform Public pension reform is a national

Illinois at Chicago, University of

311

PHS 650 Summer 2011 Page 1 State-Level Health System and Coverage Reform 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and describe two state-based reforms underway in Wisconsin's health care industry. Topics/Readings The Big Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Current State-Level Trends and Health Reforms The SyllabusPHS 650 Summer 2011 Page 1 State-Level Health System and Coverage Reform 2011 Course Overview

Sheridan, Jennifer

312

Health Care Reform: What School Mental Health Professionals Need to Know  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Health Care Reform: What School Mental Health Professionals Need to Know On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed comprehensive health care reform, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), into law (P.L. 111-148). This major reform to health care certainly has had and will continue to have

Weber, David J.

313

ADSORPTION/DESORPTION STUDIES ON SOLID ACID ALKYLATION CATALYSTS USING A TAPERED ELEMENT OSCILLATING MICROBALANCE (TEOM)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the first time the adsorption/desorption characteristics of alkylation reactants and products on these zeolites and some mesoporous materials. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were obtained on these catalysts using n-butane, isobutane, and propane....2.1. Zeolites 72 4.2.2. Mesoporous Materials 78 4.2.3. Chemicals 79 vi 4.3. Equilibrium Adsorption Isotherms of n-Butane, Isobutane, and Propane on b- zeolite and USY-zeolite 79 4.4. Equilibrium Adsorption Isotherms of CO2 on b-zeolite and USY-zeolite 89 4...

Gong, Kening

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

314

Effects of dispersion and partial reduction on the catalytic properties of Rh/Al sub 2 O sub 3 catalysts in the steam reforming of mono- and bicyclic aromatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The steam reforming of toluene, cumene, and methyl-1-naphthalene was studied on well-reduced Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts of different dispersions and on partially reduced catalysts in which the dispersion of the metallic phase was maintained at 25 {plus minus} 2%. The principal reactions were dehydrogenation DH (cumene {yields} {alpha}-methylstyrene), dealkylation DA (for instance, toluene {yields} benzene), naphthalene ring opening NRO (methylnaphthalene {yields} benzene + toluene), and degradations DN (total gasification of the molecules). Dispersion and partial reduction effects are shown to occur and can be summarized as follows: a partially reduced sample behaves catalytically as would dispersed and well-reduced catalysts. In this case, DN reactions are much inhibited, whereas DA and, to a lesser extent, NRO are relatively less affected by partial reduction. Moreover, DH is quite unaffected by these factors. The results may be expressed in terms of either electronic (DN favored on particles where the metal is more capable of donating electrons) or geometric effects (DN favored on a large ensemble of adjacent sites). These models are discussed on the basis of kinetic and XPS results, particularly those obtained on partially reduced Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst samples. Alloy effects (selectivities modified by the presence of RhAl alloy) could also occur on a catalyst calcined and reduced at high temperatures.

Delahay, G.; Duprez, D. (Universite de Poitiers (France))

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane to Syngas by Thermal Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted on syngas preparation from dry reforming of methane by carbon dioxide with a DC arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. In all experiments, nitrogen gas was used as the working gas for thermal plasma to generate a high-temperature jet into a horizontal tube reactor. A mixture of methane and carbon dioxide was fed vertically into the jet. In order to obtain a higher conversion rate of methane and carbon dioxide, chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency, parametric screening studies were conducted, in which the volume ratio of carbon dioxide to methane in fed gases and the total flux of fed gases were taken into account. Results showed that carbon dioxide reforming of methane to syngas by thermal plasma exhibited a larger processing capacity, higher conversion of methane and carbon dioxide and higher chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency. In addition, thermodynamic simulation for the reforming process was conducted. Experimental data agreed well with the thermodynamic results, indicating that high thermal efficiency can be achieved with the thermal plasma reforming process.

Sun Yanpeng (???); Nie Yong (??); Wu Angshan (???); Ji Dengxiang (???); Yu Fengwen (???); Ji Jianbing (???)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Sulfur-deactivated steam reforming of gasified biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of hydrogen sulfide on the stream reforming of methane has been studied. Methane is the most difficult component to convert by steam reforming in the mixture of hydrocarbons, which is produced in biomass gasification. Two catalysts were subjected to hydrogen sulfide levels up to 300 ppm so as to study the effect of sulfur on their deactivation. These catalysts were the C11-9-061, from United Catalyst Inc., and the HTSR1, from Haldor Topsoee. The activation energy of the sulfur-deactivated steam-reforming reaction was calculated to be 280 and 260 kJ/mol, for each catalyst, respectively. The high values most probably originate from the fact that the degree of sulfur coverage of the nickel surface is close to 1 for these experiments. Even under these severe conditions, steam reforming of methane is possible without any carbon formation. The HTSR1 catalyst exhibits a very high sulfur-free activity, resulting in a performance in the presence of hydrogen sulfide higher than that for the C11-9-061 catalyst. By using the HTSR1 catalyst, the reactor temperature can be lowered by 60 C in order to reach comparable levels of conversion.

Koningen, J.; Sjoestroem, K. [Kungl Tekniska Hoegskolan, Stockholm (Sweden)] [Kungl Tekniska Hoegskolan, Stockholm (Sweden)

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

After welfare reform and an economic boom: why is child  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and 1999 OECD purchasing power parities, the U.S. rate remains well-above those of France, Canada, Germany and welfare reform mandated increased labor supply from single mothers. As a result, the labor force 1999 constant dollars) in private industry were $13.57 in December 1999, 6.4 percent above the December

Shyy, Wei

318

ISSN 1745-9648 The Impact of Electricity Market Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISSN 1745-9648 The Impact of Electricity Market Reform on Consumers by Catherine Waddams Price ESRC, University of East Anglia CCP Working Paper 08-7 Abstract: We examine the effect of current electricity, where household expenditure surveys and electricity tariffs are available, we analyse the effects

Feigon, Brooke

319

Static and Dynamic Simulation of Steam Methane Reformers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The steam-methane reaction is an essential step for many processing plants. Hydrogen, ammonia and methanol are mostly produced by means of methane steam reforming. Since hydrogen is essential for any refinery employing hydrotreating, the performance monitoring of the hydrogen plant is highly desirable. The use of models or simulation is now a standard practice in most chemical plants and refineries. However, reliable models are still lacking for speciality reactors like the methane steam reformer. This paper describes steady-state and dynamic models for the reactions involved in reforming methane and higher hydrocarbon gases. The performance of the reformer is then illustrated by sensitivity analysis to various input disturbances like inlet pressure, temperature, feed concentration and rate, fuel rate and density and steam to carbon ratio. The effect of these disturbances on exit temperature and conversion is studied and analyzed. Catalyst deactivation effects are also discussed and it is shown by sample calculations that the simulator can give insight into catalyst performance and assist in monitoring catalyst deactivation. The transient effects are also reported and dynamic elements like gains and response time are discussed. Such information should give insight into controller design and effects of various parameters.

I.M. Alatiqi; A.M. Meziou; G.A. Gasmelseed

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Extraction of Hydrogen from Bioethanol Reforming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-gas-shift catalytic membrane reactor, and (2) a multi-layer design for bioethanol reforming. A two-dimensional model is developed to describe reaction and diffusion in the catalytic membrane coupled with plug-flow equations in the retentate and permeate volumes using...

Kuncharam, Bhanu Vardhan

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

None

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Serbia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Serbia by Sandra Jednak Faculty of Organizational Sciences in Serbia have been started, and certain results were achieved. But, the electric power infrastructure decided whether the Serbian Electric Power Industry will be privatised, and if it is privatised which

Feigon, Brooke

323

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Romania  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ISSN 1745-9648 Electricity Reform in Romania by Oana Diaconu Department of Economics and Management-11 Abstract: Romania is a net exporter of electricity to the SE Europe region. Its performance of this role for international transmission. Romania has committed itself to an electricity restructuring plan that includes

Feigon, Brooke

324

The Clean Development Mechanism and Power Sector Reforms in Developing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

regions include stimulating private sector financing, increasing operational and managerial efficiencies and lowering electricity tariffs #12;The CDM and renewable energy · Power sector reforms could potentially require higher investments for electricity generation than conventional fuel projects · Can also offer

325

Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Engineering Division Catalysts for autothermal reforming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Krause Chemical Engineering Division Argonne National Laboratory Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure2, CO, CO2, and CH4) as a function of: catalyst composition fuel composition and sulfur content,110,861) awarded Oct 2000: CRADA w/H2Fuel to commercialize reformer Aug 2001: Began work on perovskite catalysts

326

The Role of Informatics in Health Care Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Role of Informatics in Health Care Reform Yueyi I. Liu, MD, PhD, Daniel L. Rubin, MD, MS Improving health care quality while simultaneously reducing cost has become a high priority of health care (such as radiation dose tracking) and quality initiatives. Key Words: Informatics; health care. ª

Rubin, Daniel L.

327

Healthcare Reform in Texas: How the Affordable Care Act (ACA)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Healthcare Reform in Texas: How the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Will Impact Small Employer Health requirements, the function of health insurance exchanges and the future of employer-sponsored health insurance Shield of Texas Katrina Daniel Associate Commissioner, Life, Accident and Health Section Regulatory

O'Toole, Alice J.

328

First Generation Indian External Sector Reforms in Context  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

India's first generation external sector reforms are a fascinating case study of emergence from a post-Independence socialist-style economy to the world’s largest free market democracy. Part I of this article reviews the Indian license Raj system...

Bhala, Raj

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Detailed Hydration Maps of Benzene and Cyclohexane Reveal Distinct Water Structures Tanya M. Raschke* and Michael Levitt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of water to exclude apolar groups play a key role in the stabilization of protein native states,1Detailed Hydration Maps of Benzene and Cyclohexane Reveal Distinct Water Structures Tanya M of a single solute in water. Detailed, spatially resolved, three-dimensional maps of the density of the water

Raschke, Tanya M.

330

Routine Analysis of Oxygenates and Benzene in Retail Motor Fuel: A Survey by the State of Alabama  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......gasoline. Figure 4. Chromatogram of gasoline run on TCEP and methyl silicone column...for the routine analysis of 1600 gasoline samples. Results indicate that...that benzene is often found in straight- run gasoline at concentrations of 1 to 2......

Guy Vaughan Johnson

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Nonresonant hyper?Raman and hyper?Rayleigh scattering in benzene and pyridine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is discussed in Sec. III, and results and discussion are presented in Sec. IV, The HRS spectra of benzene and pyr- a) ACS-PRF Summer Research Fellow. Current address: Carroll College, Waukesha, WI 53186. b) Author to whom correspondence should be addressed...I(c)lI(a) + GG'rG'JrJI rIG (OJIi,GO -OJ\\)(OJJJ,GO -OJ\\ +OJs ) + GG'rG'JrJI rIG h a lI(b)lI(a)lI(c) ] (OJIi,GO + OJs )(OJJj,GO - OJ\\ + OJs ) (glQa li) vii) (l10) } X , €b - €b, where f..Lg'J = (G I (OIf..La IJ(O», etc. (7) The A term is the Condon...

Neddersen, John P.; Mounter, Sarah A.; Bostick, James M.; Johnson, Carey K.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Experimental Investigations of an IC Engine Operating with Alkyl Esters of Jatropha, Karanja and Castor Seed Oil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Diesel engines are efficient systems popularly used to meet electricity and other power requirements for agriculture, industry, transportation and decentralized power generation. Vegetable oils can be successfully used in Compression Ignition (CI) engine either through engine modifications or fuel modifications, later being more feasible option. Fuel modification options include blending of vegetable oils with mineral diesel, transesterification, cracking/pyrolysis, micro-emulsion, and hydrogenation to reduce polymerization and viscosity, transesterification of vegetable oil with a short chain alcohol i.e. methanol or ethanol being most popular. Several non-edible plant oils have been found to be promising crude oils for the production of biodiesel. Methanol is most commonly used in commercial production of biodiesel. Fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) produced from higher alcohols is of interest as they may have different fuel properties in comparison to methyl or ethyl esters. In the present investigations, preparation of methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol were used for formation of alkyl esters of Jatropha, Karanja and Castor. The composition of Jatropha, Karanja and Castor oil were analysed and alcoholysis process for preparing alkyl esters of Jatropha, Karanja and Castor oil with various alcohols was optimised. Alkyl ester-diesel blends were used to test the diesel engine at different load conditions and extensive performance and emissions studies were conducted in single cylinder direct injection compression ignition engines. It is concluded that lower blends of ethyl, propyl and butyl esters of Jatropha and Karanja feedstock have physico-chemical properties similar to methyl esters. However, deviation from the properties became larger for higher blending ratio. Therefore, in order to get engine performance in close range of diesel, the optimum blending ratio of higher alkyl esters need to be even less than methyl esters. Lower blends of higher alkyl esters are expected to give engine characteristics in close proximity to diesel overcoming the limitations of bio-diesel, while retaining the advantages.

Sanjay Bajpai; Lalit Mohan Das

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Synthesis and chemistry of cationic d sup 0 metal alkyl complexes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to develop new types of electrophilic metal alkyl complexes for catalytic C-H activation and olefin polymerization chemistry, and associated fundamental mechanistic studies. We have focused our efforts on four classes of early metal alkyl complexes: (1) cationic group 4 Cp{sub 2}M(R){sup +} complexes (1) which are active species in Cp{sub 2}MX{sub 2}-based Ziegler-Natta olefin polymerization catalyst systems and which catalyze productive C-H activation reactions of heterocycles, (2) neutral (dicarbollide)(Cp*)M(R) complexes (2) which are structurally are electronically very similar to 1, (3) half-sandwich complexes CpM(R){sub 2}(L){sub n}{sup +} which are highly coordinatively and electronically unsaturated, and (4) new group 5 (dicarbollide)(Cp)MR{sub 2} and (dicarbollide){sub 2} MR complexes which are more unsaturated than group 5 Cp{sub 2}M systems due to incorporation of the dicarbollide ligand.

