National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for alfalfa medicago sativa

  1. Phosphorus fertilization of alfalfa on Coastal Plain soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beedy, Tracy Lyn

    2000-01-01

    Grazing tolerant varieties of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) are being introduced to improve the quality of pastures in the southern Coastal Plain. 'Alfagraze' alfalfa was planted on eight soils near Overton, Texas to determine the P requirement...

  2. Integrative Analysis of Transgenic Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Suggests

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers(JournalatBaBartheExpansion (JournalChemicalNew Metabolic Control

  3. The use of gypsum and a coal desulfurization by-product to ameliorate subsoil acidity for alfalfa growth 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chessman, Dennis John

    2004-09-30

    Acid soils limit the growth of aluminum-(Al) sensitive crops such as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Management of acid subsoils can be difficult due to physical and economic constraints. Field experiments were conducted ...

  4. The influence of soluble anions upon some physical and physico-chemical properties of soils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longenecker, Donald Edwin

    1957-01-01

    Grazing tolerant varieties of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) are being introduced to improve the quality of pastures in the southern Coastal Plain. 'Alfagraze' alfalfa was planted on eight soils near Overton, Texas to determine the P requirement...

  5. Germination, growth and nodulation of Medicago truncatula This website provides information about protocols used in the Long Lab. For additional information and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    nod medium (BNM--see recipe below) at pH 6.0 for alfalfa and pH 6.5 for Medicago truncatula. M + AVG Amount per L CaSO4 · 2H2O 344 mg MES 390 mg Nod Majors (200x stock) 5 ml Nod Minors I (200x stock) 5 ml Nod Minors II (200x stock) 5 ml Fe-EDTA (200x stock) 5 ml 1. Add ingredients to ~750 mls

  6. Alfalfa Seed Testing. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, O. M. (Oscar Melville)

    1905-01-01

    ....................................... Curled Dock 9 .................... Seeds Sometin~es Used As Adultera~lts 9 Bur Clover ....................................... 10 Sweet Clover ....................................... 10 ............................... Samples Tested for Purity I I... development during the past year or two of the use of falfa as a forage crop makes the matter of purity of the seed to be kwn of peculiar importance to the planter. Alfalfa seed, like those clover, timothy and other similar forage plants, are very small...

  7. Alfalfa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, O. M. (Oscar Melville)

    1908-01-01

    . Noxious weeds are given i heavy t;ype. UUYLpA,, number. Kind, character, and number of for- eign seeds in one pound. BUCKHORN, or Ribgrass 2350; GREEN FOXTAIL 270; LAMB'S QUARTER 270; Red clover 90; DOCK 180: WILD. CARROT 275: DODDER 180: Crimson... Clover 90; Total 3700. BUCKHORN 2100; GREEN FOX- TAIL 275 : YELLOW FOXTAIL 100 ; MALLOW 350; WILD CARROT 275; CHICORY 275; SOW THISTLE 200; CATCHFLY ZOO; Rape 100; Cab- bage 100; SORREL 200; DODDER 90; CENTAURY 200; LAMB'S QUARTER 275; Total 4740...

  8. Applying Manure to Alfalfa Pros, Cons and Recommendations for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Teri C.

    - agement planning. In the face of concern about pollution of groundwater and surface water due to runoff fixing nitrogen from the atmos- phere. Furthermore, alfalfa's deep root system can extract mobile to alfalfa seeding; 2) topdress it on established alfal- fa; and 3) apply it after the last alfalfa harvest

  9. The market for alfalfa seed in the country of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berentsen, Roberto, Jr

    1993-01-01

    This study develops a knowledge base of the market for alfalfa seed in the country of Mexico. The research findings and results of the study are intended to contribute toward the further understanding of the Mexican market ...

  10. Polyploid genome of Camelina sativa revealed by isolation of fatty acid synthesis genes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Industrialthe properties of C. sativa biodiesel are already well6], and both seed oil and biodiesel from C. sativa were used

  11. A Nuclear-Targeted Cameleon Demonstrates Intranuclear Spiking in Medicago truncatula Root Hairs in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monin, André

    A Nuclear-Targeted Cameleon Demonstrates Intranuclear Ca2+ Spiking in Medicago truncatula Root use of a nucleoplasmin-tagged cameleon (NupYC2.1). Confocal microscopy using this nuclear-specific calcium reporter has revealed sustained and regular Ca2+ spiking within the nuclear compartment

  12. R. E. Estell, E. L. Fredrickson, D. M. Anderson and M. D. Remmenga mixtures on alfalfa pellet intake by lambs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. E. Estell, E. L. Fredrickson, D. M. Anderson and M. D. Remmenga mixtures on alfalfa pellet and sesquiterpene mixtures on alfalfa pellet intake by lambs1 R. E. Estell,*2 E. L. Fredrickson,* D. M. Anderson. Four experiments were conducted to determine the effects of terpenes on intake of alfalfa pellets

  13. Screening Methods to Develop Alfalfa Germplasms Tolerant of Acid, Aluminum Toxic Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parrott, Wayne

    Screening Methods to Develop Alfalfa Germplasms Tolerant of Acid, Aluminum Toxic Soils M. Dall'Agnol, J. H. Bouton,* and W. A. Parrott ABSTRACT Soil acidity and aluminum (Al)toxicity are major problems different screening methods for selection of acid soil tolerant alfalfa germplasms in the greenhouse during

  14. Global analysis of the transcriptional regulation of Sinorhizobium meliloti cell cycle progression and study of cell cycle regulation during symbiosis with Medicago sativa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Nisco, Nicole J

    2013-01-01

    The complex [alpha]-proteobacterial cell cycle regulatory network is essential not only for faithful replication and segregation of the genome, but also to coordinate unique cellular differentiation events that have evolved ...

  15. Water sensors with cellular system eliminate tail water drainage in alfalfa irrigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saha, Rajat; Raghuwanshi, Narendra S; Upadhyaya, Shrinivasa K; Wallender, Wesley W.; Slaughter, David C

    2011-01-01

    2003. Improving irrigation water management of alfalfa. In:number, sensor number and water arrival time. Wire meshplate Terminals Fig. 1. The water-arrival, or wetting-front,

  16. Water advance model and sensor system can reduce tail runoff in irrigated alfalfa fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Brad J; Upadhyaya, Shrinivasa K; Roach, Jedediah; Kanannavar, Parasappa S; Putnam, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    feet (m) Volume % of applied water hours acre-foot (L) Fieldto severe cross-flow of water from neighboring checks, sofor the improvement of water-use efficient irrigated alfalfa

  17. Sorghum Silages and Dehydrated Alfalfa Leaf Meal as Sources of Carotene in Beef Cattle Fattening Rations. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, John H.

    1944-01-01

    [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Carotene as contained in dehydrated alfalfa meal was apparently better utilized for vitamin A activity than carotene in either sweet sorghum or grain sorghum silage. Carotene as contained in the two sorghum... silages seemed to be about equally utilized. Sweet sorghum silage such as sumac or red ~p cane silage contained approximately twice as much car- tene as the grain sorghum silages such as kafir, milo, and egari silage. The dehydrated alfalfa leaf meal...

  18. The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, alfalfa, and pasture maintenance in this report are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, alfalfa, and pasture maintenance in this report summaries, production and costs data from the Depart- ments of Economics, Agricultural and Biosystems and other input suppliers around the state. These costs estimates are representative of average costs

  19. Complete genome sequence of the Medicago microsymbiont Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) medicae strain WSM419

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeve, Wayne [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); O'Hara, Graham [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Ardley, Julie [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Nandesena, Kemanthi [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Brau, Lambert [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Tiwari, Ravi [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Malfatti, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Kiss, Hajnalka [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Gollagher, Margaret [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Yates, Ron [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Dilworth, Michael [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia; Howieson, John [Murdoch University, Perth, Australia

    2010-01-01

    Ensifer (Sinorhizobium) medicae is an effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont of a diverse range of annual Medicago (medic) species. Strain WSM419 is an aerobic, motile, non-spore forming, Gram-negative rod isolated from a M. murex root nodule collected in Sardinia, Italy in 1981. WSM419 was manufactured commercially in Australia as an inoculant for annual medics during 1985 to 1993 due to its nitrogen fixation, saprophytic competence and acid tolerance properties. Here we describe the basic features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first report of a complete genome sequence for a microsymbiont of the group of annual medic species adapted to acid soils. We reveal that its genome size is 6,817,576 bp encoding 6,518 protein-coding genes and 81 RNA only encoding genes. The genome contains a chromosome of size 3,781,904 bp and 3 plasmids of size 1,570,951 bp, 1,245,408 bp and 219,313 bp. The smallest plasmid is a feature unique to this medic microsymbiont.

  20. Reaction of North American Oats (Avena sativa L.) to Crown Rust 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lange, Carol Jeannine 1986-

    2012-11-13

    Crown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia coronata, is a severe disease negatively impacting seed quality and yield in oat (Avena sativa). Host genetic resistance is the primary means for controlling this disease. The ...

  1. Refinement of weed risk assessments for biofuels using Camelina sativa as a model species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Refinement of weed risk assessments for biofuels using Camelina sativa as a model species Philip B and Environmental Sciences, Montana State University, PO Box 173120, Bozeman, MT 59717-3120, USA Summary 1. Biofuel. However, concerns have been raised on the invasiveness of biofuel feedstocks. Estimating invasion

  2. GENOME-WIDE COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF SMALL NUCLEAR RNA GENES OF ORYZA SATIVA (INDICA AND JAPONICA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Limsoon

    GENOME-WIDE COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF SMALL NUCLEAR RNA GENES OF ORYZA SATIVA (INDICA AND JAPONICA analysis for small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes resulted in identification of 76 and 73 putative snRNA genes from the primary transcripts (pre-mRNA) by the process of splicing.1 Splicing of nuclear pre

  3. A CATALOG OF ULTRA-COMPACT HIGH VELOCITY CLOUDS FROM THE ALFALFA SURVEY: LOCAL GROUP GALAXY CANDIDATES?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P., E-mail: betsey@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We present a catalog of 59 ultra-compact high velocity clouds (UCHVCs) extracted from the 40% complete ALFALFA HI-line survey. The ALFALFA UCHVCs have median flux densities of 1.34 Jy km s{sup -1}, median angular diameters of 10', and median velocity widths of 23 km s{sup -1}. We show that the full UCHVC population cannot easily be associated with known populations of high velocity clouds. Of the 59 clouds presented here, only 11 are also present in the compact cloud catalog extracted from the commensal GALFA-HI survey, demonstrating the utility of this separate dataset and analysis. Based on their sky distribution and observed properties, we infer that the ALFALFA UCHVCs are consistent with the hypothesis that they may be very low mass galaxies within the Local Volume. In that case, most of their baryons would be in the form of gas, and because of their low stellar content, they remain unidentified by extant optical surveys. At distances of {approx}1 Mpc, the UCHVCs have neutral hydrogen (H I) masses of {approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} M{sub Sun }, H I diameters of {approx}2-3 kpc, and indicative dynamical masses within the H I extent of {approx}10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, similar to the Local Group ultra-faint dwarf Leo T. The recent ALFALFA discovery of the star-forming, metal-poor, low mass galaxy Leo P demonstrates that this hypothesis is true in at least one case. In the case of the individual UCHVCs presented here, confirmation of their extragalactic nature will require further work, such as the identification of an optical counterpart to constrain their distance.

  4. Environmental dependence of the HI mass function in the ALFALFA 70% catalogue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Michael G; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We search for environmental dependence of the HI mass function in the ALFALFA 70% catalogue. The catalogue is split into quartiles of environment density based on the projected neighbour density of neighbours found in both SDSS and 2MRS volume limited reference catalogues. We find the Schechter function 'knee' mass to be dependent on environment, with the value of $\\log ({M_{*}/\\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}})$ shifting from $9.81 \\pm 0.02$ to $10.00 \\pm 0.03$ between the lowest and highest density quartiles. However, this dependence was only observed when defining environment based on the SDSS reference catalogue, not 2MRS. We interpret these results as meaning that the local environment is the dominant cause of the shift in $M_{*}$, and that the larger scales that 2MRS probes (compared to SDSS) are almost irrelevant. In addition, we also use a fixed aperture method to probe environment, and find tentative evidence that HI-deficiency depresses the value of $M_{*}$ in the highest density regions. We find no significant d...

