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Sample records for alkalinity temperature specific

  1. Magnetite solubility and phase stability in alkaline media at...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    stability in alkaline media at elevated temperatures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetite solubility and phase stability in alkaline media at elevated ...

  2. High-pressure densified solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides (Ca/Sr, Ca/Ba, Sr/Ba) and their high-temperature thermoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gürsoy, M.; Takeda, M.; Albert, B.

    2015-01-15

    Solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides were synthesized and densified by spark plasma sintering at 100 MPa. The high-temperature thermoelectric properties (Seebeck coefficients, electrical and thermal diffusivities, heat capacities) were measured between room temperature and 1073 K. CaB{sub 6}, SrB{sub 6}, BaB{sub 6} and the ternary hexaborides Ca{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x}B{sub 6}, Ca{sub x}Ba{sub 1−x}B{sub 6}, Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1−x}B{sub 6} (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) are n-type conducting compounds over the whole compositional and thermal ranges. The values of the figure of merit ZT for CaB{sub 6} (ca. 0.3 at 1073 K) were found to be significantly increased compared to earlier investigations which is attributed to the densification process. - Highlights: • Solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides were synthesized. • High-temperature thermoelectric properties of mixed calcium borides are excellent. • Spark plasma source densification results in high ZT values. • Borides are rare-earth free and refractory materials.

  3. 2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 06 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report 2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report Workshop report from the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. This report highlights specific aspects of the workshop and reports on general consensus (and dissent) of the joint session. The findings and key recommendations of individual breakout groups from the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop are also reported. 2006 Alkaline

  4. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  5. Unusual temperature dependence in the low-temperature specific heat of U3Ni5Al19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, J D; Ronning, F; Kim, J S; Stewart, G R

    2008-01-01

    Specific heat has been measured down to 0.053 K on a single crystal of the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet U{sub 3}Ni{sub 5}Al{sub 19} that orders at T{sub N}=23 K. As has been previously reported, these data can be fitted between 0.4 and 4 K by the spin-fluctuation model of Moriya and Takimoto, which describes the contribution of weakly interacting critical spin fluctuations to the specific heat, C, where, as T{yields} 0, C/T={gamma}{sub 0}-a{radical}T. However, below 0.35 K a noticeable divergence in C/T-log T dependence, consistent with the existence of strongly interacting fluctuations, is observed. This increase in the divergence of C/T at the lowest temperatures -- which is contrary to the self-consistent renormalization theory of Moriya and Takimoto, which predicts {radical}T dependence for C/T as T{yields} 0 and log T dependence at higher temperatures -- has been measured as a function of magnetic field to further understand its origin. The field data in the low-temperature regime, where C/T-log T exhibit scaling with {Delta}B/T{sup 1.9}, further evidence that there exist strongly interacting fluctuations below 0.35 K in U{sub 3}Ni{sub 5}Al{sub 19}.

  6. LITERATURE REVIEW OF PUO2 CALCINATION TIME AND TEMPERATURE DATA FOR SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, G.

    2012-03-06

    The literature has been reviewed in December 2011 for calcination data of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) from plutonium oxalate Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} precipitation with respect to the PuO{sub 2} specific surface area (SSA). A summary of the literature is presented for what are believed to be the dominant factors influencing SSA, the calcination temperature and time. The PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} calcination data from this review has been regressed to better understand the influence of calcination temperature and time on SSA. Based on this literature review data set, calcination temperature has a bigger impact on SSA versus time. However, there is still some variance in this data set that may be reflecting differences in the plutonium oxalate preparation or different calcination techniques. It is evident from this review that additional calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} needs to be collected and evaluated to better define the relationship. The existing data set has a lot of calcination times that are about 2 hours and therefore may be underestimating the impact of heating time on SSA. SRNL recommends that more calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} be collected and this literature review data set be augmented to better refine the relationship between PuO{sub 2} SSA and its calcination parameters.

  7. Wide-band-gap, alkaline-earth-oxide semiconductor and devices utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Marvin M.; Chen, Yok; Kernohan, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to novel and comparatively inexpensive semiconductor devices utilizing semiconducting alkaline-earth-oxide crystals doped with alkali metal. The semiconducting crystals are produced by a simple and relatively inexpensive process. As a specific example, a high-purity lithium-doped MgO crystal is grown by conventional techniques. The crystal then is heated in an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form many [Li].degree. defects therein, and the resulting defect-rich hot crystal is promptly quenched to render the defects stable at room temperature and temperatures well above the same. Quenching can be effected conveniently by contacting the hot crystal with room-temperature air.

  8. specifications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    specifications - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  9. Low temperature specific heat of the Kondo-semimetal CeNiSn in zero and applied magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brueckl, A.; Neumaier, K.; Einzel, D.; Andres, K.; Flaschin, S.; Kalvius, G.M.; Nakamoto, G.; Takabatake, T.

    1999-06-01

    The specific heat of several CeNiSn single crystals of various purity has been measured in the temperature range from 25 mK to 5 K and in magnetic fields from zero to 7 Tesla. At very low temperatures (below {approximately} 200 mK) the specific heat is found to vary linearly with temperature (C = {gamma}T), the coefficient {gamma} decreasing with increasing purity. Above 200 mK, the specific heat is well described as the sum of a linear and a quadratic term. An applied magnetic field affects mostly the linear term, which first slightly decreases, then strongly increases with field. In magnetic fields, a nuclear hyperfine specific heat contribution is superimposed, which is due mostly to the bare Zeeman-splitting of the {sup 115}Sn, {sup 117}Sn, {sup 119}Sn nuclei (all with spin I = 1/2 and with abundances of 0.35, 7.61, and 8.58% respectively) in the externally applied field. The results on the specific heat at very low temperatures in applied fields fit into the model of an enhanced (heavy-fermion type) density of states which is modified by coherent antiferromagnetic fluctuations into a V-shaped density of states at the Fermi energy.

  10. Temperature-dependent phase-specific deformation mechanisms in a directionally solidified NiAl-Cr(Mo) lamellar composite

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Dunji; An, Ke; Chen, Xu; Bei, Hongbin

    2015-10-09

    Phase-specific thermal expansion and mechanical deformation behaviors of a directionally solidified NiAl–Cr(Mo) lamellar in situ composite were investigated by using real-time in situ neutron diffraction during compression at elevated temperatures up to 800 °C. Tensile and compressive thermal residual stresses were found to exist in the NiAl phase and Crss (solid solution) phase, respectively. Then, based on the evolution of lattice spacings and phase stresses, the phase-specific deformation behavior was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Moreover, estimates of phase stresses were derived by Hooke's law on the basis of a simple method for the determination of stress-free lattice spacing in inmore » situ composites. During compressive loading, the NiAl phase yields earlier than the Crss phase. The Crss phase carries much higher stress than the NiAl phase, and displays consistent strain hardening at all temperatures. The NiAl phase exhibits strain hardening at relatively low temperatures and softening at high temperatures. During unloading, the NiAl phase yields in tension whereas the Crss phase unloads elastically. Additionally, post-test microstructural observations show phase-through cracks at room temperature, micro cracks along phase interfaces at 600 °C and intact lamellae kinks at 800 °C, which is due to the increasing deformability of both phases as temperature rises.« less

  11. Method for the determination of technical specifications limiting temperature in EBR-II operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, L.K.; Hill, D.J.; Ku, J.Y.

    1994-03-01

    The methodology and analysis procedure to qualify the Mark-V and Mark-VA fuels for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II are summarized in this paper. Fuel performance data and design safety criteria are essential for thermal-hydraulic analysis and safety evaluations. Normal and off-normal operation duty cycles and transient classifications are required for the safety assessment of the fuels. The temperature limits of subassemblies were first determined by a steady-state thermal-structural and fuel damage analysis, in which a trial-and-error approach was used to predict the maximum allowable fuel pin temperature that satisfies the design criteria for steady-state normal operation. The steady-state temperature limits were used as the basis of the off-normal transient analysis to assess the safety performance of the fuel for anticipated, unlikely and extremely unlikely events. If the design criteria for the off-normal events are not satisfied, then the subassembly temperature limit is reduced and an iterative procedure is employed until all design criteria are met.

  12. Apex-oxygen-atom tunneling as source of anomalous low-temperature specific heat in high- T sub c superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zoli, M. )

    1991-10-01

    A model is proposed in which the quantum tunneling of the apex oxygen atom is coupled to the quasiparticle excitations of the superconducting state. A path-integral formulation allows one to renormalize the coupling constant as a function of temperature. It is shown that such a model can account for the anomalous low-temperature specific heat observed in high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} superconductors.

  13. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  14. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  15. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  16. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving; Palekar, Vishwesh M.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  17. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-31

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  18. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  19. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving; Palekar, Vishwesh M.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  20. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-24

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  1. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis. Task 2 summary report. Model for alkaline water electrolysis systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaffe, M.R.; Murray, J.N.

    1980-04-01

    Task 2 involved the establishment of an engineering and economic model for the evaluation of various options in water electrolysis. The mode, verification of the specific coding and four case studies are described. The model was tested by evaluation of a nearly commercial technology, i.e., an 80-kW alkaline electrolyte system, operating at 60/sup 0/C, which delivers approximately 255 SLM, hydrogen for applications such as electrical generation cooling or semiconductor manufacturing. The calculated cost of hydrogen from this installed non-optimized case system with an initial cost to the customer of $87,000 was $6.99/Kg H/sub 2/ ($1.67/100 SCF) on a 20-yr levelized basis using 2.5 cents/kWh power costs. This compares favorably to a levelized average merchant hydrogen cost value of $9.11/Kg H/sub 2/ ($2.17/100 SCF) calculated using the same program.

  2. Influence of alkaline co-contaminants on technetium mobility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of alkaline co-contaminants on technetium mobility in vadose zone sediments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of alkaline co-contaminants on technetium ...

  3. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  4. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  5. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  6. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Report and presentations from a workshop on alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) held May 8–9, 2011, before the 2011 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Annual Merit Review, at Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia.

  7. Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Decker, Stephen R. (Berthoud, CO); Adney, William S. (Golden, CO); Vinzant, Todd B. (Golden, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO)

    2003-01-01

    A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

  8. 2016 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sheraton Grand Phoenix, 340 N. 3 rd St, Phoenix, AZ 85004 Rooms: Estrella (Main), Ahwatukee A and B (Breakouts) Organized by National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office OBJECTIVE: The Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop will share information and identify the current status and the research and development needs for Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell (AMFC) technology. The goals, building on prior workshop

  9. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report Report from the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop held May 8-9, 2011, in Arlington, Virginia. The body of the report focuses on the discussion that occurred within breakout sessions. The Executive Summary presents a few select highlights from each session. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report (629.13 KB) More Documents & Publications 2011 Alkaline Membrane

  10. Novel Refractory Materials for High-Temperature, High-Alkaline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Increases resistance to degradation from harsh environments. Reduces installation and repair costs. Benefits Emissions Reduces CO, NOx, and volatile organic compound emissions ...

  11. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  12. Negative Electrode For An Alkaline Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coco, Isabelle; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Villenave, Jean-Jacques

    1998-07-14

    The present invention concerns a negative electrode for an alkaline cell, comprising a current collector supporting a paste containing an electrochemically active material and a binder, characterized in that said binder is a polymer containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, said polymer being selected from an acrylic homopolymer, copolymer and terpolymer, an unsaturated organic acid copolymer and an unsaturated acid anhydride copolymer.

  13. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving; Palekar, Vishwesh M.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  14. Removal of dissolved actinides from alkaline solutions by the method of appearing reagents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krot, Nikolai N.; Charushnikova, Iraida A.

    1997-01-01

    A method of reducing the concentration of neptunium and plutonium from alkaline radwastes containing plutonium and neptunium values along with other transuranic values produced during the course of plutonium production. The OH.sup.- concentration of the alkaline radwaste is adjusted to between about 0.1M and about 4M. [UO.sub.2 (O.sub.2).sub.3 ].sup.4- ion is added to the radwastes in the presence of catalytic amounts of Cu.sup.+2, Co.sup.+2 or Fe.sup.+2 with heating to a temperature in excess of about 60.degree. C. or 85.degree. C., depending on the catalyst, to coprecipitate plutonium and neptunium from the radwaste. Thereafter, the coprecipitate is separated from the alkaline radwaste.

  15. 2016 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop 2016 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) hosted the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop on April 1, 2016, in Phoenix, Arizona. Sponsored by the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office, the workshop brought together experts to share information and identify the current status and research and development needs for alkaline membrane fuel

  16. Alkaline assisted thermal oil recovery: Kinetic and displacement studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saneie, S.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1993-06-01

    This report deals with two major issues of chemical assisted flooding - the interaction of caustic, one of the proposed additives to steam flood, with the reservoir rock, and the displacement of oil by a chemical flood at elevated temperatures. A mathematical model simulating the kinetics of silica dissolution and hydroxyl ion consumption in a typical alkaline flooding environment is first developed. The model is based on the premise that dissolution occurs via hydrolysis of active sites through the formation of an intermediate complex, which is in equilibrium with the silicic acid in solution. Both static (batch) and dynamic (core flood) processes are simulated to examine the sensitivity of caustic consumption and silica dissolution to process parameters, and to determine rates of propagation of pH values. The model presented provides a quantitative description of the quartz-alkali interaction in terms of pH, salinity, ion exchange properties, temperature and contact time, which are of significant importance in the design of soluble silicate flooding processes. The modeling of an adiabatic hot waterflood assisted by the simultaneous injection of a chemical additive is next presented. The model is also applicable to the hot alkaline flooding under conditions of negligible adsorption of the generated anionic surfactant and of hydroxide adsorption being Langmuirian. The theory of generalized simple waves (coherence ) is used to develop solutions for the temperature, concentration, and oil saturation profiles, as well as the oil recovery curves. It is shown that, for Langmuir adsorption kinetics, the chemical resides in the heated region of the reservoir if its injection concentration is below a critical value, and in the unheated region if its concentration exceeds this critical value. Results for a chemical slug injection in a tertiary recovery process indicate recovery performance is maximized when chemical resides in the heated region of the reservior.

  17. Alkaline earth stannates: The next silicon?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab Ahn, Charles H.; Walker, Frederick J.; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Rabe, Karin M.

    2015-06-01

    Semiconductor materials are being used in an increasingly diverse array of applications, with new device concepts being proposed each year for solar cells, flat-panel displays, sensors, memory, and spin transport. This rapid progress of invention outpaces the development of new semiconductor materials with the required properties and performance. In many applications, high carrier mobility at room temperature is required in addition to specific functional properties critical to the device concept. We review recent developments on high mobility stannate perovskite oxide materials and devices.

  18. Electrocatalysis in Alkaline Electrolytes - Research Overview

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Sanjeev Mukerjee Nagappan Ramaswamy, Qinggang He, Daniel Abbott, and Michael Bates Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 Electrocatalysis in Alkaline Electrolytes - Research Overview AMFC Workshop Seminar - May 8, 2011 Acidic pH Alkaline pH 1e - + 1H + C H H 3 C Pt OH OH 2 CH 3 CH 2 OH Pt 1e - + 1H + Pt C O H 3 C Pt C O H 3 C H OH 2 Pt O H Pt O C O H 3 C + H H C O H 3 C O Pt 1e - + 1H + -H 2 at low coord Pt Pt CH x Pt C O CO 2 Pt 2OH 111 sites O H

  19. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  20. Isotope fractionation in surface ionization ion source of alkaline-earth iodides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, T.; Kanzaki, C.; Nomura, M.; Fujii, Y.

    2012-02-15

    The relationship between the isotope fractionation of alkaline-earth elements in the surface ionization ion source and the evaporation filament current, i.e., filament temperature, was studied. It was confirmed that the isotope fractionation depends on the evaporation filament temperature; the isotope fractionation in the case of higher temperature of filament becomes larger. The ionization and evaporation process in the surface ionization ion source was discussed, and it was concluded that the isotope fractionation is suppressed by setting at the lower temperature of evaporation filament because the dissociations are inhibited on the evaporation filament.

  1. Alkaline solution/binder ratio as a determining factor in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Santaquiteria, C.; Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A.

    2012-09-15

    This study investigates the effect of the alkaline solution/binder (S/B) ratio on the composition and nanostructure of the reaction products generated in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates. The experiments used two mixtures of fly ash and dehydroxylated white clay and for each of these, varying proportions of the solution components. The alkali activator was an 8 M NaOH solution (with and without sodium silicate) used at three S/B ratios: 0.50, 0.75 and 1.25. The {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and XRD characterisation of the reaction products reveal that for ratios nearest the value delivering suitable paste workability, the reaction-product composition and structure depend primarily on the nature and composition of the starting materials and the alkaline activator used. However, when an excess alkaline activator is present in the system, the reaction products tend to exhibit SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of approximately 1, irrespective of the composition of the starting binder or the alkaline activator.

  2. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and OverviewInnovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation at the AMFC Workshop, May 8, 2011, Arlington, VA. PDF icon amfc050811pivovar.pdf More Documents & Publications Anion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells 2006 Alkaline ...

  3. OSTIblog Articles in the alkaline membrane cells Topic | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alkaline membrane cells Topic Fine tuning fuel cells by Kathy Chambers 14 Jun, 2012 in Products and Content 4314 ballardfuelcellcaption.jpg Fine tuning fuel cells Read more ...

  4. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline ... Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; PH VALUE; MEASURING ...

