National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for alkaline earth metal

  1. Alkaline and alkaline earth metal phosphate halides and phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyons, Robert Joseph; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Cleaver, Robert John

    2012-11-13

    Compounds, phosphor materials and apparatus related to nacaphite family of materials are presented. Potassium and rubidium based nacaphite family compounds and phosphors designed by doping divalent rare earth elements in the sites of alkaline earth metals in the nacaphite material families are descried. An apparatus comprising the phosphors based on the nacaphite family materials are presented herein. The compounds presented is of formula A.sub.2B.sub.1-yR.sub.yPO.sub.4X where the elements A, B, R, X and suffix y are defined such that A is potassium, rubidium, or a combination of potassium and rubidium and B is calcium, strontium, barium, or a combination of any of calcium, strontium and barium. X is fluorine, chlorine, or a combination of fluorine and chlorine, R is europium, samarium, ytterbium, or a combination of any of europium, samarium, and ytterbium, and y ranges from 0 to about 0.1.

  2. Aluminum/alkaline earth metal composites and method for producing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, Alan M; Anderson, Iver E; Kim, Hyong J; Freichs, Andrew E

    2014-02-11

    A composite is provided having an electrically conducting Al matrix and elongated filaments comprising Ca and/or Sr and/or Ba disposed in the matrix and extending along a longitudinal axis of the composite. The filaments initially comprise Ca and/or Sr and/or Ba metal or allow and then may be reacted with the Al matrix to form a strengthening intermetallic compound comprising Al and Ca and/or Sr and/or Ba. The composite is useful as a long-distance, high voltage power transmission conductor.

  3. Probing the Kondo lattice model with alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foss-Feig, Michael; Hermele, Michael; Rey, Ana Maria

    2010-05-15

    We study transport properties of alkaline-earth-metal atoms governed by the Kondo lattice Hamiltonian plus a harmonic confining potential, and suggest simple dynamical probes of several different regimes of the phase diagram that can be implemented with current experimental techniques. In particular, we show how Kondo physics at strong coupling, at low density, and in the heavy fermion phase is manifest in the dipole oscillations of the conduction band upon displacement of the trap center.

  4. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving; Palekar, Vishwesh M.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  5. Alkali or alkaline earth metal promoted catalyst and a process for methanol synthesis using alkali or alkaline earth metals as promoters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-31

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a heterogeneous catalyst comprising reduced copper chromite impregnated with an alkali or alkaline earth metal. There is thus no need to add a separate alkali or alkaline earth compound. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  6. Liquefaction process for solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epperly, William R.; Deane, Barry C.; Brunson, Roy J.

    1982-01-01

    An improved liquefaction process wherein wall scale and particulate agglomeration during the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials containing alkaline earth metal humates is reduced and/or eliminated by subjecting the solid carbonaceous materials to controlled cyclic cavitation during liquefaction. It is important that the solid carbonaceous material be slurried in a suitable solvent or diluent during liquefaction. The cyclic cavitation may be imparted via pressure cycling, cyclic agitation and the like. When pressure cycling or the like is employed an amplitude equivalent to at least 25 psia is required to effectively remove scale from the liquefaction vessel walls.

  7. Electric dipole polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies for hydrogen, the alkali-metal, alkaline-earth, and noble gas atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derevianko, Andrei Porsev, Sergey G. Babb, James F.

    2010-05-15

    The electric dipole polarizabilities evaluated at imaginary frequencies for hydrogen, the alkali-metal atoms, the alkaline-earth atoms, and the noble gases are tabulated along with the resulting values of the atomic static polarizabilities, the atom-surface interaction constants, and the dispersion (or van der Waals) constants for the homonuclear and the heteronuclear diatomic combinations of the atoms.

  8. Design of ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides with potential good p-type conductivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Du, Mao -Hua; Singh, David J.; Zhang, Lijun; Li, Yuwei; Xu, Qiaoling; Ma, Yanming; Zheng, Weitao

    2016-04-19

    Oxides with good p-type conductivity have been long sought after to achieve high performance all-oxide optoelectronic devices. Divalent Sn(II) based oxides are promising candidates because of their rather dispersive upper valence bands caused by the Sn-5s/O-2p anti-bonding hybridization. There are so far few known Sn(II) oxides being p-type conductive suitable for device applications. Here, we present via first-principles global optimization structure searches a material design study for a hitherto unexplored Sn(II)-based system, ternary alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides in the stoichiometry of MSn2O3 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba). We identify two stable compounds of SrSn2O3 and BaSn2O3, which can bemore » stabilized by Sn-rich conditions in phase stability diagrams. Their structures follow the Zintl behaviour and consist of basic structural motifs of SnO3 tetrahedra. Unexpectedly they show distinct electronic properties with band gaps ranging from 1.90 (BaSn2O3) to 3.15 (SrSn2O3) eV, and hole effective masses ranging from 0.87 (BaSn2O3) to above 6.0 (SrSn2O3) m0. Further exploration of metastable phases indicates a wide tunability of electronic properties controlled by the details of the bonding between the basic structural motifs. Lastly, this suggests further exploration of alkaline-earth metal Sn(II) oxides for potential applications requiring good p-type conductivity such as transparent conductors and photovoltaic absorbers.« less

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS COMPOSITIONS TO IMMOBILIZE ALKALI, ALKALINE EARTH, LANTHANIDE AND TRANSITION METAL FISSION PRODUCTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.; Billings, A.

    2009-06-24

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) waste management strategy revolves around specific treatment of individual or groups of separated waste streams. A goal for the separations processes is to efficiently manage the waste to be dispositioned as high level radioactive waste. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) baseline technology for immobilization of the lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) wastes is vitrification into a borosilicate glass. A current interest is to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined waste streams to most cost effectively immobilize the wastes resulting from aqueous fuel reprocessing. Studies showed that high waste loadings are achievable for the Ln only (Option 1) stream. Waste loadings in excess of 60 wt % (on a calcined oxide basis) were demonstrated via a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass. The resulting glasses had excellent relative durability as determined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). For a combined Ln and TM waste stream glass (Option 2), noble metal solubility was found to limit waste loading. However, the measured PCT normalized elemental releases for this glass were at least an order of magnitude below that of Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. Current efforts to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined Ln, TM, alkali (Cs is the primary radionuclide of concern) and alkaline earth (Sr is the primary radionuclide of concern) wastes (Option 3) have shown that these approaches are feasible. However, waste loading limitations with respect to heat load (Cs/Sr loading), molybdenum solubility and/or noble metal solubility will likely be realized and must be considered in determining the cost effectiveness of these approaches.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF GLASS COMPOSITIONS TO IMMOBILIZE ALKALI, ALKALINE EARTH, LANTHANIDE AND TRANSITION METAL FISSION PRODUCTS FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, James C.; Billings, Amanda Y.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Vienna, John D.

    2010-02-26

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) waste management strategy revolves around specific treatment of individual or groups of separated waste streams. A goal for the separations processes is to efficiently manage the waste to be dispositioned as high level radioactive waste. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) baseline technology for immobilization of the lanthanide (Ln) and transition metal fission product (TM) wastes is vitrification into a borosilicate glass. A current interest is to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined waste streams to most cost effectively immobilize the wastes resulting from aqueous fuel reprocessing. Studies showed that high waste loadings are achievable for the Ln only (Option 1) stream. Waste loadings in excess of 60 wt % (on a calcined oxide basis) were demonstrated via a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass. The resulting glasses had excellent relative durability as determined by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). For a combined Ln and TM waste stream glass (Option 2), noble metal solubility was found to limit waste loading. However, the measured PCT normalized elemental releases for this glass were at least an order of magnitude below that of Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. Current efforts to evaluate the feasibility of vitrifying combined Ln, TM, alkali (Cs is the primary radionuclide of concern) and alkaline earth (Sr is the primary radionuclide of concern) wastes (Option 3) have shown that these approaches are feasible. However, waste loading limitations with respect to heat load (Cs/Sr loading), molybdenum solubility and/or noble metal solubility will likely be realized and must be considered in determining the cost effectiveness of these approaches.

  11. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  12. Syntheses and characterization of energetic compounds constructed from alkaline earth metal cations (Sr and Ba) and 1,2-bis(tetrazol-5-yl)ethane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia Zhengqiang; Chen Sanping; Wei Qing; Qiao Chengfang

    2011-07-15

    Two new energetic compounds, [M(BTE)(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}]{sub n} (M=Sr(1), Ba(2)) [H{sub 2}BTE=1,2-bis(tetrazol-5-yl)ethane], have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that they are isomorphous and exhibit 2D (4,4) net framework, generated by 4-connected Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}/Ba{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10} SBUs linked up by two independent binding modes of H{sub 2}BTE, and the resulting 2D structure is interconnected by hydrogen-bond and strong face to face {pi}-{pi} stacking interactions between two tetrazole rings to lead to a 3D supramolecular architecture. DSC measurements show that they have significant catalytic effects on thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate. Moreover, the photoluminescence properties, thermogravimetric analyses, and flame colors of the as-prepared compounds are also investigated in this paper. - Graphical abstract: Two novel 2D isomorphous alkaline earth metal complexes were assembled by 4-connected Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}/Ba{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10} SBUs and two independent binding modes of H{sub 2}BTE ligands, and the catalytic performances toward thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate and photoluminescent properties of them were investigated. Highlights: > Two novel alkaline earth energetic coordination polymers have been prepared.{yields} Both structures are layered based on 4-connected Sr{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10}/Ba{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 10} SBUs and two distinct H{sub 2}BTE coordination modes.{yields} The dehydrated products of the compounds possess good thermostability and significant catalytic effects on thermal decomposition of AP.

  13. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  14. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shearer, John A.; Turner, Clarence B.; Johnson, Irving

    1982-01-01

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  15. Method of increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shearer, J.A.; Turner, C.B.; Johnson, I.

    1980-03-13

    A system and method for increasing the sulfation capacity of alkaline earth carbonates to scrub sulfur dioxide produced during the fluidized bed combustion of coal in which partially sulfated alkaline earth carbonates are hydrated in a fluidized bed to crack the sulfate coating and convert the alkaline earth oxide to the hydroxide. Subsequent dehydration of the sulfate-hydroxide to a sulfate-oxide particle produces particles having larger pore size, increased porosity, decreased grain size and additional sulfation capacity. A continuous process is disclosed.

  16. METHOD OF MAKING ALLOYS OF SECOND RARE EARTH SERIES METALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, R.D.; Hayward, B.R.

    1963-01-01

    >This invention relates to a process for alloying the second rare earth series metals with Mo, Nb, or Zr. A halide of the rare earth metal is mixed with about 1 to 20 at.% of an oxide of Mo, Nb, or Zr. Iodine and an alkali or alkaline earth metal are added, and the resulting mixture is heated in an inert atmosphere to 350 deg C. (AEC)

  17. Rare Earth Metals & Alloys | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rare Earth Metals & Alloys Quantities of high-purity rare earth metals and alloys in ... storage, cutting and cleaning and SDS information for the rare earth elements (metals).

  18. Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a high strength, lightweight aluminum wire for high-voltage power transmission with reduced electrical resistance for overhead electrical lines. Description

  19. Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Aluminum-Alkaline Metal-Metal Composite Conductor Ames Laboratory Contact AMES About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Researchers have developed a high strength, lightweight aluminum wire for high-voltage power transmission with reduced electrical resistance for overhead electrical lines. High-voltage electric power transmission cables based on pure

  20. Wide-band-gap, alkaline-earth-oxide semiconductor and devices utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Marvin M.; Chen, Yok; Kernohan, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to novel and comparatively inexpensive semiconductor devices utilizing semiconducting alkaline-earth-oxide crystals doped with alkali metal. The semiconducting crystals are produced by a simple and relatively inexpensive process. As a specific example, a high-purity lithium-doped MgO crystal is grown by conventional techniques. The crystal then is heated in an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form many [Li].degree. defects therein, and the resulting defect-rich hot crystal is promptly quenched to render the defects stable at room temperature and temperatures well above the same. Quenching can be effected conveniently by contacting the hot crystal with room-temperature air.

  1. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  2. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Schmidt, Frederick A.

    1995-08-01

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

  3. Effective alkaline metal-catalyzed oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhalla, Aditya; Bansal, Namita; Stoklosa, Ryan J.; Fountain, Mackenzie; Ralph, John; Hodge, David B.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2016-02-09

    Background: Strategies to improve copper-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (Cu-AHP) pretreatment of hybrid poplar were investigated. These improvements included a combination of increasing hydrolysis yields, while simultaneously decreasing process inputs through (i) more efficient utilization of H2O2 and (ii) the addition of an alkaline extraction step prior to the metal-catalyzed AHP pretreatment. We hypothesized that utilizing this improved process could substantially lower the chemical inputs needed during pretreatment. Results: Hybrid poplar was pretreated utilizing a modified process in which an alkaline extraction step was incorporated prior to the Cu-AHP treatment step and H2O2 was added batch-wise over the course of 10more » h. Our results revealed that the alkaline pre-extraction step improved both lignin and xylan solubilization, which ultimately led to improved glucose (86 %) and xylose (95 %) yields following enzymatic hydrolysis. An increase in the lignin solubilization was also observed with fed-batch H2O2 addition relative to batch-only addition, which again resulted in increased glucose and xylose yields (77 and 93 % versus 63 and 74 %, respectively). Importantly, combining these strategies led to significantly improved sugar yields (96 % glucose and 94 % xylose) following enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, we found that we could substantially lower the chemical inputs (enzyme, H2O2, and catalyst), while still maintaining high product yields utilizing the improved Cu-AHP process. This pretreatment also provided a relatively pure lignin stream consisting of ≥90 % Klason lignin and only 3 % xylan and 2 % ash following precipitation. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (2D HSQC) NMR and size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that the solubilized lignin was high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 22,000 Da) and only slightly oxidized relative to lignin from untreated poplar. In conclusion: This study demonstrated that the fed

  4. Alkali-metal/alkaline-earth-metal fluorine beryllium borate NaSr{sub 3}Be{sub 3}B{sub 3}O{sub 9}F{sub 4} with large nonlinear optical properties in the deep-ultraviolet region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reshak, A. H.; Huang, Hongwei; Kamarudin, H.; Auluck, S.

    2015-02-28

    The linear optical response and second harmonic generation (SHG) in alkali-metal/alkaline-earth-metal fluorine beryllium borate NaSr{sub 3}Be{sub 3}B{sub 3}O{sub 9}F{sub 4} are investigated by means of density functional theory. Calculations are performed using four types of exchange correlations: Ceperley-Alder local density approximation, Perdew Burke and Ernzerhof general gradient approximation, Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation, and the recently modified Becke-Johnson potential (mBJ). The mBJ approach brings the calculated band gap (7.20 eV) in excellent agreement with the experimental one (7.28 eV). The calculated values of the uniaxial anisotropy δε=−0.076 and the birefringence Δn(0)=0.052 indicate considerable anisotropy in the linear optical properties, which makes it favorable for the second harmonic generation. The dominant component of the second harmonic generation is χ{sub 111}{sup (2)}(ω). The value of |χ{sub 111}{sup (2)}(ω)| is about 1.2 pm/V at λ = 1064 nm in agreement with previous calculations. To analyze the origin of the high SHG of NaSr{sub 3}Be{sub 3}B{sub 3}O{sub 9}F{sub 4} single crystals, we have correlated the features of |χ{sub 111}{sup (2)}(ω)| spectra with the features of ε{sub 2}(ω) spectra as a function of ω/2 and ω. From the calculated dominant component |χ{sub 111}{sup (2)}(ω)|, we find that the microscopic first hyperpolarizability, β{sub 111}, the vector components along the dipole moment direction is 0.5 × 10{sup −30} esu at static limit and 0.6 × 10{sup −30} esu at λ = 1064 nm.

  5. Formation of H/sup -/ by charge transfer in alkaline-earth vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Morgan, T.J.

    1983-10-01

    Progress on the study of H/sup -/ formation by charge transfer in alkaline-earth vapors is reported. The H/sup -/ equilibrium yield in strontium vapor reaches a maximum of 50% at an energy of 250 eV/amu, which is the highest H/sup -/ yield reported to date.

  6. Process for depositing epitaxial alkaline earth oxide onto a substrate and structures prepared with the process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    1996-01-01

    A process and structure involving a silicon substrate utilize molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and/or electron beam evaporation methods and an ultra-high vacuum facility to grow a layup of epitaxial alkaline earth oxide films upon the substrate surface. By selecting metal constituents for the oxides and in the appropriate proportions so that the lattice parameter of each oxide grown closely approximates that of the substrate or base layer upon which oxide is grown, lattice strain at the film/film or film/substrate interface of adjacent films is appreciably reduced or relieved. Moreover, by selecting constituents for the oxides so that the lattice parameters of the materials of adjacent oxide films either increase or decrease in size from one parameter to another parameter, a graded layup of films can be grown (with reduced strain levels therebetween) so that the outer film has a lattice parameter which closely approximates that of, and thus accomodates the epitaxial growth of, a pervoskite chosen to be grown upon the outer film.