  5. Jet Fuel from Camelina: Jet Fuel From Camelina Sativa: A Systems Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: NC State will genetically modify the oil-crop plant Camelina sativa to produce high quantities of both modified oils and terpenes. These components are optimized for thermocatalytic conversion into energy-dense drop-in transportation fuels. The genetically engineered Camelina will capture more carbon than current varieties and have higher oil yields. The Camelina will be more tolerant to drought and heat, which makes it suitable for farming in warmer and drier climate zones in the US. The increased productivity of NC State’s-enhanced Camelina and the development of energy-effective harvesting, extraction, and conversion technology could provide an alternative non-petrochemical source of fuel.

  6. Halpha3: an Halpha imaging survey of HI selected galaxies from ALFALFA. V: The Coma Supercluster survey completion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Viscardi, Elisa; Fossati, Matteo; Savorgnan, Giulia; Fumagalli, Michele; Gutierrez, Leonel; Toledo, Hector Hernandez; Boselli, Alessandro; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P

    2015-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen represents the major observable baryonic constituent of galaxies that fuels the formation of stars through the transformation in molecular hydrogen. The emission of the hydrogen recombination line Halpha is the most direct tracer of the process that transforms gas (fuel) into stars. We continue to present Halpha3 (acronym for Halpha-alpha-alpha), an extensive Halpha+[NII] narrow-band imaging campaign of galaxies selected from the HI Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA), using the instrumentation available at the San Pedro Martir observatory (Mexico). In only four years since 2011 we were able to complete in 48 nights the Halpha imaging observations of 724 galaxies in the region of the Coma supercluster 10^h < R.A. <16^h; 24^o < Dec. <28^o and 3900ALFALFA) and constitute a 97% complete sample. They provide for the first time a complete census of the massive star formation propertie...

  7. Evaluation of the use of alfalfa diets as an alternative to feed deprivation for the induction of molt in commercial laying chickens 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landers, Kristin Lynn

    2004-11-15

    provide available energy for the hens, while still inducing a molt that is economically advantageous to producers. Alfalfa, provided in meal or pelleted form, provides only 1/2 the metabolizable energy and 1/4 of the calcium required of a laying hen...

  8. Mineral interactions and absorption in the equine digestive tract: calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium interaction with aluminum, and calcium digestibility of alfalfa in ponies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kapusniak, Linda J.

    1987-01-01

    MINERAL INTERACTIONS AND ABSORPTION IN THE EQUINE DIGESTIVE TRACT: CALCIUM, PHOSPHORUS, AND MAGNESIUM INTERACTION WITH ALUMINUM, AND CALCIUM DIGESTIBILITY OF ALFALFA IN PONIES A Thesis by LINDA J. KAPUSN IAK Subnitted to the Graduate College... of Texas ARM University. in partial fulfillment of the requirenent for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1987 Major Subject: Nutrition MINERAL INTER4CTIONS AND ABSORPTION IN THE EQUINE DIGESTIVE TR4CT: C4LCIUM, PHOSPHORUS, AND MAGNESIUM...

  9. Identification of MicroRNAs and transcript targets in Camelina sativa by deep sequencing and computational methods

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Poudel, Saroj; Aryal, Niranjan; Lu, Chaofu; Wang, Tai

    2015-03-31

    Camelina sativa is an annual oilseed crop that is under intensive development for renewable resources of biofuels and industrial oils. MicroRNAs, or miRNAs, are endogenously encoded small RNAs that play key roles in diverse plant biological processes. Here, we conducted deep sequencing on small RNA libraries prepared from camelina leaves, flower buds and two stages of developing seeds corresponding to initial and peak storage products accumulation. Computational analyses identified 207 known miRNAs belonging to 63 families, as well as 5 novel miRNAs. These miRNAs, especially members of the miRNA families, varied greatly in different tissues and developmental stages. The predictedmore »miRNA target genes are involved in a broad range of physiological functions including lipid metabolism. This report is the first step toward elucidating roles of miRNAs in C. sativa and will provide additional tools to improve this oilseed crop for biofuels and biomaterials.« less

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of pathogen-inducible oxygenase (PIOX) from Oryza sativa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, Tracy; Krol, Adam; Campanaro, Danielle; Malkowski, Michael

    2006-04-01

    The heme-containing membrane-associated fatty-acid ?-dioxygenase pathogen-inducible oxygenase (PIOX) from O. sativa has been crystallized and a data set collected to 3.0 Å using a rotating-anode generator and R-AXIS IV detector. Pathogen-inducible oxygenase (PIOX) is a heme-containing membrane-associated protein found in monocotyledon and dicotyledon plants that utilizes molecular oxygen to convert polyunsaturated fatty acids into their corresponding 2R-hydroperoxides. PIOX is a member of a larger family of fatty-acid ?-dioxygenases that includes the mammalian cyclooxygenase enzymes cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2). Single crystals of PIOX from rice (Oryza sativa) have been grown from MPD using recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently extracted utilizing decyl maltoside as the solubilizing detergent. Crystals diffract to 3.0 Å resolution using a rotating-anode generator and R-AXIS IV detector, and belong to space group P1. Based on the Matthews coefficient and self-rotation function analyses, there are presumed to be four molecules in the asymmetric unit related by noncrystallographic 222 symmetry.

  11. Studies of bacterial homeostasis Sinorhizobium meliloti and Escherichia coli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Bryan William

    2008-01-01

    The symbiosis between Sinorhizobium meliloti and its plant host Medicago sativa, offers a tractable model to explore the bacterial requirements for endocytic survival in a eukaryotic host. It has been shown that during ...

  12. Start | Author Index 581-9 The Effect of Organic Acids from Rice (Oryza sativa L.) on Cadmium and Zinc Bioavailability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Start | Author Index 581-9 The Effect of Organic Acids from Rice (Oryza sativa L.) on Cadmium-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA) from roots can operate by multiple mechanisms in response to various environmental the predominant organic acids secreted in the root exudates of two Thai rice cultivars in response to Cd and Zn

  13. Texas Alfalfa Production 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stichler, Charles

    1997-05-05

    stream_source_info pdf_115.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 13 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name pdf_115.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  14. Bio-energy feedstock yields and their water quality benefits in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Cellulosic and agricultural bio-energy crops can, under careful management, be harvested as feedstock for bio-fuels production and provide environmental benefits. However, it is required to quantify their relative advantages in feedstock production and water quality. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate potential feedstock yield and water quality benefit scenarios of bioenergy crops: Miscanthus (Miscanthus-giganteus), Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Soybean {Glycine max (L.) Merr.}, and Corn (Lea mays) in the Upper Pearl River watershed (UPRW), Mississippi using a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The SWAT model was calibrated (January 1981 to December 1994) and validated (January 1995 to September 2008) using monthly measured stream flow data. The calibrated and validated model determined good to very good performance for stream flow prediction (R2 and E from 0.60 to 0.86). The RMSE values (from 14 m3 s-1 to 37 m3 s-1) were estimated at similar levels of errors during model calibration and validation. The long-term average annual potential feedstock yield as an alternative energy source was determined the greatest when growing Miscanthus grass (373,849 Mg) as followed by Alfalfa (206,077 Mg), Switchgrass (132,077 Mg), Johnsongrass (47,576 Mg), Soybean (37,814 Mg), and Corn (22,069 Mg) in the pastureland and cropland of the watershed. Model results determined that average annual sediment yield from the Miscanthus grass scenario determined the least (1.16 Mg/ha) and corn scenario the greatest (12.04 Mg/ha). The SWAT model simulated results suggested that growing Miscanthus grass in the UPRW would have the greatest potential feedstock yield and water quality benefits.

  15. Alfalfa… for Forage and Seed. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trew, E. M.

    1957-01-01

    and blows it into I trucks or trailers. Then it is stored. The n and weather conditions during curing. Overcur ing results in loss of leaves, color and dry matter re. I disl plel imon I : diffi- , ' Undercuring may result in moldy,. dark hay...

  16. Gold Nanoparticles by Alfalfa Plants

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Low LETUsefulJorge Gardea-Torresdey, University of

  17. The Medicago HapMap Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharti, Arvind [National Center for Genome Resources

    2010-06-03

    Arvind Bharti from the National Center for Genome Resources discusses resequencing 400 plant and bacteria genotypes on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  18. Alfalfa Production Under Irrigation in Western Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayles, John J. (John Jasper)

    1932-01-01

    .V.M.. MS.. Veterinarian M. P. Holleman, Chief Clerk R. A. Goodman. D. V. M., Veterinarian J. K. Francklow. Asst. Chief Clerk Plant Pathology and Physiolony : Chester Higgs, Executive Assistant J. J. Taubenhaus. Ph. D., Chief Howard Berry. B. S...., Technical Asst. W. N. Ezekiel. Ph. D., Plant Pathologist Chemistry: Farm and Ranch Economics: G. S. Fravs. Ph. D.. Chief: State Chemist L. F. Gabbard. M. S.. Chief S. E. ~sbury. M. s:, chemist J. F. Fudge, Ph. D.. Chemist E. C. Carlyle. M. S.. Asst...

  19. Alfalfa Electric Coop, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: Energy ResourcesAirAlamoCalifornia:Wave Basin Jump

  20. Enlightening Medicago truncatula transformation and shading GFP fluorescence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Xin

    2005-11-01

    cotyledons of most transgenic M. truncatula lines, silencing of the GUS expression from the phas promoter was observed in several lines, indicating the occurrence of novel epigenetic events. The diminution of GFP fluorescence in transgenic M. truncatula...

  1. Cannabis sativa : an optimization study for ROI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esmail, Adnan M

    2010-01-01

    Despite hemp's multifarious uses in over 30 countries ranging from the manufacture of paper to specialty textiles, construction, animal feed, and fuel, its acceptance in the US has been shunned because of its association ...

  2. Grasses and Forage Plants: a Study of Composition and Value; Texas Grains: Composition ; Ash Analyses, Grasses and Grains. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, H. H. (Henry Hill)

    1892-01-01

    . ALFALFA-LTCERSE. (Medicago Satiz.~.) "JVhen brought from South America to the United States, it was supposed to be a new plant, and called 'Brazilian Clover.' A few years ago it was taken from Western South America to California, and thence... amount of Amide Nitrogen is also quite no-. ,ble. The albuminoids are higher than in clover, and about the : as incow pea vines. It is remarkable how well the plant support's es, cattle and hogs. I believe it can come nearer replacing grain .ely than...

  3. Evaluation of glufosinate for the control of red rice (Oryza sativa) in commercial rice (Oryza sativa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hessler, Melanie Dawn

    1999-01-01

    Research was conducted in 1996 and 1997 to 1) evaluate weed management systems in transferrin 'Gulfmont' rice with glufosinate, 2) evaluate the tolerance of selected red rice ecotypes to glufosinate at different application ...

  4. Biology and chemical control of the spotted alfalfa aphid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downing, Douglas Holland

    1959-01-01

    Iy fxILAS R. . 1009% E. , 4 4, %ecto ', Cika4ttwk ee ehe Caadaate:!eho'o1 og kyrioelt~al?amoI. Noehagaal Collemo ef ~ 4a yaieial telftUjooat:et::ihe geiyat~eo Coo ~ deja''-et , . Of IC Qglt "I P Jaaoaof, , LWA 8, 1 I, h' . I '~ h I I... ther 1 . wyetted a~a~a aphid inl the 5gyii4 stataw. 'otww . 4$twe mm)ow&4;. , :, :, -, ':: inj. . . H~ tgygico deci~ Faba%mFg. 1954d %% ayhid nay a , ' oni4y. i4antiCia4: aa. th? 'tyalloa jalousie aybid, ", ' Xn CaNfocoia , :" -: ' diu'ides Hays...

  5. Alfalfa County, Oklahoma: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand DaltonSolarOpen5 -Telephone CoAlediaVirginia:

  6. Alfalfa Electric Coop, Inc (Kansas) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: Energy ResourcesAirAlamoCalifornia:Wave Basin Jump to:2Kansas)

  7. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Texas Forage Crops 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muegge, Mark A.; Robinson, James V.

    2002-10-09

    ..............................................................................................................................................................................3 Alfalfa and Clover Pests..................................................................................................................................................................................3 Field Scouting... ........................................................................................................................................................................................7 Alfalfa Weevil............................................................................................................................................................................7 Clover Head Weevil...

