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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aliphatic alco hol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Verifying Test Hypotheses -HOL/TestGen Verifying Test Hypotheses -HOL/TestGen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Verifying Test Hypotheses - HOL/TestGen Verifying Test Hypotheses - HOL/TestGen An Experiment in Test and Proof Thomas Malcher January 20, 2014 1 / 20 #12;Verifying Test Hypotheses - HOL/TestGen HOL/TestGen Outline Introduction Test Hypotheses HOL/TestGen - Demo Verifying Test Hypotheses Conclusion 2 / 20 #12

2

Taking the hol out of HOL Nancy A. Day  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

process. A decade ago, there was a wide chasm between specialized automated methods such as model check- cludes a consistency checker, a simulator, and links to a model checker, and a theorem prover [3, 20 for the automated analysis of specifications expressed in higher-order logic (hol) independent of a conven- tional

Day, Nancy

3

Techno-economic analysis of biomass to fuel conversion via the MixAlco process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Figure 2 depicts biomass-to-hydrocarbon fuels conversion via the MixAlco process. To make hydrocarbon ... -efficiency vapor-compression evaporator, (4) thermal conversion of salts to ketones, (5) hydrogenation...

Viet Pham; Mark Holtzapple…

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

The Economics of HOl1icultural Biotechnology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Economics of HOl1icultural Biotechnology Julian M. Alston Kent J. Bradford Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes SUMMARY. Technological change has driven economic progress in agIiculture and will continue, Department of Agricultural and Resource Econom- ics, University of California, Davis and Associate Director

Bradford, Kent

5

Conversion of MixAlco Process Sludge to Liquid Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Alco process, a method was developed to efficiently separate H2 using pressure swing adsorption (PSA) from the synthesis gas, with activated carbon and molecular sieve 5A as adsorbents. The H2 can be used to hydrogenate ketones generated from the Mix...

Teiseh, Eliasu 1973-

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

The conversion of corn stover and pig manure to carboxylic acids with the MixAlco process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The MixAlco process, developed by Dr. Mark T. Holtzapple, uses anaerobic fermentation to convert waste biomass into carboxylate salts which can then be manipulated into carboxylic acids, ketones and alcohols. This project focuses on the application...

Black, Amanda Spring

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

7

DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201200311 Low-Temperature Chemoselective Gold-Surface-Mediated Hydrogenation of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.[9] Claus found that, in the production of allyl alco- hol from the hydrogenation of acrolein, gold

Henkelman, Graeme

8

Evidence of Aliphatics in Nascent Soot Particles in Premixed...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Aliphatics in Nascent Soot Particles in Premixed Ethylene Flames. Evidence of Aliphatics in Nascent Soot Particles in Premixed Ethylene Flames. Abstract: Chemical composition of...

9

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic dicarboxylate ligands Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

with increasing n. However, the frequencies of aliphatic dicarboxylate dianions in bulk... . Identification of C3-C10 Aliphatic Dicarboxylic-Acids in Airborne Particulate...

10

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic primary amines Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

results for: aliphatic primary amines Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 ELSEVIER Marine Chemistry 51 (1995) 45-54 Aliphatic amines in Chesapeake Bay sediments Summary: ELSEVIER...

11

Aliphatic Polyester Block Polymers: Renewable, Degradable, and Sustainable  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Aliphatic Polyester Block Polymers: Renewable, Degradable, and Sustainable ... Yet, such polymers are “challenged” with respect to sustainability. ... The Earth harbors finite carbon-based feedstocks that are being rapidly depleted by our increasing energy demand. ...

Marc A. Hillmyer; William B. Tolman

2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

12

Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic alcohols studies Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

alcohols studies Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aliphatic alcohols studies Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Journal of Electron...

14

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic amines extraction Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Environmental Sciences and Ecology 37 Exploratory Studies on Fast Pyrolysis Oil Upgrading Summary: using Aliphatic Tertiary Amines... -1 Acetic Acid Recovery from Fast...

15

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic chains affects Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

C-O-S, carbonyl C... aliphatic C-C-H groups was nearly constant at each sampling platform, with the Twin Otter samples having... phase oxidation of volatile compounds. The...

16

Reductive dechlorination of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons by Fe(ii) in degradative solidification/stabilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation examines the applicability of the iron-based degradative solidification/stabilization (DS/S-Fe(II)) to various chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) that are common chemicals of concern at contaminated sites. The research...

Jung, Bahng Mi

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

17

Occurrence of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Water, Suspended Particulate Matter and Sediments of Daliao River System, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In August of 2005 a study was carried out to evaluate contamination of aliphatic hydrocarbons(AHc) in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments...?1 in surface water, from 22.68 to 5,725.36...?1 in ...

W. Guo; M. C. He; Z. F. Yang; C. Y. Lin…

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contacting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible compound, such as, water or a polyhydroxy compound, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of water or polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the water or polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds and the low polar or nonpolar solvent are separated by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered from recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 1 fig.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

19

IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series 68. Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Compounds C3C14 With Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series 68. Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Compounds C3­C14 With Water 16, 1999 This volume covers the solubilities of halogenated aliphatic C3­C14 compounds with water, heavy water, and electrolyte solutions. All data were critically examined for their reliability and best

Magee, Joseph W.

20

Aliphatic thioether polymers as novel cathode active materials for rechargeable lithium battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two aliphatic thioether polymers, poly[methanetetryl-tetra(thiomethylene)] (PMTTM) and poly(2,4-dithiopentanylene) (PDTP) were designed, synthesized, characterized and tested as cathode active materials. The chemical structure of polymers was confirmed by FT-IR, FT-Raman, and XPS spectral analysis. Both polymers were found to have electrochemical activity as cathode materials for rechargeable lithium battery by the electrochemical tests. The specific capacity of PMTTM was 504 mA h g?1 at the third cycle and faded to 200 mA h g?1 after 10 cycles; PDTP showed low and stable specific capacity around 100 mA h g?1 even after 50 cycles. The specific capacity of fully saturated aliphatic thioether polymers demonstrated that thioether bonds offered energy storage. It was proposed that thioether bond was oxidized to form thioether cations with the help of ether solvents.

Jingyu Zhang; Lingbo Kong; Lizhi Zhan; Jing Tang; Hui Zhan; Yunhong Zhou; Caimao Zhan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aliphatic alco hol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds from petroleum products. [Polychlorinated biphenyls; methylene chloride; perchloroethylene; trichlorofluoroethane; trichloroethylene; chlorobenzene  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, from petroleum products by solvent extraction. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from a petroleum product into a polar solvent by contracting the petroleum product with the polar solvent. The polar solvent is characterized by a high solubility for the extracted halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, a low solubility for the petroleum product and considerable solvent power for polyhydroxy compound. The preferred polar solvent is dimethylformamide. A miscible polyhydroxy compound, such as, water, is added to the polar extraction solvent to increase the polarity of the polar extraction solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds are extracted from the highly-polarized mixture of polyhydroxy compound and polar extraction solvent into a low polar or nonpolar solvent by contacting the polyhydroxy compound-polar solvent mixture with the low polar or nonpolar solvent. The halogenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds in the low polar or nonpolar solvent by physical means, e.g., vacuum evaporation. The polar and nonpolar solvents are recovered for recycling. The process can easily be designed for continuous operation. Advantages of the process include that the polar solvent and a major portion of the nonpolar solvent can be recycled, the petroleum products are reclaimable and the cost for disposing of waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls is significantly reduced. 2 tables.

Googin, J.M.; Napier, J.M.; Travaglini, M.A.

1982-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

ELSEVIER Surface Science 303 (lYY4) 206-230 ;,,.;_:_.y y .../. .' ..`,. :> .,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by means of the Fischer- Tropsch technique, and the steam reforming of natural gas to form so-called syngas. Representative examples are the ammonia synthesis via Haber-Bosch, the synthesis of alco- hols and hydrocarbons of products, and (7) diffusion of products from the surface. One typically treats these elementary reactions

Miller, William H.

23

Regio-and Enantioselective Alkane Hydroxylation with Engineered Cytochromes P450 BM-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-alco- hols.10 This enzyme does not accept larger alkanes. Soluble methane monooxygenase from the same cytochrome P450s that have been characterized are in general faster, soluble (i.e., not membrane-bound), more hydroxylation and, in some cases, even regioselective alkane hydroxylation. For example, the particulate methane

Arnold, Frances H.

24

Novel Ionophores with 2n-Crown-n Topology: Anion Sensing via Pure Aliphatic C–H···Anion Hydrogen Bonding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A series of novel coronands having a 2n-crown-n topology based on trioxane (6-crown-3) derivatives are designed and characterized. These neutral hosts can sense anions through pure aliphatic C–H hydrogen bonding (HB) in condensed phases due to the unusual ...

Genggongwo Shi; Changdev G. Gadhe; Sung-Woo Park; Kwang S. Kim; Jongmin Kang; Humaira Seema; N. Jiten Singh; Seung Joo Cho

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

Spatial variations and chronologies of aliphatic hydrocarbons in Lake Michigan sediments.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Four sediment cores were collected in fine-grained depositional areas of the southern basin of Lake Michigan. Spatial variations of aliphatic hydrocarbons in surficial sediments were consistent with a lakeward movement of riverine sediments in a series of resuspension-settling cycles in which an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of hydrocarbons associated with dense sediments is deposited in nearshore areas, fine-grained sediments of terrestrial origin accumulate in the deep basin, and planktonic hydrocarbons are depleted by microbial degradation during transport to the deep basin. The rate of accumulation of the UCM (a marker of petroleum residues) in deep basin sediments has increased by more than an order of magnitude since 1880, from 60 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1} to approximately 960 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1} in 1980. Crude estimates of the atmospheric loading of the UCM (1100 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1}) indicate that accumulations in deep-basin sediments might be supported by atmospheric deposition. Agreement was poor between the atmospheric flux of the terrestrial n-alkanes ({Sigma}C{sub 25}, C{sub 27}, C{sub 29}, C{sub 31}) to the deep basin (3200 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1}) and the sediment accumulation rate (660 {mu}g m{sup -2}{center_dot}a{sup -1}). Understanding of atmospheric fluxes, estimated from the very few available data, would be improved by more frequent measurement of the levels of aliphatic hydrocarbons in air and precipitation and a better knowledge of the particle deposition velocities and precipitation scavenging coefficients.

Doskey, P. V.; Environmental Research

2001-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

The unusual hydrocarbon emission from the early carbon star HD 100764: The connection between aromatics and aliphatics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to obtain spectra of HD 100764, an apparently single carbon star with a circumstellar disk. The spectrum shows emission features from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are shifted to longer wavelengths than normally seen, as characteristic of ``class C'' systems in the classification scheme of Peeters et al. All seven of the known class C PAH sources are illuminated by radiation fields that are cooler than those which typically excite PAH emission features. The observed wavelength shifts are consistent with hydrocarbon mixtures containing both aromatic and aliphatic bonds. We propose that the class C PAH spectra are distinctive because the carbonaceous material has not been subjected to a strong ultraviolet radiation field, allowing relatively fragile aliphatic materials to survive.

G. C. Sloan; M. Jura; W. W. Duley; K. E. Kraemer; J. Bernard-Salas; W. J. Forrest; B. Sargent; A. Li; D. J. Barry; C. J. Bohac; D. M. Watson; J. R. Houck

2007-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

27

Quantitative structure–activity relationships for toxicity and genotoxicity of halogenated aliphatic compounds: Wing spot test of Drosophila melanogaster  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Halogenated aliphatic compounds were evaluated for toxic and genotoxic effects in the somatic mutation and recombination test employing Drosophila melanogaster. The tested chemicals included chlorinated, brominated and iodinated; mono-, di- and tri-substituted; saturated and unsaturated alkanes: 1,2-dibromoethane, 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1-iodopropane, 2,3-dichloropropene, 3-bromo-1-propene, epibromohydrin, 2-iodobutane, 3-chloro-2-methylpropene, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichlorobutane, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane, 1,3-dichloropropane, 1,2-dichloropropane, 2-chloroethymethylether, 1-bromo-2-methylpropane and 1-chloropentane. N-methyl-N-nitrosourea served as the positive and distilled water as the negative control. The set of chemicals for the toxicological testing was selected by the use of statistical experiment design. Group of unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons were generally more toxic than saturated analogues. The genotoxic effect was observed with 14 compounds in the wing spot test, while 3 substances did not show any genotoxicity by using the wing spot test at 50% lethal concentration. The highest number of wing spots was observed in genotoxicity assay with 1-bromo-2-chloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane and 1-iodopropane. Nucleophilic superdelocalizability calculated by quantum mechanics appears to be a good parameter for prediction of both toxicity and genotoxicity effects of halogenated aliphatic compounds.

Karel Chroust; Martina Pavlová; Zbyn?k Prokop; Jan Mendel; Kate?ina Božková; Zden?k Kubát; Veronika Zaj?´?ková; Ji??´ Damborský

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Plant observation report and evaluation, Pennwalt Corporation, secondary and tertiary aliphatic monoamines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A site visit was made to the amine manufacturing facility of the Pennwalt Corporation, Wyandotte, Michigan, to evaluate the facility in regard to the Secondary and Tertiary Aliphatic Monoamines Criteria Document. A total of 21 people were directly in contact with the amine production process. Two to four of the maintenance personnel may also come in contact with the process. Maintenance workers ran the risk of exposure not only to primary, secondary and tertiary amine compounds, but also to several other chemicals being used in the process. The processes used to unload raw materials are described, along with reactor operations, decanter and recycling operations, distillation operations, product storage and shipping. Medical monitoring at the facility included chest x-ray, respiratory function tests, sight screening, urinalysis, and back x-rays. Restricted and potentially hazardous area signs were clearly posted. Employees wore hard hats and safety glasses on the job as well as gloves, rubber boots, face shields, goggles, and respirators as necessary. Emergency procedures are described, including fire protection. Sanitation and personal hygiene are discussed, along with monitoring of the workplace conditions.

Not Available

1980-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

29

Chemical and morphological characterization of soot and soot precursors generated in an inverse diffusion flame with aromatic and aliphatic fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Knowledge of the chemical and physical structure of young soot and its precursors is very useful in understanding the paths leading to soot particle inception. This paper presents chemical and morphological characterization of the products generated in ethylene and benzene inverse diffusion flames (IDF) using different analytical techniques. The trend in the data indicates that the soot precursor material and soot particles generated in the benzene IDF have a higher degree of complexity than the samples obtained in the ethylene IDF, which is reflected by an increase in the aromaticity of the chloroform extracts observed by {sup 1}H NMR and FT-IR, and shape and size of soot particles obtained by TEM and HR-TEM. It is important to highlight that the soot precursor material obtained at the lower positions in the ethylene IDF has a significant contribution of aliphatic groups, which play an important role in the particle inception and mass growth processes during the early stages of soot formation. However, these groups progressively disappear in the samples taken at higher positions in the flame, due to thermal decomposition processes. (author)

Santamaria, Alexander; Mondragon, Fanor [Institute of Chemistry, University of Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Yang, Nancy [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551-0969 (United States); Eddings, Eric [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Sake City, UT 84112 (United States)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

30

http://hol.sagepub.com/ The Holocene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fialkiewicz-Koziel, Sarah A Finkelstein, Mariusz Galka, Michelle Garneau, Dan Andersson, Christopher Bochicchio, Keith Barber, Lisa R Belyea, Joan Bunbury, Frank M Chambers, Daniel J Charman, Julie Loisel Camill,3 Jukka Alm,4 Matthew J Amesbury,5 David Anderson,6 Sofia Andersson,7 Christopher Bochicchio,1

Turetsky, Merritt

31

Size exclusion chromatography for the unambiguous detection of aliphatics in fractions from petroleum vacuum residues, coal liquids, and standard materials, in the presence of aromatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method has been developed using size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in heptane eluent that can detect aliphatics unambiguously without fractionation to remove aromatics. Spherical molecules such as colloidal silicas elute at the exclusion limit, while alkanes up to C{sub 50} elute through the porosity of the column. Detection of aliphatics was defined by use of an evaporative light scattering (ELS) detector with the simultaneous absence of UV absorbance at 300 nm. Alkanes smaller than C{sub 12} were not detected because the conditions of operation of the ELS caused their evaporation. All aromatics eluted after the permeation limit of about 25 min and were not detected until well after 45 min by their UV absorbance. The SEC method was applied to petroleum vacuum residues and coal liquids, and their fractions were soluble in pentane or heptane. High-temperature (HT) GC-MS confirmed the presence of alkanes in the pentane- and heptane-soluble fractions of petroleum vacuum residues, but did not elute any of the aromatics known to be present from SEC. Alkanes were examined in pentane-soluble fractions of a coal digest and a low-temperature coal tar; alkanes up to C{sub 40} were detected in the low-temperature tar and, although present in the digest, were masked by aromatics. No alkanes were detected by either SEC or HT GC-MS in fractions from a coal tar pitch. Aromatics in coal liquids and one petroleum residue were also examined by SEC using NMP as eluent and by UV fluorescence spectroscopy. The SEC method will find application to pentane- and heptane-soluble fractions of petroleum liquids and coal liquids where the alkanes are concentrated relative to the more abundant aromatics. 43 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Eiman M. Al-Muhareb; Fatma Karaca; Trevor J. Morgan; Alan A. Herod; Ian D. Bull; Rafael Kandiyoti [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Effect of the type of carrier on the properties of cobalt catalysts in the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The properties of catalysts used in the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/ are determined to a significant degree by the carriers used in their preparation. This paper deals with a study of the effect of the type of carrier on the properties of cobalt-based catalysts in the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/. Co catalysts that are active in the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO and H/sub 2/ are those on which the adsorption of H/sub 2/ exceeds 3.10/sup -2/ mmole/g Co and the adsorptin of carbon monoxide exceeds 7.10/sup -2/ mmole/g Co. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen are adsorbed on active catalysts in weakly bound forms. A mechanism is proposed for the formatin of an active center and the adsorption of carbon monoxide on Co-catalysts which includes the appearance of a partial positive charge on the cobalt atom.

Lapidus, A.L.; Jem, H.C.; Krylova, A.Y.

1983-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

33

Carboxylate Platform: The MixAlco Process Part 1: Comparison of Three Biomass Conversion Platforms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To form products, polysaccharides can be processed thermochemically or biologically under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, lignin is not biologically reactive under anaerobic conditions and can only be processe...

Mark T. Holtzapple; Cesar B. Granda

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Analysis of low-cost building material for the MixAlco process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

basis as the papercrete for structural and economic analysis, which provided acceptable results. The results indicate that a papercrete-concrete structure is a viable alternative structurally and economically within a range of sizes for the structure... ...................................................................................... 22 5.5.1 Procedure ...................................................................................... 22 5.5.2 Analysis.......................................................................................... 24 5.6 Flexural Strength...

Titzman, L. Clinton

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

Flash photolysis resonance fluorescence investigation of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with a series of aliphatic ketones over the temperature range 240-440 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Absolute rate constants have been determined for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with a series of aliphatic ketones by the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence measurement technique. Experiments were performed over the temperature range 240-440 K at total pressures (using Ar diluent gas) between 25 and 50 Torr. The rate constant data for acetone (k/sub 1/), 2-butanone (k/sub 2/), and 3-pentanone (k/sub 3/) were used to derive the Arrhenius expressions k/sub 1/ = (1.7 +/- 0.4) x 10/sup -12/ exp(-(600 +/- 75)/T) cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, k/sub 2/ = (2.3 +/- 1.1) x 10/sup -12/ exp(-170 +/- 120)/T) cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, and k/sub 3/ = (2.8 +/- 0.3) x 10/sup -12/ exp(10 +/- 35)/T) cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/. At 296 K, the measured rate constants (in units of 10/sup -13/ cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/) were k/sub 1/ = 2.16 +/- 0.16, k/sub 2/ = 11.5 +/- 1.0, and k/sub 3/ = 27.4 +/- 1.3. Room temperature rate constants for the reaction of OH radicals with a number of other 2-ketones were also determined. These were (in the above units) 3,3-dimethyl-2-butanone (12.1 +/- 0.5), 2-pentanone (40.0 +/- 2.9), 2-hexanone (66.4 +/- 5.6), 2-heptanone (86.7 +/- 8.4reverse arrow, 2-octanone (110 +/- 9), 2-nonanone (122 +/- 13), and 2-decanone (132 +/- 12). The error limits represent 2 standard deviations (from the least-squares analysis); the authors estimate that an additional 5% uncertainty should be added to account for possible systematic error in the measurements. These results are discussed in terms of reactivity trends for C-H bonds located in the ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., and ..gamma.. positions with respect to the carbonyl group.

Wallington, T.J.; Kurylo, M.J.

1987-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

36

Cite this: RSC Advances, 2013, 3, Synthesis of nano-sized spherical Mg3AlCO3 layered  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-spheres can be prepared, and this material showed a H1 type hysteresis loop in the N2 BET analysis of the WGS reaction and CO2 adsorption, has been widely identified as a promising pre- combustion CO2 capture charge compensating anions and solvation molecules.13,14 Because the chemical composition of both

Guo, John Zhanhu

37

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

chemical compounds composed of chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group: CH 3 -(CH 2 )n-OH (e.g., metha- nol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). See Fuel Ethanol. Alternative Fuel: Alternative fuels, for transportation applications, include the following: methanol; denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; fuel mixtures contain- ing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alco- hols with motor gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel); electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and "... any other fuel the Secretary determines, by

38

Introduction Aliphatic polyesters derived from renewable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of these polyesters are already commercially produced in bacteria under nutrient-limited conditions; however a mixture of the polymer in methanol (approximately 100 ppm) to which was added 10 % of methanol saturated

39

HolT Hunter: Software for Identifying and Characterizing Low-Strain DNA Holliday Triangles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthetic DNA nanostructures are most commonly held together via Holliday junctions. These junctions allow for a wide variety of different angles between the double helices they connect. Nevertheless, only constructs with a very limited selection of angles have been built, to date, because of the computational complexity of identifying structures that fit together with low strain at odd angles. I have developed an algorithm that finds over 95% of the possible solutions by breaking the problem down into two portions. First, there is a problem of how smooth rods can form triangles by lying across one another. This problem is easily handled by numerical computation. Second, there is the question of how distorted DNA double helices would need to be to fit onto the rod structure. This strain is calculated directly. The algorithm has been implemented in a Mathematica 8 notebook called Holliday Triangle Hunter. A large database of solutions has been identified. Additional interface software is available to facilitate drawing and viewing models.

Sherman W. B.

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

40

Automatic In Situ Identification of Plankton Matthew B. Blaschko, Gary Holness, Marwan A. Mattar, Dimitri Lisin,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

micro­organisms known as plankton. As the foundation of the food chain for marine life, plankton Cytometer And Microscope (FlowCAM), that detects par­ ticles from a stream of water siphoned directly from challenge. We expect that upon completion, our system will become a use­ ful tool for marine biologists

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aliphatic alco hol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

biodegradable photoluminescent Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 216 Recent Patents on Biomedical Engineering 2009, 2, 216-227 1874-764709 100.00+.00 2009 Bentham Science...

42

Formation of membranes from aliphatic polyamide-polyvinylpyrrolidone blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The performance of polyacrylic acid of various molecular weights and of its ... Na2EDTA as inhibitors of deposit formation and as dispersants was examined.

O. V. Suberlyak; Yu. Ya. Mel’nik; N. M. Baran

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Modeling the oxyethylation of primary aliphatic alcohols by ethylene oxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From the point of view of safety and the production of the narrowest distribution of oxyethyl groups it is advantageous to use an idealdisplacement tube reactor for continuous oxyethylation under pressure. For the process under consideration here, a high-capacity, ideal-displacement reactor has the difficulty of removing the reaction heat, so that a precise choice of tube diameter is required. Based on kinetic data obtained at the D.I. Mendeleev Moscow Chemical Technology Institute for the oxyethylation of PAA by ethylene oxide, a mathematical model has been developed and is presented here of an ideal-displacement ethoxylation reactor, the suitability of which has been tested on an oxyethylation pilot plant.

Panaev, Y.D.; Latyshev, I.E.; Ternovskii, S.A.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Quantitative relationships between structure and reactivity of aliphatic esters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

bnglneering -xpcrtuent station and fron the Robert A. belch IIosearoh Foundation. Introduat ion . ' ethos of ~lysis ~ 0 Quleul-. tion of;1~to Oonst nt, s : iste riel s ~ o ~ I. 'iyters ~ ~ ~ 16 lC 11, . i~::' . ' Crt ~d*iP' 1~&'" :~ppsrstus z&& rl...-tt'rdor Rotc Cansta, ts for . :. oetntas IIIc. Ceoond- rder ". :;te Const tots ". tr Identicr lly Jis tbstt ttttod stars 't 0 IV. Ct, t" an "ct. 'tyl stere V. . )c' o~ cot otcs z2 'tl, . &oto on fde. otic. . t ly Cisubctitttted . . coors . 1. mymificction...

Yager, Billy Joe

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

45

Location of an agribusiness enterprise with respect to economic viability: a risk analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................................................................................................... 1 Background ................................................................................................. 1 MixAlco Process Overview ............................................................ 3 Location Science... substantial impact on oxygenate, oil, corn, and gasoline markets in the U.S and become a direct competitor or replacement to corn-based ethanol. MixAlco Process Overview MixAlco converts cellulose biomass such as agriculture feedstocks, weed clippings...

Lau, Michael H.

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

46

A Predictably Selective Aliphatic C–H Oxidation Reaction for Complex Molecule Synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...selective. We report an iron (Fe)–based small molecule...herein report an electrophilic iron catalyst, 4, with a...O-i-Pr) 2 . acac, acetylacetonate; DET, diethyl tartrate. Several nonheme iron complexes have shown promising...

Mark S. Chen; M. Christina White

2007-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

47

Gas Chromatographic—Mass Spectrometric Investigation of Aliphatic Glycols in Environmental Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......mL for the determination of diol method...containing boron was facilitated...characteristic isotope ratio of boron (1 0 B...characteristic isotope ratio distribution of boron. Quantitative...laboratory for the determination of glycols......

A. Raksit; S. Punani

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Matrixassisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic biodegradable photoluminescent polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

established that the new ILMs provided good spottospot reproducibility and high ionization efficiency compared/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDIMS). The polymers, formed by a condensation reaction of three components

Yang, Jian

49

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic friedel-crafts alkylations Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biology and Medicine ; Environmental Sciences and Ecology 28 A process for the rapid removal of dialkylamino-substituents from aromatic rings. Application to the expedient...

50

A quantitative study of the effect of structure on the saponification rates of aliphatic esters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(calibrated by the U ~ So National Bureau of Standards) in conjunction with a Wheatstone bridge. 30a 31 Electric timers were used to time the reactionsi The timers were found to be dependable by cheching their accuracy over a period of several days...' The resistance of the reaction mixture was determined by a Wheatstone bridge consisting of three decade resistance boxes' 30b Either a cathode ray oscilloscope or a null detector was used 30c to obtain the null pointi This was done visually, either...

Gonzalez, Federico P

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Quantitative Determination of Aliphatic Sulfur-Containing Additives by Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......pyrolysis (7), infrared (8), combustion to SO4 = with subsequent determination...Drushel. The Analytical Chemistry of Sulfur and Its Compounds...London, p. 358. Sulfur in Coal and Coke by the Bomb Washing...organic materials by oxygen bomb combustion. Anal. Chem. 33:1760......

J.W. Sinclair; L. Schall; N.T. Crabb

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic halogenase syrb2 Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Computer Technologies and Information Sciences ; Engineering 63 Unique gas and hydrocarbon adsorption in a highly porous metal-organic framework made of extended...

53

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic alkyl quaternaries Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to almost... (e.g. Ar-Cl, tertiary amine, quaternary amine) NuH R'R"NH 11CCarbon Monoxide - In ring closure... is a nucleophilic subsitition of bisulfite by 11Ccyanide ion...

54

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic primary diamines Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Davis Collection: Biotechnology 56 Production of 11C-Labeled Summary: Carbon Monoxide - For preparation of 11C-labeled primary amides or hydrazides The method is...

55

Calorimetric study of adsorption of aliphatic hydrocarbons on reduced cobalt catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study has been made of the heats of adsorption and the adsorption isotherms of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons on Co at 298/sup 0/K; the content of organic matter in the catalyst has been determined after use in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. It is concluded that the Fischer-Tropsch process includes stages of diffusion of the original reactants and the products through a liquid film of hydrocarbons coating the catalyst; the hydrocarbon molecules are adsorbed on the surface in the ''lying down'' position; the adsorption of paraffins is reversible and is described by the BET theory; olefins form an irreversibly chemisorbed monolayer, above which reversible adsorption takes place; the ease of desorption of the paraffins explains their preferential formation in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

Ostrovskii, V.E.; Medvedkova, E.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Hyperbranched Aliphatic Polyesters and Reactive Diluents in Thermally Cured Coil Coatings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reactive diluents (35-38) act as solvents in liquid paint, lowering the viscosity, and then chemically react into the film during cure. ... DSC studies were performed using a Mettler Toledo DSC820 equipped with a Mettler Toledo Sample Robot TSO801RO calibrated using standard procedures. ... Air-drying high solids alkyd paints for decorative coatings ...

Katarina Johansson; Tina Bergman; Mats Johansson

2008-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

57

DEOTERIUM MAGNETIC RESONANCE OF SOME POLYMORPHIC LIQUID CRYSTALS: THE CONFORMATION OF THE ALIPHATIC END CHAINS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in "Magnetic Resonance in Colloid and Interface Science"in "Magnetic Resonance in Colloid and Interface Science"

Hsi, Shan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Synthesis Gas Conversion to Aliphatic Alcohols: Study of MoS2 catalytic systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by sulfidation of ammonium thiomolybate and acetate salts of co-promoters. Several catalyst formulations were prepared by calcination, followed by doping with alkali promoters. Solid state modifications were made in some cases to dilute the active MoS2 material...

Baksh, Faisal

2010-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

59

Phenolic and Short-Chained Aliphatic Organic Acid Constituents of Wild Oat (Avena fatua L.) Seeds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Following this after-ripening period, seeds were sown in Sun-Gro Sunshine Mix #1 (SunGro Horticulture, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada) in pots measuring 10 × 10 × 35 cm (Stuewe & Sons, Inc., Tangent, OR). ... Repeated measurements of the temperature and light conditions associated with each population cluster indicated that there were no significant differences in growth conditions among the clusters (data not shown). ... Natural lighting was supplemented with two 400 W high pressure sodium lamps set to a 16 h photoperiod. ...

R. S. Gallagher; R. Ananth; K. Granger; B. Bradley; J.V. Anderson; E. P. Fuerst

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

60

Alteration and release of aliphatic compounds by the polychaete Nereis virens (Sars) experimentally fed with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fed with hydrocarbons a , a b b *Franck Gilbert , Georges Stora , Gaston Desrosiers , Bruno Deflandre-491-826-548. E-mail address: gilbert@mailhost.com.univ-mrs.fr (F. Gilbert). #12;included under the term; Gilbert et al., 1994, 1996; Kure and Forbes, 1997). During the mixing of sediments, bioturbating

Mailhes, Corinne

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aliphatic alco hol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Alteration and release of aliphatic compounds by the polychaete Nereis virens (Sars) experimentally fed with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fed with hydrocarbons a , a b b *Franck Gilbert , Georges Stora , Gaston Desrosiers , Bruno Deflandre-491-826-548. E-mail address: gilbert@mailhost.com.univ-mrs.fr (F. Gilbert). hal-00763824,version1-11Dec2012 adsorbed onto the sediment (Gardner et al., 1979; Karickhoff and Morris, 1985; Reynoldson, 1987; Gilbert et

Boyer, Edmond

62

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic carbon-centered radicals Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

preprintsreprints & other Collection: Physics 15 Acetone-Photosensitized Reduction of Carbon Tetrachloride by Summary: ) Ross, A. B.; Neta, P. Rate constants for reactions of...

63

List of Publications Thomas B. Schon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Becker, G. Bleser, D. Stricker, C. Wohlleber, M. Felsberg, F. Gustafsson, J. Hol, T. B. Sch¨on, J

Schön, Thomas

64

Ketone Production from the Thermal Decomposition of Carboxylate Salts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The MixAlco process uses an anaerobic, mixed-culture fermentation to convert lignocellulosic biomass to carboxylate salts. The fermentation broth must be clarified so that only carboxylate salts, water, and minimal impurities remain. Carboxylate...