  5. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  6. Removal of plutonium and americium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1979-01-01

    High salt content, alkaline waste solutions containing plutonium and americium are contacted with a sodium titanate compound to effect removal of the plutonium and americium from the alkaline waste solution onto the sodium titanate and provide an effluent having a radiation level of less than 10 nCi per gram alpha emitters.

  7. Permeability Modification Using a Reactive Alkaline-Soluble Biopolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snadra L. Fox; X. Xie; K. D. Schaller; E. P. Robertson; G. A. Bala

    2003-10-01

    Polymer injection has been used in reservoirs to alleviate contrasting permeability zones. Current technology relies on the use of cross-linking agents to initiate gelation. The use of biological polymers are advantageous in that they can block high permeability areas, are environmentally friendly, and have potential to form reversible gels without the use of hazardous cross-linkers. Recent efforts at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have produced a reactive alkaline-soluble biopolymer from Agrobacterium sp. ATCC no. 31749 that gels upon decreasing the pH of the polymeric solution. The focus of this study was to determine the impact an alkaline-soluble biopolymer can have on sandstone permeability. Permeability modification was investigated by injecting solubilized biopolymer into Berea sandstone cores and defining the contribution of pH, salt, temperature, and Schuricht crude oil on biopolymer gelation. The biopolymer was soluble in KOH at a pH greater than 11.4 and gelled when the pH dropped below 10.8. The Berea sandstone core buffered the biopolymer solution, decreasing the pH sufficiently to form a gel, which subsequently decreased the permeability. The effluent pH of the control cores injected with 0.01 {und M} KOH (pH 12.0) and 0.10{und M} KOH (pH 13.0) decreased to 10.6 and 12.7, respectively. The permeability of the sandstone core injected with biopolymer was decreased to greater than 95% of the original permeability at 25 C in the presence of 2% NaCl, and Schuricht crude oil; however, the permeability increased when the temperature of the core was increased to 60 C. Residual resistance factors as high as 792 were seen in Berea cores treated with biopolymer. The buffering capacity of sandstone has been demonstrated to reduce the pH of a biopolymer solution sufficiently to cause the polymer to form a stable in-situ gel. This finding could potentially lead to alternate technology for permeability modification, thus

  8. MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, F; Luther Hamm, L; Sebastian Aleman, S; Johnston Michael, J

    2008-08-26

    The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system.

  9. Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

  10. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, C.L.W.

    1995-07-25

    A process is described for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO{sub 2}, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. 4 figs.

  11. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1995-01-01

    A process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO.sub.2 to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO.sub.2, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product.

  12. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  13. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shearer, John A.; Turner, Clarence B.; Johnson, Irving

    1982-01-01

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  14. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  15. Low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource assessment for Nevada: area specific studies, Pumpernickel Valley, Carlin and Moana. Final report June 1, 1981-July 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Koenig, B.A.; Bell, E.J.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geophysical and geochemical surveys were used in conjunction with temperature gradient hole drilling to assess the geothermal resources in Pumpernickel Valley and Carlin, Nevada. This program is based on a statewide assessment of geothermal resources that was completed in 1979. The exploration techniques are based on previous federally-funded assessment programs that were completed in six other areas in Nevada and include: literature search and compilation of existing data, geologic reconnaissance, chemical sampling of thermal and non-thermal fluids, interpretation of satellite imagery, interpretation of low-sun angle aerial photographs, two-meter depth temperature probe survey, gravity survey, seismic survey, soil-mercury survey, and temperature gradient drilling.

  16. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline ... can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. ...

  17. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A workshop on alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFC) was held May 8-9, 2011, before the 2011 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Annual Merit Review, at Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, ...

  18. Solvent Extraction of Tc and Cs from Alkaline Nitrate Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, T J.; Sachleben, R A.; Leonard, R A.; Conner, C; Lumetta, Gregg J. ); M. Cox, M. Hidalgo, and M. Valiente

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes progress at three collaborating U.S. national laboratories on the extraction of the fission products 99Tc and 137Cs from alkaline high-level wastes. Efficient economical processes for Tc and Cs extraction (SRTALK and alkaline-side CSEX, respectively) have been developed, and testing has progressed through batch tests on actual wastes and continuous counter-current centrifugal-contactor tests on simulants.

  19. Solvent Extraction of Tc and Cs from Alkaline Nitrate Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Conner, C.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Leonard, R.A.; Lumetta, G.J.; Moyer, B.A.; Sachleben, R.A.

    1999-07-11

    This paper summarizes progress at three collaborating US national laboratories on the extraction of the fission products {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline high-level wastes (HLW). Efficient, economical processes for Tc and Cs extraction (SRTALK and alkaline-side CSEX, respectively) have been developed, and testing has progressed through batch tests on actual wastes and continuous countercurrent centrifugal-contactor tests on simulants.

  20. Advanced Catalysts and MEAs for Reversible Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts and MEAs for Reversible Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells Hui Xu (PI) Giner Inc Newton, MA This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information DOE Catalyst Work Group Meeting June 8, 2015 2 Barriers Addressed * Activity (catalyst; MEA) * Durability (catalyst; MEA) * Cost (catalyst; MEA) Technical Targets * Design and develop ORR/OER bi-functional oxide catalysts * Integrate ORR/OER bifunctional oxide catalysts and alkaline membranes to

  1. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report B. Pivovar National Renewable Energy Laboratory Proceedings from the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Arlington, Virginia May 8-9, 2011 Workshop Proceedings NREL/BK-5600-54297 February 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401

  2. Alkaline Leaching of Key, Non-Radioactive Components from Simulants and Hanford Tank Sludge 241-S-110: Results of FY01 Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Vienna, John D.; Sinkov, Serguei I.; Kim, Jinseong; Cisar, Alan J.

    2002-09-10

    This study addressed three aspects in selected alkaline leaching: first, the use of oxidants persulfate, permanganate, and ferrate as selective chromium-leaching agents from washed Hanford Tank S-110 solids under varying conditions of hydroxide concentration, temperature, and time was investigated. Second, the selective dissolution of solids containing mercury(II) oxide under alkaline conditions was examined. Various compounds were studied for their effectiveness in dissolving mercury under varying conditions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration in the leachate. Three compounds were studied: cysteine, iodide, and diethyldithiophosphoric acid (DEDTPA). Finally, the possibility of whether an oxidant bound to an anion-exchange resin can be used to effectively oxidize chromium(III) in alkaline solutions was addressed. The experimental results remain ambiguous to date; further work is required to reach any definitive conclusions as to the effectiveness of this approach.

  3. Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. David L. Clark; Dr. Alexander M. Fedosseev

    2001-12-21

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier.

  4. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

  5. Alkaline Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (AEM-FC) Status

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alkaline Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (AEM-FC) Status Dario R. Dekel Associate Professor Wolfson Department of Chemical Engineering Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP) Technion - Israel Institute of Technology dario@technion.ac.il 2016 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Sheraton Grand Phoenix Phoenix, AZ - April 1, 2016 Early days in AEM-FC 153mm 78mm 51mm 4mg/cm 2 PtRu, 4mg/cm 2 Pt black, RH=100%, H 2 / O 2  0.8V @80mA/cm 2 (130mW/cm 2 ) Dario R. Dekel Varcoe et al., Chem. Mater.

  6. Behavior of actinide ions during sludge washing of alkaline radioactive.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, A. H.; Nash, K. L.; Gelis, A. V.; Jensen, M. P.; Sullivan, J. C.; Rao, L.

    1999-11-15

    It is difficult to accurately predict actinide behavior during the alkaline leaching of Hanford's radioactive sludges due to the diverse chemical and radiolytic conditions existing in these wastes. The results of Pu dissolution during experimental washing of sludge simulants from the BiPO{sub 4} Redox, and PUREX processes shows that {le} 2.l% Pu is dissolved during contact with alkaline media, but up to 65.5% Pu may be dissolved in acidic media. The dissolution of Cr, Fe, Nd, and Mn has also been observed, and the results of solid state, radioanalytical, and spectroscopic investigations are detailed.

  7. Tuning the Curie temperature of L1{sub 0} ordered FePt thin films through site-specific substitution of Rh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Dongbin; Sun, Cheng-Jun E-mail: msecgm@nus.edu.sg; Heald, Steve M.; Chen, Jing-Sheng; Chow, Gan Moog E-mail: msecgm@nus.edu.sg; Zhou, Tie-Jun; Bergman, Anders; Sanyal, Biplab

    2014-10-14

    In structurally ordered magnetic thin films, the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) of ferromagnetic films depends on the exchange integral of the short range ordered neighboring atoms. The exchange integral may be adjusted by controlling the elemental substitutional concentration at the lattice site of interest. We show how to control the T{sub C} in high anisotropy L1{sub 0} Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} magnetic thin films by substituting Rh into the Pt site. Rh substitution in L1{sub 0} FePt modified the local atomic environment and the corresponding electronic properties, while retaining the ordered L1{sub 0} phase. The analysis of extended x-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectra shows that Rh uniformly substitutes for Pt in L1{sub 0} FePt. A model of antiferromagnetic defects caused by controlled Rh substitution of the Pt site, reducing the T{sub C,} is proposed to interpret this phenomenon and its validity is further examined by ab initio density functional calculations.

  8. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haryadi, Sugianto, D.; Ristopan, E.

    2015-12-29

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm{sup −1} and 3300 cm{sup −1} respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10{sup −2} S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant.

  9. Alkaline intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagano, N.

    1996-12-31

    Intergranular corrosion (IGC), often termed IGA, and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) have continued to occur on mill-annealed (MA) Alloy 600 tubing in the secondary side of steam generators, which are still serious corrosion instances in operating pressurized water reactors. The IGC and IGSCC phenomena have occurred on MA Alloy 600 at the crevice between the tube and tube support plate, in which a high concentration of caustic solution is formed under dry and wet conditions at high temperature. A review of technical articles has been performed concerning environmental and metallurgical factors affecting the IGC and IGSCC, and their mechanistic aspects. A combination of IGC and IGSCC, one of the most common modes of corrosion on the secondary side of steam generators, occurs in a specific potential region, at the active-passive transition potential, in a concentrated caustic solution at elevated temperature. The anodic dissolution of Alloy 600 increases as the temperature of caustic solutions is increased. The corrosion rate for each constituent of Alloy 600 such as nickel, chromium, iron or chromium carbide is influenced differently by temperature, resulting in various effects on the characteristics of corrosion protective surface films. Increase in chromium content and thermal treatment at 700 C are beneficial for IGC and IGSCC resistance. IGC is intergranular corrosion, and IGSCC is initiated above a critical applied stress. Grain boundary chromium carbides such as Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} and Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} have been formed to increase resistance to IGC and IGSCC. Several theories have been proposed concerning the roles of chromium carbides at grain boundaries. Some specific theories are focused on in this paper with supporting data.

  10. Plutonium(IV) precipitates formed in alkaline media in the presence of various anions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krot, N.N.; Shilov, V.P.; Yusov, A.B.; Tananaev, I.G.; Grigoriev, M.S.; Garnov, A.Yu.; Perminov, V.P.; Astafurova, L.N.

    1998-09-01

    The tendency of Pu(IV) to hydrolyze and form true solutions, colloid solutions, or insoluble precipitates has been known since the Manhattan Project. Since then, specific studies have been performed to examine in detail the equilibria of Pu(IV) hydrolytic reactions in various media. Great attention also has been paid to the preparation, structure, and properties of Pu(IV) polymers or colloids. These compounds found an important application in sol-gel technology for the preparation of nuclear fuel materials. A most important result of these works was the conclusion that Pu(IV) hydroxide, after some aging, consists of very small PuO{sub 2} crystallites and should therefore be considered to be Pu(IV) hydrous oxide. However, studies of the properties and behavior of solid Pu(IV) hydroxide in complex heterogeneous systems are rare. The primary goal of this investigation was to obtain data on the composition and properties of Pu(IV) hydrous oxide or other compounds formed in alkaline media under different conditions. Such information is important to understand Pu(IV) behavior and the forms of its existence in the Hanford Site alkaline tank waste sludge. This knowledge then may be applied in assessing plutonium criticality hazards in the storage, retrieval, and treatment of Hanford Site tank wastes as well as in understanding its contribution to the transuranic waste inventory (threshold at 100 nCi/g or about 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} M) of the separate solution and solid phases.

  11. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choe, Yoong-Kee; Henson, Neil J.; Kim, Yu Seung

    2015-12-31

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions.

  12. Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a high strength, lightweight aluminum wire for high-voltage power transmission with reduced electrical resistance for overhead electrical lines. Description

  13. Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Researchers have developed a high strength, lightweight aluminum wire for high-voltage power transmission with reduced electrical resistance for overhead electrical lines. High-voltage electric power transmission cables based on pure

  14. Calcium Hexa Aluminate Linings for Alkaline Environments - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Calcium Hexa Aluminate Linings for Alkaline Environments Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryA new composition of calcium hexa aluminate developed at ORNL is a highly effective chemical barrier against corrosive materials inside storage, process, and transport vessel containers. The CA6 composition protects containers from the critical

  15. 2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report Workshop held December 11-13, 2006 Embassy Suites Hotel-Phoenix Airport, Phoenix, AZ, USA Sponsored by Army Research Office (ARO) Principal Investigator Bryan Pivovar Fuel Cell Team Leader Los Alamos National Laboratory PO Box 1663, MS D429 Los Alamos, NM 87545 Organizing Committee Peter Fedkiw, North Carolina State University/ARO Robert Mantz, ARO Bryan Pivovar, Los Alamos National Laboratory Break-out Group Chairs Thomas Zawodzinski, Case

  16. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick; Baudry, Michelle

    2000-12-05

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  17. Alkaline flocculation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum induced by brucite and calcite

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vandamme, Dries; Pohl, Philip I.; Beuckels, Annelies; Foubert, Imogen; Brady, Patrick Vane; Muylaert, Koenraad; Hewson, John C.

    2015-08-20

    Alkaline flocculation holds great potential as a low-cost harvesting method for marine microalgae biomass production. Alkaline flocculation is induced by an increase in pH and is related to precipitation of calcium and magnesium salts. In this study, we used the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as model organism to study alkaline flocculation of marine microalgae cultured in seawater medium. Flocculation started when pH was increased to 10 and flocculation efficiency reached 90% when pH was 10.5, which was consistent with precipitation modeling for brucite or Mg(OH)2. Compared to freshwater species, more magnesium is needed to achieve flocculation (>7.5 mM). Zeta potential measurementsmore » suggest that brucite precipitation caused flocculation by charge neutralization. When calcium concentration was 12.5 mM, flocculation was also observed at a pH of 10. Furthermore, zeta potential remained negative up to pH 11.5, suggesting that precipitated calcite caused flocculation by a sweeping coagulation mechanism.« less

  18. Phase behavior and oil recovery investigations using mixed and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Llave, F.M.; Gall, B.L.; French, T.R.; Noll, L.A.; Munden, S.A.

    1992-03-01

    The results of an evaluation of different mixed surfactant and alkaline-enhanced surfactant systems for enhanced oil recovery are described. Several mixed surfactant systems have been studies to evaluate their oil recovery potential as well as improved adaptability to different ranges of salinity, divalent ion concentrations, and temperature. Several combinations of screening methods were used to help identify potential chemical formulations and determine conditions where particular chemical systems can be applied. The effects of different parameters on the behavior of the overall surfactant system were also studied. Several commercially available surfactants were tested as primary components in the mixtures used in the study. These surfactants were formulated with different secondary as well as tertiary components, including ethoxylated and non-ethoxylated sulfonates and sulfates. Improved salinity and hardness tolerance was achieved for some of these chemical systems. The salinity tolerance of these systems were found to be dependent on the molecular weight, surfactant type, and concentration of the surfactant components.

  19. Effective alkaline metal-catalyzed oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhalla, Aditya; Bansal, Namita; Stoklosa, Ryan J.; Fountain, Mackenzie; Ralph, John; Hodge, David B.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2016-02-09

    Background: Strategies to improve copper-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (Cu-AHP) pretreatment of hybrid poplar were investigated. These improvements included a combination of increasing hydrolysis yields, while simultaneously decreasing process inputs through (i) more efficient utilization of H2O2 and (ii) the addition of an alkaline extraction step prior to the metal-catalyzed AHP pretreatment. We hypothesized that utilizing this improved process could substantially lower the chemical inputs needed during pretreatment. Results: Hybrid poplar was pretreated utilizing a modified process in which an alkaline extraction step was incorporated prior to the Cu-AHP treatment step and H2O2 was added batch-wise over the course of 10more » h. Our results revealed that the alkaline pre-extraction step improved both lignin and xylan solubilization, which ultimately led to improved glucose (86 %) and xylose (95 %) yields following enzymatic hydrolysis. An increase in the lignin solubilization was also observed with fed-batch H2O2 addition relative to batch-only addition, which again resulted in increased glucose and xylose yields (77 and 93 % versus 63 and 74 %, respectively). Importantly, combining these strategies led to significantly improved sugar yields (96 % glucose and 94 % xylose) following enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, we found that we could substantially lower the chemical inputs (enzyme, H2O2, and catalyst), while still maintaining high product yields utilizing the improved Cu-AHP process. This pretreatment also provided a relatively pure lignin stream consisting of ≥90 % Klason lignin and only 3 % xylan and 2 % ash following precipitation. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (2D HSQC) NMR and size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that the solubilized lignin was high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 22,000 Da) and only slightly oxidized relative to lignin from untreated poplar. In conclusion: This study demonstrated that the fed

  20. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  1. Commissioning Specifications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Commissioning specifications outline basic requirements of the commissioning process and detail the roles and responsibilities of each party involved. System checklists, startup requirements, and...