  8. Grain Accumulation of Selenium Species in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Norton, Gareth J.; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2012-09-05

    Efficient Se biofortification programs require a thorough understanding of the accumulation and distribution of Se species within the rice grain. Therefore, the translocation of Se species to the filling grain and their spatial unloading were investigated. Se species were supplied via cut flag leaves of intact plants and excised panicle stems subjected to a {+-} stem-girdling treatment during grain fill. Total Se concentrations in the flag leaves and grain were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Spatial accumulation was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microtomography. Selenomethionine (SeMet) and selenomethylcysteine (SeMeSeCys) were transported to the grain more efficiently than selenite and selenate. SeMet and SeMeSeCys were translocated exclusively via the phloem, while inorganic Se was transported via both the phloem and xylem. For SeMet- and SeMeSeCys-fed grain, Se dispersed throughout the external grain layers and into the endosperm and, for SeMeSeCys, into the embryo. Selenite was retained at the point of grain entry. These results demonstrate that the organic Se species SeMet and SeMeSeCys are rapidly loaded into the phloem and transported to the grain far more efficiently than inorganic species. Organic Se species are distributed more readily, and extensively, throughout the grain than selenite.

  9. Medicago truncatula symbiosis mutants affected in the interaction with a biotrophic root pathogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rey, Thomas; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Buttay, Margaux; Toulotte, Justine; Schornack, Sebastian

    2014-12-11

    with these two types of interactions overlap is poorly known. Recent studies revealed that symbiotic and pathogenic filamentous microbes require common plant genetic elements to establish colonisation (Wang et al., 2012; Rey et al., 2013), supporting the long...

  10. Dissection of defense responses of skl, an ethylene insensitive mutant of Medicago truncatula 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedro, Uribe Mejia

    2004-11-15

    , and the constant words of encouragement that I received from my family far away. vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I want to express my sincere gratitude to COLFUTURO, Corporaci?n Colombiana para el Futuro de Colombia, whose scholarship provided me...,720,707 Caribbean 27,162 31,139 36,764 37,159 37,552 37,941 38,327 Central America 78,562 98,401 128,005 130,390 132,765 135,129 137,480 Europe 472,669 489,101 728,901 728,622 728,076 727,304 726,314 N. America Devel. 243,303 265,609 304,557 307,773 310...

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of using alfalfa and buffalo grass for remediation of trichloroethylene from groundwater 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caravello, Victor

    1998-01-01

    Phytoremediation is receiving increasing attention due to the potential for vegetation to play a significant role in bioremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. The purpose of this research was to conduct a pilot study to determine...

  12. Fattening Lambs on Corn, Milo, Hegari, Wheat, and Oats, with Cottonseed Cake and Alfalfa 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mackey, A. K. (Arthur Kapp); Jones, J. M. (John McKinley)

    1932-01-01

    Engineering J. R. Knox, M. S., Animal Husbandry A. K. Mackey. M. S., Animal Husbandry A. L. Darndx, M. A., Dairy Husband- arian *ian *Dean School of Veterinary Medicine. ?As of December 1, 1932. **In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture. ??On.... MACKEY and J. M. JONES I The lamb-feeding trials reported in this Bulletin were made to gain 1 additional information on the value of Texas-grown feedstuffs for fat- tening lambs. Five trials (11) at the Spur Substation (Texas Bulletin 379...

  13. The Optical Luminosity Function of Void Galaxies in the SDSS and ALFALFA Surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moorman, Crystal M; Hoyle, Fiona; Pan, Danny C; Haynes, Martha P; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We measure the r-band galaxy luminosity function (LF) across environments over the redshift range 0optical galaxy LF of galaxies detected by ...

  14. NMR Characterization of C3H and HCT Down-Regulated Alfalfa Lignin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Environmental Research (BER) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Journal Articles DOI: 10.1007s12155-009-9056-8...

  15. The biology and control of the three-cornered alfalfa hopper Spissistilus festinus (Say) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, Cedric Roy

    1952-01-01

    . Rabat, Maroc. Wa(Q91.M8U5) Bull et Mem Acad Roy Med Belg-- Bulletin et Memoires de l'Academie Royale de Medecine de Belgique. Bruxelles. Continuation of Bull Acad Roy Med Belg and Mem Acad Roy Med Belg. Wm(W1 BU652P) 3 COPRAQ Sess See^ Fish Dis 3..., New Jersey. Continuation of J Pediat Ophth Wm(Wl J0828FD) J Rheumatol-- The Journal of Rheumatology. Toronto. W1(Wm J087H) J Roy Soc Med-- Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. London. Continuation of Proc Roy Soc Med. Wa(448 .9 R814) J...

  16. Alfalfa County, Oklahoma ASHRAE 169-2006 Climate Zone | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand DaltonSolarOpen5 -Telephone CoAlediaVirginia: EnergyInformation

  17. NMR Characterization of C3H and HCT Down-Regulated Alfalfa Lignin (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport)Fermentativea(Patent)RELATIONSHIPS IN END-LINKED MODEL

  18. Characterization of Medicago truncatula mutants defective in infection persistence and defense response during Rhizobium-legume symbiosis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prabhu, Radhika

    1998-01-01

    Plant mutants with defects in their symbiotic phenotypes can be used as tools to unravel and understand plant functions. To understand the symbiotic process and the role of plant defense responses in regulation of rhizobial infection and modulation...

  19. Variability of Grain Arsenic Concentration and Speciation in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillai, Tushara Raghvan

    2011-02-22

    Arsenic is not an essential element and can be toxic to both plants and animals in high concentration. There is a demonstrated association between soil arsenic (As) and the occurrence of straighthead (a physiological ...

  20. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) response to clomazone as influenced by rate, soil type, and planting date 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Barr, John Houston

    2006-08-16

    Clomazone is an effective herbicide widely used for preemergence grass control in rice. However, use of clomazone on sandy textured soils of the western Texas rice belt may cause serious rice injury. When labeled for rice ...

  1. Influence of environmental parameters on penoxsulam control of alligatorweed (alternanthera philoxeroides) in rice (oryza sativa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willingham, Samuel Duane

    2009-05-15

    of chlorimuron and imazaquin, both ALS inhibiting herbicides, was Wesley 1993), however, 11% of imazethapyr was transported to roots of pitted morningglory (Kent et al. 1991). Understanding... as flood-timing interval after application of fenoxaprop was shortened (Snipes et al. 1987). 13 Literature is limited on the tolerance of rice cultivars to penoxsulam influenced by flood timing and root stunting or yield. The penoxsulam revised...

  2. Identification of Cell Wall Synthesis Regulatory Genes Controlling Biomass Characteristics and Yield in Rice (Oryza Sativa)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Zhaohua PEng [Mississippi State University; Ronald, Palmela [UC-Davis; Wang, Guo-Liang [The Ohio State University

    2013-04-26

    This project aims to identify the regulatory genes of rice cell wall synthesis pathways using a cell wall removal and regeneration system. We completed the gene expression profiling studies following the time course from cell wall removal to cell wall regeneration in rice suspension cells. We also completed, total proteome, nuclear subproteome and histone modification studies following the course from cell wall removal and cell wall regeneration process. A large number of differentially expressed regulatory genes and proteins were identified. Meanwhile, we generated RNAi and over-expression transgenic rice for 45 genes with at least 10 independent transgenic lines for each gene. In addition, we ordered T-DNA and transposon insertion mutants for 60 genes from Korea, Japan, and France and characterized the mutants. Overall, we have mutants and transgenic lines for over 90 genes, exceeded our proposed goal of generating mutants for 50 genes. Interesting Discoveries a) Cell wall re-synthesis in protoplasts may involve a novel cell wall synthesis mechanism. The synthesis of the primary cell wall is initiated in late cytokinesis with further modification during cell expansion. Phragmoplast plays an essential role in cell wall synthesis. It services as a scaffold for building the cell plate and formation of a new cell wall. Only one phragmoplast and one new cell wall is produced for each dividing cell. When the cell wall was removed enzymatically, we found that cell wall re-synthesis started from multiple locations simultaneously, suggesting that a novel mechanism is involved in cell wall re-synthesis. This observation raised many interesting questions, such as how the starting sites of cell wall synthesis are determined, whether phragmoplast and cell plate like structures are involved in cell wall re-synthesis, and more importantly whether the same set of enzymes and apparatus are used in cell wall re-synthesis as during cytokinesis. Given that many known cell wall synthesis pathway genes are induced by removal of cell wall, some cell wall synthesis apparatus must be shared in both cases. The cell wall re-synthesis mechanism may have broad application because our preliminary assay indicates that the cell wall characteristics are highly different from those produced during cytokinesis. A thorough understanding on the regulation of cell wall re-synthesis may lead to improvement of cell wall characteristics. b) Removal of cell wall results in chromatin decondensation Another interesting observation was that removal of cell wall was associated with substantial chromatin change. Our DNA DAPI stain, chromatin MNase digestion, histone modification proteomics, protein differential expression analysis, and DNA oligo array studies all supported that substantial chromatin change was associated with removal of cell wall treatment. It is still under investigation if the chromatin change is associated with activation of cell wall synthesis genes, in which chromatin remodeling is required. Another possibility is that the cell wall is required for stabilizing the chromatin structure in plant cells. Given that spindle fiber is directly connected with both chromatin structure and cell wall synthesis, it is possible that there is an intrinsic connection between cell wall and chromatin.

  3. Characterization and genetic analysis of a very high tillering and dwarf rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mani, Dhananjay

    2009-05-15

    ) to three levels of nitrogen (179, 202, 224 kg ha-1) and five planting densities (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 plants hill-1) in greenhouse conditions were conducted. A separate study was carried out to determine the response of the two mutant lines to gibberellic acid (GA...

  4. Responses of High Biomass Rice (Oryza sativa L.) to Various Abiotic Stresses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kondhia, Aditi Nitinkumar

    2011-10-21

    Rice produces a lot of biomass which is an important trait in increasing grain yield and it is a potential feedstock for bioenergy production. High biomass rice is important to meet the growing demands of grains and biomass for food, fodder and bio...

  5. High fiber low energy diet for molt induction in laying hens: the impact of alfalfa on physiology, immunology and behavior 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunkley, Claudia Sharene

    2009-05-15

    Feed withdrawal is commonly used by commercial egg producers to induce molt and stimulate multiple egg-laying cycles in their flocks. However, the practice can compromise the welfare of the birds by elevating stress, suppressing the immune response...

  6. The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, al-falfa, and pasture maintenance in this report are based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    The estimated costs of corn, corn silage, soybeans, al- falfa, and pasture maintenance record summaries, production and costs data from the Departments of Economics, Agricultural cooperatives and other input suppliers around the state. These costs estimates are representative of average

  7. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Legumes, Grasses and Forage Crops in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neeb, Charles W.; Thomas, John G.

    1982-01-01

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 ALFALFA AND CLOVER PESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Field Scouting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Sucking Pests... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Clover Head Weevil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Alfalfa Caterpillar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Armyworms and Corn Earworms...

  8. Managing Insect and Mite Pests of Legumes, Grasses and Forage Crops in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, C.T.; Hoelscher, Clifford E.

    1988-01-01

    4 .. ALFALFA AND CLOVER PESTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Resistant Cultivars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Field... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alfalfaweevil 9 Clover Head Weevil...

  9. Morphological stability and metabolic activity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) protoplasts in media supplemented with polyamines and divalent cations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adhikary, Bharat Raj

    1979-01-01

    ; this was supplemented with a hand calculator with memories (Texas Instruments, Model SR-51 II) for computing various useful statistics and figures. Significance tests for differences in regressions with respect to level and time x level interaction were made with F...

  10. Classification of Rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica Nipponbare) Immunophilins (FKBPs, CYPs) and Expression Patterns under Water Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    during exposure to heat stress, whereas it was localized inexpression was induced by heat stress and developmentallyin the nucleus during heat stress [19]. The expression of

  11. Attachment and survival of viruses on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L.): role of physicochemical and biotic factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vega, Everardo

    2006-10-30

    affinity to lettuce and �X174 the least. Viral adsorption to lettuce was mediated by electrostatic forces due to the removal of virus adsorption at pH 7 and 8 with the addition of 1 M NaCl to the buffer solutions. Microcosm studies indicated...

  12. August 2005 / Vol. 55 No. 8 BioScience 669 Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the world's most

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snow, Allison A.

    , the intentional release of such genetically modified (GM),or transgenic,crops is closely regulated by government and their wild relatives. © 2005 American Institute of Biological Sciences. Gene Flow from Genetically Modified's most important crops, providing a staple food for nearly half of the global population (FAO 2004

  13. Productive Energy of Corn Meal, Alfalfa Leaf Meal, Dried Buttermilk, Casein, Cottonseed Meal, and Tankage as Measured by Production of Fat and Flesh by Growing Chickens. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Carlyle, E. C. (Elmer Cardinal)

    1941-01-01

    , TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER. DIRECTOR. College Station. Texas BULLETIN NO. 600 PRODUCTIVE ENERGY OF CORN MEAL, ALFALF LEAF MEAL, DRIED BUTTERMILK, CASEIN, COT- TONSEED MEAL, AND TANKAGE AS MEASURED... of a comprehensive investigation of the value of feeds and foods for productive energy as measured by the production of fat and flesh in growing chickens. In 11 experi- ments with 256 chicks previously reported, it was found that the productive...