Jordan, R.F.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Alkyl Surface Treatments of Planar Zinc Oxide in Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Solar Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells have not lived up to their potential because of poor interface properties. Interfacial molecular layers provide a way of adjusting these devices to improve their performance. We have studied a prototypical system involving poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on planar zinc oxide (ZnO) films that have been modified with two types of molecules having identical 18-carbon alkyl chain termination and different surface attachments: octadecanethiol (ODT) and octadecyltriethoxysilane (OTES). We examined the functionalized surfaces using water contact angle measurements, Kelvin probe measurements, infrared absorbance spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. These have shown that OTES forms disordered incomplete monolayers, while ODT is prone to develop multilayered islands. Both treatments enhance polymer ordering. However, inverted solar cell devices fabricated with these treated interfaces performed very differently. ODT improves the short circuit current (J{sub SC}), open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}), and power conversion efficiency ({eta}), while these parameters all decrease in devices constructed from OTES-treated ZnO. The differences in V{sub OC} are related to modifications of the surface dipole associated with deposition of the two types of alkyl molecules, while changes in J{sub SC} are attributed to a balance between charge transfer blocking caused by the saturated hydrocarbon and the improved hole mobility in the polymer.

Allen, C. G.; Baker, D. J.; Brenner, T. M.; Weigand, C. C.; Albin, J. M.; Steirer, K. X.; Olson, D. C.; Ladam, C.; Ginley, D. S.; Collins, R. T.; Furtak, T. E.

2012-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

335

Washing of field weathered crude oil contaminated soil with an environmentally compatible surfactant, alkyl polyglucoside  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Weathered crude oil contaminated soils (COCSs), which are much more difficult to remediate than those freshly contaminated, are widespread especially at the sites of oil fields and industries. Surfactant enhanced ex situ soil washing could be used to remediate COCSs, but surfactant toxicity becomes one of the major concerns. In this study, a class of green surfactants, alkyl polyglucosides (APGs), were tested in washing the field weathered COCS with relatively high oil concentration (123 mg g?1 dry soil) from Jilin Oilfield, Northeastern China. APG1214, characterized with longer alkyl chain, was more effective than APG0810 in crude oil removal. Adding inorganic sodium salts into APG1214 solution further improved the crude oil removal efficiency (CORE). Washing parameters (temperature, washing time, agitation speed and solution/soil ratio) were investigated and further optimized integratedly with an orthogonal design. At the optimum conditions, the CORE reached 97%. GC/MS analysis showed that the proportion of small n-alkanes (C16–C23) in residual crude oil gradually increased, which was helpful to interpret the oil removal mechanism. Moreover, eminent effect on removal of large n-alkanes was achieved from the synergy between APG1214 and inorganic salts, which was opposite to the effect when they were added separately. This study demonstrated a promising way to remediate COCS with ecologically compatible surfactant and provided guidelines for its practical application.

Mei Han; Guodong Ji; Jinren Ni

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Syngas production in a novel methane dry reformer by utilizing of tri-reforming process for energy supplying: Modeling and simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, tri-reforming process has been utilized as an energy source for driving highly endothermic process of methane dry reforming process in a multi-tubular recuperative thermally coupled reactor (TCTDR). 184 two-concentric-tubes have been proposed for this configuration. Outer tube sides of the two-concentric-tubes have been considered for the tri-reforming reactions while dry reforming process takes place in inner tube sides. Simulation results of co-current mode have been compared with corresponding predictions of thermally coupled tri- and steam reformer (TCTSR); in which the tri-reforming process has been coupled with steam reforming of methane in same conditions. A mathematical heterogeneous model has been applied to simulate both dry and tri-reforming sides of the TCTDR. Results showed that methane conversion at the output of dry and tri-reforming sides reached to 63% and 93%, respectively. Also, molar flow rate of syngas at the output of DR side of TCTDR reached to 7464 kmol h?1 in comparison to 3912 kmol h?1 for SR side of TCTSR.

Mehdi Farniaei; Mohsen Abbasi; Hamid Rahnama; Mohammad Reza Rahimpour; Alireza Shariati

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Nuclear magnetic resonance (N.M.R.) studies of alkyl formates and of alcohol-water azeotropes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from Eq. 2 for 12 Alkyl Formates in Carbon tetrachloride at 37'. Typical N. M. R. Spectrum of a Non-Azeotropic Ethanol- Water Mixture . 16 N. M. R. Spectrum Occasionally Found for Azeotropic Ethanol-Water Mixtures 17 PART I. ALKYL FORMATES... CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 It has been shown that eq. 1 applies almost exactly to the data for the alkaline hydrolysis of 9 acetate eaters (CH COOR ) in 40% 0 aqueous p - dioxane at 35 . In eq. 1, k is the second-order rate log k = l. 35 + 0. 688 o + 0...

O'Brien, Patrick William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

338

High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus’ process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

None

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

HH22 Reformer, Fuel Cell Power Plant,Reformer, Fuel Cell Power Plant, & Vehicle Refueling System& Vehicle Refueling System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sufficient hydrogen demand develops. #12;4 Relevant DOE Program Objectives Reduce dependence on foreign oil Promote use of diverse, domestic energy resources ­ Natural gas reformation Develop and demonstrate on test fill tank, CNG/H2 ICE vehicles and H2 Fuel Cell vehicles. Fuel dispensing integrated with City

340

Wellcome Trust SUBMISSION OF EVIDENCE Wellcome Trust response to the NHS Future Forum inquiry into the NHS reforms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into the NHS reforms October 2011 1 NHS Future Forum: Inquiry into the NHS reforms Response by the Wellcome focus primarily on the impact of the reforms on health research and innovation, which run throughout the Future Forum's four themes. 3. The reforms of the NHS and public health systems must bring about

Rambaut, Andrew

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Wellcome Trust SUBMISSION OF EVIDENCE Wellcome Trust response to Department for Education: Reforming Key Stage 4 qualifications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Reforming Key Stage 4 qualifications December 2012 Department for Education: Reforming Key Stage 4 science skills. 2. We are pleased to have the opportunity to respond to the consultation on reforms to Key consultations on the reform to curriculum and assessment at various stages of schooling. There is an opportunity

Rambaut, Andrew

342

Wellcome Trust CONSULTATION RESPONSE Wellcome Trust response to Ofqual Consultation: Completing GCSE, AS and A Level Reform -July 2014  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GCSE, AS and A Level Reform - July 2014 1 Ofqual: Completing GCSE, AS and A Level Reform Response core content in partnership does not deter exam boards from reforming worthwhile qualifications. 5: Completing GCSE, AS and A Level Reform - July 2014 2 6. Under the new proposals, exam boards will be required

Rambaut, Andrew

343

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Pressure Steam Reforming of High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids S. Ahmed, S. Lee, D. Papadias, and R. Kumar November 6, 2007 Laurel, MD Research sponsored by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Rationale and objective Rationale „ Steam reforming of liquid fuels at high pressures can reduce hydrogen compression costs - Much less energy is needed to pressurize liquids (fuel and water) than compressing gases (reformate or H 2 ) „ High pressure reforming is advantageous for subsequent separations and hydrogen purification Objective „ Develop a reformer design that takes advantage of the savings in compression cost in the steam reforming bio-derived liquid fuels - Metric:

344

Carbon?Oxygen Bond Forming Mechanisms in Rhenium Oxo-Alkyl Complexes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three C?X bond formation mechanisms observed in the oxidation of (HBpz{sub 3})ReO(R)(OTf) [HBpz{sub 3} = hydrotris(1-pyrazolyl)borate; R = Me, Et, and iPr; OTf = OSO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}] by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were investigated using quantum mechanics (M06//B3LYP DFT) combined with solvation (using the PBF Poisson?Boltzmann polarizable continuum solvent model). For R = Et we find the alkyl group is activated through ?-hydrogen abstraction by external base OTf{sup ?} with a free energy barrier of only 12.0 kcal/mol, leading to formation of acetaldehyde. Alternatively, ethyl migration across the M?O bond (leading to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol) poses a free energy barrier of 22.1 kcal/mol, and the previously proposed ?-hydrogen transfer to oxo (a 2+2 forbidden reaction) poses a barrier of 44.9 kcal/mol. The rate-determining step to formation of the final product acetaldehyde is an oxygen atom transfer from DMSO to the ethylidene, with a free energy barrier of 15.3 kcal/mol. When R = iPr, the alkyl 1,2-migration pathway becomes the more favorable pathway (both kinetically and thermodynamically), with a free energy barrier (?G{sup ?} = 11.8 kcal/mol) lower than ?-hydrogen abstraction by OTf{sup ?} (?G{sup ?} = 13.5 kcal/mol). This suggests the feasibility of utilizing this type of migration to functionalize M?R to M?OR. We also considered the nucleophilic attack of water and ammonia on the Re-ethylidene ?-carbon as a means of recovering two-electron-oxidized products from an alkane oxidation. Nucleophilic attack (with internal deprotonation of the nucleophile) is exothermic. However, the subsequent protonolysis of the Re?alkyl bond (to liberate an alcohol or amine) poses a barrier of 37.0 or 42.4 kcal/mol, respectively. Where comparisons are possible, calculated free energies agree very well with experimental measurements.

Cheng, Mu-Jeng; Nielsen, Robert J; Ahlquist, Marten; Goddard, William A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Alkyl Chain Ordering of Asymmetric Phosphatidylcholines Adsorbed at a Liquid-Liquid B. L. Smiley and G. L. Richmond*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alkyl Chain Ordering of Asymmetric Phosphatidylcholines Adsorbed at a Liquid-Liquid Interface B. L chain ordering in phosphatidylcholines (PCs) adsorbed from aqueous solution to a carbon tetrachloride-dimensional phases are discussed. Introduction Surfactant monolayers adsorbed at oil-water interfaces in biological

Richmond, Geraldine L.

346

Alkyl nitrate (C1-C3) depth profiles in the tropical Pacific Ocean E. E. Dahl,1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and distribution of tropo- spheric ozone. Atmospheric alkyl nitrates are normally associated with polluted air free radical processes initiated by radioactive decay or cosmic rays, enzymatically mediated reactions expedition in the equatorial Pacific, an equatorial maximum in atmospheric ethyl and isopropyl nitrate

Saltzman, Eric

347

Reductive Alkylation of Thioamides with Grignard Reagents in the Presence of Ti(OiPr)4: Insight and Extension  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The reductive alkylation of thioamides by Grignard reagents in the presence of Ti(OiPr)4 is the subject of a study involving 20 different substrates. The influence of various parameters has been evaluated, showing notably that the yields of this ...

Fabien Hermant; Ewelina Urba?ska; Sarah Seizilles de Mazancourt; Thomas Maubert; Emmanuel Nicolas; Yvan Six

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

348

The Absorption Spectra of Ethylene, Deutero-Ethylene and Some Alkyl-Substituted Ethylenes in the Vacuum Ultra-Violet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 February 1940 research-article The Absorption Spectra of Ethylene, Deutero-Ethylene and Some Alkyl-Substituted Ethylenes in the Vacuum Ultra-Violet W. C. Price W. T. Tutte The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize...

1940-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Reactions of r-Nucleophiles with Alkyl Chlorides: Competition between SN2 and E2 Mechanisms and the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reactions of r-Nucleophiles with Alkyl Chlorides: Competition between SN2 and E2 Mechanisms (SN2) and base-induced elimination (E2). As the extent of substitution in the neutral reactants through a traditional SN2 transition state, followed by an elimination step in the SN2 product ion

Lineberger, W. Carl

350

Hydrogen From MillHydrogen From Mill--Scale Waste Via MetalScale Waste Via Metal--Steam ReformingSteam Reforming INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Hydrogen From MillHydrogen From Mill--Scale Waste Via MetalScale Waste Via Metal--Steam ReformingSteam Reforming INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Hydrogen is considered to be the ideal energy carrying medium for fuel and supplying hydrogen to the end user in more reversible, much simpler and far safer ways. Metal-steam

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

351

Reforming petroleum-based fuels for fuel cell vehicles : composition-performance relationships.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Onboard reforming of petroleum-based fuels, such as gasoline, may help ease the introduction of fuel cell vehicles to the marketplace. Although gasoline can be reformed, it is optimized to meet the demands of ICEs. This optimization includes blending to increase the octane number and addition of oxygenates and detergents to control emissions. The requirements for a fuel for onboard reforming to hydrogen are quite different than those for combustion. Factors such as octane number and flame speed are not important; however, factors such as hydrogen density, catalyst-fuel interactions, and possible catalyst poisoning become paramount. In order to identify what factors are important in a hydrocarbon fuel for reforming to hydrogen and what factors are detrimental, we have begun a program to test various components of gasoline and blends of components under autothermal reforming conditions. The results indicate that fuel composition can have a large effect on reforming behavior. Components which may be beneficial for ICEs for their octane enhancing value were detrimental to reforming. Fuels with high aromatic and naphthenic content were more difficult to reform. Aromatics were also found to have an impact on the kinetics for reforming of paraffins. The effects of sulfur impurities were dependent on the catalyst. Sulfur was detrimental for Ni, Co, and Ru catalysts. Sulfur was beneficial for reforming with Pt catalysts, however, the effect was dependent on the sulfur concentration.

Kopasz, J. P.; Miller, L. E.; Ahmed, S.; Devlin, P. R.; Pacheco, M.

2001-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

352

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 5. Recovery of benzene/benzene plus phenol from the Great Pplains Gasification Plant crude phenol stream. Interim report, September 1987-February 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential for production of jet fuels from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant located in Buelah, North Dakota. Funding was provided to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This report details the program with Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., a subcontractor to Burns and Roe Services Corporation, who, as a subcontractor to DOE, investigated the potential of producing benzene or benzene plus phenol from the crude phenol stream.

Harris, E.C.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Long term savings decisions: Financial reform, peer effects and ethnicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In 2005, a drastic reform in the Israeli capital market shifted the power to choose savings vehicles from employers to individuals. Using a unique dataset from a large employer, this event provides us a rare window into individuals’ savings decisions and the effect of their social environment. In the first year following the reform's implementation, 7% of the employees switched out of the fund in which they all previously saved. Choice of fund was not associated with observable measures of fund performance, but was strongly affected by the employees’ social environment. Exploiting within-department variation in peer groups, we find that savings decisions were strongly influenced by the choices of co-workers from the same ethnic group. Interviews also point to the influence of non-professional colleagues.

Yevgeny Mugerman; Orly Sade; Moses Shayo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Addiction treatment centers' progress in preparing for health care reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) is expected to significantly alter addiction treatment service delivery. Researchers designed the Health Reform Readiness Index (HRRI) for addiction treatment organizations to assess their readiness for the PPACA. Four-hundred twenty-seven organizations completed the HRRI throughout a 3-year period, using a four-point scale to rank their readiness on 13 conditions. HRRI results completed during two different time periods (between 10/1/2010–6/30/2011 and 9/1/2011–9/30/2012) were analyzed and compared. Most respondents self-assessed as being in the early stages of preparation for 9 of the 13 conditions. Survey results showed that organizations with annual budgets  $5 million (n = 132). The HRRI results suggest that the addiction field, and in particular smaller organizations, is not preparing adequately for health care reform; organizations that are making preparations are making only modest gains.