  2. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x

  3. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the

  4. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pivovar, B.

    2012-02-01

    A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

  5. Platinum and Palladium Overlayers Dramatically Enhance the Activity of Ruthenium Nanotubes for Alkaline Hydrogen Oxidation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    St. John, Samuel; Atkinson, Robert W.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Papandrew, Alexander B.

    2015-10-18

    Templated vapor synthesis and thermal annealing were used to synthesize unsupported metallic Ru nanotubes with Pt or Pd overlayers. By controlling the elemental composition and thickness of these overlayers, we obtain nanostructures with very high alkaline hydrogen oxidation activity. For nanotubes with a nominal atomic composition of Ru0.90Pt0.10 display a surface-specific activity (2.4 mA/cm2) that is 35 times greater than that of pure Ru nanotubes at a 50 mV overpotential and 2.5 times greater than that of pure Pt nanotubes (0.98 mA/cm2). The surface-segregated structure also confers dramatically increased Pt utilization efficiency. We find a platinum-mass-specific activity of 1240 A/gPtmore » for the optimized nanotube versus 280 A/gPt for carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles and 109 A/gPt for monometallic Pt nanotubes. Here, we attribute the enhancement of both area- and platinum-mass-specific activity to the atomic-scale homeomorphism of the nanotube form factor with adlayer-modified polycrystals. Subsurface ligand and bifunctional effects previously observed on segregated, adlayer-modified polycrystals are translated to nanoscale catalysts.« less

  6. Articles for high temperature service and methods for their manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarrafi-Nour, Reza; Meschter, Peter Joel; Johnson, Curtis Alan; Luthra, Krishan Lal; Rosenzweig, Larry Steven

    2016-06-14

    An article for use in aggressive environments is presented. In one embodiment, the article comprises a substrate and a self-sealing and substantially hermetic sealing layer comprising an alkaline-earth aluminosilicate disposed over the bondcoat. The substrate may be any high-temperature material, including, for instance, silicon-bearing ceramics and ceramic matrix composites. A method for making such articles is also presented. The method comprises providing a substrate; disposing a self-sealing alkaline-earth aluminosilicate layer over the substrate; and heating the sealing layer to a sealing temperature at which at least a portion of the sealing layer will flow.

  7. Phase Stability of Chromium(III) Oxide Hydroxide in Alkaline Sodium Phosphate Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.E. Ziemniak; E.P. Opalka

    2003-07-08

    Grimaldiite ({alpha}-CrOOH) is shown to transform to a sodium-chromium(III)-hydroxyphosphate compound (SCHP) in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via CrOOH(s) + 4Na{sup +} + 2HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} = Na{sub 4}Cr(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s) + H{sub 2}O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that SCHP possesses an orthorhombic lattice having the same space group symmetry (Ibam, No.72) as sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate. A structurally-consistent designation for SCHP is Na{sub 3}Cr(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} NaOH; the molar volume of SCHP is estimated to be 1552 cm{sup 3}. The thermodynamic equilibrium for the above reaction was defined in the system Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.0 and 2.4. On the basis of observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard molar entropy (S{sup o}), heat capacity (C{sub p}{sup o}) and free energy of formation ({Delta}G{sub f}{sup o}) for SCHP were calculated to be 690 J/(mol-K), 622 J/(mol-K) and -3509.97 kJ/mol, respectively.

  8. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-06-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the seventh reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO3 removal results were presented in the semi

  9. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2003 through September, 2003. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Group is the prime contractor. This is the eighth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During previous reporting periods, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Plant and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the semi

  10. Genome Sequence of the Alkaline-Tolerant Cellulomonas sp. Strain FA1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Michael F.; Hu, Ping; Nguyen, My Vu; Kamennaya, Nina; Brown, Natasha; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Torok, Tamas

    2015-06-18

    We present the genome of the cellulose-degrading Cellulomonas sp. strain FA1 isolated from an actively serpentinizing highly alkaline spring. Knowledge of this genome will enable studies into the molecular basis of plant material degradation in alkaline environments and inform the development of lignocellulose bioprocessing procedures for biofuel production.

  11. Genome Sequence of the Alkaline-Tolerant Cellulomonas sp. Strain FA1

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cohen, Michael F.; Hu, Ping; Nguyen, My Vu; Kamennaya, Nina; Brown, Natasha; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Torok, Tamas

    2015-06-18

    We present the genome of the cellulose-degrading Cellulomonas sp. strain FA1 isolated from an actively serpentinizing highly alkaline spring. Knowledge of this genome will enable studies into the molecular basis of plant material degradation in alkaline environments and inform the development of lignocellulose bioprocessing procedures for biofuel production.

  12. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Performance and produced polymer evaluation of four alkaline-surfactant-polymer projects concluded that only one of the projects could have benefited from combining the alkaline-surfactant-polymer and gelation technologies. Cambridge, the 1993 Daqing, Mellott Ranch, and the Wardlaw alkaline-surfacant-polymer floods were studied. An initial gel treatment followed by an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood in the Wardlaw field would have been a benefit due to reduction of fracture flow. Numerical simulation demonstrated that reducing the permeability of a high permeability zone of a reservoir with gel improved both waterflood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery. A Minnelusa reservoir with both A and B sand production was simulated. A and B sands are separated by a shale layer. A sand and B sand waterflood oil recovery was improved by 196,000 bbls or 3.3% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery improvement over a waterflood was 392,000 bbls or 6.5% OOIP. Placing a gel into the B sand prior to an alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood resulted in 989,000 bbl or 16.4% OOIP more oil than only water injection. A sand and B sand alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood oil recovery was improved by 596,000 bbls or 9.9% OOIP when a gel was placed in the B sand.

  13. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qui; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling

    2004-05-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding in the swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to the naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of the injected solution bypasses the target pore space containing oil. The objective of this work is to investigate whether combining these two technologies could broaden the applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium--polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 9.2 to 12.9.

  14. Control of alkaline stress corrosion cracking in pressurized-water reactor steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, I.S. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Park, I.G. . Div. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1999-06-01

    Outer-diameter stress corrosion cracking (ODSCC) of alloy 600 (UNS N06600) tubings in steam generators of the Kori-1 pressurized-water reactor (PWR) caused an unscheduled outage in 1994. Failure analysis and remedy development studies were undertaken to avoid a recurrence. Destructive examination of a removed tube indicated axial intergranular cracks developed at the top of sludge caused by a boiling crevice geometry. A high ODSCC propagation rate was attributed to high local pH and increased corrosion potential resulting from oxidized copper presumably formed during the maintenance outage and plant heatup. Remedial measures included: (1) crevice neutralization by crevice flushing with boric acid (H[sub 3]BO[sub 3]) and molar ratio control using ammonium chloride (NH[sub 4]Cl), (2) corrosion potential reduction by hydrazine (H[sub 2]NNH[sub 2]) soaking and suppression of oxygen below 20 ppb to avoid copper oxide formation, (3) titanium dioxide (TiO[sub 2]) inhibitor soaking, and (4) temperature reduction of 5 C. Since application of the remedy program, no significant ODSCC has been observed, which clearly demonstrates the benefit of departing from an oxidizing alkaline environment. In addition, the TiO[sub 2] inhibitor appeared to have a positive effect, warranting further examination.

  15. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson

    2004-10-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Neither aluminum citrate-polyacrylamide nor silicate-polyacrylamide gel systems produced significant incremental oil in linear corefloods. Both flowing and rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels produced incremental oil with the rigid flowing gel producing the greatest amount. Higher oil recovery could have been due to higher differential pressures across cores. None of the gels tested

  16. Contamination and purification of alkaline gas treating solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCullough, J.G. [Proton Technology Ltd., Hawthorne, NY (United States); Nielsen, R.B. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Alkanolamine and potassium carbonate solutions in gas treating units removing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, or both are contaminated by impurities in the feed gases and makeup water and by the products of the degradation and oxidation of amines occurring in the units themselves. Feed gas impurities include oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, brine, solid particles, heavy hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid, organic acids, and pipeline corrosion inhibitors. Impure makeup water contains sulfate, chloride, alkali metal, and alkaline earth ions (hardness). Reactions causing contamination in the units include oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate and thiosulfate, oxidation of amines to formic acid and other products, and degradation of amines by carbon dioxide. The resulting heat-stable salts and polymers reduce the gas absorbing capacity of alkanolamine solutions and increase their corrosiveness. Similar problems occur in potassium carbonate solutions, except that degradation products of amine activators are too dilute to be harmful. Contaminants are removed by inlet gas separation, charcoal and mechanical filtration, neutralization of heat-stable salts, reclaiming at both atmospheric and reduced pressure, upstream washing of the feed gas, electrodialysis, use of antioxidants, ion exchange, and blowdown and dumping of the solution.

  17. M4FT-15OR03100421: Status Report on Alkaline Conditioning Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsouris, Costas; Brown, Suree; Janke, Christopher James; Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng; Kuo, Li-Jung; Gill, Gary

    2015-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the role of alkaline conditioning of polyethylene-fiber adsorbent, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is demonstrated in this report, which is essentially a manuscript prepared for publication in the journal Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research of the American Chemical Society. The manuscript describes the influence of various parameters involved in adsorbent alkaline conditioning, including base concentration and duration and temperature of conditioning, on the uranium uptake history by the adsorbent. Various solutions have been used to determine the influence of conditioning parameters including (i) a screening solution containing uranyl nitrate at approximately 8 ppm and sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride at concentrations similar to those found in seawater, (ii) seawater spiked with approximately 75 ppb uranium, and (iii) natural seawater. In addition to concentration measurements by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy to determine the uranium uptake capacity and kinetics, spectroscopic methods such as Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed to investigate the effect of base treatment on the various chemical bonds of the adsorbent. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has also been employed to determine structural effects of the alkali on the adsorbent. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Alkali conditioning is necessary to prepare the adsorbent for uranium uptake. ICP analysis showed that without alkali conditioning, no appreciable uranium adsorption occurs. 2. FTIR showed that the base converts amidoxime to carboxylate groups. 3. FTIR showed that formation of carboxylate groups is irreversible and reduces the selectivity of the adsorbent toward uranium. 4. NMR showed that alkali conditioning leads also to the formation of cyclic imidedioxime, which is suspected to bind uranium, vanadium, iron, copper, and

  18. COUPLING THE ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER TECHNOLOGY AND THE GELATION TECHNOLOGY TO MAXIMIZE OIL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-04-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent

  19. The Influence of Fe Substitution in Lanthanum Calcium Cobalt Oxide on the Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Media

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abreu-Sepulveda, Maria A.; Dhital, Chetan; Huq, Ashfia; Li, Ling; Bridges, Craig A.; Paranthaman, M. Parans; Narayanan, S. R.; Quesnel, David J.; Tryk, Donald A.; Manivannan, A.

    2016-07-30

    The effect due to systematic substitution of cobalt by iron in La0.6Ca0.4Co1-xFexO3 towards the oxygen evolution reaction(OER) in alkaline media has been investigated. We synthesized these compounds by a facile glycine-nitrate synthesis and the phase formation was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Neutron Diffraction elemental analysis. The apparent OER activity was evaluated by quasi steady state current measurements in alkaline media using a traditional three-electrode cell. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows iron substitution causes an increase in the surface concentration of various cobalt oxidation states. Tafel slope in the vicinity of 60 mV/decade and electrochemical reaction order towards OH- near unitymore » were achieved for the unsubstituted La0.6Ca0.4CoO3. Moreover, a decrease in the Tafel slope to 49 mV/decade was observed when iron is substituted in high amounts in the perovskite structure. The area specific current density showed dependence on the Fe fraction, however the relationship of specific current density with Fe fraction is not linear. High Fe substitutions, La0.6Ca0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 and La0.6Ca0.4Co0.1Fe0.9O3 showed higher area specific activity towards OER than La0.6Ca0.4CoO3 or La0.6Ca0.4FeO3. Finally, we believe iron inclusion in the cobalt sites of the perovskite helps decrease the electron transfer barrier and facilitates the formation of cobalt-hydroxide at the surface. Possible OER mechanisms based on the observed kinetic parameters will be discussed.« less

  20. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two

  1. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  2. Method of determining pH by the alkaline absorption of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobbs, David T.

    1992-01-01

    A method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides in alkaline solutions in a remote location using the tendency of hydroxides to absorb carbon dioxide. The method includes the passing of carbon dioxide over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the carbon dioxide solution. A comparison of the measurements yields the absorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to absorption fraction.

  3. Structural properties of Sr{sub 0.61}Ba{sub 0.39}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} in the temperature range 10-500 K investigated by high-resolution neutron powder diffraction and specific heat measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schefer, J.; Pomjakushin, V.; Stuhr, U.; Schaniel, D.; Woike, Th.; Petricek, V.; Woehlecke, M.; Imlau, M.

    2006-10-01

    We report high-resolution neutron powder diffraction on Sr{sub 0.61}Ba{sub 0.39}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} in the temperature range 15-500 K. The results indicate that the low-temperature anomalies (T{<=}100 K) observed in the dielectric dispersion are due to small changes in the incommensurate modulation of the NbO{sub 6} octahedra, as no structural phase transition of the average structure was observed. This interpretation is supported by specific heat measurements, which show no latent heat, but a glass-like behavior at low temperatures. Furthermore, we find that the structural changes connected with the ferroelectric phase transition at T{sub c}{approx_equal}350 K start already at 200 K, explaining the anisotropic thermal expansion in the temperature range 200-300 K observed in a recent x-ray diffraction study.

  4. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and The Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-10-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or more efficient areal sweep efficiency for those with high permeability contrast ''thief zones''. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more oil than waterflooding from swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or those with thief zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. A prior fluid-fluid report discussed interaction of different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in the fluid-fluid analyses. Aluminum-polyacrylamide, flowing gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions of either pH 10.5 or 12.9. Chromium acetate-polyacrylamide flowing and rigid flowing gels are stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Rigid flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels maintained permeability reduction better than flowing chromium acetate-polyacrylamide gels. Silicate-polyacrylamide gels are not stable with subsequent injection of either a pH 10.5 or a 12.9 alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution. Chromium acetate-xanthan gum rigid gels are not stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. Resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were stable to subsequent alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution injection. When evaluated in a dual core configuration, injected fluid flows into the core with the greatest effective permeability to the injected fluid. The same gel stability trends to subsequent

  5. Sodium Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions via Crystalline Urea-Functionalized Capsules: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Crystallization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Custelcean, Radu; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Wan, Shun; Moyer, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of sodium sulfate with a tripodal tris-urea receptor (L1) from aqueous alkaline solutions have been measured in the 15 55 C temperature range, with the goal of identifying the optimal conditions for efficient and quick sulfate removal from nuclear wastes. The use of radiolabeled Na235SO4 provided a practical way to monitor the sulfate concentration in solution by liquid scintillation counting. Our results are consistent with a two-step crystallization mechanism, involving relatively quick dissolution of crystalline L1 followed by the rate-limiting crystallization of the Na2SO4(L1)2(H2O)4 capsules. We found that temperature exerted relatively little influence over the equilibrium sulfate concentration, which ranged between 0.004 and 0.011 M. This corresponds to 77 91% removal of sulfate from a solution containing 0.0475 M initial sulfate concentration, as found in a typical Hanford waste tank. The apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant for sulfate removal increased 20-fold from 15 to 55 C, corresponding to an activation energy of 14.1 kcal/mol. At the highest measured temperature of 55 C, 63% and 75% of sulfate was removed from solution within 8 h and 24 h, respectively.

  6. Sodium Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions via Crystalline Urea-Functionalized Capsules: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Crystallization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Custelcean, Radu; Sloop, Frederick V.; Rajbanshi, Arbin; Wan, Shun; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2014-12-04

    We measured the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of sodium sulfate with a tripodal tris-urea receptor (L1) from aqueous alkaline solutions in the 15 55 C temperature range, with the goal of identifying the optimal conditions for efficient and quick sulfate removal from nuclear wastes. The use of radiolabeled Na235SO4 provided a practical way to monitor the sulfate concentration in solution by liquid scintillation counting. Our results are consistent with a two-step crystallization mechanism, involving relatively quick dissolution of crystalline L1 followed by the rate-limiting crystallization of the Na2SO4(L1)2(H2O)4 capsules. We found that temperature exerted relatively little influence over themore » equilibrium sulfate concentration, which ranged between 0.004 and 0.011 M. Moreover, this corresponds to 77 91% removal of sulfate from a solution containing 0.0475 M initial sulfate concentration, as found in a typical Hanford waste tank. The apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant for sulfate removal increased 20-fold from 15 to 55 C, corresponding to an activation energy of 14.1 kcal/mol. At the highest measured temperature of 55 C, 63% and 75% of sulfate was removed from solution within 8 h and 24 h, respectively.« less

  7. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  8. Temperature System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Soil Water and Temperature System SWATS In the realm of global climate modeling, ... An example is the soil water and temperature system (SWATS) (Figure 1). A SWATS is located ...