  14. Nitrogen-fixing nodules on plants such as alfalfa, pea and vetch arise from the root inner cortex and grow via a persistent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gage, Daniel J.

    recently become apparent that rhizobial Nod factors and rhizobial exopolysaccharides play key roles source of nitrogen [1]. Nodulation requires the action of a lipo-oligosaccharide signaling molecule, Nod factor. Nod factors from all rhizo- bial species have the same basic chemical structure, but factors from

  15. The in vivo and in vitro effect of a fructooligosaccharide prebiotic combined with alfalfa molt diets on egg production and salmonella in laying hens 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donalson, Lisa Michelle

    2005-08-29

    Salmonellosis affects an estimated 1.4 million people a year with a great majority of cases never being reported. Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) can be found in a variety of foods including poultry meat and eggs. Susceptibility ...

  16. The effects of various levels of coastal bermudagrass and alfalfa hays on feedlot performance, carcass composition and net energy for finishing steers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, William Emmett

    1978-01-01

    and protein. The caloric content of the initial and final carcass was estimated by employing factors of 9366 kcal per kg of fat and 5686 kcal per kg of protein. The NE requirements were calculated by dividing P the average gain in calories by the average... THE ALL-CONCENTRATE AND 100K COASTAL BERMUDAGRASS HAY DIETS 9 WATER, FAT AND PROTEIN CONTENT OF CARCASSES FROM STEERS FED 11 FEED MIXTURES FOR 121 DAYS 31 33 34 35 10 12 13 14 15 16 KEY TO STEPS INVOLVED IN CALCULATION OF CALORIC GAIN...

  17. Exploring the symbiotic pangenome of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galardini, Marco [University of Florence; Mengoni, Alessio [University of Florence; Brilli, Matteo [Universite de Lyon, France; Pini, Francesco [University of Florence; Fioravanti, Antonella [University of Florence; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Cheng, Jan-Fang [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Daligault, Hajnalka E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Mocali, Stefano [Agrobiol & Pedol Ctr ABP, Agr Res Council, I-50121 Florence, Italy; Bazzicalupo, Marco [University of Florence; Biondi, Emanuele [University of Florence

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sinorhizobium meliloti is a model system for the studies of symbiotic nitrogen fixation. An extensive polymorphism at the genetic and phenotypic level is present in natural populations of this species, especially in relation with symbiotic promotion of plant growth. AK83 and BL225C are two nodule-isolated strains with diverse symbiotic phenotypes; BL225C is more efficient in promoting growth of the Medicago sativa plants than strain AK83. In order to investigate the genetic determinants of the phenotypic diversification of S. meliloti strains AK83 and BL225C, we sequenced the complete genomes for these two strains. Results: With sizes of 7.14 Mbp and 6.97 Mbp, respectively, the genomes of AK83 and BL225C are larger than the laboratory strain Rm1021. The core genome of Rm1021, AK83, BL225C strains included 5124 orthologous groups, while the accessory genome was composed by 2700 orthologous groups. While Rm1021 and BL225C have only three replicons (Chromosome, pSymA and pSymB), AK83 has also two plasmids, 260 and 70 Kbp long. We found 65 interesting orthologous groups of genes that were present only in the accessory genome, consequently responsible for phenotypic diversity and putatively involved in plant-bacterium interaction. Notably, the symbiosis inefficient AK83 lacked several genes required for microaerophilic growth inside nodules, while several genes for accessory functions related to competition, plant invasion and bacteroid tropism were identified only in AK83 and BL225C strains. Presence and extent of polymorphism in regulons of transcription factors involved in symbiotic interaction were also analyzed. Our results indicate that regulons are flexible, with a large number of accessory genes, suggesting that regulons polymorphism could also be a key determinant in the variability of symbiotic performances among the analyzed strains.

  18. Photosynthetic pigment concentrations, gas exchange and vegetative growth for selected monocots and dicots treated with two contrasting coal fly ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunusa, I.A.M.; Burchett, M.D.; Manoharan, V.; DeSilva, D.L.; Eamus, D.; Skilbeck, C.G.

    2009-07-15

    There is uncertainty as to the rates of coal fly ash needed for optimum physiological processes and growth. In the current study we tested the hyothesis that photosynthetic pigments concentrations and CO{sub 2} assimilation (A) are more sensitive than dry weights in plants grown on media amended with coal fly ash. We applied the Terrestrial Plant Growth Test (Guideline 208) protocols of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to monocots (barley (Hordeum vulgare) and ryegrass (Secale cereale)) and dicots (canola (Brasica napus), radish (Raphanus sativus), field peas (Pisum sativum), and lucerne (Medicago sativa)) on media amended with fly ashes derived from semi-bituminous (gray ash) or lignite (red ash) coals at rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, or 20 Mg ha(-1). The red ash had higher elemental concentrations and salinity than the gray ash. Fly ash addition had no significant effect on germination by any of the six species. At moderate rates ({<=}10 Mg ha{sup -1}) both ashes increased (P < 0.05) growth rates and concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, but reduced carotenoid concentrations. Addition of either ash increased A in radish and transpiration in barley. Growth rates and final dry weights were reduced for all of the six test species when addition rates exceeded 10 Mg ha{sup -1} for gray ash and 5 Mg ha{sup -1} for red ash. We concluded that plant dry weights, rather than pigment concentrations and/or instantaneous rates of photosynthesis, are more consistent for assessing subsequent growth in plants supplied with fly ash.

  19. Vol. 56, No. 3APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Mar. 1990, p. 713-718 0099-2240/90/030713-06$02.00/0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handelsman, Jo

    of alfalfa. The results suggest that UW85 may have potential as a biocontrol agent for alfalfa damping biocontrol activity. Cultures grown in two semidefined media had significantly greater biocontrol activities

  20. Carbon Allocation in Underground Storage Organs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , oil, Solanum tuberosum, Beta vulgaris, Cyperus esculentus, Pastinaca sativa, GMO, transcription factor

  1. Agricultural Research/October 19964 6 gricultural chemical pro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    (Barbados cherry) and alfalfa to yam and youngberry. While some of these crops have odd-sounding names like

  2. Digestibility and Production Coefficients of Poultry Feeds. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1928-01-01

    . ........... Alfalfa leaf meal, Av.. ............... . Alfalfa meal, Av.. ........ Alfalfa meal or hay, Min. Barley,Min .................... .............. Barlev v;hole, Av. ............... ~ean"&eal, Min.. 13lood meal, Av. ................ .............. Blood..., dried, Min. ............... Bone meal, Min.. ............. Bone (poultrv), Av. ................ Ruckwheat, Av. ........ Bu~liwhcat, whole, Min.. Bur clover, young, dried, Av.. .... Buttermilk, dried, Av.. .......... Buttermilk, driecl, Min...

  3. Effects of iron and manganese in culture solution on their concentrations in roots and shoots of rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) grown under anaerobic conditions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bacha, Richard E

    1976-01-01

    of higher oxides of Nn, and the residual Nn, is a minor constituent of soil minerals (Gotoh and Patrick, 1974). Soil Solution Iron and Manganese Ponnamperuma (1964) reported that the influence of pH on the solubility of Fe is particularly important... vary according to factors such as weathering of minerals, mineralization of organic matter, pH, and redox potential. Mann and 0uastel (1946) showed that Mn is biologically reduced in soils. Mann and 0uastei (1946), and 0uastel et al. , (1948...

  4. Heat shock treatments delay the increase in wound-induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by altering its expression, not its induction in Romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa) tissue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campos-Vargas, R; Nonogaki, H; Suslow, T; Saltveit, Mikal E

    2005-01-01

    is overridden by a heat-shock treatment. Planta 177: 1–8secondary metabolism, heat shock treatments also induced theafter wounding. As the heat shock treatment was applied

  5. The Interaction of Propanil+Thiobencarb with Imazethapyr and Imazamox for Enhanced Red Rice (Oryza spp.) Control in Imidazolinone-Tolerant Rice (Oryza sativa L.) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Trevor Nelson

    2014-04-28

    from each plant and analyzed using Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry to quantify radioactivity. Significantly more ^(14)C-imazamox was recovered from the cuticle when imazamox was applied alone, resulting in lower amounts of imazamox absorption...

  6. Minnesota Agri-Power Project. Quarterly report, January--March, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilbur, D.

    1998-05-01

    The Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers propose to build an alfalfa processing plant integrated with an advanced power plant system at the Granite Falls, Minnesota industrial park to provide 75 MW of base load electric power and a competitively priced source of value added alfalfa based products. This project utilizes air blown fluidized bed gasification technology to process alfalfa stems and another biomass to produce a hot, clean, low heating value gas that will be used in a gas turbine. Exhaust heat from the gas turbine will be used to generate steam to power a steam turbine and provide steam for the processing of the alfalfa leaf into a wide range of products including alfalfa leaf meal, a protein source for livestock. This progress report describes feedstock testing, feedstock supply system, performance guarantees, sales contracts, environmental permits, education, environment, economy, and project coordination and control.

  7. Economic Decision Criteria for Fleahopper and Bollworm Management in Cotton: Texas Coastal Bend. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masud, Sharif M.; Benedict, John H.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

    1990-01-01

    , this also resulted in higher profits than in lower insect growth rates. Regev et al. (1976) used a simplified version of the Gutierrez et al. (1976) alfalfa - Egyptian alfalfa weevil model to optimize a ' profit function for the alfalfa weevil... the analysis of pesticide use and timing for Lygus spp. control (Gutierrez et al. 1977) and biological control of boll weevil (Murty et al. 1980 and Curry and Cate 1984). Economic evaluations indicate considerable success owing to the implementation...

  8. Selection and Use of Hay and Processed Roughage in Horse Feeding 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibbs, Pete G.

    2005-04-15

    of harvest and other pertinent factors, such as fi eld inspections throughout the harvesting process. 2. Other Legumes Besides alfalfa, other legume hays used to feed horses include red clover, birdsfoot trefoil and lespedeza. 40 Blister beetles contain... clover hay is intermediate between grasses and alfalfa, and energy level is about the same as many grasses, while its levels and ratios of both calcium and phosphorus are similar to that of alfalfa. Red clover hay often appears stemmy, and it does...

  9. Effects of humic acid on forage digestibility in ruminants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faulkenbery, James Marcus

    1995-01-01

    (NDFD) was evaluated in situ at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h on alfalfa hay (CP 26.27%) and 3 different qualities of CBH; low quality (LQCBH; CP 7.30%), medium quality (MQCBH; CP 10.40%), high quality (HQCBH; CP 12.01%) and alfalfa. The .10 level of HA...

  10. EIS-0300: Minnesota Agri-Power Project: Biomass for Rural Development, Granite Falls, Minnesota

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE and the Minnesota Environmental Quality Boards' [MEQB, a Minnesota State agency] decision to support a proposal by the Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP) to construct and operate a 75–103 megawatt biomass fueled gasifier and electric generating facility, known as the Minnesota Agri-Power Plant (MAPP), and associated transmission lines and alfalfa processing facilities.

  11. Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production This report summarizes estimated costs of improving pasture by five different systems. For each system, both the initial cost per acre and the annual maintenance cost per acre are presented. In addition, costs of establishing alfalfa or alfalfa-grass hay

  12. Economic development through biomass system integration: Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLong, M.M. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and the alfalfa leaf fraction sold as a high-value animal feed the remaining alfalfa stem fraction can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This report is a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. The sale of an animal feed co-product and electricity both help cover the production cost of alfalfa and the feedstock processing cost, thereby requiring neither the electricity or leaf meal to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continous demand for the feedstock and results in continous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

  13. Minnesota agripower project. Quarterly report, April--June 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baloun, J.