Todd D. Molfenter

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

In situ Gas Conditioning in Fuel Reforming for Hydrogen Generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications requires cost and energy efficient technologies. The Absorption Enhanced Reforming (AER), developed at ZSW with industrial partners, is aimed to simplify the process by using a high temperature in situ CO2 absorption. The in situ CO2 removal results in shifting the steam reforming reaction equilibrium towards increased hydrogen concentration (up to 95 vol%). The key part of the process is the high temperature CO2 absorbent. In this contribution results of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) investigations on natural minerals, dolomites, silicates and synthetic absorbent materials in regard of their CO2 absorption capacity and absorption/desorption cyclic stability are presented and discussed. It has been found that the inert parts of the absorbent materials have a structure stabilizing effect, leading to an improved cyclic stability of the materials.

Bandi, A.; Specht, M.; Sichler, P.; Nicoloso, N.

2002-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

356

Modelling, simulation and sensitivity analysis of steam-methane reformers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mathematical model to calculate temperature, conversion and pressure profiles for static operations in steam-methane reformers was simulated. A rigorous kinetic model describing steam-methane reactions was compared to a first order one and an empirical heat distribution model was fitted to describe heat absorbed along the reactor length. A control interface was simulated to allow sensitivity analysis with different control schemes. The kinetic models were tested with data from industrial steam-gas reformers. Simulation results agreed with actual plant data for conversion, temperature and pressure. Nevertheless, the first order kinetic model gave unrealistic sensitivity results to pressure and steam-to-carbon ratio variations. The rigorous model could confidently be used for design analysis, control, and economic evaluation purposes.

I.M. Alatiqi; A.M. Meziou; G.A. Gasmelseed

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Catalyst and process for steam-reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved catalyst and an improved process for use of the catalyst in the steam-hydrocarbon reforming reaction are disclosed. The catalyst comprises a group VIII metal on a cylindrical ceramic support consisting essentially of alpha alumina and having a plurality of gas passages extending axially therethrough. These supported catalysts display a higher geometric surface area and a lower pressure drop than do standard rings.

Atwood, K.; Merriam, J.S.; Wright, J.H.

1980-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

359

Tax reform would renew R&D tax credit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tax reform would renew R&D tax credit ... And among all the business tax incentives that are repealed or curtailed in the most recent Administration tax plan, the credit for R&D expenditures, which expires this year, is somewhat exceptional in that it would be renewed at least until Dec. 31,1988. ... However, as detailed in the Treasury Department's 460-page explanation of the tax proposal, the definition of qualifying research would be tightened. ...

1985-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

360

Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-assisted synthesis through a hydrothermal reaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: Reaction of a SeCl{sub 4} aqueous solution with a NiCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as capping agent and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) as reductant, produces nanosized nickel selenide through a hydrothermal method. The effect of temperature, reaction time and amounts of reductant on the morphology, particle sizes of NiSe nanostructures has been investigated. Highlights: ? NiSe nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ? A novel Se source was used to synthesize NiSe. ? SDBS as capping agent plays a crucial role on the morphology of products. ? A mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe was prepared in the presence of 2 ml hydrazine. ? A pure phase of NiSe was prepared in the presence of 4 or 6 ml hydrazine. -- Abstract: The effects of the anionic surfactant on the morphology, size and crystallization of NiSe precipitated from NiCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O and SeCl{sub 4} in presence of hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) as reductant were investigated. The products have been successfully synthesized in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant via an improved hydrothermal route. A variety of synthesis parameters, such as reaction time and temperature, capping agent and amount of reducing agent have a significant effect on the particle size, phase purity and morphology of the obtained products. The sample size became bigger with decreasing reaction temperature and increasing reaction time. In the presence of 2 ml hydrazine, the samples were found to be the mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe. With increasing the reaction time and amount of hydrazine a pure phase of hexagonal NiSe was obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate phase, particle size and morphology of the products. Chemical composition and purity of the products were characterized by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Photoluminescence (PL) was used to study the optical properties of NiSe samples.

Sobhani, Azam [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 87317–51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

energy savings by the use of mtbe to replace alkylate in automotive gasolines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents data on the differences in energy consumption in the production of leaded and unleaded AI-93 gasolines with various blend components. The authors investigate as high-octane components certain products that are more effective in use and less energy-consuming in production in comparison with alkylate. In particular, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is discussed; it is not poisonous, it has a high heat of combustion, and it does not attack materials of construction. The addition of 11% MTBE to gasoline lowers the cold start temperature of engines by 10-12 degrees. Moreover, no adjustment of the carburetor is required for the changeover to gasoline with 11% MTBE.

Englin, B.A.; Emel'yanov, V.E.; Terent'ev, G.A.; Vinogradov, A.M.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Raman Scattering Sensor for Control of the Acid Alkylation Process in Gasoline Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gasoline refineries utilize a process called acid alkylation to increase the octane rating of blended gasoline, and this is the single most expensive process in the refinery. For process efficiency and safety reasons, the sulfuric acid can only be used while it is in the concentration range of 98 to 86 %. The conventional technique to monitor the acid concentration is time consuming and is typically conducted only a few times per day. This results in running higher acid concentrations than they would like to ensure that the process proceeds uninterrupted. Maintaining an excessively high acid concentration costs the refineries millions of dollars each year. Using SBIR funding, Process Instruments Inc. has developed an inline sensor for real time monitoring of acid concentrations in gasoline refinery alkylation units. Real time data was then collected over time from the instrument and its responses were matched up with the laboratory analysis. A model was then developed to correlate the laboratory acid values to the Raman signal that is transmitted back to the instrument from the process stream. The instrument was then used to demonstrate that it could create real-time predictions of the acid concentrations. The results from this test showed that the instrument could accurately predict the acid concentrations to within ~0.15% acid strength, and this level of prediction proved to be similar or better then the laboratory analysis. By utilizing a sensor for process monitoring the most economic acid concentrations can be maintained. A single smaller refinery (50,000 barrels/day) estimates that they should save over $120,000/year, with larger refineries saving considerably more.

Uibel, Rory, H.; Smith, Lee M.; Benner, Robert, E.

2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

363

Payment reform and changes in health care in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper is intended to assess the primary effects on cost, utilization and quality of care from payment reform of capitation and open enrollment in Changde city, Hunan Province of China. Open enrollment policy was introduced to deal with possible cream skimming associated with capitation. Based on the longitudinal Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) Household Survey, this study analyses the URBMI data through a set of regression models. The original data included over five thousand inpatient admissions during the study period between 2008 and 2010. The study finds the payment reform to reduce its inpatient out-of-pocket cost by 19.7%, out-of-pocket ratio by 9.5%, and length of stay by 17.7%. However, the total inpatient cost, drug cost ratio, treatment effect, and patient satisfaction showed little difference between Fee-For-Service and capitation models. We conclude that the payment reform in Changde did not reduce overall inpatient expenditure, but it decreased the financial risk and length of stay of inpatient patients without compromising quality of care. The findings would contribute to the health care payment literatures from developing countries and open further research tracks on the ability of open enrollment to compensate for capitation drawbacks.

Chen Gao; Fei Xu; Gordon G. Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

NONE

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

A fivefold inter­penetrating diamond­oid three-dimensional metal-organic framework constructed from benzene-1,4-di­acetic acid and flexible triazole derivatives: poly[[(2-benzene-1,4-di­acetato-2O:O){2-1,4-bis­[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl]benzene-2N4:N4'}zinc(II)] monohydrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The title compound has a fivefold inter­penetrating diamondoid three-dimensional metal-organic framework, with each ZnII centre surrounded by two O-donor atoms from monodentate carboxyl­ate groups belonging to two different benzene-1,4-di­acetate ligands and by two triazole N-donor atoms from two different 1,4-bis­[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl]benzene ligands.

Shen, H.

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

366

A Complete Basis Set Estimate of Cation-p Bond Strengths: Na+(ethylene) and Na+(benzene)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large scale second order perturbation theory and couple cluster theory calculations were performed on the Na+(ethylene) and Na+(benzene) complexes in an effort to estimate binding enthalpies in the complete basis set limit. The resulting best estimates are DH0[Na+(ethylene)] = -13.7 ? 0.2 kcal/mol and DH0[Na+(benzene)] = -23.9 ? 0.3 kcal/mol, which include small corrections for core/valence correlation effects. The former value can be compared to a measurement of -10.3 ? 1.0 kcal/mol obtained from collision induced dissociation, while the latter value is approximately midway between the two existing experimental values which differed by 6.5 kcal/mol. For the basis sets considered in this study, the counterpoise-corrected binding energies were found to be in much worse agreement with the complete basis set limit than the raw values.

Feller, David F.

2000-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

367

The influence of transition metal ions on the catalytic performance of Ru particles during the liquid phase hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of some transition metal ions including Fe2+, Ni2+, Cr3+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Cd2+...on the catalytic performance of Ru particles during the liquid phase partial hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexene was ...

Yixin Qu; Chengxuan Fang; Chengyang Qian…

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Phase separation of quaternary solubilized solutions or micro emulsion of hydrocarbons containing sodium oleate + phenol + benzene + water by freezing point measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The depressions in freezing point measurements in quaternary solubilized solutions or micro-emulsion in sodium oleate + phenol + benzene + water are measured. Maxima and minima were observed, Gibbs' phase rule...

Dr. Bhagwan Swaroop

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Hydrogen Production by Catalytic Steam Reforming of Bio-oil, Naphtha  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen production by catalytic steam reforming of the bio-oil, naphtha, and CH4 was investigated over a novel metal-doped catalyst of (Ca24Al28O64)4+4O?/Mg (C12A7-Mg). The catalytic steam reforming was investigated from 250 to 850°C in the fixed-bed continuous flow reactor. For the reforming of bio-oil, the yield of hydrogen of 80% was obtained at 750°C, and the maximum carbon conversion is nearly close to 95% under the optimum steam reforming condition. For the reforming of naphtha and CH4, the hydrogen yield and carbon conversion are lower than that of bio-oil at the same temperature. The characteristics of catalyst were also investigated by XPS. The catalyst deactivation was mainly caused by the deposition of carbon in the catalytic steam reforming process.

Yue Pan; Zhao-xiang Wang; Tao Kan; Xi-feng Zhu; Quan-xin Li

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Reformer-pressure swing adsorption process for the production of carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An improved process for the production of carbon monoxide by the steam reforming of hydrocarbons is described comprising: (a) catalytically reacting a fluid hydrocarbon feed stream with steam in a steam reformer; (b) passing the reformer effluent containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from the steam reformer, without scrubbing to remove the carbon dioxide content thereof, to a pressure swing adsorption system having at least four adsorbent beds, each bed of which, on a cyclic basis, undergoes a processing sequence; (c) recycling the carbon dioxide-rich stream to the steam reformer for reaction with additional quantities of the hydrocarbon feed stream being passed to the stream reformer to form additional quantities of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, with product recovery being enhanced and the need for employing a carbon dioxide wash system being obviated.

Fuderer, A.

1988-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

371

Thorium ions transport across Tri-n-butyl phosphate-benzene based supported liquid membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transport of Th(IV) ions across tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) benzene based liquid membranes supported in microporous hydrophobic polypropylene film (MHPF) has been studied. Various parameters such as variation of nitric acid concentration in the feed, TBP concentration in the membrane, and temperature on the given metal ions transport have been investigated. The effects of nitric acid and TBP concentrations on the distribution coefficient were also studied, and the data obtained were used to determine the Th ions-TBP complex diffusion coefficient in the membrane. Permeability coefficients of Th(IV) ions were also determined as a function of the TBP and nitric acid concentrations. The optimal conditions for the transport of Th(IV) ions across the membrane are 6 mol{sm_bullet}dm{sup -3} HNO{sub 3} concentration, 2.188 mol {center_dot} dm{sup -3} TBP concentration, and 25{degrees}C. The stoichiometry of the chemical species involved in chemical reaction during the transport of Th(IV) ions has also been studied.

Rasul, G.; Chaudry, M.A. [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Islamabad (Pakistan); Afzal, M. [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Stereoselective SN2? alkylation reaction sequence of the ?,?-epoxy ?,?-unsaturated ester system via ?,?-chlorohydrin intermediates by the use of a R3Al–CuCN reagent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel stereoselective SN2? alkylation reaction sequence of the ?,?-epoxy ?,?-unsaturated ester system has been developed which involves a regioselective substitution reaction with chloride ions at the ?-position and a subsequent SN2? alkylation reaction of the resulting ?-chloro-?-hydroxy derivatives with a R3Al–CuCN reagent. The new methodology was demonstrated to be applicable to a variety of substrates and to provide various ?-hydroxy-?-alkyl-?,?-unsaturated esters including those bearing a quaternary asymmetric carbon atom at the ?-position in a highly stereoselective manner and high yields.

Fumihiko Yoshimura; Atsushi Matsui; Atsushi Hirai; Keiji Tanino; Masaaki Miyashita

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

PROCS-VERBAL DE DPOUILLEMENT ELECTIONS A LA COMMISSION DE REFORME DE L'IRD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROCÃ?S-VERBAL DE DÃ?POUILLEMENT ELECTIONS A LA COMMISSION DE REFORME DE L'IRD SCRUTIN DU 6 MAI 2009 TALAMOND, Catherine BONTE #12;PROCÃ?S-VERBAL DE DÃ?POUILLEMENT ELECTIONS A LA COMMISSION DE REFORME DE L BONTE #12;PROCÃ?S-VERBAL DE DÃ?POUILLEMENT ELECTIONS A LA COMMISSION DE REFORME DE L'IRD SCRUTIN DU 6 MAI

374

Working Group Meeting Presentation Guidance at a Glance Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(75%) Char (13%) Gas (12%) Catalytic Auto-thermal Reforming of Bio-Oil at 650oC: 0.71 CH1.98O0.76 + 0 Case (Ethanol Case) Bio-oil Storage Tank $106,040 Reformer $803,000 Shift Reactor, PSA, BOP $1 Oils DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting November 6

375

Idle catalytic reformer can be converted to isomerization unit or jet-fuel treater  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article discusses the economic advantages in conversion of catalytic reformers idled by reduced demand or rendered obsolete by replacement with modern technology. An older semi-regenerative reformer can be converted to a modern C4 or C5/C6 isomerization unit or to a kerosene hydrotreater to meet jet fuel specifications. Reactor design parameters operating conditions, and equipment sizing required for the highly endothermic reforming process are discussed.