  9. Coupling the Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Technology and the Gelation Technology to Maximize Oil Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Jie Qi; Dan Wilson; Phil Dowling; David Stewart; Bill Jones

    2005-12-01

    Gelation technologies have been developed to provide more efficient vertical sweep efficiencies for flooding naturally fractured oil reservoirs or reservoirs with different sand lenses with high permeability contrast. The field proven alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology economically recovers 15% to 25% OOIP more crude oil than waterflooding froin swept pore space of an oil reservoir. However, alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology is not amenable to naturally fractured reservoirs or reservoirs with high permeability contrast zones because much of injected solution bypasses target pore space containing oil. This work investigates whether combining these two technologies could broaden applicability of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flooding into these reservoirs. Fluid-fluid interaction with different gel chemical compositions and alkaline-surfactant-polymer solution with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9 have been tested. Aluminum-polyacrylamide gels are not stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions at any pH. Chromium-polyacrylamide gels with polymer to chromium ion ratios of 25 or greater were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions if solution pH was 10.6 or less. When the polymer to chromium ion was 15 or less, chromium-polyacrylamide gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values up to 12.9. Chromium-xanthan gum gels were stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values of 12.9 at the polymer to chromium ion ratios tested. Silicate-polyacrylamide, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and sulfomethylated resorcinol-formaldehyde gels were also stable to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Iron-polyacrylamide gels were immediately destroyed when contacted with any of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions with pH values ranging from 9.2 to 12.9. Gel solutions under dynamic conditions of linear corefloods showed similar stability to alkaline-surfactant-polymer solutions as in

  10. Real-time materials evolution visualized within intact cycling alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallaway, JW; Erdonmez, CK; Zhong, Z; Croft, M; Sviridov, LA; Sholklapper, TZ; Turney, DE; Banerjee, S; Steingart, DA

    2014-01-01

    The scientific community has focused on the problem of inexpensive, safe, and sustainable large-scale electrical energy storage, which is needed for a number of emerging societal reasons such as stabilizing intermittent renewables-based generation like solar and wind power. The materials used for large-scale storage will need to be low cost, earth-abundant, and safe at the desired scale. The Zn-MnO2 "alkaline" battery chemistry is associated with one-time use, despite being rechargeable. This is due to material irreversibilities that can be triggered in either the anode or cathode. However, as Zn and MnO2 have high energy density and low cost, they are economically attractive even at limited depth of discharge. As received, a standard bobbin-type alkaline cell costs roughly $20 per kW h. The U. S. Department of Energy ARPA-E $100 per kW h cost target for grid storage is thus close to the cost of alkaline consumer primary cells if re-engineered and/or cycled at 5-20% nominal capacity. Herein we use a deeply-penetrating in situ technique to observe ZnO precipitation near the separator in an alkaline cell anode cycled at 5% DOD, which is consistent with cell failures observed at high cycle life. Alkaline cells designed to avoid such causes of cell failure could serve as a low-cost baseload for large-scale storage.

  11. High temperature two component explosive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mars, James E.; Poole, Donald R.; Schmidt, Eckart W.; Wang, Charles

    1981-01-01

    A two component, high temperature, thermally stable explosive composition comprises a liquid or low melting oxidizer and a liquid or low melting organic fuel. The oxidizer and fuel in admixture are incapable of substantial spontaneous exothermic reaction at temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K. At temperatures on the order of 475.degree. K., the oxidizer and fuel in admixture have an activation energy of at least about 40 kcal/mol. As a result of the high activation energy, the preferred explosive compositions are nondetonable as solids at ambient temperature, and become detonable only when heated beyond the melting point. Preferable oxidizers are selected from alkali or alkaline earth metal nitrates, nitrites, perchlorates, and/or mixtures thereof. Preferred fuels are organic compounds having polar hydrophilic groups. The most preferred fuels are guanidinium nitrate, acetamide and mixtures of the two. Most preferred oxidizers are eutectic mixtures of lithium nitrate, potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate, of sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

  12. Method of determining pH by the alkaline absorption of carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1992-10-06

    A method is described for measuring the concentration of hydroxides in alkaline solutions in a remote location using the tendency of hydroxides to absorb carbon dioxide. The method includes the passing of carbon dioxide over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the carbon dioxide solution. A comparison of the measurements yields the absorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to absorption fraction. 2 figs.

  13. Beamline Temperatures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperatures Energy: 3.0000 GeV Current: 495.5347 mA Date: 09-Jan-2016 04:18:38 Beamline Temperatures Energy 3.0000 GeV Current 495.5 mA 09-Jan-2016 04:18:38 LN:MainTankLevel 112.0...

  14. Alkaline resistant phosphate glasses and method of preparation and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brow, Richard K.; Reis, Signo T.; Velez, Mariano; Day, Delbert E.

    2010-01-26

    A substantially alkaline resistant calcium-iron-phosphate (CFP) glass and methods of making and using thereof. In one application, the CFP glass is drawn into a fiber and dispersed in cement to produce glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) articles having the high compressive strength of concrete with the high impact, flexural and tensile strength associated with glass fibers.

  15. Formation of H/sup -/ by charge transfer in alkaline-earth vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Morgan, T.J.

    1983-10-01

    Progress on the study of H/sup -/ formation by charge transfer in alkaline-earth vapors is reported. The H/sup -/ equilibrium yield in strontium vapor reaches a maximum of 50% at an energy of 250 eV/amu, which is the highest H/sup -/ yield reported to date.

  16. Effect of Lignin Removal by Alkaline Peroxide Pretreatment on the Susceptibility of Corn Stover to Purified Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selig, M. J.; Vinzant, T. B.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Pretreatment of corn stover with alkaline peroxide (AP) at pH 11.5 resulted in reduction of lignin content in the residual solids as a function of increasing batch temperature. Scanning electron microscopy of these materials revealed notably more textured surfaces on the plant cell walls as a result of the delignifying pretreatment. As expected, digestion of the delignified samples with commercial cellulase preparations showed an inverse relationship between the content of lignin present in the residual solids after pretreatment and the extent of both glucan and xylan conversion achievable. Digestions with purified enzymes revealed that decreased lignin content in the pretreated solids did not significantly impact the extent of glucan conversion achievable by cellulases alone. Not until purified xylanolytic activities were included with the cellulases were significant improvements in glucan conversion realized. In addition, an inverse relationship was observed between lignin content after pretreatment and the extent of xylan conversion achievable in a 24-h period with the xylanolytic enzymes in the absence of the cellulases. This observation, coupled with the direct relationship between enzymatic xylan and glucan conversion observed in a number of cases, suggests that the presence of lignins may not directly occlude cellulose present in lignocelluloses but rather impact cellulase action indirectly by its association with xylan.

  17. LEACHING OF URANIUM ORES USING ALKALINE CARBONATES AND BICARBONATES AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Rabbits, A.T.; Simard, R.; Herbst, H.J.

    1961-07-18

    A method of leaching uranium ores containing sulfides is described. The method consists of adding a leach solution containing alkaline carbonate and alkaline bicarbonate to the ore to form a slurry, passing the slurry through a series of agitators, passing an oxygen containing gas through the slurry in the last agitator in the series, passing the same gas enriched with carbon dioxide formed by the decomposition of bicarbonates in the slurry through the penultimate agitator and in the same manner passing the same gas increasingly enriched with carbon dioxide through the other agitators in the series. The conditions of agitation is such that the extraction of the uranium content will be substantially complete before the slurry reaches the last agitator.

  18. Advances in the growth of alkaline-earth halide single crystals for scintillator detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boatner, Lynn A; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Kolopus, James A; Neal, John S; Cherepy, Nerine; Payne, Stephen A.; Beck, P; Burger, Arnold; Rowe, E; Bhattacharya, P.

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline-earth scintillators such as strontium iodide and other alkaline-earth halides activated with divalent europium represent some of the most efficient and highest energy resolution scintillators for use as gamma-ray detectors in a wide range of applications. These applications include the areas of nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, the detection of undeclared nuclear material, nuclear physics and materials science, medical diagnostics, space physics, high energy physics, and radiation monitoring systems for first responders, police, and fire/rescue personnel. Recent advances in the growth of large single crystals of these scintillator materials hold the promise of higher crystal yields and significantly lower detector production costs. In the present work, we describe new processing protocols that, when combined with our molten salt filtration methods, have led to advances in achieving a significant reduction of cracking effects during the growth of single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+. In particular, we have found that extended pumping on the molten crystal-growth charge under vacuum for time periods extending up to 48 hours is generally beneficial in compensating for variations in the alkaline-earth halide purity and stoichiometry of the materials as initially supplied by commercial sources. These melt-pumping and processing techniques are now being applied to the purification of CaI2:Eu2+ and some mixed-anion europium-doped alkaline-earth halides prior to single-crystal growth by means of the vertical Bridgman technique. The results of initial studies of the effects of aliovalent doping of SrI2:Eu2+ on the scintillation characteristics of this material are also described.

  19. Probing the Kondo lattice model with alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foss-Feig, Michael; Hermele, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria

    2010-05-15

    We study transport properties of alkaline-earth-metal atoms governed by the Kondo lattice Hamiltonian plus a harmonic confining potential, and suggest simple dynamical probes of several different regimes of the phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, at low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon displacement of the trap center.

  20. Non-Platinum Group Metal OER/ORR Catalysts for Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Group Metal OER/ORR Catalysts for Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers P. I. Name: Nemanja Danilovic Chris Capuano and Kathy Ayers Organization: Proton OnSite Date: May 15, 2015 (presented) August 5, 2015 (updated) Project ID: FC-133 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Overview Page 2 * Total project funding - DOE share: $150,000 Budget * Project Start: 15 Feb 2015 * Project End: 15 Nov 2015 * Percent complete: ~85% *

  1. OSTIblog Articles in the alkaline membrane cells Topic | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information alkaline membrane cells Topic Fine tuning fuel cells by Kathy Chambers 14 Jun, 2012 in Products and Content 4314 ballard_fuel_cell_caption.jpg Fine tuning fuel cells Read more about 4314 Researchers are finding ways to fine tune fuel cells to make them affordable, reliable, efficient and commercially competitive. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) researchers have discovered ways to improve the fuel cell terminal surface

  2. Stainless steel anodes for alkaline water electrolysis and methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2014-01-21

    The corrosion resistance of stainless steel anodes for use in alkaline water electrolysis was increased by immersion of the stainless steel anode into a caustic solution prior to electrolysis. Also disclosed herein are electrolyzers employing the so-treated stainless steel anodes. The pre-treatment process provides a stainless steel anode that has a higher corrosion resistance than an untreated stainless steel anode of the same composition.

  3. Solar Photovoltaic SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ready Home SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIFICATION, CHECKLIST AND GUIDE i Table of Contents About the Renewable Energy Ready Home Specifications Assumptions of the RERH Solar ...

  4. Oxidation of methanol on single crystal platinum electrodes in alkaline solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripkovic, A.V.; Marinkovic, N.; Adzic, R.R.

    1995-10-01

    Methanol oxidation has been studied on three low-index single crystal Pt electrodes and four stepped surfaces, vicinal to the (111) and (100) orientations in alkaline solutions. Considering the onset of the reaction, it appears that the activity decreases in the sequence Pt(100), Pt(110) and Pt(111). This can also be inferred from the quasi-steady-state measurements. The current peaks, observed at different potentials, show the highest activity of Pt(111). The steps cause increase of the surface activity, but are prone to a fast poisoning. The reaction involves a formation of a small amount of CO on Pt(100) but a negligible amount on Pt(111). This was inferred from the in situ FTIR measurements. Two different reaction mechanisms were identified for the Pt(111) and Pt(100). The data clearly show that a large difference of the activity of Pt for methanol oxidation in acid and alkaline solutions originates in a smaller or negligible poisoning effects in alkaline solutions.

  5. Highly Stable, Anion Conductive, Comb-Shaped Copolymers for Alkaline Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, NW; Leng, YJ; Hickner, MA; Wang, CY

    2013-07-10

    To produce an anion-conductive and durable polymer electrolyte for alkaline fuel cell applications, a series of quaternized poly(2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide)s containing long alkyl side chains pendant to the nitrogen-centered cation were synthesized using a Menshutkin reaction to form comb-shaped structures. The pendant alkyl chains were responsible for the development of highly conductive ionic domains, as confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The comb-shaped polymers having one alkyl side chain showed higher hydroxide conductivities than those with benzyltrimethyl ammonium moieties or structures with more than one alkyl side chain per cationic site. The highest conductivity was observed for comb-shaped polymers with benzyldimethylhexadecyl ammonium cations. The chemical stabilities of the comb-shaped membranes were evaluated under severe, accelerated-aging conditions, and degradation was observed by measuring IEC and ion conductivity changes during aging. The comb-shaped membranes retained their high ion conductivity in 1 M NaOH at 80 degrees C for 2000 h. These cationic polymers were employed as ionomers in catalyst layers for alkaline fuel cells. The results indicated that the C-16 alkyl side chain ionomer had a slightly better initial performance, despite its low IEC value, but very poor durability in the fuel cell. In contrast, 90% of the initial performance was retained for the alkaline fuel cell with electrodes containing the C-6 side chain after 60 h of fuel cell operation.

  6. Inhibition of Alkaline Flocculation by Algal Organic Matter for Chlorella vulgaris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vandamme, Dries; Beuckels, Annelies; Vadelius, Eric; Depraetere, Orily; Noppe, Wim; Dutta, Abhishek; Foubert, Imogen; Laurens, Lieve; Muylaert, Koenraad

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline flocculation is a promising strategy for the concentration of microalgae for bulk biomass production. However, previous studies have shown that biological changes during the cultivation negatively affect flocculation efficiency. The influence of changes in cell properties and in the quality and composition of algal organic matter (AOM) were studied using Chlorella vulgaris as a model species. In batch cultivation, flocculation was increasingly inhibited over time and mainly influenced by changes in medium composition, rather than biological changes at the cell surface. Total carbohydrate content of the organic matter fraction sized bigger than 3 kDa increased over time and this fraction was shown to be mainly responsible for the inhibition of alkaline flocculation. The monosaccharide identification of this fraction mainly showed the presence of neutral and anionic monosaccharides. An addition of 30–50 mg L-1 alginic acid, as a model for anionic carbohydrate polymers containing uronic acids, resulted in a complete inhibition of flocculation. Furthermore, these results suggest that inhibition of alkaline flocculation was caused by interaction of anionic polysaccharides leading to an increased flocculant demand over time.

  7. The relationship between coefficient of restitution and state of charge of zinc alkaline primary LR6 batteries [Bouncing alkaline batteries: A basic solution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhadra, S.; Hertzberg, B. J.; Croft, M.; Gallaway, J. W.; Van Tassell, B. J.; Chamoun, M.; Erdonmez, C.; Zhong, Z.; Steingart, D. A.

    2015-03-13

    The coefficient of restitution of alkaline batteries had been shown to increase as a function of depth of discharge. In this work, using non-destructive mechanical testing, the change in coefficient of restitution is compared to in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction data to determine the cause of the macroscopic change in coefficient of restitution. The increase in coefficient of restitution correlates to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO within the anode of the cell, and that the coefficient of restitution saturates at a value of 0.63 ± .05 at 50% state if charge when the anode has densified intomore » porous ZnO solid. Of note is the sensitivity of coefficient of restitution to the amount of ZnO formation that rivals the sensitivity on in situ energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction spectroscopy.« less

  8. Correlating the hydrogen evolution reaction activity in alkaline electrolytes with the hydrogen binding energy on monometallic surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, WC; Myint, M; Chen, JGG; Yan, YS

    2013-05-01

    The slow reaction kinetics of the hydrogen evolution and oxidation reactions (HER/HOR) on platinum in alkaline electrolytes hinders the development of alkaline electrolysers, solar hydrogen cells and alkaline fuel cells. A fundamental understanding of the exchange current density of the HER/HOR in alkaline media is critical for the search and design of highly active electrocatalysts. By studying the HER on a series of monometallic surfaces, we demonstrate that the HER exchange current density in alkaline solutions can be correlated with the calculated hydrogen binding energy (HBE) on the metal surfaces via a volcano type of relationship. The HER activity varies by several orders of magnitude from Pt at the peak of the plot to W and Au located on the bottom of each side of the plot, similar to the observation in acids. Such a correlation suggests that the HBE can be used as a descriptor for identifying electrocatalysts for HER/HOR in alkaline media, and that the HER exchange current density can be tuned by modifying the surface chemical properties.

  9. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratorys Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  10. End Points Specification Methods

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Two methods to develop end point specifications are presented. These have evolved from use in the field for deactivation projects.

  11. Influence of Acidic and Alkaline Waste Solution Properties on Uranium Migration in Subsurface Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Wellman, Dawn M.; Resch, Charles T.; Zhong, Lirong

    2013-08-01

    This study shows that acidic and alkaline wastes co-disposed with uranium into subsurface sediments has significant impact on changes in uranium retardation, concentration, and mass during downward migration. For uranium co-disposal with acidic wastes, significant rapid (i.e., hours) carbonate and slow (i.e., 100s of hours) clay dissolution resulted, releasing significant sediment-associated uranium, but the extent of uranium release and mobility change was controlled by the acid mass added relative to the sediment proton adsorption capacity. Mineral dissolution in acidic solutions (pH 2) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in aqueous carbonate (with Ca2+, Mg2+) and phosphate and a slow (100s of hours) increase in silica, Al3+, and K+, likely from 2:1 clay dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong acid resulted in significant shallow uranium mineral dissolution and deeper uranium precipitation (likely as phosphates and carbonates) with downward uranium migration of three times greater mass at a faster velocity relative to uranium infiltration in pH neutral groundwater. In contrast, mineral dissolution in an alkaline environment (pH 13) resulted in a rapid (< 10 h) increase in carbonate, followed by a slow (10s to 100s of hours) increase in silica concentration, likely from montmorillonite, muscovite, and kaolinite dissolution. Infiltration of uranium with a strong base resulted in uranium-silicate precipitation (presumed Na-boltwoodite) but also desorption of natural uranium on the sediment due to the high ionic strength solution, or 60% greater mass with greater retardation compared with groundwater. Overall, these results show that acidic or alkaline co-contaminant disposal with uranium can result in complex depth- and time-dependent changes in uranium dissolution/precipitation reactions and uranium sorption, which alter the uranium migration mass, concentration, and velocity.