    1997-07-01

    The Minnesota Valley Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP) propose to build an alfalfa processing plant integrated with an advanced power plant system at the Granite Falls, Minnesota Industrial Park to provide 75 MW of base load electric power and a competitively priced source of value added alfalfa based products. This project will utilize air blown fluidized bed gasification technology to process alfalfa stems and another biomass to produce a hot, clean, low heating value gas that will be used in a gas turbine. Exhaust heat from the gas turbine will be used to generate steam to power a steam turbine and provide steam for the processing of the alfalfa leaf into a wide range of products including alfalfa leaf meal, a protein source for livestock. The plant will demonstrate high efficiency and environmentally compatible electric power production, as well as increased economic yield from farm operations in the region. The initial phase of the Minnesota Agripower Project (MAP) will be to perform alfalfa feedstock testing, prepare preliminary designs, and develop detailed plans with estimated costs for project implementation. The second phase of MAP will include detailed engineering, construction, and startup. Full commercial operation will start in 2001.

  14. Quantitative Measurements of Xanthomonas Oryzae pv. Oryzae Distribution in Rice Using Fluorescent-Labeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nozue, Kazunari; Park, Chang-Jin; Ronald, Pamela C

    2011-01-01

    of Xanthomonas Oryzae pv. Oryzae Distribution in Rice Usingstrains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the casualKeywords Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, GFP, Oryza sativa .

  15. Crop Rotations in the Brazos River Valley. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whiteley, Eli L.; Hipp, Billy W.

    1966-01-01

    OF ROTATIONS ON SOIL PRODUCTIVITY AND PHYST- CAL PROPERTIES OF MILLER CLAY. First Second Third Fourth Rotation* year year year Year C Cr C, 0 C. 8-sc C, 0-sc, Sc C, A C, 0-a C, 0-a, A C, A-f, A-f C, C, A-f, A-f C, C, A-f, A-f Cr, Cr, A-f, A...-f Cr, Cr, A-f, A-f Cr, 0-sc, Sc Cotton Corn Cotton Cotton Cotton Cotton Cotton Cot ton Cotton Cotton Cotton Corn Corn Corn Continuous Continuous Oats Oats- sweetclover Oats- swee tclover Alfalfa Oats- alfalfa Oats- alfalfa...

  16. Economic development through biomass system integration. Volumes 2--4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLong, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners.

  17. Nesting Biology of the Leafcutting Bee Megachile minutissima (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Central Saudi Arabia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Hannan, Mohammed A.; Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.

    2014-05-01

    The leafcutting bee Megachile (Eutricharaea) minutissima Radoszkowski is a widely distributed species in the Middle East and a promising pollinator of alfalfa. We provide information on the nest architecture, foraging ...

  18. L A N D U S E H I S T O R Y3 Above. Henry Miller's Bloomfield Ranch, near Gilroy, ca. 1890 (Unknown ca. 1890a). Below. Label from canned peaches, Filice & Perrelli Canning Co.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the industry. The drilling of artesian wells in the 1870s allowed for the cultivation of irrigated crops of salt-affected alkali meadows and salt marshes, and alfalfa has high water requirements). Irrigation

  19. Forage Crops. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1901-01-01

    Reports of Cooperating Stockmen and Farmers from 71 Counties - Alfalfa - Japan Clover - Crimson Clover - White Clover - Velvet Bean - Beggar Weed - Cow Peas - Rescue Grass - Kaffir Corn - Field Corn - Chufas...

  20. Suggestions for Weed Control in Pastures and Forages 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, Paul A.; Bade, David H.

    2004-04-06

    , pasture sod suppression and renovation, clover permanent grass pastures and established grass crops, sorghum-sudan hybrids, alfalfa and clover, winter pastures for grazing only, and grazing/hay restrictions. Sprayer calibration instructions are included....

  1. Economic development through biomass system integration: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLong, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is the feedstock for a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle) in a way that benefits the facility owners. Chapters describe alfalfa basics, production risks, production economics, transportation and storage, processing, products, market analysis, business analysis, environmental impact, and policy issues. 69 figs., 63 tabs.

  2. Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Management for Winter Wheat Production in the Blackland Prairie. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knowles, Tim C.; Hipp, Billy W.; Marshall, David S.; Sutton, Russelll L.

    1995-01-01

    include wheat, oats, grain sorghum, corn, cotton, forage sorghum, and legumes. About half of the region is rangeland with pasture crops consisting primarily of Coastal bermudagrass, clover, alfalfa, wheat, oats, and na tive grasses such as bluestem..., and Shickluna, 1983). Intelligent crop management demands a working knowledge of these relationships depicted in Figure 5. Soil?N gains and transforma tions include fertilizer or manure applications, fixa tion of atmospheric N2 by legumes (clover, alfalfa...

  3. Winter Bur Clover. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welborn, W. C. (Wayne C.)

    1908-01-01

    , Texas. Reports-and bulletins are sent free upon applica t h Pi rector. WINTER BUR CLOVER BY W. C. WELBORN This plant is gradually taking the commons and roadsides at inanv places in Texas, growing on all grades of land from the poor sands... to the stiff, black waxy lands. The burr clover has twb species growing in this country, the Medicago denticulata and Medicago maculata, or spotted leaf kind. The former, also called California clover, is most generally found in Texas. It is growing about...

  4. Copyright 2007 by the Genetics Society of America DOI: 10.1534/genetics.107.076943

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bataillon, Thomas

    of the Demographic and Selective Forces Shaping the Nucleotide Diversity of Genes Involved in Nod Factor Signaling. They do so by delivering molecules called Nod factors. We analyzed the patterns of nucleotide polymorphism of five genes controlling early Nod factor perception and signaling in the Fabaceae Medicago truncatula

  5. Original article Biomass, litterfall and nutrient content in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Biomass, litterfall and nutrient content in Castanea sativa coppice stands November 1995) Summary - Aboveground biomass and nutrient content, litterfall and nutrient return) and Catania (Italy). Best regression equations for the aboveground biomass were obtained by applying the allo

  6. Characterization of novel rice germplasm from West Africa and genetic marker associations with rice cooking quality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traore, Karim

    2006-10-30

    Genetic resource enhancement is the foundation of any good breeding program. Landraces from West Africa, interspecifics between Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima and improved lines from the West African Rice Development Association and other...

  7. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Haining

    Background: High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental ...

  8. Effect of submergence on alleviation of soil acidity and availability of nutrients in a rice-rice ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhaskaran, Usha Pankajam Dr.; Varghese, Thomas Dr

    2009-01-01

    Oryza sativa) is about 6.6. Kerala, the southern most statelow land rice soils of Kerala to unveil the effect of2 weeks after flooding. In Kerala all the wetland rice soils

  9. Environmental Microbiology (2004) 6(6), 574583 doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2004.00589.x 2004 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    2004-01-01

    with plant root extracts of oat (Avena sativa), osage orange (Maclura pomifera), hybrid wil- low (Salix alba carbon and energy sources. Enhanced growth on root prod- ucts may compensate for partial repression

  10. The seasonal biology and control of the garden webworm: Loxostege similalis (Guen.) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cogburn, Robert Ray

    1961-01-01

    the ness "garden vsbvorn" to distinguish it fron other veb spinning larvae. Riley stated tbst the nenes oarelsss voxn, oarsless veed vora and alfalfa vebvorn also hare been applied to ths incest. The ness, alfalfa vebvorn, is erroneous~ it is oorreetly... by this incest but cs?sst potatoes vere sstrscssly IIIscN$Aihle and rsp14$tkl+ was frscN?cntly neosssary as a result of tbe dame mawl bt lp ~rhdlal Chittenden (1912) stated that the garden websorsc was aust ~mien in the South and that it fed on weeds...

  11. Plant isoflavone and isoflavanone O-methyltransferase genes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broeckling, Bettina E.; Liu, Chang-Jun; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-19

    The invention provides enzymes that encode O-methyltransferases (OMTs) from Medicago truncatula that allow modification to plant (iso)flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. In certain aspects of the invention, the genes encoding these enzymes are provided. The invention therefore allows the modification of plants for isoflavonoid content. Transgenic plants comprising such enzymes are also provided, as well as methods for improving disease resistance in plants. Methods for producing food and nutraceuticals, and the resulting compositions, are also provided.

  12. Texas Honey Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanborn, C. E. (Charles Emerson); Scholl, E. E. (Ernest Emmett)

    1908-01-01

    ). MEDICK. BURR CLOVER. Medicago denticulata Willd. Pulse family. Leguminosae. "Naturalized in Western Texas." (Coulter). College: abundant on cam- ,,US lawns. Honey yield sparingly in summer, not important. February to May.* - SWEET CLOVER. Melilotus...). YELLOW SWEET CLOVER. Melilotus officinalis (L) Lam. Pulse family. Leguminosae. - Colorado along roadsides, escaped. Honey yield good; claimed to be superior to and earlier than M. alba by beernen. Should be cultivated on the poor soils of Texas...

  13. Gastric ulcer syndrome in exercising horses fed different types of hay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lybbert, Travis Craig

    2009-05-15

    was to further investigate any possible antiulcerogenic properties of alfalfa hay. Twenty-four Quarter Horse yearlings, 12-16 months of age, were utilized in this study. The 77-d experiment consisted of two 28-d periods separated by a 21-d wash-out period. Horses...

  14. Host habitat location mediated by olfactory stimuli in anaphes iole (hymenoptera: mymaridae), an egg parasitoid of lygus hesperus (hemiptera: miridae) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manrique, Veronica

    2005-02-17

    Lygus hesperus is an important pest on different crops including cotton and alfalfa in the western U.S. Anaphes iole is a common parasitoid of Lygus spp. eggs in the U.S. and has potential as a biological control agent ...

  15. --PZlUIXID: GII7 ~ ...... WadIaIIap INO Wuda 1_CmpHhpon. W'-da

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In most sections of the state. suitable locations for nests are few in number in May and early June. Clean problem and is most critical in supply. Many qualified this assertion by saying that 1n some parts do not restrict their thinking to particular species of plants. Brome-alfalfa provides good cover

  16. Dried Citrus Peel and Pulp as a Feed for Lactating Cows. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephas); Shepardson, C. N. (Charles Noah)

    1944-01-01

    .............................................. 9 ....................................... Changes in Liveweights 12 Results of Feed Consumption .................................. 17 Productive Energy of Citrus Pulp .............................. 15 Discussion... Experiment 2 Exoerirnenl 3 Productive energy - Citrus. .................... --- Corn and cob meal X .747 Cottonseed meal X .720 \\fTheat bran X .563 Oats X .719 Alfalfa hay X .436 Productive energy of citrus peel and pulp. ........ Productive...

  17. Vol. 151, No. 1JOURNAL OF BACTERIOLOGY, July 1982, p. 411-419 0021-9193/82/070411-09$02.00/0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ausubel, Frederick M.

    Alfalfa roots infected with four nodulation defective (Nod-) mutants of Rhizobium meliloti which were generated by transposon Tn5 mutagenesis were examined by light and electron microscopy. In one class of Nod. In a second class of Nod- mutants, which we call reactive, the bacteria induced some root hair curling

  18. L A N D U S E H I S T O R Y3 Above. Henry Miller's Bloomfield Ranch, near Gilroy, ca. 1890 (Unknown ca. 1890a). Below. Label from canned peaches, Filice & Perrelli Canning Co.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spanish colonization, American statehood, and more recently, rapid urban and suburban expansion. Each, such as orchards and alfalfa, while the railroad connection between Gilroy and San José in 1869 helped provide conflict with valley oak lands. Nineteenth-century orchards (planted on well-drained alluvial soils) caused

  19. Feeding Experiments with Steers and Hogs. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruse, J.T.

    1910-01-01

    . rice; 1156.5 Ibs. tankage. Hogs fed cottonseed meal and rough red rice. Average daily gain 1.: 26 pounds. Hogs fed alfalfa meal and corn chops, fermented. Average daily gain, 1.14 pounds TABLE 1V.-FEED EATEN AND GAINS MADE BY LOT IV RECEIVING...

  20. Effects of Cellulase and Xylanase Enzymes on the Deconstruction of Solids from Pretreatment of Poplar by Leading Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    ; and (6) woody energy crops such as willow (Salix spp.), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.), as- pen, and hybrid additive (http://www1. eere.energy.gov/biomass). Currently, starch ethanol substi- tutes for over 5; (5) herba- ceous energy crops including miscanthus, alfalfa, switch- grass, and red canary grass

  1. Summary, Texas Bulletins Nos. 1 to 94, Inclusive. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1907-01-01

    be supplemented by daubing the margins of the wound with pine tar to ward off the fly. A vast number of cases can be prevented by keeping cattle free from common cattle ticks. SORGHUM; VALUE AS A FEED STUFF; EFFECT ON SOIL. TEOSINTE; ANALYSES AT DIFFERENT... .................................................. Alfalfa Root Rot 23 ............................................ Black Rot of the Grape 23 ................................................... The Cattle Tick 23 Texas Soils ....................................................... 24...