  7. Rare Earth Metals for Science | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rare Earth Metals for Science The Ames Laboratory has been actively involved in the ... More information on the rare-earth elements Quantities of high-purity rare earth metals ...

  8. Advances in the growth of alkaline-earth halide single crystals for scintillator detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boatner, Lynn A; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Kolopus, James A; Neal, John S; Cherepy, Nerine; Payne, Stephen A.; Beck, P; Burger, Arnold; Rowe, E; Bhattacharya, P.

    2014-01-01

    Alkaline-earth scintillators such as strontium iodide and other alkaline-earth halides activated with divalent europium represent some of the most efficient and highest energy resolution scintillators for use as gamma-ray detectors in a wide range of applications. These applications include the areas of nuclear nonproliferation, homeland security, the detection of undeclared nuclear material, nuclear physics and materials science, medical diagnostics, space physics, high energy physics, and radiation monitoring systems for first responders, police, and fire/rescue personnel. Recent advances in the growth of large single crystals of these scintillator materials hold the promise of higher crystal yields and significantly lower detector production costs. In the present work, we describe new processing protocols that, when combined with our molten salt filtration methods, have led to advances in achieving a significant reduction of cracking effects during the growth of single crystals of SrI2:Eu2+. In particular, we have found that extended pumping on the molten crystal-growth charge under vacuum for time periods extending up to 48 hours is generally beneficial in compensating for variations in the alkaline-earth halide purity and stoichiometry of the materials as initially supplied by commercial sources. These melt-pumping and processing techniques are now being applied to the purification of CaI2:Eu2+ and some mixed-anion europium-doped alkaline-earth halides prior to single-crystal growth by means of the vertical Bridgman technique. The results of initial studies of the effects of aliovalent doping of SrI2:Eu2+ on the scintillation characteristics of this material are also described.

  9. Isotope fractionation in surface ionization ion source of alkaline-earth iodides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, T.; Kanzaki, C.; Nomura, M.; Fujii, Y.

    2012-02-15

    The relationship between the isotope fractionation of alkaline-earth elements in the surface ionization ion source and the evaporation filament current, i.e., filament temperature, was studied. It was confirmed that the isotope fractionation depends on the evaporation filament temperature; the isotope fractionation in the case of higher temperature of filament becomes larger. The ionization and evaporation process in the surface ionization ion source was discussed, and it was concluded that the isotope fractionation is suppressed by setting at the lower temperature of evaporation filament because the dissociations are inhibited on the evaporation filament.

  10. DOE Announces RFI on Rare Earth Metals | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    RFI on Rare Earth Metals DOE Announces RFI on Rare Earth Metals May 6, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - The Department of Energy has released a Request for Information (RFI) soliciting information on rare earth metals and other materials used in the energy sector. The request is specifically focused on rare earth metals (e.g., lanthanum, cerium and neodymium) and several other metals including lithium and cobalt, but respondents are welcome to identify other materials of interest. These

  11. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving; Palekar, Vishwesh M.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  12. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.; Palekar, V.M.

    1995-01-24

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100--160 C and the pressure range of 40--65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H[sub 2]/CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  13. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  14. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 1

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 1 of 4.

  15. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 4

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 4 of 4.

  16. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 3

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 3 of 4.

  17. The Materials Preparation Center - Making Rare Earth Metals - Part 2

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Riedemann, Trevor

    2013-03-01

    Trevor Riedeman, manager of the MPC Rare Earth Materials Section, gives a presentation on the importance of rare earth metals and how they are made at Ames Laboratory. Part 2 of 4.

  18. DOE Science Showcase - Rare Earth Metal Research from DOE Databases...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy Citations Database - Intermultiplet transitions in rare-earth metals DOE Green Energy - LaNi.sub.5 is-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells ...

  19. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  20. Non-Platinum Group Metal OER/ORR Catalysts for Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Group Metal OER/ORR Catalysts for Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers P. I. Name: Nemanja Danilovic Chris Capuano and Kathy Ayers Organization: Proton OnSite Date: May 15, 2015 (presented) August 5, 2015 (updated) Project ID: FC-133 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Overview Page 2 * Total project funding - DOE share: $150,000 Budget * Project Start: 15 Feb 2015 * Project End: 15 Nov 2015 * Percent complete: ~85% *

  1. DOE Science Showcase - Rare Earth Metal Research from DOE Databases...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy - LaNi.sub.5 is-based metal hydride electrode in Ni-MH rechargeable cells Science.gov - H.R.4866 - Rare Earths Supply-Chain Technology and Resources Transformation Act ...

  2. The Ames Process for Rare Earth Metals | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Ames Process for Rare Earth Metals The Ames Process for the preparation of high purity ... If we rearrange the order of elements from increasing atomic weight to increasing boiling ...

  3. Redox Active Catalysts Utilizing Earth Abundant Metals | Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Redox Active Catalysts Utilizing Earth Abundant Metals 14 Mar 2014 Ryan Trovitch has recently joined the team of the BISfuel PIs. He is an Assistant Professor at the Department of...

  4. Magnetic coupling at rare earth ferromagnet/transition metal ferromagnet

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    interfaces: A comprehensive study of Gd/Ni (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Magnetic coupling at rare earth ferromagnet/transition metal ferromagnet interfaces: A comprehensive study of Gd/Ni Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetic coupling at rare earth ferromagnet/transition metal ferromagnet interfaces: A comprehensive study of Gd/Ni Thin film magnetic heterostructures with competing interfacial coupling and Zeeman energy provide a fertile ground to study phase transition

  5. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2] or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy. 3 figs.

  6. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a prefused, rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF.sub.2, CaCl.sub.2 or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy.

  7. Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving; Palekar, Vishwesh M.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

  8. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchanges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, Robert G.; Stephens, Howard P.; Stohl, Frances V.

    1985-01-01

    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  9. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchangers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.; Stohl, F.V.

    1983-07-21

    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  10. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.; Jones, Lawrence L.; Lincoln, Lanny P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets.

  11. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.; Lincoln, L.P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. 3 figs.

  12. GROUND-STATE PROPERTIES OF RARE-EARTH METALS: AN EVALUATION OF...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GROUND-STATE PROPERTIES OF RARE-EARTH METALS: AN EVALUATION OF DENSITY-FUNCTIONAL THEORY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: GROUND-STATE PROPERTIES OF RARE-EARTH METALS: AN ...

  13. Metal sulfide and rare-earth phosphate nanostructures and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus; Zhang, Fen

    2016-06-28

    The present invention provides a method of producing a crystalline rare earth phosphate nanostructure. The method comprising: providing a rare earth metal precursor solution and providing a phosphate precursor solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal precursor solution and the phosphate precursor solution, wherein metal cations of the metal precursor solution and phosphate ions of the phosphate precursor solution react, thereby producing a crystalline rare earth metal phosphate nanostructure.

  14. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  15. Alkaline sorbent injection for mercury control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Deborah A.; Holmes, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A mercury removal system for removing mercury from combustion flue gases is provided in which alkaline sorbents at generally extremely low stoichiometric molar ratios of alkaline earth or an alkali metal to sulfur of less than 1.0 are injected into a power plant system at one or more locations to remove at least between about 40% and 60% of the mercury content from combustion flue gases. Small amounts of alkaline sorbents are injected into the flue gas stream at a relatively low rate. A particulate filter is used to remove mercury-containing particles downstream of each injection point used in the power plant system.

  16. Metal Hydride Storage Materials | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... typically of alkali or alkaline earth elements that are ionically bonded to a complex anion. ... Journal of Rare Earths (23), 2005; pp. 611-616. Switendick, A.C. In Hydrogen in Metals ...

  17. Molten metal containment vessel with rare earth oxysulfide protective coating thereon and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    An improved molten metal containment vessel is disclosed in which wetting of the vessel's inner wall surfaces by molten metal is inhibited by coating at least the inner surfaces of the containment vessel with one or more rare earth oxysulfide or rare earth sulfide compounds to inhibit wetting and or adherence by the molten metal to the surfaces of the containment vessel.

  18. DOE Announces Second RFI on Rare Earth Metals | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Second RFI on Rare Earth Metals DOE Announces Second RFI on Rare Earth Metals March 22, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis Washington, D.C. - The Department of Energy today released a Request for Information (RFI) soliciting information from the public on rare earth metals and other materials used in the energy sector. Responses to this RFI will inform an update to DOE's Critical Materials Strategy (pdf - 5.7mb ), released December 15, 2010, that assessed the use of rare earth metals and other materials

  19. Oligomeric rare-earth metal cluster complexes with endohedral transition metal atoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, Simon; Zimmermann, Sina; Brühmann, Matthias; Meyer, Eva; Rustige, Christian; Wolberg, Marike; Daub, Kathrin; Bell, Thomas; Meyer, Gerd

    2014-11-15

    Comproportionation reactions of rare-earth metal trihalides (RX{sub 3}) with the respective rare-earth metals (R) and transition metals (T) led to the formation of 22 oligomeric R cluster halides encapsulating T, in 19 cases for the first time. The structures of these compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and are composed of trimers ((T{sub 3}R{sub 11})X{sub 15}-type, P6{sub 3}/m), tetramers ((T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 28}(R{sub 4}) (P-43m), (T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 20} (P4{sub 2}/nnm), (T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 24}(RX{sub 3}){sub 4} (I4{sub 1}/a) and (T{sub 4}R{sub 16})X{sub 23} (C2/m) types of structure) and pentamers ((Ru{sub 5}La{sub 14}){sub 2}Br{sub 39}, Cc) of (TR{sub r}){sub n} (n=2–5) clusters. These oligomers are further enveloped by inner (X{sup i}) as well as outer (X{sup a}) halido ligands, which possess diverse functionalities and interconnect like oligomers through i–i, i–a and/or a–i bridges. The general features of the crystal structures for these new compounds are discussed and compared to literature entries as well as different structure types with oligomeric T centered R clusters. Dimers and tetramers originating from the aggregation of (TR{sub 6}) octahedra via common edges are more frequent than trimers and pentamers, in which the (TR{sub r}) clusters share common faces. - Graphical abstract: Rare earth-metal cluster complexes with endohedral transition metal atoms (TR{sub 6}) may connect via common edges or faces to form dimers, trimers, tetramers and pentamers of which the tetramers are the most prolific. Packing effects and electron counts play an important role. - Highlights: • Rare-earth metal cluster complexes encapsulate transition metal atoms. • Oligomers are built via connection of octahedral clusters via common edges or faces. • Dimers through pentamers with closed structures are known. • Tetramers including a tetrahedron of endohedral atoms are the most prolific.

  20. Electrocatalytic Activity of Transition Metal Oxide-Carbon Composites for Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Batteries and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkhandi, S; Trinh, P; Manohar, AK; Jayachandrababu, KC; Kindler, A; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-06-07

    Conductive transition metal oxides (perovskites, spinels and pyrochlores) are attractive as catalysts for the air electrode in alkaline rechargeable metal-air batteries and fuel cells. We have found that conductive carbon materials when added to transition metal oxides such as calcium-doped lanthanum cobalt oxide, nickel cobalt oxide and calcium-doped lanthanum manganese cobalt oxide increase the electrocatalytic activity of the oxide for oxygen reduction by a factor of five to ten. We have studied rotating ring-disk electrodes coated with (a) various mass ratios of carbon and transition metal oxide, (b) different types of carbon additives and (c) different types of transition metal oxides. Our experiments and analysis establish that in such composite catalysts, carbon is the primary electro- catalyst for the two-electron electro-reduction of oxygen to hydroperoxide while the transition metal oxide decomposes the hydroperoxide to generate additional oxygen that enhances the observed current resulting in an apparent four-electron process. These findings are significant in that they change the way we interpret previous reports in the scientific literature on the electrocatalytic activity of various transition metal oxide- carbon composites for oxygen reduction, especially where carbon is assumed to be an additive that just enhances the electronic conductivity of the oxide catalyst. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  1. High-pressure densified solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides (Ca/Sr, Ca/Ba, Sr/Ba) and their high-temperature thermoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gürsoy, M.; Takeda, M.; Albert, B.

    2015-01-15

    Solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides were synthesized and densified by spark plasma sintering at 100 MPa. The high-temperature thermoelectric properties (Seebeck coefficients, electrical and thermal diffusivities, heat capacities) were measured between room temperature and 1073 K. CaB{sub 6}, SrB{sub 6}, BaB{sub 6} and the ternary hexaborides Ca{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x}B{sub 6}, Ca{sub x}Ba{sub 1−x}B{sub 6}, Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1−x}B{sub 6} (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) are n-type conducting compounds over the whole compositional and thermal ranges. The values of the figure of merit ZT for CaB{sub 6} (ca. 0.3 at 1073 K) were found to be significantly increased compared to earlier investigations which is attributed to the densification process. - Highlights: • Solid solutions of alkaline earth hexaborides were synthesized. • High-temperature thermoelectric properties of mixed calcium borides are excellent. • Spark plasma source densification results in high ZT values. • Borides are rare-earth free and refractory materials.

  2. Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions by Selective Crystallization of Alkali Metal Coordination Capsules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajbanshi, Arbin; Moyer, Bruce A; Custelcean, Radu

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembly of a tris(urea) anion receptor with Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} yields crystalline capsules held together by coordinating Na{sup +} or K{sup +} cations and hydrogen-bonding water bridges, with the sulfate anions encapsulated inside urea-lined cavities. The sodium-based capsules can be selectively crystallized in excellent yield from highly competitive aqueous alkaline solutions ({approx}6 M Na{sup +}, pH 14), thereby providing for the first time a viable approach to sulfate separation from nuclear wastes.

  3. Metal & Alloy Services | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal & Alloy Services The MPC specializes in the preparation, purification, and fabrication of high-purity rare earth metals, refractory metals, alkaline earth metals, and alloys in single and polycrystalline forms. Arc Casting. The interior of an arc casting furnace is shown. Arc casting has been employed for many years at ISU and Ames Laboratory, for preparing alloys and inter-metallic compounds for materials research. The molten metal in the center is zirconium, #40 on the periodic

  4. The Electrolytic Production of Metallic Uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosen, R.

    1950-08-22

    This patent covers a process for producing metallic uranium by electrolyzing uranium tetrafluoride at an elevated temperature in a fused bath consisting essentially of mixed alkali and alkaline earth halides.

  5. Calculation of binary phase diagrams between the actinide elements, rare earth elements, and transition metal elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selle, J E

    1992-06-26

    Attempts were made to apply the Kaufman method of calculating binary phase diagrams to the calculation of binary phase diagrams between the rare earths, actinides, and the refractory transition metals. Difficulties were encountered in applying the method to the rare earths and actinides, and modifications were necessary to provide accurate representation of known diagrams. To calculate the interaction parameters for rare earth-rare earth diagrams, it was necessary to use the atomic volumes for each of the phases: liquid, body-centered cubic, hexagonal close-packed, and face-centered cubic. Determination of the atomic volumes of each of these phases for each element is discussed in detail. In some cases, empirical means were necessary. Results are presented on the calculation of rare earth-rare earth, rare earth-actinide, and actinide-actinide diagrams. For rare earth-refractory transition metal diagrams and actinide-refractory transition metal diagrams, empirical means were required to develop values for the enthalpy of vaporization for rare earth elements and values for the constant (C) required when intermediate phases are present. Results of using the values determined for each element are presented.

  6. Yttrium and rare earth stabilized fast reactor metal fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guon, Jerold; Grantham, LeRoy F.; Specht, Eugene R.

    1992-01-01

    To increase the operating temperature of a reactor, the melting point and mechanical properties of the fuel must be increased. For an actinide-rich fuel, yttrium, lanthanum and/or rare earth elements can be added, as stabilizers, to uranium and plutonium and/or a mixture of other actinides to raise the melting point of the fuel and improve its mechanical properties. Since only about 1% of the actinide fuel may be yttrium, lanthanum, or a rare earth element, the neutron penalty is low, the reactor core size can be reduced, the fuel can be burned efficiently, reprocessing requirements are reduced, and the nuclear waste disposal volumes reduced. A further advantage occurs when yttrium, lanthanum, and/or other rare earth elements are exposed to radiation in a reactor, they produce only short half life radioisotopes, which reduce nuclear waste disposal problems through much shorter assured-isolation requirements.

  7. METAL SURFACE TREATMENT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-12

    Improved flux baths are described for use in conjunction with hot dipped coatings for uranium. The flux bath consists of molten alkali metal, or alkaline earth metal halides. One preferred embodiment comprises a bath containing molten KCl, NaCl, and LiCl in proportions approximating the triple eutectic.

  8. Rare earth zirconium oxide buffer layers on metal substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2001-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0metal-organic decomposition. The laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  9. Symmetric charge-transfer cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji; Izawa, Yasukazu

    2011-03-15

    Symmetric charge-transfer cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements (Sc, Y, and Gd) in the impact energy range of 30 to 1000 eV were measured for the first time. The experiments were performed with a crossed-beam apparatus that featured primary ion production by photoionization with a tunable dye laser. Comparing the cross sections of IIIa rare-earth-metal elements ({sigma}{sub Sc}, {sigma}{sub Y}, and {sigma}{sub Gd}) with those of alkali metals or helium {sigma}{sub 0}, we found that {sigma}{sub 0{approx_equal}{sigma}Sc}<{sigma}{sub Y}<{sigma}{sub Gd{approx_equal}}2{sigma}{sub 0}at an impact energy of 1000 eV.