  12. Separation, Concentration, and Immobilization of Technetium and Iodine from Alkaline Supernate Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Harvey; Michael Gula

    1998-12-07

    Development of remediation technologies for the characterization, retrieval, treatment, concentration, and final disposal of radioactive and chemical tank waste stored within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex represents an enormous scientific and technological challenge. A combined total of over 90 million gallons of high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) are stored in 335 underground storage tanks at four different DOE sites. Roughly 98% of this waste is highly alkaline in nature and contains high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite salts along with lesser concentrations of other salts. The primary waste forms are sludge, saltcake, and liquid supernatant with the bulk of the radioactivity contained in the sludge, making it the largest source of HLW. The saltcake (liquid waste with most of the water removed) and liquid supernatant consist mainly of sodium nitrate and sodium hydroxide salts. The main radioactive constituent in the alkaline supernatant is cesium-137, but strontium-90, technetium-99, and transuranic nuclides are also present in varying concentrations. Reduction of the radioactivity below Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) limits would allow the bulk of the waste to be disposed of as LLW. Because of the long half-life of technetium-99 (2.1 x 10 5 y) and the mobility of the pertechnetate ion (TcO 4 - ) in the environment, it is expected that technetium will have to be removed from the Hanford wastes prior to disposal as LLW. Also, for some of the wastes, some level of technetium removal will be required to meet LLW criteria for radioactive content. Therefore, DOE has identified a need to develop technologies for the separation and concentration of technetium-99 from LLW streams. Eichrom has responded to this DOE-identified need by demonstrating a complete flowsheet for the separation, concentration, and immobilization of technetium (and iodine) from alkaline supernatant waste.

  13. Cellulose nanocrystal-based composite electrolyte with superior dimensional stability for alkaline fuel cell membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Yuan; Artmentrout, Aaron A.; Li, Juchuan; Tekinalp, Halil L.; Nanda, Jagjit; Ozcan, Soydan

    2015-05-13

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-based composite films were prepared as a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells. Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and silica gel hybrid was used to bind the CNCs to form a robust composite film. The mass ratio (i.e., 1 : 1, 1 : 2) of PVA and silica gel was tuned to control the hydrophobicity of the resulting films. Composite films with a range of CNC content (i.e., 20 to 60%) were prepared to demonstrate the impact of CNC on the performance of these materials as a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells. Different from previously reported cross-linked polymer films, CNC-based composite films with 40% hydrophobic binder (i.e., PVA : silica gel=1 : 2) exhibited simultaneous low water swelling (e.g., ~5%) and high water uptake (e.g., ~80%) due to the hydrophilicity and extraordinary dimensional stability of CNC. It also showed a conductivity of 0.044 and 0.065 S/cm at 20 and 60 oC, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the film with 60% CNC and 40% binder is characterized by the lowest hydroxide conductivity-normalized swelling ratio. Decreased CNC content (i.e., 40 and 20%) resulted in comparable hydroxide conductivity but a greater swelling ratio. These results demonstrate the advantage of CNC as a key component for a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells over conventional polymers, suggesting the great potential of CNCs in improving the dimensional stability while maintaining the conductivity of existing anion exchange membranes.

  14. Cellulose nanocrystal-based composite electrolyte with superior dimensional stability for alkaline fuel cell membranes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Yuan; Artmentrout, Aaron A.; Li, Juchuan; Tekinalp, Halil L.; Nanda, Jagjit; Ozcan, Soydan

    2015-05-13

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-based composite films were prepared as a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells. Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and silica gel hybrid was used to bind the CNCs to form a robust composite film. The mass ratio (i.e., 1 : 1, 1 : 2) of PVA and silica gel was tuned to control the hydrophobicity of the resulting films. Composite films with a range of CNC content (i.e., 20 to 60%) were prepared to demonstrate the impact of CNC on the performance of these materials as a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells. Different from previously reported cross-linked polymermore » films, CNC-based composite films with 40% hydrophobic binder (i.e., PVA : silica gel=1 : 2) exhibited simultaneous low water swelling (e.g., ~5%) and high water uptake (e.g., ~80%) due to the hydrophilicity and extraordinary dimensional stability of CNC. It also showed a conductivity of 0.044 and 0.065 S/cm at 20 and 60 oC, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, the film with 60% CNC and 40% binder is characterized by the lowest hydroxide conductivity-normalized swelling ratio. Decreased CNC content (i.e., 40 and 20%) resulted in comparable hydroxide conductivity but a greater swelling ratio. These results demonstrate the advantage of CNC as a key component for a solid electrolyte for alkaline fuel cells over conventional polymers, suggesting the great potential of CNCs in improving the dimensional stability while maintaining the conductivity of existing anion exchange membranes.« less

  15. Composition and isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of alkaline arc lavas: Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, A.K.; Hart, S.R.; Frey, F.A. )

    1990-05-10

    The SiO{sub 2}-undersaturated lavas from Lihir island, Papua New Guinea, like most arc lavas are highly enriched in Sr, Ba, K, Rb, and Cc and depleted in Hf, Ta, Nb, and Ti relative to ocean floor basalts and oceanic island basalts. These alkali-rich lavas have arc trace element signatures and Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic systematics. However, they are not a product of present-day subduction, as this volcanism has tapped mantle which was enriched by prior subduction episodes. The narrow range of Pb isotopic compositions suggest a cogenetic origin for these lavas. During the fractionation of the primitive Lihir lavas, elements normally considered incompatible (i.e., the light rare earth elements (LREE), Rb, Th, and P) have high bulk solid/melt partition coefficients (0.15-1.5). Relatively higher partition coefficients during formation of the evolved lavas produced crossing rare earth element (REE) patterns, and primitive lavas have higher incompatible elements abundances than evolved lavas. The Lihir lavas have lower alkali, Sr, Ba, K, Rb, Cs, and LREE abundances than other Tabar-Feni lavas. They are derived from a less enriched mantle source rather than by a higher degree of melting of a source similar to that of the other islands. The similarity of Sm/Nd ratios of these undersaturated arc lavas to those of tholeiitic and calc-alkaline arc lavas and the moderate chondrite-normalized La/Yb (la/Yb{sub cn} = 3-7) indicates that there has been limited enrichment of the LREE relative to the heavy REE during generation of the arc-modified source mantle. The alkaline nature of these lavas reflects their generation, in a tensional tectonic environment, from a fossil arc mantle region that has undergone extreme arc enrichment of alkali and alkaline earth elements during two earlier subduction episodes.

  16. Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions by Selective Crystallization of Alkali Metal Coordination Capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajbanshi, Arbin; Moyer, Bruce A; Custelcean, Radu

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembly of a tris(urea) anion receptor with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} yields crystalline capsules held together by coordinating Na{sup +} or K{sup +} cations and hydrogen-bonding water bridges, with the sulfate anions encapsulated inside urea-lined cavities. The sodium-based capsules can be selectively crystallized in excellent yield from highly competitive aqueous alkaline solutions ({approx}6 M Na{sup +}, pH 14), thereby providing for the first time a viable approach to sulfate separation from nuclear wastes.

  17. Liquefaction process for solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epperly, William R.; Deane, Barry C.; Brunson, Roy J.

    1982-01-01

    An improved liquefaction process wherein wall scale and particulate agglomeration during the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates is reduced and/or eliminated by subjecting the solid carbonaceous materials to controlled cyclic cavitation during liquefaction. It is important that the solid carbonaceous material be slurried in a suitable solvent or diluent during liquefaction. The cyclic cavitation may be imparted via pressure cycling, cyclic agitation and the like. When pressure cycling or the like is employed an amplitude equivalent to at least 25 psia is required to effectively remove scale from the liquefaction vessel walls.

  18. Hydrophilic Electrode For An Alkaline Electrochemical Cell, And Method Of Manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senyarich, Stephane (Mornac, FR); Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel (Bordeaux, FR)

    2000-03-07

    A negative electrode for an alkaline electrochemical cell. The electrode comprises an active material and a hydrophilic agent constituted by small cylindrical rods of polyolefin provided with hydrophilic groups. The mean length of the rods is less than 50 microns and the mean diameter thereof is less than 20 microns. A method of manufacturing a negative electrode in which hydrophilic rods are made by fragmenting long polyolefin fibers having a mean diameter of less than 20 microns by oxidizing them, with the rods being mixed with the active material and the mixture being applied to a current conductor.

  19. Alkaline Waterflooding Demonstration Project, Ranger Zone, Long Beach Unit, Wilmington Field, California. Fourth annual report, June 1979-May 1980. Volume 3. Appendices II-XVII

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carmichael, J.D.

    1981-03-01

    Volume 3 contains Appendices II through XVII: mixing instructions for sodium orthosilicate; oil displacement studies using THUMS C-331 crude oil and extracted reservoir core material from well B-110; clay mineral analysis of B-827-A cores; sieve analysis of 4 Fo sand samples from B-110-IA and 4 Fo sand samples from B-827-A; core record; delayed secondary caustic consumption tests; long-term alkaline consumption in reservoir sands; demulsification study for THUMS Long Beach Company, Island White; operating plans and instructions for DOE injection demonstration project, alkaline injection; caustic pilot-produced water test graphs; well test irregularities (6/1/79-5/31/80); alkaline flood pump changes (6/1/79-5/31/80); monthly DOE pilot chemical waterflood injection reports (preflush injection, alkaline-salt injection, and alkaline injection without salt); and caustic safety procedures-alkaline chemicals.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS COMPOSITIONS TO IMMOBILIZE ALKALI, ALKALINE EARTH, LANTHANIDE AND TRANSITION METAL FISSION PRODUCTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.; Billings, A.

    2009-06-24

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) waste management strategy revolves around specific treatment of individual or groups of separated waste streams. A goal for the separations processes is to efficiently manage the waste to be dispositioned as high level radioactive waste. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) baseline technology for immobilization of the lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) wastes is vitrification into a borosilicate glass. A current interest is to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined waste streams to most cost effectively immobilize the wastes resulting from aqueous fuel reprocessing. Studies showed that high waste loadings are achievable for the Ln only (Option 1) stream. Waste loadings in excess of 60 wt % (on a calcined oxide basis) were demonstrated via a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass. The resulting glasses had excellent relative durability as determined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). For a combined Ln and TM waste stream glass (Option 2), noble metal solubility was found to limit waste loading. However, the measured PCT normalized elemental releases for this glass were at least an order of magnitude below that of Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. Current efforts to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined Ln, TM, alkali (Cs is the primary radionuclide of concern) and alkaline earth (Sr is the primary radionuclide of concern) wastes (Option 3) have shown that these approaches are feasible. However, waste loading limitations with respect to heat load (Cs/Sr loading), molybdenum solubility and/or noble metal solubility will likely be realized and must be considered in determining the cost effectiveness of these approaches.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS COMPOSITIONS TO IMMOBILIZE ALKALI, ALKALINE EARTH, LANTHANIDE AND TRANSITION METAL FISSION PRODUCTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, James C.; Billings, Amanda Y.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Vienna, John D.

    2010-02-26

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) waste management strategy revolves around specific treatment of individual or groups of separated waste streams. A goal for the separations processes is to efficiently manage the waste to be dispositioned as high level radioactive waste. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) baseline technology for immobilization of the lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) wastes is vitrification into a borosilicate glass. A current interest is to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined waste streams to most cost effectively immobilize the wastes resulting from aqueous fuel reprocessing. Studies showed that high waste loadings are achievable for the Ln only (Option 1) stream. Waste loadings in excess of 60 wt % (on a calcined oxide basis) were demonstrated via a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass. The resulting glasses had excellent relative durability as determined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). For a combined Ln and TM waste stream glass (Option 2), noble metal solubility was found to limit waste loading. However, the measured PCT normalized elemental releases for this glass were at least an order of magnitude below that of Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. Current efforts to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined Ln, TM, alkali (Cs is the primary radionuclide of concern) and alkaline earth (Sr is the primary radionuclide of concern) wastes (Option 3) have shown that these approaches are feasible. However, waste loading limitations with respect to heat load (Cs/Sr loading), molybdenum solubility and/or noble metal solubility will likely be realized and must be considered in determining the cost effectiveness of these approaches.

  2. Investigations Into the Nature of Alkaline Soluble, Non-Pertechnetate Technetium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Edwards, Matthew K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.

    2013-11-14

    This report summarizes work accomplished in fiscal year (FY) 2013, exploring the chemistry of a low-valence technetium(I) species, [Tc(CO)3(H2O)3]+, a compound of interest due to its implication in the speciation of alkaline-soluble technetium in several Hanford tank waste supernatants. Various aspects of FY 2013s work were sponsored both by Washington River Protection Solutions and the U.S. Department of Energys Office of River Protection; because of this commonality, both sponsors work is summarized in this report. There were three tasks in this FY 2013 study. The first task involved examining the speciation of [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ in alkaline solution by 99Tc nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The second task involved the purchase and installation of a microcalorimeter suitable to study the binding affinity of [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ with various inorganic and organic compounds relevant to Hanford tank wastes, although the actual measure of such binding affinities is scheduled to occur in future FYs. The third task involved examining the chemical reactivity of [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ as relevant to the development of a [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ spectroelectrochemical sensor based on fluorescence spectroscopy.

  3. Current distributions and dissolution mechanisms during localized corrosion of steels in alkaline environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaacs, H.S.; Ryan, M.P.; Virtanen, S.; Schmuki, P.

    1997-12-31

    In situ corrosion investigations of iron were carried out in alkaline environments to determine the stages of corrosion that may be encountered with steels in concrete. The electrochemical and chemical processes taking place on Fe have been studied using x-ray absorption, current density mapping of the iron surface and artificial pits. The x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy was used to observe the conversion of Fe to oxide in hydroxide solutions. The oxide formed was electrochemically active and changes in valence states between 2+ and 3+ were observed during electrochemical cycling between the passive state and hydrogen evolution. The oxide continued to thicken during the cycling with very little dissolution or any conversion back to the metallic state. Current density mapping in chloride/hydroxide solution showed that corrosion took place in highly localized areas confined by the formation of a corrosion product shell. The activity within the shell decayed on removing a supporting cathodic area limiting but reactivated on its replacement. Artificial pits were used to study the anodic processes taking place within the region confined by the corrosion product shell. The local pH and anodic behavior were similar to that observed in neutral or slightly acid bulk solutions. The dissolution within the artificial pits in alkaline bulk solutions was found to be sensitive to the presence of small-quantities of nitrite.

  4. Improved technical specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Improved technical specifications for nuclear power plants are outlined. The objectives of this work are to improve safety, provide a clearer understanding of safety significance, and ease NRC and industry administrative burdens. Line item improvements, bases, and implementation of the specifications are discussed.

  5. Andreev current for low temperature thermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faivre, T. Pekola, J. P.; Golubev, D. S.

    2015-05-04

    We demonstrate experimentally that disorder enhanced Andreev current in a tunnel junction between a normal metal and a superconductor provides a method to measure electronic temperature, specifically at temperatures below 200 mK when aluminum is used. This Andreev thermometer has some advantages over conventional quasiparticle thermometers: For instance, it does not conduct heat and its reading does not saturate until at lower temperatures. Another merit is that the responsivity is constant over a wide temperature range.

  6. Ambient temperature thermal battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, A. N.; Bliss, D. E.; McManis III

    1985-11-26

    An ambient temperature thermal battery having two relatively high temperature melting electrolytes which form a low melting temperature electrolyte upon activation.

  7. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Studies at PNNL are directed toward new solvent formulation for the practical sodium pseudohydroxide extraction systems.

  8. Harmonization of Biodiesel Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.

    2008-02-01

    Worldwide biodiesel production has grown dramatically over the last several years. Biodiesel standards vary across countries and regions, and there is a call for harmonization. For harmonization to become a reality, standards have to be adapted to cover all feedstocks. Additionally, all feedstocks cannot meet all specifications, so harmonization will require standards to either tighten or relax. For harmonization to succeed, the biodiesel market must be expanded with the alignment of test methods and specification limits, not contracted.

  9. Specific Group Hardware

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Specific Group Hardware Specific Group Hardware ALICE palicevo1 The Virtual Organization (VO) server. Serves as gatekeeper for ALICE jobs. It's duties include getting assignments from ALICE file catalog (at CERN), submitting jobs to pdsfgrid (via condor) which submits jobs to the compute nodes, monitoring the cluster work load, and uploading job information to ALICE file catalog. It is monitored with MonALISA (the monitoring page is here). It's made up of 2 Intel Xeon E5520 processors each with

  10. Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1982-03-09

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

  11. Electric dipole polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies for hydrogen, the alkali-metal, alkaline-earth, and noble gas atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derevianko, Andrei Porsev, Sergey G. Babb, James F.