  2. Effects of feeding chopped hay with supplemental concentrate on the performance of slaughter ostrichs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltmanis, Beth Ann

    1996-01-01

    .2%). The ostriches in the experimental treatment were fed a coastal bertnudagrass and alfalfa hay mixture with a concentrate supplement (crude fiber> 1 4%). The control ostriches (I 13.2 kg) reached slaughter weight (1 13 kg) faster (P < 0.05) and at a younger age...

  3. Center Beef Table of Contents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfalfa Forage Performance, or "Why Not Just Use Vernal?"......... 33 Carcass Ultrasound Scanning and Management...................... 37 CARBON FLUX ASSESSEMENT IN COW-CALF GRAZING SYSTEMS.... 40 #12;4 August 6 quality of life for all the Center effects: our visitors, employees and other coworkers. Essentially, we

  4. Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duffy, Michael D.

    Estimated Costs of Pasture and Hay Production This report summarizes estimated costs of improving pasture by five different systems. For each system, both the initial cost per acre and the annual maintenance cost per acre are presented. In addition, costs of establishing alfalfa or alfalfagrass hay

  5. Phosphatidic acid activates a wound-activated MAPK in Glycine max

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirt, Heribert

    the alfalfa MAPK, SIMK. When PA production is inhibited with n-butanol, an inhibitor of phospholipase DPhosphatidic acid activates a wound-activated MAPK in Glycine max Sumin Lee1 , Heribert Hirt2 a systemic increase in phosphatidic acid (PA) levels after being wounded (Lee et al., 1997). To understand

  6. Nitro-culture and Inoculation. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, O. M. (Oscar Melville)

    1906-01-01

    inoculation of alfalfa with germ from bur-clover 8 .................. Record of pots in experiments on artificial inoculation 9 ............................................................ Inoculation with Nitro.culture 11... ..................................... Inoculation with Nitro-culture for bur-clover 13 ............................................................. Behavior of the check plants 13 ........................................................... Soil sterilized bi~t seed not 13...

  7. Energy-Production Coefficients of American Feeding Stuffs for Ruminants. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1925-01-01

    .8 Single. ................ Alfalfa hay 30 to 33% C. F.. ............... .Av. Single.. ............... Clover hay, red, awe. all trials.. ........... .Av. Single. ................ Corn meal or chops. ...................... .Av. Single... ................. .............................. Barley grain ........................... Beet pulp. dried ............................ Bermuda hay ...................... Clover hay. Crimson Clover hay . Red (average of all trials) ....... ............................ Clover silage...

  8. Evaluation of whole cottonseed consumption on growth and reproductive function in male cervids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Cristy Gale

    2001-01-01

    reached 0.91 kg/head/day for older (2yr) and 0.68 kg/head/day for younger (1yr) bucks. Bucks were maintained on 1/4 acre ryegrass/coastal bermudagrass pasture with free access to minerals, salt and water. Alfalfa pellets were supplied at 0.45 kg...

  9. Appendix 1. List of medicinal plants identified by Tamang people from the Chilime Village Development Committee of the Rasuwa district, Central Nepal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asselin, Hugo

    . Infusion taken as tea. 7. Artemisia indica Willd COMPOSITAE Titepati (Np), Chyanchin, Surchent (Tam) Herb, diarrhoea, dysentery, fever. Juice. 12. Bistorta affinis (D. Don) Greene POLYGONACEAE Muakui (Tam) Herb Root, leaf Diarrhoea and dysentery. Paste drunk as tea in the morning. 13. Cannabis sativa L. CANNABACEAE

  10. Foliar Lead Uptake by Lettuce Exposed to Atmospheric Fallouts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailhes, Corinne

    Foliar Lead Uptake by Lettuce Exposed to Atmospheric Fallouts G A ¨E L L E U Z U , S O P H I E S O gardens near industrial plants. The mechanisms of foliar uptake of lead by lettuce (Lactuca sativa) exposed to the atmospheric fallouts of a lead-recycling plant were studied. After43daysofexposure

  11. Comparative Sequencing of Plant Genomes: Choices to Make The first sequenced genome of a plant,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purugganan, Michael D.

    COMMENTARY Comparative Sequencing of Plant Genomes: Choices to Make The first sequenced genome of a plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, was published ,6 years ago (Arabidopsis Genome Initiative, 2000). Since that time, the complete rice genome (Oryza sativa; Goff et al., 2002; Yu et al., 2002; International Rice

  12. Distribution and Abundance Patterns of Spiders Inhabiting Cotton in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, D.A.; Sterling, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    : Williamson. Southeast Texas: Fort Bend and Wharton. South Texas: Frio, Hidalgo, Nueces, and San Patricio. Collections from East Texas are from Walker County and cover the years 1978-81 using only D-Vac sampling for comparative purposes. The different... (Agnew et al. 1985) in Texas; alfalfa in Virginia (Howell and Pienkowski 1971); soybean in South Carolina (Roach 1980) and Iowa (Bechinski and Pedigo 1981); and sorghum in Oklahoma (Bailey and Chada 1968). It is found throughout the eastern half...

  13. Digestion Experiments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1922-01-01

    that of the average peanut hulls I given in Bulletin 245. PINTO BEANS. I 1 Pinto beans are grown in Arizona, New Mexico, West Texas, and Ilexico. The sample had a good digestibility. ~ SORGHUM SEED. This was red top sorghum seed, which is a sweet sorghum... .................................... Coefficients of digestibility 6 .................... Description of feeds and discussion of results 7 Alfalfa ................................................ 10 ................................. Delinted cottonseed hulls 10 Corn bran...

  14. Guidelines for Managing Large Dairy Herds in Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, R. C.; Parsons, Guy S.; Meekma, A. M.; White, Thomas H. Jr.

    1973-01-01

    potential. Cows .- in the high production potential group had 305-day mature equivalent records of 20,000 pounds of milk or more. All cows were individually housed and fed a high-energy blended ration consisting of 40% alfalfa hay and 60% concentrate....) Change in body weight (Ib.) Lb. milkllb. feed Energy efficiency (% ) Total Above maintenance Source: Tenth Annual Dairy Cattle Day, Spring 1971, Dept. of Animal Science, University of Cali$ornia, Davis. and low-producing cows. Average body weight...

  15. Losses of Vitamin A and Carotene from Feeds During Storage. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Kemmerer, A. R. (Arthur Russell)

    1937-01-01

    . CONNER, 1)IRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 557 OCTOBER, 1937 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY Losses of Vitamin A and Carotene From Feeds During Storage LIBRARY Agricultural & Mechanical ,l~l!egge of Texas AGRICULTURAL... liver oils, fish liver oil concentrates or solutions of carotene in oil, or yellow corn or alfalfa leaf meal of high potency. Since vitamin A and carotene are both unstable, it is important to know whether these substances would remain in commercial...

  16. RUMEN DIGESTION PARAMETERS IN LAMBS FED WITH PELLETED DIET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    RUMEN DIGESTION PARAMETERS IN LAMBS FED WITH PELLETED DIET A. PETKOV E.I. ENEV Department of animal with pelleted feed containing 25 % alfalfa meal, 35 % maize, 9.9 % barley, 7.2 % wheat, 21.5 % sunflower oil ration was 0.200 kg pelleted feed and at the age of 4 months, 0.400 kg. The pelleted feed was given twice

  17. A Statewide Pest Management Plan for Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1981-01-01

    comprehensive way, the future direc- tion for IPM programs within the state. The plan includes IPM systems for cotton, sorghum, corn, pea- nuts, rice, riceland mosquitoes, soybeans, citrus, pecans, timber, small grains, alfalfa, sunflowers and forage grass... Citrus Mutual, American Soybean Association-Texas Chap- ter, and the American Rice Growers Cooperative) have been extremely helpful in the development and review of this plan. The Texas Pest Management Association requested the writing of A...

  18. Composition and Digestibility of the Chloroform Extract of Hays and Fodders. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

    1913-01-01

    of Chloroform Extract and of Ether Extract. Period. 3 12 9 6 17 16 4 10 15 11 5 1413 7 18 2 Description. Alfalfa hay ..................... Bermuda hay ................. Buffalo grass hay.......... Burr clover..................... Corn...-73? 4665 Excrement, rice straw..................................... 115.0 72-73? The acetyl numbers of the crystals are near to that of myricyl alco? hol, which is 116.4. This corresponds to the crystals separated from the ether extract of burr clover...

  19. Digestibility of Sugar, Starches, and Pentosans of Roughages. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1916-01-01

    . hemi- by from Mono I Di. 1 cellulose. acld. hemi- lcellu~osc Total N. F. Soluble Extract residue. soluble. Name of Feed. 3277 Alfalfa hay used in Experiment No. 3.. ...... 4252 Bermuda hay used in Experiment No. 12.. .... 3609 Burr clover..., .................. 5.88 .OO 4249 Excrement, millet ...................... 7.07 .OO 4254 Esercment, Berrnncla ................... 5.68 .OO 4559 Escren~ent, corn ~h~cks. ................ 7.52 .OO 3609 Burr clover ........................... 6.44 0.94 3623 Excrement...

  20. A cooperative effort between Temple-Inland and the Angelina County Agricultural Extension Service. Compiled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for development of these nodules. Examples are clovers, vetches, peas and alfalfa. Legume plants in strong stands / Suggestions Soil Tolerance Maturation Clovers: Arrowleaf 8 B Yes October 1/4-1/2" A D,T,Q forage, insects excellent choice for turkey,deer well drained July Berseem 20 B Yes October 1/4-1/2" A D,T,Q forage, insects

  1. Salinity Control in Irrigation Agriculture. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longenecker, Donald E.; Lyerly, Paul J.

    1957-01-01

    Barley (grain) Cowpeas (grain) Rye (grain) Sugar beet Corn (field) Wheat Rape Castorbean (grain) Soybean Oats (grain) Rice FORAGE CROPS White clover8 TaIl fesque Wheat- Alkali sacaton Alsike clover Meadow grasses Bermudagrass Red clover fesque... Sudangrass Barley (hay) Ladino clover Orchard- Sweetclover Rhodesgrass Crimson grass Alfalfa Blue clover Millet Ryegrass Panicgrass Rose clover Sour clover Rye (hay) Burnet clover Birdsfoot Wheat (hay) trefoil Oats (hay) VEGETABLE CROPS Lima bean...

  2. The Work of the State Apicultural Research Laboratory, 1919-1926. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parks, Harris Bradley

    1927-01-01

    -Swamp Plants Asscciation 2. Composite-Legumes Association 8. Mesquite-Horsemint Association 3. Sumac-Broom Weed Association 9. Tropical Plant Association 4. Cotton-Horsemint Association 10. Catclaw-Whitebrush Association 5. Sweet Clover-Fruit Association 11.... Catclaw-Desert Flora Association 6. Rattan-Hardwood Association 12. Alfalfa-Sweet Clover Asscciation somewhat with the soil divisions, but more nearly with the geological outcrops. It is difficult to give names to any of these divisions...

  3. Integrating Cover Crops into Strip-Till Cropping Systems in a Semi-Arid Environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noland, Reagan Lee

    2014-05-02

    °12'34.47"N, 99°45'5.97"W; 282 m), TX. The main effect was row crop with split-plots strip-tilled into the residue of four legume species [Medicago polymorpha L. cv. Armadillo (burr medic), M. lupulina L. cv. Bee Black (black medic), M. minima (L.) L. cv... planted using a Tye Pasture Pleaser no-till drill (The Tye Co., Lockney, Texas) on November 8, 2011 and November 12, 2012. Seeding rates were the same as those commonly recommended and were 11 kg ha- 1 for Armadillo and Bee Black, 6.7 kg ha-1 for Devine...

  4. Impact of different plants on the gas profile of a landfill cover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichenauer, Thomas G.; Watzinger, Andrea; Riesing, Johann; Gerzabek, Martin H.

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: > Plants influence gas profile and methane oxidation in landfill covers. > Plants regulate water content and increase the availability of oxygen for methane oxidation. > Plant species with deep roots like alfalfa showed more stimulation of methane oxidation than plants with shallow root systems like grasses. - Abstract: Methane is an important greenhouse gas emitted from landfill sites and old waste dumps. Biological methane oxidation in landfill covers can help to reduce methane emissions. To determine the influence of different plant covers on this oxidation in a compost layer, we conducted a lysimeter study. We compared the effect of four different plant covers (grass, alfalfa + grass, miscanthus and black poplar) and of bare soil on the concentration of methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen in lysimeters filled with compost. Plants were essential for a sustainable reduction in methane concentrations, whereas in bare soil, methane oxidation declined already after 6 weeks. Enhanced microbial activity - expected in lysimeters with plants that were exposed to landfill gas - was supported by the increased temperature of the gas in the substrate and the higher methane oxidation potential. At the end of the first experimental year and from mid-April of the second experimental year, the methane concentration was most strongly reduced in the lysimeters containing alfalfa + grass, followed by poplar, miscanthus and grass. The observed differences probably reflect the different root morphology of the investigated plants, which influences oxygen transport to deeper compost layers and regulates the water content.