  10. Earth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enthusiastic employees: sustaining the Earth January 30, 2014 Green Teams work hard to make sustainable choices at home, at work The Lab has made many energy sustainable ...

  11. A Comprehensive Study of a Rare-earth Ferromagnet/Transition Metal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ferromagnet Interface Using X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource A Comprehensive Study of a Rare-earth Ferromagnet/Transition Metal Ferromagnet Interface Using X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism Wednesday, August 31, 2016 The manipulation of thin-film magnetic multilayers has been an active and technologically relevant area of research since the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayers by Fert and Grünberg in 1988 [1, 2]. The

  12. Organic-Inorganic Complexes Containing a Luminescent Rare Earth-Metal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanocluster and an Antenna Ligand, Luminescent Articles, and Methods of Making Luminescent Articles - Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Energy Storage Energy Storage Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Organic-Inorganic Complexes Containing a Luminescent Rare Earth-Metal Nanocluster and an Antenna Ligand, Luminescent Articles, and Methods of Making Luminescent Articles

  13. Multicomponent analysis of mixed rare-earth metal ion solutions by the electronic tongue sensor system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Legin, A.; Kirsanov, D.; Rudnitskaya, A.; Rovny, S.; Logunov, M.

    2007-07-01

    Novel electrochemical sensors based on well-known extracting agents are developed. Sensors have shown high sensitivity towards a variety of rear earth metal ions in acidic media at pH=2. Multi-sensor system (electronic tongue) comprising newly developed sensors was successfully applied for the analysis of binary and ternary mixtures of Ce{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} and Gd{sup 3+} cations in different combinations. (authors)

  14. Gallium Pnictides of the Alkaline Earth Metals, Synthesized by Means of the Flux Method: Crystal Structures and Properties of CaGa[subscript 2]Pn[subscript 2], SrGa[subscript 2]As[subscript 2], Ba[subscript 2]Ga[subscript 5]As[subscript 5], and Ba[subscript 4]Ga[subscript 5]Pn[subscript 8] (Pn = P or As)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Hua; Stearrett, Ryan; Nowak, Edmund R.; Bobev, Svilen

    2014-05-28

    The focus of this paper is on the structural characterization of the new Zintl phases CaGa{sub 2}P{sub 2}, CaGa{sub 2}As{sub 2}, SrGa{sub 2}As{sub 2}, and Ba{sub 2}Ga{sub 5}As{sub 5}, and the solid solution (Ba{sub 0.85(1)}Sr{sub 0.15}){sub 2}Ga{sub 5}As{sub 5}, all of which were synthesized from molten metal fluxes.CaGa{sub 2}P{sub 2}, CaGa{sub 2}As{sub 2}, and SrGa{sub 2}As{sub 2} have layered structures with polyanionic layers made of ethane-like Ga{sub 2}P6 and Ga{sub 2}As6 motifs fused through common edges; the polyanionic substructure in Ba{sub 2}Ga{sub 5}As{sub 5} consists of condensed Ga{sub 2}As6 units and GaAs{sub 4} tetrahedra. Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 5}P{sub 8} and Ba{sub 4}Ga{sub 5}As{sub 8}, another pair of new compounds with channel-like 3D structures, were also synthesized from metal fluxes, and their structures were established from single-crystal X-ray and synchrotron powder diffraction. They are based on GaP{sub 4} and GaAs{sub 4} tetrahedra, with parts of their structures being heavily disordered. The electronic structures computed with the linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) method are discussed as well, alongside the thermopower and the electrical conductivity, measured on single crystals of Ba{sub 2}Ga{sub 5}As{sub 5} and the solid solution (Ba{sub 0.85(1)}Sr{sub 0.15}){sub 2} Ga{sub 5}As{sub 5}. They demonstrate that such an approach would be an effective way to fine-tune the transport properties.

  15. Rare earth elements and critical metal content of extracted landfilled material and potential recovery opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Silvia C.; Coulon, Frédéric; Jiang, Ying; Wagland, Stuart

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Samples from multiple core drills were obtained from 4× landfill sites in the UK. • Each sample analysed for rare earth elements, critical metals and valuable metals. • Two stage microwave digestion method ensuring high yield. • High quantities of copper and aluminium were observed in the soil layers of landfill. • Across 4× landfills aluminium and copper present has a value of around $400 million. - Abstract: Rare earth elements (REEs), Platinum group metals (PGMs) and other critical metals currently attract significant interest due to the high risks of supply shortage and substantial impact on the economy. Their uses in many applications have made them present in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in commercial and industrial waste (C&I), since several industrial processes produce by-products with high content of these metals. With over 4000 landfills in the UK alone, the aim of this study was to assess the existence of these critical metals within landfills. Samples collected from four closed landfills in UK were subjected to a two-step acid digestion to extract 27 metals of interest. Concentrations across the four landfill sites were 58 ± 6 mg kg{sup −1} for REEs comprising 44 ± 8 mg kg{sup −1} for light REEs, 11 ± 2 mg kg{sup −1} for heavy REEs and 3 ± 1 mg kg{sup −1} for Scandium (Sc) and 3 ± 1.0 mg kg{sup −1} of PGMs. Compared to the typical concentration in ores, these concentrations are too low to achieve a commercially viable extraction. However, content of other highly valuable metals (Al and Cu) was found in concentrations equating to a combined value across the four landfills of around $400 million, which increases the economic viability of landfill mining. Presence of critical metals will mainly depend on the type of waste that was buried but the recovery of these metals through landfill mining is possible and is economically feasible only if additional materials (plastics, paper, metallic items and other) are

  16. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, N.Q.; Loutfy, R.O.; Yao, N.P.

    1982-04-01

    Metallic aluminum may be produced by the electrolysis of Al/sub 2/S/sub 3/ at 700 to 800/sup 0/C in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  17. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minh, Nguyen Q.; Loutfy, Raouf O.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1984-01-01

    Production of metallic aluminum by the electrolysis of Al.sub.2 S.sub.3 at 700.degree.-800.degree. C. in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  18. Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Intermetallics: Structure-bonding-Property Relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mi-Kyung Han

    2006-05-01

    Our explorations of rare-earth, transition metal intermetallics have resulted in the synthesis and characterization, and electronic structure investigation, as well as understanding the structure-bonding-property relationships. Our work has presented the following results: (1) Understanding the relationship between compositions and properties in LaFe{sub 13-x}Si{sub x} system: A detailed structural and theoretical investigation provided the understanding of the role of a third element on stabilizing the structure and controlling the transformation of cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structures to the tetragonal derivative, as well as the relationship between the structures and properties. (2) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth iron silicides RE{sub 2-x}Fe{sub 4}Si{sub 14-y} and proposed superstructure: This compound offers complex structural challenges such as fractional occupancies and their ordering in superstructure. (3) Electronic structure calculation of FeSi{sub 2}: This shows that the metal-semiconductor phase transition depends on the structure. The mechanism of band gap opening is described in terms of bonding and structural distortion. This result shows that the electronic structure calculations are an essential tool for understanding the relationship between structure and chemical bonding in these compounds. (4) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth Zinc aluminides Tb{sub 3}Zn{sub 3.6}Al{sub 7.4}: Partially ordered structure of Tb{sub 3}Zn{sub 3.6}Al{sub 7.4} compound provides new insights into the formation, composition and structure of rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics. Electronic structure calculations attribute the observed composition to optimizing metal-metal bonding in the electronegative (Zn, Al) framework, while the specific ordering is strongly influenced by specific orbital interactions. (5) Synthesis of new structure type of Zn{sub 39}(Cr{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}){sub 81}: These layered structures are similar to icosahedral Mn-Al quasicrystalline

  19. Rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics: Structure-bonding-property relationships

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, M.K.

    2006-05-06

    The explorations of rare-earth, transition metal intermetallics have resulted in the synthesis and characterization, and electronic structure investigation, as well as understanding the structure-bonding property relationships. The work has presented the following results: (1) Understanding the relationship between compositions and properties in LaFe{sub 13-x}Si{sub x} system: A detailed structural and theoretical investigation provided the understanding of the role of a third element on stabilizing the structure and controlling the transformation of cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structures to the tetragonal derivative, as well as the relationship between the structures and properties. (2) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth iron silicides Re{sub 2-x}Fe{sub 4}Si{sub 14-y} and proposed superstructure: This compound offers complex structural challenges such as fractional occupancies and their ordering in superstructure. (3) Electronic structure calculation of FeSi{sub 2}: This shows that the metal-semiconductor phase transition depends on the structure. The mechanism of band gap opening is described in terms of bonding and structural distortion. This result shows that the electronic structure calculations are an essential tool for understanding the relationship between structure and chemical bonding in these compounds. (4) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth Zinc aluminides Tb{sub 3}Zn{sub 3.6}Al{sub 7.4}: Partially ordered structure of Tb{sub 3}Zn{sub 3.6}Al{sub 7.4} compound provides new insights into the formation, composition and structure of rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics. Electronic structure calculations attribute the observed composition to optimizing metal-metal bonding in the electronegative (Zn, Al) framework, while the specific ordering is strongly influenced by specific orbital interactions. (5) Synthesis of new structure type of Zn{sub 39}(Cr{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}){sub 81}: These layered structures are similar to icosahedral Mn-Al quasicrystalline

  20. Structure and magnetism of epitaxial rare-earth-transition-metal films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fullerton, E.E.; Sowers, C.H.; Pearson, J.P.; Bader, S.D.

    1996-10-01

    Growth of epitaxial transition-metal superlattices; has proven essential in elucidating the role of crystal orientation and structure on magnetic properties such as giant magnetoresistance, interlayer coupling, and magnetic surface anisotropies. Extending these studies to the growth of epitaxial rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) films and superlattices promises to play an equally important role in exploring and optimizing the properties of hard magnets. For instance, Skomski and Coey predict that a giant energy product (120 MG Oe) is possible in multilayer structures consisting of aligned hard-magnet layers exchanged coupled with soft-phase layers with high magnetization. Epitaxy provides one route to synthesizing such exchange-hardened magnets on controlled length scales. Epitaxial growth also allows the magnetic properties to be tailored by controlling the crystal orientation and the anisotropies of the magnetic layers and holds the possibility of stabilizing metastable phases. This paper describes the epitaxy and magnetic properties for several alloys.

  1. The atmospheric circulation of the super Earth GJ 1214b: Dependence on composition and metallicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P.; Fortney, J. J.; Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S.

    2014-04-20

    We present three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models of GJ 1214b, a 2.7 Earth-radius, 6.5 Earth-mass super Earth detected by the MEarth survey. Here we explore the planet's circulation as a function of atmospheric metallicity and atmospheric composition, modeling atmospheres with a low mean molecular weight (MMW; i.e., H{sub 2}-dominated) and a high MMW (i.e., water- and CO{sub 2}-dominated). We find that atmospheres with a low MMW have strong day-night temperature variations at pressures above the infrared photosphere that lead to equatorial superrotation. For these atmospheres, the enhancement of atmospheric opacities with increasing metallicity lead to shallower atmospheric heating, larger day-night temperature variations, and hence stronger superrotation. In comparison, atmospheres with a high MMW have larger day-night and equator-to-pole temperature variations than low MMW atmospheres, but differences in opacity structure and energy budget lead to differences in jet structure. The circulation of a water-dominated atmosphere is dominated by equatorial superrotation, while the circulation of a CO{sub 2}-dominated atmosphere is instead dominated by high-latitude jets. By comparing emergent flux spectra and light curves for 50× solar and water-dominated compositions, we show that observations in emission can break the degeneracy in determining the atmospheric composition of GJ 1214b. The variation in opacity with wavelength for the water-dominated atmosphere leads to large phase variations within water bands and small phase variations outside of water bands. The 50× solar atmosphere, however, yields small variations within water bands and large phase variations at other characteristic wavelengths. These observations would be much less sensitive to clouds, condensates, and hazes than transit observations.

  2. Induction slag reduction process for purifying metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Traut, Davis E.; Fisher, II, George T.; Hansen, Dennis A.

    1991-01-01

    A continuous method is provided for purifying and recovering transition metals such as neodymium and zirconium that become reactive at temperatures above about 500.degree. C. that comprises the steps of contacting the metal ore with an appropriate fluorinating agent such as an alkaline earth metal fluosilicate to form a fluometallic compound, and reducing the fluometallic compound with a suitable alkaline earth or alkali metal compound under molten conditions, such as provided in an induction slag metal furnace. The method of the invention is advantageous in that it is simpler and less expensive than methods used previously to recover pure metals, and it may be employed with a wide range of transition metals that were reactive with enclosures used in the prior art methods and were hard to obtain in uncontaminated form.

  3. Recovery of Rare Earths, Precious Metals and Other Critical Materials from Geothermal Waters with Advanced Sorbent Structures

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Pamela M. Kinsey

    2015-09-30

    The work evaluates, develops and demonstrates flexible, scalable mineral extraction technology for geothermal brines based upon solid phase sorbent materials with a specific focus upon rare earth elements (REEs). The selected organic and inorganic sorbent materials demonstrated high performance for collection of trace REEs, precious and valuable metals. The nanostructured materials typically performed better than commercially available sorbents. Data contains organic and inorganic sorbent removal efficiency, Sharkey Hot Springs (Idaho) water chemsitry analysis, and rare earth removal efficiency from select sorbents.

  4. Normal-mode coupling of rare-earth-metal ions in a crystal to a macroscopic optical cavity mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ichimura, Kouichi; Goto, Hayato

    2006-09-15

    We demonstrated coupling of rare-earth-metal ions in a crystal to a macroscopic cavity mode by observing optical bistability and normal-mode peaks due to sweeping-laser-induced population redistribution of the ions. The experimentally evaluated coupling constant between the individual ions and the single cavity mode is 15 kHz, which is comparable with or larger than the dissipation of the ions and will exceed the cavity dissipation with a narrowing of the mode waist of the cavity to the wavelength. The results advance the application of a coupled system of rare-earth-metal ions in a crystal and an optical cavity for quantum information processing.

  5. Ternary alkali-metal and transition metal or metalloid acetylides as alkali-metal intercalation electrodes for batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nemeth, Karoly; Srajer, George; Harkay, Katherine C; Terdik, Joseph Z

    2015-02-10

    Novel intercalation electrode materials including ternary acetylides of chemical formula: A.sub.nMC.sub.2 where A is alkali or alkaline-earth element; M is transition metal or metalloid element; C.sub.2 is reference to the acetylide ion; n is an integer that is 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 when A is alkali element and 0, 1, or 2 when A is alkaline-earth element. The alkali elements are Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs) and Francium (Fr). The alkaline-earth elements are Berilium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), and Radium (Ra). M is a transition metal that is any element in groups 3 through 12 inclusive on the Periodic Table of Elements (elements 21 (Sc) to element 30 (Zn)). In another exemplary embodiment, M is a metalloid element.

  6. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof.

  7. Method of coating metal surfaces to form protective metal coating thereon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krikorian, O.H.; Curtis, P.G.

    1992-03-31

    A process is disclosed for forming a protective metal coating on a metal surface using a flux consisting of an alkali metal fluoride, an alkaline earth metal fluoride, an alkali metal fluoaluminate, an alkali metal fluosilicate, and mixtures thereof. The flux, in particulate form, is mixed with particles of a metal coating material which may comprise aluminum, chromium, mixtures thereof, and alloys containing at least 50 wt. % aluminum and the particulate mixture is applied to the metal surface in a single step, followed by heating the coated metal surface to a temperature sufficient to cause the metal coating material to react with the metal surface to form a protective reaction product in the form of a metal coating bonded to the metal surface. The metal surface which reacts with the metal coating material to form the protective coating may comprise Fe, Co, Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Hf, Ta, W, Re and alloys thereof. 1 figure.

  8. Metal sulfide and rare-earth phosphate nanostructures and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus; Zhang, Fen

    2014-05-13

    The present invention provides a method of producing a crystalline metal sulfide nanostructure. The metal is a transitional metal or a Group IV metal. In the method, a porous membrane is placed between a metal precursor solution and a sulfur precursor solution. The metal cations of the metal precursor solution and sulfur ions of the sulfur precursor solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal sulfide nanostructure.

  9. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  10. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2014-04-03

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal Dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to extreme conditions of pressure to 69 GPa and temperature to 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were only able to track magnetic ordering temperature till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed (hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. This is followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hexagonal close packed phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Lastly, our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remain localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.