    2010-05-15

    The electric dipole polarizabilities evaluated at imaginary frequencies for hydrogen, the alkali-metal atoms, the alkaline-earth atoms, and the noble gases are tabulated along with the resulting values of the atomic static polarizabilities, the atom-surface interaction constants, and the dispersion (or van der Waals) constants for the homonuclear and the heteronuclear diatomic combinations of the atoms.

  12. 2014 Energy Sector Specific Plan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sector-Specific Plan Energy Sector-Specific Plan 2015 ii Page intentionally left blank Energy Sector-Specific Plan 2015 iii TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE ......

  13. IDC System Specification Document.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  14. DOT specification packages evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratledge, J.E.; Rawl, R.R. )

    1991-01-01

    During the late 1960s and early 1970s, the Department of Transportation (DOT) specification package system was implemented to serve as a useful and equivalent alternative to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Bureau of Explosives approval systems for Type B and fissile radioactive material package designs. When a package design was used by a large number of organizations, the package design was added to the DOT regulations as a specification package authorized for use by any shipper. In the mid-1970s, the NRC revised its package design certification system to the one in use today. This paper reports that, while the NRC and DOT transportation regulations have evolved over the years, the DOT specification package designs have remained largely unchanged. Questions have been raised as to whether these designs meet the current and proposed regulations. In order to enable the NRC and DOT to develop a regulatory analysis that will support appropriate action regarding the specification packages, a study is being performed to compile all available design, testing, and analysis information on these packages.

  15. SPECIFIC HEAT INDICATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horn, F.L.; Binns, J.E.

    1961-05-01

    Apparatus for continuously and automatically measuring and computing the specific heat of a flowing solution is described. The invention provides for the continuous measurement of all the parameters required for the mathematical solution of this characteristic. The parameters are converted to logarithmic functions which are added and subtracted in accordance with the solution and a null-seeking servo reduces errors due to changing voltage drops to a minimum. Logarithmic potentiometers are utilized in a unique manner to accomplish these results.

  16. Low-temperature geothermal database for Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, G.

    1994-11-01

    The goals of the low-temperature assessment project, performed by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) is aimed primarily at updating the inventory of the nation's low and moderate temperature geothermal resources. The study has begun in Oregon, where the areas of Paisley, Lakeview, Burns/Hines, Lagrande, and Vale were identified over 40 sites as having potential for direct heat utilization. Specifics sites are outlined, detailing water temperature, flow, and current uses of the sites.

  17. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Smirnov, Alexandre

    2011-09-01

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by

  18. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  19. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2005-09-26

    The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

  20. Nickel supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in alkaline electrolyte

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhuang, Zhongbin; Giles, Stephen A.; Zheng, Jie; Jenness, Glen R.; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-01-14

    The development of a low-cost, high-performance platinum-group-metal-free hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell is hindered by the lack of a hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst at the anode. Here we report that a composite catalyst, nickel nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, has hydrogen oxidation activity similar to platinum-group metals in alkaline electrolyte. Although nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are a very poor hydrogen oxidation catalyst, as a support, it increases the catalytic performance of nickel nanoparticles by a factor of 33 (mass activity) or 21 (exchange current density) relative to unsupported nickel nanoparticles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the nitrogen-doped support stabilizesmore » the nanoparticle against reconstruction, while nitrogen located at the edge of the nanoparticle tunes local adsorption sites by affecting the d-orbitals of nickel. Here, owing to its high activity and low cost, our catalyst shows significant potential for use in low-cost, high-performance fuel cells.« less

  1. Process for depositing epitaxial alkaline earth oxide onto a substrate and structures prepared with the process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1996-01-01

    A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilize molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and/or electron beam evaporation methods and an ultra-high vacuum facility to grow a layup of epitaxial alkaline earth oxide films upon the substrate surface. By selecting metal constituents for the oxides and in the appropriate proportions so that the lattice parameter of each oxide grown closely approximates that of the substrate or base layer upon which oxide is grown, lattice strain at the film/film or film/substrate interface of adjacent films is appreciably reduced or relieved. Moreover, by selecting constituents for the oxides so that the lattice parameters of the materials of adjacent oxide films either increase or decrease in size from one parameter to another parameter, a graded layup of films can be grown (with reduced strain levels therebetween) so that the outer film has a lattice parameter which closely approximates that of, and thus accomodates the epitaxial growth of, a pervoskite chosen to be grown upon the outer film.

  2. Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

    1996-04-01

    Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

  3. Modeling experimental results of diffusion of alkaline solutions through a compacted bentonite barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Raul; Cuevas, Jaime; Maeder, Urs K.

    2010-08-15

    The interaction between concrete/cement and swelling clay (bentonite) has been modeled in the context of engineered barrier systems for deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The geochemical transformations observed in laboratory diffusion experiments at 60 and 90 {sup o}C between bentonite and different high-pH solutions (K-Na-OH and Ca(OH){sub 2}-saturated) were reconciled with the reactive transport code CrunchFlow. For K-Na-OH solutions (pH = 13.5 at 25 {sup o}C) partial dissolution of montmorillonite and precipitation of Mg-silicates (talc-like), hydrotalcite and brucite at the interface are predicted at 60 {sup o}C, while at 90 {sup o}C the alteration is wider. Alkaline cations diffused beyond the mineralogical alteration zone by means of exchange with Mg{sup 2+} in the interlayer region of montmorillonite. Very slow reactivity and minor alteration of the clay are predicted in the Ca(OH){sub 2}-bentonite system. The model is a reasonable description of the experiments but also demonstrates the difficulties in modeling processes operating at a small scale under a diffusive regime.

  4. Understanding the Factors Affecting the Formation of Carbonyl Iron Electrodes in Rechargeable Alkaline Iron Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Yang, B; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2012-01-01

    Rechargeable iron-based alkaline batteries such as iron - air and nickel - iron batteries are attractive for large-scale electrical energy storage because iron is inexpensive, globally-abundant and environmentally-friendly. Further, the iron electrode is known for its robustness to repeated charge/discharge cycling. During manufacturing these batteries are charged and discharged 20 to 50 times during which the discharge capacity of the iron electrode increases gradually and attains a stable value. This process of achieving stable capacity is called formation. In this study we have focused our efforts on understanding the effect of electrode design on formation. We have investigated the role of wetting agent, pore-former additive, and sulfide additive on the formation of carbonyl iron electrodes. The wetting agent increased the rate of formation while the pore-former additive increased the final capacity. Sodium sulfide added to the electrolyte worked as a de-passivation agent and increased the final discharge capacity. We have proposed a phenomenological model for the formation process that predicts the rate of formation and final discharge capacity given the design parameters for the electrode. The understanding gained here will be useful in reducing the time lost in formation and in maximizing the utilization of the iron electrode. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.021301jes] All rights reserved.

  5. Two new frameworks of potassium saccharate obtained from acidic and alkaline solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Yao-Kang; Feng, Yun-Long; Liu, Ji-Wei; Jiang, Zhan-Guo

    2011-05-15

    Two chiral K(I) complexes based on D-saccharic acid (H{sub 2}sac), [K(Hsac)]{sub n} (1) and [K{sub 2}(sac)]{sub n} (2) were obtained from acidic and alkaline solution. The 3D framework of 1 includes K(I) polyhedral rods and typical pairwise coaxial right- and left-handed helical chains, and displays binodal 6-connected pcu topology. 2 contains 2D polyhedral sheets consisting of left-handed helical chains, and generates 3D network with an unprecedented (7,11)-connected net. Cyclic voltammetry tests and charge-discharge tests indicate that the addition of complex 2 to the electrolyte could improve the electrochemical properties of the nickel hydroxide electrode. -- Graphical abstract: Two K(I) complexes based on D-saccharic acid (H{sub 2}sac), [K(Hsac)]{sub n} (1) and [K{sub 2}(sac)]{sub n} (2) were obtained and characterized. Electrochemical studies indicate the potential use of 2 in Ni-MH battery. Display Omitted highlights: > Two novel chiral K(I) frameworks based on D-saccharic acid were obtained. > The structure of 1 includes K(I) polyhedral rods and typical helical chains. > 2 contains 2D polyhedral sheets and generates an unprecedented (7,11)-connected net. > Addition of 2 to electrolyte could improve the nickel hydroxide electrode's property.

  6. Methods of use of calcium hexa aluminate refractory linings and/or chemical barriers in high alkali or alkaline environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGowan, Kenneth A; Cullen, Robert M; Keiser, James R; Hemrick, James G; Meisner, Roberta A

    2013-10-22

    A method for improving the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of a liner in contact with at least one of an alkali and/or alkaline environments is provided. The method comprises lining a surface that is subject to wear by an alkali environment and/or an alkaline environment with a refractory composition comprising a refractory aggregate consisting essentially of a calcium hexa aluminate clinker having the formula CA.sub.6, wherein C is equal to calcium oxide, wherein A is equal to aluminum oxide, and wherein the hexa aluminate clinker has from zero to less than about fifty weight percent C.sub.12A.sub.7, and wherein greater than 98 weight percent of the calcium hexa aluminate clinker having a particle size ranging from -20 microns to +3 millimeters, for forming a liner of the surface. This method improves the insulating character/and or penetration resistance of the liner.

  7. FTIR study of the photocatalytic degradation of gaseous benzene over UV-irradiated TiO{sub 2} nanoballs synthesized by hydrothermal treatment in alkaline solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Zhengru [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Xinyong, E-mail: xyli@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhao, Qidong; Qu, Zhenping; Hou, Yang; Zhao, Ling [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering and State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, School of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Shaomin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Chen, Guohua [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)] [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-12-15

    In this study, photocatalysts of TiO{sub 2} nanoballs were obtained via a hydrothermal treating of commercial P25 in alkaline solution, and then characterized with SEM, XRD, BET and surface photovoltage spectroscopy techniques. The UV-assisted photodegradation of gaseous benzene over P25 and the prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoballs was monitored by an in situ infrared technique. The results demonstrated that the prepared TiO{sub 2} nanoballs in anatase form were more active than commercial P25 in photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous benzene. The promoted activity of the hydrothermal-treated TiO{sub 2} is attributed to the increasing specific surface area and larger band gap induced by the reduced crystallite size. The spectra of FTIR indicated that weakly adsorbed phenol was formed as the reaction progress. Hydroxyl groups on the surface of TiO{sub 2} nanoballs are able to react with photo-produced phenol, which is then retained on the catalyst surface leading to the progressive deactivation of the catalyst in the gas-solid system.

  8. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  9. Effects of Aging on PuO2?xH2O Particle Size in Alkaline Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.

    2013-05-01

    Between 1944 and 1989, 54.5 metric tons of the United States weapons-grade plutonium and an additional 12.9 metric tons of fuel-grade plutonium were produced and separated from irradiated fuel at the Hanford Site. Acidic high-activity wastes containing around 600 kg of plutonium were made alkaline and discharged to underground storage tanks from separations, isolation, and recycle processes to yield average plutonium concentration of about 0.003 grams per liter (or ~0.0002 wt%) in the ~200 million liter tank waste volume. The plutonium is largely associated with low-solubility metal hydroxide/oxide sludges where its low concentration and intimate mixture with neutron-absorbing elements (e.g., iron) are credited in nuclear criticality safety. However, concerns have been expressed that plutonium, in the form of plutonium hydrous oxide, PuO2?xH2O, could undergo sufficient crystal growth through dissolution and reprecipitation in the alkaline tank waste to potentially become separable from neutron absorbing constituents by settling or sedimentation. Thermodynamic considerations and laboratory studies of systems chemically analogous to tank waste show that the plutonium formed in the alkaline tank waste by precipitation through neutralization from acid solution probably entered as 24-nm PuO2?xH2O crystallite particles that, because of their low solubility and opposition from radiolytic processes, grow from that point at exceedingly slow rates, thus posing no risk of physical segregation.

  10. Kinetics of hydrolysis and oxidation of carbon disulfide by hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium and application to carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adewuyi, Y.G.; Carmichael, G.R.

    1987-02-01

    Kinetic studies of the oxidation of carbon disulfide by hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium were made spectrophotometrically. The reaction of CS/sub 2/ with OH/sup -/ ion was found to be rate controlling and proceeded by the formation of a dithiocarbonate complex. The major reaction product was sulfate with sulfur occurring as colloidal suspensions only at pH values less than 8. The formation of sulfate increased exponentially with time and was also found to be dependent on the rate of hydrolysis of CS/sub 2/. In addition, the production of sulfate showed large induction periods, suggesting either a complex mechanism or formation by secondary reactions. The results obtained for carbon disulfide were extended to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) oxidation in alkaline solutions. The removal of OCS (acid gas) from mixtures of gases by alkaline liquid absorbents (e.g. NaOH) and oxidation of subsequent solutions to sulfate is an important industrial practice. 42 references, 14 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Marchand, Alan P.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2004-06-30

    In this project, now completing its third year of its second renewal period, a collaborative project involving Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the University of North Texas has been addressing outstanding questions regarding the separation of the bulk sodium constituents of alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit of this research is a major reduction in the volume of radioactive tank waste, obviating the building of expensive new tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. As a general approach, principles of ion recognition are being explored toward discovery and basic understanding of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium salts from waste-like matrices. Questions being addressed pertain to applicable extraction equilibria and how extraction properties relate to extractant structure. Progress has included the elucidation of the promising concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction (PHE), demonstration of crown-ether synergized PHE, demonstration of combined sodium hydroxide/sodium nitrate separation, and synthesis of novel ditopic receptors for ditopic PHE. In future efforts (pending renewal), a thermochemical study of PHE relating extractant acidity to extraction strength is proposed, and this study will be extended to systems containing crown ethers, including proton-ionizable ones. A series of crown ethers will be synthesized for this purpose and to investigate the extraction of bulk sodium salts (e.g., nitrate, nitrite, and sulfate), possibly in combination with sodium hydroxide. Simple proof-of-principle tests with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent designs that have desirable properties. In view of the upcoming milestone of completion of the second renewal period, this report will, in addition to providing a summary of the past year's progress, summarize all of the work completed since the start of this project.

  12. Developing and Testing an Alkaline-Side Solvent Extraction Process for Technetium Separation from Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, Ralph A.; Conner, Cliff; Liberatore, Matthew W.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Presley, Derek J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Lumetta, Gregg J. )

    1998-11-01

    Engineering development and testing of the SRTALK solvent extraction process are discussed in this paper. This process provides a way to carry out alkaline-side removal and recovery of technetium in the form of pertechnetate anion from nuclear waste tanks within the DOE complex. The SRTALK extractant consists of a crown ether, bis-4,4'(5')[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6, in a modifier, tributyl phosphate, and a diluent, Isopar-L. The SRTALK flowsheet given here separates technetium form the waste and concentrates it by a factor of ten to minimize the load on downstream evaporator for the technetium effluent. In this work, we initially generated and correlated the technetium extraction data, measured the dispersion number for various processing conditions, and determined hydraulic performance in a single-stage 2-cm centrifugal contactor. Then we used extraction-factor analysis, single-stage contactor tests, and stage-to-stage process calculations to develop a SRTALK flowsheet . Key features of the flowsheet are (1) a low organic-to-aqueous (O/A) flow ratio in the extraction section and a high O/A flow ratio in the strip section to concentrate the technetium and (2) the use of a scrub section to reduce the salt load in the concentrated technetium effluent. Finally, the SRTALK process was evaluated in a multistage test using a synthetic tank waste. This test was very successful. Initial batch tests with actual waste from the Hanford nuclear waste tanks show the same technetium extractability as determined with the synthetic waste feed. Therefore, technetium removal from actual tank wastes should also work well using the SRTALK process.

  13. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  14. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-01-01

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  15. High temperature furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  16. Old and stable soil organic matter is not necessarily chemically recalcitrant: Implications for modeling concepts and temperature sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleber, M.; Nico, P.S.; Plante, A.; Filley, T.; Kramer, M.; Swanston, C.; Sollins, P.