  5. The Effect of Halo Mass on the HI Content of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Ilsang

    2015-01-01

    We combine data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey (ALFALFA) to study the cold atomic gas content of galaxies in groups and clusters in local universe. A careful cross-matching of galaxies in the SDSS, ALFALFA and SDSS group catalogs provides a sample of group galaxies with stellar masses $10^{8.4} M_{\\odot} \\le M_{*} \\le 10^{10.6} M_{\\odot}$ and group halo masses $10^{12.5} h^{-1} M_{\\odot} \\le M_h \\le 10^{15.0} h^{-1} M_{\\odot}$. Controlling our sample in stellar mass and redshift, we find no significant radial variation in the galaxy \\hi\\ gas-to-stellar mass ratio for the halo mass range in our sample. However, the fraction of galaxies detected in ALFALFA declines steadily towards the centers of groups with the effect being most prominent in the most massive halos. In the outskirts of massive halos a hint of a depressed detection fraction for low mass galaxies suggests pre-processing that decreases the \\hi\\ in these galaxies before they fall into massive cluste...

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a rice phosphoinositide-specic phospholipase C gene, OsPI-PLC1, that is activated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Robert M.

    Molecular cloning and characterization of a rice phosphoinositide-speci¢c phospholipase C gene, OsPI-PLC-speci®c phospholipase C (OsPI-PLC1, Oryza sativa L. phosphoinositide-speci®c phospholipase C1). OsPI-PLC1 encodes a 599, characteristics of this class of enzymes. Expression of OsPI-PLC1 was induced by various chemical and biological

  7. Distance determinations to shield galaxies from Hubble space telescope imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street, S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Cannon, John M.; Cave, Ian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Haynes, Martha P.; Adams, Elizabeth; Giovanelli, Riccardo [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Elson, Ed C. [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Astronomy, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Ott, Juërgen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Saintonge, Amélie, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2014-04-10

    The Survey of H I in Extremely Low-mass Dwarf (SHIELD) galaxies is an ongoing multi-wavelength program to characterize the gas, star formation, and evolution in gas-rich, very low-mass galaxies. The galaxies were selected from the first ?10% of the H I Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey based on their inferred low H I mass and low baryonic mass, and all systems have recent star formation. Thus, the SHIELD sample probes the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function for star-forming galaxies. Here, we measure the distances to the 12 SHIELD galaxies to be between 5 and 12 Mpc by applying the tip of the red giant method to the resolved stellar populations imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope. Based on these distances, the H I masses in the sample range from 4 × 10{sup 6} to 6 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ?}, with a median H I mass of 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ?}. The tip of the red giant branch distances are up to 73% farther than flow-model estimates in the ALFALFA catalog. Because of the relatively large uncertainties of flow-model distances, we are biased toward selecting galaxies from the ALFALFA catalog where the flow model underestimates the true distances. The measured distances allow for an assessment of the native environments around the sample members. Five of the galaxies are part of the NGC 672 and NGC 784 groups, which together constitute a single structure. One galaxy is part of a larger linear ensemble of nine systems that stretches 1.6 Mpc from end to end. Three galaxies reside in regions with 1-9 neighbors, and four galaxies are truly isolated with no known system identified within a radius of 1 Mpc.

  8. Fluosorbent injection by-products. Final report, January 1997 through December 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Sid

    2000-02-29

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology, called "Fluesorbent," was developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent was intentionally designed so that the saturated S02-sorbent materials can be used as beneficial soil amendments after they were used for FGD. A. Project Objective: The objective of this project was to demonstrate in the field that saturated Fluesorbent materials can be utilized beneficially on agricultural and grass lands. B. Project Results: The results of this project suggest that, indeed, saturated Fluesorbent has excellent potential as a commercial soil amendment for crops, such as alfalfa and soybeans, and for turf. Yields of alfalfa and turf were substantially increased in field testing on acidic soils by one-time applications of Fluesorbent FGD by-products. In the first two years of field testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. In a third, drought-influenced year, the gains were smaller. Turf grass growth was fully twice that of untreated plots and more than 10% greater than with ag-lime. A small farm trial with a modified version of the Fluesorbent by-product increased soybean yield by 25%. A small trial with corn, however, indicated no significant improvement. Even though the Fluesorbent contained fly ash, the alfalfa and turf grown in FGD-treated plots contained significantly lower levels of heavy metals than that grown in untreated or lime-treated plots. In a project greenhouse experiment, the fly ashes from five different coal boilers from around Ohio produced equivalent yields when mixed with Fluesorbent, indicating wide potential applicability of the new technology. The Fluesorbent materials were also found to be easy to extrude into pellets for use with mixed fertilizers. The by-product FGD materials also showed good potential as a granular substrate for turning volatile liquid herbicides into a dry, spreadable form. It was also shown that a significant amount of other fertilizer compounds, such as elemental sulfur, could be successfully incorporated into the pelleted products, if desired.

  9. Combination Anthelmintics to Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Foals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volker, Ashley

    2010-01-16

    yeast culture (YC) preparation (Saccharomyces cere- visiae) on in vitro microbial populations, diet digestion, and fermentation patterns in horses. In Exp. 1, 4 ma- ture horses were fed a pelleted concentrate and alfalfa cubes in a 50:50 (%, as... was carried out for 48 h to determine DM, NDF, and ADF digestibility. In Exp. 2, fecal samples were taken from 4 mature horses consuming either a high- concentrate (HC) or high-fiber (HF) diet. Filter bags containing the HC or HF diet were added to the 4 incu...

  10. Supplement 9, Authors: A To Z 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doss, Mildred A.; Humphrey, Judith M.; Segal, Dorothy B.

    1959-01-01

    -7).?Report of the Fourteenth Alfalfa Improvement Conference August 3-7, 1954, Davis, California, [n.pj Rep. Dept. Agrie. Brit. Virgin Islands.?Report of the Department of Agriculture British Vir- gin islands. St. Lucia, B.W.Ii Rep. (Ann.) East African...., Akad. Nauk Kirgiz. SSR (4), pp. 137-140, pi. [W*.] ABONNENC, EMILE. [See also Taufflieb, Roger; and Abonnenc, Emile] 1956 a.?Culicides et autres arthropodes vul- n?rants (Le Parc national du Niokolo-Koba (1))

  11. Vitamin A Studies in Fattening Feeder Calves and Yearlings. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marion, Paul T.; Ellis, N. R.; Black, W. H.; Howe, P. E.; Kemmerer, A. R.; Riggs, J. K.; Jones, J. M.; Fraps, G. S.; Dickson, R. E.; Schmidt, H.; Jones, John H.

    1943-01-01

    by dehydrated alfalfa leaf meal with cod liver oil. per 100 pounds live weight daily. They were fed the 450 microgram level until they either died or were sacrificed in extremis. The performance of these steers is summarized in Table 3. Two of the steers... A STCDY I10 FATTENIXG FEEDER CALVES AKD YEAR,,,,,, ~d Table 3. Performance of steers on 450 microgram carotene level, Experiment 3 ivky" 1 Total I Daily 145 . 421 1 .11 1,54 Z26 1.24 472 49s . E'O ; Nor. 23, 19S6 July 9, 1938 i15 485 51'3 .Wi...

  12. Experiments in Steer Feeding. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, John A. (John Alexander); Marshall, F. R. (Frederick Rupert)

    1904-01-01

    as to the relative value of these two very characteristic rations for steer feeding. Cotton? seed meal and hulls is the ration that is most generally used throughout the cotton belt, while corn and alfalfa will likely be conceded to be the ration which is most... STATIONS. BULLETIN NO. 76. Animal Husbandry Section. T E X A S G R S I C 1904. EXPERIMENTS IN STEER FEEDING I. RICE BY-PRODUCTS FOR STEER FEEDING. II. FODDERS FOR FEEDING STEERS WITH COTTONSEED MEAL. III. MOLASSES FOR STEER FEEDING. IV. COMPARISON...

  13. Horse Pastures For Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorsett, Donald J.; Householder, D. Douglas

    1986-01-01

    . The more common legumes used in Texas pastures are white clover, Yuchi arrowleaf clover, Mt. Barker sub terranean clover, Crimson clover, vetch and the sweet clovers. Button and burr clovers proliferate over much of the state as naturalized natives.... Alfalfa can be useful as a pasture, but its primary use in Texas is as a hay crop. Efforts are being made to develop a new variety of red clover, a warm-season clover, that could be grown in Texas. LAND PREPARATION AND PLANTING Establishing permanent...

  14. The Needs of the Soils of Brazos and Jefferson Counties for Sulphur 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

    1922-01-01

    ';) fou~d that the alfalfa and 'clover crops can be jncreased 50 to 1,000 per cent. by the use of fertilizers containing sulphur. Shedcl (18) founcl tobacco ancl soy beans in pot csperinlents to have benefiitecl from sulphur applications at the rate...] of 240 pounds per acre. Duley (19) reports sulphur beneficial to recl clover on sand ancl silt loam. Ames and Boltz (20) also report increasecl ~ielcl of (- due to sulphur. Effects of sulphur applications altogether contrary to those tionecl...

  15. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey IX: The Isolated Galaxy Sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minchin, R F; Davies, J I; Karachentsev, I D; Keenan, O C; Momjian, E; Rodriguez, R; Taber, T; Taylor, R

    2015-01-01

    We have used the Arecibo L-band Feed Array to map three regions, each of 5 square degrees, around the isolated galaxies NGC 1156, UGC 2082, and NGC 5523. In the vicinity of these galaxies we have detected two dwarf companions: one near UGC 2082, previously discovered by ALFALFA, and one near NGC 1156, discovered by this project and reported in an earlier paper. This is significantly fewer than the 15.4 $^{+1.7}_{-1.5}$ that would be expected from the field HI mass function from ALFALFA or the 8.9 $\\pm$ 1.2 expected if the HI mass function from the Local Group applied in these regions. The number of dwarf companions detected is, however, consistent with a flat or declining HI mass function as seen by a previous, shallower, HI search for companions to isolated galaxies.We attribute this difference in Hi mass functions to the different environments in which they are measured. This agrees with the general observation that lower ratios of dwarf to giant galaxies are found in lower density environments.

  16. The Gas Phase Mass Metallicity Relation for Dwarf Galaxies: Dependence on Star Formation Rate and HI Gas Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimmy,; Saintonge, Amélie; Accurso, Gioacchino; Brough, Sarah; Oliva-Altamirano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Using a sample of dwarf galaxies observed using the VIMOS IFU on the VLT, we investigate the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) as a function of star formation rate (FMR$_{\\text{SFR}}$) as well as HI-gas mass (FMR$_{\\text{HI}}$). We combine our IFU data with a subsample of galaxies from the ALFALFA HI survey crossmatched to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to study the FMR$_{\\text{SFR}}$ and FMR$_{\\text{HI}}$ across the stellar mass range 10$^{6.6}$ to 10$^{8.8}$ M$_\\odot$, with metallicities as low as 12+log(O/H) = 7.67. We find the 1$\\sigma$ mean scatter in the MZR to be 0.05 dex. The 1$\\sigma$ mean scatter in the FMR$_{\\text{SFR}}$ (0.02 dex) is significantly lower than that of the MZR. The FMR$_{\\text{SFR}}$ is not consistent between the IFU observed galaxies and the ALFALFA/SDSS galaxies for SFRs lower than 10$^{-2.4}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, however this could be the result of limitations of our measurements in that regime. The lowest mean scatter (0.01 dex) is found in the FMR$_{\\text{HI}}$. We also find that th...

  17. A more informative bank balance sheet 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, G. Carl

    1939-01-01

    . . . . . . . ~, . . . Xf A Ogitieies of the Reriee4 Steteaeat. . . ~. . . . . . . . Sooeleeioe 8%4 swAIf o ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ) ihlieg%phf o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 balaaoo Sheoi ?t iho beano Oeryaeetloa 4ioaaoa f oa 1... bank te list tho item owned aa4 tho itoas swed, bat liha the aaa with \\he ear, of what ase is the knowledge that the iteso are eano4 if ao takeo eaa be planed Oa thm siaee the faroaesi eb)sativa ef baILking is te increase these missa by roaljsjug a...