  11. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2014-04-03

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal Dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to extreme conditions of pressure to 69 GPa and temperature to 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were only able to track magnetic ordering temperature till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed (hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. This ismore » followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hexagonal close packed phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Lastly, our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remain localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.« less

  12. Rare-earth neutral metal injection into an electron beam ion trap plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magee, E. W., E-mail: magee1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hell, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Universitt Erlangen-Nrnberg, 96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    We have designed and implemented a neutral metal vapor injector on the SuperEBIT high-energy electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A horizontally directed vapor of a europium metal is created using a thermal evaporation technique. The metal vapor is then spatially collimated prior to injection into the trap. The source's form and quantity constraints are significantly reduced making plasmas out of metal with vapor pressures ?10{sup ?7} Torr at ?1000?C more obtainable. A long pulsed or constant feed metal vapor injection method adds new flexibility by varying the timing of injection and rate of material being introduced into the trap.

  13. ELECTROLYTIC PROCESS FOR PRODUCING METALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopelman, B.; Holden, R.B.

    1961-06-01

    A method is described for reducing beryllium halides to beryllium. The beryllfum halide fs placed in an eutectic mixture of alkali halides and alkaline earth halides. The constituents of this eutectic bath are so chosen that it has a melting point less than the boiling point of mercury, which acts as a cathode for the system. The beryllium metal is then deposited in the mercury upon electrolysis.

  14. RARE-EARTH METAL FISSION PRODUCTS FROM LIQUID U-Bi

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiswall, R.H.

    1960-05-10

    Fission product metals can be removed from solution in liquid bismuth without removal of an appreciable quantity of uranium by contacting the liquid metal solution with fused halides, as for example, the halides of sodium, potassium, and lithium and by adding to the contacted phases a quantity of a halide which is unstable relative to the halides of the fission products, a specific unstable halide being MgCl/sub 3/.

  15. Alkaline earth stannates: The next silicon?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab Ahn, Charles H.; Walker, Frederick J.; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Rabe, Karin M.

    2015-06-01

    Semiconductor materials are being used in an increasingly diverse array of applications, with new device concepts being proposed each year for solar cells, flat-panel displays, sensors, memory, and spin transport. This rapid progress of invention outpaces the development of new semiconductor materials with the required properties and performance. In many applications, high carrier mobility at room temperature is required in addition to specific functional properties critical to the device concept. We review recent developments on high mobility stannate perovskite oxide materials and devices.

  16. Magnetocaloric effect in heavy rare-earth elements doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with tunable Curie temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jiawei; Huo, Juntao; Chang, Chuntao E-mail: dujun@nimte.ac.cn; Du, Juan E-mail: dujun@nimte.ac.cn; Man, Qikui; Wang, Xinmin; Li, Run-Wei; Law, Jiayan

    2014-08-14

    The effects of heavy rare earth (RE) additions on the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) and magnetocaloric effect of the Fe-RE-B-Nb (RE = Gd, Dy and Ho) bulk metallic glasses were studied. The type of dopping RE element and its concentration can easily tune T{sub C} in a large temperature range of 120 K without significantly decreasing the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}) and refrigerant capacity (RC) of the alloys. The observed values of ΔS{sub M} and RC of these alloys compare favorably with those of recently reported Fe-based metallic glasses with enhanced RC compared to Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 1.9}Si{sub 2}Fe{sub 0.1}. The tunable T{sub C} and large glass-forming ability of these RE doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses can be used in a wide temperature range with the final required shapes.

  17. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassov's research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herring's group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  18. Precious metals and rare earth elements in municipal solid waste – Sources and fate in a Swiss incineration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morf, Leo S.; Gloor, Rolf; Haag, Olaf; Haupt, Melanie; Skutan, Stefan; Lorenzo, Fabian Di; Böni, Daniel

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► We carefully addressed all the very valuable comments and suggestions of the reviewers. ► We also have shortened the size of the paper and tried simplify it substantially, as requested by the reviewers (introduction 25% reduced!). ► We have decided to take the chance and have replaced the data for the “additional” elements (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Sn, Cr, Ni, Fe, Al) of the earlier MFA (Morf, 2011) with data that belong to the samples of this study. ► We are convinced that with the revision the paper has significantly improved in quality and attractiveness. - Abstract: In Switzerland many kinds of waste, e.g. paper, metals, electrical and electronic equipment are separately collected and recycled to a large extent. The residual amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) has to be thermally treated before final disposal. Efforts to recover valuable metals from incineration residues have recently increased. However, the resource potential of critical elements in the waste input (sources) and their partitioning into recyclable fractions and residues (fate) is unknown. Therefore, a substance flow analysis (SFA) for 31 elements including precious metals (Au, Ag), platinum metal group elements (Pt, Rh) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, etc.) has been conducted in a solid waste incinerator (SWI) with a state-of-the-art bottom ash treatment according to the Thermo-Re® concept. The SFA allowed the determination of the element partitioning in the SWI, as well as the elemental composition of the MSW by indirect analysis. The results show that the waste-input contains substantial quantities of precious metals, such as 0.4 ± 0.2 mg/kg Au and 5.3 ± 0.7 mg/kg Ag. Many of the valuable substances, such as Au and Ag are enriched in specific outputs (e.g. non-ferrous metal fractions) and are therefore recoverable. As the precious metal content in MSW is expected to rise due to its increasing application in complex consumer products, the results of this study are

  19. Synchrotron Diffraction Studies of Spontaneous Magnetostriction in Rare Earth Transition Metal Compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ning Yang

    2004-12-19

    Thermal expansion anomalies of R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}C{sub x} (x = 0,2) (R = Y, Nd, Gd, Tb, Er) stoichiometric compounds are studied with high-energy synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction using Debye-Schemer geometry in temperature range 10K to 1000K. Large spontaneous magnetostriction up to their Curie temperatures (T{sub c}) is observed. The a-axes show relatively larger invar effects than c-axes in the R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compounds whereas the R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}C{sub x} show the contrary anisotropies. The iron sub-lattice is shown to dominate the spontaneous magnetostriction of the compounds. The contribution of the rare earth sublattice is roughly proportional to the spin magnetic moment of the rare earth in the R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compounds but in R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}C{sub x}, the rare earth sub-lattice contribution appears more likely to be dominated by the local bonding. The calculation of spontaneous magnetostrain of bonds shows that the bonds associated with Fe(j2) sites in R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and the dumbbell sites in R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}C{sub x} have larger values, which is strongly related to their largest magnetic moment and Wigner-Seitz atomic cell volume. The roles of the carbon atoms in increasing the Curie temperatures of the R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} compounds are attributed to the increased separation of Fe hexagons. The R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} and R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phases with magnetic rare earth ions also show anisotropies of thermal expansion above T{sub c}. For R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17} and R{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B the a{sub a}/a{sub c} > 1 whereas the anisotropy is reversed with the interstitial carbon in R{sub 2}Fe{sub 17}. The average bond magnetostrain is shown to be a possible predictor of the magnetic moment of Fe sites in the compounds. Both of the theoretical and phenomenological models on spontaneous magnetostriction are discussed and a Landau model on the spontaneous magnetostriction is proposed.

  20. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  1. Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani

    2006-04-04

    Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

  2. Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani; Manivannan, Venkatesan

    2004-07-13

    Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

  3. Magnetic coupling at rare earth ferromagnet/transition metal ferromagnet interfaces: A comprehensive study of Gd/Ni

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Higgs, T. D. C.; Bonetti, S.; Ohldag, H.; Banerjee, N.; Wang, X. L.; Rosenberg, A. J.; Cai, Z.; Zhao, J. H.; Moler, K. A.; Robinson, J. W. A.

    2016-07-22

    Thin film magnetic heterostructures with competing interfacial coupling and Zeeman energy provide a fertile ground to study phase transition between different equilibrium states as a function of external magnetic field and temperature. A rare-earth (RE)/transition metal (TM) ferromagnetic multilayer is a classic example where the magnetic state is determined by a competition between the Zeeman energy and antiferromagnetic interfacial exchange coupling energy. Technologically, such structures offer the possibility to engineer the macroscopic magnetic response by tuning the microscopic interactions between the layers. We have performed an exhaustive study of nickel/gadolinium as a model system for understanding RE/TM multilayers using themore » element-specific measurement technique x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and determined the full magnetic state diagrams as a function of temperature and magnetic layer thickness. We compare our results to a modified Stoner-Wohlfarth-based model and provide evidence of a thickness-dependent transition to a magnetic fan state which is critical in understanding magnetoresistance effects in RE/TM systems. In conclusion, the results provide important insight for spintronics and superconducting spintronics where engineering tunable magnetic inhomogeneity is key for certain applications.« less

  4. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  5. Synthesis, structural characterization and magnetic properties of RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} (RE=rare-earth metal)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suen, Nian-Tzu; Tobash, Paul H.; Bobev, Svilen

    2011-11-15

    A series of rare-earth metal-magnesium-germanides RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} (RE=Y, Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu) has been synthesized by reactions of the corresponding elements at high temperature. Their structures have been established by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction and belong to the Mo{sub 2}FeB{sub 2} structure type (space group P4/mbm (No. 127), Z=2; Pearson symbol tP10). Temperature dependent DC magnetization measurements indicate Curie-Weiss paramagnetism in the high-temperature regime for all members of the family, excluding Y{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2}, Sm{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2}, and Lu{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2}. At cryogenic temperatures (ca. 60 K and below), most RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} phases enter into an antiferromagnetic ground-state, except for Er{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} and Tm{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2}, which do not undergo magnetic ordering down to 5 K. The structural variations as a function of the decreasing size of the rare-earth metals, following the lanthanide contraction, and the changes in the magnetic properties across the series are discussed as well. - Graphical Abstract: The structure of RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} (RE=Y, Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu) can be best viewed as 2-dimensional slabs of Mg and Ge atoms (anionic sub-lattice), and layers of rare-earth metal atoms (cationic sub-lattice) between them. Within this description, one should consider the Ge-Ge dumbbells (formally Ge{sup 6-}{sub 2}), interconnected with square-planar Mg atom as forming flat [MgGe{sub 2}] layers (z=0), stacked along the c-axis with the layers at z=1/2, made of rare-earth metal cations (formally RE{sup 3+}). Highlights: > RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} (RE=Y, Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu) are new ternary germanides. > Their structures can be recognized as a 1:1 intergrowth of CsCl- and AlB{sub 2}-like slabs. > Ge atoms are covalently bound into Ge{sub 2} dumbbells. > Most RE{sub 2}MgGe{sub 2} phases are antiferromagnetically ordered at cryogenic temperatures.

  6. METHOD OF PRODUCING DENSE CONSOLIDATED METALLIC REGULUS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magel, T.T.

    1959-08-11

    A methcd is presented for reducing dense metal compositions while simultaneously separating impurities from the reduced dense metal and casting the reduced parified dense metal, such as uranium, into well consolidated metal ingots. The reduction is accomplished by heating the dense metallic salt in the presence of a reducing agent, such as an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal in a bomb type reacting chamber, while applying centrifugal force on the reacting materials. Separation of the metal from the impurities is accomplished essentially by the incorporation of a constricted passageway at the vertex of a conical reacting chamber which is in direct communication with a collecting chamber. When a centrifugal force is applled to the molten metal and slag from the reduction in a direction collinear with the axis of the constricted passage, the dense molten metal is forced therethrough while the less dense slag is retained within the reaction chamber, resulting in a simultaneous separation of the reduced molten metal from the slag and a compacting of the reduced metal in a homogeneous mass.

  7. Contamination and purification of alkaline gas treating solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCullough, J.G. [Proton Technology Ltd., Hawthorne, NY (United States); Nielsen, R.B. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Alkanolamine and potassium carbonate solutions in gas treating units removing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, or both are contaminated by impurities in the feed gases and makeup water and by the products of the degradation and oxidation of amines occurring in the units themselves. Feed gas impurities include oxygen, carbonyl sulfide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia, brine, solid particles, heavy hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid, organic acids, and pipeline corrosion inhibitors. Impure makeup water contains sulfate, chloride, alkali metal, and alkaline earth ions (hardness). Reactions causing contamination in the units include oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate and thiosulfate, oxidation of amines to formic acid and other products, and degradation of amines by carbon dioxide. The resulting heat-stable salts and polymers reduce the gas absorbing capacity of alkanolamine solutions and increase their corrosiveness. Similar problems occur in potassium carbonate solutions, except that degradation products of amine activators are too dilute to be harmful. Contaminants are removed by inlet gas separation, charcoal and mechanical filtration, neutralization of heat-stable salts, reclaiming at both atmospheric and reduced pressure, upstream washing of the feed gas, electrodialysis, use of antioxidants, ion exchange, and blowdown and dumping of the solution.

  8. Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate architecture for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Todd H.

    2015-09-15

    Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate lattices, of a spinel block type, and which are resistant to carbon deposition and metal sulfide formation are provided. The catalysts are designed for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas. The hexametallate lattices are doped with noble metals (Au, Pt, Rh, Ru) which are atomically dispersed as isolated sites throughout the lattice and take the place of hexametallate metal ions such as Cr, Ga, In, and/or Nb. Mirror cations in the crystal lattice are selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and the lanthanide metals, so as to reduce the acidity of the catalyst crystal lattice and enhance the desorption of carbon deposit forming moieties such as aromatics. The catalysts can be used at temperatures as high as 1000.degree. C. and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. A method for producing these catalysts and applications of their use also is provided.

  9. Rare-earth transition-metal gallium chalcogenides RE{sub 3}MGaCh{sub 7} (M=Fe, Co, Ni; Ch=S, Se)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudyk, Brent W.; Stoyko, Stanislav S.; Oliynyk, Anton O.; Mar, Arthur

    2014-02-15

    Six series of quaternary rare-earth transition-metal chalcogenides RE{sub 3}MGaCh{sub 7} (M=Fe, Co, Ni; Ch=S, Se), comprising 33 compounds in total, have been prepared by reactions of the elements at 1050 °C (for the sulphides) or 900 °C (for the selenides). They adopt noncentrosymmetric hexagonal structures (ordered Ce{sub 3}Al{sub 1.67}S{sub 7}-type, space group P6{sub 3}, Z=2) with cell parameters in the ranges of a=9.5–10.2 Å and c=6.0–6.1 Å for the sulphides and a=10.0–10.5 Å and c=6.3–6.4 Å for the selenides as refined from powder X-ray diffraction data. Single-crystal structures were determined for five members of the sulphide series RE{sub 3}FeGaS{sub 7} (RE=La, Pr, Tb) and RE{sub 3}CoGaS{sub 7} (RE=La, Tb). The highly anisotropic crystal structures consist of one-dimensional chains of M-centred face-sharing octahedra and stacks of Ga-centred tetrahedra all pointing in the same direction. Magnetic measurements on the sulphides reveal paramagnetic behaviour in some cases and long-range antiferromagnetic behaviour with low Néel temperatures (15 K or lower) in others. Ga L-edge XANES spectra support the presence of highly cationic Ga tetrahedral centres with a tendency towards more covalent Ga–Ch character on proceeding from the sulphides to the selenides. Band structure calculations on La{sub 3}FeGaS{sub 7} indicate that the electronic structure is dominated by Fe 3d-based states near the Fermi level. - Graphical abstract: The series of chalcogenides RE{sub 3}MGaS{sub 7}, which form for a wide range of rare-earth and transition metals (M=Fe, Co, Ni), adopt highly anisotropic structures containing chains of M-centred octahedra and stacks of Ga-centred tetrahedra. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Six series (comprising 33 compounds) of chalcogenides RE{sub 3}MGaCh{sub 7} were prepared. • They adopt noncentrosymmetric hexagonal structures with high anisotropy. • Most compounds are paramagnetic; some show antiferromagnetic ordering. • Ga L

  10. Positive electrode current collector for liquid metal cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimotake, Hiroshi; Bartholme, Louis G.

    1984-01-01

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  11. Positive-electrode current collector for liquid-metal cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimotake, H.; Bartholme, L.G.

    1982-09-27

    A current collector for the positive electrode of an electrochemical cell with a positive electrode including a sulfide. The cell also has a negative electrode and a molten salt electrolyte including halides of a metal selected from the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals in contact with both the positive and negative electrodes. The current collector has a base metal of copper, silver, gold, aluminum or alloys thereof with a coating thereon of iron, nickel, chromium or alloys thereof. The current collector when subjected to cell voltage forms a sulfur-containing compound on the surface thereby substantially protecting the current collector from further attack by sulfur ions during cell operation. Both electroless and electrolytic processes may be used to deposit coatings.

  12. Actinide-Aluminate Speciation in Alkaline Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. David L. Clark; Dr. Alexander M. Fedosseev

    2001-12-21

    Investigation of behavior of actinides in alkaline media containing AL(III) showed that no aluminate complexes of actinides in oxidation states (IIII-VIII) were formed in alkaline solutions. At alkaline precipitation IPH (10-14) of actinides in presence of AL(III) formation of aluminate compounds is not observed. However, in precipitates contained actinides (IIV)<(VI), and to a lesser degree actinides (III), some interference of components takes place that is reflected in change of solid phase properties in comparison with pure components or their mechanical mixture. The interference decreases with rise of precipitation PH and at PH 14 is exhibited very feebly. In the case of NP(VII) the individual compound with AL(III) is obtained, however it is not aluminate of neptunium(VII), but neptunate of aluminium(III) similar to neptunates of other metals obtained earlier.