    2010-03-01

    Soil carbon turnover models generally divide soil carbon into pools with varying intrinsic decomposition rates. Although these decomposition rates are modified by factors such as temperature, texture, and moisture, they are rationalized by assuming chemical structure is a primary controller of decomposition. In the current work, we use near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy in combination with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and alkaline cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation to explore this assumption. Specifically, we examined material from the 2.3-2.6 kg L{sup -1} density fraction of three soils of different type (Oxisol, Alfisol, Inceptisol). The density fraction with the youngest {sup 14}C age (Oxisol, 107 years) showed the highest relative abundance of aromatic groups and the lowest O-alkyl C/aromatic C ratio as determined by NEXAFS. Conversely, the fraction with the oldest C (Inceptisol, 680 years) had the lowest relative abundance of aromatic groups and highest O-alkyl C/aromatic C ratio. This sample also had the highest proportion of thermally labile materials as measured by DSC, and the highest ratio of substituted fatty acids to lignin phenols as indicated by CuO oxidation. Therefore, the organic matter of the Inceptisol sample, with a {sup 14}C age associated with 'passive' pools of carbon (680 years), had the largest proportion of easily metabolizable organic molecules with low thermodynamic stability, whereas the organic matter of the much younger Oxisol sample (107 years) had the highest proportion of supposedly stable organic structures considered more difficult to metabolize. Our results demonstrate that C age is not necessarily related to molecular structure or thermodynamic stability, and we suggest that soil carbon models would benefit from viewing turnover rate as codetermined by the interaction between substrates, microbial actors, and abiotic driving variables. Furthermore, assuming that old carbon is composed of

  17. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E.; Allouche, Erez N.; Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases

  18. CO adsorption and kinetics on well-characterized Pd films on Pt(111) in alkaline solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arenz, M.; Stamenkovic, V.; Wandelt, K.; Ross, P.N.; Markovic, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemistry of CO on a bare Pt(111) electrode as well as a Pt(111) electrode modified with pseudomorphic thin palladium films has been studied in alkaline solution by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. First Pd films were prepared and well characterized in UHV and subsequently transferred into the electrochemical cell for the registration of the voltammetric profiles. The charge corresponding to the formation of underpotentially deposited hydrogen (H{sub upd}) on these Pt(111)-xPd surfaces was established in sulfuric acid solution as a function of x (0 {le} x {le} 1 Pd monolayer (ML)). All subsequent measurements were then performed on electrochemically deposited palladium films using the above H{sub upd}-charge vs. Pd coverage relationship to evaluate the amount of electrochemically deposited palladium. FTIR spectra for CO adsorbed on one monolayer and a submonolayer coverage are compared to those of the unmodified Pt(111) surface, all surfaces having identical 2D lattice structures. Infrared absorption bands of CO bound on either Pt(111) or Pt(111)-1ML Pd are clearly distinguished. Spectra of CO adsorbed on Pd submonolayers show characteristic features of both CO bound to Pt and to Pd, indicating that on Pt(111)-xPd surfaces there is no coupling between Pt-CO{sub ad} and Pd-CO{sub ad} molecules. The kinetics of CO oxidation on these surfaces is determined either by rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurements or by FTIR spectroscopy, monitoring the CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} production. The oxidation of CO{sub ad} on Pt(111) and on Pd modified platinum surfaces starts at the same potential, ca. at 0.2 V. The oxidation rate is, however, considerably lower on the Pt(111)-xPd surfaces than on the Pt(111) surface. The kinetics of CO oxidation appears to be determined by the nature of adsorbed hydroxyl anions (OH{sub ad}), which are more strongly (less active) adsorbed on the highly oxophilic Pd atoms.

  19. High temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  20. END POINTS SPECIFICATION METHODS End Points Specification Methods

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SPECIFICATION METHODS End Points Specification Methods Hierarchical End-Points Method Checklist End-Points Method Two methods to develop end point specifications are presented. These have evolved from use in the field for deactivation projects.  The hierarchical method is systematic, comprehensive, and completely defensible as to the basis for each specification. This method may appear complex to the uninitiated, but it is a straightforward application of a systematic engineering approach. It

  1. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitation for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on 90Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has similar structure as the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly reevaluated: gastro-intestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (080 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general population exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  2. Temperature-profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    Temperature profiles at elevated temperature conditions are monitored by use of an elongated device having two conductors spaced by the minimum distance required to normally maintain an open circuit between them. The melting point of one conductor is selected at the elevated temperature being detected, while the melting point of the other is higher. As the preselected temperature is reached, liquid metal will flow between the conductors creating short circuits which are detectable as to location.

  3. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Temperature profiles at elevated temperature conditions are monitored by use of an elongated device having two conductors spaced by the minimum distance required to normally maintain an open circuit between them. The melting point of one conductor is selected at the elevated temperature being detected, while the melting point of the other is higher. As the preselected temperature is reached, liquid metal will flow between the conductors, creating short circuits which are detectable as to location.

  4. Development of Effective Solvent Modifiers for the Solvent Extraction of Cesium from Alkaline High-Level Tank Waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Lumetta, Gregg J. )

    2003-01-01

    A series of novel alkylphenoxy fluorinated alcohols were prepared and investigated for their effectiveness as modifiers in solvents containing calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 for extracting cesium from alkaline nitrate media. A modifier that contained a terminal 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy group was found to decompose following long-term exposure to warm alkaline solutions. However, replacement of the tetrafluoroethoxy group with a 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy group led to a series of modifiers that possessed the alkaline stability required for a solvent extraction process. Within this series of modifiers, the structure of the alkyl substituent (tert-octyl, tert-butyl, tert-amyl, and sec-butyl) of the alkylphenoxy moiety was found to have a profound impact on the phase behavior of the solvent in liquid-liquid contacting experiments, and hence on the overall suitability of the modifier for a solvent extraction process. The sec-butyl derivative[1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol] (Cs-7SB) was found to possess the best overall balance of properties with respect to third phase and coalescence behavior, cleanup following degradation, resistance to solids formation, and cesium distribution behavior. Accordingly, this modifier was selected for use as a component of the solvent employed in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for removing cesium from high level nuclear waste (HLW) at the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE) Savannah River Site. In batch equilibrium experiments, this solvent has also been successfully shown to extract cesium from both simulated and actual solutions generated from caustic leaching of HLW tank sludge stored in tank B-110 at the DOE?s Hanford Site.

  5. Recovery of manganese oxides from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries. An application as catalysts for VOCs elimination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallegos, María V.; Falco, Lorena R.; Peluso, Miguel A.; Sambeth, Jorge E.; Thomas, Horacio J.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Manganese oxides were synthesized using spent batteries as raw materials. • Spent alkaline and zinc–carbon size AA batteries were used. • A biohydrometallurgical process was employed to bio-lixiviate batteries. • Manganese oxides were active in the oxidation of VOCs (ethanol and heptane). - Abstract: Manganese, in the form of oxide, was recovered from spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries employing a biohydrometallurgy process, using a pilot plant consisting in: an air-lift bioreactor (containing an acid-reducing medium produced by an Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria immobilized on elemental sulfur); a leaching reactor (were battery powder is mixed with the acid-reducing medium) and a recovery reactor. Two different manganese oxides were recovered from the leachate liquor: one of them by electrolysis (EMO) and the other by a chemical precipitation with KMnO{sub 4} solution (CMO). The non-leached solid residue was also studied (RMO). The solids were compared with a MnO{sub x} synthesized in our laboratory. The characterization by XRD, FTIR and XPS reveal the presence of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the EMO and the CMO samples, together with some Mn{sup 4+} cations. In the solid not extracted by acidic leaching (RMO) the main phase detected was Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The catalytic performance of the oxides was studied in the complete oxidation of ethanol and heptane. Complete conversion of ethanol occurs at 200 °C, while heptane requires more than 400 °C. The CMO has the highest oxide selectivity to CO{sub 2}. The results show that manganese oxides obtained using spent alkaline and zinc–carbon batteries as raw materials, have an interesting performance as catalysts for elimination of VOCs.

  6. High temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  7. ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER FLOODING AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BRIDGEPORT AND CYPRESS RESERVOIRS OF THE LAWRENCE FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Ron Damm; Bev Seyler

    2003-04-01

    Feasibility of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood for the Lawrence Field in Lawrence County, Illinois is being studied. Two injected formulations are being designed; one for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs and one for Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. Fluid-fluid and coreflood evaluations have developed a chemical solution that produces incremental oil in the laboratory from the Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. A chemical formulation for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs is being developed. A reservoir characterization study is being done on the Bridgeport A, B, & D sandstones, and on the Cypress sandstone. The study covers the pilot flood area and the Lawrence Field.

  8. ALKALINE-SURFACTANT-POLYMER FLOODING AND RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BRIDGEPORT AND CYPRESS RESERVOIRS OF THE LAWRENCE FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malcolm Pitts; Ron Damm; Bev Seyler

    2003-03-01

    Feasibility of alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood for the Lawrence Field in Lawrence County, Illinois is being studied. Two injected formulations are being designed; one for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs and one for Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. Fluid-fluid and coreflood evaluations have developed a chemical solution that produces incremental oil in the laboratory from the Cypress and Paint Creek reservoirs. A chemical formulation for the Bridgeport A and Bridgeport B reservoirs is being developed. A reservoir characterization study is being done on the Bridgeport A, B, & D sandstones, and on the Cypress sandstone. The study covers the pilot flood area and the Lawrence Field.

  9. Chemically and compositionally modified solid solution disordered multiphase nickel hydroxide positive electrode for alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ovshinsky, Stanford R.; Corrigan, Dennis; Venkatesan, Srini; Young, Rosa; Fierro, Christian; Fetcenko, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    A high capacity, long cycle life positive electrode for use in an alkaline rechargeable electrochemical cell comprising: a solid solution nickel hydroxide material having a multiphase structure that comprises at least one polycrystalline .gamma.-phase including a polycrystalline .gamma.-phase unit cell comprising spacedly disposed plates with at least one chemical modifier incorporated around the plates, the plates having a range of stable intersheet distances corresponding to a 2.sup.+ oxidation state and a 3.5.sup.+, or greater, oxidation state; and at least one compositional modifier incorporated into the solid solution nickel hydroxide material to promote the multiphase structure.

  10. Waste Specification Records - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Specification Records About Us Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Program What's New Acceptance Criteria Acceptance Process Becoming a new Hanford Customer Annual Waste Forecast and Funding Arrangements Waste Stream Approval Waste Shipment Approval Waste Receipt Quality Assurance Program Waste Specification Records Tools Points of Contact Waste Specification Records Email Email Page | Print Print Page | Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size Waste Specification Records (WSRds) are the tool

  11. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  12. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  13. Detailed evaluation of the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer field project and it`s application to mature Minnelusa waterfloods. Technical progress report for the period of April--June, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitts, M.J.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this study of the West Kiehl is to (1) quantify the incremental oil produced from the West Kiehl alkaline-surfactant-polymer project by classical engineering and numerical simulation techniques, (2) quantify the effect of chemical slug volume on incremental oil in the two swept areas of the field, (3) determine the economics of the application of the alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology, (4) forecast the results of injecting an alkaline--surfactant-polymer solution to mature waterfloods and polymer floods, and (5) provide the basis for independent operators to book additional oil reserves by using the alkaline-surfactant-polymer technology. This report will document the numerical simulation waterflood, polymer flood, alkaline-surfactant flood and alkaline-surfactant-polymer flood predictions from the West Kiehl and Prairie Creek South fields.

  14. Combined Utilization of Cation Exchanger and Neutral Receptor to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2004-03-29

    In this report, novel approaches to the selective liquid-liquid extraction separation of sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from high-level alkaline tank waste will be discussed. Sodium hydroxide can be successfully separated from alkaline tank-waste supernatants by weakly acidic lipophilic hydroxy compounds via a cation-exchange mechanism referred to as pseudo hydroxide extraction. In a multi-cycle process, as sodium hydroxide in the aqueous phase becomes depleted, it is helpful to have a neutral sodium receptor in the extraction system to exploit the high nitrate concentration in the waste solution to promote sodium removal by an ion-pair extraction process. Simultaneous utilization of an ionizable organic hydroxy compound and a neutral extractant (crown ether) in an organic phase results in the synergistic enhancement of ion exchange and improved separation selectivity due to the receptor's strong and selective sodium binding. Moreover, combination of the hydroxy compound and the crown ether provides for mutually increased solubility, even in a non-polar organic solvent. Accordingly, application of Isopar{reg_sign} L, a kerosene-like alkane solvent, becomes feasible. This investigation involves examination of such dual-mechanism extraction phases for sodium extraction from simulated and actual salt cake waste solutions. Sodium salts can be regenerated upon the contact of the loaded extraction phases with water. Finally, conditions of potential extraction/strip cycling will be discussed.

  15. Conceptual Model of Uranium in the Vadose Zone for Acidic and Alkaline Wastes Discharged at the Hanford Site Central Plateau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Szecsody, James E.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    Historically, uranium was disposed in waste solutions of varying waste chemistry at the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The character of how uranium was distributed in the vadose zone during disposal, how it has continued to migrate through the vadose zone, and the magnitude of potential impacts on groundwater are strongly influenced by geochemical reactions in the vadose zone. These geochemical reactions can be significantly influenced by the disposed-waste chemistry near the disposal location. This report provides conceptual models and supporting information to describe uranium fate and transport in the vadose zone for both acidic and alkaline wastes discharged at a substantial number of waste sites in the Hanford Site Central Plateau. The conceptual models include consideration of how co-disposed acidic or alkaline fluids influence uranium mobility in terms of induced dissolution/precipitation reactions and changes in uranium sorption with a focus on the conditions near the disposal site. This information, when combined with the extensive information describing uranium fate and transport at near background pH conditions, enables focused characterization to support effective fate and transport estimates for uranium in the subsurface.

  16. Enhancing the Performance of the Rechargeable Iron Electrode in Alkaline Batteries with Bismuth Oxide and Iron Sulfide Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-09-07

    Iron-based alkaline rechargeable batteries have the potential of meeting the needs of large-scale electrical energy storage because of their low-cost, robustness and eco-friendliness. However, the widespread commercial deployment of iron-based batteries has been limited by the low charging efficiency and the poor discharge rate capability of the iron electrode. In this study, we have demonstrated iron electrodes containing bismuth oxide and iron sulfide with a charging efficiency of 92% and capable of being discharged at the 3C rate. Such a high value of charging efficiency combined with the ability to discharge at high rates is being reported for the first time. The bismuth oxide additive led to the in situ formation of elemental bismuth and a consequent increase in the overpotential for the hydrogen evolution reaction leading to an increase in the charging efficiency. We observed that the sulfide ions added to the electrolyte and iron sulfide added to the electrode mitigated-electrode passivation and allowed for continuous discharge at high rates. At the 3C discharge rate, a utilization of 0.2 Ah/g was achieved. The performance level of the rechargeable iron electrode demonstrated here is attractive for designing economically-viable large-scale energy storage systems based on alkaline nickel-iron and iron-air batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Bacillus cereus Phosphopentomutase Is an Alkaline Phosphatase Family Member That Exhibits an Altered Entry Point into the Catalytic Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panosian, Timothy D.; Nannemann, David P.; Watkins, Guy R.; Phelan, Vanessa V.; McDonald, W. Hayes; Wadzinski, Brian E.; Bachmann, Brian O.; Iverson, Tina M.

    2011-09-15

    Bacterial phosphopentomutases (PPMs) are alkaline phosphatase superfamily members that interconvert {alpha}-D-ribose 5-phosphate (ribose 5-phosphate) and {alpha}-D-ribose 1-phosphate (ribose 1-phosphate). We investigated the reaction mechanism of Bacillus cereus PPM using a combination of structural and biochemical studies. Four high resolution crystal structures of B. cereus PPM revealed the active site architecture, identified binding sites for the substrate ribose 5-phosphate and the activator {alpha}-D-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate (glucose 1,6-bisphosphate), and demonstrated that glucose 1,6-bisphosphate increased phosphorylation of the active site residue Thr-85. The phosphorylation of Thr-85 was confirmed by Western and mass spectroscopic analyses. Biochemical assays identified Mn{sup 2+}-dependent enzyme turnover and demonstrated that glucose 1,6-bisphosphate treatment increases enzyme activity. These results suggest that protein phosphorylation activates the enzyme, which supports an intermolecular transferase mechanism. We confirmed intermolecular phosphoryl transfer using an isotope relay assay in which PPM reactions containing mixtures of ribose 5-[{sup 18}O{sub 3}]phosphate and [U-{sup 13}C{sub 5}]ribose 5-phosphate were analyzed by mass spectrometry. This intermolecular phosphoryl transfer is seemingly counter to what is anticipated from phosphomutases employing a general alkaline phosphatase reaction mechanism, which are reported to catalyze intramolecular phosphoryl transfer. However, the two mechanisms may be reconciled if substrate encounters the enzyme at a different point in the catalytic cycle.

  18. Enhancing uranium uptake by amidoxime adsorbent in seawater: An investigation for optimum alkaline conditioning parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Sadananda; Tsouris, Costas; Zhang, Chenxi; Brown, Suree; Janke, Christopher James; Mayes, Richard T.; Kuo, Li -Jung; Gill, Gary; Dai, Sheng; Kim, J.; Oyola, Y.; Wood, J. R.