Cobb, D.D.; Chapel, D.G.

1985-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

376

Malpractice Reform — Opportunities for Leadership by Health Care Institutions and Liability Insurers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...care systems or states implement innovative reforms. Second, institutional reforms can be led by physician champions and other insiders, promoting buy-in from clinical and risk-management staff. Third, because most private approaches do not abridge legal remedies, they may be more palatable to consumer... Innovative malpractice reforms can be implemented by health care institutions and liability insurers without requiring changes in the law. Michelle Mello and Dr. Thomas Gallagher focus on emerging models of disclosure of medical injuries and early ...

Mello M.M.; Gallagher T.H.

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Retail restructuring in urban China in the reform era: the case of Beijing.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation examines the radical economic restructuring and urban transformation in urban China in the reform era through a detailed investigation into the retail sector… (more)

Wang, Enru

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

The evolution of the Weapon System Reform Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-23) .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In evaluating the implications of the Weapon System Acquisition Reform Act of 2009 (WSARA), we compare the position of prior acquisition acts and DoD acquisition… (more)

McWhorter, Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Modeling of membrane reactor for steam methane reforming: From granular to structured catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Different types and operating modes of a tubular membrane reactor for steam methane reforming with a production rate of 0.6...

A. B. Shigarov; V. A. Kirillov

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Computational heterogeneous catalysis applied to steam methane reforming over nickel and nickel/silver catalysts .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction is the primary industrial means for producing hydrogen gas. As such, it is a critical support process for applications… (more)

Blaylock, Donnie Wayne

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Methane Steam Reforming in Hydrogen-permeable Membrane Reactor for Pure Hydrogen Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steam reforming of methane over a ruthenium catalyst has been carried ... hydrogen separation from the reaction mixture, the methane conversion significantly exceeds the equilibrium value, which ... an important ...

Yasuyuki Matsumura; Jianhua Tong

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Health Care 2009: The Burden of Health Care Costs for Working Families — Implications for Reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

On June 2, 2009, President Barack Obama's Council of Economic Advisers released a report examining the economic case for health care reform, in which they underscored the importance of cost containment to the long-term sustainability of any reform. Despite widespread recognition of the importance of... On June 2, 2009, President Barack Obama's Council of Economic Advisers released a report examining the economic case for health care reform, in which they underscored the importance of cost containment to the long-term sustainability of any reform.1 ...

Polsky D.; Grande D.

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

383

A Fast Start-up On-Board Fuel Reformer for NOx Adsorber Regeneration...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Processor for Rapid and Efficient Regeneration of Single Leg NOx Adsorber Systems Hydrogen generation from plasmatron reformers and use for diesel exhaust aftertreatment...

384

The Tablighi Jamaat in Bangladesh and the UK: an ethnographic study of an Islamic reform movement.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Jamaat, a transnational Islamic reform movement, which originated in India in the 1920s. The movement claims to reinforce faith by preaching among Muslims. Tablighi Jamaat… (more)

Siddiqi, Mohammad

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

From plan to practice: implementing SB 617, California's regulatory review reform.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??SB 617 (Calderon & Pavley, 2011) is an ambitious experiment to improve state regulations and increase government transparency. The statute reforms California’s regulatory review process… (more)

Marin, Angela K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Improved Heat Transfer and Performance of High Intensity Combustion Systems for Reformer Furnace Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the above premise. The application of vortex stabilized high intensity burners for reformer furnaces in the petrochemical industry is then reviewed and emphasized....

Williams, F. D. M.; Kondratas, H. M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics New Horizons for Rural Reform in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

11 Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics New Horizons for Rural Reform in China: Resources Population Rice Fruit #12;12 Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics dominate domestic production

Kammen, Daniel M.

388

E-Print Network 3.0 - arc plasma-catalyst reformer Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: by reforming their political institutions. States such as Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, Taiwan and East... systems and other key democratic...

389

The Ambiguous Transition: Building State Capacity and Expanding Popular Participation in Venezuela's Agrarian Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

El Universal, Caracas, Venezuela. Bengelsdorf, Carollee.Crisis and Reform in Venezuela. ” Journal of Interamerican2):27-61. Datamonitor. (2004). “Venezuela Country Profile. ”

Page, Tiffany Linton

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Regulatory Reform in the Wake of the Financial Crisis of 2007—2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse regulatory reform in the wake of the financial crisis of 2007-2008.

Lo, Andrew W.

391

Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids via Water Splitting using Oxygen Transport Membrane (OTM) (Presentation)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

392

Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Carbohydrates via Aqueous-Phase Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by Virent Energy Systems, Inc. at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

393

BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

394

Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

395

Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier. 10 figs.

Dederer, J.T.; Hager, C.A.

1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

396

Electrochemical fuel cell generator having an internal and leak tight hydrocarbon fuel reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical fuel cell generator configuration is made having a generator section which contains a plurality of axially elongated fuel cells, each cell containing a fuel electrode, air electrode, and solid oxide electrolyte between the electrodes, in which axially elongated dividers separate portions of the fuel cells from each other, and where at least one divider also reforms a reformable fuel gas mixture prior to electricity generation reactions, the at least one reformer-divider is hollow having a closed end and an open end entrance for a reformable fuel mixture to pass to the closed end of the divider and then reverse flow and pass back along the hollowed walls to be reformed, and then finally to pass as reformed fuel out of the open end of the divider to contact the fuel cells, and further where the reformer-divider is a composite structure having a gas diffusion barrier of metallic foil surrounding the external walls of the reformer-divider except at the entrance to prevent diffusion of the reformable gas mixture through the divider, and further housed in an outer insulating jacket except at the entrance to prevent short-circuiting of the fuel cells by the gas diffusion barrier.

Dederer, Jeffrey T. (Valencia, PA); Hager, Charles A. (Mars, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Sulfur-tolerant natural gas reforming for fuel-cell applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??An attractive simplification of PEM-FC systems operated with natural gas would be the use of a sulfur tolerant reforming catalyst, but such a catalyst has… (more)

Hennings, Ulrich

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

E-Print Network 3.0 - abortion law reform Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in Hagen Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 30 Health Care Reform Law Challenged in Courts President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010, signed into...

399

Efficiency impacts of the Chinese industrial transition: a quantitative evaluation of reforms in the coal industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper explains the variation in technical efficiency across firms due to transitional reforms. A translog stochastic frontier production method incorporating regional heterogeneity and technical change is ap...

Xunpeng Shi; R. Quentin Grafton

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Production of high-octane gasoline on a semi-industrial catalytic reforming plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experiments have been carried out on the catalytic reforming at a pressure of 20 atm of a wide, straight-run gasoline fraction on an experimental industrial plant.

A. P. Fedorov; G. N. Maslyanskii…

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

At the Nexus of Social Policy and Capital Markets: Pension Reform and Enterprise Governance in Germany  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Company Pension Schemes in Germany,” Monthly Report, March.2001. “Pension Reform in Germany,” draft chapter in R. Kentof Stakeholderism in Germany,”forthcoming, Industrielle

Ziegler, J. Nicholas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based fuel processor, method for improving catalyst function in autothermal and partial oxidation reformer-based processors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention provides a fuel processor comprising a linear flow structure having an upstream portion and a downstream portion; a first catalyst supported at the upstream portion; and a second catalyst supported at the downstream portion, wherein the first catalyst is in fluid communication with the second catalyst. Also provided is a method for reforming fuel, the method comprising contacting the fuel to an oxidation catalyst so as to partially oxidize the fuel and generate heat; warming incoming fuel with the heat while simultaneously warming a reforming catalyst with the heat; and reacting the partially oxidized fuel with steam using the reforming catalyst.

Ahmed, Shabbir; Papadias, Dionissios D.; Lee, Sheldon H. D.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

403

Columbia River Hatchery Reform System-Wide Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Congress funded the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project via annual appropriations to the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) beginning in fiscal year 2000. Congress established the project because it recognized that while hatcheries have a necessary role to play in meeting harvest and conservation goals for Pacific Northwest salmonids, the hatchery system was in need of comprehensive reform. Most hatcheries were producing fish for harvest primarily to mitigate for past habitat loss (rather than for conservation of at-risk populations) and were not taking into account the effects of their programs on naturally spawning populations. With numerous species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), conservation of salmon in the Puget Sound area was a high priority. Genetic resources in the region were at risk and many hatchery programs as currently operated were contributing to those risks. Central to the project was the creation of a nine-member independent scientific review panel called the Hatchery Scientific Review Group (HSRG). The HSRG was charged by Congress with reviewing all state, tribal and federal hatchery programs in Puget Sound and Coastal Washington as part of a comprehensive hatchery reform effort to: conserve indigenous salmonid genetic resources; assist with the recovery of naturally spawning salmonid populations; provide sustainable fisheries; and improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of hatchery programs. The HSRG worked closely with the state, tribal and federal managers of the hatchery system, with facilitation provided by the non-profit organization Long Live the Kings and the law firm Gordon, Thomas, Honeywell, to successfully complete reviews of over 200 hatchery programs at more than 100 hatcheries across western Washington. That phase of the project culminated in 2004 with the publication of reports containing the HSRG's principles for hatchery reform and recommendations for Puget Sound/Coastal Washington hatchery programs, followed by the development in 2005 of a suite of analytical tools to support application of the principles (all reports and tools are available at www.hatcheryreform.us). In 2005, Congress directed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration-Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) to replicate the Puget Sound and Coastal Washington Hatchery Reform Project in the Columbia River Basin. The HSRG was expanded to 14 members to include individuals with specific knowledge about the Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations. This second phase was initially envisioned as a one-year review, with emphasis on the Lower Columbia River hatchery programs. It became clear however, that the Columbia River Basin needed to be viewed as an inter-connected ecosystem in order for the review to be useful. The project scope was subsequently expanded to include the entire Basin, with funding for a second year provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) Fish and Wildlife Program. The objective of the HSRG's Columbia River Basin review was to change the focus of the Columbia River hatchery system. In the past, these hatchery programs have been aimed at supplying adequate numbers of fish for harvest as mitigation primarily for hydropower development in the Basin. A new, ecosystem-based approach is founded on the idea that harvest goals are sustainable only if they are compatible with conservation goals. The challenge before the HSRG was to determine whether or not conservation and harvest goals could be met by fishery managers and, if so, how. The HSRG determined that in order to address these twin goals, both hatchery and harvest reforms are necessary. The HSRG approach represents an important change of direction in managing hatcheries in the region. It provides a clear demonstration that current hatchery programs can indeed be redirected to better meet both conservation and harvest goals. For each Columbia River Basin Environmentally Significant Unit

Warren, Dan [Hatchery Scientific Review Group

2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

404

13C NMR Investigation of the Chemical Structures of Coking and Non-Coking Coals in the Original and Reductively Alkylated Solid States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical structures of four Turkish coals in their original and reductively alkylated forms were investigated in the solid state by13C NMR, using cross polarization and magic-angle spinning. Changes in13C NMR int...

Gaye Erbatur; Oktay Erbatur; Abdullah Coban; Mark F. Davis…

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for Oxidation of Four Small Alkyl Esters in Laminar Premixed Flames  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism has been developed for a group of four small alkyl ester fuels, consisting of methyl formate, methyl acetate, ethyl formate and ethyl acetate. This mechanism is validated by comparisons between computed results and recently measured intermediate species mole fractions in fuel-rich, low pressure, premixed laminar flames. The model development employs a principle of similarity of functional groups in constraining the H atom abstraction and unimolecular decomposition reactions in each of these fuels. As a result, the reaction mechanism and formalism for mechanism development are suitable for extension to larger oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels, together with an improved kinetic understanding of the structure and chemical kinetics of alkyl ester fuels that can be extended to biodiesel fuels. Variations in concentrations of intermediate species levels in these flames are traced to differences in the molecular structure of the fuel molecules.

Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Westmoreland, P R; Dryer, F L; Chaos, M; Osswald, P; Kohse-Hoinghaus, K; Cool, T A; Wang, J; Yang, B; Hansen, N; Kasper, T

2008-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

406

The Effect of Malpractice Reform on Emergency Department Care  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...factors, not explicitly modeled, that are stable over time, such as teaching status or certain features of state tort law. In sensitivity analyses, we tested the effect of omitting the diagnosis covariates, since diagnosis might be affected by the physician's decision regarding admission, and the effect... One aim of malpractice reform has been to reduce the practice of defensive medicine. Laws in three states that changed the malpractice standard for emergency care to gross negligence did not substantially influence practice intensity in emergency departments.

Waxman D.A.Greenberg M.D.Ridgely M.S.Kellermann A.L.Heaton P.

2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

407

SMALL SCALE FUEL CELL AND REFORMER SYSTEMS FOR REMOTE POWER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

New developments in fuel cell technologies offer the promise of clean, reliable affordable power, resulting in reduced environmental impacts and reduced dependence on foreign oil. These developments are of particular interest to the people of Alaska, where many residents live in remote villages, with no roads or electrical grids and a very high cost of energy, where small residential power systems could replace diesel generators. Fuel cells require hydrogen for efficient electrical production, however. Hydrogen purchased through conventional compressed gas suppliers is very expensive and not a viable option for use in remote villages, so hydrogen production is a critical piece of making fuel cells work in these areas. While some have proposed generating hydrogen from renewable resources such as wind, this does not appear to be an economically viable alternative at this time. Hydrogen can also be produced from hydrocarbon feed stocks, in a process known as reforming. This program is interested in testing and evaluating currently available reformers using transportable fuels: methanol, propane, gasoline, and diesel fuels. Of these, diesel fuels are of most interest, since the existing energy infrastructure of rural Alaska is based primarily on diesel fuels, but this is also the most difficult fuel to reform, due to the propensity for coke formation, due to both the high vaporization temperature and to the high sulfur content in these fuels. There are several competing fuel cell technologies being developed in industry today. Prior work at UAF focused on the use of PEM fuel cells and diesel reformers, with significant barriers identified to their use for power in remote areas, including stack lifetime, system efficiency, and cost. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells have demonstrated better stack lifetime and efficiency in demonstrations elsewhere (though cost still remains an issue), and procuring a system for testing was pursued. The primary function of UAF in the fuel cell industry is in the role of third party independent testing. In order for tests to be conducted, hardware must be purchased and delivered. The fuel cell industry is still in a pre-commercial state, however. Commercial products are defined as having a fixed set of specifications, fixed price, fixed delivery date, and a warrantee. Negotiations with fuel cell companies over these issues are often complex, and the results of these discussions often reveal much about the state of development of the technology. This work includes some of the results of these procurement experiments. Fuel cells may one day replace heat engines as the source of electrical power in remote areas. However, the results of this program to date indicate that currently available hardware is not developed sufficiently for these environments, and that significant time and resources will need to be committed for this to occur.