Landoll, Michael 1984-

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Investigations of Biomass Pretreatment and Submerged Fixed-bed Fermentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To improve the MixAlco process and biomass pretreatment, five studies were conducted. Three studies related to fermentation, whereas the other two investigated the effectiveness of shock tube pretreatment (STP) coupled with oxidative lime...

Meysing, Daniel

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

66

Effects of physical and chemical pretreatments on the crystallinity of bagasse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biomass conversion technologies are receiving increasing attention due to global climate change and most recently plans from the President of the United States to reduce fossil fuel consumption. The MixAlco process converts a variety of feedstocks...

Jones, Maxine Janette

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Pilot-scale fermentation of office paper and chicken manure to carboxylic acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur are necessary for the microorganisms to thrive. High-nutrient biomass such as sewage sludge, chicken manure, and pig manure is important for successful fermentation (Chan, 2002). Additional nutrients.... Successful research has been conducted at Texas A&M University for the past 15 years to optimize the MixAlco process. THE MIXALCO PROCESS The MixAlco process can convert a variety of biomass sources including municipal solid waste, sewage sludge...

Moody, Andrew Garret

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

68

Synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from the gasification products of oil shale from the Leningrad and Kashpir deposits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The experimental results of the gasification of oil shale from the Leningrad and Kashpir deposits and...

T. A. Avakyan; Yu. A. Strizhakova; A. S. Malinovskii; A. L. Lapidus

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Asbestiform sepiolite coated by aliphatic hydrocarbons from Perletoa, Aosta Valley Region (Western Alps, Italy): characterization, genesis and possible hazards  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...spectra collected on composite films between xylan-type hemicelluloses (polysaccharides...and probably interacts with the fibre surfaces via specific bonds. These interactions...hydrocarbon coating and the sepiolite fibres surface slowly but inexorably opened new interstices...

R. Giustetto; K. Seenivasan; E. Belluso

70

Use of Aliphatic n-Alkynes To Discriminate Soil Nitrification Activities of Ammonia-Oxidizing Thaumarchaea and Bacteria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...MC, Madras cropped; KC, Klamath cropped; and CC, Corvallis...of a functionally distinct group of AOA that differs from the groups responding to organic N mineralization...Agricultural Research Center, the Klamath Basin Research and Extension...

Anne E. Taylor; Neeraja Vajrala; Andrew T. Giguere; Alix I. Gitelman; Daniel J. Arp; David D. Myrold; Luis Sayavedra-Soto; Peter J. Bottomley

2013-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

71

bus, a Bushy Arabidopsis CYP79F1 Knockout Mutant with Abolished Synthesis of Short-Chain Aliphatic Glucosinolates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...methyl donor in trans-methylation reactions, and the hormone ethylene (). In addition, methionine is an immediate progenitor of...metabolism in plants Reintanz B. Rodman J.E. Karol K.G. Price R.A. Sytsma K.J. Molecules, morphology, and Dahlgrens...

Birgit Reintanz; Michaela Lehnen; Michael Reichelt; Jonathan Gershenzon; Marius Kowalczyk; Goran Sandberg; Matthias Godde; Rainer Uhl; Klaus Palme

72

CHANGES IN ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBON TRACER COMPOSITION DURING THE DIGESTIVE PROCESS OF THE MARINE WORM NEREIS VIRENS. PRELIMINARY RESULTS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NEREIS VIRENS. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. F. GILBERT a,b, G. STORA b, G. DESROSIERS a, J-P. GAGNE a, B hydrocarbons to a harsh chemical and active microbiological environment11. If the metabolization of polycyclic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

73

Application of organolithium compounds for the preparation of some aliphatic and alicyclic phosphines, phosphine oxides and phosphine sulfides  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

L-a-pr?wylphssyhiae) to 6)t? (triaethyl- phosphiae)i Those yielgs esasot bo eoasi4ore4 to bo the sssiasa possible ~ siaeo so stagy of tho osao resotioa vss ?agertsbss sa4er vsrioss eoagitioaa. Sae a44itioa of sa ether selatios of phosphorus espehlsrigo te ss eseoos ef...Lpllithiuw& 20, 7 gi(0&19 sole) of yhosyhorus trichloride ia $0 al of anhydrous other was a44od dropwioo at a toaperature between 20' and -10" ~ . 'ftor the o44itioa of the phosphor?s triohloride the cooling bath?as resowed snd the reostioa aixturo...

Screttas, Constantinos G

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

74

THE CHEMISTRY OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS -CLEAVAGE OF ALIPHATIC BRIDGES BETWEEN AROMATIC NUCLEI CATALYSED BY LEWIS ACIDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Background I. II. III. IV. II. Coal Liquefaction . •Coal Structure • • . Lewis Acid Catalysts. Scope andOrganic Structure of Bituminous Coal", Proceedings, Stanford

Taylor, Newell D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Generation, Observation, and Free Radical Reactivity of Aliphatic Bisketenes:? The Solution to a Long-Standing Problem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Annette D. Allen , Michael H. Fenwick , Amir Jabri , Huzaifa Rangwala , Kazem Saidi , and Thomas T. Tidwell * ... (g) Allen, A. D.; Rangwala, H.; Saidi, K.; Tidwell, T. T.; Wang, J. Russ. ...

Annette D. Allen; Michael H. Fenwick; Amir Jabri; Huzaifa Rangwala; Kazem Saidi; Thomas T. Tidwell

2001-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

76

Spherical harmonic modes of 5.5 post-Newtonian gravitational wave polarizations and associated factorized resummed waveforms for a particle in circular orbit around a Schwarzschild black hol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent breakthroughs in numerical relativity enable one to examine the validity of the post-Newtonian expansion in the late stages of inspiral. For the comparison between post-Newtonian (PN) expansion and numerical simulations, the waveforms in terms of the spin-weighted spherical harmonics are more useful than the plus and cross polarizations, which are used for data analysis of gravitational waves. Factorized resummed waveforms achieve better agreement with numerical results than the conventional Taylor expanded post-Newtonian waveforms. In this paper, we revisit the post-Newtonian expansion of gravitational waves for a test-particle of mass $\\m$ in circular orbit of radius $r_0$ around a Schwarzschild black hole of mass $M$ and derive the spherical harmonic components associated with the gravitational wave polarizations up to order $v^{11}$ beyond Newtonian. Using the more accurate $h_{\\ell m}$'s computed in this work, we provide the more complete set of associated $\\rho_{\\ell m}$'s and $\\delta_{\\ell m}$'s that form important bricks in the factorized resummation of waveforms with potential applications for the construction of further improved waveforms for prototypical compact binary sources in the future. We also provide ready-to-use expressions of the 5.5PN gravitational waves polarizations $h_+$ and $h_\\times$ in the test-particle limit for gravitational wave data analysis applications. Additionally, we provide closed analytical expressions for 2.5PN $h_{\\ell m}$, 2PN $\\rho_{\\ell m}$ and 3PN $\\delta_{\\ell m}$, for general multipolar orders $\\ell$ and $m$ in the test-particle limit. Finally, we also examine the implications of the present analysis for compact binary sources in Laser Interferometer Space Antenna.

Ryuichi Fujita; Bala R. Iyer

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Problem Solving with Tactics Masami Hagiya1, Hitoshi Tanaka1, Mitsuharu Yamamoto1, Shin-ya Nishizaki2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

@math.s.chiba-u.ac.jp Abstract We implemented a solver for a puzzle called Picross under HOL, a tactic* *-based for implementing a logical variable under HOL. Our logical variables are insta* *ntiated according to more be implemented as a proof pro* *cedure that is applied to a problem Q and computes a solution a while proving

Hagiya, Masami

78

Research White Paper February 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Chandaria, G. Thomas, B. Bartczak, K. Koeser, R. Koch, M. Becker, G. Bleser, D. Stricker, C. Wohlleber, M. Koeser, R. Koch, M. Becker, G. Bleser, D. Stricker, C. Wohlleber, M. Felsberg, F. Gustafsson, J. Hol, T3 , D. Stricker3 , C. Wohlleber3 , M. Felsberg4 , F. Gustafsson4 , J. Hol4 , T. B. Schön4 , J

Schön, Thomas

79

ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES, II. A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, IN BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENT LAKE SEDIMENT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The normal hydrocarbons of the rich oil shale from the Green River Formation exhibit...n-C17 alkane in the Green River oil shale is consistent with the theory that...rise to the organic material of rich oil shale. Although the Florida Mud Lake ooze...

Jerry Han; E. D. McCarthy; William Van Hoeven; Melvin Calvin; W. H. Bradley

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

ORGANIC GEOCHEMICAL STUDIES, II. A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN ALGAE, IN BACTERIA, AND IN A RECENT LAKE SEDIMENT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...higher-molecular- TABLE 1. Hydrocarbons from algae. n-C, n-C1. Pristane A-C17 n-Cl? Branched C1s Phytane n-Cis, n-Ci8 n-C2u Higher mol wt hydrocarbons Major component .-Blue-Green Algae- Nostoc Anacysti8 0.42 28 0.42 3.4 4.0 100 100 19...

Jerry Han; E. D. McCarthy; William Van Hoeven; Melvin Calvin; W. H. Bradley

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aliphatic alco hol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A novel copper(II)-Schiff base complex containing pyrrole ring: Synthesis, characterization and its modified electrodes applied in oxidation of aliphatic alcohols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A novel copper(II)-Schiff base complex containing pyrrole ring: Synthesis, characterization 35042 Rennes Cedex, France. Abstract A new copper(II) complex Cu(II)-L containing N2O2 donor atoms has of copper acetate monohydrate. It was characterized by spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR, UV­vis, mass

Boyer, Edmond

82

Complete Detoxification of Short Chain Chlorinated Aliphatic Compounds: Isolation of Halorespiring Organisms and Biochemical Studies of the Dehalogenating Enzyme Systems - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Work focused on the isolation and characterization of halorespiring populations, and the initial investigation of the dechlorinating enzyme systems. In addition, tools to evaluate the presence/activity to halorespiring populations in the environment were developed. The tools developed in this work (measurements of hydrogen consumption thresholds, molecular probes) are relevant for regulatory agencies in order to facilitate decisions on which bioremediation technology (biostimulation or bioaugmentation) is most promising at a particular site. In addition, a better understanding of the physiology of the halorespiring organisms as well as the biochemistry of the dehalogenating enzyme systems enhances our knowledge of how these organisms can successfully be employed in the bioremediation of contaminated sites.

Tiedje, J.M.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Assessing the Potential of Natural Microbial Communities to Improve a Second-Generation Biofuels Platform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Naturally occurring microbial communities from high-salt and/or high-temperature environments were collected from sites across the United States and Puerto Rico and screened for their efficacy in the MixAlco biofuel production platform. The Mix...

Hammett, Amy Jo Macbey

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

84

Oligomerization and Catalytic Ketonization in the Mixalco™ Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

–3 Depending how many steps are employed, the final product is ketones, alcohols, or hydrocarbons. Potential biomass feedstocks include municipal solid waste, animal manure, and energy crops.4–8 The MixAlco™ process is a version of the carboxylate platform...

Taco Vasquez, Sebastian

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

85

Aluminum monocarbonyl and aluminum isocarbonyl Steve S. Wesolowski,a)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aluminum monocarbonyl and aluminum isocarbonyl Steve S. Wesolowski,a) T. Daniel Crawford,b) Justin of the aluminum monocarbonyl species AlCO and AlOC have been performed to predict the geometries, fragmentation, Ogden, and Oswald6 first isolated aluminum dicarbonyls in solid krypton and identified the species

Crawford, T. Daniel

86

Problem Solving with Tactics Masami Hagiya 1 , Hitoshi Tanaka 1 , Mitsuharu Yamamoto 1 , Shinya Nishizaki 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for this programming style, by which we implement a logical variable under HOL. Unlike ordinary logical variables, our be implemented as a proof procedure that is applied to a problem Q and computes a solution a and a proof of Q(a@math.s.chiba­u.ac.jp Abstract. We implemented a solver for a puzzle called Picross under HOL, a tactic­based theorem prover

Hagiya, Masami

87

Problem Solving with Tactics Masami Hagiya 1 , Hitoshi Tanaka 1 , Mitsuharu Yamamoto 1 , Shinya Nishizaki 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

@math.s.chiba­u.ac.jp Abstract We implemented a solver for a puzzle called Picross under HOL, a tactic­based theorem prover. In the last step, we employed a technique for implementing a logical variable under HOL. Our logical variables can be implemented as a proof procedure that is applied to a problem Q and computes a solution a while

Hagiya, Masami

88

Comment on flash photolysis resonance fluorescence investigation of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with a series of aliphatic ketones over the temperature range 240-440 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recent flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence study of Wallington and Kurylo dealing with the kinetics of the gas-phase reactions of the OH radical with ketones has greatly expanded the literature data base concerning this class of organic compounds. For 2- and 3-pentanone and 2-hexanone the absolute room temperature rate constants determined by Wallington and Kurylo can be compared to rate constants obtained by using a relative rate technique, and significant discrepancies, outside of the combined stated experimental error limits, are evident. The relative rate constant measurements were carried out in a 60-L Teflon chamber, and problems ascribed to first-order wall losses of the ketones during the irradiations were observed.

Atkinson, R.; Aschmann, S.M.

1988-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

89

Conversion of sugarcane bagasse to carboxylic acids under thermophilic conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?????????????. 17 1.4 Project description????????????..?... 25 II MATERIALS AND METHODS???????????? 27 2.1 Biomass feedstock??????????????. 27 2.2 Biomass pretreatment????????????? 29 2.3 Fermentation material and methods.... This is followed by introducing promising lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks and challenges in lignocellulosic biomass conversion. Subsequently, it presents the process description and recent advances of the MixAlco process, a novel and promising biomass...

Fu, Zhihong

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Direct conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive extraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Petroleum Processing, P. R. China Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Mark T. Holtzapple The MixAlco process, a proprietary technology owned by Texas A&M University, converts biomass (e.g., municipal solid waste, sewage sludge, paper, agricultural... residues, and energy crops) into usable chemicals (e.g., acetic acid) and fuels (e.g., ethanol). Historically, calcium carbonate has been used as the buffer. Recently, it was found that using ammonium bicarbonate as the buffering agent enhances...

Xu, Xin

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

91

Synapsid Burrows in the Lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone, Utah  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ite ctu ral an d s urf ici al m orp hol ogi es. 23 Type I Structures Architectural Morphology.—Type I comprise high-density, complex networks of interconnected Y- and T- branched, inclined ramps, horizontal to subhorizontal large...

Riese, David

2011-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

92

Problem Solving with Tactics Masami Hagiya1, Hitoshi Tanaka1, Mitsuharu Yamamoto1,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

@math.s.chiba-u.ac.jp Abstract We implemented a solver for a puzzle called Picross under HOL, a tactic problem and find an unknown solution. In the last step, we employed a technique for implementing. 1 Introduction Under a theorem prover, a solver of a problem can be implemented as a proof

Hagiya, Masami

93

The Mississippi Valley earthquakes of 1811 and 1812: Intesities, ground motion and magnitudes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the same. m~ment. .. The Comet has been passingto the wesiward...of t~he boatmen a~ the landing, Wh(~ szpposed the bank...about the time o~ their landing , they saw,~hat the island...hol~, Anxfous to o~tain landing~ and dreading the high banks...

Otto W. Nuttli

94

Bridging the Gaps between eTransforming SMEs and SME -ICT Providers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of what eTransforming SMEs need based on their current technology and future business requirements. Keywords: SMEs, eTransformation, Information and Communication Technology, ICT providers 1 IntroductionBridging the Gaps between eTransforming SMEs and SME - ICT Providers Ana Hol1 and Athula Ginige1

Boyer, Edmond

95

Escape to ATP for Mizar Piotr Rudnicki  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Escape to ATP for Mizar Piotr Rudnicki University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada piotr ATP service is a new feature in the Mizar proof assistant. The functionality of the service is in many respects analogous to the Sledgehammer subsystem of Isabelle/HOL. The ATP service requires minimal user

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

Single-Walle 4. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

applications, carbon nanotube research is ac- tively being pursued in diverse areas including energy storage105 Single-Walle 4. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Sebastien Nanot, Nicholas A. Thompson, Ji Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are hol- low, long cylinders with extremely large aspect ratios

Kono, Junichiro

97

Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) - Geothermal...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

2011-11-03 09.59 Monitoring SERC TechnologiesGround Source Heat Pumps Page 1 of 22 Am Amy y Ho Hol ll la an nd de er r, , Da Dav vi id d P Pe et te er rs so on n Amy Hollander:...

98

An approach for lifetime reliability analysis using theorem proving  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently proposed formal reliability analysis techniques have overcome the inaccuracies of traditional simulation based techniques but can only handle problems involving discrete random variables. In this paper, we extend the capabilities of existing ... Keywords: Failure rate, Formal methods, Fractile function, HOL, Hazard function, Lifetime analysis, Random variables, Reliability analysis, Statistical properties, Theorem proving

Naeem Abbasi; Osman Hasan; Sofiène Tahar

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

THE HEISENBERG GROUP AND CONFORMAL FIELD THEORY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......assume that our affine symplectic manifold X is connected. Assume for a moment that it is finite-dimensional. The way to pro- ceed in geometric quantization is to define, for each polarization, the Hilbert space H0 L2 (X; L) := L2 hol(X, L) of holomorphic......

Hessel Posthuma

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Int. J. , Vol. x, No. x, xxxx 1 Modelling and Analysis of Service Parts Logistics Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Int. J. , Vol. x, No. x, xxxx 1 Modelling and Analysis of Service Parts Logistics Systems Fernando, the behaviour of the service parts logistics system (SPLS) is approximated with a modified M/G/1 HOL queuing policy. Keywords: Service parts logistics, optimisation, genetic algorithms, M/G/1 queuing model

Rossetti, Manuel D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aliphatic alco hol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Assessing the frictional and baroclinic contributions to stratified wake formation: a parameter space study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The baroclinic and surface-frictional contributions to stratified wake formation are considered as a function of the non-dimensional height ( = Nho/U) and aspect-ratio ( = ho/L) of the barrier. Numerical simulations are computed for a wide range...

Smith, Jamie Brooke

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

102

Formalising the -calculus using Nominal Logic Jesper Bengtson and Joachim Parrow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Information Technology, University of Uppsala, Sweden Abstract. We formalise the pi-calculus using the nominal an implementation in Isabelle/HOL. The purpose is to derive powerful induction rules for the semantics in order. This is a normal strategy for manual proofs about the pi-calculus, but that kind of hand waving has previously been

Flener, Pierre

103

Abstract The typing of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located throughout the mitochondrial genome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to nuclear DNA testing in cases of extreme sample degradation, shed hairs, or where com- parisons between less power of discrimination than nuclear DNA. However, forensic mtDNA testing targets only a small maternal relatives are necessary (a gen- eral review of mtDNA forensic testing is given by Hol- land

104

Anaerobic fermentation of rice straw and chicken manure to carboxylic acids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biomass (Lynd et al., 2002). Carboxylic acids (C2? C7) are produced from anaerobic fermentation. Because they have a high market value, these acids can be recovered and sold. Alternatively, they can be converted to methane (biogas) or chemicals (e... conditions, both of which contribute heavily to production costs. Zhang and Zhang (1999) studied biogasification of rice straw to produce biogas (CH4 (50%)); however, methane is a low-value product. 1.6 The MixAlco Process An alternative to SSF...

Agbogbo, Frank Kwesi

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

105

Texas Rice, Volume VI, Number 5  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by processing these crops is produced more efficiently than the ethanol produced by corn. Water hyacinth, a weed that chokes waterways if left to grow uncontrolled, is even more energy efficient as a biomass feedstock,” Holtzapple said. In the MixAlco process..., the biomass feedstock, with added mi- croorganisms from sources such as dirt, compost piles and swamps, is treated with lime and then fer- mented to form organic salts. Wa- ter is removed and then the mixture is heated to form ketones, such as acetone, which...

106

E-Print Network 3.0 - alloplastic graft material Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ovei the level of grafting, ease of control of the final material properties... Aliphatic polyester-grafted starch composites by in situ ring opening polymerization* Abstract......

107

E-Print Network 3.0 - aqueous polyketone latices Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

11 Alternating aliphatic polyketones, produced by co-and terpolymerization of carbon monoxide and olefins (mixtures of ethylene and propylene) using palladium-based Summary:...

108

Water-soluble polyesters from long chain alkylesters of citric acid and poly(ethylene glycol) .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Long chain aliphatic alcohols have been used as model compounds to develop a preparative method for a water-soluble material, which could be a carrier for… (more)

Barroso Bujans, Fabienne

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon clusters Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aliphatic chains as key intermediates for the nucleation Summary: to macromolecular building blocks (nanoparticles) that eventually turn into soot. Polycyclic aromatic...

110

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1091910932, 2013 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/13/10919/2013/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

examined in detail. Although a few field stud- ies have suggested that primary particulate organic carbon both black carbon and or- ganic aerosol (OA), particularly in some developing coun- tries where aliphatic bridges or loops. The aromatic bonds are very stable compared to the aliphatic bridges and loops

Meskhidze, Nicholas

111

2009 Publications | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

09 Publications 09 Publications Journal Papers J. Abendroth, A. C. Kreger and W. G. J. Hol, "The Dimer Formed by the Periplasmic Domain of EpsL from the Type 2 Secretion System of Vibrio parahaemolyticus", J. Struct. Biol. 168, 313 (2009) doi: 10.1016/j.jsb.2009.07.022 J. Abendroth, D. D. Mitchell, K. V. Korotkov, T. L. Johnson, A. Kreger, M. Sandkvist and W. G. J. Hol, "The Three-dimensional Structure of the Cytoplasmic Domains of EpsF from the Type 2 Secretion System of Vibrio cholerae", J. Struct. Biol. 166, 303 (2009) doi: 10.1016/j.jsb.2009.03.009 V. Aguilar-Guerrero, R. J. Lobo-Lapidus and B. C. Gates, "Genesis of a Cerium Oxide Supported Gold Catalyst for CO Oxidation: Transformation of Mononuclear Gold Complexes into Clusters as Characterized by X-ray

112

Pion distribution amplitude from holographic QCD and the electromagnetic form factor F{sub {pi}}(Q{sup 2})  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The holographic QCD prediction for the pion distribution amplitude (DA) {phi}{sub hol}(u) is used to compute the pion spacelike electromagnetic form factor F{sub {pi}}(Q{sup 2}) within the QCD light-cone sum rule method. In calculations the pion's renormalon-based model twist-4 DA, as well as the asymptotic twist-4 DA are employed. Obtained theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data and with results of the holographic QCD.

Agaev, S. S.; Nobary, M. A. Gomshi [Institute for Physical Problems, Baku State University, Z. Khalilov Street 23, Az-1148 Baku (Azerbaijan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Inhibition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase by cellobiose, glucose, ethanol and butanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INHIBITION OF TRICHODERMA REESEI CELLULASE BY CELLOBIOSE, GLUCOSE, ETHANOL AND BUTANOL A Thesis by MONA BETH COGNATA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering INHIBITION OF TRICHODERMA REESEI CELLULASE BY CELLOBIOSE, GLUCOSE, ETHANOL AND BUTANOL A Thesis by MONA BETH COGNATA Approved as to style and content by: Mark T. Hol a (Chair...

Cognata, Mona Beth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

114

Individual User Behavior Leading Factor in Comfort Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 METHODS Integral Intelligent Process Control Integration between end-user and building is the ultimate in the intelligent building concept. ?Connecting? the end... deterministic hol i s ti c ESL-IC-08-10-46 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 Figure 4. Conceptual map comfort (van Schijndel 2007) The most important research...

Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Van Houten, M. A.; Wortel, W.; Van Der Velden, J. A. J.; Kamphuis, R.; Hommelberg, M.; Broekhuizen, H.

115

Technische Universitat Munchen Institut fur Informatik  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Technische Universit¨at M¨unchen Institut f¨ur Informatik Prof. Tobias Nipkow, Ph. D. SS 2005 4. 5 nat), k¨onnen wie folgt in Isabelle/HOL repr¨asentiert werden: datatype tree = Tip | Nd tree nat tree Definieren Sie eine Funktion consts set_of :: "tree nat set" die einen solchen bin¨aren Baum als Argument

Cengarle, María Victoria

116

Pennsylvanian ichthyoliths from the Shawnee Group of eastern Kansas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

similarities. Many of the units lack conodonts but contain ichthyoliths. These samples include SB-1-6, SB- 1-7, KH-4-1, KH-4-2, Te-Sp-1, TCS-1-1 and TCS- 1-2. Samples SB-1-5B, Sn-1-2B, Sn-1-3, KH-4-3, Os-1-1B, Os-1-2A, Os-1-2B, Os-1-2C, Os-1-2D, and Os-1-2E... lack both conodonts and ichthyoliths. Samples T-1-6, Sn-1-1B, He-1-1, Ke-1-4, Ke-1-6, SB-1-4B, LB-1-2, LB-1-3A, LB-1-3D, EC-1-1I, JPS-1-2C, TCS-1-4, Hol-1-1, Hol-1-2A, and Hol- 1-2B contain conodonts but lack ichthyoliths; however, samples...

Tway, L. E.

1979-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

117

ENVIRONME NTA L R EV  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ENVIRONME ENVIRONME NTA L R EV IEW for CATEGO RI CAL EXCLUS ION DETE RM INATION Rocky Mountain Region, Western Area Power Ad ministration Alco\'3-Caspc r North I IS-kV Transm ission Line Pole Replace ments Na t ro na Co un ty, Wyo mi ng A. Brief Desc ription of Proposal: Western Area Po\.\cr Administration's (Western) Casper Field Office proposes to replace deteriorating poles on 18 wood II-frame structures along its Alcova-Casper North 115-kV transmission line. The project structures are located on the transmission line bct\.ycen Township 33 North. Range 80 West. Section 12 and Township 30 North, Range 82 West. Section 18, 6 th Principle Meridian ncar Casper. Wyoming. in Natrona County. The land ownership is primarily private with two structures located on Bureau of Land Management administered lands. Western will accomplish

118

acronyms.PDF  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

HEALTH AND SAFETY ACRONYMS HEALTH AND SAFETY ACRONYMS AFRD Accelerator and Fusion Research Division ACFD Alameda County Fire Department AHD Activity Hazard Documentation ALARA as low as reasonably achievable ALCO Alameda County (Fire Department) ALS Advanced Light Sources ASD Administrative Services Department ASPCP Accidental Spill Prevention and Containment Plan AST Above ground storage tank BAAQMD Bay Area Air Quality Management District Basin Plan Water Quality Control Plan BBAP Behavior-Based Accident Prevention (peer-based safety observation program to identify and communicate at-risk work behaviors - see WOW) Berkeley Lab Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory BSO Berkeley Site Office (DOE) Bq becquerel BTEX benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene CAA Clean Air Act CARB California Air Resources Board

119

OZONOLYSIS OF “POLYMER-TYPE” MATERIAL IN COAL, KEROGEN AND IN THE ORGUEIL METEORITE: A PRELIMINARY REPORT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...aggregate of aliphatic structures with some cycloalkane and mononuclear aromatic ring components; and (3) coaly-oil-shale-type, which has properties intermediate be- tween the two. The nature of the insoluble organic matter in carbonaceous...

Sister Mary Carol Bitz; Bartholomew Nagy

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES Hydrol.Process. 15, 2877-2892 (2001)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

soil surface, and it is caused by the leaching of hydrophobic compounds, such as aliphatic hydrocarbons). These compounds can escapeinto the atmosphere, or move into the soil atmosphere and condense *Correspondence to: L). The condensation of these compounds form

MacDonald, Lee

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aliphatic alco hol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Quantification of NA processes for the CAH-contamination in Karlsruhe-Ost/Killisfeld with the help of a groundwater model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reactive transport of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAH) was simulated with a process oriented multi-species-model for a model domain of 4 km2. The objective of the calculations was the quantification of NA...

Dr.-Ing. W. Schäfer; Dr. F. Wickert; Dr. A. Tiehm

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic substitution photo-nocas Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and to structural differences in the aliphatic... (a) and HMBC (b) spectra for TCV oil as an example. The degree of substitution of the aromatic... MS and the degree of...

123

DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201402244 Chemocatalytic Upgrading of Tailored Fermentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for blending with gasoline,[7­9] production of longer chain alcohols for jet and diesel blendstocks suffers reported a chemical catalysis route to generate aliphatic ketones (C5­C19) that are components of gasoline

Toste, Dean

124

Metal-sulfur type cell having improved positive electrode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An novel metal-sulfur type cell operable at a temperature of 200.degree. C. or less with an energy density of 150 Whrs/Kg or better is disclosed characterized by an organo-sulfur cathode formed from an organic-sulfur compound having the general formula, in its charged state, of (R(S).sub.y).sub.n wherein y=1 to 6; n=2 to 20; and R is one or more different aliphatic or aromatic organic moieties having 1 to 20 carbon atoms, which may include one or more oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen heteroatoms when R comprisises one of more aromatic rings, or one or more oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, or fluorine atoms associtated with the chain when R comprises an aliphatic chain, wherein the aliphatic group may be linear or branched, saturated or unsaturated, and wherein either the aliphatic chain or the aromatic ring may have substituted groups thereon.

Dejonghe, Lutgard C. (Berkeley, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); Mailhe, Catherine C. (Berkeley, CA); Armand, Michel B. (St. Martin D'Uriage, FR)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Cobalt-cement catalysts for the synthesis of motor fuel components from synthesis gas obtained from oil shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Highly effective cobalt-cement catalysts for the synthesis of aliphatic hydrocarbons from CO and H2, which are formed upon the thermolysis or gasification of oil shale or coals, are considered. The formation of t...

A. L. Lapidus; E. Z. Golosman; Yu. A. Strizhakova

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Innovative Remediation Technology for Contaminated Military Sites: A Canadian Perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel and innovative technology has been developed in Canada to clean-up soil contaminated with a wide range of organic pollutants, including aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated phenols, phthala...

Igor J. Marvan

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Nickel-catalyzed preparation of acrylamides from alpha olefins and isocyanates ; Synthetic studies toward ripostatin A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter I. In the presence of the N-heterocyclic carbene ligand IPr, the nickel(0)-catalyzed coupling reaction of a-olefins and branched aliphatic isocyanates provides c,-unsaturated amides arising from preferential C-C ...

Schleicher, Kristin D. (Kristin Diann)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 0099-2240/97/$04.00 0  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oxidation. CF8 and P. butanovora were able to degrade other chlorinated hydrocarbons, including. Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) cause serious environmental problems through contamination of ground wa- ter, drinking water, and soil. In situ bioremediation of CAHs by aerobic cometabolism

Semprini, Lewis

129

A Machine-Assisted Proof of Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems for the Theory of Hereditarily Finite Sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be downloaded from an Internet archive.1§2. Background. These proofs were conducted using Isabelle/HOL, an interactive theorem prover (Nipkow et al., 2002). Therefore all proofs are conducted in a formal calculus: higher-order logic. Nevertheless... –392. Feferman, S., editor (1986). Kurt Go¨del: Collected Works, Volume I. Oxford University Press. Franze´n, T. (2005). Go¨del’s Theorem: An Incomplete Guide to Its Use and Abuse. A K Peters. Go¨del, K. (1931). U¨ber formal unentscheidbare Sa¨tze der Principia...