  13. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 100. Rare Earth Metal Fluorides in Water and Aqueous Systems. Part 3. Heavy Lanthanides (GdLu)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mioduski, Tomasz; Gumi?ski, Cezary; Zeng, Dewen

    2015-06-15

    This is the third part of the volume devoted to solubility data for the rare earth metal (REM) fluorides in water and in aqueous ternary and multicomponent systems. It covers experimental results of trivalent fluorides of Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu (so-called heavy lanthanides), since no quantitative data on solubilities of TbF{sub 4} and YbF{sub 2} (the most stable compounds at these valencies) are available. The related literature has been covered through the end of 2014. Compilations of all available papers with the solubility data are introduced for each REM fluoride with a corresponding critical evaluation. Every such assessment contains a collection of all solubility results in aqueous solution, a selection of suggested solubility data, a solubility equation, and a brief discussion of the multicomponent systems. Only simple fluorides (no complexes or double salts) are treated as the input substances in this report. General features of the systems, such as nature of the equilibrium solid phases, solubility as a function of temperature, influence of ionic strength, solution pH, mixed solvent medium on the solubility, quality of the solubility results, and the solubility as a function of REM atomic number, have already been presented in Part 1 of the volume.

  14. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchheit, R.G.; Martinez, M.A.

    1998-05-26

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides is disclosed. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds. 1 fig.

  15. Corrosion protective coating for metallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchheit, Rudolph G.; Martinez, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion protective coatings for metallic materials, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys, produced with simple, low-cost equipment and materials other than toxic metals or metal salts, or metal cyanides. The metallic material is cleaned, degreased, and deoxidized, the surface is converted to a substantially alkaline condition, and the surface is chemically sealed with inorganic metal compounds.

  16. METAL PHTHALOCYANINES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frigerio, N.A.

    1962-03-27

    A process is given for preparing heavy metal phthalocyanines, sulfonated or not. The process comprises mixing an inorganic metal salt with dimethyl formamide or methyl sulfoxide; separating the metal complex formed from the solution; mixing the complex with an equimolar amount of sodium, potassium, lithium, magnesium, or beryllium sulfonated or unsulfonated phthalocyanine whereby heavy-metal phthalocyanine crystals are formed; and separating the crystals from the solution. Uranyl, thorium, lead, hafnium, and lanthanide rare earth phthalocyanines can be produced by the process. (AEC)

  17. Synthesis of main group, rare-earth, and d{sup 0} metal complexes containing beta-hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Ka King

    2013-05-02

    {sub 2}(NR{sub 2})ZrX (X = Cl, I, OTf; R = t-Bu, SiHMe{sub 2}) and lithium hydrosilazide ultimately afford hydride products Cp{sub 2}(NR{sub 2})ZrH that suggest unusual β-hydrogen elimination processes. A likely intermediate in one of these reactions, Cp{sub 2}Zr[N(SiHMe{sub 2})t-Bu][N(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}], is isolated under controlled synthetic conditions. Addition of alkali metal salts to this zirconium hydrosilazide compound produces the corresponding zirconium hydride. However as conditions are varied, a number of other pathways are also accessible, including C-H/Si-H dehydrocoupling, γ-abstraction of a CH, and β-abstraction of a SiH. Our observations suggest that the conversion of (hydrosilazido)zirconocene to zirconium hydride does not follow the classical four-center β- elimination mechanism. Elimination and abstraction reactions dominate the chemistry of ligands containing β- hydrogen. In contrast, Cp{sub 2}Zr{N(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}}H and Cp{sub 2}Zr{N(SiHMe{sub 2}){sub 2}}Me undergo selective γ-CH bond activation to yield the azasilazirconacycle Cp{sub 2Zr}{κ{sup 2}-N(SiHMe{sub 2})SiHMeCH{sub 2}}, even though there are reactive β-hydrogen available for abstraction. The β-SiH groups in metallacycle provide access to new pathways for sixteen-electron zirconium alkyl compounds, in which Cp{sub 2}Zr{κ{sup 2}-N(SiHMe{sub 2})SiHMeCH{sub 2}} undergoes a rare σ-bond metathesis reaction with ethylene. The resulting vinyl intermediate undergoes β-hydrogen abstraction to reform ethylene and a silanimine zirconium species that reacts with ethylene to give a metallacyclopentane as the isolated product. The pendent β-SiH in metallocycle also reacts with paraformaldehyde through an uncatalyzed hydrosilylation to form an exocyclic methoxysilyl moiety, while the zirconium-carbon bond in metallocycle is surprisingly inert toward formaldehyde. Still, the Zr-C moiety in metallocycle is available for chemistry, and it interacts with the carbon monoxide and strong

  18. Protective coatings for metal alloys and methods incorporating the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seabaugh, Matthew M.; Ibanez, Sergio; Swartz, Scott L.

    2015-06-09

    An electrochemical device having one or more solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), each of the SOFCs including a cathode, an anode, and an electrolyte layer positioned between the cathode and anode; and at least one additional component comprising a metallic substrate having an electronically conductive, chromium-free perovskite coating deposited directly thereon. The perovskite coating has the formula ABO.sub.3, wherein A is a lanthanide element or Y, and B is a mixture of two or more transition elements, with the A site undoped by any alkaline earth element, and the perovskite coating exhibits limited or no ionic transport of oxygen.

  19. Robust and Porous [beta]-Diketiminate-Functionalized Metal–Organic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Robust and Porous beta-Diketiminate-Functionalized MetalOrganic Frameworks for Earth-A... MetalOrganic Frameworks for Earth-Abundant-Metal-Catalyzed CH Amination ...

  20. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R.W.; Ellis, T.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Hofer, R.J.; Branagan, D.J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g., a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g., a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g., Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B or LaNi{sub 5}) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  1. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCallum, R. William; Ellis, Timothy W.; Dennis, Kevin W.; Hofer, Robert J.; Branagan, Daniel J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g. a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g. a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g. Nd.sub.2 Fe.sub.14 B or LaNi.sub.5) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  2. New rare-earth metal germanides with bismuth substitution. Synthesis, structural variations, and magnetism of the RE[Bi{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}]{sub 2} (RE=Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu) compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jiliang; Hmiel, Benjamin; Antonelli, Anthony; Tobash, Paul H.; Bobev, Svilen; Saha, Shanta; Kirshenbaum, Kevin; Greene, Richard L.; Paglione, Johnpierre

    2012-12-15

    Single-crystals of the novel rare-earth metal-bismuth digermanides with idealized formula RE[Bi{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}]{sub 2} (RE=Y, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu; x<0.16(1)) have been obtained using the Bi-flux technique. Their structures have been established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction; they can be divided into three classes, closely related to the ZrSi{sub 2} structure with the space group Cmcm (no. 63). The structural relationship and the variations with the type of the rare-earth metal have been explored and discussed. Temperature-dependent magnetization measurements on the single-crystals reveal magnetic behavior, which have been rationalized based on the mean-field theory. At cryogenic temperatures, the localized 4f electrons in most of the compounds exhibit antiferromagnetic ordering, mediated by the conduction electrons via Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) exchange interactions. - Graphical abstract: This paper details the synthesis and the structural characterization of an extended series of rare-earth metal-bismuth-germanides RE[Bi{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}]{sub 2} (RE=Y, Pr-Sm, Gd-Tm, Lu). They crystallize with the same extended symmetry (space group Cmcm), but with three distinct structures, which are closely related. Magnetization measurements show low-temperature antiferromagnetic ordering. RE[Bi{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}]{sub 2} are the first compounds between these elements. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RE[Bi{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}]{sub 2} (RE=rare-earth metal) are the first compounds of the respective elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Their structures are closely related. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three structures can be distinguished based on the packing of the REGe{sub 6} triangular prisms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All compounds show low-temperature antiferromagnetic ordering.

  3. Multiheteromacrocycles that Complex Metal Ions. Sixth Progress Report, 1 May 1979-30 April 1980

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Cram, D. J.

    1980-01-15

    Objective is to design synthesize, and evaluate cyclic and polycyclic host organic compounds for their abilities to complex and lipophilize guest metal ions, their complexes, and their clusters. Host organic compounds consist of strategically placed solvating, coordinating, and ion-pairing sites tied together by covalent bonds through hydrocarbon units around cavities shaped to be occupied by guest metal ions or by metal ions plus their ligands. Specificity in complexation is sought by matching the following properties of host and guest: cavity and metal ion sizes; geometric arrangements of binding sites; number of binding sites; character of binding sites; and valences. During this period, hemispherands based on an aryloxy or cyclic urea unit, spherands based on aryloxyl units only, and their complexes with alkali metals and alkaline earths were investigated. An attempt to separate {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li by gel permeation chromatography of lithiospherium chloride failed. (DLC)

  4. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  5. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  6. Method for synthesizing metal bis(borano) hypophosphite complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cordaro, Joseph G.

    2013-06-18

    The present invention describes the synthesis of a family of metal bis(borano) hypophosphite complexes. One procedure described in detail is the syntheses of complexes beginning from phosphorus trichloride and sodium borohydride. Temperature, solvent, concentration, and atmosphere are all critical to ensure product formation. In the case of sodium bis(borano) hypophosphite, hydrogen gas was evolved upon heating at temperatures above 150.degree. C. Included in this family of materials are the salts of the alkali metals Li, Na and K, and those of the alkaline earth metals Mg and Ca. Hydrogen storage materials are possible. In particular the lithium salt, Li[PH.sub.2(BH.sub.3).sub.2], theoretically would contain nearly 12 wt % hydrogen. Analytical data for product characterization and thermal properties are given.

  7. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, C.L.W.

    1995-07-25

    A process is described for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO{sub 2}, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. 4 figs.

  8. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1995-01-01

    A process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification. The process involves acidifying the wastes with an oxidizing agent such as nitric acid, then adding formic acid as a reducing agent, and then mixing with glass formers to produce a melter feed. The nitric acid contributes nitrates that act as an oxidant to balance the redox of the melter feed, prevent reduction of certain species to produce conducting metals, and lower the pH of the wastes to a suitable level for melter operation. The formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury for removal by steam stripping, and MnO.sub.2 to the Mn(II) ion to prevent foaming of the glass melt. The optimum amounts of nitric acid and formic acid are determined in relation to the composition of the wastes, including the concentrations of mercury (II) and MnO.sub.2, noble metal compounds, nitrates, formates and so forth. The process minimizes the amount of hydrogen generated during treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product.

  9. Process for treating alkaline wastes for vitrification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-lin W.

    1994-01-01

    According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention is a process for treating alkaline waste materials, including high level radioactive wastes, for vitrification. The process involves adjusting the pH of the wastes with nitric acid, adding formic acid (or a process stream containing formic acid) to reduce mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2} to the Mn(II) ion, and mixing with class formers to produce a melter feed. The process minimizes production of hydrogen due to noble metal-catalyzed formic acid decomposition during, treatment, while producing a redox-balanced feed for effective melter operation and a quality glass product. An important feature of the present invention is the use of different acidifying and reducing, agents to treat the wastes. The nitric acid acidifies the wastes to improve yield stress and supplies acid for various reactions; then the formic acid reduces mercury compounds to elemental mercury and MnO{sub 2}) to the Mn(II) ion. When the pH of the waste is lower, reduction of mercury compounds and MnO{sub 2}) is faster and less formic acid is needed, and the production of hydrogen caused by catalytically-active noble metals is decreased.

  10. New Proton-Ionizable, Calixarene-Based Ligands for Selective Metal Ion Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartsch, Richard A.

    2012-06-04

    The project objective was the discovery of new ligands for performing metal ion separations. The research effort entailed the preparation of new metal ion complexing agents and polymers and their evaluation in metal ion separation processes of solvent extraction, synthetic liquid membrane transport, and sorption. Structural variations in acyclic, cyclic, and bicyclic organic ligands were used to probe their influence upon the efficiency and selectivity with which metal ion separations can be performed. A unifying feature of the ligand structures is the presence of one (or more) side arm with a pendent acidic function. When a metal ion is complexed within the central cavity of the ligand, ionization of the side arm(s) produces the requisite anion(s) for formation of an overall electroneutral complex. This markedly enhances extraction/transport efficiency for separations in which movement of aqueous phase anions of chloride, nitrate, or sulfate into an organic medium would be required. Through systematic structural variations, new ligands have been developed for efficient and selective separations of monovalent metal ions (e.g., alkali metal, silver, and thallium cations) and of divalent metal ion species (e.g., alkaline earth metal, lead, and mercury cations). Research results obtained in these fundamental investigations provide important insight for the design and development of ligands suitable for practical metal ion separation applications.

  11. Earth's Magnetosphere

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mysterious electron stash found hidden among Van Allen belts March 1, 2013 Instruments detect never-before-seen phenomenon in Earth's Magnetosphere LOS ALAMOS, N.M., March 1, 2013-U.S. researchers, including a trio from Los Alamos National Laboratory, have witnessed the mysterious appearance of a relatively long-lived zone of high-energy electrons stored between Earth's Van Allen radiation belts. The surprising findings, discovered by NASA's Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt

  12. Earth materials and earth dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, K; Shankland, T.

    2000-11-01

    In the project ''Earth Materials and Earth Dynamics'' we linked fundamental and exploratory, experimental, theoretical, and computational research programs to shed light on the current and past states of the dynamic Earth. Our objective was to combine different geological, geochemical, geophysical, and materials science analyses with numerical techniques to illuminate active processes in the Earth. These processes include fluid-rock interactions that form and modify the lithosphere, non-linear wave attenuations in rocks that drive plate tectonics and perturb the earth's surface, dynamic recrystallization of olivine that deforms the upper mantle, development of texture in high-pressure olivine polymorphs that create anisotropic velocity regions in the convecting upper mantle and transition zone, and the intense chemical reactions between the mantle and core. We measured physical properties such as texture and nonlinear elasticity, equation of states at simultaneous pressures and temperatures, magnetic spins and bonding, chemical permeability, and thermal-chemical feedback to better characterize earth materials. We artificially generated seismic waves, numerically modeled fluid flow and transport in rock systems and modified polycrystal plasticity theory to interpret measured physical properties and integrate them into our understanding of the Earth. This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  13. Induction slag reduction process for making titanium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Traut, Davis E.

    1991-01-01

    Continuous process for preparing titanium comprising fluorinating titanium ore, and reducing the formed alkaline earth fluotitanate with an alkaline earth metal in an induction slag reactor.

  14. Earth Day 2016

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Earth Day 2016 event details and links. Earth Day video montage and Earth Day Nationals video link. Earth Day photo contest.

  15. Magnetite solubility and phase stability in alkaline media at...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    stability in alkaline media at elevated temperatures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Magnetite solubility and phase stability in alkaline media at elevated ...

  16. Influence of alkaline co-contaminants on technetium mobility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Influence of alkaline co-contaminants on technetium mobility in vadose zone sediments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of alkaline co-contaminants on technetium ...

  17. Improved method for preparing rare earth sesquichalcogenides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takeshita, T.; Beaudry, B.J.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1982-04-14

    An improved method for the preparation of high purity rare earth sesquichalcogenides is described. The rare earth, as one or more pieces of the metal, is sealed under a vacuum with a stoichiometric amount of sulfur or selenium and a small amount of iodine into a quartz reaction vessel. The sealed vessel is then heated to above the vaporization temperature of the chalcogen and below the melting temperature of the rare earth metal and maintained until the product has been formed. The iodine is then vaporized off leaving a pure product. The rare earth sulfides and selenides thus formed are useful as semiconductors and as thermoelectric generators. 3 tables.

  18. Aljazeera story on rare earths features Alex King | The Ames...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Aljazeera story on rare earths features Alex King Aljazeera America recently did a story on the demand and scarcity of rare-earth metals and spoke to Ames Laboratory scientist and...

  19. Molten metal reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-11-05

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  20. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Report and presentations from a workshop on alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) held May 8–9, 2011, before the 2011 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Annual Merit Review, at Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia.

  1. Alkaline tolerant dextranase from streptomyces anulatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Decker, Stephen R. (Berthoud, CO); Adney, William S. (Golden, CO); Vinzant, Todd B. (Golden, CO); Himmel, Michael E. (Littleton, CO)

    2003-01-01

    A process for production of an alkaline tolerant dextranase enzyme comprises culturing a dextran-producing microorganism Streptomyces anulatus having accession no. ATCC PTA-3866 to produce an alkaline tolerant dextranase, Dex 1 wherein the protein in said enzyme is characterized by a MW of 63.3 kDa and Dex 2 wherein its protein is characterized by a MW of 81.8 kDa.