Dennis Witmer

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Report of the Committee on Legislation and Regulatory Reform  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report of the Committee on Legislation and Regulatory Reform covers legislative developments in the first session and early second session of the 102nd Congress. This Congress has been especially active on energy matters. The Persian Gulf War, the release of the President's National Energy Strategy (NES), and other factors created the impetus for consideration of comprehensive energy legislation. The report is divided into three parts. The first part describes the comprehensive energy legislation pending before the Congress. The second part describes pending environmental legislation. The third part of the report describes miscellaneous Congressional activity that should be of interest.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Analysis of Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming Brian James Directed Technologies, Inc. 6 November 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objective * Assess cost of H 2 from bio-derived liquids * Looking at forecourt scale systems: 100-1500kg/day * Emphasis on Ethanol * Looking at both "conventional" and "advanced" systems * Interaction with the Researchers is bi-directional * Researchers help me with catalysts, performance, configurations * I can assist Researchers with system studies, configurations, and system performance estimates * Output of my work will be: * System/Configuration Definition * Performance specification & optimization * Capital cost estimation

410

A study of land reform and its impact in the Greater Letaba Local Municipality of the Mopani District in the Limpopo Province.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Since the dawn of democracy in South Africa, numerous land reform projects have been approved by the Minister of Rural Development and Land Reform. This… (more)

Malahlela, Tebogo.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Preparation and use of tetra-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Preparation and use of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents. Tetra-C-alkyl derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide, Co(C.sub.2 R.sub.2 B.sub.9 H.sub.9).sub.2.sup.- (CoB.sub.2 R.sub.4.sup.- ; R=CH.sub.3 and C.sub.6 H.sub.13) are demonstrated to be significant cesium and strontium extractants from acidic and alkaline solutions into non-toxic organic solvent systems. Extractions using mesitylene and diethylbenzene are compared to those with nitrobenzene as the organic phase. CoB.sub.2 -hexyl.sub.4.sup.- in diethylbenzene shows improved selectivity (10.sup.4) for Cs over Na in acidic solution. In dilute alkaline solution, CoB.sub.2 -hexyl.sub.4.sup.- extracts Cs less efficiently, but more effectively removes Sr from higher base concentrations. A general synthesis of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollides is described.

Miller, Rebecca L. (Los Alamos, NM); Pinkerton, Anthony B. (Santa Fe, NM); Abney, Kent D. (Los Alamos, NM); Kinkead, Scott A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Computational Investigation of the Thermochemistry and Kinetics of Steam Methane Reforming Over a Multi-Faceted Nickel Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A microkinetic model of steam methane reforming over a multi-faceted nickel surface using ... on the Ni(100) surface. The primary reforming pathway is predicted to be through C* ... reactions are predicted to be ...

D. Wayne Blaylock; Yi-An Zhu; William H. Green

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-06-00192  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project is for Chevron and NREL to collaborate in determining the effect of bio-oil composition variability on autothermal reforming performance including bio-oil volatilization, homogeneous oxidative cracking, and catalytic reforming.

Czernik, S.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Electron-induced dry reforming of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry reforming of methane has the potential to reduce the greenhouse gases methane and carbon dioxide and to generate hydrogen-rich syngas. In reforming methane, plasma-assisted reforming processes may have advantages over catalytic processes because they are free from coking and their response time for mobile applications is quick. Although plasma-assisted reforming techniques have seen recent developments, systematic studies that clarify the roles that electron-induced chemistry and thermo-chemistry play are needed for a full understanding of the mechanisms of plasma-assisted reformation. Here, we developed a temperature-controlled coaxial dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) apparatus to investigate the relative importance of electron-induced chemistry and thermo-chemistry in dry reforming of methane. In the tested background temperature range 297–773 K, electron-induced chemistry, as characterized by the physical properties of micro-discharges, was found to govern the conversions of CH4 and CO2, while thermo-chemistry influenced the product selectivities because they were found to depend on the background temperature. Comparisons with results from arc-jet reformation indicated that thermo-chemistry is an efficient conversion method. Our findings may improve designs of plasma-assisted reformers by using relatively hotter plasma sources. However, detailed chemical kinetic studies are needed.

Xuming Zhang; Min Suk Cha

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Copyright reform on the EU level European Network for Copyright in support of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a copyright reform on the EU level? Rainer Kuhlen University of Konstanz, HumboldtUniversity Berlin, IPR;Copyright reform on the EU level Extension of IPR in time Extension of IPR to living objects and other objects in nature Extension of IPR to software (still controversial, at least in the EU) Introduction

Kuhlen, Rainer

416

Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform February 16, 2010 recommended formation of an ad hoc committee to evaluate opportunities for SFR and others in College. As a result, the Washington Natural Resource Agency Reform ad hoc Committee was established and given

Borenstein, Elhanan

417

Sir John Tomes FRS, Fellows of the Royal Society, and Dental Reform in the nineteenth Century  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...637-639 (1991). 57 I. Loudon, Medical care and the general practitioner 1750-1850...Fellows of the Royal Society, and dental reform in the nineteenth century. | In this paper...profession of dentistry shared in the process of reform and scientific progress that engaged the...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

ENGINEERING SCALE UP OF RENEWABLE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF PEANUT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENGINEERING SCALE UP OF RENEWABLE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION BY CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF PEANUT SHELLS, and academic organizations is developing a steam reforming process to be demonstrated on the gaseous byproducts of this engineering demonstration project. After an initial problem with the heaters that required modification

419

Do R&D and IT tax credits work? Evaluation of the Japanese tax reform  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Our intention is to verify whether or not the tax reform plan can demonstrate benefits of which an impact can be felt in macroeconomic terms. We identify the significant effects of the tax reform plan and the difference in effects between R&D tax credit and IT investment tax credit.

Ichiro Sakata; Kenzo Fujisue; Hirokazu Okumura

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

HealtH reform and oHsu how we'll change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HealtH reform and oHsu how we'll change Health reform will touch all of oHsu's missions. the coming changes are about more than public policy and health insurance. We will see transformation in how care is delivered, how health professionals are trained and how we decide what health care to buy. oHsu's missions

Chapman, Michael S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Electricity Markets: Should the Rest of the World Adopt the UK Reforms?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PWP-069 Electricity Markets: Should the Rest of the World Adopt the UK Reforms? Catherine D;1 Electricity Markets: Should the Rest of the World Adopt the UK Reforms?1 By Catherine D. Wolfram2 Britain was one of the first countries to liberalize its electricity industry when it restructured and privatized

California at Berkeley. University of

422

Electrochemical Removal of Carbon Monoxide in Reformate Hydrogen for Fueling Proton Exchange Membrane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electrochemical Removal of Carbon Monoxide in Reformate Hydrogen for Fueling Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Sivagaminathan Balasubramanian, Charles E. Holland,* and John W. Weidner*,z Center in reformate hydrogen. In this design, the potential and gas flow are switched between the two filter cells so

Weidner, John W.

423

PHS 650 Summer 2012 Page 1 State-Level Health System and Coverage Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Affordable Care Act Current State-Level Trends and Health Reforms The Syllabus includes a variety of readingPHS 650 Summer 2012 Page 1 State-Level Health System and Coverage Reform Course Overview and Syllabus Description: Overview of the state initiatives in health care coverage, access, and costs, trends

Sheridan, Jennifer

424

Inaugural Lecture The Politics of Belief and U.S. Health Care Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Inaugural Lecture The Politics of Belief and U.S. Health Care Reform Joseph White Ph.D John G will not pretend to fully explain the politics of health care reform in the U.S.. I could make many other caveats is to give you some interesting ideas that you might use in thinking about American government. Health care

Oxford, University of

425

Extraction of carbonate complexes of trivalent transplutonium elements with alkyl pyrocatechols  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extraction of trivalent americium curium, californium, and europium with a technical mixture of mono-and didecyl pyrocatechols (TAP) in different diluents from carbonate solutions is studied. The influence of various factors (pH, K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, TAP and metal concentration, phase contact time) on the degree of extraction and separation of the elements is clarified. It is shown that the elements concerned are extracted quantitatively by TAP solution in toluene and cyclohexane in the K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ concentration range 0.25-1.5 M. A difference is noted in the coefficients of americium and curium distribution when they are extracted with TAP from 0.25 M K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ solution. The separation coefficients of this pair rise with the pH of the carbonate solution. The separation coefficients of this pair rise with the pH of the carbonate solution. The separation can be improved at the stage of reextraction of the elements with a mixture of K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and DTPA or EDTA from alkyl pyrocatechol because the americium and curium reextraction rate constants differ widely. The composition of the compounds in the organic phase based on 4-(..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..-dioctylethyl)pyrocatechol (DOP) is studied by /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy.

Karalova, Z.K.; Bukina, T.I.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Fedorov, L.A.; Sokolovskii, S.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Transition metal ion-assisted photochemical generation of alkyl halides and hydrocarbons from carboxylic acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Near-UV photolysis of aqueous solutions of propionic acid and aqueous Fe3+ in the absence of oxygen generates a mixture of hydrocarbons (ethane, ethylene and butane), carbon dioxide, and Fe2+. The reaction becomes mildly catalytic (about five turnovers) in the presence of oxygen which converts a portion of alkyl radicals to oxidizing intermediates that reoxidize Fe2+. The photochemistry in the presence of halide ions (X? = Cl?, Br?) generates ethyl halides via halogen atom abstraction from FeXn3?n by ethyl radicals. Near-quantitative yields of C2H5X are obtained at ?0.05 M X?. Competition experiments with Co(NH3)5Br2+ provided kinetic data for the reaction of ethyl radicals with FeCl2+ (k = (4.0 ± 0.5) × 106 M?1 s?1) and with FeBr2+ (k = (3.0 ± 0.5) × 107 M?1 s?1). Photochemical decarboxylation of propionic acid in the presence of Cu2+ generates ethylene and Cu+. Longer-chain acids also yield alpha olefins as exclusive products. These reactions become catalytic under constant purge with oxygen which plays a dual role. It reoxidizes Cu+ to Cu2+, and removes gaseous olefins to prevent accumulation of Cu+(olefin) complexes and depletion of Cu2+. The results underscore the profound effect that the choice of metal ions, the medium, and reaction conditions exert on the photochemistry of carboxylic acids.

Carraher, Jack; Pestovsky, Oleg; Bakac, Andreja

2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

427

GOVERNMENT VERSUS GOVERNANCE AS A FRAMEWORK Government versus Governance as a Framework to analyze Mexico's Energy Reform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

branch, the oil company PEMEX' union, other critics of the reform among a part of the left party Partido

Texas at Austin, University of

428

Fiftieth CCR reformer goes on stream in Germany  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fiftieth continuous catalytic reformer built since this technology was introduced by UOP Process Division in 1971 has gone on stream in West Germany. The 21,300-b/sd unit is in Deutsche Shell AG's Godorf refinery. It is the sixth such unit put in service by Shell International. Others are in refineries at Harburg, West Germany; Shellhaven, England; Palau Bokum, Singapore; Pernis, Netherlands; and Geelong, Australia. CCR units operate at much higher severity than older reforming units. Severity is a function of higher octane, lower pressure, and feedstock. The operating severity or catalyst deactivation rate may be 20 times that of high pressure, low octane units. Continuous catalyst regeneration is then the key for maintaining long-term operations at steady state conditions. To facilitate continuous catalyst regeneration, the three reactors are stacked. This design permits the catalyst to move in essentially plug flow through the reactors at a rate determined by the rate of catalyst withdrawal to the regeneration section.

Not Available

1985-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

429

Modified Ni-Cu catalysts for ethanol steam reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three Ni-Cu catalysts, having different Cu content, supported on ?-alumina were synthesized by wet co-impregnation method, characterized and tested in the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. The catalysts were characterized for determination of: total surface area and porosity (N{sub 2} adsorption - desorption using BET and Dollimer Heal methods), Ni surface area (hydrogen chemisorption), crystallinity and Ni crystallites size (X-Ray Diffraction), type of catalytic active centers (Hydrogen Temperature Programmed Reduction). Total surface area and Ni crystallites size are not significantly influenced by the addition of Cu, while Ni surface area is drastically diminished by increasing of Cu concentration. Steam reforming experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure, temperature range 150-350°C, and ethanol - water molar ration of 1 at 30, using Ar as carrier gas. Ethanol conversion and hydrogen production increase by the addition of Cu. At 350°C there is a direct connection between hydrogen production and Cu concentration. Catalysts deactivation in 24h time on stream was studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) on used catalysts. Coke deposition was observed at all studied temperatures; at 150°C amorphous carbon was evidenced, while at 350°C crystalline, filamentous carbon is formed.

Dan, M.; Mihet, M.; Almasan, V.; Borodi, G. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Street, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Katona, G.; Muresan, L. [Univ. Babes Bolyai, Fac. Chem. and Chem. Eng.,11 Arany Janos, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Univ. Babes Bolyai, Fac. Chem. and Chem. Eng.,11 Arany Janos, 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Lazar, M. D., E-mail: diana.lazar@itim-cj.ro [65-103 Donath Street (Romania)

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

430

Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Process: Catalytic Reforming Catalytic Cracking Catalytic Hydrocracking Delayed and Fluid Coking Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Process: Catalytic Reforming Catalytic Cracking Catalytic Hydrocracking Delayed and Fluid Coking Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Process Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 2,563 2,667 2,739 2,807 2,705 2,609 2010-2013 PADD 1 176 178 180 173 156 167 2010-2013 East Coast 166 164 163 161 140 153 2010-2013 Appalachian No. 1 9 14 16 12 15 14 2010-2013 PADD 2 642 638 668 695 677 615 2010-2013 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 426 411 426 460 450 399 2010-2013 Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. 67 62 70 72 72 57 2010-2013 Okla., Kans., Mo.