    2015-09-07

    A high-surface-area polyethylene-fiber adsorbent (AF160-2) has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid. The grafted nitriles were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with potassium hydroxide (KOH) by varying different reaction parameters such as KOH concentration (0.2, 0.44, and 0.6 M), duration (1, 2, and 3 h), and temperature (60, 70, and 80 °C). Adsorbent screening was then performed with simulated seawater solutions containing sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate, at concentrations found in seawater, and uranium nitrate at a uranium concentration of ~7–8 ppm and pH 8. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solid-state NMR analyses indicated that a fraction of amidoxime groups was hydrolyzed to carboxylate during KOH conditioning. The uranium adsorption capacity in the simulated seawater screening solution gradually increased with conditioning time and temperature for all KOH concentrations. It was also observed that the adsorption capacity increased with an increase in concentration of KOH for all the conditioning times and temperatures. AF160-2 adsorbent samples were also tested with natural seawater using flow-through experiments to determine uranium adsorption capacity with varying KOH conditioning time and temperature. Based on uranium loading capacity values of several AF160-2 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning time from 3 to 1 h at 60, 70, and 80 °C resulted in an increase of the uranium loading capacity in seawater, which did not follow the trend found in laboratory screening with stimulated solutions. Longer KOH conditioning times lead to significantly higher uptake of divalent metal ions, such as calcium and magnesium, which is a result of amidoxime conversion into less selective carboxylate. The scanning electron microscopy showed that long conditioning

  19. Enhancing uranium uptake by amidoxime adsorbent in seawater: An investigation for optimum alkaline conditioning parameters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Das, Sadananda; Tsouris, Costas; Zhang, Chenxi; Brown, Suree; Janke, Christopher James; Mayes, Richard T.; Kuo, Li -Jung; Gill, Gary; Dai, Sheng; Kim, J.; et al

    2015-09-07

    A high-surface-area polyethylene-fiber adsorbent (AF160-2) has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile and itaconic acid. The grafted nitriles were converted to amidoxime groups by treating with hydroxylamine. The amidoximated adsorbents were then conditioned with potassium hydroxide (KOH) by varying different reaction parameters such as KOH concentration (0.2, 0.44, and 0.6 M), duration (1, 2, and 3 h), and temperature (60, 70, and 80 °C). Adsorbent screening was then performed with simulated seawater solutions containing sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate, at concentrations found in seawater, and uranium nitrate at a uranium concentration ofmore » ~7–8 ppm and pH 8. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and solid-state NMR analyses indicated that a fraction of amidoxime groups was hydrolyzed to carboxylate during KOH conditioning. The uranium adsorption capacity in the simulated seawater screening solution gradually increased with conditioning time and temperature for all KOH concentrations. It was also observed that the adsorption capacity increased with an increase in concentration of KOH for all the conditioning times and temperatures. AF160-2 adsorbent samples were also tested with natural seawater using flow-through experiments to determine uranium adsorption capacity with varying KOH conditioning time and temperature. Based on uranium loading capacity values of several AF160-2 samples, it was observed that changing KOH conditioning time from 3 to 1 h at 60, 70, and 80 °C resulted in an increase of the uranium loading capacity in seawater, which did not follow the trend found in laboratory screening with stimulated solutions. Longer KOH conditioning times lead to significantly higher uptake of divalent metal ions, such as calcium and magnesium, which is a result of amidoxime conversion into less selective carboxylate. The scanning electron microscopy showed that long

  20. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31

    temperature increase inside the device due the internal heat that is generated due to conduction and switching losses. Capacitors and high current switches that are reliable and meet performance specifications over an increased temperature range are necessary to realize electronics needed for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), fuel cell (FC) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs). In addition to individual component level testing, it is necessary to evaluate and perform long term module level testing to ascertain the effects of high temperature operation on power electronics.

  1. High temperature refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

  2. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaplin, James E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  3. High-temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  4. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1989-01-01

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperature of 77 degrees Kelvin.

  5. Temperature and productivity

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... and performance of office work under combined exposure to temperature, noise and air pollution. PhD Thesis. International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of ...

  6. Corrosion resistant positive electrode for high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otto, Neil C.; Warner, Barry T.; Smaga, John A.; Battles, James E.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion rate of low carbon steel within a positive electrode of a high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell that includes FeS as active material is substantially reduced by incorporating therein finely divided iron powder in stoichiometric excess to the amount required to form FeS in the fully charged electrode. The cell typically includes an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal as negative electrode active material and a molten metal halide salt as electrolyte. The excess iron permits use of inexpensive carbon steel alloys that are substantially free of the costly corrosion resistant elements chromium, nickel and molybdenum while avoiding shorten cell life resulting from high corrosion rates.

  7. Corrosion resistant positive electrode for high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Otto, N.C.; Warner, B.T.; Smaga, J.A.; Battles, J.E.

    1982-07-07

    The corrosion rate of low carbon steel within a positive electrode of a high-temperature, secondary electrochemical cell that includes FeS as active material is substantially reduced by incorporating therein finely divided iron powder in stoichiometric excess to the amount required to form FeS in the fully charged electrode. The cell typically includes an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal as negative electrode active material and a molten metal halide salt as electrolyte. The excess iron permits use of inexpensive carbon steel alloys that are substantially free of the costly corrosion resistant elements chromium, nickel and molybdenum while avoiding shorten cell life resulting from high corrosion rates.

  8. 1999 EV America Technical Specifications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9 EV AMERICA TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS Effective October 1, 1999 Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications 1999 EV AMERICA TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS 2 MINIMUM VEHICLE REQUIREMENTS For a vehicle to be considered qualified as an EV America-USDOE "Production" level vehicle, it must meet the minimum criteria defined by "shall" terminology utilized in the Specification. [For clarity, the use of the word "Shall" defines minimum requirements, whereas the use of the

  9. Waste Specification Records - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Specification Records About Us Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Program What's New Acceptance Criteria Acceptance Process Becoming a new Hanford Customer Annual Waste Forecast...

  10. Portsmouth Site Specific Advisory Board

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Portsmouth Site Specific Advisory Board (SSAB) provides informed, independent advice and recommendations to DOE regarding environmental restoration, waste management, future land use, risk...

  11. Renewable Energy Ready Home Solar Photovoltaic Specifications...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Renewable Energy Ready Home Solar Photovoltaic Specifications Renewable Energy Ready Home Solar Photovoltaic Specifications Solar Photovoltaic Specification, Checklist and Guide, ...

  12. ARM - Word Seek: Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Word Seek: Temperature

  13. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabold, D.

    1995-12-01

    Our fiber optic temperature measurement sensor and system is a major improvement over methods currently in use in most industrial processes, and it delivers all of the attributes required simplicity, accuracy, and cost efficiency-to help improve all of these processes. Because temperature is a basic physical attribute of nearly every industrial and commercial process, our system can eventually result in significant improvements in nearly every industrial and commercial process. Many finished goods, and the materials that go into them, are critically dependent on the temperature. The better the temperature measurement, the better quality the goods will be and the more economically they can be produced. The production and transmission of energy requires the monitoring of temperature in motors, circuit breakers, power generating plants, and transmission line equipment. The more reliable and robust the methods for measuring these temperature, the more available, stable, and affordable the supply of energy will become. The world is increasingly realizing the threats to health and safety of toxic or otherwise undesirable by products of the industrial economy in the environment. Cleanup of such contamination often depends on techniques that require the constant monitoring of temperature in extremely hazardous environments, which can damage most conventional temperature sensors and which are dangerous for operating personnel. Our system makes such monitoring safer and more economical.

  14. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

    2011-06-20

    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 C based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 C system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 C.

  15. High temperature probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  16. Sandia_HighTemperatureComponentEvaluation_2015.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashion, Avery T.

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this project is to perform independent evaluation of high temperature components to determine their suitability for use in high temperature geothermal tools. Development of high temperature components has been increasing rapidly due to demand from the high temperature oil and gas exploration and aerospace industries. Many of these new components are at the late prototype or first production stage of development and could benefit from third party evaluation of functionality and lifetime at elevated temperatures. In addition to independent testing of new components, this project recognizes that there is a paucity of commercial-off-the-shelf COTS components rated for geothermal temperatures. As such, high-temperature circuit designers often must dedicate considerable time and resources to determine if a component exists that they may be able to knead performance out of to meet their requirements. This project aids tool developers by characterization of select COTS component performances beyond published temperature specifications. The process for selecting components includes public announcements of project intent (e.g., FedBizOps), direct discussions with candidate manufacturers,and coordination with other DOE funded programs.

  17. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1998-06-10

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL`s application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents.

  18. Temperature sensitive surfaces and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Liang [Richland, WA; Rieke, Peter C [Pasco, WA; Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA

    2002-09-10

    Poly-n-isopropylacrylamide surface coatings demonstrate the useful property of being able to switch charateristics depending upon temperature. More specifically, these coatings switch from being hydrophilic at low temperature to hydrophobic at high temperature. Research has been conducted for many years to better characterize and control the properties of temperature sensitive coatings. The present invention provides novel temperature sensitive coatings on articles and novel methods of making temperature sensitive coatings that are disposed on the surfaces of various articles. These novel coatings contain the reaction products of n-isopropylacrylamide and are characterized by their properties such as advancing contact angles. Numerous other characteristics such as coating thickness, surface roughness, and hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition temperatures are also described. The present invention includes articles having temperature-sensitve coatings with improved properties as well as improved methods for forming temperature sensitive coatings.

  19. The relationship between coefficient of restitution and state of charge of zinc alkaline primary LR6 batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhadra, S; Hertzberg, BJ; Hsieh, AG; Croft, M; Gallaway, JW; Van Tassell, BJ; Chamoun, M; Erdonmez, C; Zhong, Z; Sholklapper, T; Steingart, DA

    2015-01-01

    The coefficient of restitution of alkaline batteries has been shown to increase as a function of depth of discharge. In this work, using non-destructive mechanical testing, the change in coefficient of restitution is compared to in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction data to determine the cause of the macroscopic change in coefficient of restitution. The increase in coefficient of restitution correlates to the formation of a percolation pathway of ZnO within the anode of the cell, and the coefficient of restitution levels off at a value of 0.66 +/- 0.02 at 50% state of charge when the anode has densified into porous ZnO solid. Of note is the sensitivity of coefficient of restitution to the amount of ZnO formation that rivals the sensitivity of in situ energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction.

  20. Design of ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides with potential good p-type conductivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Du, Mao -Hua; Singh, David J.; Zhang, Lijun; Li, Yuwei; Xu, Qiaoling; Ma, Yanming; Zheng, Weitao

    2016-04-19

    Oxides with good p-type conductivity have been long sought after to achieve high performance all-oxide optoelectronic devices. Divalent Sn(II) based oxides are promising candidates because of their rather dispersive upper valence bands caused by the Sn-5s/O-2p anti-bonding hybridization. There are so far few known Sn(II) oxides being p-type conductive suitable for device applications. Here, we present via first-principles global optimization structure searches a material design study for a hitherto unexplored Sn(II)-based system, ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides in the stoichiometry of MSn2O3 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). We identify two stable compounds of SrSn2O3 and BaSn2O3, which can bemore » stabilized by Sn-rich conditions in phase stability diagrams. Their structures follow the Zintl behaviour and consist of basic structural motifs of SnO3 tetrahedra. Unexpectedly they show distinct electronic properties with band gaps ranging from 1.90 (BaSn2O3) to 3.15 (SrSn2O3) eV, and hole effective masses ranging from 0.87 (BaSn2O3) to above 6.0 (SrSn2O3) m0. Further exploration of metastable phases indicates a wide tunability of electronic properties controlled by the details of the bonding between the basic structural motifs. Lastly, this suggests further exploration of alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides for potential applications requiring good p-type conductivity such as transparent conductors and photovoltaic absorbers.« less

  1. Temperature-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring temperature and for generating optical signals related to temperature. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a material whose fluorescent response varies with ambient temperature. The same fiber optic delivering the excitation beam also collects a portion of the fluorescent emission for analysis. Signal collection efficiency of the fiber optic is enhanced by requiring that the fluorescent probe material be in the shape of an oblong parabolically tapered solid. Reproducibility is enhanced by using Raman backscatter to monitor excitation beam fluctuations, and by using measurements of fluorescence lifetime.

  2. ARM - Measurement - Virtual temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsVirtual temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Virtual temperature The virtual temperature Tv = T(1 + rv/{epsilon}), where rv is the mixing ratio, and {epsilon} is the ratio of the gas constants of air and water vapor ( 0.622). Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to

  3. Temperature-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-09-24

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring temperature and for generating optical signals related to temperature. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a material whose fluorescent response varies with ambient temperature. The same fiber optic delivering the excitation beam also collects a portion of the fluorescent emission for analysis. Signal collection efficiency of the fiber optic is enhanced by requiring that the fluorescent probe material be in the shape of an oblong parabolically tapered solid. Reproducibility is enhanced by using Raman backscatter to monitor excitation beam fluctuations, and by using measurements of fluorescence lifetime. 10 figs.

  4. Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    C Property:Combustion Intake Air Temperature F Property:FirstWellTemp G Property:GeochemReservoirTemp Property:GeofluidTemp M Property:MeanReservoirTemp R...

  5. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Z.F.

    1988-04-12

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperatures of 77 degrees Kelvin, is discussed. 3 figs.

  6. Penrose Well Temperatures

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  7. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  8. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  9. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    The joining technique requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process.

  10. Temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Bible, Don W.; Sohns, Carl W.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  11. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul; Scandrol, Roy O.

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  12. ARM - Temperature Converter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CalculatorsTemperature Converter Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Temperature Converter The Fahrenheit scale, invented by German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), is based on 32 °F for the freezing point of water and 212 °F for the boiling point of water. The

  13. Nevada Site Specific Advisory Board

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    then choose print Page 2 Map of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and the (8) ... through September 2015 (FY 2015) Name Nevada Site Specific Advisory Board 232 Energy ...

  14. Cell Data Sheet Specification (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2012-03-01

    The presentation shows a brief status report on the development of a specification being considered by IEC TC82 WG7 for a concentrator cell data sheet and solicits suggestions from the community.

  15. Low-temperature random matrix theory at the soft edge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelman, Alan; Persson, Per-Olof; Sutton, Brian D.

    2014-06-15

    Low temperature random matrix theory is the study of random eigenvalues as energy is removed. In standard notation, ? is identified with inverse temperature, and low temperatures are achieved through the limit ? ? ?. In this paper, we derive statistics for low-temperature random matrices at the soft edge, which describes the extreme eigenvalues for many random matrix distributions. Specifically, new asymptotics are found for the expected value and standard deviation of the general-? Tracy-Widom distribution. The new techniques utilize beta ensembles, stochastic differential operators, and Riccati diffusions. The asymptotics fit known high-temperature statistics curiously well and contribute to the larger program of general-? random matrix theory.

  16. 1997 hybrid electric vehicle specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.; Duoba, M.

    1996-10-01

    The US DOE sponsors Advanced Vehicle Technology competitions to help educate the public and advance new vehicle technologies. For several years, DOE has provided financial and technical support for the American Tour de Sol. This event showcases electric and hybrid electric vehicles in a road rally across portions of the northeastern United States. The specifications contained in this technical memorandum apply to vehicles that will be entered in the 1997 American Tour de Sol. However, the specifications were prepared to be general enough for use by other teams and individuals interested in developing hybrid electric vehicles. The purpose of the specifications is to ensure that the vehicles developed do not present a safety hazard to the teams that build and drive them or to the judges, sponsors, or public who attend the competitions. The specifications are by no means the definitive sources of information on constructing hybrid electric vehicles - as electric and hybrid vehicles technologies advance, so will the standards and practices for their construction. In some cases, the new standards and practices will make portions of these specifications obsolete.

  17. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  18. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  19. Kinetic studies of the [NpO? (CO?)?]?? ion at alkaline conditions using C NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panasci, Adele F.; Harley, Stephen J.; Zavarin, Mavrik; Casey, William H.

    2014-04-21

    Carbonate ligand-exchange rates on the [NpO? (CO?)?]?? ion were determined using a saturation-transfer C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) pulse sequence in the pH range of 8.1 ? pH ? 10.5. Over the pH range 9.3 ? pH ? 10.5, which compares most directly with previous work of Stout et al.,1 we find an average rate, activation energy, enthalpy, and entropy of k298ex = 40.6(4.3) s?, Ea =45.1(3.8) kJ mol?, ?H = 42.6(3.8) kJ mol?, and ?S = -72(13) J mol? K?, respectively. These activation parameters are similar to the Stout et al. results at pH 9.4. However, their room-temperature rate at pH 9.4, k298ex = 143(1.0) s?, is ~3 times faster than what we experimentally determined at pH 9.3: k298ex = 45.4(5.3) s?. Our rates for [NpO? (CO?)?]?? are also faster by a factor of ~3 relative to the isoelectronic [UO?(CO?)?]?? as reported by Brucher et al.2 of k298ex = 13(3) s?. Consistent with results for the [UO?(CO?)?]?? ion, we find evidence for a proton-enhanced pathway for carbonate exchange for the [NpO?(CO?)?]?? ion at pH < 9.0.

  20. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-10-11

    Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

  1. High temperature lubricating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, R.W.; Shell, T.E.

    1979-10-04

    It has been difficult to provide adequate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475/sup 0/C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface, such as in an engine being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475/sup 0/C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining the following steps: a gas phase is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant; the gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface; the load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant; and the solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  2. High temperature lubricating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert W.; Shell, Thomas E.

    1982-01-01

    It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  3. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  4. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  5. Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aerogel-Based Insulation for High-Temperature Industrial Processes Under this program, Aspen Aerogels has developed an industrial insulation called Pyrogel HT, which is 4-5 times more thermally efficient than current non-aerogel technology. Derived from nanoporous silica aerogels, Pyrogel HT was specifically developed to address a high temperature

  6. High specific heat superconducting composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1979-01-01

    A composite superconductor formed from a high specific heat ceramic such as gadolinium oxide or gadolinium-aluminum oxide and a conventional metal conductor such as copper or aluminum which are insolubly mixed together to provide adiabatic stability in a superconducting mode of operation. The addition of a few percent of insoluble gadolinium-aluminum oxide powder or gadolinium oxide powder to copper, increases the measured specific heat of the composite by one to two orders of magnitude below the 5.degree. K. level while maintaining the high thermal and electrical conductivity of the conventional metal conductor.

  7. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  8. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breiland, William G.; Gurary, Alexander I.; Boguslavskiy, Vadim

    2002-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  9. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Bionta, R.M.

    1995-01-17

    The joining technique is disclosed that requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process. 5 figures.

  10. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of themore » weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.« less