  2. 2016 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sheraton Grand Phoenix, 340 N. 3 rd St, Phoenix, AZ 85004 Rooms: Estrella (Main), Ahwatukee A and B (Breakouts) Organized by National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory Sponsored by U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office OBJECTIVE: The Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop will share information and identify the current status and the research and development needs for Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell (AMFC) technology. The goals, building on prior workshop

  3. Real-time materials evolution visualized within intact cycling alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallaway, JW; Erdonmez, CK; Zhong, Z; Croft, M; Sviridov, LA; Sholklapper, TZ; Turney, DE; Banerjee, S; Steingart, DA

    2014-01-01

    The scientific community has focused on the problem of inexpensive, safe, and sustainable large-scale electrical energy storage, which is needed for a number of emerging societal reasons such as stabilizing intermittent renewables-based generation like solar and wind power. The materials used for large-scale storage will need to be low cost, earth-abundant, and safe at the desired scale. The Zn-MnO2 "alkaline" battery chemistry is associated with one-time use, despite being rechargeable. This is due to material irreversibilities that can be triggered in either the anode or cathode. However, as Zn and MnO2 have high energy density and low cost, they are economically attractive even at limited depth of discharge. As received, a standard bobbin-type alkaline cell costs roughly $20 per kW h. The U. S. Department of Energy ARPA-E $100 per kW h cost target for grid storage is thus close to the cost of alkaline consumer primary cells if re-engineered and/or cycled at 5-20% nominal capacity. Herein we use a deeply-penetrating in situ technique to observe ZnO precipitation near the separator in an alkaline cell anode cycled at 5% DOD, which is consistent with cell failures observed at high cycle life. Alkaline cells designed to avoid such causes of cell failure could serve as a low-cost baseload for large-scale storage.

  4. 2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 06 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report 2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report Workshop report from the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. This report highlights specific aspects of the workshop and reports on general consensus (and dissent) of the joint session. The findings and key recommendations of individual breakout groups from the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop are also reported. 2006 Alkaline

  5. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report Report from the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop held May 8-9, 2011, in Arlington, Virginia. The body of the report focuses on the discussion that occurred within breakout sessions. The Executive Summary presents a few select highlights from each session. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report (629.13 KB) More Documents & Publications 2011 Alkaline Membrane

  6. Metal ion complexation by ionizable crown ethers. Final report, January 1, 1988--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartsch, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    During the report period a variety of new lipophilic ionizable crown ethers with pendent proton-ionizable groups has been synthesized. The ligands possess one or more ionizable group (carboxylic acid, phosphonic acid monoethyl ester, para-nitrophenol, phosphonic acid) attached to crown ether, monoazacrown ether or diazacrown ether frameworks. These novel chelating agents have either pendent or inward-facing proton-ionizable groups. Such lipophilic proton-ionizable crown ethers are designed for use in multiphase metal ion separations (solvent extraction, liquid membrane transport). In addition a series of proton-ionizable crown ethers without lipophilic groups was prepared to study how structural variations within the ligand influence metal ion complexation in homogeneous media as assessed by NMR spectroscopy or titration calorimetry. A third class of new metal ion-complexing agents is a series of lipophilic acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids. Competitive solvent extractions of alkali metal and alkaline earth cations and of the mixed species have been conducted to reveal the influence of ring size, nature and attachment site of the lipophilic group, sidearm length, and proton-ionizable group identity and location upon the selectivity and efficiency of metal ion complexation. In addition to such studies of structural variation within the lipophilic proton-ionizable crown ether, the effect of changing the organic solvent and variation of the stripping conditions have been assessed. The influence of structural variations within lipophilic acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids upon competitive solvent extraction of alkaline earth cations has been probed. Also a new chromogenic, di-ionizable crown ether with extremely high selectivity for Hg{sup 2+} has been discovered.

  7. Method of CO and/or CO.sub.2 hydrogenation using doped mixed-metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shekhawat, Dushyant; Berry, David A.; Haynes, Daniel J.; Abdelsayed, Victor; Smith, Mark W.; Spivey, James J.

    2015-10-06

    A method of hydrogenation utilizing a reactant gas mixture comprising a carbon oxide and a hydrogen agent, and a hydrogenation catalyst comprising a mixed-metal oxide containing metal sites supported and/or incorporated into the lattice. The mixed-metal oxide comprises a perovskite, a pyrochlore, a fluorite, a brownmillerite, or mixtures thereof doped at the A-site or the B-site. The metal site may comprise a deposited metal, where the deposited metal is a transition metal, an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, or mixtures thereof. Contact between the carbon oxide, hydrogen agent, and hydrogenation catalyst under appropriate conditions of temperature, pressure and gas flow rate generate a hydrogenation reaction and produce a hydrogenated product made up of carbon from the carbon oxide and some portion of the hydrogen agent. The carbon oxide may be CO, CO.sub.2, or mixtures thereof and the hydrogen agent may be H.sub.2. In a particular embodiment, the hydrogenated product comprises an alcohol, an olefin, an aldehyde, a ketone, an ester, an oxo-product, or mixtures thereof.

  8. Google Earth Tour: Contaminants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Google Earth Tour: Contaminants Google Earth Tour: Contaminants Historical operations used the best available waste handling methods for that time.

  9. Negative Electrode For An Alkaline Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coco, Isabelle; Cocciantelli, Jean-Michel; Villenave, Jean-Jacques

    1998-07-14

    The present invention concerns a negative electrode for an alkaline cell, comprising a current collector supporting a paste containing an electrochemically active material and a binder, characterized in that said binder is a polymer containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, said polymer being selected from an acrylic homopolymer, copolymer and terpolymer, an unsaturated organic acid copolymer and an unsaturated acid anhydride copolymer.

  10. CADMIUM-RARE EARTH BORATE GLASS AS REACTOR CONTROL MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ploetz, G.L.; Ray, W.E.

    1958-11-01

    A reactor control rod fabricated from a cadmiumrare earth-borate glass is presented. The rare earth component of this glass is selected from among those rare earths having large neutron capture cross sections, such as samarium, gadolinium or europium. Partlcles of this glass are then dispersed in a metal matrix by standard powder metallurgy techniques.

  11. 2016 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop 2016 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) hosted the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop on April 1, 2016, in Phoenix, Arizona. Sponsored by the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office, the workshop brought together experts to share information and identify the current status and research and development needs for alkaline membrane fuel

  12. What are the Rare Earths? | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    What are the Rare Earths? Rare-earth metals or elements typically include scandium (Sc-21), yttrium (Y-39) and the lanthanides: lanthanum (La-57), cerium (Ce-58), praseodymium (Pr-59), neodymium (Nd-60), promethium (Pm-61), samarium (Sm-62), europium (Eu-63), gadolinium (Gd-64), terbium (Tb-65), dysprosium (Dy-66), holmium (Ho-67), erbium (Er-68), thulium (Tm-69), ytterbium (Yb-70), and lutetium (Lu-71). When alloyed with other metals, the rare-earths can provide enhanced magnetic, strength and

  13. Porous metallic bodies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.

    1984-03-13

    Porous metallic bodies having a substantially uniform pore size of less than about 200 microns and a density of less than about 25 percent theoretical, as well as the method for making them, are disclosed. Group IIA, IIIB, IVB, VB, and rare earth metal hydrides a

  14. Correlating the hydrogen evolution reaction activity in alkaline electrolytes with the hydrogen binding energy on monometallic surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, WC; Myint, M; Chen, JGG; Yan, YS

    2013-05-01

    The slow reaction kinetics of the hydrogen evolution and oxidation reactions (HER/HOR) on platinum in alkaline electrolytes hinders the development of alkaline electrolysers, solar hydrogen cells and alkaline fuel cells. A fundamental understanding of the exchange current density of the HER/HOR in alkaline media is critical for the search and design of highly active electrocatalysts. By studying the HER on a series of monometallic surfaces, we demonstrate that the HER exchange current density in alkaline solutions can be correlated with the calculated hydrogen binding energy (HBE) on the metal surfaces via a volcano type of relationship. The HER activity varies by several orders of magnitude from Pt at the peak of the plot to W and Au located on the bottom of each side of the plot, similar to the observation in acids. Such a correlation suggests that the HBE can be used as a descriptor for identifying electrocatalysts for HER/HOR in alkaline media, and that the HER exchange current density can be tuned by modifying the surface chemical properties.

  15. Electrocatalysis in Alkaline Electrolytes - Research Overview

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Sanjeev Mukerjee Nagappan Ramaswamy, Qinggang He, Daniel Abbott, and Michael Bates Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 Electrocatalysis in Alkaline Electrolytes - Research Overview AMFC Workshop Seminar - May 8, 2011 Acidic pH Alkaline pH 1e - + 1H + C H H 3 C Pt OH OH 2 CH 3 CH 2 OH Pt 1e - + 1H + Pt C O H 3 C Pt C O H 3 C H OH 2 Pt O H Pt O C O H 3 C + H H C O H 3 C O Pt 1e - + 1H + -H 2 at low coord Pt Pt CH x Pt C O CO 2 Pt 2OH 111 sites O H

  16. Modeling Magnetism in Rare-Earth Intermetallic Materials | The Ames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Modeling Magnetism in Rare-Earth Intermetallic Materials Theoretical modeling has led to a key development in our understanding of the deeply complex magnetic properties in a series of rare-earth intermetallic materials. Rare-earth elements are unique in that their cores hold strongly localized electrons that underpin their novel magnetic properties. When combined with transition metals, rare earths become technologically-useful intermetallic materials. Here gadolinium-an element

  17. Liquidus temperature and chemical durability of selected glasses to immobilize rare earth oxides waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani Binti; Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.

    2015-06-30

    Pyroprocessing is a reprocessing method for managing and reusing used nuclear fuel (UNF) by dissolving it in an electrorefiner with a molten alkali or alkaline earth chloride salt mixture while avoiding wet reprocessing. Pyroprocessing UNF with a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt releases the fission products from the fuel and generates a variety of metallic and salt-based species, including rare earth (RE) chlorides. If the RE-chlorides are converted to oxides, borosilicate glass is a prime candidate for their immobilization because of its durability and ability to dissolve almost any RE waste component into the matrix at high loadings. Crystallization that occurs in waste glasses as the waste loading increases may complicate glass processing and affect the product quality. This work compares three types of borosilicate glasses in terms of liquidus temperature (TL): the International Simple Glass designed by the International Working Group, sodium borosilicate glass developed by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, and the lanthanide aluminoborosilicate (LABS) glass established in the United States. The LABS glass allows the highest waste loadings (over 50 mass% RE2O3) while possessing an acceptable chemical durability.

  18. Alkaline solution/binder ratio as a determining factor in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruiz-Santaquiteria, C.; Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A.

    2012-09-15

    This study investigates the effect of the alkaline solution/binder (S/B) ratio on the composition and nanostructure of the reaction products generated in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates. The experiments used two mixtures of fly ash and dehydroxylated white clay and for each of these, varying proportions of the solution components. The alkali activator was an 8 M NaOH solution (with and without sodium silicate) used at three S/B ratios: 0.50, 0.75 and 1.25. The {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and XRD characterisation of the reaction products reveal that for ratios nearest the value delivering suitable paste workability, the reaction-product composition and structure depend primarily on the nature and composition of the starting materials and the alkaline activator used. However, when an excess alkaline activator is present in the system, the reaction products tend to exhibit SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of approximately 1, irrespective of the composition of the starting binder or the alkaline activator.

  19. Composition and isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of alkaline arc lavas: Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, A.K.; Hart, S.R.; Frey, F.A. )

    1990-05-10

    The SiO{sub 2}-undersaturated lavas from Lihir island, Papua New Guinea, like most arc lavas are highly enriched in Sr, Ba, K, Rb, and Cc and depleted in Hf, Ta, Nb, and Ti relative to ocean floor basalts and oceanic island basalts. These alkali-rich lavas have arc trace element signatures and Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic systematics. However, they are not a product of present-day subduction, as this volcanism has tapped mantle which was enriched by prior subduction episodes. The narrow range of Pb isotopic compositions suggest a cogenetic origin for these lavas. During the fractionation of the primitive Lihir lavas, elements normally considered incompatible (i.e., the light rare earth elements (LREE), Rb, Th, and P) have high bulk solid/melt partition coefficients (0.15-1.5). Relatively higher partition coefficients during formation of the evolved lavas produced crossing rare earth element (REE) patterns, and primitive lavas have higher incompatible elements abundances than evolved lavas. The Lihir lavas have lower alkali, Sr, Ba, K, Rb, Cs, and LREE abundances than other Tabar-Feni lavas. They are derived from a less enriched mantle source rather than by a higher degree of melting of a source similar to that of the other islands. The similarity of Sm/Nd ratios of these undersaturated arc lavas to those of tholeiitic and calc-alkaline arc lavas and the moderate chondrite-normalized La/Yb (la/Yb{sub cn} = 3-7) indicates that there has been limited enrichment of the LREE relative to the heavy REE during generation of the arc-modified source mantle. The alkaline nature of these lavas reflects their generation, in a tensional tectonic environment, from a fossil arc mantle region that has undergone extreme arc enrichment of alkali and alkaline earth elements during two earlier subduction episodes.

  20. Computational Earth Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Computational Earth Science We develop and apply a range of high-performance computational methods and software tools to Earth science projects in support of environmental ...

  1. Google Earth Tour: Contaminants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Google Earth Tour: Contaminants Google Earth Tour: Contaminants Historical operations used the best available waste handling methods for that time. Open full screen to view more...

  2. Earth and Environmental Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EES Earth and Environmental Sciences (EES) Sustainable energy, climate impacts, nuclear threat detection, and environmental management are primary focus areas of earth and...

  3. Enhanced pinning in mixed rare earth-123 films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driscoll, Judith L.; Foltyn, Stephen R.

    2009-06-16

    An superconductive article and method of forming such an article is disclosed, the article including a substrate and a layer of a rare earth barium cuprate film upon the substrate, the rare earth barium cuprate film including two or more rare earth metals capable of yielding a superconductive composition where ion size variance between the two or more rare earth metals is characterized as greater than zero and less than about 10.times.10.sup.-4, and the rare earth barium cuprate film including two or more rare earth metals is further characterized as having an enhanced critical current density in comparison to a standard YBa.sub.2Cu.sub.3O.sub.y composition under identical testing conditions.

  4. Parasitic corrosion resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O.sub.2 cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, Richard W.; Smith, David F.

    1983-01-01

    A consumable metal anode which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

  5. Parasitic corrosion-resistant anode for use in metal/air or metal/O/sub 2/ cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joy, R.W.; Smith, D.F.

    1982-09-20

    A consumable metal anode is described which is used in refuelable electrochemical cells and wherein at least a peripheral edge portion of the anode is protected against a corrosive alkaline environment of the cell by the application of a thin metal coating, the coating being formed of metals such as nickel, silver, and gold.

  6. Earth coupled cooling techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grondzik, W.T.; Boyer, L.L.; Johnston, T.L.

    1981-01-01

    Earth coupled cooling is an important consideration for residential and commercial designers, owners, and builders in many regions of the country. The potential benefits which can be expected from passive earth contact cooling are reviewed. Recommendations for the design of earth sheltered structures incorporating earth coupled cooling strategies are also presented.

  7. CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CoolEarth formerly Cool Earth Solar Jump to: navigation, search Name: CoolEarth (formerly Cool Earth Solar) Place: Livermore, California Zip: 94550 Product: CoolEarth is a...

  8. Earth, Space Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Earth, Space Sciences Earth, Space Sciences National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling (COSIM)» Earth and Environmental Sciences Division» Intelligence and Space Research» Earth Read caption + A team of scientists is working to understand how local changes in hydrology might bring about

  9. Electrocatalysis in Alkaline Electrolytes - Research Overview...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    VA PDF icon amfc110811mukerjee.pdf More Documents & Publications Saving the Fuel Cell Dream: Making Non Noble Metal Electrocatalysts a Reality? Fuel Cells: Just a Dream...

  10. Fluorinated Precursors of Superconducting Ceramics - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a rare earth, an alkaline earth, and copper in solution, spraying the solution onto a ... salt, an alkaline earth metal salt and a copper salt; spraying the solution onto a ...

  11. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Welcome and OverviewInnovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation at the AMFC Workshop, May 8, 2011, Arlington, VA. PDF icon amfc050811pivovar.pdf More Documents & Publications Anion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells 2006 Alkaline ...

  12. OSTIblog Articles in the alkaline membrane cells Topic | OSTI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    alkaline membrane cells Topic Fine tuning fuel cells by Kathy Chambers 14 Jun, 2012 in Products and Content 4314 ballardfuelcellcaption.jpg Fine tuning fuel cells Read more ...

  13. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline ... Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; PH VALUE; MEASURING ...

  14. Laminated rare earth structure and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senor, David J [West Richland, WA; Johnson, Roger N [Richland, WA; Reid, Bruce D [Pasco, WA; Larson, Sandra [Richland, WA

    2002-07-30

    A laminated structure having two or more layers, wherein at least one layer is a metal substrate and at least one other layer is a coating comprising at least one rare earth element. For structures having more than two layers, the coating and metal substrate layers alternate. In one embodiment of the invention, the structure is a two-layer laminate having a rare earth coating electrospark deposited onto a metal substrate. In another embodiment of the invention, the structure is a three-layer laminate having the rare earth coating electrospark deposited onto a first metal substrate and the coating subsequently abonded to a second metal substrate. The bonding of the coating to the second metal substrate may be accomplished by hot pressing, hot rolling, high deformation rate processing, or combinations thereof. The laminated structure may be used in nuclear components where reactivity control or neutron absorption is desired and in non-nuclear applications such as magnetic and superconducting films.