431

Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 (FOOGLRA) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 (FOOGLRA) Jump to: navigation, search Statute Name Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 (FOOGLRA) Year 1987 Url FederalOnshore1987.jpg Description Another amendment to the Mineral Leasing Act, The Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 granted the USDA Forest Service the authority to make decisions and implement regulations concerning the leasing of public domain minerals on National Forest System lands containing oil and gas. References Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 (FOOGLRA)[1] Federal Onshore Oil and Gas Leasing Reform Act of 1987 (FOOGLRA) (30 U.S.C. § 181 et seq.) - Another amendment to the Mineral Leasing Act, The Federal

432

Update on IT Reform at the Department of Energy | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Update on IT Reform at the Department of Energy Update on IT Reform at the Department of Energy Update on IT Reform at the Department of Energy June 4, 2012 - 2:14pm Addthis The last 18 months have seen great improvements in the Department of Energy's (DOE) information technology and cybersecurity. A major factor in our success is our alignment with the 25 Point Implementation Plan To Reform Federal Information Technology Management to move to a "Cloud First" environment and maximize the use of shared services to reduce costs and improve IT delivery. Cloud-First/Shared Services: In August 2011, we revamped our online presence by launching Energy.gov and delivering a single platform solution through an open-source content management system and cloud hosting environment. Ultimately, the website reform effort aims to save taxpayers more than $10 million per

433

The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address Climate  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address Climate The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address Climate Change Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address Climate Change Agency/Company /Organization: International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Topics: Policies/deployment programs Resource Type: Lessons learned/best practices Website: www.iisd.org/pdf/2009/bali_2_copenhagen_dom_policy_lessons.pdf The Lessons of Practice: Domestic Policy Reform as a Way to Address Climate Change Screenshot References: The Lessons of Practice[1] Summary "The objectives of this paper are threefold: to review experience to date with policy reforms that can help mitigate climate change, to review work

434

Hydrogen production in Multi-Channel Membrane Reactor via Steam Methane Reforming and Methane Catalytic Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel Multi-Channel Membrane Reactor (MCMR) was designed and built for the small-scale production of hydrogen via Steam Methane Reforming (SMR). The prototype alternates an SMR gas channel to produce hydrogen catalytically, with a Methane Catalytic Combustion (MCC) gas channel to provide the heat of reaction needed by the endothermic reforming. A palladium–silver membrane inside the reforming gas channel shifts the reaction equilibrium, allowing lower operating temperatures, and producing pure hydrogen in a single vessel. Using an innovative air-spray coating technique, channels were coated with Ru–MgO–La2O3/?-Al2O3 and Pd/?-Al2O3 catalyst particles for the SMR and MCC reactions, respectively. Results for the proof-of-concept MCMR showed that methane conversion in the reformer of 91% and a hydrogen purity in excess of 99.99% were possible with the reformer operating at 570 °C and 15 bar.

Alexandre Vigneault; John R. Grace

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Forging growth by governing the market in reform-era urban China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract China’s accelerating urban growth over the past decade has been examined from the perspectives of state devolution or place-making initiatives. Relatively little has been written to contextualize the burgeoning urbanism in China’s reform and the resultant changing relationship between state and market. Through an investigation of fiscal and land use reforms since the mid-1990s, this paper argues that China’s gradual and partial reform has fundamentally re-engineered local states from inward-looking market actors running business to entrepreneurial market governors controlling land supply. Though this transition has triggered urban growth by levering manufacturing and real estate capital, it has also introduced constraints for future urban development by generating inter-regional tensions and making further reforms politically difficult. This paper concludes that sustainable urbanism requires a more clearly oriented and more holistic reform framework.

Lei Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Activity and structure of perovskites as diesel reforming catalysts for solid oxide fuel cells.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent progress in developing perovskite materials as more cost-effective catalysts in autothermal reforming (ATR) of diesel fuel to hydrogen-rich reformate for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) application is reported. Perovskite-type metal oxides with B sites partially exchanged by ruthenium were prepared and evaluated under ATR reaction conditions. The hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and CO{sub x} selectivity of these catalysts were investigated using diesel surrogate fuel with 50 ppm sulfur. The catalyst performances have approached or exceeded a benchmark, high-cost rhodium-based material. In parallel with the reactivity study, we also investigated the physical properties of B-site doped perovskites and their impact on the reforming performance using various characterization techniques such as BET, X-ray powder diffraction, temperature programmable reduction, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We found that ruthenium is highly dispersed into perovskite lattice and its redox behavior is directly associated with reforming activity.

Liu, D.-J.; Krumpelt, M.; Chemical Engineering

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Steam reforming of methane using double-walled reformer tubes containing high-temperature thermal storage Na2CO3/MgO composites for solar fuel production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Double-walled reactor tubes containing thermal storage materials based on the molten carbonate salts—100 wt% Na2CO3 molten salt, 90 wt% Na2CO3/10 wt% MgO and 80 wt% Na2CO3/20 wt% MgO composite materials—were studied for the performances of the reactor during the heat charging mode, while those of methane reforming with steam during heat discharging mode for solar steam reforming. The variations in the temperatures of the catalyst and storage material, methane conversion, duration of reforming for obtaining high levels of methane conversion (>90%), higher heating value (HHV) power of reformed gas and efficiency of the reactor tubes were evaluated for the double-walled reactor tubes and a single-wall reactor tube without the thermal storage. The results for the heat charging mode indicated that the composite thermal storage could successfully store the heat transferred from the exterior wall of the reactor in comparison to the pure molten-salt. The double-walled reactor tubes with the 90 wt% Na2CO3/10 wt% MgO composite material was the most desirable for steam reforming of methane to realize large HHV amounts of reformed gas and higher efficiencies during heat-discharging mode.

Nobuyuki Gokon; Shohei Nakamura; Tsuyoshi Hatamachi; Tatsuya Kodama

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non-thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Exhaust gas fuel reforming of Diesel fuel by non- thermal arc discharge for NOx trap regeneration to the reforming of Diesel fuel with Diesel engine exhaust gas using a non-thermal plasma torch for NOx trap Diesel fuel reforming with hal-00617141,version1-17May2013 Author manuscript, published in "Energy

Boyer, Edmond

439

Comedy, Science, and the Reform of Description in Lombard Painting of the Late Renaissance: Arcimboldo, Vincenzo Campi, and Bartolomeo Passerotti  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Comedy, Science, and the Reform of Description in Lombard Painting of the Late Renaissance, and the Reform of Description in Lombard Painting of the Late Renaissance: Arcimboldo, Vincenzo Campi, as part of an aesthetic "reform" of description and its critical reputation. Considering that all three

Salzman, Daniel

440

Fairness lost in immigration reform; Never before have sweeping changes to policies been undertaken with so little public debate or  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fairness lost in immigration reform; Never before have sweeping changes to policies been undertaken reform is unique neither in terms of its controversial substance nor in its lack of meaningful democratic processes. In the past, major immigration reform has typically been the result of parliamentary deliberation

Handy, Todd C.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopic study of the interaction of potassium with carbon monoxide and benzene on the Pt(111) surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interaction of potassium with carbon monoxide and benezene has been studied on the Pt(111) crystal surface by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The adsorptive changes reported in previous studies for carbon monoxide and benzene when potassium is coadsorbed are correlated with the UPS results presented here and are explained with the aid of a molecular orbital analysis. The authors find that the valence molecular orbitals increase their binding energy slightly when the potassium is coadsorbed, implying a model in which the adsorbates sense the potassium-induced changes in dipole field at the surface. 36 references, 11 figures.

Kudo, M.; Garfunkel, E.L.; Somorjai, G.A.

1985-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

442

Impact of the revised OSHA exposure standard on evaluation and control of benzene and other volatile organic chemicals in the liquid petroleum pipeline industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary purpose of this study was to determine the benzene exposure potential of workers in the liquid petroleum pipeline industry and to assess the impact of compliance with the revised standard on this industry. In addition, exposure to ethylene dibromide (EDB), and ethylene dichloride (EDC), which have toxicological profiles similar to that of benzene and are routinely found in this industry, were evaluated and appropriate control protocols were recommended. Exposure potential to benzene in excess of the 0.5 ppm (8-hour TWA) OSHA action level was shown to be limited to three free product handling operations, and that this increased exposure potential was dependent on the length of time necessary to perform the operations. The incidence and magnitude of benzene overexposure was not severe and control could be accomplished with engineering methods, along with work practice controls and personal protective equipment. Through application of a risk assessment model it was shown that 14 excess leukemia deaths per one thousand workers could be expected in the employee population that routinely performs those operation having maximum benzene exposure potential. This compares to less than on excess leukemia death per one thousand workers in the total work population. The evaluation of EDB and EDC indicated that exposure potential to EDB was of greatest concern. Even though exposure could be limited through application of standard industrial hygiene methods, any control protocol short of total elimination of EDB from the product stream may be not sufficient to reduce exposure to accepted levels.

Mercer, D.O.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Surface structure of coadsorbed benzene and carbon monoxide on the rhodium(111) single crystal analyzed with low-energy electron diffraction intensities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The first structural analysis of a molecular coadsorbate system is presented. Mutual reordering and site shifting are found to occur for benzene and CO coadsorbed in a (/sub 13//sup 31/) lattice on Rh(111). This low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) intensity analysis yields the first confirmed hollow-site adsorption of CO on a single-crystal metal surface, with a C-O bond length expanded by 0.06 +/- 0.05 A from the gas phase. The flat-lying benzene is found centered over hcp-type hollow sites with a strong Kekule-type distortion: C-C bond lengths alternate between 1.33 +/- 0.15 A (hydrogen positions were not determined). This suggests the possibility of a 1,3,5-cyclohexatriene species being formed. The Rh-C bond length is 2.35 +/- 0.05 A for benzene and 2.16 +/- 0.04 A for CO.

Van Hove, M.A.; Lin, R.F.; Somorjai, G.A.

1986-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

444

Facile preparation of sphere-like copper ferrite nanostructures and their enhanced visible-light-induced photocatalytic conversion of benzene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Spinel CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a facile method. • CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres showed high photocatalytic activity toward benzene. • Ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde were the intermediate products. - Abstract: Spinel copper ferrite nanospheres with diameters of about 116 nm were synthesized in high yield via a facile solvothermal route. The prepared nanospheres had cubic spinel structure and exhibited good size uniformity and regularity. The band-gap energy of CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres was calculated to be about 1.69 eV, indicating their potential visible-light-induced photocatalytic activity. The dramatically enhanced photocatalytic activity of the CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanospheres was evaluated via the photocatalytic conversion of benzene under Xe lamp irradiation. By using the in situ FTIR technique, ethyl acetate, carboxylic acid and aldehyde could be regarded as the intermediate products, and CO{sub 2} was produced as the final product during the reaction process. This study provided new insight into the design and preparation of functional nanomaterials with sphere structure in high yield, and the as-grown architectures demonstrated an excellent ability to remove organic pollutants in the atmosphere.

Shen, Yu, E-mail: shenyuqing0322@gmail.com [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wu, Yanbo; Xu, Hongfeng; Fu, Jie [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Hou, Yang [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

The Internal Molecular Potential Between the Substituent Groups in a Benzene Ring as Derived from the Heats of Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that differences in the observed heats of combustion of isomeric benzene derivatives can be interpreted as the internal molecular potential existing between their substituent groups. A like interpretation can be given for the differences between the values observed for the heats of combustion of certain nonisomeric benzene derivatives and those calculated by the rule of additivity. This internal potential, to which the attractive and repulsive forces between the groups are due, results from the electrostatic potential of the group moments (dipole effect), the polarization of the substituents and of the ring (induction effect), the dispersion effect, and from steric hindrance. We have, therefore, a new and direct method of measuring the internal potential, which determines both the internal motion of groups within an organic molecule and its most stable configuration. The values thus measured are in good agreement with values theoretically evaluated from the above intermolecular (van der Waals) forces. From the data derived by this method we conclude in the case of o-xylene that valence angles of 120° between the C—CH3 bond and the aromatic C—C bonds are extremely stable, for the energy required to distort these angles through 10° is greater than 2 K cal/mole. We find, also, very restricted rotation for the butane molecule, from which it follows that saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in the gaseous state tend to form zigzag chains. Such restricted rotation is found for the ether molecule as well.

H. A. Stuart

1931-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Has Massachusetts health care reform worked for the working poor? Results from an analysis of opportunity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractPurpose Health care reform was introduced in Massachusetts (MA) in 2006 and serves as a model for what was subsequently introduced nationally as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The Boston Area Community Health survey collected data before (2002–2005) and after (2006–2010) introduction of the MA health insurance mandate, providing a unique opportunity to assess its effects in a large, epidemiologic cohort. Methods We report on the apparent effects of the mandate on the same participants over time, focusing specifically on the vulnerable working poor (WP). We evaluated differences in subpopulations of interest at pre- and post-reform periods to explore whether MA health care reform resulted in an overall gain in insurance coverage. Results MA health care reform was associated with net gains in health insurance coverage overall and among the subgroups studied. Our findings suggest that despite being targeted by health care reform legislation, the WP in MA continue to report lower rates of insurance coverage compared with both the nonworking poor and the not poor. Conclusions MA health care reform legislation, including the expansion of Medicaid, resulted in substantial overall gains in coverage. Disparities in insurance coverage persist among some subgroups following health care reform implementation in MA. These results have important implications for health services researchers and policy makers, particularly in light of the ongoing implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

Liane J. Tinsley; Susan A. Hall; John B. McKinlay

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Vehicle type choice under the influence of a tax reform and rising fuel prices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Differentiated vehicle taxes are considered by many a useful tool for promoting environmentally friendly vehicles. Various structures have been implemented in several countries, e.g. Ireland, France, The Czech Republic, and Denmark. In many countries the tax reforms have been followed by a steep change in new vehicle purchases toward more diesel vehicles and more fuel-efficient vehicles. The paper analyses to what extent a vehicle tax reform similar to the Danish 2007 reform may explain changes in purchasing behaviour. The paper investigates the effects of a tax reform, fuel price changes, and technological development on vehicle type choice using a mixed logit model. The model allows a simulation of the effect of car price changes that resemble those induced by the tax reform. This effect is compared to the effects of fuel price changes and technology improvements. The simulations show that the effect of the tax reform on fuel efficiency is similar to the effect of rising fuel prices while the effect of technological development is much larger. The conclusion is that while the tax reform appeared in the same year as a large increase in fuel efficiency, it seems likely that it only explains a small part of the shift in fuel efficiency that occurred and that the main driver was the technological development.