Paulson, Lawrence

2014-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

130

Conversion characteristics of 10 selected oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion behavior of 10 oil shale from seven foreign and three domestic deposits has been studied by combining solid- and liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements with material balance Fischer assay conversion data. The extent of aromatization of aliphatic carbons was determined. Between zero and 42% of the raw shale aliphatic carbon formed aromatic carbon during Fischer assay. For three of the shales, there was more aromatic carbon in the residue after Fisher assay than in the raw shale. Between 10 and 20% of the raw shale aliphatic carbons ended up as aliphatic carbons on the spent shale. Good correlations were found between the raw shale aliphatic carbon and carbon in the oil and between the raw shale aromatic carbon and aromatic carbon on the spent shale. Simulated distillations and molecular weight determinations were performed on the shale oils. Greater than 50% of the oil consisted of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oil boiling fractions. 14 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Miknis, F.P.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Pontotoc Co. Greene Co. Hale Co. OAK GROVE C OAL D EGAS CEDAR COVE  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

COAL D EGAS BLU E CREEK COAL DEGAS BR OOKWOOD C OAL D EGAS ST AR ROBIN SONS BEND COAL D EGAS BLU FF COR INNE MOU NDVILLE COAL D EGAS BLU EGU T CR EEK WH ITE OAK CREEK COAL DEGAS BEAVERT ON BLU FF FAYETTE W SN EAD S CREEK SPLU NGE PAR HAM N MUSGR OVE CR EEK MCCRAC KEN MOU NTAIN DAVIS C HAPEL BAC ON BLOOMING GROVE MT Z ION FAIRVIEW JASPER BLOWHORN CREEK MAPLE BRAN CH KEN NEDY COAL F IRE CR EEK MCGEE LAKE SILOAM MILLPOR T FERNBANK DAVIS C HAPEL NE DETROIT E BEANS F ERRY LEXIN GT ON PET ERSON COAL D EGAS CALEDONIA ABERD EEN HOL T COAL D EGAS MULDON ELD RIDGE MCKINLEY CREEK TREBLOC HEARTLIN E SH ANNON TROY_MS_D BOXES CREEK WISE GAP NOR THSID E TREMONT VAN VLEET HOL LY BET HEL CHU RCH ABERD EEN S ST RONG BAN KST ON MOLLOY WR EN COR INTH WELLS THORN REID REID HOU STON ST AR DEERLICK CREEK COAL D EGAS OAK GROVE COAL D EGAS BIG SANDY CREEK COAL D EGAS MABEN LITT LE SAND Y CREEK COAL D

132

Pontotoc Co. Greene Co. Hale Co. OAK GROVE C OAL D EGAS CEDAR COVE COAL DEGAS  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

COAL DEGAS COAL DEGAS BLU E CREEK COAL DEGAS BR OOKWOOD C OAL D EGAS ST AR ROBIN SONS BEND COAL DEGAS BLU FF COR INNE MOU NDVILLE COAL DEGAS BLU EGU T CR EEK WH ITE OAK CREEK COAL DEGAS BEAVERT ON BLU FF FAYETTE W SN EAD S CREEK SPLU NGE PAR HAM N MUSGR OVE CR EEK MCCRAC KEN MOU NTAIN DAVIS C HAPEL BAC ON BLOOMING GROVE MT Z ION FAIRVIEW JASPER BLOWHORN CREEK MAPLE BRAN CH KEN NEDY COAL F IRE CR EEK MCGEE LAKE SILOAM MILLPOR T FERNBANK DAVIS C HAPEL NE DETROIT E BEANS F ERRY LEXIN GT ON PET ERSON COAL DEGAS CALEDONIA ABERD EEN HOL T COAL DEGAS MULDON ELD RIDGE MCKINLEY CREEK TREBLOC HEARTLIN E SH ANNON TROY_MS_D BOXES CREEK WISE GAP NOR THSID E TREMONT VAN VLEET HOL LY BET HEL CHU RCH ABERD EEN S ST RONG BAN KST ON MOLLOY WR EN COR INT H WELLS THORN REID REID HOU STON ST AR DEERLICK CR EEK C OAL DEGAS OAK GROVE C OAL D EGAS BIG SANDY C REEK COAL D EGAS MABEN LITT LE SAND Y CREEK COAL DEGAS

133

Solvent- and chromatography-free amination of ?-deficient nitrogen heterocycles under microwave irradiation. A fast, efficient and green route to 9-aminoacridines, 4-aminoquinolines and 4-aminoquinazolines and its application to the synthesis of the drugs amsacrine and bistacrine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Focused microwave irradiation of equimolecular mixtures of 9-chloroacridines, 4-chloroquinolines and 4-chloroquinazolines with amines in the presence of 2 equiv of phenol allows the general, fast and high-yielding synthesis of aminated heterocycles, with a very broad scope in terms of amine structure (aromatic, linear primary aliphatic, ?-branched primary aliphatic, secondary aliphatic and diamines). Workup consisted of a simple washing with water and purification could be achieved by crystallization, avoiding the use of organic solvents in extraction and chromatographic purification steps. This protocol provides a solution to the long-standing synthetic problem of achieving a practical and efficient method for the amination of ?-deficient nitrogen heterocycles for medicinal chemistry applications.

Matteo Staderini; Nieves Cabezas; Maria Laura Bolognesi; J. Carlos Menéndez

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from vegetable oils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Table (2.2) (OTM, 1999). Crude oils are composed of 80 to 90% hydrogen saturated aliphatic alkanes (paraffins) and cycloalkanes (naphthenes). Aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes (olefins) comprise 10- 20% and 1%, respectively, of crude oil composition....2 Hydrocarbon Contents in Crude Oil (ATSDR, 1995; OTM, 1999) HYDROCARBONS GENERAL FORMULA CHAIN TYPE STATE (Room temp) EXAMPLES Paraffins (Aliphatic) CnH2n+2 (n:1 to20) Linear or Branched Gas or Liquid Methane, Propane Hexane Aromatic C6H5-Y...

Myint, Lay L.

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

135

Catalytic properties of nickel activated by elements of I-VII of the periodic system in conversion of hydrocarbons with steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient recovery of benzene from pyrocondensates is considered to be one of the important problems of modern petroleum chemistry. In the paper presented, several nickel catalysts activated by elements of groups I to VII of the periodic system were synthesized and tested in steam conversion of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures. Samples of nickel catalysts activated by W and Bi had the highest selectivity in obtaining aromatic hydrocarbons from their mixtures with aliphatic hydrocarbons. Nickel catalysts activated by V/sub 2/O/sub 3/ showed the highest activity in steam conversion of hydrocarbons of both classes. (JMT)

Grinberg, D.N.; Shapiro, A.L.; Gankin, V.Yu.; Ivanova, M.L.; Yakovleva, N.V.; Moshkevich, A.S.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Phase formation induced by ion irradiation and electrical resistivity of aluminum–3d-transition-metal alloys  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The phase formation, in particular amorphization, caused by 500-keV Xe+ ion irradiation of thin multilayered films of Al-Ti, Al-V, Al-Cr, Al-Mn, Al-Fe, Al-Co, and Al-Ni has been investigated. At a substrate temperature of 100 K during the irradiation, all these alloy systems are found to become amorphous for aluminum-rich compositions. At room temperature, the formation of structurally simple-crystalline solid solutions over extended compositional ranges, as compared to thermodynamic equilibrium, is observed. The electrical resistivity of amorphous Al83M17 alloys, where M=Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, or Ni, is found to vary systematically as a function of transition-metal element. A maximum is observed around Fe, for which the d-electron states coincide with the Fermi level. This behavior suggests that scattering of the conduction electrons by the 3d-electron states plays a dominant role. A comparison with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data from the literature suggests that the resistivity of amorphous Al83M17 alloys can be directly correlated to the position and width of the d-electron states.

N. Karpe; K. Kyllesbech Larsen; J. Bo/ttiger

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Adsorption of carbon monoxide on ZSM-5 zeolites. Infrared spectroscopic study and quantum-chemical calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low temperature adsorption of CO was studied on H-ZSM-5 zeolites modified by dehydroxylation, ionic exchange with Al/sup 3 +/, and impregnation with Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and on Na-ZSM-5 and CaH-ZSM-5 zeolites. It was found that interaction of CO with framework OH groups results in the formation of a hydrogen-bonded CO complex whose OH bond frequency is decreased by 310-320 cm/sup -1/ compared with that of free hydroxyls. For the less acidic framework hydroxyls in large cavities of H/sub 70/Na/sub 30/-Y zeolite the observed shift is 275 cm/sup -1/. With ZSM-5 zeolites, at least six types of electron-accepting sites are observed originating from nonframework Al species (band of CO in the interaction complex: 2132, 2222, 2202, 2195, and 2198 cm/sup -1/) and the Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ microcrystalline phase (CO band at 2153 cm/sup -1/). The CO bond orders calculated by the CNDO/2 method for the CO interaction complexes with models of surface sites increase in the following order: > O-CO < > OH-CO approx. ..-->.. Al-CO approx. = Na-CO < alumina-CO approx. = Ca-CO < ..-->.. Si-CO < Al(cationic)-CO. A correlation between the calculated bond orders of CO and the observed vibrational frequencies of CO-forming interaction complexes is drawn.

Kustov, L.M.; Kazansky, V.B.; Beran, S.; Kubelkova, L.; Jiru, P.

1987-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

138

Framework-incorporated Mn and Co analcime zeolites: Synthesis and characterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The framework-substituted cobalt and manganese analcime zeolites were synthesized via a direct hydrothermal approach. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD powder, SEM-EDX, nitrogen physical adsorption, Raman microscopy, diffuse reflectance UV-Vis and IR spectroscopy which complementarily demonstrated the incorporation of cobalt and manganese into the zeolites framework. The results showed that substitution of Mn and Co could be placed in two synthesis gels with same compositions containing Al/Mn=5 and Al/Co=4 mol ratios, respectively. In addition, with replacing Al with Mn and synthesis of Mn-modified analcime, zeolite with higher surface area and pore volume could be achieved than the Co modified analcime. - Graphical abstract: The images and adsorption-desorption isotherms of N{sub 2} at 77 K for (a) Co (b) Mn modified analcime. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of Co and Mn modified analcime for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Framework-incorporation of Co and Mn using the same silicate gel composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Applying several techniques to provide proofs for the characterization.

Azizi, Seyed Naser, E-mail: azizi@umz.ac.ir [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani Tilami, Salma [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Analytical Division, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 47416-95447, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Diffusion in single crystals of melilite: 2. Cations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Diffusion coefficients of divalent cations, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Ca, Sr, and Ba, in synthetic akermanite were determined by tracer-diffusion experiments. Diffusion coefficients of cation paris, Al + Al-Mg + Si, Al + Al-Co + Si, and Mg-Co in melilite solid-solution systems, were determined by coupled annealing of synthetic melilites of endmember compositions. Cobalt tracer diffuses slower along the c-crystallographic axis than along the a-axis by a factor of about three, possibly due to the anisotropic sheet-like arrangement of oxygen ions parallel to the (001) plane which is perpendicular to the c-axis in the crystal structure of melilite. In the coupled diffusion experiments, the cation pairs interdiffuse complementary, as expected for conservation of material and ionic charge balance in the substitution. The observed trend in the inter-diffusion coefficient vs. melting temperature relations is similar to those observed for alloys and consistent with an empirical rule for self-diffusion coefficient-melting temperature relation. In the diffusion coefficient vs. ionic radius diagram for divalent cation diffusion in akermanite, smooth curves were observed as in the case of olivine systems. However, the shapes of the curves were significantly different from those observed in olivine systems. The observed trend of diffusion coefficients with ionic radius can be explained on the basis of crystal structure-controlled diffusion in akermanite.

Morioka, Masana (Univ. of Tokyo Yayoi (Japan)); Nagasawa, Hiroshi (Gakushiun Univ. Mejiro, Tokyo (Japan))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Paint Thinner MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solvent {Mineral spirits; Aliphatic Petroleum Distillates; White spirits} 8052-41-3 CAS # 95.0 -100 as hazardous under OSHA regulations. OSHA Regulatory Status: Inhalation Acute Exposure Effects: May cause: Reports have associated repeated and prolonged overexposure to solvents with neurological and other

Rollins, Andrew M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aliphatic alco hol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Molecular Characterization of Organic Content of Soot along the Centerline of a Coflow Diffusion Flame  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization was used to probe chemical constituents of young soot particles sampled along the centerline of a coflow diffusion flame of a three-component Jet-A1 surrogate. In lower positions where particles are transparent to light extinction (n= 632.8 nm), peri-condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found to be the major components of the particle material. These particles become enriched with aliphatic components as they grow in mass and size. Before carbonization occurs, the constituent species in young soot particles are aliphatic and aromatic compounds 200-600 amu in mass, some of which are oxygenated. Particles dominated by PAHs or mixtures of PAHs and aliphatics can both exhibit liquid-like appearance observed by electron microscopy and be transparent to visible light. The variations in chemical composition observed here indicate that the molecular processes of soot formation in coflow diffusion flames may be more complex than previously thought. For example, the mass growth and enrichment of aliphatic components in an initially, mostly aromatic structure region of the flame that is absent of H atoms or other free radicals indicates that there must exist at least another mechanism of soot mass growth in addition to the hydrogen-abstraction-carbon addition mechanism currently considered in fundamental models of soot formation.

Cain, Jeremy P.; Laskin, Alexander; Kholghy, Mohammad Reza; Thomson, Murray; Wang, Hai

2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

142

Materials science aspects of coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural organic materials are arrangements of linear aliphatic units and ring-like aromatic units arranged in a polymeric pattern. We show that fossilized organic materials such as coals and oil shale retain this polymeric character. We also show the polymeric nature of jet and amber fossilized organic matter used for centuries for ornamentation.

Charles Wert; Manfred Weller

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Bibliography and Index to the Literature on Gas Chromatography: January 1, 1963 to November 1, 1963  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......THE STUDY OF RESINS IN BLACK COAL TARS, Ferrand, R., Chim...ALIPHATIC ESTERS. PART I. SLOW COMBUSTION OF ETHYL ACETATE, Fish...French) 421 USE OF CATALYTIC COMBUSTION FILA- MENTS FOR QUALITATIVE...1363-1368 (Sept. 1963) 433 THE CHEMISTRY OF SERUM LIPOPRO- TEINS......

Seaton T. Preston; Jr.; Geneva Hyder; Mignon Gill

1963-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Bibliography and Index to the Literature on Gas Chromatography—1965 November 1, 1964 to November 1, 1965  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......German) 842 COMPOSITION OF SOFT COAL. X. CHEM ICAL COMPOSITION...R. C., NAA-SR-9731 Chemistry, OTS (Oct. 15, 1964) 912...HYDROCARBONS PRO- DUCED DURING COMBUSTION OF SIMPLE ALIPHATIC FUELS...1200 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY IN THE CHEMISTRY OF CEREALS. NOTE I, Mun......

Seaton T. Preston; Jr.; Mignon Gill

1965-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

146

Revised version Organic Geochemistry 28, 411-415, 1998.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Abstract A resistant soil organic residue, `humin', has been analysed by solid-state 13 C-NMR and pyrolysis, carbohydrates and phenols. Keywords : 13 C of soil alkanes, NMR, resistant aliphatic biopolymer, pyrolysis biomass decomposition products as well as from root exudates, the new proposed pathway is based upon

147

A Case for Safer Building Materials: Lifecycle Concerns, Data Gaps, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; microenvironments · Heating and ventilation · Dampness and humidity · Chemicals in building materials · VOCs have;Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) · Aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and associated supplies · Adhesives · Building materials · Furnishings and clothing · Combustion appliances

Lee, Seung-Wuk

148

Understanding the chemistry and physics of coal structure (A Review)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and heteroatom forms in...oxygen forms, and (iii) heat capacity and NMR studies...C2H3I as the reagent. Combustion of the C2H3I-alkylated...molecular weight products. HEAT CAPACITY AND NMR STUDIES...

Duane G. Levine; Richard H. Schlosberg; Bernard G. Silbernagel

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Midterm Exam: Chemistry 223 McGill University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or ethanol. a) Write balanced equations for the combustion reactions. b) How much heat is produced by each and show how, and in what sense, it becomes the heat absorbed by the sys- tem. c) What is a Joule and to define any sym- bols. 5. (20%) Gasoline is a mixture of various aliphatic hydrocarbons, however, here we

Ronis, David M.

150

Processing of meteoritic organic materials as a possible analog of early molecular evolution in planetary environments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbons but also in the finding...with the more numerous hydrocarbons. However...on the production of hydrocarbons from sugars...N-enrichment. Stepwise combustion of IOMs of this and...and was altered by heat (21). That is, molecular...

Sandra Pizzarello; Stephen K. Davidowski; Gregory P. Holland; Lynda B. Williams

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Understanding the chemistry and physics of coal structure (A Review)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...aliphatic hydrocarbons and heteroatom...and (iii) heat capacity...reagent. Combustion of the C2H3I-alkylated...2H20 in the combustion products...These data, combined...products. HEAT CAPACITY...with the heat capacity data at these...

Duane G. Levine; Richard H. Schlosberg; Bernard G. Silbernagel

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Estimation of Molar Heat Capacities in Solution from Gas Chromatographic Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the solutions of hydrocarbons--the general...and the molar heat capacity Abstract...Chromatographic Data K roly H berger...measure- ments of heat capacities and...Chem. Eng. Data 20: 24346 (1975...R. Fuchs. Heat capacities of...Enthalpies of combustion of some aliphatic......

Károly Héberger; Miklós Görgényi

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

PHONON DISPERSION CURVES OF ORDERED PHASES OF T.B.B.A. Abstract. --The lattice dynamics of a deuterated single crystal of T.B.B.A. have been measured  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a deuterated single crystal of T.B.B.A. have been measured by mean of inelastic neutron scattering of the molecules. Previous neutron inelastic scattering measurements have been done on non-deuterated single of a melting of the terminal aliphatic chains. So neutron coherent inelastic scattering measure- ments have

Boyer, Edmond

155

Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method. 12 figs.

Miller, J.D.; Yi, Y.; Yu, Q.

1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

156

Surface chemistry control for selective fossil resin flotation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A froth flotation method is disclosed for separating fine particles of fossil resin from by use of frothing reagents which include an aliphatic organic compound having a polar group and containing not more than four carbon atoms. Butanol is an effective frothing reagent in this method.

Miller, Jan D. (1886 Atkin Ave., Salt Lake City, UT 84106); Yi, Ye (2875 E. Wander Way, Salt Lake City, UT 84117); Yu, Qiang (224 University Village, Salt Lake City, UT 84108)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Environ. Sci. Technol. M92, 26,2454-2461 In-Situ Transformation of Carbon Tetrachloride and Other Halogenated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Environ. Sci. Technol. M92, 26,2454-2461 In-Situ Transformation of Carbon Tetrachloride and Other, California 94305-4020 Enhanced in-situ transformation of carbon tetrachloride (CT) was observed under anoxic Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs)with one or two carbon atoms are widely used as solvents, degreasing

Semprini, Lewis

158

ELSEVIER Journal of Hazardous Materials 41 (1995)205-216 HIIZIIRDOUS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride with elemental iron Bradley R. Helland, Pedro J.J. Alvarez*, Jerald L-1527, USA Received 3 August 1994;accepted in revised form 15 November 1994 Abstract Carbon tetrachloride (CC aliphatics such as carbon tetrachloride (CC14) are common environ- mental contaminants due

Alvarez, Pedro J.

159

A Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Method for Analyzing Extractable Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water and Soil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......fuel samples, including gasoline (18,20,21), diesel...temperature of 340 C. Run times were approximately...sample containing C9C36 straight chain aliphatics and...Determination of oxygenates in gasoline by GC GC. J. High Resolut...aromatic hydrocar- bons in gasolines by flow modulated comprehensive......

Stacy K. Seeley; Steven V. Bandurski; Robert G. Brown; James D. McCurry; John V. Seeley

160

The effect of injection hole geometry on flat plate film cooling and heat transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to thermal ly protect a gas turb ine blade f r om the hot gases w i th in a gas turbine engine by inject ion of a coo l ing f lu id th rough discrete holes i n the surface of the blade. Tests were conducted on a flat p late us ing the f i lm cool ing... surface w i th coo l ing a ir c i rculated w i th in the hol low core of the turb ine b lade. External cool ing employs co ld a ir inject ion th rough holes on the outer surface of the turb ine blade produc ing a f i lm of a i r that protects...

Madsen, Eric Perry

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aliphatic alco hol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

The electronic structure of arene tricarbonyl complexes of group 6 metals: ultraviolet photoelectron spectra and molecular orbital calculations, and the low-temperature X-ray crystal structure of hexamethylbenzene chromium tricarbonyl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

okl, k=2n+1 hol, 1=2n+ 1 hko, h=2n+1 13. 622(1)A 13. 369(2)A 15. 162(3)A 2761. 2As 8 1. 43g cm s Enraf-Nonius CAD-4 Mo K (X = 0. 71073A) 21 cm 2. 0 to 2. 6 mm horizontal 2. 0 mm vertical Scan type Scan rate Scan width(') Maximum 2e.... Fischer in 1955. The 1973 Nobel prize in chemistry was shared by E. O. Fischer and G. Wilkinson for their pioneering work, performed separately, on "sandwhich" complexes such as (Bz)zCr (in this thesis Bz=benzene, Tmb=1, 3, 5-trimethylbenzene, and Hmb...

Byers, Brien Patrick

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Lovers" Leap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the actors who EnfemT- ?o mlw f"tert,a'n^nt hereJ ?s is purelv amatter of Pereona' view; "alternate r Ql^ANTUMyLFAP9niw L '" "^r W?rdS| ?nat if"?" This 2ine *? not call the stars ofSta^rtrr ^S-WJ * ?re than one would ca" Max von Svdow. Wil|em Defoe... anice straigh let Itaf 6 ?Ut there than ,here are of ,hese' after a]l Uve and t? ?? 'would'ike to ,ake ?his opportunity to thank several people for making this all possible(YouYe S k?d STeotalp0 ^^ hol?9rapnic sex is a,urn-?n: wnat abunch of perverts...

Multiple Contributors

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Copolymers useful as additives for lowering the cloud point of middle hydrocarbon distillates, and compositions of middle hydrocarbon distillates comprising them  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Products useful as additives for lowering the cloud point of middle distillates have a molecular weight from 1,000 to 50,000, and are obtained by reacting a compound of the formula R-Z((CH/sub 2/) /SUB n/ NH) /SUB m/ H or HO-CH/sub 2/-R'-NH/sub 2/ where R is a monovalent saturated aliphatic radical of 1-30 carbon atoms, Z is -NH- or oxygen, n is 2 to 4, m is zero or 1 to 4 and R' is a saturated divalent aliphatic radical of 1-18 carbon atoms, with a copolymer comprising recurrent units (A) from an alkyl ester of an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid and/or a vinyl ester of a saturated monocarboxylic acid, recurrent units (B) from diisobutylene and recurrent units (C) from an unsaturated a,b-dicarboxylic compound.

Durand, J. P.; Damin, B.; Dawans, F.; Leger, R.

1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

164

A study of the structure of the hydrocarbons of primary hard-coal tar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrocarbons isolated from primary hard-coal (G/sub 6/ gas coal) tar have been investigated by a combination of physicochemical and chemical methods. It has been established that the hydrocarbons boiling up to 573 K are mainly aliphatic, hydroaromatic, and naphthenic and are aromatic only to a smaller degree. Molecular and presumable structural formulas of the oxygen compounds isolated from the 473-573 K hydrocarbon fraction have been derived.

Platonov, V.V.; Gerasimova, N.I.; Ivleva, L.N.; Klyavina, O.A.; Vishnyakov, S.N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

64Cu-1,4,7-Triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetic acid-6-aminohexanoic acid-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-Met-NH2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. recently reported that the NOTA-based 64Cu-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7­14) NH2 conjugate (where 8-Aoc = 8 pharmacokinetic properties of the 64Cu-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7­14)NH2 conjugate, Lane et al. synthesized a new group of conjugates with the NOTA derivative NO2A and replaced the spacer 8-Aoc with an aliphatic or aromatic linking

Levin, Judith G.

166

64Cu-1,4,7-Triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetic acid-9-aminonanoic acid-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-Met-NH2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. recently reported that the NOTA-based 64Cu-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7­14) NH2 conjugate (where 8-Aoc = 8 pharmacokinetic properties of the 64Cu-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7­14)NH2 conjugate, Lane et al. synthesized a new group of conjugates with the NOTA derivative NO2A and replaced the spacer 8-Aoc with an aliphatic or aromatic linking

Levin, Judith G.

167

Effects of shipment on diffusive dosimetry recovery efficiency for pentane, hexane and heptane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sciences College of Pharmacy Chairman of' Advisory Committee: Mr. Charles L. Gilmore The effects of' shipment on recovery was investigated for three aliphatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on the 3M Company's $3500 Organic Vapor Monitor and the Scientific Kit... of the contaminant compound of interest and the adsorptive properties of the adsorbing (3-6) medium, activated charcoal, for collection. The diffusive dosimeter is easy to use and can be placed on the worker by the first line supervisor each day at the beginning...

Read, Ronald Bruce

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

168

Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and that reaction is difficult to reverse (Streitwieser and Heathcock, 1976; King and Poole, 1994). Tertiary amines (R, N) do not form amides but generally give lower K, values than secondary amines. For the extraction of undissociated carboxylic acids, aliphatic... by acidifying with carbon dioxide under pressure in the presence of a suitable solvent (Busche, 1988). Gregor has used electrodialysis to recover acetic acid from dilute (1-5 wt%) acetate solutions. With newer membranes, acid concentrations up to 30% were...

Gaskin, David J

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Signalling pathway in appressorium formation in Magnaporthe grisea  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this project. I thank all the friends from Plant Pathology Department, especially Dr Ebbole?s lab and Angelina Biscati, for their help during my studies. I thank Plant Pathology and Microbiology Department for the opportunity. I thank Texas A&M University... hydrophobic aliphatic compounds (Kolattukudy and Roger 1995), Gilbert et al. (1996), investigating the signal responsible for activating the appressorium formation pathway in M. grisea, tested the effects of specific cutin monomers, lipids compounds...

Filippi, Marta Cristina

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

170

Composition of the ozonolytic degradation products of the organic matter of Barzasskii sapromyxite coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ozonization of Barzasskii sapromyxite coal in chloroform and the composition of ozonolytic degradation products were studied. Water-insoluble high-molecular-weight products were predominant among the ozonization products. A half of water-soluble substances consisted of aliphatic C{sub 5}-C{sub 12} dicarboxylic acids and benzenedicarboxylic acid derivatives. Sapromyxite has been suggested as a substitute for crude petroleum in the manufacture of motor fuels.

S.A. Semenova; Y.F.Patrakov [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kemerovo (Russian Federation). Institute of Coal and Coal Chemistry

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

Coal liquefaction process using pretreatment with a binary solvent mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for thermal solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a hydrogen donor solvent comprises pretreating the coal with a binary mixture of an aromatic hydrocarbon and an aliphatic alcohol at a temperature below 300 C before the hydroliquefaction step. This treatment generally increases both conversion of coal and yields of oil. 1 fig.

Miller, R.N.

1986-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

172

Effect of Plasticization of Epoxy Networks by Organic Modifier on Exfoliation of Nanoclay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of Plasticization of Epoxy Networks by Organic Modifier on Exfoliation of Nanoclay ... Plasticization of cross-linked epoxy networks by hydrocarbon chains of quaternary ammonium ions and its effect on exfoliation behavior of nanoclay particles in mixtures of aromatic and aliphatic epoxies were investigated. ... In an aromatic epoxy?nanoclay system, values of G‘/?* in the range 2?4 1/s produced exfoliation, while those less than 1 1/s produced intercalated structures. ...

Jonghyun Park; Sadhan C. Jana

2003-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

173

Correlated Microanalysis of Cometary Organic Grains Returned by Stardust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonaceous matter in Stardust samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 is observed to contain a wide variety of organic functional chemistry. However, some of this chemical variety may be due to contamination or alteration during particle capture in aerogel. We investigated six carbonaceous Stardust samples that had been previously analyzed and six new samples from Stardust Track 80 using correlated transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). TEM revealed that samples from Track 35 containing abundant aliphatic XANES signatures were predominantly composed of cometary organic matter infilling densified silica aerogel. Aliphatic organic matter from Track 16 was also observed to be soluble in the epoxy embedding medium. The nitrogen-rich samples in this study (from Track 22 and Track 80) both contained metal oxide nanoparticles, and are likely contaminants. Only two types of cometary organic matter appear to be relatively unaltered during particle capture. These are (1) polyaromatic carbonyl-containing organic matter, similar to that observed in insoluble organic matter (IOM) from primitive meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and in other carbonaceous Stardust samples, and (2) highly aromatic refractory organic matter, which primarily constitutes nanoglobule-like features. Anomalous isotopic compositions in some of these samples also confirm their cometary heritage. There also appears to be a significant labile aliphatic component of Wild 2 organic matter, but this material could not be clearly distinguished from carbonaceous contaminants known to be present in the Stardust aerogel collector.

B De Gregorio; R Stroud; G Cody; L Nittler; A Kilcoyne; S Wirick

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

Surface [4 + 2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Thymine on Si(111)7×7 Observed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

WATLab and Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada ... Simple hydrocarbons(1) with aliphatic chain backbones, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic molecules without and with heteroatoms(3) have been investigated by a number of experimental methods, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as computational methods based on density functional theory (DFT), Moller–Plesset perturbation theory (MP2), and semiempirical techniques. ...

A. Chatterjee; L. Zhang; K. T. Leung

2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

175

Flash photolysis resonance fluorescence investigation of the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with cyclic ethers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Absolute rate constants were measured for the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with a series of dioxanes and other cyclic ethers by using the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence technique. Kinetic data for 1,3-dioxane and 1,4-dioxane, reactions 1 and 2, over the temperature range 240-440 K were used to derive the Arrhenius expressions. These results are compared to our earlier measurements for aliphatic ethers and are discussed in terms of reaction mechanisms and the prediction of reaction rates for such compounds from group reactivity values.

Dagaut, P.; Liu, R.; Wallington, T.J.; Kurylo, M.J. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

1990-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

176

Microbial degradation of sedimentary organic matter associated with shale gas and coalbed methane in eastern Illinois Basin (Indiana), USA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molecular biodegradation indices for extracts from five Pennsylvanian coals and six New Albany Shale (Devonian – Mississippian) samples from the eastern part of the Illinois Basin help constrain relationships between the degradation of biomarkers and the generation of coalbed methane and shale gas. Investigation of these gas source rocks of varying thermal maturity from different depths facilitates evaluation of the association of microbial degradation with biogenic gas formation distinct from thermogenic processes. Extensive biodegradation of both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons is observed in the coal extracts, whereas in shale extracts only short-chain (C15–C19) n-alkanes from the shallowest depth appear to be microbially altered with minimal evidence for losses of acyclic isoprenoid alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons. By contrast, biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons, specifically alkylated naphthalenes and phenanthrenes, occurs in coal extracts in concert with losses of n-alkanes attributable to microbial activity. Thus, the progress of hydrocarbon biodegradation in coals differs from the sequence recognized in petroleum where the effects of microbial alteration of aromatic constituents only appear after extensive losses of aliphatic compounds. The extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation in these coals also decreases with depth, as recorded by the ?(nC25–nC30) index (i.e. abundance relative to 17?(H), 21?(H)-hopane) among the aliphatic constituents and several aromatic compounds (methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene, and trimethyl- and tetramethylphananthrenes). However, the depth variations in the distributions of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in the shale extracts primarily reflect the effects of thermal maturity rather than biodegradation. Overall, variations in the extent and patterns of biomarker biodegradation among coals and shales likely reflect their distinct microbial consortia that can be attributed to differences in (i) surviving microorganisms and inoculations from meteoric water, (ii) the characteristics of the sedimentary organic matter, especially the preponderance of aromatic constituents in coals, and (iii) the accessibility to that substrate through pores and cleats. These results help constrain the processes involved in biodegradation and controls on its extent, which, in turn, assist in recognizing sites favorable for methanogenesis and improved estimates of biogenic gas resources in the Illinois Basin.

Ling Gao; Simon C. Brassell; Maria Mastalerz; Arndt Schimmelmann

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oils near the Caspian depression  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structural-group composition of hydrocarbons of Mesozoic crude oils near the Caspian depression was investigated by mass-spectrometry, followed by the analysis of the mass-spectra using a computer. The distribution of naphthenic hydrocarbons, according to the number of rings and of aromatic hydrocarbons, according to the degree of hydrogen unsaturation is similar for all the crude oils examined. The hydrocarbon composition of Mesozoic crude oils is characterized by a reduction in the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkyl benzenes.

Botneva, T.A.; Khramova, E.V.; Nekhamkina, L.G.; Polyakova, A.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Kinetic data base for combustion modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this work is to develop a set of evaluated rate constants for use in the simulation of hydrocarbon combustion. The approach has been to begin with the small molecules and then introduce larger species with the various structural elements that can be found in all hydrocarbon fuels and decomposition products. Currently, the data base contains most of the species present in combustion systems with up to four carbon atoms. Thus, practically all the structural grouping found in aliphatic compounds have now been captured. The direction of future work is the addition of aromatic compounds to the data base.