  15. Removal of plutonium and americium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1979-01-01

    High salt content, alkaline waste solutions containing plutonium and americium are contacted with a sodium titanate compound to effect removal of the plutonium and americium from the alkaline waste solution onto the sodium titanate and provide an effluent having a radiation level of less than 10 nCi per gram alpha emitters.

  16. Argonne's Earth Day 2011

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19

    Argonne celebrated Earth Day on April 21, 2011 with an event that featured green activities and information booths.

  17. Earth System Processes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    earth system processes Earth System Processes Cosmogenic isotopes are rare isotopes created when a high-energy cosmic ray interacts with the nucleus of an atom, causing cosmic ray spallation. These isotopes are produced within earth materials such as rocks or soil, in Earth's atmosphere, and in extraterrestrial items such as meteorites. By measuring cosmogenic isotopes, scientists are able to gain insight into a range of geological and astronomical processes. Cosmogenic nuclides can provide a

  18. Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

  19. Rare Earth Elements Home Page

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rare Earth Elements Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal By-Products logo. Download the 2016 Rare Earth Elements from Coal and Coal By-Products Project Portfolio Rare Earth ...

  20. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ALKALI METALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolkoff, J.

    1961-08-15

    A process is described of recovering alkali metal vapor by sorption on activated alumina, activated carbon, dehydrated zeolite, activated magnesia, or Fuller's earth preheated above the vaporization temperature of the alkali metal and subsequent desorption by heating the solvent under vacuum. (AEC)

  1. Crystalline rare-earth activated oxyorthosilicate phosphor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McClellan, Kenneth J.; Cooke, D. Wayne

    2004-02-10

    Crystalline, transparent, rare-earth activated lutetium oxyorthosilicate phosphor. The phosphor consists essentially of lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Lu(.sub.2-x-z)Y.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor also consists essentially of lutetium gadolinium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Lu(.sub.2-x-z)Gd.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor also consists essentially of gadolinium yttrium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Gd(.sub.2-x-z)Y.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor may be optically coupled to a photodetector to provide a radiation detector.

  2. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  3. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  4. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  5. Earth and Environmental Sciences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reveal climate change drivers and ecosystem impacts Perfect geological greenhouse gas ... Advanced computational Earth sciences Atmospheric, climate and ecosystem science Geology ...

  6. Happy Earth Day 2011!

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Check out these resources from the Department of Energy to help you celebrate, get in the Earth Day spirit, and take action.

  7. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline ... can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. ...

  8. Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A workshop on alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFC) was held May 8-9, 2011, before the 2011 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Annual Merit Review, at Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, ...

  9. Solvent Extraction of Tc and Cs from Alkaline Nitrate Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, T J.; Sachleben, R A.; Leonard, R A.; Conner, C; Lumetta, Gregg J. ); M. Cox, M. Hidalgo, and M. Valiente

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes progress at three collaborating U.S. national laboratories on the extraction of the fission products 99Tc and 137Cs from alkaline high-level wastes. Efficient economical processes for Tc and Cs extraction (SRTALK and alkaline-side CSEX, respectively) have been developed, and testing has progressed through batch tests on actual wastes and continuous counter-current centrifugal-contactor tests on simulants.

  10. Solvent Extraction of Tc and Cs from Alkaline Nitrate Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Conner, C.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Leonard, R.A.; Lumetta, G.J.; Moyer, B.A.; Sachleben, R.A.

    1999-07-11

    This paper summarizes progress at three collaborating US national laboratories on the extraction of the fission products {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline high-level wastes (HLW). Efficient, economical processes for Tc and Cs extraction (SRTALK and alkaline-side CSEX, respectively) have been developed, and testing has progressed through batch tests on actual wastes and continuous countercurrent centrifugal-contactor tests on simulants.

  11. Advanced Catalysts and MEAs for Reversible Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalysts and MEAs for Reversible Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells Hui Xu (PI) Giner Inc Newton, MA This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information DOE Catalyst Work Group Meeting June 8, 2015 2 Barriers Addressed * Activity (catalyst; MEA) * Durability (catalyst; MEA) * Cost (catalyst; MEA) Technical Targets * Design and develop ORR/OER bi-functional oxide catalysts * Integrate ORR/OER bifunctional oxide catalysts and alkaline membranes to

  12. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report B. Pivovar National Renewable Energy Laboratory Proceedings from the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Arlington, Virginia May 8-9, 2011 Workshop Proceedings NREL/BK-5600-54297 February 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401

  13. Cool Earth Solar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2013-04-22

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  14. Cool Earth Solar

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Lamkin, Rob; McIlroy, Andy; Swalwell, Eric; Rajan, Kish

    2014-02-26

    In a public-private partnership that takes full advantage of the Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC) for the first time, Sandia National Laboratories and Cool Earth Solar have signed an agreement that could make solar energy more affordable and accessible. In this piece, representatives from Sandia, Cool Earth Solar, and leaders in California government all discuss the unique partnership and its expected impact.

  15. Earth Day 2016

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    April 22, 2016 is the forty-sixth anniversary of the founding of Earth Day which marked the beginning of the modern environmental movement. The Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (AU) is leading DOE’s coordinated Earth Day celebrations at the Forrestal DOE Headquarters Building in Washington, D.C.

  16. Advanced alkaline water electrolysis. Task 2 summary report. Model for alkaline water electrolysis systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaffe, M.R.; Murray, J.N.

    1980-04-01

    Task 2 involved the establishment of an engineering and economic model for the evaluation of various options in water electrolysis. The mode, verification of the specific coding and four case studies are described. The model was tested by evaluation of a nearly commercial technology, i.e., an 80-kW alkaline electrolyte system, operating at 60/sup 0/C, which delivers approximately 255 SLM, hydrogen for applications such as electrical generation cooling or semiconductor manufacturing. The calculated cost of hydrogen from this installed non-optimized case system with an initial cost to the customer of $87,000 was $6.99/Kg H/sub 2/ ($1.67/100 SCF) on a 20-yr levelized basis using 2.5 cents/kWh power costs. This compares favorably to a levelized average merchant hydrogen cost value of $9.11/Kg H/sub 2/ ($2.17/100 SCF) calculated using the same program.

  17. Rare earth gas laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-10-31

    A high energy gas laser with light output in the infrared or visible region of the spectrum is described. Laser action is obtained by generating vapors of rare earth halides, particularly neodymium iodide or, to a lesser extent, neodymium bromide, and disposing the rare earth vapor medium in a resonant cavity at elevated temperatures; e.g., approximately 1200/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/K. A particularly preferred gaseous medium is one involving a complex of aluminum chloride and neodymium chloride, which exhibits tremendously enhanced vapor pressure compared to the rare earth halides per se, and provides comparable increases in stored energy densities.

  18. LANL Studies Earth's Magnetosphere

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Daughton, Bill

    2014-08-12

    A new 3-D supercomputer model presents a new theory of how magnetic reconnection works in high-temperature plasmas. This Los Alamos National Laboratory research supports an upcoming NASA mission to study Earth's magnetosphere in greater detail than ever.

  19. Earth-Abundant Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE funds research into Earth-abundant materials for thin-film solar applications in response to the issue of materials scarcity surrounding other photovoltaic (PV) technologies. The sections below...

  20. Earth System Observations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Earth System Observations Research comprises Earth, ocean, and atmospheric sciences to better understand and predict climate change's impact on ecosystems and to study subsurface geological materials and their interactions. Deploying research facilities globally Forecasting forests' responses to climate change Monitoring terrestrial ecosystems Contact Us Group Leader Claudia Mora Email Deputy Group Leader Bob Roback Email Profile pages header Search our Profile pages Investigating carbon

  1. Lab celebrates Earth Day

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab celebrates Earth Day Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Lab celebrates Earth Day Multiple activities focus on environmental protection. May 1, 2013 A team from Industrial Hygiene and Safety during the Great Garbage Grab A team from Industrial Hygiene and Safety during the Great Garbage Grab. Contact Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office Kurt Steinhaus

  2. Unveiled: Earth's Viral Diversity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unveiled: Earth's Viral Diversity Unveiled: Earth's Viral Diversity NERSC Resources Help Researchers Identify 125,000 New Viral Sequences in Environmental Datasets August 17, 2016 Contact: David Gilbert, degilbert@lbl.gov, 925-296-5643 virome graphic art by Z Rostomian LBNL DOE JGI researchers utilized the largest collection of assembled metagenomic datasets from around the world to uncover over 125,000 partial and complete viral genomes, the majority of them infecting microbes. Graphic by Zosia

  3. Computational Earth Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 Computational Earth Science We develop and apply a range of high-performance computational methods and software tools to Earth science projects in support of environmental health, cleaner energy, and national security. Contact Us Group Leader Carl Gable Deputy Group Leader Gilles Bussod Email Profile pages header Search our Profile pages Hari Viswanathan inspects a microfluidic cell used to study the extraction of hydrocarbon fuels from a complex fracture network. EES-16's Subsurface Flow

  4. Current distributions and dissolution mechanisms during localized corrosion of steels in alkaline environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaacs, H.S.; Ryan, M.P.; Virtanen, S.; Schmuki, P.

    1997-12-31

    In situ corrosion investigations of iron were carried out in alkaline environments to determine the stages of corrosion that may be encountered with steels in concrete. The electrochemical and chemical processes taking place on Fe have been studied using x-ray absorption, current density mapping of the iron surface and artificial pits. The x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy was used to observe the conversion of Fe to oxide in hydroxide solutions. The oxide formed was electrochemically active and changes in valence states between 2+ and 3+ were observed during electrochemical cycling between the passive state and hydrogen evolution. The oxide continued to thicken during the cycling with very little dissolution or any conversion back to the metallic state. Current density mapping in chloride/hydroxide solution showed that corrosion took place in highly localized areas confined by the formation of a corrosion product shell. The activity within the shell decayed on removing a supporting cathodic area limiting but reactivated on its replacement. Artificial pits were used to study the anodic processes taking place within the region confined by the corrosion product shell. The local pH and anodic behavior were similar to that observed in neutral or slightly acid bulk solutions. The dissolution within the artificial pits in alkaline bulk solutions was found to be sensitive to the presence of small-quantities of nitrite.

  5. Syntheses, structure and rare earth metal photoluminescence of new and known isostructural A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohitkar, Shrikant A.; Kalpana, G.; Vidyasagar, K.

    2011-04-15

    Nine new A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) compounds have been synthesized by solid-state reactions. They are isostructural with six reported analogues of yttrium and other lanthanides and the monoclinic unit cell parameters of all fifteen of them vary linearly with the size of A{sup 3+} ion. Single crystal X-ray structures of eight A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds have been determined. Neat A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds exhibit characteristic rare earth metal photoluminescence. -- Graphical abstract: Among the fifteen isostructural A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=rare earth metal) molybdoantimonites, eight (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds exhibit neat characteristic lanthanide photoluminescence in the 200-800 nm range at room temperature. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Syntheses of nine new A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Eu, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) compounds. {yields} X-ray structures of eight A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Ce, Pr, Eu, Gd, Tb, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds. {yields} Photoluminescence of neat A{sub 2}Mo{sub 4}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 18} (A=Pr, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) compounds.

  6. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): Recovery of metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Current iron recovery techniques using red mud are depicted. • Advantages and disadvantages exist in different recovering processes. • Economic and environmental friendly integrated usage of red mud is promising. - Abstract: Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  7. Effect of pre-oxidation and environmental aging on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealing glass with metallic interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2008-09-15

    A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two ferritic stainless steel coupons for strength evaluation. The steel coupons were pre-oxidized at elevated temperatures to promote thick oxide layers to simulate long-term exposure conditions. In addition, seals to as-received metal coupons were also tested after aging in oxidizing or reducing environments to simulate the actual SOFC environment. Room temperature tensile testing showed strength degradation when using pre-oxidized coupons, and more extensive degradation after aging in air. Fracture surface and microstructural analysis confirmed that the cause of degradation was formation of SrCrO4 at the outer sealing edges exposed to air.

  8. Alkaline solution absorption of carbon dioxide method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of hydroxides (or pH) in alkaline solutions, using the tendency of hydroxides to adsorb CO{sub 2}. The method comprises passing CO{sub 2} over the surface of an alkaline solution in a remote tank before and after measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration. Comparison of the measurements yields the adsorption fraction from which the hydroxide concentration can be calculated using a correlation of hydroxide or pH to adsorption fraction. A schematic is given of a process system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention. 2 figs.

  9. Alkaline Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (AEM-FC) Status

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alkaline Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (AEM-FC) Status Dario R. Dekel Associate Professor Wolfson Department of Chemical Engineering Grand Technion Energy Program (GTEP) Technion - Israel Institute of Technology dario@technion.ac.il 2016 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Sheraton Grand Phoenix Phoenix, AZ - April 1, 2016 Early days in AEM-FC 153mm 78mm 51mm 4mg/cm 2 PtRu, 4mg/cm 2 Pt black, RH=100%, H 2 / O 2  0.8V @80mA/cm 2 (130mW/cm 2 ) Dario R. Dekel Varcoe et al., Chem. Mater.

  10. Behavior of actinide ions during sludge washing of alkaline radioactive.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, A. H.; Nash, K. L.; Gelis, A. V.; Jensen, M. P.; Sullivan, J. C.; Rao, L.

    1999-11-15

    It is difficult to accurately predict actinide behavior during the alkaline leaching of Hanford's radioactive sludges due to the diverse chemical and radiolytic conditions existing in these wastes. The results of Pu dissolution during experimental washing of sludge simulants from the BiPO{sub 4} Redox, and PUREX processes shows that {le} 2.l% Pu is dissolved during contact with alkaline media, but up to 65.5% Pu may be dissolved in acidic media. The dissolution of Cr, Fe, Nd, and Mn has also been observed, and the results of solid state, radioanalytical, and spectroscopic investigations are detailed.

  11. SEPARATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS FROM RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohman, T.P.

    1961-11-21

    A process of separating neptunium and plutonium values from rare earths and alkaline earth fission products present on a solid mixed actinide carrier (Th or U(IV) oxalate or fluoride) --fission product carrier (LaF/sub 3/, CeF/sub 3/, SrF/sub 2/, CaF/sub 2/, YF/sub 3/, La oxalate, cerous oxalate, Sr oxalate, Ca oxalate or Y oxalate) by extraction of the actinides at elevated temperature with a solution of ammonium fluoride and/or ammonium oxalate is described. Separation of the fission-product-containing carriers from the actinide solution formed and precipitation of the neptunium and plutonium from the solution with mineral acid are also accomplished. (AEC)

  12. Good Earths and Rare Earths | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Good Earths and Rare Earths Good Earths and Rare Earths April 20, 2011 - 6:17pm Addthis Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Communications Specialist (detailee) What does this mean for me? Rare earth elements -- dysprosium, neodymium, terbium, europium and yttrium -- are essential to a wide range of green energy technologies ranging from windmills to electric vehicles One of their primary uses is in permanent magnets, which amount to over a $4 billion global industry Ames Laboratory

  13. Modeling the earth system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojima, D.

    1992-12-31

    The 1990 Global Change Institute (GCI) on Earth System Modeling is the third of a series organized by the Office for Interdisciplinary Earth Studies to look in depth at particular issues critical to developing a better understanding of the earth system. The 1990 GCI on Earth System Modeling was organized around three themes: defining critical gaps in the knowledge of the earth system, developing simplified working models, and validating comprehensive system models. This book is divided into three sections that reflect these themes. Each section begins with a set of background papers offering a brief tutorial on the subject, followed by working group reports developed during the institute. These reports summarize the joint ideas and recommendations of the participants and bring to bear the interdisciplinary perspective that imbued the institute. Since the conclusion of the 1990 Global Change Institute, research programs, nationally and internationally, have moved forward to implement a number of the recommendations made at the institute, and many of the participants have maintained collegial interactions to develop research projects addressing the needs identified during the two weeks in Snowmass.

  14. At 85, Mr. Rare Earth is Retiring | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    At 85, Mr. Rare Earth is Retiring At 85, Mr. Rare Earth is Retiring February 19, 2016 - 11:00am Addthis We first talked to Dr. Gschneider back in 2013 for one of our <a href="/node/609731">"10 Questions with a Scientist"</a> blogs. Today he looks back at over 60 years of studying rare earth metals. We first talked to Dr. Gschneider back in 2013 for one of our "10 Questions with a Scientist" blogs. Today he looks back at over 60 years of studying rare

  15. Rare-earth-free magnet made from cheap materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rare-earth-free magnet Rare-earth-free magnet made from cheap materials Researchers create a powerful permanent magnet out of iron and nitrogen as part of a program to cut the need for rare-earth metals May 17, 2016 Mars (a) 2 × 1016/cm2 fluence, embedded dots can be observed (rich N region), with a diameter of 20 nm, separated by 140 to 200 nm; (b) 8 × 1016/cm2 fluence, besides embedded dots, obvious cracks appeared; (c) 1 × 1017/cm2 fluence, an obvious microstructure is generated, with

  16. SEPARATION OF METAL SALTS BY ADSORPTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.

    1959-01-20

    It has been found that certain metal salts, particularly the halides of iron, cobalt, nickel, and the actinide metals, arc readily absorbed on aluminum oxide, while certain other salts, particularly rare earth metal halides, are not so absorbed. Use is made of this discovery to separate uranium from the rare earths. The metal salts are first dissolved in a molten mixture of alkali metal nitrates, e.g., the eutectic mixture of lithium nitrate and potassium nitrate, and then the molten salt solution is contacted with alumina, either by slurrying or by passing the salt solution through an absorption tower. The process is particularly valuable for the separation of actinides from lanthanum-group rare earths.