Stefan L. Mabit

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

In silico search for novel methane steam reforming catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper demonstrates a method for screening transition metal and metal alloy catalysts based on their predicted rates and stabilities for a given catalytic reaction. This method involves combining reaction and activation energies (available to the public via a web-based application 'CatApp') with a microkinetic modeling technique to predict the rates and selectivities of a prospective material. This paper illustrates this screening technique using the steam reforming of methane to carbon monoxide and hydrogen as a test reaction. While catalysts are already commercially available for this process, the method demonstrated in this paper is very general and could be applied to a wide range of catalytic reactions. Following the steps outlined herein, such an analysis could potentially enable researchers to understand reaction mechanisms on a fundamental level and, on this basis, develop leads for new metal alloy catalysts.

Yue Xu; Adam C Lausche; Shengguang Wang; Tuhin S Khan; Frank Abild-Pedersen; Felix Studt; Jens K Nørskov; Thomas Bligaard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Catalytic deactivation on methane steam reforming catalysts. 2. Kinetic study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The kinetics of methane steam reforming reaction over an alumina-supported nickel catalyst was investigated at a temperature range of 640-740/sup 0/C in a flow reactor at atmospheric pressure. The experiments were performed varying the inlet concentration of methane, hydrogen, and water. A kinetic scheme of the Houghen-Watson type was satisfactorily proposed assuming the dissociative adsorption of CH/sub 4/ as the rate-limiting step, but this kinetic scheme can be easily replaced by a first-order kinetics (r/sub CH/4/sub / = kapparho/sub CH/4/sub /) for engineering purposes. Catalyst activation with H/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ mixtures or with the reactant mixture results in the same extent of reaction.

Agnelli, M.E.; Ponzi, E.N.; Yeramian, A.A.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Steam reforming of gasification-derived tar for syngas production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, the steam reforming of tar was catalyzed by dolomite, Ni/dolomite, and Ni/CeO2 for syngas production under different reaction temperature and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV, h?1). The tar was the major side product from the biomass gasification. Current results revealed that the nickel doped catalyst on dolomite with CO2 in the feed stream yielded the highest H2 and syngas production among all reaction conditions. Comparing to the use of dolomite, when Ni–dolomites was used as catalyst, the yield of H2 increased by 33%, the yield of syngas increased by 7%, and the yield of CH4 decreased by 59%. It was also found that the yield of syngas, H2, or CO under the Ni/dolomite catalyst were significant higher (p  CO2 concentration in the feed stream > reaction temperature > weight hourly space velocity.

Alex C.-C. Chang; Lung-Shiang Chang; Cheng-You Tsai; Yu-Chun Chan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Chemical Looping Reforming for H2, CO and Syngas Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate that the extension of CLC onto oxidants beyond air opens new, highly efficient pathways for production of ultra-pure hydrogen, activation of CO{sub 2} via reduction to CO, and are currently working on production of syngas using nanocomposite Fe-BHA. CLR hold great potential due to fuel flexibility and CO{sub 2} capture. Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is a novel clean combustion technology which offers an elegant and highly efficient route for fossil fuel combustion. In CLC, combustion of a fuel is broken down into two spatially separated steps. In the reducer, the oxygen carrier (typically a metal) supplies the stoichiometric oxygen required for fuel combustion. In the oxidizer, the oxygen-depleted carrier is then re-oxidized with air. After condensation of steam from the effluent of the reducer, a high-pressure, high-purity sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is obtained. In the present study, we apply the CLC principle to the production of high-purity H{sub 2}, CO, and syngas streams by replacing air with steam and/or CO{sub 2} as oxidant, respectively. Using H{sub 2}O as oxidant, pure hydrogen streams can be obtained. Similarly, using CO{sub 2} as oxidant, CO is obtained, thus opening an efficient route for CO{sub 2} utilization. Using steam and CO{sub 2} mixtures for carrier oxidation should thus allow production of syngas with adjustable CO:H{sub 2} ratios. Overall, these processes result in Chemical Looping Reforming (CLR), i.e. the net overall reaction is the steam and/or dry reforming of the respective fuel.

Bhavsar,Saurabh; Najera,Michelle; Solunke,Rahul; Veser,Götz

2001-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

452

Online quality control methods for steam-gas reformers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a classification of online quality control (QC) methods from the view of process control. The QC can be applied on the control loops from each of its three sides: the input (manipulative variable) side, the output (controlled variable) side and from the disturbance side. It was found that online QC can be direct or indirect, depending on the measures taken for quality. This classification can lead to interesting and new options for the control variables that otherwise would have been obscure. Once the proper control variable is selected (in terms of adequate representation of quality) it can be used for control systems analysis and design. Process application is presented for an industrial Steam Gas Reformer. The input is the fuel gas quality for which various options were presented. A correlation was obtained to relate heat input to simple measurements. The output hydrogen quality control options were discussed. Coil outlet temperature is adequate for a crude estimate of conversion, provided that S/C ratio is controlled. S/C ratio correlation was obtained to enable its estimation and control from simple measurements. A precise quality control of hydrogen can be achieved provided that COT is also controlled to protect reformer catalyst. An improved strategy can be implemented where both COT and conversion are controlled in a multivariable sense. This strategy is economically attractive, since it allows continuous manipulation of S/C ratio to the minimum required for COT control. Savings in fuel gas can be achieved accordingly. The feasibility of multivariable control was established via interaction analysis.

I.M. Alatiqi

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Efficient Utilization of Greenhouse Gases in a Gas-to-Liquids Process Combined with CO2/Steam-Mixed Reforming and Fe-Based Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the reforming unit, CO2 reforming and steam reforming of methane are combined together to produce syngas in flexible composition. ... In the burner-type reformer, NG is used as a heating fuel, in order to reduce the consumption of NG, the vent gas can be applied to the burner to replace some part of NG as fuel. ...

Chundong Zhang; Ki-Won Jun; Kyoung-Su Ha; Yun-Jo Lee; Seok Chang Kang

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

454

Effects of Fluorine-Containing Graft and Block Copolymer Additives on Removal Characteristics of Dilute Benzene in Water by Microphase-Separated Membranes Modified with These Additives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Add to ACS ChemWorx ... When larger amounts of the PFA-g-PDMS and PFA-b-PDMS were added to a PMMA/PDMS, the latter additive could keep the microphase-separated structures with a continuous PDMS phase, but the former did not. ... Thus, in this study the pervaporation characteristics for the removal of benzene from a dilute aqueous solution of benzene using PFA-g-PDMS/PMMA-g-PDMS and PFA-b-PDMS/PMMA-g-PDMS membranes, which were prepared by adding fluorine-containing graft and block copolymer additives to the PMMA-g-PDMS membrane, were investigated. ...

Tadashi Uragmi; Hiroshi Yamada; Takashi Miyata

2006-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

455

Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Meeting Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts Hua Song Lingzhi Zhang Umit S. Ozkan* November 6 th , 2007 Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Group Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 *Ozkan.1@osu.edu Biomass to Hydrogen (Environmentally Friendly) Plant cultivation Plant cultivation Saccharification Saccharification / / Fermentation Fermentation Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion Residues of Residues of agroindustries agroindustries and cultivations and cultivations Municipal Solid Waste Municipal Solid Waste (organic fraction) (organic fraction) Distillation Distillation Reformation of ethanol

456

,"Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input" Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input",16,"Monthly","9/2013","1/15/2010" ,"Release Date:","11/27/2013" ,"Next Release Date:","Last Week of December 2013" ,"Excel File Name:","pet_pnp_dwns_a_(na)_ydr_mbblpd_m.xls" ,"Available from Web Page:","http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_pnp_dwns_a_(na)_ydr_mbblpd_m.htm" ,"Source:","Energy Information Administration"

457

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy held a kick-off meeting for the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) on October 24, 2006, in Baltimore, Maryland. The Working Group is addressing technical challenges to distributed reforming of biomass-derived, renewable liquid fuels to hydrogen, including the reforming, water-gas shift, and hydrogen recovery and purification steps. The meeting provided the opportunity for researchers to share their experiences in converting bio-derived liquids to hydrogen with each other and with members of the DOE Hydrogen Production Technical Team.

458

How fuel composition affects on-board reforming for fuel cell vehicles.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Different blends of gasoline range hydrocarbons were investigated to determine the effect of aromatic, naphthenic, and paraffinic content on performance in an autothermal reformer. In addition, we investigated the effects of detergent, antioxidant, and oxygenate additives. These tests indicate that composition effects are minimal at temperatures of 800C and above, but at lower temperatures or at high gas hourly space velocities (GHSV approaching 100,000 h{sup -1} ) composition can have a large effect on catalyst performance. Fuels high in aromatic and naphthenic components were more difficult to reform. In addition, additives, such as detergents and oxygenates were shown to decrease reformer performance at lower temperatures.

Kopasz, J. P.; Miller, L. E.; Applegate, D. V.; Chemical Engineering

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Fiscal consolidation in the euro area: How much pain can structural reforms ease?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The IMF's Global Integrated Monetary and Fiscal model (GIMF) is used to examine the scope for structural reforms in the euro area to offset the negative impact of fiscal consolidation required to put public debt back on a sustainable path. The results suggest that structural reforms in core countries could be expected to offset the near-term negative impact on activity arising from the required fiscal consolidation. However, for the periphery, the results suggest that it would take several years before structural reforms could return the level of output back to its pre-consolidation path.

Derek Anderson; Benjamin Hunt; Stephen Snudden

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

The role of civil society in health care reforms: An arena for hegemonic struggles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present paper argues that current mainstream understandings of civil society as ontologically different from the state and essentially positive (either normative or functionally) are problematic in order to understand the development of health care reforms. The paper proposes to ground an explanation of the role of civil society in health care reforms in a Gramscian understanding of civil society as analytically different from the state, and as an arena for hegemonic struggles. The study of health care reform in Israel serves as a case study for this claim.

Dani Filc

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Tar Reforming in Model Gasifier Effluents: Transition Metal/Rare Earth Oxide Catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tar Reforming in Model Gasifier Effluents: Transition Metal/Rare Earth Oxide Catalysts ... So in this work we investigated the action of transition metal oxides (TMOs) other than Ni (e.g., Fe, Mn) mixed with REOs for tar reforming, at a medium temperature range (923–1073 K) and under conditions where direct reforming would dominate. ... The heated gas mixture passed through a 1/2” stainless steel tube containing 0.2–1 g of catalyst (40–60 mesh size) diluted with mullite and positioned between beds of ?-Al2O3. ...

Rui Li; Amitava Roy; Joseph Bridges; Kerry M. Dooley

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

462

HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM PLASMATRON REFORMERS: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY FOR NOX ADSORBER REGENERATION AND OTHER AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasmatron reformers are being developed at MIT and ArvinMeritor [1]. In these reformers a special low power electrical discharge is used to promote partial oxidation conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into hydrogen and CO. The partial oxidation reaction of this very fuel rich mixture is difficult to initiate. The plasmatron provides continuous enhanced volume initiation. To minimize electrode erosion and electrical power requirements, a low current, high voltage discharge with wide area electrodes is used. The reformers operate at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Plasmatron reformers provide the advantages of rapid startup and transient response; efficient conversion of the fuel to hydrogen rich gas; compact size; relaxation or elimination of reformer catalyst requirements; and capability to process difficult to reform fuels, such as diesel and bio-oils. These advantages facilitate use of onboard hydrogen-generation technology for diesel exhaust after-treatment. Plasma-enhanced reformer technology can provide substantial conversion even without the use of a catalyst. Recent progress includes a substantial decrease in electrical power consumption (to about 200 W), increased flow rate (above 1 g/s of diesel fuel corresponding to approximately 40 kW of chemical energy), soot suppression and improvements in other operational features.. Plasmatron reformer technology has been evaluated for regeneration of NOx adsorber after-treatment systems. At ArvinMeritor tests were performed on a dual-leg NOx adsorber system using a Cummins 8.3L diesel engine both in a test cell and on a vehicle. A NOx adsorber system was tested using the plasmatron reformer as a regenerator and without the reformer i.e., with straight diesel fuel based regeneration as the baseline case. The plasmatron reformer was shown to improve NOx regeneration significantly compared to the baseline diesel case. The net result of these initial tests was a significant decrease in fuel penalty, roughly 50% at moderate adsorber temperatures. This fuel penalty improvement is accompanied by a dramatic drop in slipped hydrocarbon emissions, which decreased by 90% or more. Significant advantages are demonstrated across a wide range of engine conditions and temperatures. The study also indicated the potential to regenerate NOx adsorbers at low temperatures where diesel fuel based regeneration is not effective, such as those typical of idle conditions. Two vehicles, a bus and a light duty truck, have been equipped for plasmatron reformer NOx adsorber regeneration tests.

Bromberg, L.; Crane, S; Rabinovich, A.; Kong, Y; Cohn, D; Heywood, J; Alexeev, N.; Samokhin, A.

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

463

Nonmonotonic Electric Conductivity by Alkyl-chain Variation of an Ionic Additive in Percolated Nonionic W/O-Microemulsions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonmonotonic Electric Conductivity by Alkyl-chain Variation of an Ionic Additive in Percolated Nonionic W/O-Microemulsions ... Accordingly, we equate the electrochemical potentials of the anion in both phases Equation 1 is explicitly written, that is where eo, are the elementary charge, , the standard potentials of the anion in the respective states, , the anion concentrations at the interface and in the oil phase, and ?intf, and ?oil the electrical potentials of the interface and oil phases. ... The bilayers, which are here considered have shorter chain length but are interdigitated (if two nano-droplets approach each other) with a consequently considerable resistance regarding diffusion. ...