Tsang, W.; Herron, J.T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Molybdenum recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the preparation of propylene oxide and tertiary butyl alcohol. It comprises: propylene and tertiary butyl hydroperoxide are reacted in an epoxidation reaction zone in solution in tertiary butyl alcohol in the presence of a soluble molybdenum catalyst to provide an epoxidation reaction product comprising unreacted propylene, unreacted tertiary butyl hydroperoxide, propylene oxide, tertiary butyl alcohol, dissolved molybdenum catalyst and impurities, including lower aliphatic C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} carboxylic acids, and wherein the epoxidation reaction product is resolved into product fractions in a distillation zone including a distillate propylene fraction.

Meyer, R.A.; Marquis, E.T.

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

180

Impact of Ferrocene on the Structure of Diesel Exhaust Soot as Probed with Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering and C(1s) NEXAFS Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the structure of a set of diesel exhaust samples that were obtained from reference diesel fuel and diesel fuel mixed with ferrocene. Characterization was carried out with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (C(1s) NEXAFS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The reference diesel soot shows a pronounced graphite-like microstructure and molecular structure, with a strong (0 0 2) graphite Bragg reflex and a strong aromatic C{double_bond}C resonance at 285 eV. The mineral matter in the reference soot could be identified as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} hematite. The soot specimen from the diesel mixed with ferrocene has an entirely different structure and lacks significantly in graphite-like characteristics. NEXAFS spectra of such soot barely show aromatics but pronounced contributions from aliphatic structures. WAXS patterns show almost no intensity at the Bragg (0 0 2) reflection of graphite, but a strong aliphatic {gamma}-side band. The iron from the ferrocene transforms to Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} maghemite.

Braun,A.; Huggins, F.; Kelly, K.; Mun, B.; Ehrlich, S.; Huffman, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aliphatic alco hol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Computational Study of Bond Dissociation Enthalpies for Substituted $\\beta$-O-4 Lignin Model Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The biopolymer lignin is a potential source of valuable chemicals. Phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) is representative of the dominant $\\beta$-O-4 ether linkage. Density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the Boltzmann-weighted carbon-oxygen and carbon-carbon bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) of substituted PPE. These values are important in order to understand lignin decomposition. Exclusion of all conformers that have distributions of less than 5\\% at 298 K impacts the BDE by less than 1 kcal mol$^{-1}$. We find that aliphatic hydroxyl/methylhydroxyl substituents introduce only small changes to the BDEs (0-3 kcal mol$^{-1}$). Substitution on the phenyl ring at the $ortho$ position substantially lowers the C-O BDE, except in combination with the hydroxyl/methylhydroxyl substituents, where the effect of methoxy substitution is reduced by hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding between the aliphatic substituents and the ether oxygen in the PPE derivatives has a significant influence on the BDE. CCSD(T)-calculated BDEs and hydrogen bond strengths of $ortho$-substituted anisoles when compared with M06-2X values confirm that the latter method is sufficient to describe the molecules studied and provide an important benchmark for lignin model compounds.

Younker, Jarod M [ORNL; Beste, Ariana [ORNL; Buchanan III, A C [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Study of thermal conversion of naphthenic oils on the basis of analysis of their middle fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The composition of the middle fractions of the thermal decomposition products of naphthenic oils obtained at 300, 350, and 400{degrees}C was studied. It was shown that the character of conversions of petroleum hydrocarbons is governed by the intensity of thermal treatment and by the chemical nature of the starting oil. The removal of aliphatic chains from high-boiling components of the petroleum at a temperature below 350{degrees}C results in the new formation of linear and isoprene alkanes in their middle fractions similarly to the catagenic transformations of oils in deposits. The rise in temperature up to 400{degrees}C enhances the destruction processes related to extension of the reactions of the homolytic cleavage of C-C bonds in aliphatic chains. This results in practically complete destruction of isoprene alkanes and in predominance of low-molecular homologs among the linear alkanes. On the basis of the results obtained it can be supposed that the thermal treatment is an important factor in the conversion of naphthenic oils into paraffin oils. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Kayukova, G.P.; Kurbskii, G.P.; Mutalapova, R.I. [A.E. Arbuzov Inst. of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

183

Safe epoxy encapsulant for high voltage magnetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the use of Formula 456, an aliphatic amine cured epoxy for impregnating coils and high voltage transformers. Sandia has evaluated a number of MDA-free epoxy encapsulants which relied on either anhydride or other aromatic amine curing agents. The use of aliphatic amine curing agents was more recently evaluated and has resulted in the definition of Formula 456 resin. Methylene dianiline (MDA) has been used for more than 20 years as the curing agent for various epoxy formulations throughout the Department of Energy and much of industry. Sandia National Laboratories began the process of replacing MDA with other formulations because of regulations imposed by OSHA on the use of MDA. OSHA has regulated MDA because it is a suspect carcinogen. Typically the elimination of OSHA-regulated materials provides a rare opportunity to qualify new formulations in a range of demanding applications. It was important to take full advantage of that opportunity, although the associated materials qualification effort was costly. Small high voltage transformers are one of those demanding applications. The successful implementation of the new formulation for high reliability transformers will be described. The test results that demonstrate the parts are qualified for use in DOE weapon systems will be presented.

Sanchez, R.O.; Archer, W.E.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Isolation and characterization of two crude oil-degrading yeast strains, Yarrowia lipolytica PG-20 and PG-32, from the Persian Gulf  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Among six crude oil-degrading yeasts that were isolated from an oil-polluted area in the Persian Gulf, two yeast strains showed high degradation activity of aliphatic hydrocarbons. From an analysis of 18S rRNA sequences and biochemical characteristics, these strains were identified as Yarrowia lipolytica strains PG-20 and PG-32. Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis of the crude oil remaining in the culture medium after 1 week at 30 °C showed that the strains PG-20 and PG-32 degraded 68% and 58% of crude oil, respectively. The optimal growth condition and biodegradation of hydrocarbons was in ONR medium with an acidic pH (pH 5). These two strains may degrade aliphatic hydrocarbons more efficiently than aromatic hydrocarbons, although strain PG-20 had better degradation than strain PG-32. The two Y. lipolytica strains reduce surface tension when cultured on hydrocarbon substrates (1% v/v). These strains showed a cell surface hydrophobicity higher than 70%. These results suggested that Y. lipolytica strains PG-20 and PG-32 have high crude oil degrading activity due to their high emulsifying activity and cell hydrophobicity. In conclusion, these yeast strains can be useful for the bioremediation process in the Persian Gulf and decreasing oil pollution in this marine ecosystem.

Mehdi Hassanshahian; Hamid Tebyanian; Simone Cappello

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Diffusion Of Hydrophobin Proteins In Solution And Interactions With A Graphite Surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background Hydrophobins are small proteins produced by filamentous fungi that have a variety of biological functions including coating of spores and surface adhesion. To accomplish these functions, they rely on unique interface-binding properties. Using atomic-detail implicit solvent rigid-body Brownian dynamics simulations, we studied the diffusion of HFBI, a class II hydrophobin from Trichoderma reesei, in aqueous solution in the presence and absence of a graphite surface. Results In the simulations, HFBI exists in solution as a mixture of monomers in equilibrium with different types of oligomers. The oligomerization state depends on the conformation of HFBI. When a Highly Ordered Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) layer is present in the simulated system, HFBI tends to interact with the HOPG layer through a hydrophobic patch on the protein. Conclusions From the simulations of HFBI solutions, we identify a tetrameric encounter complex stabilized by non-polar interactions between the aliphatic residues in the hydrophobic patch on HFBI. After the formation of the encounter complex, a local structural rearrangement at the protein interfaces is required to obtain the tetrameric arrangement seen in HFBI crystals. Simulations performed with the graphite surface show that, due to a combination of a geometric hindrance and the interaction of the aliphatic sidechains with the graphite layer, HFBI proteins tend to accumulate close to the hydrophobic surface.

Mereghetti, Paolo; Wade, Rebecca C.

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

186

Far- and mid-infrared spectroscopy of complex organic matter of astrochemical interest: coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and asphaltenes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The coexistence of a large variety of molecular species (i.e., aromatic, cycloaliphatic and aliphatic) in several astrophysical environments suggests that unidentified IR emission (UIE) occurs from small solid particles containing a mix of aromatic and aliphatic structures (e.g., coal, petroleum, etc.), renewing the astronomical interest on this type of materials. A series of heavy petroleum fractions namely DAE, RAE, BQ-1, and asphaltenes derived from BQ-1 were used together with anthracite coal and bitumen as model compounds in matching the band pattern of the emission features of proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). All the model materials were examined in the mid-infrared (2.5-16.7 um) and for the first time in the far-infrared (16.7-200 um), and the IR bands were compared with the UIE from PPNe. The best match of the PPNe band pattern is offered by the BQ-1 heavy aromatic oil fraction and by its asphaltenes fraction. Particularly interesting is the ability of BQ-1 to match the band pattern of the aromatic-ali...

Cataldo, F; Manchado, A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE BARRED SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 1097 PROBED BY AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the Infrared Camera on board AKARI, we carried out near-infrared (2.5-5.0 {mu}m) spectroscopy of the central kiloparsec region of the barred spiral galaxy, NGC 1097, categorized as Seyfert 1 with a circumnuclear starburst ring. Our observations mapped the area of {approx}50'' Multiplication-Sign 10'' with the resolution of {approx}5'', covering about a half of the ring and the galactic center. As a result, we spatially resolve the starburst ring in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 3.3 {mu}m, the aliphatic hydrocarbon 3.4-3.6 {mu}m features, and the hydrogen Br{alpha} 4.05 {mu}m emission. They exhibit spatial distributions significantly different from each other, indicating that the environments vary considerably around the ring. In particular, the aliphatic features are enhanced near the bar connecting the ring with the nucleus, where the structure of hydrocarbon grains seems to be relatively disordered. Near the center, the continuum emission and the CO/SiO absorption features are strong, which indicates that the environments inside the ring are dominated by old stellar populations. The near-infrared spectra do not show any evidence for the presence of nuclear activity.

Kondo, Toru; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Oyabu, Shinki; Ishihara, Daisuke; Mori, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onaka, Takashi; Sakon, Itsuki [Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Suzuki, Toyoaki, E-mail: kondo@u.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

188

Crosslinked Polyamide  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A crosslinked polyamide material and a process for preparing the crosslinked polyamide material are disclosed. The crosslinked polyamide material comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (1) a polyamide of the formula: ##STR1## wherein n is between about 50 and 10,000, wherein each R is between 1 and 50 carbon atoms alone and is optionally substituted with heteroatoms, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, or phosphorus and combinations thereof, wherein multiple of the R are in vertically aligned spaced relationship along a backbone forming the polyamide, and wherein two or more of the R contain an amino group; and (2) a crosslinking agent containing at least two functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups of the polyamide. In one embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is an aliphatic or aromatic isocyanate compound having 2 or more --N.dbd.C.dbd.O groups. In another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is an aliphatic aldehyde or aromatic aldehyde compound having 2 or more --CHO groups. In still another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is selected from a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.2 P(B) and mixtures thereof, wherein A is hydroxyalkyl, and B is hydroxyalkyl, alkyl, or aryl. In yet another embodiment of the invention, the crosslinking agent is selected from the group consisting of epoxy resins having more than one epoxide group per molecule.

Huang, Zhi H. (East Lansing, MI); McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Wright, Stacy C. (Lansing, MI); Taylor, Andrew C. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2002-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

189

Improving GC-PPC-SAFT equation of state for LLE of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds with water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The GC-PPC-SAFT model has been shown to be useful for predicting the liquid–liquid phase split with water [Nguyen-Huynh et al. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 50 (2011) 7467–7483]. In order to extend the use of this model to oxygenated compounds for a large number of families (aliphatic ethers, aldehydes, ketones, formates, acetates, propionates/butyrates, n-aliphatic acids), it is proposed to consider cross-association in addition to a binary interaction parameter lij on the combining rules for the cross-segment diameter between water and the investigated compound. The binary interaction parameters lij, u ? ? , and w ? ? are fitted on mutual solubilities of water and organic compounds. The regressed values which are obtained for each chemical family, are subsequently used for predicting infinite dilution activity coefficient in water and n-octanol/water partition coefficient. In general, the results obtained are very much improved compared to the predictive approach discussed previously [Nguyen et al. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 52 (2013) 7014–7029]. The global deviation values on the decimal log scale for infinite dilution activity coefficient in water, water solubility and n-octanol/water partition coefficient are 0.377, 0.419, and 0.469, respectively.

Thanh-Binh Nguyen; Jean-Charles de Hemptinne; Benoit Creton; Georgios M. Kontogeorgis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

The Risk Assessment Information System  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Condensed Toxicity Summary for TETRACHLOROETHYLENE Condensed Toxicity Summary for TETRACHLOROETHYLENE NOTE: Although the toxicity values presented in these toxicity profiles were correct at the time they were produced, these values are subject to change. Users should always refer to the Toxicity Value Database for the current toxicity values. MARCH 1993 Prepared by: Mary Lou Daugherty, M.S., Chemical Hazard Evaluation Group, Biomedical Environmental Information Analysis Section, Health and Safety Research Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory*, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Prepared for: Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Restoration Program. *Managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. Tetrachloroethylene (CAS No. 127-18-4) is a halogenated aliphatic

191

Tracking the Origins of Fossil Fuels | Advanced Photon Source  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tailoring the Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures Tailoring the Properties of Magnetic Nanostructures X-ray Holograms Expose Secret Magnetism How Dissolved Metal Ions Interact in Solution One Giant Leap for Radiation Biology? What's in the Cage Matters in Iron Antimonide Thermoelectric Materials Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed Tracking the Origins of Fossil Fuels MAY 29, 2007 Bookmark and Share S-XANES absorbance and third derivative absorbance edge spectra of Duvernay (A) Type II kerogen and the results of curve fits using spectra from model compounds. Notice that sharp features appear in the thrid derivative spectrum that are easily associated with FeS2, aliphatic sulfur and

192

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Oxygenate Production Oxygenate Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Captive Refinery Oxygenate Plants Oxygenate production facilities located within or adjacent to a refinery complex. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous denatured aliphatic alcohol intended for gasoline blending as described in Oxygenates definition. Gasohol A blend of finished motor gasoline containing alcohol (generally ethanol but sometimes methanol) at a concentration of 10 percent or less by volume. Data on gasohol that has at least 2.7 percent oxygen, by weight, and is intended for sale inside carbon monoxide nonattainment areas are included in data on oxygenated gasoline. Merchant Oxygenate Plants Oxygenate production facilities that are not associated with a petroleum refinery. Production from these facilities is sold under contract or on the spot market to refiners or other gasoline blenders.

193

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY FOR AN ADVANCE WAIVER  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

U.S. AND FOREIGN RIGHTS UNDER CONTRACT NO. DE-FC36-95GO10099 U.S. AND FOREIGN RIGHTS UNDER CONTRACT NO. DE-FC36-95GO10099 WAIVER NO. W(A)-96-015, CH0907. The attached petition by General Electric Corporation (hereafter GE) is for an advance waiver of patent rights under Contract No. DE-FC36-95GO10099. GE requests that the Department of Energy grant an advance waiver for the domestic and foreign rights to inventions made in the performance of work under the above identified contract and in particular, for materials and processes for the production of long-chain aliphatic dicarboxylic acids (diacids) and in applications of diacids in polymeric materials. Further, that these rights vest in GE subject to the standard Advance Waiver Patent Rights Clause with the enclosed U.S. Competitiveness paragraph as previously agreed to. Additionally, GE has accepted the standard

194

Method for the production of hydrocarbons using iron-carbon-based catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for producing C/sub 2/+ aliphatic hydrocarbons from a CO and H/sub 2/ mixture comprising the step of contacting the mixture with a catalyst comprising finely divided nonpyrophoric iron-carbon catalyst particles comprising iron and carbon, in the substantial absence of silicon, a substantial portion of which is dementite, which was produced in a reaction zone in the presence of laser radiation under such conditions of laser flux density, power adsorption, concentration of iron compound reactants selected from the group consisting of iron carbonyls, iron acetylacetonate, and ferrocene, and pressure sufficient to produce non-pyrophoric iron-carbon particles having average diameters between 1 and 100 nm.

Rice, G.W.; Fiato, R.A.; Soled, S.L.

1988-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

195

Profiles in Chemistry: A Historical Perspective on the National Organic Symposium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

However, he also must have been thinking of his upcoming talk at the first Symposium on Organic Chemistry that was to begin in two weeks in Rochester, NY, because in the weeks leading up to the Symposium, Norris was inspired to change the title of his talk(2, 3) from the advertised Quantitative Measurement of Chemical Reactivity of Organic Compounds to the actual talk he gave on December 29, which was entitled The Opportunities for Research in Aliphatic Chemistry. ... Photo by Bachrach and courtesy of the School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois. ... Ihde, A. J. Chemistry as Viewed from Bascom’s Hill; Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin: Madison, 1990; pp 611– 612. ...

Edward E. Fenlon; Brian J. Myers

2013-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

196

Bending elasticity of a curved amphiphilic film decorated anchored copolymers: a small angle neutron scattering study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microemulsion droplets (oil in water stabilized by a surfactant film) are progressively decorated with increasing amounts of poly ethylene- oxide (PEO) chains anchored in the film by the short aliphatic chain grafted at one end of the PEO chain . The evolution of the bending elasticity of the surfactant film with increasing decoration is deduced from the evolution in size and polydispersity of the droplets as reflected by small angle neutron scattering. The optimum curvature radius decreases while the bending rigidity modulus remains practically constant. The experimental results compare well with the predictions of a model developed for the bending properties of a curved film decorated by non-adsorbing polymer chains, which takes into account, the finite curvature of the film and the free diffusion of the chains on the film.

Jacqueline Appell; Christian Ligoure; Gregoire Porte

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

197

Effect of modifying host oil on coprocessing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleum is rich in aliphatic and naphthenic compounds, but usually contains relatively few aromatic or hydroaromatic compounds. This paper will explore ways in which petroleum resids (1000{degrees}F+) can be modified to improve them as coprocessing media with coal. Modifications of the resid include (1) hydrogenation with iron and molybdenum-based catalysts, (2) mild hydrogenation with dicobalt octacarbonyl (CO{sub 2}(CO){sub 8}) to convert any aromatics in the resid to hydroaromatics, (3) addition of certain polynuclear aromatic compounds that are excellent hydrogen shuttlers, and (4) catalytic hydrocracking of the resid. The untreated resid and modified oils were evaluated in thermal and catalytic coprocessing experiments. Measures for evaluating coprocessing performance include the fraction of coal converted to M soluble products and the yield of distillable oil, as measured using simulated distillation.

Hajdu, P.E.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Structural features of Athabasca bitumen related to upgrading performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using a combination of instrumental and chemical methods, many new classes of compounds appearing as homologous series have been detected in Athabasca oil sand bitumen and in the chemical and thermal degradative products of asphaltene and the heavy ends of maltene. In general, the volatile portion of the maltene is rich in cyclic terpenoid structures and devoid in aliphatic compounds or normal alkane-derived cyclic molecules while the asphaltene fraction and heavy ends of maltene are abundant in normal alkyl-substituted aromatics, thianes, thiolanes, thiophenes, benzo- and dibenzothiophenes. This paper reports that Ru(VIII)-catalyzed oxidation permitted the quantitative estimation of the n-alkyl groups attached to aromatic carbons and of n-alkyl bridges between two aromatic units and their concentration distribution according to chain length. It also showed the presence of a large naphthenic core containing cyclic sulfides, which, during oxidation, were converted to their sulfones.

Strausz, O.P.; Lown, E.M. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (CA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Complete genome sequence of Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens type strain (BL-DC-9T) and comparison to Dehalococcoides strains  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens is the type species of the genus Dehalogenimonas, which belongs to a deeply branching lineage within the phylum Chloroflexi. This strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, non spore forming, Gram negative staining bacterium was first isolated from chlorinated solvent contaminated groundwater at a Superfund site located near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA. D. lykanthroporepellens was of interest for genome sequencing for two reasons: (a) its unusual ability to couple growth with reductive dechlorination of environmentally important polychlorinated aliphatic alkanes and (b) its phylogenetic position distant from previously sequenced bacteria. The 1,686,510 bp circular chromosome of strain BL-DC-9{sup T} contains 1,720 predicted protein coding genes, 47 tRNA genes, a single large subunit rRNA (23S-5S) locus, and a single, orphan, small unit rRNA (16S) locus.

Siddaramappa, Shivakumara [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Delano, Susana [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Green, Lance D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Daligault, Hajnalka E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pennacchio, Len [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Yan, Jun [Louisiana State University; Bowman, Kimberly [Louisiana State University; Da Costa, Milton S, [University of Coimbra, Coimbra Portugal; Rainey, Fred A. [University of Alaska; Moe, William M. [Louisiana State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Pressurized thermal and hydrothermal decomposition of algae, wood chip residue, and grape marc: A comparative study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Pressurized thermal decomposition of two marine algae, Pinus radiata chip residue and grape marc using high temperature, high pressure reactions has been studied. The yields and composition of the products obtained from liquefactions under CO of a mixture of biomass and H2O (with or without catalyst) were compared with products from liquefaction of dry biomass under N2, at different temperatures, gas pressures and for CO runs, water to biomass ratios. Thermochemical reactions of algae produced significantly higher dichloromethane solubles and generally higher product yields to oil and asphaltene than Pinus radiata and grape marc under the reaction conditions used. Furthermore, the biofuels derived from algae contained significant concentrations of aliphatic hydrocarbons as opposed to those from radiata pine and grape marc which were richer in aromatic compounds. The possibility of air transport fuel production from algae thus appears to have considerable advantages over that from radiata pine and grape marc.

Dirgarini J.N. Subagyono; Marc Marshall; W. Roy Jackson; Alan L. Chaffee

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aliphatic alco hol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this two-year project is to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Illinois Basin coals. There are two processing steps: physical cleaning of the coal and devolatilization under different environments to form chars. Two differents techniques were used, in-situ Diffuse Reflectance FTIR measurements and BTU measurements. Experiments were performed with coals IBC-101, 102, and 104 as received and after cleaning. DR-FTIR spectrums helped to explain the possible existing chemical bonds in the coal structure as well as their changes during drying and mild pyrolysis. Drying coal causes hydrogen bonds between water and coal to be broken. Liquids produced above 500{degrees}C are much higher in aromatic content, thus, effectively reducing the concentration of aliphatic groups in the overall liquid yield. BTU values of coals after methane treatment are higher than after helium treatment.

Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T.; Myszka, E. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Effect of temperature on the extraction of nitric acid and plutonium(IV) nitrate with 30 vol% tributyl phosphate (TBP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The author's own and published data were evaluated for characterizing the effect of temperature on the distribution of nitric acid and plutonium(IV). The solutes were distributed between 30 vol% TBP in an aliphatic diluent and aqueous solutions containing nitric acid and zero to macro amounts of plutonium(IV) and uranyl nitrates. The temperature dependence of the distribution ratios is described with empirical model equations and examples of the dependence in the absence and presence of uranium(VI) are given. Taking infinite dilution of all solutes of the system as a standard state, the enthalpy change of the extraction reaction could be estimated as -17 kJ/mol for nitric acid, but no numerical estimate was possible for plutonium(IV).

Kolarik, Z.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Demonstration of a TODGA/TBP process for recovery of trivalent actinides and lanthanides from a PUREX raffinate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficiency of the partitioning of trivalent actinides from a PUREX raffinate has been demonstrated with a TODGA + TBP extractant mixture dissolved in an industrial aliphatic solvent TPH. Based on the results coming from cold and hot batch extraction studies and with the aid of computer code calculations a continuous counter current process have been developed and two flowsheets were tested using miniature centrifugal contactors. The feed solutions was a synthetic PUREX raffinate, spiked with {sup 241}Am, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 252}Cf, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 134}Cs. More than 99.9 % of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides were extracted and back-extracted and very high decontamination factors to most fission products were obtained. Co-extraction of zirconium, molybdenum and palladium was prevented using oxalic acid and HEDTA. However 10% of ruthenium was extracted and only 3 % could be back extracted using diluted nitric acid. (authors)

Modolo, G.; Asp, H.; Vijgen, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energieforschung, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Malmbeck, R.; Magnusson, D. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements - ITU, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sorel, C. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique Valrho - CEA, DRCP/SCPS, BP17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Advances in the design of co-poly(ether-imide) membranes for CO2 separations. Influence of aromatic rigidity on crystallinity, phase segregation and gas transport  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In our previous works, it was observed a clear relationship between the structure and the properties for different copoly(ether-imide)s, besides a good relation was found between SAXS characterization and permeability results. Here, a series of aliphatic aromatic copoly(ether-imide)s, based on an aromatic diamine (ODA), a diamine terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO2000) of a molecular weight of 2000 g/mol and different aromatic dianhydrides (BPDA, BKDA (or BTDA) and PMDA) has been synthesized and characterized. The permeability for O2, N2, CO2 and CH4, increased with the rigidity of the monomers (BKDA CO2/N2 separation. This work gives indications on how to design advanced materials for this separation with the increasing possibilities of controlled structure and properties.

Alberto Tena; Ángel Marcos-Fernández; Mónica de la Viuda; Laura Palacio; Pedro Prádanos; Ángel E. Lozano; Javier de Abajo; Antonio Hernández

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

THE POTENTIAL OF RECLAIMED LANDS TO SEQUESTER CARBON AND MITIGATE THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reclaimed mine lands have the potential to sequester carbon. The use of amendments to increase fertility and overall soil quality is encouraging. Waste amendments such as sewage sludge and clarifier sludge, as well as commercial compost were tested to determine their effects on carbon sequestration and humic acid formation in reclaimed mine lands. Sewage sludge and clarifier sludge have the potential to work as reclaimed mine lands amendments. C:N ratios need to be understood to determine probability of nutrient leaching and water contamination. Microbial activity on the humic acid fraction of sludge is directed toward the readily degradable constituents containing single chain functional groups. This finding indicate that amendments with lower molecular constituents such as aliphatic compounds are more amenable to microbial degradation, therefore serves as better nutrient sources to enhance the formation of vegetation in mine lands and leads to more efficient carbon sequestration.

Terry Brown; Song Jin

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Comparative analysis of structural transformations of two bituminous coals with different maximum fluidity during carbonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The variation of the volume of two bituminous coals with different maximum fluidity (MF) values has been determined using carbonization tests, and the quality of coke obtained has been examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs. The structural and chemical changes in bituminous coals at the pre-plastic stage during carbonization were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) techniques and compared to the changes in their electric and dielectric parameters. It was observed that the structural and chemical transformations occurred in the disordered phase of both coals in different ways. These differences are attributed to the different redistributions of hydrogen between the radicals generated in the aliphatic and aromatic parts of the macromolecule fragments. 42 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Valentina Zubkova; Victor Prezhdo; Andrzej Strojwas [Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce (Poland). Institute of Chemistry

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

207

Protein Vivisection Reveals Elusive Intermediates in Folding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although most folding intermediates escape detection, their characterization is crucial to the elucidation of folding mechanisms. Here, we outline a powerful strategy to populate partially unfolded intermediates: A buried aliphatic residue is substituted with a charged residue (e.g., Leu {yields} Glu{sup -}) to destabilize and unfold a specific region of the protein. We applied this strategy to ubiquitin, reversibly trapping a folding intermediate in which the {beta}5-strand is unfolded. The intermediate refolds to a native-like structure upon charge neutralization under mildly acidic conditions. Characterization of the trapped intermediate using NMR and hydrogen exchange methods identifies a second folding intermediate and reveals the order and free energies of the two major folding events on the native side of the rate-limiting step. This general strategy may be combined with other methods and have broad applications in the study of protein folding and other reactions that require trapping of high-energy states.

Zheng, Zhongzhou; Sosnick, Tobin R. (UC)

2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

208

Chemical Forms of Mercury And Selenium in Fish Following Digestion With Simulated Gastric Fluid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fish is a major dietary source of potentially neurotoxic methylmercury compounds for humans. It is also a rich source of essential selenium. We have used in situ mercury L{sub III}-edge and selenium K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy to chemically characterize the methylmercury and selenium in both fresh fish and fish digested with simulated gastric fluid. For the mercury, we confirm our earlier finding [Harris et al. (2003) Science301, 1203] that the methylmercury is coordinated by a single thiolate donor, which resembles cysteine, and for the selenium, we find a mixture of organic forms that resemble selenomethionine and an aliphatic selenenyl sulfide such as Cys-S-Se-Cys. We find that local chemical environments of mercury and selenium do not change upon digestion of the fish with simulated gastric fluid. We discuss the toxicological implications for humans consuming fish.

George, G.N.; Singh, S.P.; Prince, R.C.; Pickering, I.J.

2009-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

209

Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Statistical Copolymers Bearing Perfluoroalkylsulfonic Acid Moieties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Number-average molecular weight (Mn) and polydispersity index (PDI) of the polymeric materials were measured using a gel permeation chromatography (GPC) system consisting of a Waters Alliance 2695 separation module, an online multiangle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector fitted with a gallium arsenide laser (power: 20 mW) operating at 690 nm (MiniDAWN, Wyatt Technology Inc.), an interferometric refractometer (Optilab DSP, Wyatt Technology Inc.), and two Polymer Laboratories mixed D columns (5 ?m bead size) connected in series. ... (23) After experimentation with several alternative neutralizing agents including pyridine and alkali metal hydroxides and carbonates, we determined that the aliphatic tertiary amine, N,N-diisopropylethylamine, produces a salt with favorable solubility and crystallization behavior. ... It is sparingly soluble in water, which facilitates isolation, and as will be shown, it may be used directly in polymerization, and under these conditions, the free amine is released and volatilized out of the polymer product. ...

Haibo Li; Andrew B. Jackson; Nathan J. Kirk; Kenneth A. Mauritz; Robson F. Storey

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

210

Vacuum pyrolysis of bark residues and primary sludges  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black spruce bark residues and primary sludges derived from the operation of the Daishowa pulp and paper plant in Quebec City, PQ, were processed by vacuum pyrolysis in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The pyrolysis oil, water, charcoal, and gas were recovered and analyzed. The bark residues yielded 30.6% oil and 34.1% charcoal, and the primary sludges gave 40.1% oil and 30.1% charcoal on a feedstock air-dry basis. The oil phases recovered from the two pyrolysis experiments were fractionated into eight fractions; they were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Both pyrolysis oil samples had a high content of phenolic compounds. These oils contained various fine chemicals that have possible commercial potential. Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as long- and short-chain carboxylic acids, are also present in both pyrolysis oils.

Pakdel, H.; Couture, G.; Roy, C. (Univ. Laval, Ste-Foy, Quebec (Canada))

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Potential of producing various hydrocarbons from canola oil by catalytic treatment over Pt-ZSM-5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Canola oil conversion was studied at atmospheric pressure over Pt-ZSM-5 catalyst (0.5 wt% Pt) in a fixed bed micro-reactor. The operating conditions were: temperature range of 400--500 C, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 1.8 and 3.6 h{sup {minus}1} and steam/oil ratio of 4:1. The products were coke, gas, an organic liquid product (OLP) and residue. The gas and OLP consisted mainly of hydrocarbons. The objective of this study was to maximize the amount of gasoline range hydrocarbons in the OLP and the selectivity to isohydrocarbons in the gas. The gas yields varied between 22--65 wt% and were higher in the presence of steam compared to the operation without steam. Also, the gas fraction decreased with increase in space velocity. The olefin/paraffin ratio of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbon gases varied between 0.31--0.79. The amount of isohydrocarbons relative to n-hydrocarbons were higher with Pt-ZSM-5 (1.6--4.8) compared to pure HZSM-5 catalyst (0.2--0.3). The OLP yields with Pt-ZSM-5 (20--55wt% of canola oil) were slightly lower compared to HZSM-5 (40--63wt% of canola oil) under similar conditions. The major components of OLP were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The main aromatic hydrocarbons were benzene, toluene, xylenes and trimethylbenzenes. Alkylated pentane and hexane were the main aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the presence of steam, Pt-ZSM-5 gave higher yields of liquid hydrocarbons within the gasoline boiling range than HZSM-5.