  17. Effects of Aging on PuO2?xH2O Particle Size in Alkaline Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.

    2013-05-01

    Between 1944 and 1989, 54.5 metric tons of the United States weapons-grade plutonium and an additional 12.9 metric tons of fuel-grade plutonium were produced and separated from irradiated fuel at the Hanford Site. Acidic high-activity wastes containing around 600 kg of plutonium were made alkaline and discharged to underground storage tanks from separations, isolation, and recycle processes to yield average plutonium concentration of about 0.003 grams per liter (or ~0.0002 wt%) in the ~200 million liter tank waste volume. The plutonium is largely associated with low-solubility metal hydroxide/oxide sludges where its low concentration and intimate mixture with neutron-absorbing elements (e.g., iron) are credited in nuclear criticality safety. However, concerns have been expressed that plutonium, in the form of plutonium hydrous oxide, PuO2?xH2O, could undergo sufficient crystal growth through dissolution and reprecipitation in the alkaline tank waste to potentially become separable from neutron absorbing constituents by settling or sedimentation. Thermodynamic considerations and laboratory studies of systems chemically analogous to tank waste show that the plutonium formed in the alkaline tank waste by precipitation through neutralization from acid solution probably entered as 24-nm PuO2?xH2O crystallite particles that, because of their low solubility and opposition from radiolytic processes, grow from that point at exceedingly slow rates, thus posing no risk of physical segregation.

  18. Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on the Durability of a Light-Duty Diesel Aftertreatment System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.; Burton, J.; McCormick, R. L.; Toops, T.; Wereszczak, A. A.; Fox, E. E.; Lance, M. J.; Cavataio, G.; Dobson, D.; Warner, J.; Brezny, R.; Nguyen, K.; Brookshear, D. W.

    2013-04-01

    Alkali and alkaline earth metal impurities found in diesel fuels are potential poisons for diesel exhaust catalysts. A set of diesel engine production exhaust systems was aged to 150,000 miles. These exhaust systems included a diesel oxidation catalyst, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst, and diesel particulate filter (DPF). Four separate exhaust systems were aged, each with a different fuel: ultralow sulfur diesel containing no measureable metals, B20 (a common biodiesel blend) containing sodium, B20 containing potassium, and B20 containing calcium, which were selected to simulate the maximum allowable levels in B100 according to ASTM D6751. Analysis included Federal Test Procedure emissions testing, bench-flow reactor testing of catalyst cores, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and measurement of thermo-mechanical properties of the DPFs. EPMA imaging found that the sodium and potassium penetrated into the washcoat, while calcium remained on the surface. Bench-flow reactor experiments were used to measure the standard nitrogen oxide (NOx) conversion, ammonia storage, and ammonia oxidation for each of the aged SCR catalysts. Vehicle emissions tests were conducted with each of the aged catalyst systems using a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle successfully passed the 0.2 gram/mile NOx emission standard with each of the four aged exhaust systems.

  19. Earth shelter goes international

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L.

    1983-06-01

    Since the mid-1970's earth sheltered buildings in the US have become more numerous and important as a contemporary passive building concept. Further, an intense international interest has now developed, as evidenced by a number of important activities. One of these events is the 1983 International Conference on Energy Efficient Buildings with Earth Shelter Protection to be conducted during 1-6 August in Sydney, Australia. A review of past activities leading up to this event, as well as a brief review of the conference program, is the subject of this discussion.

  20. Earth sheltered housing phenomenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L.

    1981-06-21

    Both national and international attention has recently been focused on earth sheltered construction as an emerging energy alternative. This is especially true for the High Plains region of the central United States. Traditionally, inhabitants of this region have been sensitized to the need for windstorm protection. However, the dramatic potentials for energy savings have served as a strong secondary inducement to the burgeoning construction activity in what is now viewed as a contemporary dwelling concept. The typical characteristics of such dwellings are reviewed as well as the educational challenge awaiting professional input to this developing boom in earth sheltered construction. 12 refs.

  1. Google Earth Tour: Water reuse at LANL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Google Earth Tour: Water reuse at LANL Google Earth Tour: Water reuse at LANL

  2. Metal aminoboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya Kaviraj; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  3. 2016 Rare Earth Elements Workshop Accelerating Rare Earth Element...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rare Earth Elements Workshop Accelerating Rare Earth Element Recovery from U.S. Domestic Sources of Coal and Coal By-Products August 8-9, 2016 Hosted by: Dr. Cynthia Powell Acting ...

  4. UQM Patents Non-Rare Earth Magnet Motor under DOE-Supported Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    While most plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) use motors with rare earth metals, these materials are expensive, their prices have been highly volatile (from 80kg to 750kg), and ...

  5. Column Sorption Uptake and Regeneration Study; Rare Earth Element Sorbent Uptake and Sorbent Stripping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Lanyk

    2015-12-18

    Study of rare earth element (REE) uptake from geothermal brine simulant by column loading, metal recovery through stripping, and regeneration of column for re-loading. Simulated brine testing.

  6. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choe, Yoong-Kee; Henson, Neil J.; Kim, Yu Seung

    2015-12-31

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions.

  7. Calcium Hexa Aluminate Linings for Alkaline Environments - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Calcium Hexa Aluminate Linings for Alkaline Environments Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryA new composition of calcium hexa aluminate developed at ORNL is a highly effective chemical barrier against corrosive materials inside storage, process, and transport vessel containers. The CA6 composition protects containers from the critical

  8. 2006 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report Workshop held December 11-13, 2006 Embassy Suites Hotel-Phoenix Airport, Phoenix, AZ, USA Sponsored by Army Research Office (ARO) Principal Investigator Bryan Pivovar Fuel Cell Team Leader Los Alamos National Laboratory PO Box 1663, MS D429 Los Alamos, NM 87545 Organizing Committee Peter Fedkiw, North Carolina State University/ARO Robert Mantz, ARO Bryan Pivovar, Los Alamos National Laboratory Break-out Group Chairs Thomas Zawodzinski, Case

  9. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernard, Patrick; Baudry, Michelle

    2000-12-05

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  10. Earth's Decelerating Tectonic Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forte, A M; Moucha, R; Rowley, D B; Quere, S; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2008-08-22

    Space geodetic and oceanic magnetic anomaly constraints on tectonic plate motions are employed to determine a new global map of present-day rates of change of plate velocities. This map shows that Earth's largest plate, the Pacific, is presently decelerating along with several other plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres. These plate decelerations contribute to an overall, globally averaged slowdown in tectonic plate speeds. The map of plate decelerations provides new and unique constraints on the dynamics of time-dependent convection in Earth's mantle. We employ a recently developed convection model constrained by seismic, geodynamic and mineral physics data to show that time-dependent changes in mantle buoyancy forces can explain the deceleration of the major plates in the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic hemispheres.

  11. NASA Earth at Night Video

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Twitter Google + Vimeo GovDelivery SlideShare NASA Earth at Night Video HomeEC, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Global, Modeling, News & Events, Solid-State Lighting, VideosNASA Earth ...

  12. Nickel supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in alkaline electrolyte

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhuang, Zhongbin; Giles, Stephen A.; Zheng, Jie; Jenness, Glen R.; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-01-14

    The development of a low-cost, high-performance platinum-group-metal-free hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell is hindered by the lack of a hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst at the anode. Here we report that a composite catalyst, nickel nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, has hydrogen oxidation activity similar to platinum-group metals in alkaline electrolyte. Although nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are a very poor hydrogen oxidation catalyst, as a support, it increases the catalytic performance of nickel nanoparticles by a factor of 33 (mass activity) or 21 (exchange current density) relative to unsupported nickel nanoparticles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the nitrogen-doped support stabilizesmore » the nanoparticle against reconstruction, while nitrogen located at the edge of the nanoparticle tunes local adsorption sites by affecting the d-orbitals of nickel. Here, owing to its high activity and low cost, our catalyst shows significant potential for use in low-cost, high-performance fuel cells.« less

  13. Holding Mother Earth Sacred

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Holding Mother Earth Sacred Photo Journal Project Resource List 2010 Mountain and Plains Education and Research Center, Ken Scott: http://maperc.ucdenver.edu/ UC Denver Office of Diversity and Inclusion, Anschutz Medical Center, Dominic Martinez: www.ucdenver.edu Colorado School of Public Health: www.ucdenver.edu/academics/colleges/PublicHealth/Pages/welcome.aspx University of Colorado Denver: www.ucdenver.edu National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH): www.cdc.gov/niosh

  14. Superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T.; D'Urso, Brian R.

    2012-07-10

    A superhydrophobic powder is prepared by coating diatomaceous earth (DE) with a hydrophobic coating on the particle surface such that the coating conforms to the topography of the DE particles. The hydrophobic coating can be a self assembly monolayer of a perfluorinated silane coupling agent. The DE is preferably natural-grade DE where organic impurities have been removed. The superhydrophobic powder can be applied as a suspension in a binder solution to a substrate to produce a superhydrophobic surface on the substrate.

  15. Alkaline flocculation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum induced by brucite and calcite

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vandamme, Dries; Pohl, Philip I.; Beuckels, Annelies; Foubert, Imogen; Brady, Patrick Vane; Muylaert, Koenraad; Hewson, John C.

    2015-08-20

    Alkaline flocculation holds great potential as a low-cost harvesting method for marine microalgae biomass production. Alkaline flocculation is induced by an increase in pH and is related to precipitation of calcium and magnesium salts. In this study, we used the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as model organism to study alkaline flocculation of marine microalgae cultured in seawater medium. Flocculation started when pH was increased to 10 and flocculation efficiency reached 90% when pH was 10.5, which was consistent with precipitation modeling for brucite or Mg(OH)2. Compared to freshwater species, more magnesium is needed to achieve flocculation (>7.5 mM). Zeta potential measurementsmore » suggest that brucite precipitation caused flocculation by charge neutralization. When calcium concentration was 12.5 mM, flocculation was also observed at a pH of 10. Furthermore, zeta potential remained negative up to pH 11.5, suggesting that precipitated calcite caused flocculation by a sweeping coagulation mechanism.« less

  16. LLNL-Earth3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  17. Ames Lab 101: Rare Earths

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, Karl

    2012-08-29

    "Mr. Rare Earth," Ames Laboratory scientist Karl Gschneidner Jr., explains the importance of rare-earth materials in many of the technologies we use today -- ranging from computers to hybrid cars to wind turbines. Gschneidner is a world renowned rare-earths expert at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory.

  18. Ames Lab 101: Rare Earths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, Karl

    2010-01-01

    "Mr. Rare Earth," Ames Laboratory scientist Karl Gschneidner Jr., explains the importance of rare-earth materials in many of the technologies we use today -- ranging from computers to hybrid cars to wind turbines. Gschneidner is a world renowned rare-earths expert at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory.

  19. Preparation of catalysts via ion-exchangeable coatings on supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.

    1986-04-09

    Disclosed are: new catalytic compositions which comprise an inert support coated with a hydrous alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, or quaternary ammonium titanate, niobate, zirconate, or tantalate, in which the alkali or alkaline earth metal or quaternary ammonium cations have been exchanged for a catalytically effective quantity of a catalytically effective metal.

  20. Metal inks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginley, David S; Curtis, Calvin J; Miedaner, Alex; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Kaydanova, Tatiana

    2014-02-04

    Self-reducing metal inks and systems and methods for producing and using the same are disclosed. In an exemplary embodiment, a method may comprise selecting metal-organic (MO) precursor, selecting a reducing agent, and dissolving the MO precursor and the reducing agent in an organic solvent to produce a metal ink that remains in a liquid phase at room temperature. Metal inks, including self-reducing and fire-through metal inks, are also disclosed, as are various applications of the metal inks.

  1. A Star on Earth

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Prager, Stewart; Zwicker, Andrew; Hammet, Greg; Tresemer, Kelsey; Diallo, Ahmed

    2014-06-06

    At the Energy Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, scientists are trying to accomplish what was once considered the realm of science fiction: create a star on Earth. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a magnetic fusion device that is used to study the physics principles of spherically shaped plasmas -- hot ionized gases in which, under the right conditions, nuclear fusion will occur. Fusion is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. Not just limited to theoretical work, the NSTX is enabling cutting-edge research to develop fusion as a future energy source.

  2. Earth-sheltered apartments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Germer, J.

    1984-12-01

    Earth-sheltered apartments for students at St. Johns University, Collegeville, MN are described. The intent was to provide energy-efficient, low maintenance housing in a neighborhood environment for the students. Students would learn about energy-conscious architecture from living in the buildings. The buildings have had few problems, but energy performance has not been up to expectations. The consumption of electricity exceeded predictions by 49%. The most likely answer to the problem is deviation from design. Several items of energy-efficient design were specified but deleted in order to cut costs.

  3. A Star on Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prager, Stewart; Zwicker, Andrew; Hammet, Greg; Tresemer, Kelsey; Diallo, Ahmed

    2014-03-05

    At the Energy Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, scientists are trying to accomplish what was once considered the realm of science fiction: create a star on Earth. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a magnetic fusion device that is used to study the physics principles of spherically shaped plasmas -- hot ionized gases in which, under the right conditions, nuclear fusion will occur. Fusion is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. Not just limited to theoretical work, the NSTX is enabling cutting-edge research to develop fusion as a future energy source.

  4. Earth sheltered structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    The earth shelter concept has been utilized successfully around the world for thousands of years, but its use with contemporary mechanically conditioned buildings dates only from the oil embargo of the mid-1970s. This is an architectural innovation and a growing and viable response to the energy imperative. Most of the technical problems of earth shelters have been effectively addressed, but a systems design approach could further enhance overall energy savings. Although occupant lifestyle seems to be at a high level, areas that require further attention include site design, daylighting, and refined thermal design. The proper integration of passive solar heating and disaster protection represent opportunities for improved multifunctional aspects. With proper design, annual heating and cooling energy use reductions on the order of 80% can be anticipated. Research on energy design refinements and occupancy aspects necessary to achieve such levels of savings is presently under way at Oklahoma State University, the University of Minnesota, and other study centers throughout the nation and the world.

  5. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2006-12-05

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  6. Silicone metalization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  7. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2001-11-06

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period April 1, 2001 through September 30, 2001. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub x} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. During the current period, American Electric Power (AEP) joined the project as an additional co-funder and as a provider of a host site for testing. This is the fourth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During this period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Station. These tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Station), and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (both Gavin Station and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70 to 75% sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Station, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub x

  8. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2002-04-29

    This document summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, Furnace Injection of Alkaline Sorbents for Sulfuric Acid Control, during the time period October 1, 2001 through March 31, 2002. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The coincident removal of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is also being determined, as is the removal of arsenic, a known poison for NO{sub X} selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. EPRI, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), FirstEnergy Corporation, American Electric Power (AEP) and the Dravo Lime Company are project co-funders. URS Corporation is the prime contractor. This is the fifth reporting period for the subject Cooperative Agreement. During the previous (fourth) period, two long-term sorbent injection tests were conducted, one on Unit 3 at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) and one on Unit 1 at AEP's Gavin Plant. Those tests determined the effectiveness of injecting alkaline slurries into the upper furnace of the boiler as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions from these units. The alkaline slurries tested included commercially available magnesium hydroxide slurry (Gavin Plant) and a byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry (at both Gavin and BMP). The tests showed that injecting either the commercial or the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry could achieve up to 70-75% overall sulfuric acid removal. At BMP, the overall removal was limited by the need to maintain acceptable electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate control performance. At Gavin Plant, the overall sulfuric acid removal was limited because the furnace injected sorbent was less effective at removing SO{sub 3} formed across the SCR system installed on the unit for NO{sub X} control than at removing SO{sub 3} formed in the furnace. The SO{sub 3} removal results were presented in the

  9. 2011 Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cell Workshop Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pivovar, B.

    2012-02-01

    A workshop addressing the current state-of-the-art in alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs) was held May 8-9, 2011, at the Crystal Gateway Marriott in Arlington, Virginia. This workshop was the second of its kind, with the first being held December 11-13, 2006, in Phoenix, Arizona. The 2011 workshop and associated workshop report were created to assess the current state of AMFC technology (taking into account recent advances), investigate the performance potential of AMFC systems across all possible power ranges and applications, and identify the key research needs for commercial competitiveness in a variety of areas.

  10. Energy Department Earth Week 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To celebrate Earth Week and Earth Day, the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is participating in several Energy Department activities! Look for us inside the lobby of the U.S. Department of Energy Forrestal Building in Washington, D.C., from April 13–17. Then, on Earth Day, April 22, everyone is welcome to join us outside on the Forrestal West Plaza for Community Day!