Hans-Friedrich Eicke

2001-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

464

An Act to Reform Land Use Planning in the Unorganized Territory (Maine) |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

An Act to Reform Land Use Planning in the Unorganized Territory An Act to Reform Land Use Planning in the Unorganized Territory (Maine) An Act to Reform Land Use Planning in the Unorganized Territory (Maine) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative Schools Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Wind Buying & Making Electricity Program Info State Maine Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Conservation An Act to Reform Land Use Planning in the Unorganized Territory alters the makeup and responsibilities of Maine's Land Use Regulation Commission (LURC). It took effect on August 29, 2012 and changed the Commission's name to the Land Use Planning Commission. Under the Act, permitting review for significant projects, such as

465

Incentives in Water Management Reform: Assessing the Effect on Water Use,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Incentives in Water Management Reform: Assessing the Effect on Water Use, Incentives in Water Management Reform: Assessing the Effect on Water Use, Production and Poverty in the Yellow River Basin Speaker(s): Jinixia Wang Date: May 22, 2003 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 The purpose of this presentation is to better understand water management reform in China's rural communities, focusing on the effect of incentives to water managers on the nation's water resources and the welfare of the rural population. Based on a survey study in the Yellow River Basin, our findings show that Water User Associations and contracting have begun to systematically replace traditional forms of collective management. The analysis demonstrates, however, that it is not a nominal implementation of the reform that matters, but rather it is a creation of new management

466

Numerical simulation of micro/mini-channel based methane-steam reformer.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Numerical modeling of methane-steam reforming is performed in a micro/mini-channel with heat input through catalytic channel walls. The low-Mach number, variable density Navier-Stokes equations together… (more)

Peterson, Daniel Alan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Hydrogen production through CO2 sorption-enhanced methane steam reforming: Comparison between different adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A two-dimensional transient model has been developed to describe the catalytic methane reforming (MSR) coupled with simultaneous CO2...removal by different absorbents under non-isothermal, non-isobaric and non-ad...

YuMing Chen; YongChun Zhao; JunYing Zhang…

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Steam Reforming of Methane Over Nickel: Development of a Multi-Step Surface Reaction Mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A detailed multi-step reaction mechanism is developed for modeling steam reforming of methane over nickel-based catalysts. The mechanism also ... tested by simulating experimental investigations of SR of methane ...

L. Maier; B. Schädel; K. Herrera Delgado; S. Tischer; O. Deutschmann

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Methane Steam Reforming Kinetics on a Ni/Mg/K/Al2O3 Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The kinetics of methane steam reforming were studied on a Ni/Mg/K/...2O3...catalyst that was developed for conditioning of biomass-derived syngas. Reactions were conducted in a packed-bed reactor while the concen...

Allison M. Robinson; Megan E. Gin; Matthew M. Yung

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Use of Pd membranes in catalytic reactors for steam methane reforming for pure hydrogen production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This review analyzes publications on experimental studies and mathematical modeling in the field of development of a catalytic reformer (mainly, steam methane conversion) with a fixed catalytic bed. The specif...

A. B. Shigarov; V. D. Meshcheryakov…

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Thermally Coupled Catalytic Reactor for Steam Reforming of Methane and Liquid Hydrocarbons: Experiment and Mathematical Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An energy-efficient catalytic reactor for producing synthesis gas from methane and liquid hydrocarbons is proposed that is ... on the coupling of an endothermic reaction (steam reforming of methane, hexane, or is...

V. A. Kirillov; N. A. Kuzin; A. V. Kulikov…

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Kinetic studies of methane steam reforming on ceria-supported Pd  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steady-state, steam-reforming rates for methane were measured on model and high-surface-...5...and were higher even than rates reported in the literature for Ni catalysts. Model catalysts prepared with Pt or Rh o...

R. Craciun; B. Shereck; R.J. Gorte

473

Outcomes of a Freedom of Choice Reform in Community Mental Health Day Center Services  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Organizational reforms often take place in social and health care services, and in the western world free ... been implemented in various welfare sectors such as health care, disability services, work rehabilitat...

Mona Eklund; Urban Markström

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Reform of Public Hospitals and the Main Role of Medical Staffs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The success of reforms to the public hospital system in China ... factors are known to influence the motivation of health workers, including remuneration, acquisition of power and reputation, the ability to care ...

Peiying Zhang

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Research and Development of a PEM Fuel Cell, Hydrogen Reformer, and Vehicle Refueling Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Technical paper on the development of a hydrogen reformer, vehicle refueling facility, and PEM fuel cell for Las Vegas, NV presented at the 2002 Annual Hydrogen Review held May 6-8, 2002 in Golden, CO.

476

Chemical Looping Autothermal Reforming at a 120 kW Pilot Rig  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical looping with selective oxygen transport allows two step combustion or autothermal reforming without mixing of fuel...4...conversion is achieved. Air/fuel ratio is varied at three different fuel reactor t...

Johannes Bofhàr-Nordenkampf; Tobias Pröll…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Biosyngas Production in an Integrated Aqueous-Phase Glycerol Reforming/Chemical Looping Combustion Process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biosyngas Production in an Integrated Aqueous-Phase Glycerol Reforming/Chemical Looping Combustion Process ... Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research (2010), 49 (21), 10826-10835 CODEN: IECRED; ISSN:0888-5885. ...

Ion Iliuta; Maria C. Iliuta

2013-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

478

The risk of reform : privatisation and liberalisation in the Brazilian electric power industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 1996, when Brazil was well-underway to privatising and liberalising its electric power industry, few would have predicted that within five years the reforms would be a shambles. Like its neighbors Argentina and Chile, ...

Tankha, Sunil, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Computational heterogeneous catalysis applied to steam methane reforming over nickel and nickel/silver catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The steam methane reforming (SMR) reaction is the primary industrial means for producing hydrogen gas. As such, it is a critical support process for applications including petrochemical processing and ammonia synthesis. ...

Blaylock, Donnie Wayne

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Ethanol and E85 Reforming Assisted by a Non-thermal Arc Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ethanol and E85 Reforming Assisted by a Non-thermal Arc Discharge ... The input electric power is expressed in terms of the percentage of Qfuel·LHVfuel, and is noted as %LHV. ... for electricity prodn. ...

Guillaume Petitpas; José Gonzalez-Aguilar; Adeline Darmon; Laurent Fulcheri

2010-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alkylate reformate benzene" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Measurements for fuel reforming for scramjet thermal management and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Measurements for fuel reforming for scramjet, since even composite materials can't withstand the large heat load found in a Scramjet combustion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

482

Demonstration of a high-efficiency steam reformer for fuel cell power plant applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Full-scale tests of a new modular steam reformer confirm its suitability for a wide range of fuel cell power plant applications. This new fuel processor offers interested utilities excellent performance, operating flexibility, reliability, and maintainability.

Udengaard, N.R.; Christiansen, L.J.; Summers, W.A.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Steam-Methane Reformer Kinetic Computer Model with Heat Transfer and Geometry Options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A kinetic computer model of a steam/methane reformer has been developed as a design and analytical tool for a fuel cell system's fuel conditioner. This model has reaction, geometry, flow arrangement, and heat transfer options. Model predictions have been compared to previous experimental data, and close agreement was obtained. Initially, the Leva-type, packed-bed, heat transfer correlations were used. However, calculations based upon the reacting, reformer gases indicate a considerably higher heat transfer coefficient for this reforme design. Data analysis from similar designs in the literature also shows this phenomenon. This is thought to be reaction-induced effect, brought about by the changing of gas composition, the increased gas velocity, the lower catalyst temperature during reaction, and the higher thermal and reaction gradients involved in compact fuel cell reformer designs. Future experimental work is planned to verify the model's predictions further.

Murray, A.P.; Snyder, T.S.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

The Working Families’ Tax Credit and Some European Tax Reforms in A Collective Setting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A framework for simplified implementation of the collective model of labor supply decisions is presented in the context of fiscal reforms in the UK. Through its collective form the model accounts for the well kno...

Michal Myck; Olivier Bargain; Miriam Beblo…

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Healthcare reform in the United States and China: pharmaceutical market implications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This article analyzes the implications of health system reforms in the United States and China for national pharmaceutical markets. It follows a historical institutionalist approach that identifies path dependency in the design and operation of national health...

Daemmrich, Arthur; Mohanty, Ansuman

2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

486

How Educational Data Mining Empowers State Policies to Reform Education: The Mexican Case Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nowadays, Mexico is living a full transformation in strategic areas such as: education, energy, finances, fiscal, and labor. This ... , the Federal Government has ordered an educational reform. A briefing of the ...

Alejandro Peña-Ayala; Leonor Cárdenas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

The Resurgence of Land Reform Policy and Agrarian Movements in Indonesia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

157 He invoked Amartya Sen’s notion of development asby access reform à la Amartya Sen” 166 (Winoto 2006:81, bolddengan reformasi akses ala Amartya Sen. to mention the NARP

Rachman, Noer Fauzi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

The Forgotten Children: African American Children and Child Welfare Reform in St. Louis, 1890-1930  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract Forgotten Children examines the influence of racial ideology on the trajectory of child welfare reform in late nineteenth century and early twentieth century St. Louis. The modern American child welfare system emerged in this time period...

Thirlkel, Thomas E.

2010-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

489

The rules of ruling : charter reform in Los Angeles, 1850-2008  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and officers face the charter as a constant constraint. If centralized purchasingand Purchasing Agent. The Mayor would appoint these officerspurchasing, campaign finance reform, strengthen the recall to cover appointed officials and create staggered elections for officers.

Ingram, James Warren

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Background Paper  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Paper by Arlene Anderson and Tracy Carole presented at the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group, with a focus on key drivers, purpose, and scope.

491

Admonition and the academy : installation, video, and performance art in Reform Era China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

China's Reform Era (1978-present) has seen the reinvigoration of academic, and artistic practice, and a rapprochement between the Chinese Communist Party and the intellectual elite. At its beginnings in the early- to ...

Oen, Karin Grace

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences.

493

Status of Power Sector Reform in Africa: Impact on the Poor | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Status of Power Sector Reform in Africa: Impact on the Poor Status of Power Sector Reform in Africa: Impact on the Poor Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Status of Power Sector Reform in Africa: Impact on the Poor Agency/Company /Organization: Stephen Karekezi and John Kimani Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency, People and Policy Phase: Create a Vision Topics: Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access Resource Type: Publications User Interface: Website Website: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421502000484 Cost: Free UN Region: Eastern Africa, Southern Africa Language: English This article is based on a regional study by the authors reviewing the status, challenges and prospects of ongoing and planned power sector reform in eastern and southern Africa with special emphasis on the implications

494

Health system reform in rural China: Voices of healthworkers and service-users  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Like many other countries China is undergoing major health system reforms, with the aim of providing universal health coverage, and addressing problems of low efficiency and inequity. The first phase of the reforms has focused on strengthening primary care and improving health insurance coverage and benefits. The aim of the study was to explore the impacts of these reforms on healthworkers and service-users at township level, which has been the major target of the first phase of the reforms. From January to March 2013 we interviewed eight health officials, 80 township healthworkers and 80 service-users in eight counties in Zhejiang and Yunnan provinces, representing rich and poor provinces respectively. Thematic analysis identified key themes around the impacts of the health reforms. We found that some elements of the reforms may actually be undermining primary care. While the new health insurance system was popular among service-users, it was criticised for contributing to fast-growing medical costs, and for an imbalance of benefits between outpatient and inpatient services. Salary reform has guaranteed healthworkers' income, but greatly reduced their incentives. The essential drug list removed perverse incentives to overprescribe, but led to falls in income for healthworkers, and loss of autonomy for doctors. Serious problems with drug procurement also emerged. The unintended consequences have included a brain drain of experienced healthworkers from township hospitals, and patients have flowed to county hospitals at greater cost. In conclusion, in the short term resources must be found to ensure rural healthworkers feel appropriately remunerated and have more clinical autonomy, measures for containment of the medical costs must be taken, and drug procurement must show increased transparency and accountability. More importantly the study shows that all countries undergoing health reforms should elicit the views of stakeholders, including service-users, to avoid and address unintended consequences.

Xu Dong Zhou; Lu Li; Therese Hesketh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Three Stages Modeling of n-Octane Reforming Assisted by a Nonthermal Arc Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three Stages Modeling of n-Octane Reforming Assisted by a Nonthermal Arc Discharge ... After a description of the model and its main assumptions, a parametric analysis of plasma reformer performance addressing the influence of plasma volume, H2O/C ratio, O/C ratio, and input electric power is presented. ... Most of them were particularly dealt with technologies based on arc discharges. ...

José Gonzalez-Aguilar; Guillaume Petitpas; Alexandre Lebouvier; Jean-Damien Rollier; Adeline Darmon; Laurent Fulcheri

2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

496

Why PUHCA reform is likely in the 102nd Congress. [Public Utilities Holding Company Act (PUHCA)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article examines the reasons that it is likely that the 102nd Congress will pass legislation that will reform the Public Utilities Holding Company Act of 1935. The impetus provided by the Persian Gulf War, public opinion, the National Energy Plan and the National Independent Energy Producers (NIEP) is examined. Several proposals of the NIEP to guard against market abuses in the reforms are presented.

Welford, W.H. (Olwine, Connelly, Chase, O'Donnell and Weyher, Washington, DC (United States)); Elston, P.J. (Long Lake Energy Corp., New York, NY (United States))

1991-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

497

Reaction Profiles during Exhaust-Assisted Reforming of Diesel Engine Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reaction Profiles during Exhaust-Assisted Reforming of Diesel Engine Fuels ... The reforming efficiency was dependent on the fuel type and followed the general trend of bioethanol > rapeseed methyl ester > low-sulfur diesel fuel. ... The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in diesel engines reduces nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions but results in an increased release of smoke and particulate matter (PM), as well as higher fuel consumption. ...

A. Tsolakis; A. Megaritis; S. E. Golunski

2005-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

498

Steam Reforming on Transition-metal Carbides from Density-functional Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A screening study of the steam reforming reaction on clean and oxygen covered early transition-metal carbides surfaces is performed by means of density-functional theory calculations. It is found that carbides provide a wide spectrum of reactivities, from too reactive via suitable to too inert. Several molybdenum-based systems are identified as possible steam reforming catalysts. The findings suggest that carbides provide a playground for reactivity tuning, comparable to the one for pure metals.

Vojvodic, Aleksandra

2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

499

Identification of Adsorbed Phenyl (C6H5) Groups on Metal Surfaces: Electron-Induced Dissociation of Benzene on Au(111)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Identification of Adsorbed Phenyl (C6H5) Groups on Metal Surfaces: Electron-Induced Dissociation thermal and electron-induced chemistry of benzene (C6H6) adsorbed on a Au(111) surface. Thermal desorption investigate whether EID at an incident energy of 30 eV can cleanly prepare adsorbed phenyl (C6H5(a)) groups

Ellison, Barney

500

Charge transfer from TiO2 into adsorbed benzene diazonium compounds Tel-Aviv University, School of Electrical Engineering, Ramat-Aviv 69978, Israel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Charge transfer from TiO2 into adsorbed benzene diazonium compounds A. Merson Tel-Aviv University (Received 24 February 2004; accepted 8 June 2004) Electron transfer from sol­gel­prepared TiO2 into adsorbed are stably adsorbed. The potential of maximum current Upeak depends strongly on the diazonium salt. Upeak

Shapira, Yoram