Katikaneni, S.P.R.; Adjaye, J.D.; Bakhshi, N.N. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

212

Multimedia fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil: Oil matrix of constructed biopiles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A dynamic multimedia fugacity model was used to evaluate the partitioning and fate of petroleum hydrocarbon fractions and aromatic indicator compounds within the soil: oil matrix of three biopiles. Each biopile was characterised by four compartments: air, water, soil solids and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). Equilibrium partitioning in biopile A and B suggested that most fractions resided in the NAPL, with the exception of the aromatic fraction with an equivalent carbon number from 5 to 7 (EC5?7). In Biopile C, which had the highest soil organic carbon content (13%), the soil solids were the most important compartment for both light aliphatic fractions (EC5?6 and EC6?8) and aromatic fractions, excluding the EC16?21 and EC21?35. Our starting hypothesis was that hydrocarbons do not degrade within the NAPL. This was supported by the agreement between predicted and measured hydrocarbon concentrations in Biopile B when the degradation rate constant in NAPL was set to zero. In all scenarios, biodegradation in soil was predicted as the dominant removal process for all fractions, except for the aliphatic EC5?6 which was predominantly lost via volatilization. The absence of an explicit NAPL phase in the model yielded a similar prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) behaviour; however the predicted concentrations in the air and water phases were significantly increased with consequent changes in potential mobility. Further comparisons between predictions and measured data, particularly concentrations in the soil mobile phases, are required to ascertain the true value of including an explicit NAPL in models of this kind.

Frédéric Coulon; Michael J. Whelan; Graeme I. Paton; Kirk T. Semple; Raffaella Villa; Simon J.T. Pollard

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Isothermal decomposition of New Albany shale from Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The isothermal decomposition of a New Albany oil shale has been studied in the temperature range of 375/sup 0/C to 425/sup 0/C. The amount of conversion of kerogen to bitumen, oil, gas and residue products was obtained for different reaction times in this temperature range. Elemental analyses were obtained on the bitumen, oil, and solid reaction products. Molecular weights and /sup 13/C NMR measurements of the aliphatic and aromatic carbon fractions in the solid products were made to complete the analyses. The results show that the thermal decomposition of the New Albany oil shale exhibits complex behavior. None of the data fit a simple first-order kinetic expression with respect to kerogen concentration for all temperatures, indicating that multiple parallel reactions occur during the decomposition. However, by fitting the initial slopes of the oil conversion data, it was possible to obtain the weighted average rate constants at each temperature. These data gave a good fit to the Arrhenius equation with the frequency factor equal to 6.38 x 10/sup 15/ min/sup -1/, and the activation energy equal to 207.5 k.j mol/sup -1/ for the kerogen decomposition. The maximum bitumen concentration was 10% or less of the original kerogen at any temperature, indicating that direct conversion of kerogen to oil, gas and residue occurs during heating. Since the highly aliphatic Green River oil shale forms large amounts of bitumen whereas the more aromatic New Albany shale forms only small amounts, the formation of bitumen may be related to the aromatic nature of the kerogen. In general, the chemical properties of the oil were fairly constant at all reaction times and temperatures studied. Hydrogen sulfide was the dominant species in the gas phase. The solid and liquid nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data show that the net increase of total aromatic carbon in the products was about 30% of the raw shale value. 37 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

Miknis, F.P.; Conn, P.J.; Turner, T.F.; Berdan, G.L.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Reducible Supports for Ni-based Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear spin relaxation, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) techniques are used to determine supramolecular arrangement of 3-methyl-1-octyl-4-phenyl-1H-triazol-1,2,3-ium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [OMPhTz][Tf{sub 2}N], an example of a triazolium-based ionic liquid. The results obtained showed first-order thermodynamic dependence for nuclear spin relaxation of the anion. First-order relaxation dependence is interpreted as through-bond dipolar relaxation. Greater than first-order dependence was found in the aliphatic protons, aromatic carbons (including nearest neighbors), and carbons at the end of the aliphatic tail. Greater than first order thermodynamic dependence of spin relaxation rates is interpreted as relaxation resulting from at least one mechanism additional to through-bond dipolar relaxation. In rigid portions of the cation, an additional spin relaxation mechanism is attributed to anisotropic effects, while greater than first order thermodynamic dependence of the octyl side chain’s spin relaxation rates is attributed to cation–cation interactions. Little interaction between the anion and the cation was observed by spin relaxation studies or by ESI-MS. No extended supramolecular structure was observed in this study, which was further supported by MS and SAXS. nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) factors are used in conjunction with spin–lattice relaxation time (T{sub 1}) measurements to calculate rotational correlation times for C–H bonds (the time it takes for the vector represented by the bond between the two atoms to rotate by one radian). The rotational correlation times are used to represent segmental reorientation dynamics of the cation. A combination of techniques is used to determine the segmental interactions and dynamics of this example of a triazolium-based ionic liquid.

Bhavsar, Saurabh; Veser, Goetz

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Premixed ignition behavior of alternative diesel fuel-relevant compounds in a motored engine experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A motored engine study using premixed charges of fuel and air at a wide range of diesel-relevant equivalence ratios was performed to investigate autoignition differences among surrogates for conventional diesel fuel, gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel fuel, and biodiesel, as well as n-heptane. Experiments were performed by delivering a premixed charge of vaporized fuel and air and increasing the compression ratio in a stepwise manner to increase the extent of reaction while monitoring the exhaust composition via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and collecting condensable exhaust gas for subsequent gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Each fuel demonstrated a two-stage ignition process, with a low-temperature heat release (LTHR) event followed by the main combustion, or high-temperature heat release (HTHR). Among the three diesel-relevant fuels, the magnitude of LTHR was highest for GTL diesel, followed by methyl decanoate, and conventional diesel fuel last. FTIR analysis of the exhaust for n-heptane, the conventional diesel surrogate, and the GTL diesel surrogate revealed that LTHR produces high concentrations of aldehydes and CO while producing only negligible amounts of CO{sub 2}. Methyl decanoate differed from the other two-stage ignition fuels only in that there were significant amounts of CO{sub 2} produced during LTHR; this was the result of decarboxylation of the ester group, not the result of oxidation. GC/MS analysis of LTHR exhaust condensate for n-heptane revealed high concentrations of 2,5-heptanedione, a di-ketone that can be closely tied to species in existing autoignition models for n-heptane. GC/MS analysis of the LTHR condensate for conventional diesel fuel and GTL diesel fuel revealed a series of high molecular weight aldehydes and ketones, which were expected, as well as a series of organic acids, which are not commonly reported as products of combustion. The GC/MS analysis of the methyl decanoate exhaust condensate revealed that the aliphatic chain acts similarly to n-paraffins during LTHR, while the ester group remains intact. Thus, although the FTIR data revealed that decarboxylation occurs at significant levels for methyl decanoate, it was concluded that this occurs after the aliphatic chain has been largely consumed by other LTHR reactions. (author)

Szybist, James P.; Boehman, Andre L.; Haworth, Daniel C. [Pennsylvania State University, Fuel Science Program, 405 Academic Activities Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Koga, Hibiki [Honda R and D Company, Ltd., Asaka-shi, Saitama 351-0024 (Japan)

2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

XAS Catches the Chemical Form of Mercury in Fish  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

view large image view large image contact info Friday, 29 August 2003 X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Catches the Chemical Form of Mercury in Fish - SSRL Scientists Reveal New Findings in Science Article The presence of "methyl mercury" in fish is well-known, but until now the detailed chemical identity of the mercury has remained a mystery. In an x-ray absorption spectroscopy study published in the August 29 issue of Science (Science 301, 2003: 1203; Science now: Murky Picture on Fish Mercury), SSRL scientists report that the chemical form of mercury involves a sulfur atom (most likely in a so-called aliphatic form). The study presents significant new knowledge - because the toxic properties of mercury (or any element) are critically dependent upon its chemical form - and represents an important milestone in developing an understanding of how harmful mercury in fish might actually be. The study was carried out by SSRL staff scientists Ingrid Pickering and Graham George and postdoctoral fellow Hugh Harris using SSRL's structural molecular biology beam line 9-3. The very high flux, excellent beam stability and state-of-the-art detector technology allowed the team to measure samples of fish containing micromolar levels of mercury, much lower than had previously been possible.

218

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Input Input Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous denatured aliphatic alcohol intended for gasoline blending as described in Oxygenates definition. Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB) Non-certified Foreign Refinery gasoline classified by an importer as blendstock to be either blended or reclassified with respect to reformulated or conventional gasoline. GTAB was classified on EIA surveys as either reformulated or conventional based on emissions performance and the intended end use in data through the end of December 2009. Designation of GTAB as reformulated or conventional was discontinued beginning with data for January 2010. GTAB was reported as a single product beginning with data for January 2010. GTAB data for January 2010 and later months is presented as conventional motor gasoline blending components whenreported as a subset of motor gasoline blending components.

219

Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S?1 h?1. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS 13C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins).

Fulvia Tambone; Laura Terruzzi; Barbara Scaglia; Fabrizio Adani

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Compositional Analysis of Water-Soluble Materials in Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corn stover is one of the leading feedstock candidates for commodity-scale biomass-to-ethanol processing. The composition of water-soluble materials in corn stover has been determined with greater than 90% mass closure in four of five representative samples. The mass percentage of water-soluble materials in tested stover samples varied from 14 to 27% on a dry weight basis. Over 30 previously unknown constituents of aqueous extracts were identified and quantified using a variety of chromatographic techniques. Monomeric sugars (primarily glucose and fructose) were found to be the predominant water-soluble components of corn stover, accounting for 30-46% of the dry weight of extractives (4-12% of the dry weight of feedstocks). Additional constituents contributing to the mass balance for extractives included various alditols (3-7%), aliphatic acids (7-21%), inorganic ions (10-18%), oligomeric sugars (4-12%), and a distribution of oligomers tentatively identified as being derived from phenolic glycosides (10-18%).

Chen, S. F.; Mowery, R. A.; Scarlata, C. J.; Chambliss, C. K.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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221

Defective Pollen Wall is Required for Anther and Microspore Development in Rice and Encodes a Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots.

Shi, J.; Shanklin, J.; Tan, H.; Yu, X.-H.; Liu, Y.; Liang, W.; Ranathunge, K.; Franke, R. B.; Schreiber, L.; Wang, Y.; Kai, G.; Ma, H.; Zhang, D.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Chemical analysis and biological testing of materials from the EDS coal liquefaction process: a status report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Representative process materials were obtained from the EDS pilot plant for chemical and biological analyses. These materials were characterized for biological activity and chemical composition using a microbial mutagenicity assay and chromatographic and mass spectrometric analytical techniques. The two highest boiling distillation cuts, as well as process solvent (PS) obtained from the bottoms recycle mode operation, were tested for initiation of mouse skin tumorigenicity. All three materials were active; the crude 800/sup 0 +/F cut was substantially more potent than the crude bottoms recycle PS or 750 to 800/sup 0/F distillate cut. Results from chemical analyses showed the EDS materials, in general, to be more highly alkylated and have higher hydroaromatic content than analogous SRC II process materials (no in-line process hydrogenation) used for comparison. In the microbial mutagenicity assays the N-PAC fractions showed greater activity than did the aliphatic hydrocarbon, hydroxy-PAH, or PAH fractions, although mutagenicity was detected in certain PAH fractions by a modified version of the standard microbial mutagenicity assay. Mutagenic activities for the EDS materials were lower, overall, than those for the corresponding materials from the SRC II process. The EDS materials produced under different operational modes had distinguishable differences in both their chemical constituency and biological activity. The primary differences between the EDS materials studied here and their SRC II counterparts used for comparison are most likely attributable to the incorporation of catalytic hydrogenation in the EDS process. 27 references, 28 figures, 27 tables.

Later, D.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Wilson, B.W.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

The influence of a presence of a heavy atom on the spin-spin coupling constants between two light nuclei in organometallic compounds and halogen derivatives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The {sup 1}J{sub CC} and {sup 1}J{sub CH} spin-spin coupling constants have been calculated by means of density functional theory (DFT) for a set of derivatives of aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with I, At, Cd, and Hg in order to evaluate the substituent and relativistic effects for these properties. The main goal was to estimate HALA (heavy-atom-on-light-atom) effects on spin-spin coupling constants and to explore the factors which may influence the HALA effect on these properties, including the nature of the heavy atom substituent and carbon hybridization. The methods applied range, in order of reduced complexity, from Dirac-Kohn-Sham method (density functional theory with four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian), through DFT with two- and one-component Zeroth Order Regular Approximation (ZORA) Hamiltonians, to scalar non-relativistic effective core potentials with the non-relativistic Hamiltonian. Thus, we are able to compare the performance of ZORA-DFT and Dirac-Kohn-Sham methods for modelling of the HALA effects on the spin-spin coupling constants.

Wody?ski, Artur; Pecul, Magdalena, E-mail: mpecul@chem.uw.edu.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)] [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

224

ON THE EXCITATION AND FORMATION OF CIRCUMSTELLAR FULLERENES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We compare and analyze the Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum of three fullerene-rich planetary nebulae in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds: Tc1, SMP SMC 16, and SMP LMC 56. The three planetary nebulae share many spectroscopic similarities. The strongest circumstellar emission bands correspond to the infrared active vibrational modes of the fullerene species C{sub 60} and little or no emission is present from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The strengths of the fullerene bands in the three planetary nebulae are very similar, while the ratios of the [Ne III]15.5 {mu}m/[Ne II]12.8 {mu}m fine structure lines, an indicator of the strength of the radiation field, are markedly different. This raises questions about their excitation mechanism and we compare the fullerene emission to fluorescent and thermal models. In addition, the spectra show other interesting and common features, most notably in the 6-9 {mu}m region, where a broad plateau with substructure dominates the emission. These features have previously been associated with mixtures of aromatic/aliphatic hydrocarbon solids. We hypothesize on the origin of this band, which is likely related to the fullerene formation mechanism, and compare it with modeled hydrogenated amorphous carbon that present emission in this region.

Bernard-Salas, J.; Jones, A. P. [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS/Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91405 Orsay (France); Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; Micelotta, E. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Groenewegen, M. A. T., E-mail: jbernard@ias.u-psud.fr [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

225

Yellow perch embryo-larval survival and growth in surface waters associated with oil-sands mining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of their land reclamation strategy, Syncrude Canada Ltd. is currently developing environmentally acceptable tailings disposal methods. Fine tailings, a suspension of clay and residual bitumen, is the waste product from oil sands extraction. Fine-tailings contain naphthenic acids, a group of saturated aliphatic and alicyclic carboxylic acids, which occur naturally in petroleum and are partly responsible for the toxicity of process water. The wet landscape method involves covering fine tails with a layer of water such that a self-sustaining ecosystem can be established. A 5 ha demonstration pond with a bottom of fine-tailings was constructed and stocked with yellow perch for experimental purposes. Two other reclaimed ponds formed with oil-sands overburden material were also stocked with perch. Adult perch sampled in the fall of 1995 from the experimental and reclaimed ponds exhibited a 2-fold induction of MFO activity compared to the source lake; indicating organic compound exposure. Perch from one of the reclaimed ponds showed significantly reduced circulating reproductive hormone levels, gonad size and smaller ovarian follicles. Reproductive parameters were not different between the source lake and the remaining ponds. Paired lab and field experiments were conducted to determine if contaminants present would be detrimental to egg viability and development of larvae either through direct exposure of spawned eggs or indirectly by effecting oogenesis. An early life stage toxicity test was also performed using commercially available naphthenic acid standard. Endpoints measured were percent fertilization, percent hatch, mortality, deformities, timing of developmental periods and larval growth.

Peters, L.E.; Heuvel, M.R. van den; Dixon, D.G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Power, M. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Boerger, H.; MacKinnon, M.D.; Meer, T. Van [Syncrude Canada, Fort McMurray, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

226

Interfacial activity of phosphonated-polyethylene glycol functionalized cerium oxide nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a recent publication, we have highlighted the potential of phosphonic acid terminated PEG oligomers to functionalize strong UV absorption cerium oxide nanoparticles[1], which yield suspensions that are stable in aqueous or organic solvents and are redispersible in different solvent after freeze-drying. In the present work, we highlight the interfacial activity of the functional ceria nanoparticles and their potential to modify hydrophobic surfaces. We first investigated Phosphonated-PEG amphiphilic oligomers behavior as strong surface active species forming irreversibly adsorbed layers. We then show that the oligomers interfacial properties translate to the functional nanoparticles. In particular, the addition of a small fraction of phosphonated-PEG oligomers with an extra C16 aliphatic chain (stickers) into the formulation enabled the tuning of i) the nanoparticles adsorption at the air/water, polystyrene/water, oil/water interfaces and ii) the particle/particle interaction in aqueous solutions. We also found that dense and closely packed two dimensional monolayers of nanoceria can be formed by spontaneous adsorption or surface compression using a Langmuir trough. A hexagonal organization controlled by reversible and repulsive repulsion has been characterized by GISAXS. Mono- or multilayers can also be stably formed or transferred on solid surfaces. Our results are key features in the field of polymer surface modification, solid stabilized emulsions (Pickering) or supracolloidal assemblies.

L. Qi; J. Fresnais; P. Muller; O. Theodoly; J. -F. Berret; J. -P. Chapel

2013-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

227

Clean, premium-quality chars: Demineralized and carbon enriched. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this two-year project was to evaluate methods of preparing demineralized and carbon enriched chars from Illinois Basin coals. The two processing steps, physical cleaning and devolatilization under different environments, led to the following results. Cleaning coal incompletely removes mineral matter which decreases catalytic activity and increases micropore structure. Water forms hydrogen bonds to oxygen functional groups in coal, and during drying, coals undergo structural changes which affect mild gasification. When methane reacts wit coal, devolatilization and carbon deposition occur, the rates of which depend on temperature and amount of ash. Thermal decomposition of IBC-101 coal starts at 300 C, which is much lower than previously believed, but maximum yields of liquids occur at 500 C for IBC-101 coal and at 550 C for IBC-102 coal. Aliphatic-to-aromatic ratios increase with increasing pyrolysis temperatures to 300 C and then decrease; therefore, liquids formed during gasification of 550 C or higher contain mainly aromatic compounds. Btu values of chars are higher after methane treatment than after helium treatment.

Smith, G.V.; Malhotra, V.M.; Wiltowski, T. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

228

Methods for collection and analysis of geopressured geothermal and oil field waters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Present methods are described for the collection, preservation, and chemical analysis of waters produced from geopressured geothermal and petroleum wells. Detailed procedures for collection include precautions and equipment necessary to ensure that the sample is representative of the water produced. Procedures for sample preservation include filtration, acidification, dilution for silica, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) extraction of aluminum, addition of potassium permanganate to preserve mercury, and precipitation of carbonate species as strontium carbonate for stable carbon isotopes and total dissolved carbonate analysis. Characteristics determined at the well site are sulfide, pH, ammonia, and conductivity. Laboratory procedures are given for the analysis of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, iron, manganese, zinc, lead, aluminum, and mercury by atomic absorption and flame emission spectroscopy. Chloride is determined by silver nitrate titration and fluoride by ion-specific electrode. Bromide and iodide concentrations are determined by the hypochlorite oxidation method. Sulfate is analyzed by titration using barium chloride with thorin indicator after pretreatment with alumina. Boron and silica are determined colorimetrically by the carmine and molybdate-blue methods, respectively. Aliphatic acid anions (C/sub 2/ through C/sub 5/) are determined by gas chromatography after separation and concentration in a chloroform-butanol mixture.

Lico, M.S.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.; Wright, V.A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Evaluation of the In Situ Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Ethenes by Toluene-Utilizing Microorganisms Using Push-Pull Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single-well-push-pull tests were used in a contaminated aquifer to evaluate the ability of toluene-oxidizing microorganisms to aerobically cometabolize chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) such as trichloroethene (TCE). Groundwater containing dissolved toluene was injected into the saturated zone in biostimulate indigenous toluene-utilizers. The test solution was injected into the aquifer using a standard monitoring well and then was transported under natural-gradient conditions. Transport tests demonstrated similar transport characteristics of the conservative tracer and the reactive solutes. Biostimulation tests were then performed by injecting a test solution containing dissolved toluene substrate, hydrogen peroxide, bromide and nitrate in order to increase the biomass of toluene-utilizing microorganisms. During the biostimulation tests, decreases in toluene concentration and the production of o-cresol as an intermediate oxidation product, indicated the simulation of toluene-utilizing microorganisms containing an ortho-monooxygenase enzyme. Transformation tests conducted after biostimulation demonstrated that indigenous microorganisms have the capability to transform the surrogate compounds (e.g. isobutene). Isobutene was transformed to isobutene oxide, indicating transformation by a toluene ortho-monooxygenase.

Azizian, Mohammad F.; Istok, Jonathan; Semprini, Lewis

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

230

Thauera linaloolentis sp. nov. and Thauera terpenica sp. nov., Isolated on Oxygen-containing Monoterpenes (Linalool, Menthol, and Eucalyptol and Nitrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Summary The monoterpenes menthol, linalool, and eucalyptol were recently used as sole electron donor and carbon source for the isolation of three denitrifying bacterial strains 21Mol, 47Lol, and 58Eu. The motile, mesophilic, Gram-negative rods had a strictly respiratory metabolism. Monoterpenes were completely mineralised to carbon dioxide, nitrate was reduced to dinitrogen. Strain 47Lol utilised aliphatic monoterpenes, strain 21Mol oxygenated monocyclic monoterpenes, and strain 58Eu the bicyclic eucalyptol and monocyclic monoterpene alkenes. The fatty acid composition of the strains indicated an allocation to the rRNA group III of pseudomonads. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that the new isolates can be assigned as members of the genus Thauera within the beta subclass of Proteobacteria. DNA-DNA hybridisation studies indicated a relateness of 68.5% between strains 21Mol and 58Eu which shared 36.0% and 40.6% DNA similarity with strain 47Lol. The strains are described as new species belonging to the genus Thauera, strain 47Lol (DSM 12138T) as T. linaloolentis sp. nov. and strains 21Mol and 58Eu as T. terpenica sp. nov. with strain 58Eu (DSM 12139T) as type strain.

S. Foss; J. Harder

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Coupled with High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Drugs and Metabolites in Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, a commercially available autosampler was adapted to perform direct liquid microjunction (LMJ) surface sampling followed by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extract components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the utility of coupling a separation with this direct liquid extraction based surface sampling approach, four different organs (brain, lung, kidney, and liver) from whole-body thin tissue sections of propranolol dosed and control mice were examined. The parent drug was observed in the chromatograms of the surface sampling extracts from all the organs of the dosed mouse examined. In addition, two isomeric phase II metabolites of propranolol (an aliphatic and an aromatic hydroxypropranolol glucuronide) were observed in the chromatograms of the extracts from lung, kidney, and liver. Confirming the presence of one or the other or both of these glucuronides in the extract from the various organs was not possible without the separation. These drug and metabolite data obtained using the LMJ surface sampling/HPLC-MS method and the results achieved by analyzing similar samples by conventional extraction of the tissues and subsequent HPLC-MS analysis were consistent.

Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

The Molecular Structure of a Phosphatidylserine Bilayer Determined by Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids play essential roles in biological processes, including enzyme activation and apoptosis. We report on the molecular structure and atomic scale interactions of a fluid bilayer composed of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (POPS). A scattering density profile model, aided by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, was developed to jointly refine different contrast small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data, which yielded a lipid area of 62.7 A2 at 25 C. MD simulations with POPS lipid area constrained at different values were also performed using all-atom and aliphatic united-atom models. The optimal simulated bilayer was obtained using a model-free comparison approach. Examination of the simulated bilayer, which agrees best with the experimental scattering data, reveals a preferential interaction between Na+ ions and the terminal serine and phosphate moieties. Long-range inter-lipid interactions were identified, primarily between the positively charged ammonium, and the negatively charged carboxylic and phosphate oxygens. The area compressibility modulus KA of the POPS bilayer was derived by quantifying lipid area as a function of surface tension from area-constrained MD simulations. It was found that POPS bilayers possess a much larger KA than that of neutral phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers. We propose that the unique molecular features of POPS bilayers may play an important role in certain physiological functions.

Pan, Jianjun [University of South Florida, Tampa (USF)] [University of South Florida, Tampa (USF); Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL] [ORNL; Monticelli, Luca [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) and INTS, France] [Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) and INTS, France; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC) and Comenius University,] [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Canadian Neutron Beam Centre (CNBC) and Comenius University,; Tieleman, D. Peter [University of Calgary, ALberta, Canada] [University of Calgary, ALberta, Canada; Katsaras, John [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

A replacement solvent cleaner/degreaser study at Duffy Electric and Machine Company  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Duffy Electric & Machine Company repairs and rebuilds electric motors. The company overhauls large electric motors (AC and DC with greater than 15 hp output). The company also overhauls small electric motors. The process involves gross cleaning of electromechanical devices to achieve a level of cleanliness that facilitates inspection, repair, and testing. The cleaner used in this study, Petroferm BIOACT{trademark} 285, was selected because it is representative of its class of material. BIOACT{trademark} is a mixture of high molecular-weight aliphatic esters and can be categorized as a semi-aqueous fluid. The cleaner is meant to be used without dilution and must be rinsed with alcohol, such as IPA, rather than with water. The alcohol is a technical grade that is at least 98% IPA, with the remainder being water. The IPA rinse is completely miscible with the ester solvent. The IPA evaporates rapidly due to its high vapor pressure (3 mm Hg @ 68{degrees}F).This report describes the performance of the ester and alcohol cleansers with regard to pollution abatement and health hazards as well as cleaning performance.

Springer, J. Jr. [Risk Reduction Engineering Lab., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Sass, B. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Development of a Novel Solvent for the Simultaneous Separation of Strontium and Cesium from Acidic Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A synergistic extraction solvent for the simultaneous removal of cesium and strontium from acidic solutions has been investigated. The extraction solvent consists of, 4,4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6), and 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB modifier) in a branched aliphatic kerosene (Isopar® L). Extraction synergy for strontium was observed when DtBuCH18C6 was combined with the BOBCalixC6 cesium extractant solvent and Cs-7SB modifier or if the Cs-7SB modifier was substituted into the SREX (Strontium Extraction) solvent in place of TBP. The novel process extracted both cesium and strontium simultaneously from 1 M nitric acid solutions with distribution ratios of 8.8 and 7.7 for strontium and cesium, respectively, at ambient temperature. Distribution coefficients for cesium and strontium as a function of nitric acid concentration and temperature were also obtained with 0.5 M<[HNO3]<2.5 M giving favorable distribution ratios. This new process utilizing the combined solvent has been named the Fission Product Extraction Process (FPEX).

Catherine L. Riddle; John D. Baker; Jack D. Law; Christopher A. McGrath; David H. Meikrantz; Bruce J. Mincher; Dean R. Peterman; Terry A. Todd

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Manmade organic compounds in the surface waters of the United States: A review of current understanding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On the basis of their aqueous solubilities, nonionic organic compounds partition themselves between water, dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter, and the lipid reservoirs of aquatic organisms. Ionized organic compounds can be adsorbed to sediments, thereby reducing their aqueous concentrations. Transformation processes of photolysis, hydrolysis, biodegradation, and volatilization can attenuate organic compounds, and attenuation rates commonly follow a first-order kinetic process. Eight groups of manmade organic compounds are discussed: (1) polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides; (2) carbamate and organophosphorus; (3) herbicides; (4) phenols; (5) halogenated aliphatic and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; (6) phthalate esters; (7) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and (8) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For each compound group, data pertaining to use, production, and properties are presented and discussed. Process that influence the environmental fate of each group, as determined primarily through laboratory studies, are reviewed, and important fate process are identified. Environmental concentrations of compounds from each group in water, biota, and sediment are given to demonstrate representative values for comparison to concentrations determined during ongoing research. Finally, where sufficient data exist, regional and temporal contamination trends in the US are discussed. 699 refs., 26 figs., 47 tabs.

Smith, J.A.; Witkowski, P.J.; Fusillo, T.V.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Characteristics of carbonized sludge for co-combustion in pulverized coal power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Co-combustion of sewage sludge can destabilize its combustion profile due to high volatility, which results in unstable flame. We carried out fuel reforming for sewage sludge by way of carbonization at pyrolysis temperature of 300-500 deg. C. Fuel characteristics of carbonized sludge at each temperature were analyzed. As carbonization temperature increased, fuel ratio increased, volatile content reduced, and atomic ratio relation of H/C and O/C was similar to that of lignite. The analysis result of FT-IR showed the decrease of aliphatic C-H bond and O-C bond in carbonization. In the analysis result of TG-DTG, the thermogravimetry reduction temperature of carbonized sludge (CS400) was proven to be higher than that of dried sludge, but lower than that of sub-bituminous coal. Hardgrove grindability index increased in proportion to fuel ratio increase, where the carbonized sludge value of 43-110 was similar or higher than the coal value of 49-63. As for ash deposits, slagging and fouling index were higher than that of coal. When carbonized sludge (CS400) and coal were co-combusted in 1-10% according to calorific value, slagging tendency was low in all conditions, and fouling tendency was medium or high according to the compositions of coal.

Park, Sang-Woo [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Cheol-Hyeon, E-mail: jangch@hanbat.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Technical activities during the past year have covered a number of topics and have emphasized the development of solar module encapsulation technology that employs ethylene/vinyl acetate, copolymer (EVA) as the pottant. These activities have included: (1) continued production of encapsulation grade EVA in sheet form to meet the needs of the photovoltaic industry; (2) investigations of three non-blocking techniques for EVA sheet; (3) performed an economic analysis of the high volume production of each pottant in order to estimate the large volume selling price (EVA, EPDM, aliphatic urethane, PVC plastisol, and butyl acrylate); (4) initiated an experimental corrosion protection program to determine if metal components could be successfully protected by encapsulation; (5) began an investigation to determine the maximum temperature which can be tolerated by the candidate pottant material in the event of hot spot heating or other temperature override; (6) continuation of surveys of potentially useful outer cover materials; and (7) continued with the accelerated artificial weathering of candidate encapsulation materials. Study results are presented. (WHK)

Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; Schnitzer, H. S.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Microscopic measurement of the linear compressibilities of two-dimensional fatty acid mesophases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The linear compressibility of two-dimensional fatty acid mesophases has determined by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. Surface pressure vs molecular area isotherms were reconstructed from these measurements, and the linear compressibility (relative distortion along a given direction for isotropic applied stress) was determined both in the sample plane and in a plane normal to the aliphatic chain director (transverse plane). The linear compressibilities range over two orders of magnitude from 0.1 to 10 m/N and are distributed depending on their magnitude in 4 different sets which we are able to associate with different molecular mechanisms. The largest compressibilities (10m/N) are observed in the tilted phases. They are apparently independent of the chain length and could be related to the reorganization of the headgroup hydrogen-bounded network, whose role should be revalued. Intermediate compressibilities are observed in phases with quasi long-range order (directions normal to the molecular tilt in L_2 or L_2' phases, S phase), and could be related to the ordering of these phases. The lowest compressibilities are observed in the solid untilted CS phase and for 1 direction of the S and L_2'' phases. They are similar to the compressibility of crystalline polymers and correspond to the interactions between methyl groups in the crystal. Finally, negative compressibilities are observed in the transverse plane for L_2' and L_2'' phases and can be traced to subtle reorganizations upon untilting.

C. Fradin; J. Daillant; A. Braslau; D. Luzet; M. Alba; M. Goldmann

1997-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

239

Metal catalyzed synthesis of hyperbranched ethylene and/or .alpha.-olefin polymers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oily hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin, and a method for their synthesis, are disclosed. The polymers have non-regular microstructures and are characterized by a ratio ({character pullout})of methyl hydrogens centered around 0.85 ppm on the 1H-NMR spectra of the polymers relative to total aliphatic hydrogens of from about 0.40 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from ethylene or butene, and a ratio ({character pullout})of from greater than 0.50 to about 0.65 for polymers derived from propylene. A method for grafting hyperbranched polymers derived from ethylene, propylene, butene and/or a C.sub.5 -C.sub.24 .alpha.-olefin onto aromatic rings in organic molecules and polymers, and the resulting grafted materials, are also disclosed. The hyperbranched polymers and grafted materials are useful, for example, as lubricants and lubricant additives.

Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Kim, Jang Sub (State College, PA); Pawlow, James H. (Gainesville, FL); Murtuza, Shahid (State College, PA); Kacker, Smita (Annandale, NJ); Wojcinski, III, Louis M. (State College, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

The Internal Molecular Potential Between the Substituent Groups in a Benzene Ring as Derived from the Heats of Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that differences in the observed heats of combustion of isomeric benzene derivatives can be interpreted as the internal molecular potential existing between their substituent groups. A like interpretation can be given for the differences between the values observed for the heats of combustion of certain nonisomeric benzene derivatives and those calculated by the rule of additivity. This internal potential, to which the attractive and repulsive forces between the groups are due, results from the electrostatic potential of the group moments (dipole effect), the polarization of the substituents and of the ring (induction effect), the dispersion effect, and from steric hindrance. We have, therefore, a new and direct method of measuring the internal potential, which determines both the internal motion of groups within an organic molecule and its most stable configuration. The values thus measured are in good agreement with values theoretically evaluated from the above intermolecular (van der Waals) forces. From the data derived by this method we conclude in the case of o-xylene that valence angles of 120° between the C—CH3 bond and the aromatic C—C bonds are extremely stable, for the energy required to distort these angles through 10° is greater than 2 K cal/mole. We find, also, very restricted rotation for the butane molecule, from which it follows that saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons in the gaseous state tend to form zigzag chains. Such restricted rotation is found for the ether molecule as well.

H. A. Stuart

1931-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aliphatic alco hol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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241

Chemical Characterization and Water Content Determination of Bio-Oils Obtained from Various Biomass Species using 31P NMR Spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pyrolysis is a promising approach to utilize biomass for biofuels. One of the key challenges for this conversion is how to analyze complicated components in the pyrolysis oils. Water contents of pyrolysis oils are normally analyzed by Karl Fischer titration. The use of 2-chloro-4,4,5,5,-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane followed by {sup 31}P NMR analysis has been used to quantitatively analyze the structure of hydroxyl groups in lignin and whole biomass. Results: {sup 31}P NMR analysis of pyrolysis oils is a novel technique to simultaneously characterize components and analyze water contents in pyrolysis oils produced from various biomasses. The water contents of various pyrolysis oils range from 16 to 40 wt%. The pyrolysis oils obtained from Loblolly pine had higher guaiacyl content, while that from oak had a higher syringyl content. Conclusion: The comparison with Karl Fischer titration shows that {sup 31}P NMR could also reliably be used to measure the water content of pyrolysis oils. Simultaneously with analysis of water content, quantitative characterization of hydroxyl groups, including aliphatic, C-5 substituted/syringyl, guaiacyl, p-hydroxyl phenyl and carboxylic hydroxyl groups, could also be provided by {sup 31}P NMR analysis.

David, K.; Ben, H.; Muzzy, J.; Feik, C.; Iisa, K.; Ragauskas, A.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Methanol conversion to higher hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several indirect options exist for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from coal, natural gas, or biomass. All involve an initial conversion step to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}). Presently, there are two commercial technologies for converting syngas to liquids: Fischer-Tropsch, which yields a range of aliphatic hydrocarbons with molecular weights determined by Schulz-Flory kinetics, and methanol synthesis. Mobil`s diversity of technology for methanol conversion gives the methanol synthesis route flexibility for production of either gasoline, distillate or chemicals. Mobil`s ZSM-5 catalyst is the key in several processes for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from methanol: MTO for light olefins, MTG for gasoline, MOGD for distillates. The MTG process has been commercialized in New Zealand since 1985, producing one-third of the country`s gasoline supply, while MTO and MOGD have been developed and demonstrated at greater than 100 BPD scale. This paper will discuss recent work in understanding methanol conversion chemistry and the various options for its use.

Tabak, S.A. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States). Central Research Lab.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

244

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O[sub 3], PO, PO[sub 2], etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like. 20 figs.

Chang, S.G.

1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

245

Classes of compounds responsible for mutagenic and cytotoxic activity in tars and oils formed during low BTU gasification of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Lovelace Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI), in cooperation with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), has completed toxicity screening of vapors, liquids and solids formed during operation of an experimental pressurized, stirred-bed, coal gasifier at METC. Vapors collected from the cooled process stream on Tenax resins had no mutagenic activity in the Ames Salmonella assay. Dichloromethane extracts of liquids and solids collected from the effluent or process streams were fractionated by gel chromatography into fractions containing mostly aliphatic compounds; neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); polar (PAH) and heterocyclic compounds; and salts. The polar fraction was partitioned into acids, bases, water soluble compounds and phenols. Bacterial mutagenic activity was highest in the basic fraction with additional activity in the neutral PAHs. Highest cytotoxicity toward both the bacteria and canine alveolar macrophages was in the phenolic fraction. Treatment of the gasifier tars by nitrosation or by acetylation to remove primary aromatic amines (PAA) reduced the bacterial mutagenicity by 50-60%, indicating that some, but not all, of the mutagenicity was due to PAA.

Henderson, R.F.; Bechtold, W.F.; Benson, J.M.; Newton, G.J.; Hanson, R.L.; Brooks, A.L.; Dutcher, J.S.; Royer, R.E.; Hobbs, C.H.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Yellow phosphorus process to convert toxic chemicals to non-toxic products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a process for generating reactive species for destroying toxic chemicals. This process first contacts air or oxygen with aqueous emulsions of molten yellow phosphorus. This contact results in rapid production of abundant reactive species such as O, O.sub.3, PO, PO.sub.2, etc. A gaseous or liquid aqueous solution organic or inorganic chemicals is next contacted by these reactive species to reduce the concentration of toxic chemical and result in a non-toxic product. The final oxidation product of yellow phosphorus is phosphoric acid of a quality which can be recovered for commercial use. A process is developed such that the byproduct, phosphoric acid, is obtained without contamination of toxic species in liquids treated. A gas stream containing ozone without contamination of phosphorus containing species is also obtained in a simple and cost-effective manner. This process is demonstrated to be effective for destroying many types of toxic organic, or inorganic, compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aromatic chlorides, amines, alcohols, acids, nitro aromatics, aliphatic chlorides, polynuclear aromatic compounds (PAH), dyes, pesticides, sulfides, hydroxyamines, ureas, dithionates and the like.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Complexation of N4-Tetradentate Ligands with Nd(III) and Am(III)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To improve understanding of aza-complexants in trivalent actinide–lanthanide separations, a series of tetradentate N-donor ligands have been synthesized and their complexation of americium(III) and neodymium(III) investigated by UV–visible spectrophotometry in methanolic solutions. The six pyridine/alkyl amine/imine ligands are N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,2-diaminoethane, N,N0-bis(2-methylpyridyl)-1,3-diaminopropane, trans-N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (BPMDAC), N,N’-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)piperazine, N,N’-bis-[pyridin-2-ylmethylene]ethane-1,2-diamine, and trans-N,Nbis-([pyridin-2-ylmethylene]-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine. Each ligand has two pyridine groups and two aliphatic amine/imine N-donor atoms arranged with different degrees of preorganization and structural backbone rigidity. Conditional stability constants for the complexes of Am(III) and Nd(III) by these ligands establish the selectivity patterns. The overall selectivity of Am(III) over Nd(III) is similar to that reported for the terdentate bis(dialkyltriazinyl)pyridine molecules. The cyclohexane amine derivative (BPMDAC) is the strongest complexant and shows the highest selectivity for Am(III) over Nd(III) while the imines appear to prefer a bridging arrangement between two cations. These results suggest that this series of ligands could be employed to develop an enhanced actinide(III)– lanthanide(III) separation system.

Ogden, Mark D.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Meier, G. Patrick; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Nash, Kenneth L.

2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

248

Process for hydrocracking carbonaceous material in liquid carrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solid carbonaceous material is hydrocracked to provide aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons for use as gaseous and liquid fuels or chemical feed stock. Particulate carbonaceous material such as coal in slurry with recycled product oil is preheated in liquid state to a temperature of 600.degree.-1200.degree. F. in the presence of hydrogen gas. The product oil acts as a sorbing agent for the agglomerating bitumins to minimize caking within the process. In the hydrocracking reactor, the slurry of oil and carbonaceous particles is heated within a tubular passageway to vaporize the oil and form a gas-solid mixture which is further heated to a hydropyrolysis temperature in excess of 1200.degree. F. The gas-solid mixture is quenched by contact with additional oil to condense normally liquid hydrocarbons for separation from the gases. A fraction of the hydrocarbon liquid product is recycled for quenching and slurrying with the carbonaceous feed. Hydrogen is recovered from the gas for recycle and additional hydrogen is produced by gasification of residual char.

Duncan, Dennis A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Fractionation of five technical lignins by selective extraction in green solvents and characterisation of isolated fractions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lignins from softwood, hardwood, grass and wheat straw were fractionated by selective extraction at ambient temperature using green solvents like acetone/water solutions of 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% (v/v) acetone and ethyl acetate. A comparison between the isolated fractions and unfractionated lignins was made in terms of extraction yield, lignin solubility factor, molecular weight distribution and functional group composition. Low molecular weight (LMW) lignin fractions with narrow dispersity are obtained by extraction with ethyl acetate and acetone–water solution containing 30% acetone, with yields depending on the type and the functional group content of lignins. A significant amount (56%) of the organosolv hardwood lignin with low molecular weight (Mw = 1868 g/mol) and low dispersity was isolated from ethyl acetate. Insoluble fractions with very high molecular weight (Mw between 10 and 17 kg/mol) are obtained in low yield from acetone–water solutions with 50, 70 and 90% acetone. LMW lignins are in general less condensed and have lower aliphatic hydroxyl content than parent lignins while the HMW fractions have a higher content of condensed hydroxyls. Principal component analysis on the chemical composition of lignins and isolated fractions determined from 31P NMR data showed the high heterogeneity of the technical lignins. Partial least squares models based on FT-IR spectral data were developed to predict the functional group content determined by quantitative 31P NMR analysis of technical lignins and lignin fractions. This approach can be used to develop simple, rapid and accurate analytical tools to monitor and control the selective fractionation of lignin.

Carmen G. Boeriu; Firu?a I. Fi?ig?u; Richard J.A. Gosselink; August E. Frissen; Jan Stoutjesdijk; Francisc Peter

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Accurate and Reliable Quantification of Total Microalgal Fuel Potential as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by in situ Transesterfication  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the context of algal biofuels, lipids, or better aliphatic chains of the fatty acids, are perhaps the most important constituents of algal biomass. Accurate quantification of lipids and their respective fuel yield is crucial for comparison of algal strains and growth conditions and for process monitoring. As an alternative to traditional solvent-based lipid extraction procedures, we have developed a robust whole-biomass in situ transesterification procedure for quantification of algal lipids (as fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) that (a) can be carried out on a small scale (using 4-7 mg of biomass), (b) is applicable to a range of different species, (c) consists of a single-step reaction, (d) is robust over a range of different temperature and time combinations, and (e) tolerant to at least 50% water in the biomass. Unlike gravimetric lipid quantification, which can over- or underestimate the lipid content, whole biomass transesterification reflects the true potential fuel yield of algal biomass. We report here on the comparison of the yield of FAMEs by using different catalysts and catalyst combinations, with the acid catalyst HCl providing a consistently high level of conversion of fatty acids with a precision of 1.9% relative standard deviation. We investigate the influence of reaction time, temperature, and biomass water content on the measured FAME content and profile for 4 different samples of algae (replete and deplete Chlorella vulgaris, replete Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and replete Nannochloropsis sp.). We conclude by demonstrating a full mass balance closure of all fatty acids around a traditional lipid extraction process.

Laurens, L. M. L.; Quinn, M.; Van Wychen, S.; Templeton, D. W.; Wolfrum, E. J.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Solid state 13C NMR analysis of shales and coals from Laramide Basins. Final report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Western Research Institute (WRI) jointly sponsored research (JSR) project augmented and complemented research conducted by the University of Wyoming Institute For Energy Research for the Gas Research Institute. The project, {open_quotes}A New Innovative Exploitation Strategy for Gas Accumulations Within Pressure Compartments,{close_quotes} was a continuation of a project funded by the GRI Pressure Compartmentalization Program that began in 1990. That project, {open_quotes}Analysis of Pressure Chambers and Seals in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana,{close_quotes} characterized a new class of hydrocarbon traps, the discovery of which can provide an impetus to revitalize the domestic petroleum industry. In support of the UW Institute For Energy Research`s program on pressure compartmentalization, solid-state {sup 13}C NMR measurements were made on sets of shales and coals from different Laramide basins in North America. NMR measurements were made on samples taken from different formations and depths of burial in the Alberta, Bighorn, Denver, San Juan, Washakie, and Wind River basins. The carbon aromaticity determined by NMR was shown to increase with depth of burial and increased maturation. In general, the NMR data were in agreement with other maturational indicators, such as vitrinite reflectance, illite/smectite ratio, and production indices. NMR measurements were also obtained on residues from hydrous pyrolysis experiments on Almond and Lance Formation coals from the Washakie Basin. These data were used in conjunction with mass and elemental balance data to obtain information about the extent of carbon aromatization that occurs during artificial maturation. The data indicated that 41 and 50% of the original aliphatic carbon in the Almond and Lance coals, respectively, aromatized during hydrous pyrolysis.

Miknis, F.P.; Jiao, Z.S.; Zhao, Hanqing; Surdam, R.C.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

252

Thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon liquids at high pressures and temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the organic/inorganic interface in the Earth's crust requires values of the thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon species in crude oil, coal, and natural gas at elevated temperatures and pressures. Values of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation and the standard partial molal entropies and heat capacities of these organic species can be computed as a function of temperature at 1 bar using the equations of state adopted by Helgeson et al (1991). The pressure dependence of the thermodynamic properties can be calculated from a modified version of the Parameters From Group Contributions (PFGC) equation of state. To improve the accuracy of these predictions, critical evaluation of high-pressure density experiments reported in the literature was used in the present study to characterize b[sub j] as a function of pressure and temperature. The revised PFGC equation of state permits accurate calculation of the standard partial molal volumes of the major hydrocarbon species in the aliphatic, aromatic, and naphthenic fractions of crude oil, as well as fatty acids, phenols, and naphthenic acids at temperatures and pressures to 500 C and 5 kbar. Combining the revised PFGC equation of state and parameters with the standard partial molal properties of these species at one bar and those of aqueous species and minerals permits calculation of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs Free energies of reaction, and thus equilibrium constants for a wide variety of chemical equilibria among organic liquids, solids, and gases, aqueous species, and minerals at temperatures and pressures characteristic of both diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic processes in the Earth's crust.

Aagaard, P. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geology); Oelkers, E.H. (Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Geochimie); Helgeson, H.C. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Multisolvent successive extractive refining of coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A selected group of commercial solvents, namely, anthracene oil (AO), ethylenediamine (EDA), and liquid paraffin (LP), were used for successive extraction of Assam coal. Hot AO provided a wide range of mixed solvents that dissociate chemically and interact favorably with dissociated and undissociated coal macromolecules (like dissolves like). This resulted in the enhancement of the EDA extractability of the AO-pretreated residual coal. EDA is a good swelling solvent and results in physical dissociation of coal molecules. The residual coal obtained after EDA extraction was subjected to extraction with LP, an H-donor, high-boiling (330--360 C) solvent. LP thermally dissociates coal macromolecules and interacts with the coal at its plastic stage at the free radical pockets. The mechanism and molecular dynamics of the multisolvent successive extraction of Assam coal using AO-EDA-LP solvents are discussed. In early attempts, successive extractions did not modify the extraction yield in the single solvent showing the maximum extraction. However, the AO-EDA-LP extraction resulted in the extraction of 70% coal, more than for any of the individual solvents used. Therefore, AO-EDA-LP extraction of coal affords a process yielding a superclean, high-heating value fuel from coal under milder conditions. Several uses of superclean coal have been recommended. Present studies have revealed a new concept concerning the structure of coal having 30% polyaromatic condensed entangled rings and 70% triaromatic-heterocyclic-naphthenic-aliphatic structure. The insolubility of coal is due to the polyfunctional-heterocyclic-condensed structure having a polyaromatic core with intermacromolecular entanglements.

Sharma, D.K.; Singh, S.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Synthesis of a spheroidal bis-porphyrin: a ligand designed to accept two catalytic metal ions in an isolated environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A spheroidal bis-porphyrin (dual capped quadruply cofacial dimeric tetraphenylporphyrin, 1), designed to be employed as a ligand for a class of catalysts that mimic the combined enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, has been synthesized in 9 steps. C-Alkylation of 2-(2?-lithio-5?-tert-butyldimethylsiloxy-methyl)phenyl-1,3-dioxolane (D) with tetra-bromide 6, prepared from bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetracarboxylic dianhydride by 5 steps, afforded the key intermediate, tetra-alkylated compound 3a, in 68% yield. An alternative route to 3, O-alkylations of tetrol 4 with aliphatic halides 5, was also tested. Conversion of the four protected hydroxy groups to bromo substituents is crucial in the preparation of porphyrin 2. Therefore, tetra-benzyl bromide 24b was prepared and then treated with pyrrole in the presence of boron trifluoride etherate, followed by DDQ oxidation to obtain the capped porphyrin 2. The coupling of two molecules of 2 to form a spheroidal porphyrin 1 was carried out in dilute DMF solution, using 0.8 equivalent of 2-trimethylsilylethane sulfonamide (H2NSO2CH2CH2Si(CH3)3, SES-NH2) and cesium carbonate. The structure of 1 was confirmed by 1H NMR, UV/VIS, FABMS and laser desorption high resolution MS. The two isomers of 1, eclipsed and gauche, formed due to two possible modes of approach of the units of 2, were observed in approximately 1 : 1 ratio by both 1H NMR and HPLC techniques.

Zhang Hong-Yue; Yu Jian-Qiu; Thomas C. Bruice

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

The determination of the void structure of microporous coals by small?angle neutron scattering: Void geometry and structure in Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The access of solvents and reactants to the microvoid volume in porous materials such as coal plays an important role in determining the overall chemistry which takes place during a variety of chemical transformations including oxidation combustion and pyrolysis. The structure and surface composition of these voids were studied using small?angle neutron scattering techniques to examine selectively the subset of the overall void volume distribution which comprises the microvoid volume. Powdered Illinois No. 6 coal containing approximately 20% void volume was slurried in several different aqueous and cyclohexane solutions. The solutions used had various hydrogen?to?deuterium ratios in order to contrast match most of the open pore volume thereby making the microvoid volume visible. The microvoid volume observed is characterized as elongated voids having a fairly well?defined diameter and surface composition. The scattering intensity from the microvoid volume shows a well?defined Porod region indicating that the smallest void dimension is resolved by the instrumental configuration employed. A Guinier region exhibiting Q ? 1 behavior which is characteristic of elongated structures is also observed. The average radius of a circular cross section of these voids is found to be 25.4 Å. The microvoids are found to be completely filled by aqueous solutions so that the residual neutron scattering which is not eliminated by the contrast?matching aqueous solution is due to the organic matrix structure. Nonaqueous mixtures of cyclohexane cannot fill the entire microvoid volume as effectively as the aqueous mixtures. The scattering differences observed between the aqueous and nonaqueous filled coal indicates that the surface of the microvoids is predominantly aliphatic in character with the principal compositional variation being the presence or absence of acidic functionality on the surface.

Jon S. Gethner

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Pyrolysis of waste tyres: A review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pyrolysis of waste tyres produces oil, gas and char, and recovered steel. • Batch, screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed are main reactor types. • Product yields are influenced by reactor type, temperature and heating rate. • Pyrolysis oils are complex and can be used as chemical feedstock or fuel. • Research into higher value products from the tyre pyrolysis process is reviewed. - Abstract: Approximately 1.5 billion tyres are produced each year which will eventually enter the waste stream representing a major potential waste and environmental problem. However, there is growing interest in pyrolysis as a technology to treat tyres to produce valuable oil, char and gas products. The most common reactors used are fixed-bed (batch), screw kiln, rotary kiln, vacuum and fluidised-bed. The key influence on the product yield, and gas and oil composition, is the type of reactor used which in turn determines the temperature and heating rate. Tyre pyrolysis oil is chemically very complex containing aliphatic, aromatic, hetero-atom and polar fractions. The fuel characteristics of the tyre oil shows that it is similar to a gas oil or light fuel oil and has been successfully combusted in test furnaces and engines. The main gases produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres are H{sub 2}, C{sub 1}–C{sub 4} hydrocarbons, CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2}S. Upgrading tyre pyrolysis products to high value products has concentrated on char upgrading to higher quality carbon black and to activated carbon. The use of catalysts to upgrade the oil to a aromatic-rich chemical feedstock or the production of hydrogen from waste tyres has also been reported. Examples of commercial and semi-commercial scale tyre pyrolysis systems show that small scale batch reactors and continuous rotary kiln reactors have been developed to commercial scale.

Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

Ion exchange characteristics of enhanced oil recovery systems (miscibility studies). Sesquiannual report, April 1, 1979-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the period of this report, studies of the hydrotropic properties of organic alkylbenzenesulfonates and particularly of alkylbenzenecarboxylates were extended; the effects of several different alcohols on miscibility between aqueous protosurfactant solutions and aliphatic and aromatic alkanes were investigated; hydrotropic properties of an alicylic carboxylate were determined; the equivalent weight of the organic salts studied was extended into the surfactant range; solubilities of protosurfactants and surfactants in salt solution were measured; and investigations of the adsorption of protosurfactants on minerals as a function of salinity were started. Pseudo three-component representations of hydrocarbon/alcohol/aqueous protosurfactant solutions (constant ratio of organic salt to water) have now been studied extensively, particularly in the case of toluene/1-butanol/aqueous sodium 2,5-diisopropylbenzenesulfonate. Measurements include establishment of the phase behavior in the limiting three-component systems, the effect of protosurfactant concentration in the four-component systems, and determination of the compositions in a limited number of cases of the coexisting phases. In extension of the equivalent weight of organic salts into the recognized surfactant regime, some were found to give miscibiity patterns which appeared to be reasonable extrapolations of the protosurfactants systems and some were quite different. Solubilities of surfactants restrict investigation to compositions having asymmetric boundaries. In these, it appears that protosurfactants are more effective in promoting miscibility than surfactants. Solubilities of organic salts in NaCl solutions, both of protosurfactants and surfactants, decline much more sharply with NaCl concentration than a constant product of the sodium ion concentration times the organic ion concentration would predict.

Ho, P.C.; Kraus, K.A.; Bender, T.M.; Ogden, S.B.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Actinide Lanthanide Separation Process – ALSEP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Separation of the minor actinides (Am, Cm) from the lanthanides at an industrial scale remains a significant technical challenge for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. To increase the safety of used nuclear fuel (UNF) reprocessing, as well as reduce associated costs, a novel solvent extraction process has been developed. The process allows for partitioning minor actinides, lanthanides and fission products following uranium/plutonium/neptunium removal; minimizing the number of separation steps, flowsheets, chemical consumption, and waste. This new process, Actinide Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP), uses an organic solvent consisting of a neutral diglycolamide extractant, either N,N,N',N'-tetra(2 ethylhexyl)diglycolamide (T2EHDGA) or N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA), and an acidic extractant 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]), dissolved in an aliphatic diluent (e.g. n-dodecane). The An/Ln co-extraction is conducted from moderate-to-strong nitric acid, while the selective stripping of the minor actinides from the lanthanides is carried out using a polyaminocarboxylic acid/citrate buffered solution at pH anywhere between 3 and 4.5. The extraction and separation of the actinides from the fission products is very effective in a wide range of HNO3 concentrations and the minimum separation factors for lanthanide/Am exceed 30 for Nd/Am, reaching > 60 for Eu/Am under some conditions. The experimental results presented here demonstrate the great potential for a combined system, consisting of a neutral extractant such as T2EHDGA or TODGA, and an acidic extractant such as HEH[EHP], for separating the minor actinides from the lanthanides.

Gelis, Artem V.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

259

SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was continued to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. The overall focus of the program is with slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems. Hydrocarbon products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. An efficient wax product/catalyst separation system is a key factor for optimizing operating costs for iron-based slurry-phase FTS. Previous work has focused on catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. With the current study, we are investigating how the filtration properties are affected by these chemical and physical changes of the catalyst slurry during activation/synthesis. In this reporting period, a series of crossflow filtration experiments were initiated to study the effect of olefins and oxygenates on the filtration flux and membrane performance. Iron-based FTS reactor waxes contain a significant amount of oxygenates, depending on the catalyst formulation and operating conditions. Mono-olefins and aliphatic alcohols were doped into an activated iron catalyst slurry (with Polywax) to test their influence on filtration properties. The olefins were varied from 5 to 25 wt% and oxygenates from 6 to 17 wt% to simulate a range of reactor slurries reported in the literature. The addition of an alcohol (1-dodecanol) was found to decrease the permeation rate while the olefin added (1-hexadecene) had no effect on the permeation rate. A passive flux maintenance technique was tested that can temporarily increase the permeate rate for 24 hours.

James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

Assessment of subsurface VOCs using a chemical microsensor array. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the results of laboratory investigations of several performance parameters relevant to surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) chemical sensor arrays for the measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in contaminated soil and groundwater. The small size, low cost, sensitivity and selectivity of such instruments promise improvements in the quality and quantity of data used to guide site assessment and restoration efforts. In this investigation, calibrations were performed for 15 different coated SAW sensors. Each sensor was exposed to six VOCs selected to represent three chemical classes of contaminants that are commonly found at waste sites (i.e., aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons). A new pattern recognition method was developed for determining which coated sensors would maximize the selectivity and accuracy of quantitation for a given set of vapor contaminants. Using this method, an optimal subwet of four coated sensors was selected for testing in a prototype microsensor instrument. Additional laboratory experiments were performed with this optimized array to assess the limits of detection and linear response ranges for the representative vapors, as well as the additivity of responses to vapors in binary mixtures, temperature and humidity effects, aging effects, and other performance parameters related to the application of this technology to soil and groundwater VOC monitoring. Results demonstrate that SAW microsensor arrays can identify and quantify specific VOCs at concentrations in the {mu}g/L to mg/L range when present alone or in simple (e.g., binary) mixtures. SAW sensor technology offers a potentially effective alternative to existing field instrumentation for headspace analysis, soil vapor monitoring, and vacuum extraction process monitoring of VOCs in subsurface media.

Batterman, S.A.; Zellers, E.T. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Public Health

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

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261

A unified algorithm for predicting partition coefficients for PBPK modeling of drugs and environmental chemicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The algorithms in the literature focusing to predict tissue:blood PC (P{sub tb}) for environmental chemicals and tissue:plasma PC based on total (K{sub p}) or unbound concentration (K{sub pu}) for drugs differ in their consideration of binding to hemoglobin, plasma proteins and charged phospholipids. The objective of the present study was to develop a unified algorithm such that P{sub tb}, K{sub p} and K{sub pu} for both drugs and environmental chemicals could be predicted. The development of the unified algorithm was accomplished by integrating all mechanistic algorithms previously published to compute the PCs. Furthermore, the algorithm was structured in such a way as to facilitate predictions of the distribution of organic compounds at the macro (i.e. whole tissue) and micro (i.e. cells and fluids) levels. The resulting unified algorithm was applied to compute the rat P{sub tb}, K{sub p} or K{sub pu} of muscle (n = 174), liver (n = 139) and adipose tissue (n = 141) for acidic, neutral, zwitterionic and basic drugs as well as ketones, acetate esters, alcohols, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and ethers. The unified algorithm reproduced adequately the values predicted previously by the published algorithms for a total of 142 drugs and chemicals. The sensitivity analysis demonstrated the relative importance of the various compound properties reflective of specific mechanistic determinants relevant to prediction of PC values of drugs and environmental chemicals. Overall, the present unified algorithm uniquely facilitates the computation of macro and micro level PCs for developing organ and cellular-level PBPK models for both chemicals and drugs.

Peyret, Thomas [DSEST, Universite de Montreal, Canada H3T 1A8 (Canada); Poulin, Patrick [Consultant, 4009 rue Sylvia Daoust, Quebec City, Quebec, G1X 0A6 (Canada); Krishnan, Kannan, E-mail: kannan.krishnan@umontreal.ca [DSEST, Universite de Montreal, H3T 1A8 (Canada)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

262

Determination of risk-based, site-specific cleanup levels for an industrial site in Seattle, Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Risk-based, site-specific cleanup criteria were developed for an active industrial site where shallow soil was contaminated with bunker fuel. This approach resulted in defensible cleanup levels that eliminated the need for complicated and disruptive remedial measures and is expediting site closure under Washington State Department of Ecology`s (Ecology) Independent Remedial Action Program. Initially, in anticipation of the sale of the property, a site investigation was conducted to provide information on the extent of contamination resulting from a leaking underground storage tank. Results of the investigation indicated that at least 3,600 cubic yards of soil contained bunker fuel at concentrations exceeding Ecology`s Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) default Method A cleanup value for heavy oil of 200 milligrams per kilogram. The contamination extended under two of the site structures. Following Ecology`s new interim policy for cleanup of total petroleum hydrocarbons under MTCA, a risk-based cleanup criterion was calculated using an approach in which aliphatic and aromatic fractions of weathered bunker fuel were represented by surrogates of known toxicity. The cleanup criterion yielded by the quantitative evaluation was more than an order of magnitude higher than the default MTCA Method A value for heavy oil. Cleanup criteria for carcinogenic polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (cPAHs) were also derived. Use of these risk-based cleanup levels eliminated the need for remedial measures outside of the immediate vicinity of the former tank location, reducing the volume of soil that required remediation from 3,600 cubic yards to 70 cubic yards.

Birkner, P.D.; Gaulke, S.W.; Tirao, A.C.; Veilleux, A.L. [Shannon & Wilson, Inc., Seattle, WA (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

263

Remediation of contaminated soils and sediments using Daramend bioremediation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soils and sediments containing polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy oils, chlorinated phenols, pesticides, herbicides and phthalates, either individually or in combination, have been difficult to remediate in the past. Not only the species of contaminant, but contaminant concentrations were roadblocks to successful use of bioremediation. Daramend{sup Tm} remediation has removed many of these obstacles through extensive research. Bench-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale demonstrations have been conducted at a variety of industrial sites. At a manufactured gas site, 295 days of Daramend remediation reduced concentrations of chrysene and fluoranthene from 38.9 mg/kg to 5.9 mg/kg and 84.6 mg/kg to 7.8 mg/kg respectively. Elsewhere, the total PAH concentration in a silty soil was reduced from 1,442 mg/kg to 36 mg/kg. Concentrations of even the most refractory PAHs (e.g. pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene) were reduced to below the established clean-up guidelines. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel fuel) have also been reduced from 8,700 mg/kg to 34 mg/kg after 182 days of treatment. Similarly, in a clay soil contaminated by crude oil processing, the concentrations of high molecular weight aliphatic hydrocarbons were rapidly reduced (138 days) to below the remediation criteria. Demonstrations with wood treatment site soils have proven Daramend remediation effective in enhancing the target compound degradation rates. Soils containing 2170 mg PCP/kg were shown to contain only 11 mg PCP/kg after 280 days of Darmend remediation. The issue of toxicity of soil containing increased amounts of pentachlorophenols was solved. Performance data collected during these projects indicate that Daramend remediation provides a cost effective method for clean-up of soils and sediments containing a variety of organic compounds.

Burwell, S.W.; Bucens, P.G.; Seech, A.G.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gas in salt environments, a contribution to gas genesis understanding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analysis of organic inclusions is a contribution to the understanding of the thermal and biochemical history of the evaporite basins by the in-situ observation of organic evolution products which are preserved by entrapment in salt. Recent applications of microanalytical techniques (FT-infrared, Raman, FT-Raman, UV-fluorescence) have confirmed and elucidated the nature of the organic phases trapped in inclusions. Three geological environments were studied corresponding to different levels of organic maturation: (1) the Bresse salt deposit (France) where the presence of solid organic matter, immature oil, carbon dioxide, and ammonium is detected, is characteristic of the early diagenesis of the massive salt series deposited at the Eocene-Oligocene period in the West European continental rift, (2) the Gabon margin where oil, methane, carbon dioxide and ammonium correspond to catagenetic products trapped in a salt diapir of the Cretaceous salt series of the Ogooue delta, and (3) the Lena-Tungusska oil-bearing region of Siberian platform where graphite, carbonaceous material, sulphur, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, and oils correspond to the evolution of the evaporite-brine-organic matter system under influence of basalt intrusions. The organic history of salt rocks can be followed from Bresse to Siberian examples. Proteins and carbohydrates are rapidly destroyed during early diagenesis (Bresse-France): ammonium and carbon dioxide are produced by deamination and decarboxylation respectively, the complex organic molecular association is simplified and geopolymers (kerogen precursors) are produced. With increasing maturity (Gabon), kerogen is transformed in aliphatic compounds which are progressively cracked to produce short alkane chains and finally methane. Residual carbon dioxide is also produced. In Siberia, the organic matter evolution is linked to the d/h ratio, where d is the distance to the dolerite sill and h the thickness of the sill.

Pironon, J. [BP, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Grishina, S. [United Institute of geology, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Carbon-Type Analysis and Comparison of Original and Reblended FACE Diesel Fuels (FACE 2, FACE 4, and FACE 7)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel blends, FD-2B, FD 4B, and FD-7B, and makes comparison of the new blends with the original FACE diesel blends, FD 2A, FD 4A, and FD-7A, respectively. Generally, FD-2A and FD-2B are more similar than the A and B blends of FD-4 and FD-7. The aromatic carbon content is roughly equivalent, although the new FACE blends have decreased monoaromatic content and increased di- and tri-cycloaromatic content, as well as a higher overall aromatic content, than the original FACE blends. The aromatic components of the new FACE blends generally have a higher alkyl substitution with longer alkyl substituents. The naphthenic and paraffinic contents remained relatively consistent. Based on aliphatic methyl and methylene carbon ratios, cetane numbers for FD-2A and -2B, and FD-7A and -7B are predicted to be consistent, while the cetane number for FD-4B is predicted to be higher than FD-4A. Overall, the new FACE fuel blends are fairly consistent with the original FACE fuel blends, but there are observable differences. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information on reformulated FACE diesel blends, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of the team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the use of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.; O'Hagan, Molly J.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Identification of quaternary ammonium compounds as potent inhibitors of hERG potassium channels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel, a member of a family of voltage-gated potassium (K{sup +}) channels, plays a critical role in the repolarization of the cardiac action potential. The reduction of hERG channel activity as a result of adverse drug effects or genetic mutations may cause QT interval prolongation and potentially leads to acquired long QT syndrome. Thus, screening for hERG channel activity is important in drug development. Cardiotoxicity associated with the inhibition of hERG channels by environmental chemicals is also a public health concern. To assess the inhibitory effects of environmental chemicals on hERG channel function, we screened the National Toxicology Program (NTP) collection of 1408 compounds by measuring thallium influx into cells through hERG channels. Seventeen compounds with hERG channel inhibition were identified with IC{sub 50} potencies ranging from 0.26 to 22 {mu}M. Twelve of these compounds were confirmed as hERG channel blockers in an automated whole cell patch clamp experiment. In addition, we investigated the structure-activity relationship of seven compounds belonging to the quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) series on hERG channel inhibition. Among four active QAC compounds, tetra-n-octylammonium bromide was the most potent with an IC{sub 50} value of 260 nM in the thallium influx assay and 80 nM in the patch clamp assay. The potency of this class of hERG channel inhibitors appears to depend on the number and length of their aliphatic side-chains surrounding the charged nitrogen. Profiling environmental compound libraries for hERG channel inhibition provides information useful in prioritizing these compounds for cardiotoxicity assessment in vivo.

Xia Menghang, E-mail: mxia@mail.nih.gov [NIH Chemical Genomics Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Shahane, Sampada A.; Huang, Ruili; Titus, Steven A. [NIH Chemical Genomics Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Shum, Enoch; Zhao Yong [Cerep, Inc., Redmond, WA (United States); Southall, Noel; Zheng, Wei [NIH Chemical Genomics Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Witt, Kristine L.; Tice, Raymond R. [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Austin, Christopher P. [NIH Chemical Genomics Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Process for using alkyl substituted C8-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons as preferential physical solvents for selective processing of hydrocarbon gas streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the removal of hydrocarbon gas liquids, comprising hydrocarbons heavier than methane, from a hydrocarbon gas stream. The improvement consists of selectively extracting the hydrocarbon gas liquids from the hydrocarbon gas stream with a preferential physical solvent which provides selective capability for recovery according to the selected degree of (a) ethane in amounts ranging from 2-98%, (b) propane in amounts ranging from 2-99%, (c) butane in amounts ranging from 2-100%, or (d) pentanes and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons in amounts ranging up to 100% which comprises: A. selectively extracting and stripping the hydrocarbon gas stream with the physical solvent to produce a residue hydrocarbon gas stream of pipeline specifications and a rich solvent stream containing ethane and heavier hydrocarbon components, the preferential physical solvent being: (1) rich in C/sub 8/-C/sub 10/ aromatic compounds having methyl, ethyl, or propyl aliphatic groups and (2) selective for ethane and heavier hydrocarbon components of the gas stream such that: (a) the relative volatility of methane over ethane is at least 5.0 and the hydrocarbon loading capacity, defined as solubility of ethane in solvent, is at least 0.25 standard cubic feet of ethane per gallon of solvent, or (b) the preferential factor determined by the multiplication of relative volatility of methane over ethane by the solubility of ethane in solvent, in standard cubic feet of ethane per gallon of solvent, of at least 1.25; and B. distilling the rich solvent to produce the hydrocarbon gas liquids and the physical solvent.

Mehra, Y.R.

1987-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

268

Miljoforden Website | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Miljoforden Website Miljoforden Website Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Miljoforden Website Focus Area: Natural Gas Topics: Deployment Data Website: www.miljofordon.se/in-english/this-is-miljofordon-se Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/miljoforden-website Language: "English,Swedish" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; Bedawiyet, Belarusian, Bemba, Bengali, Berber languages, Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Bikol, Bini; Edo, Bislama, Blin; Bilin, Blissymbols; Blissymbolics; Bliss, Bosnian, Braj, Breton, Buginese, Bulgarian, Buriat, Burmese, Caddo, Catalan; Valencian, Caucasian languages, Cebuano, Celtic languages, Central American Indian languages, Central Khmer, Chagatai, Chamic languages, Chamorro, Chechen, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chichewa; Chewa; Nyanja, Chinese, Chinook jargon, Chipewyan; Dene Suline, Choctaw, Chuukese, Chuvash, Classical Newari; Old Newari; Classical Nepal Bhasa, Classical Syriac, Coptic, Cornish, Corsican, Cree, Creek, Creoles and pidgins , Crimean Tatar; Crimean Turkish, Croatian, Cushitic languages, Czech, Dakota, Danish, Dargwa, Delaware, Dinka, Divehi; Dhivehi; Maldivian, Dogri, Dogrib, Dravidian languages, Duala, Dutch; Flemish, Dyula, Dzongkha, Eastern Frisian, Efik, Egyptian (Ancient), Ekajuk, Elamite, English, Erzya, Esperanto, Estonian, Ewe, Ewondo, Fang, Fanti, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino; Pilipino, Finnish, Finno-Ugrian languages, Fon, French, Friulian, Fulah, Ga, Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic, Galibi Carib, Galician, Ganda, Gayo, Gbaya, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic languages, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Gothic, Grebo, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian; Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Himachali languages; Western Pahari languages, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Hittite, Hmong; Mong, Hungarian, Hupa, Iban, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ijo languages, Iloko, Inari Sami, Indic languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesian, Ingush, Interlingue; Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho, Kalaallisut; Greenlandic, Kalmyk; Oirat, Kamba, Kannada, Kanuri, Kara-Kalpak, Karachay-Balkar, Karelian, Karen languages, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawi, Kazakh, Khasi, Khoisan languages, Khotanese; Sakan, Kikuyu; Gikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz; Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Provençal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

269

Overview of China's Vehicle Emission Control Program: Past Successes and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Overview of China's Vehicle Emission Control Program: Past Successes and Overview of China's Vehicle Emission Control Program: Past Successes and Future Prospects Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Overview of China's Vehicle Emission Control Program: Past Successes and Future Prospects Focus Area: Propane Topics: Socio-Economic Website: theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/Retrosp_final_bilingual.p Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/overview-china's-vehicle-emission-con Language: "English,Chinese" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; Bedawiyet, Belarusian, Bemba, Bengali, Berber languages, Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Bikol, Bini; Edo, Bislama, Blin; Bilin, Blissymbols; Blissymbolics; Bliss, Bosnian, Braj, Breton, Buginese, Bulgarian, Buriat, Burmese, Caddo, Catalan; Valencian, Caucasian languages, Cebuano, Celtic languages, Central American Indian languages, Central Khmer, Chagatai, Chamic languages, Chamorro, Chechen, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chichewa; Chewa; Nyanja, Chinese, Chinook jargon, Chipewyan; Dene Suline, Choctaw, Chuukese, Chuvash, Classical Newari; Old Newari; Classical Nepal Bhasa, Classical Syriac, Coptic, Cornish, Corsican, Cree, Creek, Creoles and pidgins , Crimean Tatar; Crimean Turkish, Croatian, Cushitic languages, Czech, Dakota, Danish, Dargwa, Delaware, Dinka, Divehi; Dhivehi; Maldivian, Dogri, Dogrib, Dravidian languages, Duala, Dutch; Flemish, Dyula, Dzongkha, Eastern Frisian, Efik, Egyptian (Ancient), Ekajuk, Elamite, English, Erzya, Esperanto, Estonian, Ewe, Ewondo, Fang, Fanti, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino; Pilipino, Finnish, Finno-Ugrian languages, Fon, French, Friulian, Fulah, Ga, Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic, Galibi Carib, Galician, Ganda, Gayo, Gbaya, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic languages, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Gothic, Grebo, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian; Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Himachali languages; Western Pahari languages, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Hittite, Hmong; Mong, Hungarian, Hupa, Iban, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ijo languages, Iloko, Inari Sami, Indic languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesian, Ingush, Interlingue; Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho, Kalaallisut; Greenlandic, Kalmyk; Oirat, Kamba, Kannada, Kanuri, Kara-Kalpak, Karachay-Balkar, Karelian, Karen languages, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawi, Kazakh, Khasi, Khoisan languages, Khotanese; Sakan, Kikuyu; Gikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz; Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Provençal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

270

Photovoltaics Design and Installation Manual | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Photovoltaics Design and Installation Manual Photovoltaics Design and Installation Manual Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Photovoltaics Design and Installation Manual Agency/Company /Organization: Solar Energy International Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Solar, - Solar PV Resource Type: Training materials User Interface: Other Website: www.solarenergy.org/bookstore/photovoltaics-design-installation-manual Cost: Paid Language: "English, Spanish; Castilian" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; Bedawiyet, Belarusian, Bemba, Bengali, Berber languages, Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Bikol, Bini; Edo, Bislama, Blin; Bilin, Blissymbols; Blissymbolics; Bliss, Bosnian, Braj, Breton, Buginese, Bulgarian, Buriat, Burmese, Caddo, Catalan; Valencian, Caucasian languages, Cebuano, Celtic languages, Central American Indian languages, Central Khmer, Chagatai, Chamic languages, Chamorro, Chechen, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chichewa; Chewa; Nyanja, Chinese, Chinook jargon, Chipewyan; Dene Suline, Choctaw, Chuukese, Chuvash, Classical Newari; Old Newari; Classical Nepal Bhasa, Classical Syriac, Coptic, Cornish, Corsican, Cree, Creek, Creoles and pidgins , Crimean Tatar; Crimean Turkish, Croatian, Cushitic languages, Czech, Dakota, Danish, Dargwa, Delaware, Dinka, Divehi; Dhivehi; Maldivian, Dogri, Dogrib, Dravidian languages, Duala, Dutch; Flemish, Dyula, Dzongkha, Eastern Frisian, Efik, Egyptian (Ancient), Ekajuk, Elamite, English, Erzya, Esperanto, Estonian, Ewe, Ewondo, Fang, Fanti, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino; Pilipino, Finnish, Finno-Ugrian languages, Fon, French, Friulian, Fulah, Ga, Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic, Galibi Carib, Galician, Ganda, Gayo, Gbaya, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic languages, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Gothic, Grebo, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian; Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Himachali languages; Western Pahari languages, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Hittite, Hmong; Mong, Hungarian, Hupa, Iban, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ijo languages, Iloko, Inari Sami, Indic languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesian, Ingush, Interlingue; Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho, Kalaallisut; Greenlandic, Kalmyk; Oirat, Kamba, Kannada, Kanuri, Kara-Kalpak, Karachay-Balkar, Karelian, Karen languages, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawi, Kazakh, Khasi, Khoisan languages, Khotanese; Sakan, Kikuyu; Gikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz; Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Provençal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

271

OLADE-Solar Thermal World Portal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » OLADE-Solar Thermal World Portal Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: OLADE-Solar Thermal World Portal Agency/Company /Organization: Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) Sector: Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy, Solar, - Concentrating Solar Power, - Solar Hot Water User Interface: Website Website: www.solarthermalworld.org/ Cost: Free UN Region: Caribbean, South America Language: "English, Spanish; Castilian" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; Bedawiyet, Belarusian, Bemba, Bengali, Berber languages, Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Bikol, Bini; Edo, Bislama, Blin; Bilin, Blissymbols; Blissymbolics; Bliss, Bosnian, Braj, Breton, Buginese, Bulgarian, Buriat, Burmese, Caddo, Catalan; Valencian, Caucasian languages, Cebuano, Celtic languages, Central American Indian languages, Central Khmer, Chagatai, Chamic languages, Chamorro, Chechen, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chichewa; Chewa; Nyanja, Chinese, Chinook jargon, Chipewyan; Dene Suline, Choctaw, Chuukese, Chuvash, Classical Newari; Old Newari; Classical Nepal Bhasa, Classical Syriac, Coptic, Cornish, Corsican, Cree, Creek, Creoles and pidgins , Crimean Tatar; Crimean Turkish, Croatian, Cushitic languages, Czech, Dakota, Danish, Dargwa, Delaware, Dinka, Divehi; Dhivehi; Maldivian, Dogri, Dogrib, Dravidian languages, Duala, Dutch; Flemish, Dyula, Dzongkha, Eastern Frisian, Efik, Egyptian (Ancient), Ekajuk, Elamite, English, Erzya, Esperanto, Estonian, Ewe, Ewondo, Fang, Fanti, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino; Pilipino, Finnish, Finno-Ugrian languages, Fon, French, Friulian, Fulah, Ga, Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic, Galibi Carib, Galician, Ganda, Gayo, Gbaya, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic languages, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Gothic, Grebo, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian; Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Himachali languages; Western Pahari languages, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Hittite, Hmong; Mong, Hungarian, Hupa, Iban, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ijo languages, Iloko, Inari Sami, Indic languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesian, Ingush, Interlingue; Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho, Kalaallisut; Greenlandic, Kalmyk; Oirat, Kamba, Kannada, Kanuri, Kara-Kalpak, Karachay-Balkar, Karelian, Karen languages, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawi, Kazakh, Khasi, Khoisan languages, Khotanese; Sakan, Kikuyu; Gikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz; Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Proven√ßal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volap√ºk, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

272

Freight Best Practice Website | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Freight Best Practice Website Freight Best Practice Website Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Freight Best Practice Website Focus Area: Public Transit Topics: Policy, Deployment, & Program Impact Website: www.freightbestpractice.org.uk/ Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/freight-best-practice-website Language: "English,Welsh" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; Bedawiyet, Belarusian, Bemba, Bengali, Berber languages, Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Bikol, Bini; Edo, Bislama, Blin; Bilin, Blissymbols; Blissymbolics; Bliss, Bosnian, Braj, Breton, Buginese, Bulgarian, Buriat, Burmese, Caddo, Catalan; Valencian, Caucasian languages, Cebuano, Celtic languages, Central American Indian languages, Central Khmer, Chagatai, Chamic languages, Chamorro, Chechen, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chichewa; Chewa; Nyanja, Chinese, Chinook jargon, Chipewyan; Dene Suline, Choctaw, Chuukese, Chuvash, Classical Newari; Old Newari; Classical Nepal Bhasa, Classical Syriac, Coptic, Cornish, Corsican, Cree, Creek, Creoles and pidgins , Crimean Tatar; Crimean Turkish, Croatian, Cushitic languages, Czech, Dakota, Danish, Dargwa, Delaware, Dinka, Divehi; Dhivehi; Maldivian, Dogri, Dogrib, Dravidian languages, Duala, Dutch; Flemish, Dyula, Dzongkha, Eastern Frisian, Efik, Egyptian (Ancient), Ekajuk, Elamite, English, Erzya, Esperanto, Estonian, Ewe, Ewondo, Fang, Fanti, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino; Pilipino, Finnish, Finno-Ugrian languages, Fon, French, Friulian, Fulah, Ga, Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic, Galibi Carib, Galician, Ganda, Gayo, Gbaya, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic languages, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Gothic, Grebo, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian; Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Himachali languages; Western Pahari languages, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Hittite, Hmong; Mong, Hungarian, Hupa, Iban, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ijo languages, Iloko, Inari Sami, Indic languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesian, Ingush, Interlingue; Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho, Kalaallisut; Greenlandic, Kalmyk; Oirat, Kamba, Kannada, Kanuri, Kara-Kalpak, Karachay-Balkar, Karelian, Karen languages, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawi, Kazakh, Khasi, Khoisan languages, Khotanese; Sakan, Kikuyu; Gikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz; Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Provençal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

273

COMFAR III: Computer Model for Feasibility Analysis and Reporting | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

COMFAR III: Computer Model for Feasibility Analysis and Reporting COMFAR III: Computer Model for Feasibility Analysis and Reporting Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: COMFAR III: Computer Model for Feasibility Analysis and Reporting Agency/Company /Organization: United Nations Industrial Development Organization Focus Area: Industry Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.unido.org/index.php?id=o3470 Language: "Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish; Castilian" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; Bedawiyet, Belarusian, Bemba, Bengali, Berber languages, Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Bikol, Bini; Edo, Bislama, Blin; Bilin, Blissymbols; Blissymbolics; Bliss, Bosnian, Braj, Breton, Buginese, Bulgarian, Buriat, Burmese, Caddo, Catalan; Valencian, Caucasian languages, Cebuano, Celtic languages, Central American Indian languages, Central Khmer, Chagatai, Chamic languages, Chamorro, Chechen, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chichewa; Chewa; Nyanja, Chinese, Chinook jargon, Chipewyan; Dene Suline, Choctaw, Chuukese, Chuvash, Classical Newari; Old Newari; Classical Nepal Bhasa, Classical Syriac, Coptic, Cornish, Corsican, Cree, Creek, Creoles and pidgins , Crimean Tatar; Crimean Turkish, Croatian, Cushitic languages, Czech, Dakota, Danish, Dargwa, Delaware, Dinka, Divehi; Dhivehi; Maldivian, Dogri, Dogrib, Dravidian languages, Duala, Dutch; Flemish, Dyula, Dzongkha, Eastern Frisian, Efik, Egyptian (Ancient), Ekajuk, Elamite, English, Erzya, Esperanto, Estonian, Ewe, Ewondo, Fang, Fanti, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino; Pilipino, Finnish, Finno-Ugrian languages, Fon, French, Friulian, Fulah, Ga, Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic, Galibi Carib, Galician, Ganda, Gayo, Gbaya, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic languages, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Gothic, Grebo, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian; Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Himachali languages; Western Pahari languages, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Hittite, Hmong; Mong, Hungarian, Hupa, Iban, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ijo languages, Iloko, Inari Sami, Indic languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesian, Ingush, Interlingue; Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho, Kalaallisut; Greenlandic, Kalmyk; Oirat, Kamba, Kannada, Kanuri, Kara-Kalpak, Karachay-Balkar, Karelian, Karen languages, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawi, Kazakh, Khasi, Khoisan languages, Khotanese; Sakan, Kikuyu; Gikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz; Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Provençal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

274

Sustainable Logistics Website | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sustainable Logistics Website Sustainable Logistics Website Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Sustainable Logistics Website Focus Area: Clean Transportation Topics: Best Practices Website: www.duurzamelogistiek.nl/ Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/sustainable-logistics-website Language: "English,Dutch" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; Bedawiyet, Belarusian, Bemba, Bengali, Berber languages, Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Bikol, Bini; Edo, Bislama, Blin; Bilin, Blissymbols; Blissymbolics; Bliss, Bosnian, Braj, Breton, Buginese, Bulgarian, Buriat, Burmese, Caddo, Catalan; Valencian, Caucasian languages, Cebuano, Celtic languages, Central American Indian languages, Central Khmer, Chagatai, Chamic languages, Chamorro, Chechen, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chichewa; Chewa; Nyanja, Chinese, Chinook jargon, Chipewyan; Dene Suline, Choctaw, Chuukese, Chuvash, Classical Newari; Old Newari; Classical Nepal Bhasa, Classical Syriac, Coptic, Cornish, Corsican, Cree, Creek, Creoles and pidgins , Crimean Tatar; Crimean Turkish, Croatian, Cushitic languages, Czech, Dakota, Danish, Dargwa, Delaware, Dinka, Divehi; Dhivehi; Maldivian, Dogri, Dogrib, Dravidian languages, Duala, Dutch; Flemish, Dyula, Dzongkha, Eastern Frisian, Efik, Egyptian (Ancient), Ekajuk, Elamite, English, Erzya, Esperanto, Estonian, Ewe, Ewondo, Fang, Fanti, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino; Pilipino, Finnish, Finno-Ugrian languages, Fon, French, Friulian, Fulah, Ga, Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic, Galibi Carib, Galician, Ganda, Gayo, Gbaya, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic languages, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Gothic, Grebo, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian; Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Himachali languages; Western Pahari languages, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Hittite, Hmong; Mong, Hungarian, Hupa, Iban, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ijo languages, Iloko, Inari Sami, Indic languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesian, Ingush, Interlingue; Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho, Kalaallisut; Greenlandic, Kalmyk; Oirat, Kamba, Kannada, Kanuri, Kara-Kalpak, Karachay-Balkar, Karelian, Karen languages, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawi, Kazakh, Khasi, Khoisan languages, Khotanese; Sakan, Kikuyu; Gikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz; Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Provençal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

275

Canadian National Energy Use Database: Statistics and Analysis | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Canadian National Energy Use Database: Statistics and Analysis Canadian National Energy Use Database: Statistics and Analysis Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Canadian National Energy Use Database: Statistics and Analysis Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Potentials & Scenarios Website: oee.nrcan.gc.ca/corporate/statistics/neud/dpa/home.cfm?attr=24 Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/canadian-national-energy-use-database Language: "English,French" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; Bedawiyet, Belarusian, Bemba, Bengali, Berber languages, Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Bikol, Bini; Edo, Bislama, Blin; Bilin, Blissymbols; Blissymbolics; Bliss, Bosnian, Braj, Breton, Buginese, Bulgarian, Buriat, Burmese, Caddo, Catalan; Valencian, Caucasian languages, Cebuano, Celtic languages, Central American Indian languages, Central Khmer, Chagatai, Chamic languages, Chamorro, Chechen, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chichewa; Chewa; Nyanja, Chinese, Chinook jargon, Chipewyan; Dene Suline, Choctaw, Chuukese, Chuvash, Classical Newari; Old Newari; Classical Nepal Bhasa, Classical Syriac, Coptic, Cornish, Corsican, Cree, Creek, Creoles and pidgins , Crimean Tatar; Crimean Turkish, Croatian, Cushitic languages, Czech, Dakota, Danish, Dargwa, Delaware, Dinka, Divehi; Dhivehi; Maldivian, Dogri, Dogrib, Dravidian languages, Duala, Dutch; Flemish, Dyula, Dzongkha, Eastern Frisian, Efik, Egyptian (Ancient), Ekajuk, Elamite, English, Erzya, Esperanto, Estonian, Ewe, Ewondo, Fang, Fanti, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino; Pilipino, Finnish, Finno-Ugrian languages, Fon, French, Friulian, Fulah, Ga, Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic, Galibi Carib, Galician, Ganda, Gayo, Gbaya, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic languages, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Gothic, Grebo, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian; Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Himachali languages; Western Pahari languages, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Hittite, Hmong; Mong, Hungarian, Hupa, Iban, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ijo languages, Iloko, Inari Sami, Indic languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesian, Ingush, Interlingue; Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho, Kalaallisut; Greenlandic, Kalmyk; Oirat, Kamba, Kannada, Kanuri, Kara-Kalpak, Karachay-Balkar, Karelian, Karen languages, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawi, Kazakh, Khasi, Khoisan languages, Khotanese; Sakan, Kikuyu; Gikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz; Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Provençal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

276

Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves Agency/Company /Organization: various Sector: Energy Focus Area: Biomass Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Options, Prepare a Plan, Create Early Successes Topics: Co-benefits assessment, - Energy Access Resource Type: Case studies/examples, Guide/manual, Presentation, Video User Interface: Website Website: ttp://www.bioenergylists.org/ Cost: Free Language: "English, Spanish; Castilian" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; Bedawiyet, Belarusian, Bemba, Bengali, Berber languages, Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Bikol, Bini; Edo, Bislama, Blin; Bilin, Blissymbols; Blissymbolics; Bliss, Bosnian, Braj, Breton, Buginese, Bulgarian, Buriat, Burmese, Caddo, Catalan; Valencian, Caucasian languages, Cebuano, Celtic languages, Central American Indian languages, Central Khmer, Chagatai, Chamic languages, Chamorro, Chechen, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chichewa; Chewa; Nyanja, Chinese, Chinook jargon, Chipewyan; Dene Suline, Choctaw, Chuukese, Chuvash, Classical Newari; Old Newari; Classical Nepal Bhasa, Classical Syriac, Coptic, Cornish, Corsican, Cree, Creek, Creoles and pidgins , Crimean Tatar; Crimean Turkish, Croatian, Cushitic languages, Czech, Dakota, Danish, Dargwa, Delaware, Dinka, Divehi; Dhivehi; Maldivian, Dogri, Dogrib, Dravidian languages, Duala, Dutch; Flemish, Dyula, Dzongkha, Eastern Frisian, Efik, Egyptian (Ancient), Ekajuk, Elamite, English, Erzya, Esperanto, Estonian, Ewe, Ewondo, Fang, Fanti, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino; Pilipino, Finnish, Finno-Ugrian languages, Fon, French, Friulian, Fulah, Ga, Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic, Galibi Carib, Galician, Ganda, Gayo, Gbaya, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic languages, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Gothic, Grebo, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian; Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Himachali languages; Western Pahari languages, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Hittite, Hmong; Mong, Hungarian, Hupa, Iban, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ijo languages, Iloko, Inari Sami, Indic languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesian, Ingush, Interlingue; Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho, Kalaallisut; Greenlandic, Kalmyk; Oirat, Kamba, Kannada, Kanuri, Kara-Kalpak, Karachay-Balkar, Karelian, Karen languages, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawi, Kazakh, Khasi, Khoisan languages, Khotanese; Sakan, Kikuyu; Gikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz; Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Provençal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

277

Handbook of Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) of Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Handbook of Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA) Focus Area: Clean Transportation Topics: Policy, Deployment, & Program Impact Website: www.hbefa.net/e/index.html Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/handbook-emission-factors-road-transp Language: "English,French,German" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; Bedawiyet, Belarusian, Bemba, Bengali, Berber languages, Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Bikol, Bini; Edo, Bislama, Blin; Bilin, Blissymbols; Blissymbolics; Bliss, Bosnian, Braj, Breton, Buginese, Bulgarian, Buriat, Burmese, Caddo, Catalan; Valencian, Caucasian languages, Cebuano, Celtic languages, Central American Indian languages, Central Khmer, Chagatai, Chamic languages, Chamorro, Chechen, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chichewa; Chewa; Nyanja, Chinese, Chinook jargon, Chipewyan; Dene Suline, Choctaw, Chuukese, Chuvash, Classical Newari; Old Newari; Classical Nepal Bhasa, Classical Syriac, Coptic, Cornish, Corsican, Cree, Creek, Creoles and pidgins , Crimean Tatar; Crimean Turkish, Croatian, Cushitic languages, Czech, Dakota, Danish, Dargwa, Delaware, Dinka, Divehi; Dhivehi; Maldivian, Dogri, Dogrib, Dravidian languages, Duala, Dutch; Flemish, Dyula, Dzongkha, Eastern Frisian, Efik, Egyptian (Ancient), Ekajuk, Elamite, English, Erzya, Esperanto, Estonian, Ewe, Ewondo, Fang, Fanti, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino; Pilipino, Finnish, Finno-Ugrian languages, Fon, French, Friulian, Fulah, Ga, Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic, Galibi Carib, Galician, Ganda, Gayo, Gbaya, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic languages, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Gothic, Grebo, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian; Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Himachali languages; Western Pahari languages, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Hittite, Hmong; Mong, Hungarian, Hupa, Iban, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ijo languages, Iloko, Inari Sami, Indic languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesian, Ingush, Interlingue; Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho, Kalaallisut; Greenlandic, Kalmyk; Oirat, Kamba, Kannada, Kanuri, Kara-Kalpak, Karachay-Balkar, Karelian, Karen languages, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawi, Kazakh, Khasi, Khoisan languages, Khotanese; Sakan, Kikuyu; Gikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz; Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Provençal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

278

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Toolkit Website | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Toolkit Website Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Toolkit Website Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Toolkit Website Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Policy Impacts Website: toolkits.reeep.org/ Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/renewable-energy-and-energy-efficienc Language: "English,Chinese,French,Portuguese,Spanish" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; Bedawiyet, Belarusian, Bemba, Bengali, Berber languages, Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Bikol, Bini; Edo, Bislama, Blin; Bilin, Blissymbols; Blissymbolics; Bliss, Bosnian, Braj, Breton, Buginese, Bulgarian, Buriat, Burmese, Caddo, Catalan; Valencian, Caucasian languages, Cebuano, Celtic languages, Central American Indian languages, Central Khmer, Chagatai, Chamic languages, Chamorro, Chechen, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chichewa; Chewa; Nyanja, Chinese, Chinook jargon, Chipewyan; Dene Suline, Choctaw, Chuukese, Chuvash, Classical Newari; Old Newari; Classical Nepal Bhasa, Classical Syriac, Coptic, Cornish, Corsican, Cree, Creek, Creoles and pidgins , Crimean Tatar; Crimean Turkish, Croatian, Cushitic languages, Czech, Dakota, Danish, Dargwa, Delaware, Dinka, Divehi; Dhivehi; Maldivian, Dogri, Dogrib, Dravidian languages, Duala, Dutch; Flemish, Dyula, Dzongkha, Eastern Frisian, Efik, Egyptian (Ancient), Ekajuk, Elamite, English, Erzya, Esperanto, Estonian, Ewe, Ewondo, Fang, Fanti, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino; Pilipino, Finnish, Finno-Ugrian languages, Fon, French, Friulian, Fulah, Ga, Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic, Galibi Carib, Galician, Ganda, Gayo, Gbaya, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic languages, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Gothic, Grebo, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian; Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Himachali languages; Western Pahari languages, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Hittite, Hmong; Mong, Hungarian, Hupa, Iban, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ijo languages, Iloko, Inari Sami, Indic languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesian, Ingush, Interlingue; Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho, Kalaallisut; Greenlandic, Kalmyk; Oirat, Kamba, Kannada, Kanuri, Kara-Kalpak, Karachay-Balkar, Karelian, Karen languages, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawi, Kazakh, Khasi, Khoisan languages, Khotanese; Sakan, Kikuyu; Gikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz; Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Provençal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

279

IGES-Market Mechanism Group | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

IGES-Market Mechanism Group IGES-Market Mechanism Group Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: IGES-Market Mechanism Agency/Company /Organization: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) Sector: Climate, Energy Focus Area: Renewable Energy Topics: Market analysis Resource Type: Training materials Website: www.iges.or.jp/en/cdm/index.html Cost: Free Language: "English, Japanese" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; Bedawiyet, Belarusian, Bemba, Bengali, Berber languages, Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Bikol, Bini; Edo, Bislama, Blin; Bilin, Blissymbols; Blissymbolics; Bliss, Bosnian, Braj, Breton, Buginese, Bulgarian, Buriat, Burmese, Caddo, Catalan; Valencian, Caucasian languages, Cebuano, Celtic languages, Central American Indian languages, Central Khmer, Chagatai, Chamic languages, Chamorro, Chechen, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chichewa; Chewa; Nyanja, Chinese, Chinook jargon, Chipewyan; Dene Suline, Choctaw, Chuukese, Chuvash, Classical Newari; Old Newari; Classical Nepal Bhasa, Classical Syriac, Coptic, Cornish, Corsican, Cree, Creek, Creoles and pidgins , Crimean Tatar; Crimean Turkish, Croatian, Cushitic languages, Czech, Dakota, Danish, Dargwa, Delaware, Dinka, Divehi; Dhivehi; Maldivian, Dogri, Dogrib, Dravidian languages, Duala, Dutch; Flemish, Dyula, Dzongkha, Eastern Frisian, Efik, Egyptian (Ancient), Ekajuk, Elamite, English, Erzya, Esperanto, Estonian, Ewe, Ewondo, Fang, Fanti, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino; Pilipino, Finnish, Finno-Ugrian languages, Fon, French, Friulian, Fulah, Ga, Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic, Galibi Carib, Galician, Ganda, Gayo, Gbaya, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic languages, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Gothic, Grebo, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian; Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Himachali languages; Western Pahari languages, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Hittite, Hmong; Mong, Hungarian, Hupa, Iban, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ijo languages, Iloko, Inari Sami, Indic languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesian, Ingush, Interlingue; Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho, Kalaallisut; Greenlandic, Kalmyk; Oirat, Kamba, Kannada, Kanuri, Kara-Kalpak, Karachay-Balkar, Karelian, Karen languages, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawi, Kazakh, Khasi, Khoisan languages, Khotanese; Sakan, Kikuyu; Gikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz; Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Provençal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

280

Eco TransIT World | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Eco TransIT World Eco TransIT World Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Eco TransIT World Focus Area: Low Carbon Communities Topics: Opportunity Assessment & Screening Website: www.ecotransit.org/index.en.html Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/eco-transit-world Language: "English,Dutch,French,German,Spanish" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; Bedawiyet, Belarusian, Bemba, Bengali, Berber languages, Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Bikol, Bini; Edo, Bislama, Blin; Bilin, Blissymbols; Blissymbolics; Bliss, Bosnian, Braj, Breton, Buginese, Bulgarian, Buriat, Burmese, Caddo, Catalan; Valencian, Caucasian languages, Cebuano, Celtic languages, Central American Indian languages, Central Khmer, Chagatai, Chamic languages, Chamorro, Chechen, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chichewa; Chewa; Nyanja, Chinese, Chinook jargon, Chipewyan; Dene Suline, Choctaw, Chuukese, Chuvash, Classical Newari; Old Newari; Classical Nepal Bhasa, Classical Syriac, Coptic, Cornish, Corsican, Cree, Creek, Creoles and pidgins , Crimean Tatar; Crimean Turkish, Croatian, Cushitic languages, Czech, Dakota, Danish, Dargwa, Delaware, Dinka, Divehi; Dhivehi; Maldivian, Dogri, Dogrib, Dravidian languages, Duala, Dutch; Flemish, Dyula, Dzongkha, Eastern Frisian, Efik, Egyptian (Ancient), Ekajuk, Elamite, English, Erzya, Esperanto, Estonian, Ewe, Ewondo, Fang, Fanti, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino; Pilipino, Finnish, Finno-Ugrian languages, Fon, French, Friulian, Fulah, Ga, Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic, Galibi Carib, Galician, Ganda, Gayo, Gbaya, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic languages, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Gothic, Grebo, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian; Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Himachali languages; Western Pahari languages, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Hittite, Hmong; Mong, Hungarian, Hupa, Iban, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ijo languages, Iloko, Inari Sami, Indic languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesian, Ingush, Interlingue; Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho, Kalaallisut; Greenlandic, Kalmyk; Oirat, Kamba, Kannada, Kanuri, Kara-Kalpak, Karachay-Balkar, Karelian, Karen languages, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawi, Kazakh, Khasi, Khoisan languages, Khotanese; Sakan, Kikuyu; Gikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz; Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Provençal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "aliphatic alco hol" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

CRiSTAL Project Management Tool | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

CRiSTAL Project Management Tool CRiSTAL Project Management Tool Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: CRiSTAL Project Management Tool Agency/Company /Organization: International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) Sector: Climate, Energy, Land Topics: Implementation Resource Type: Guide/manual, Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.iisd.org/cristaltool/ Cost: Free Language: "English, French, Portuguese, Spanish; Castilian" is not in the list of possible values (Abkhazian, Achinese, Acoli, Adangme, Adyghe; Adygei, Afar, Afrihili, Afrikaans, Afro-Asiatic languages, Ainu, Akan, Akkadian, Albanian, Aleut, Algonquian languages, Altaic languages, Amharic, Angika, Apache languages, Arabic, Aragonese, Arapaho, Arawak, Armenian, Aromanian; Arumanian; Macedo-Romanian, Artificial languages, Assamese, Asturian; Bable; Leonese; Asturleonese, Athapascan languages, Australian languages, Austronesian languages, Avaric, Avestan, Awadhi, Aymara, Azerbaijani, Balinese, Baltic languages, Baluchi, Bambara, Bamileke languages, Banda languages, Bantu (Other), Basa, Bashkir, Basque, Batak languages, Beja; Bedawiyet, Belarusian, Bemba, Bengali, Berber languages, Bhojpuri, Bihari languages, Bikol, Bini; Edo, Bislama, Blin; Bilin, Blissymbols; Blissymbolics; Bliss, Bosnian, Braj, Breton, Buginese, Bulgarian, Buriat, Burmese, Caddo, Catalan; Valencian, Caucasian languages, Cebuano, Celtic languages, Central American Indian languages, Central Khmer, Chagatai, Chamic languages, Chamorro, Chechen, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chibcha, Chichewa; Chewa; Nyanja, Chinese, Chinook jargon, Chipewyan; Dene Suline, Choctaw, Chuukese, Chuvash, Classical Newari; Old Newari; Classical Nepal Bhasa, Classical Syriac, Coptic, Cornish, Corsican, Cree, Creek, Creoles and pidgins , Crimean Tatar; Crimean Turkish, Croatian, Cushitic languages, Czech, Dakota, Danish, Dargwa, Delaware, Dinka, Divehi; Dhivehi; Maldivian, Dogri, Dogrib, Dravidian languages, Duala, Dutch; Flemish, Dyula, Dzongkha, Eastern Frisian, Efik, Egyptian (Ancient), Ekajuk, Elamite, English, Erzya, Esperanto, Estonian, Ewe, Ewondo, Fang, Fanti, Faroese, Fijian, Filipino; Pilipino, Finnish, Finno-Ugrian languages, Fon, French, Friulian, Fulah, Ga, Gaelic; Scottish Gaelic, Galibi Carib, Galician, Ganda, Gayo, Gbaya, Geez, Georgian, German, Germanic languages, Gilbertese, Gondi, Gorontalo, Gothic, Grebo, Greek, Modern, Guarani, Gujarati, Gwich'in, Haida, Haitian; Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hawaiian, Hebrew, Herero, Hiligaynon, Himachali languages; Western Pahari languages, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Hittite, Hmong; Mong, Hungarian, Hupa, Iban, Icelandic, Ido, Igbo, Ijo languages, Iloko, Inari Sami, Indic languages, Indo-European languages, Indonesian, Ingush, Interlingue; Occidental, Inuktitut, Inupiaq, Iranian languages, Irish, Iroquoian languages, Italian, Japanese, Javanese, Judeo-Arabic, Judeo-Persian, Kabardian, Kabyle, Kachin; Jingpho, Kalaallisut; Greenlandic, Kalmyk; Oirat, Kamba, Kannada, Kanuri, Kara-Kalpak, Karachay-Balkar, Karelian, Karen languages, Kashmiri, Kashubian, Kawi, Kazakh, Khasi, Khoisan languages, Khotanese; Sakan, Kikuyu; Gikuyu, Kimbundu, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz; Kyrgyz, Klingon; tlhIngan-Hol, Komi, Kongo, Konkani, Korean, Kosraean, Kpelle, Kru languages, Kuanyama; Kwanyama, Kumyk, Kurdish, Kurukh, Kutenai, Ladino, Lahnda, Lamba, Land Dayak languages, Lao, Latin, Latvian, Lezghian, Limburgan; Limburger; Limburgish, Lingala, Lithuanian, Lojban, Lower Sorbian, Lozi, Luba-Katanga, Luba-Lulua, Luiseno, Lule Sami, Lunda, Luo (Kenya and Tanzania), Lushai, Luxembourgish; Letzeburgesch, Macedonian, Madurese, Magahi, Maithili, Makasar, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Manchu, Mandar, Mandingo, Manipuri, Manobo languages, Manx, Maori, Mapudungun; Mapuche, Marathi, Mari, Marshallese, Marwari, Masai, Mayan languages, Mende, Mi'kmaq; Micmac, Minangkabau, Mirandese, Mohawk, Moksha, Mon-Khmer languages, Mongo, Mongolian, Mossi, Multiple languages, Munda languages, N'Ko, Nahuatl languages, Nauru, Navajo; Navaho, Ndebele, North; North Ndebele, Ndebele, South; South Ndebele, Ndonga, Neapolitan, Nepal Bhasa; Newari, Nepali, Nias, Niger-Kordofanian languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Niuean, North American Indian languages, Northern Frisian, Northern Sami, Norwegian, Nubian languages, Nyamwezi, Nyankole, Nyoro, Nzima, Occitan (post 1500); Provençal, Ojibwa, Oriya, Oromo, Osage, Ossetian; Ossetic, Otomian languages, Pahlavi, Palauan, Pali, Pampanga; Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Panjabi; Punjabi, Papiamento, Papuan languages, Pedi; Sepedi; Northern Sotho, Persian, Philippine languages, Phoenician, Pohnpeian, Polish, Portuguese, Prakrit languages, Pushto; Pashto, Quechua, Rajasthani, Rapanui, Rarotongan; Cook Islands Maori, Romance languages, Romanian; Moldavian; Moldovan, Romansh, Romany, Rundi, Russian, Salishan languages, Samaritan Aramaic, Sami languages, Samoan, Sandawe, Sango, Sanskrit, Santali, Sardinian, Sasak, Scots, Selkup, Semitic languages, Serbian, Serer, Shan, Shona, Sichuan Yi; Nuosu, Sicilian, Sidamo, Sign Languages, Siksika, Sindhi, Sinhala; Sinhalese, Sino-Tibetan languages, Siouan languages, Skolt Sami, Slave (Athapascan), Slavic languages, Slovak, Slovenian, Sogdian, Somali, Songhai languages, Soninke, Sorbian languages, Sotho, Southern, South American Indian (Other), Southern Altai, Southern Sami, Spanish; Castilian, Sranan Tongo, Sukuma, Sumerian, Sundanese, Susu, Swahili, Swati, Swedish, Swiss German; Alemannic; Alsatian, Syriac, Tagalog, Tahitian, Tai languages, Tajik, Tamashek, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tereno, Tetum, Thai, Tibetan, Tigre, Tigrinya, Timne, Tiv, Tlingit, Tok Pisin, Tokelau, Tonga (Nyasa), Tonga (Tonga Islands), Tsimshian, Tsonga, Tswana, Tumbuka, Tupi languages, Turkish, Turkmen, Tuvalu, Tuvinian, Twi, Udmurt, Ugaritic, Uighur; Uyghur, Ukrainian, Umbundu, Uncoded languages, Undetermined, Upper Sorbian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vai, Venda, Vietnamese, Volapük, Votic, Wakashan languages, Walamo, Walloon, Waray, Washo, Welsh, Western Frisian, Wolof, Xhosa, Yakut, Yao, Yapese, Yiddish, Yoruba, Yupik languages, Zande languages, Zapotec, Zaza; Dimili; Dimli; Kirdki; Kirmanjki; Zazaki, Zenaga, Zhuang; Chuang, Zulu, Zuni) for this property.

282

A molecular model for Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium coal: Moving toward capturing the continuum structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A large-scale molecular model for Illinois No. 6 Argonne Premium coal is generated based on an automated construction approach in an effort to move toward capturing the continuum structure. The model contains 50,789 atoms within 728 molecules and is the largest, most complex coal representation constructed to-date. The aromatic ring size distribution was based on multiple high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) lattice fringe micrographs and was duplicated with automated construction protocols (Fringe3D) in molecular modeling space. Additional structural data was obtained from the abundant literature assessing this Argonne Premium coal. Organic oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur functionalities were incorporated primarily into the polyaromatic structures according to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray adsorption near-edge structure spectroscopy data. Aliphatic carbons were in the form of cross-links (bridges and loops) and pendant alkyl groups based on the combination of laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (LDIMS), ruthenium ion catalyzed oxidation, elemental analysis, and NMR data in good agreement with the literature. Bound and bulk water was also included. Construction of the coal molecules was performed by use of Perl scripts developed in Materials Studio to eliminate personal bias and improve the accuracy and the scale of the structure generated. The large-scale model captured a broad and continuous molecular weight distribution in accordance with LDIMS data here ranging from 100 to 2850 Da, enabling inclusion of structural diversity to capture a portion of the continuum structure. A theoretical pyridine extraction yield, determined by a group contribution approach, was in agreement with the experimental value. The extract and residue representations were generated from the large-scale Illinois coal model and showed consistency with NMR, elemental analysis and LDIMS trends. The distribution of heteroatomic classes and double bond equivalents was also well-defined experimentally based on electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. These data further constrain the molecular weight of extractable material and was consistent with limited pyridine extractability and model heteroatom classes. Future work will be well served by staying within the limits established by the approach and increasing the structural diversity (sampling frequency through increased scale) to better capture the complex nature of coal structural diversity, i.e., the continuum.

Fidel Castro-Marcano; Vladislav V. Lobodin; Ryan P. Rodgers; Amy M. McKenna; Alan G. Marshall; Jonathan P. Mathews

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Examination of body burden and taint for Iceland scallop (chlamys islandica) and American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides) near the terra nova offshore oil development over ten Years of drilling on the grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents results of analyses of body burdens of metals and hydrocarbons and taste tests for taint in Iceland scallop and American plaice performed as part of the Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program for the Terra Nova offshore oil development (Grand Banks of Newfoundland, Canada). Scallop and plaice were collected in a Study Area located within approximately 1 km of drill centres at Terra Nova and in a Reference Area located approximately 20 km from the development. Samples were collected in 1997 to establish a baseline, and from 2000 to 2010, during drilling periods. Scallop adductor muscle was contaminated with >C10-C21aliphatic hydrocarbons resembling the drilling fluid in the synthetic drilling mud (SBM) used at Terra Nova in 2000, 2002 and 2004, but contamination of adductor muscle was not noted in 2006, 2008 and 2010. The maximum concentration in muscle was 28 mg/kg wet weight, noted in 2002. Scallop viscera was contaminated with hydrocarbons resembling drilling fluid in \\{SBMs\\} near drill centres in all EEM years except 2010. Viscera contamination with >C10-C21 hydrocarbons gradually decreased from a maximum of 150 mg/kg in 2000, to a maximum of 27 mg/kg in 2008; all values were below the laboratory reporting detection limit of 15 mg/kg in 2010. Therefore, evidence from both muscle and viscera indicates a decrease in tissue hydrocarbon contamination in recent years. Barium, another major constituent in drilling muds, has not been noted in scallop adductor muscles at concentrations above the reporting detection limit, but barium was detected in viscera in baseline and EEM years. The maximum concentration of barium in viscera during baseline sampling was 8 mg/kg. The maximum concentration in EEM years (29 mg/kg) was noted in 2000. The maximum concentration in 2010 was 25 mg/kg. The concentration of metals other than barium in scallop tissues was similar between the Terra Nova Study Area and the Reference Area. Hydrocarbons resembling the fluid in SBM were noted in one American plaice liver sample collected near drill centres in 2000. Otherwise, there has been no evidence of project-related metals or hydrocarbon contamination in plaice liver or fillet samples. There has been no evidence of taint (off-taste) for scallop adductor muscle and plaice fillet tissue in baseline or EEM years. Combined with a parallel study on fish bioindicators at Terra Nova that showed that fish health at Terra Nova was similar to that at the Reference Area (Mathieu et al., 2011), these results indicate little to no detectable biological effects on Iceland scallop and American plaice as a result of Terra Nova activities.

Elisabeth M. DeBlois; Joe W. Kiceniuk; Michael D. Paine; Bruce W. Kilgour; Ellen Tracy; Roger Crowley; Urban P. Williams; G. Gregory Janes

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Burning of coal waste piles from Douro Coalfield (Portugal): Petrological, geochemical and mineralogical characterization  

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In the Douro Coalfield anthracites were exploited for decades (1795–1994). Besides many small mines Douro Coalfield had two principal mining areas (S. Pedro da Cova and Pejão). Coal mining activities cause several impacts on the environment, one of which is the amount of discard or waste which was disposed of all over Douro Coalfield resulting in one of the most significant and severe impacts on the environment. Over 20 waste piles exist in the old mining areas, geographically dispersed, and three of them are presently burning. Their ignition was caused by forest fires during the summer of 2005. Samples from the burning and unburned zones of the waste piles were studied as were the gas from vents and the minerals resulting after combustion. Geochemical processes and mineralogical transformations in the burning coal waste pile were investigated. Microscopic analyses of the samples identified some particular aspects related with combustion: oxidation of pyrite, the presence of iron oxides, organic particles with cracks and rims with lowered (suppressed) Rr, devolatilization vacuoles and some char structures. The occurrence of vitreous (glassy) material as well as Fe–Al spinels in the burning coal waste provide evidences that the combustion temperature could have reached values above 1000 °C. Due to combustion, and as expected, the samples studied reported high ash yields. Samples taken from the burning zones reported an increase of As, Cr, Li, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr and LREE concentrations and a decrease in Zr and HREE concentrations. Enrichment in Cs, Li and Rb was noted when comparing with the geochemical composition of black shales and world coals composition that is related with the contribution of granitic rocks in the sediments that originated the main lithologies of the Douro Coalfield (carbonaceous shale and lithic arenites). Cluster analyses (R-type and Q-type) were performed to understand the trend between the unburned and burning samples and it seems that some chemical variations are responsible for this separation. Elemental sulphur and salammoniac (ammonium salt) are the coal fire gas minerals neoformed on the surface of piles, near the burning zones. They were identified by different techniques, mainly SEM-EDX, XRD and FTIR. Relatively high concentrations of several aromatic compounds were detected in the gas collected at the studied areas, as well as aliphatic hydrocarbons. The highest concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in gas samples from S. Pedro da Cova waste pile. The exposure to hazardous compounds present in the gas is a serious risk to human health and the environment.

J. Ribeiro; E. Ferreira da Silva; D. Flores

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

FY-2011 Status Report for Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Advanced Separations Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents a summary of the work performed in the area of thermodynamics and kinetics of advanced separations systems under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program during FY 2011 at the INL. On the thermodynamic front, investigations of liquid-liquid distribution of lanthanides at TALSPEAK-related conditions continued in FY11. It has been determined that a classical ion-exchanging phase transfer mechanism, where three HDEHP dimers solvate the metal ion in the organic phase, dominates metal extraction for systems that contain up to 0.1 M free lactate in solution. The correct graphical interpretation of the observed data in those regions relied on incorporating corrections for non-ideal behavior of HDEHP dimer in aliphatic diluents as well as sodium extraction equilibria. When aqueous conditions enter the complex regions of high lactate concentrations, slope analysis is no longer possible. When normalized metal distribution ratios were studied along the increasing concentration of free lactate, a slope of -1 was apparent. Such dependency either indicates aqueous complexing competition from lactate, or, a more likely scenario, a participation of lactate in the extracted metal complex. This finding agrees with our initial assessment of postulated changes in the extraction mechanism as a source of the lactate-mediated loss of extraction efficiency. The observed shape in the lanthanide distribution curve in our studies of TALSPEAK systems was the same for solutions containing no lactate or 2.3 M lactate. As such we may conclude that the mechanism of phase transfer is not altered dramatically and remains similarly sensitive to effective charge density of the metal ion. In addition to these thermodynamics studies, this report also summarizes the first calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system. The heat of extraction measured by isothermal titration calorimetry is compared to that determined using van't Hoff calculations. Further investigations on the kinetics of extraction in TALSPEAK with macro quantities of lanthanides present in the initial aqueous phase composition have been performed. These results have been summarized and compared to previous work performed for FCR&D. In addition, the effects of HDEHP concentration in the organic phase on europium extraction have been studied.

Leigh R. Martin; Peter R. Zalupski; Travis S. Grimes

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Distribution Behavior of U(VI), Pu(IV), Am(III), and Zr(IV) with N,N-Dihexyl Octanamide Under Uranium-Loading Conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While the tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-based PUREX process has been the workhorse of the nuclear fuel reprocessing industry for the last four and a half decades, a few drawbacks associated with the use of TBP have caused concern to the separation scientists and technologists. These shortcomings may pose a serious challenge particularly during the reprocessing of (a) short cooled thermal reactor fuels, (b) fast reactor fuels with the larger Pu content and significantly higher burn up, and (c) while treating various waste streams for their disposal to the environment. The N,N-dialkyl aliphatic amides have received particular attention as alternate potential extractants for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels in view of (a) the innocuous nature of their degradation products, namely, carboxylic acids/amines and (b) the possibility to incinerate the used solvent leading to reduced volume of secondary waste. The physical and chemical properties of these amides are influenced strongly by the nature of alkyl groups. The extractant N,N-dihexyl octanamide (DHOA) was found to be a promising candidate among a large number of extractants studied. Laboratory batch studies as well as mixer settler studies were performed under process conditions with DHOA and compared with those of TBP. DHOA was found to extract Pu(IV) more efficiently than TBP, both at trace-level concentration as well as under uranium loading conditions. In addition, the extraction behavior of Am(III) and Zr(IV) was studied at varying nitric acid concentrations (1 to 6 M). Extraction behavior of uranium at macroconcentrations (9.9 to 157.7 g/l) was carried out at different temperatures, and it was observed that D{sub U} decreased with the increase in U loading as well as with the increase of temperature (in the range 25 to 45 deg. C) and that the two-phase reaction was exothermic in nature. Mixer settler studies on U(VI) revealed that DHOA is similar to TBP during the extraction cycle but better than TBP during the stripping cycle.

Manchanda, V.K.; Ruikar, P.B.; Sriram, S.; Nagar, M.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Gupta, K.K.; Singh, R.K.; Chitnis, R.R.; Dhami, P.S.; Ramanujam, A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

287

Development of a novel solvent for the simultaneous separation of strontium and cesium from dissolved Spent Nuclear Fuel solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The recovery of Cs and Sr from acidic solutions by solvent extraction has been investigated. The goal of this project was to develop an extraction process to remove Cs and Sr from high-level waste in an effort to reduce the heat loading in storage. Solvents for the extraction of Cs and Sr separately have been used on both caustic and acidic spent nuclear fuel waste in the past. The objective of this research was to find a suitable solvent for the extraction of both Cs and Sr simultaneously from acidic nitrate media. The solvents selected for this research possess good stability and extraction behavior when mixed together. The extraction experiments were performed with 4 ,4,(5 )-Di-(tbutyldicyclohexano)- 18-crown-6 {DtBuCH18C6}, Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzocrown-6) {BOBCalixC6} and 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol {Cs-7SB modifier} in a branched aliphatic kerosene {Isopar® L}. The BOBCalixC6 and Cs-7SB modifier were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by Bonnesen et al. [1]. The values obtained from the SREX solvent for DSr in 1 M nitric acid ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 at 25oC and 10oC respectively. The values for DCs in 1 M nitric acid with the CSSX solvent ranged from 8.0 to 46.0 at 25oC and 10oC respectively. A new mixed solvent, developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) by Riddle et al. [2], showed distributions for Sr ranging from 8.8 to 17.4 in 1 M nitric acid at 25oC and 10oC respectively. The DCs for the mixed solvent ranged from 7.7 to 20.2 in 1 M nitric acid at 25oC to 10oC respectively. The unexpectedly high distributions for Sr at both 25oC and 10oC show a synergy in the mixed solvent. The DCs, although lower than with CSSX solvent, still showed good extraction behavior.

Catherine L. Riddle; John D. Baker; Jack D. Law; Christopher A. McGrath; David H. Meikrantz; Bruce J. Mincher; Dean R. Peterman; Terry A. Todd

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Use of thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC) for the characterization of diverse organic municipal waste streams to predict biological stability prior to land application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis was used to assess stability and composition of organic matter in three diverse municipal waste streams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results were compared with C mineralization during 90-day incubation, FTIR and {sup 13}C NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis reflected the differences between the organic wastes before and after the incubation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated energy density showed a strong correlation with cumulative respiration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional and thermal methods provide complimentary means of characterizing organic wastes. - Abstract: The use of organic municipal wastes as soil amendments is an increasing practice that can divert significant amounts of waste from landfill, and provides a potential source of nutrients and organic matter to ameliorate degraded soils. Due to the high heterogeneity of organic municipal waste streams, it is difficult to rapidly and cost-effectively establish their suitability as soil amendments using a single method. Thermal analysis has been proposed as an evolving technique to assess the stability and composition of the organic matter present in these wastes. In this study, three different organic municipal waste streams (i.e., a municipal waste compost (MC), a composted sewage sludge (CS) and a thermally dried sewage sludge (TS)) were characterized using conventional and thermal methods. The conventional methods used to test organic matter stability included laboratory incubation with measurement of respired C, and spectroscopic methods to characterize chemical composition. Carbon mineralization was measured during a 90-day incubation, and samples before and after incubation were analyzed by chemical (elemental analysis) and spectroscopic (infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance) methods. Results were compared with those obtained by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Total amounts of CO{sub 2} respired indicated that the organic matter in the TS was the least stable, while that in the CS was the most stable. This was confirmed by changes detected with the spectroscopic methods in the composition of the organic wastes due to C mineralization. Differences were especially pronounced for TS, which showed a remarkable loss of aliphatic and proteinaceous compounds during the incubation process. TG, and especially DSC analysis, clearly reflected these differences between the three organic wastes before and after the incubation. Furthermore, the calculated energy density, which represents the energy available per unit of organic matter, showed a strong correlation with cumulative respiration. Results obtained support the hypothesis of a potential link between the thermal and biological stability of the studied organic materials, and consequently the ability of thermal analysis to characterize the maturity of municipal organic wastes and composts.

Fernandez, Jose M., E-mail: joseman@sas.upenn.edu [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6316 (United States); Plaza, Cesar; Polo, Alfredo [Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 115 dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Plante, Alain F. [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6316 (United States)

2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

289

Radiation induced redox reactions and fragmentation of constituent ions in ionic liquids II. Imidazolium cations.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In part 1 of this study, radiolytic degradation of constituent anions in ionic liquids (ILs) was examined. The present study continues the themes addressed in part 1 and examines the radiation chemistry of 1,3-dialkyl substituted imidazolium cations, which currently comprise the most practically important and versatile class of ionic liquid cations. For comparison, we also examined 1,3-dimethoxy- and 2-methyl-substituted imidazolium and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium cations. In addition to identification of radicals using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and selective deuterium substitution, we analyzed stable radiolytic products using {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESMS). Our EPR studies reveal rich chemistry initiated through 'ionization of the ions': oxidation and the formation of radical dications in the aliphatic arms of the parent cations (leading to deprotonation and the formation of alkyl radicals in these arms) and reduction of the parent cation, yielding 2-imidazolyl radicals. The subsequent reactions of these radicals depend on the nature of the IL. If the cation is 2-substituted, the resulting 2-imidazolyl radical is relatively stable. If there is no substitution at C(2), the radical then either is protonated or reacts with the parent cation forming a C(2)-C(2) {sigma}{sigma}*-bound dimer radical cation. In addition to these reactions, when methoxy or C{sub {alpha}}-substituted alkyl groups occupy the N(1,3) positions, their elimination is observed. The elimination of methyl groups from N(1,3) was not observed. Product analyses of imidazolium liquids irradiated in the very-high-dose regime (6.7 MGy) reveal several detrimental processes, including volatilization, acidification, and oligomerization. The latter yields a polymer with m/z of 650 {+-} 300 whose radiolytic yield increases with dose (0.23 monomer units per 100 eV for 1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium trifluorosulfonate). Gradual generation of this polymer accounts for the steady increase in the viscosity of the ILs upon irradiation. Previous studies at lower dose have missed this species due to its wide mass distribution (stretching out to m/z 1600) and broad NMR lines, which make it harder to detect at lower concentrations. Among other observed changes is the formation of water immiscible fractions in hydrophilic ILs and water miscible fractions in hydrophobic ILs. The latter is due to anion fragmentation. The import of these observations for use of ILs as extraction solvents in nuclear cycle separations is discussed.

Shkrob, I. A.; Marin, T. W.; Chemerisov, S. D.; Hatcher, J.; Wishart, J. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (BNL)

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

290

Biomass gasification: Influence of torrefaction on syngas production and tar formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The paper contains results of comparative gasification of standard wood biomass pellets, torrefied pellets and sawdust in a robust industrial fixed-bed gasifier. Parameters such as process stability, operating difficulties, gas parameters and tar content in syngas were analysed. The operating conditions were optimised to maximise production of liquid hydrocarbons, which can be both a problematic by-product and a valuable component. In order to collect the data concerning quantity and composition of the tars, the experimental set-up was equipped with a syngas cooler. The test runs conducted with sawdust and ordinary pellets did not cause any operational problems. The most complicated part of the experiment was maintaining process stability during gasification of torrefied pellets. The stabilisation effect of grinding of torrefied pellets and blending these pellets with wet sawdust were tested. It was concluded that effective and stable gasification of torrefied pellets in the tested type of fixed-bed gasifier is possible, but this type of fuel is much more suitable for co-gasification. The cleaned syngas from standard pellets had a relatively stable composition and calorific values in the range of 4.8–5.6 MJ/Nm3. Cold gas efficiencies of the process were in the range of 0.72–0.77 MJ/Nm3. Using torrefied pellets as a feedstock led to a higher calorific value of syngas, but the cold gas efficiency remained similar (0.75). For sawdust both the calorific value of syngas (LHV = 3.0 MJ/Nm3) and cold gas efficiency (0.57) were significantly lower than for pellets. The collected condensates contained a water fraction with dissolved organic compounds and thick viscous organic substances tar. It was observed that tar production from torrefied pellets is slower, characterised by lower yield, and technically more difficult in comparison to untreated biomass. The effectiveness of liquid hydrocarbon collection (tar to fuel ratio) varied between 0.0138 [kg tar/kg fuel] for torrefied pellets and 0.0213 [kg/kg] for sawdust. The main component of water fractions were organic acids. The content of organic acids in these fractions was as follows: 79.5% from South African pellets, 67% from Polish pellets, 64% from Polish sawdust and 59% from torrefied pellets respectively. The main organic species in tar from torrefied biomass remained acids, whereas in other cases tars were composed of alkylophenols, linear and cyclic aliphatic oxygenates and polyfunctional aromatic oxygenates.

Marek Dudy?ski; Johan C. van Dyk; Kamil Kwiatkowski; Marta Sosnowska

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from CBM samples) range from 50 to 100 ?g/L. Total dissolved organic carbon (TOC) in CBM produced water is generally in the 1–4 mg/L range. Excursions from this general pattern in produced waters from individual wells arise from contaminants introduced by production activities (oils, grease, adhesives, etc.). Organic substances in produced and formation water from gas shale unimpacted by production chemicals have a similar range of compound classes as CBM produced water, and TOC levels of about 8 mg/L. However, produced water from the Marcellus Shale using hydraulic fracturing has TOC levels as high as 5500 mg/L and a range of added organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at levels of 1000 s of ?g/L for individual compounds. Levels of these hydraulic fracturing chemicals and TOC decrease rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery and some level of residual organic contaminants remain up to 250 days after hydraulic fracturing. Although the environmental impacts of the organics in produced water are not well defined, results suggest that care should be exercised in the disposal and release of produced waters containing these organic substances into the environment because of the potential toxicity of many of these substances.

William Orem; Calin Tatu; Matthew Varonka; Harry Lerch; Anne Bates; Mark Engle; Lynn Crosby; Jennifer McIntosh

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z