  18. Nutrient Composition of Feeds. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gill, Ronald J.; Herd, Dennis B.

    1986-01-01

    .88-0.96 Figure 2. Variation In energy content of various forages relative to the requirements of various classes of caHie (values given on a dry maHer basis). D.E. Mcal./lba DDM%b 1.61 80 1.50 75 1.40 70 1.29 65 Weaned Heiler... Ingredient Ana~sls Tables (Adapted from NR , 1984). Forages (Dry MaHer Basis) Vit.A ME TDN CP Ca p Equiv./lb Feed Name Description* (Mcal/lb) (%) (%) (%) (%) 1000 IU Alfalfa SC- EB .98 60 18.0 1.41 .22 25.5 SC- MB .95 58 17.0 1.41 .24 6.0 SC- LB .85 52...

  19. Some factors influencing digestion and growth rates of beef steers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gossett, John Warren

    1955-01-01

    a 3 lb, JGfelfa 3 lb. Alfalfa 2 lb. Cottccs ' ~0 1 lb Salt 1 Ib Salt ~ ~ 3 lb tie~lao Xtsxs Trial ~ Esxdsar af etaora Uatriossta oosssmacl par trials Protein (lbe) Credo fiber (lb ) Ether extract (lbe) Eitrodan fros extract (1'b. ) Didcetian... ooafficden&s Credo protein, 5 Crads fibers g Ether extract, 5 Eitro~ free oxtraota $ 19e21 43. 49 6, 97 22e62 45. 49 3 e29 5, 31 24. 32 50e91 3e53 63e97 + lel4 60e27 + 1. 15 67. 74 + 0. 78 64. 51 + 2 33 77. 36 + 1 JA 73 IS + 0 74 74e30 e Oe59...

  20. Irrigation Monitoring with Soil Water Sensors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enciso, Juan; Porter, Dana; Peries, Xavier

    2007-01-19

    .3?4.5 1.6?3.3 Turf grass Cool season Warm season 40 50 1.6?2.2 1.6?2.2 Sugarcane 65 4.0?6.5 Trees Apricots, peaches 50 3.3?6.6 Citrus 70% canopy 50% canopy 20% canopy 50 50 50 4.0?5.0 3.6?5.0 2.6?3.6 Conifer trees 70 3.3?4.5 Walnut orchard 50 5... the sensor leads for subsequent readings. Table 3. Recommended allowable soil moisture tensions for selected crops. Crop Tension centibars Alfalfa 80?150 Cabbage 60?70 Cantaloupe 35?40 Carrot 55?65 Cauliflower 60?70 Celery 20?30 Citrus 50?70 Corn (sweet...

  1. The effect of methyl silicone upon feedlot performance digestibility of nutrients and prevention of bloat in beef cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Landon Douglas

    1955-01-01

    WA~ ~~ e! as' WA ~ ~ a~~MS &! aM!!!IM 4M~% ~ MQ AAINN@ NINN Rig/ M3p ~ ~ W, ~ . W !!! . 4, :: . 88, alfalfa hay '. . . 7, Johnson, grass hay 2. '. =. , silage 1. 1. Feed costs per ton: cottonseed. meal 'j75. 00, milo grain 50 F 00, cottonseed...'i i j i e e 'o i i 'e y' j s i' i e em'i'w s iy e i si i' ii e w'i ?' i'. " 7l ~~~~~~ye~~yeys~~~~~~~p~+?aey~e~jr~e'@~eea~we, ?~eeyao~. F7 1' if+~44e~ iiaeei'eeeeeieeii eiiqwi equi je'e'i++%veiese~4i+e'iei+%4 ' 8 9i ~ ~ ~:~~:M. ~p. 383~4 i'i, iiji...

  2. Extragalactic HI Surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    We review the results of HI line surveys of extragalactic sources in the local Universe. In the last two decades major efforts have been made in establishing on firm statistical grounds the properties of the HI source population, the two most prominent being the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) and the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey (ALFALFA). We review the choices of technical parameters in the design and optimization of spectro-photometric "blind" HI surveys, which for the first time produced extensive HI-selected data sets. Particular attention is given to the relationship between optical and HI populations, the differences in their clustering properties and the importance of HI-selected samples in contributing to the understanding of apparent conflicts between observation and theory on the abundance of low mass halos. The last section of this paper provides an overview of currently ongoing and planned surveys which will explore the cosmic evolution of properties of the HI population.

  3. Effects of Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terry Brown; Jeffrey Morris; Patrick Richards; Joel Mason

    2010-09-30

    Demonstrating effective treatment technologies and beneficial uses for oil and gas produced water is essential for producers who must meet environmental standards and deal with high costs associated with produced water management. Proven, effective produced-water treatment technologies coupled with comprehensive data regarding blending ratios for productive long-term irrigation will improve the state-of-knowledge surrounding produced-water management. Effective produced-water management scenarios such as cost-effective treatment and irrigation will discourage discharge practices that result in legal battles between stakeholder entities. The goal of this work is to determine the optimal blending ratio required for irrigating crops with CBNG and conventional oil and gas produced water treated by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), or electro-dialysis reversal (EDR) in order to maintain the long term physical integrity of soils and to achieve normal crop production. The soils treated with CBNG produced water were characterized with significantly lower SAR values compared to those impacted with conventional oil and gas produced water. The CBNG produced water treated with RO at the 100% treatment level was significantly different from the untreated produced water, while the 25%, 50% and 75% water treatment levels were not significantly different from the untreated water. Conventional oil and gas produced water treated with EDR and RO showed comparable SAR results for the water treatment technologies. There was no significant difference between the 100% treated produced water and the control (river water). The EDR water treatment resulted with differences at each level of treatment, which were similar to RO treated conventional oil and gas water. The 100% treated water had SAR values significantly lower than the 75% and 50% treatments, which were similar (not significantly different). The results of the greenhouse irrigation study found the differences in biomass production between each soil were significant for Western Wheatgrass and Alfafla. The Sheridan sandy loam soil resulted in the highest production for western wheatgrass and alfalfa while the X-ranch sandy loam had the lowest production rate for both plants. Plant production levels resulting from untreated CBNG produced water were significantly higher compared to untreated conventional oil and gas produced water. However, few differences were found between water treatments. The biomass produced from the greenhouse study was analyzed for elemental composition and for forage value. Elemental composition indentified several interesting findings. Some of the biomass was characterized with seemly high boron and sodium levels. High levels of boron found in some of the biomass was unexpected and may indicate that alfalfa and western wheatgrass plants may have been impacted by either soil or irrigation water containing high boron levels. Plants irrigated with water treated using EDR technology appeared to contain higher levels of boron with increased levels of treatment. Forage evaluations were conducted using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. The data collected show small differences, generally less than 10%, between produced water treatments including the no treatment and 100% treatment conditions for each plant species studied. The forage value of alfalfa and western wheatgrass did not show significant tendencies dependent on soil, the amount of produced water treatment, or treatment technology.

  4. Measurement of directional thermal infrared emissivity of vegetation and soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, J.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Soil Science; Balick, L.K. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring directional thermal emissivity as a function of view angle for plant canopies and soils using two infrared thermometers each sensitive to a different wavelength band. By calibrating the two infrared thermometers to 0.1C consistency, canopy directional emissivity can be estimated with typical errors less than 0.005 in the 8--14 um wavelength band, depending on clarity of the sky and corrections for CO{sub 2} absorption by the atmosphere. A theoretical justification for the method is developed along with an error analysis. Laboratory measurements were used to develop corrections for CO{sub 2}, absorption and a field calibration method is used to obtain the necessary 0.1C consistency for relatively low cost infrared thermometers. The emissivity of alfalfa (LAI=2.5) and corn (LAI=3.2) was near 0.995 and independent of view angle. Individual corn leaves had an emissivity of 0.97. A wheat (LAI=3.0) canopy had an emissivity of 0.985 at nadir and 0.975 at 75 degree view angle. The canopy emissivity values tend to be higher than values in the literature, and are useful for converting infrared thermometer measurements to kinetic temperature and interpreting satellite thermal observations.

  5. Functional and structural diversity in GH62 ?-L-arabinofuranosidases from the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kaur, Amrit Pal; Nocek, Boguslaw P.; Xu, Xiaohui; Lowden, Michael J.; Leyva, Juan Francisco; Stogios, Peter J.; Cui, Hong; Leo, Rosa Di; Powlowski, Justin; Tsang, Adrian; et al

    2015-05-01

    The genome of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum (strain CBS 625.91) harbours a wide range of genes involved in carbohydrate degradation, including three genes, abf62A, abf62B and abf62C, predicted to encode glycoside hydrolase family 62 (GH62) enzymes. Transcriptome analysis showed that only abf62A and abf62C are actively expressed during growth on diverse substrates including straws from barley, alfalfa, triticale and canola. The abf62A and abf62C genes were expressed in Escherichia coli and the resulting recombinant proteins were characterized. Calcium-free crystal structures of Abf62C in apo and xylotriose bound forms were determined to 1.23 and 1.48 Å resolution respectively. Site-directed mutagenesismore »confirmed Asp55, Asp171 and Glu230 as catalytic triad residues, and revealed the critical role of non-catalytic residues Asp194, Trp229 and Tyr338 in positioning the scissile ?-L-arabinofuranoside bond at the catalytic site. Further, the +2R substrate-binding site residues Tyr168 and Asn339, as well as the +2NR residue Tyr226, are involved in accommodating long-chain xylan polymers. Overall, our structural and functional analysis highlights characteristic differences between Abf62A and Abf62C, which represent divergent subgroups in the GH62 family.« less

  6. Transfer Factors for Contaminant Uptake by Fruit and Nut Trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Minc, Leah D.

    2013-11-20

    Transfer of radionuclides from soils into plants is one of the key mechanisms for long-term contamination of the human food chain. Nearly all computer models that address soil-to-plant uptake of radionuclides use empirically-derived transfer factors to address this process. Essentially all available soil-to-plant transfer factors are based on measurements in annual crops. Because very few measurements are available for tree fruits, samples were taken of alfalfa and oats and the stems, leaves, and fruits and nuts of almond, apple, apricot, carob, fig, grape, nectarine, pecan, pistachio (natural and grafted), and pomegranate, along with local surface soil. The samples were dried, ground, weighed, and analyzed for trace constituents through a combination of induction-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis for a wide range of naturally-occurring elements. Analysis results are presented and converted to soil-to-plant transfer factors. These are compared to commonly used and internationally recommended values. Those determined for annual crops are very similar to commonly-used values; those determined for tree fruits show interesting differences. Most macro- and micronutrients are slightly reduced in fruits; non-essential elements are reduced further. These findings may be used in existing computer models and may allow development of tree-fruit-specific transfer models.

  7. Fuel alcohol production from agricultural lignocellulosic feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farina, G.E.; Barrier, J.W.; Forsythe, M.L. )

    1988-01-01

    A two-stage, low-temperature, ambient pressure, acid hydrolysis process that utilizes separate unit operations to convert hemicellulose and cellulose in agricultural residues and crops to fermentable sugars is being developed and tested. Based on the results of the bench-scale tests, an acid hydrolysis experimental plant to demonstrate the concepts of low-temperature acid hydrolysis on a much larger scale was built. Plant tests using corn stover have been conducted for more that a year and conversion efficiences have equaled those achieved in the laboratory. Laboratory tests to determine the potential for low-temperature acid hydrolysis of other feedstocks - including red clover, alfalfa, kobe lespedeza, winter rape, and rye grass - are being conducted. Where applicable, process modifications to include extraction before or after hydrolysis also are being studied. This paper describes the experimental plant and process, results obtained in the plant, results of alternative feedstocks testing in the laboratory, and a plan for an integrated system that will produce other fuels, feed, and food from crops grown on marginal land.

  8. When is Stacking Confusing?: The Impact of Confusion on Stacking in Deep HI Galaxy Surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Michael G; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Papastergis, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytic model to predict the HI mass contributed by confused sources to a stacked spectrum in a generic HI survey. Based on the ALFALFA correlation function, this model is in agreement with the estimates of confusion present in stacked Parkes telescope data, and was used to predict how confusion will limit stacking in the deepest SKA-precursor HI surveys. Stacking with LADUMA and DINGO UDEEP data will only be mildly impacted by confusion if their target synthesised beam size of 10 arcsec can be achieved. Any beam size significantly above this will result in stacks that contain a mass in confused sources that is comparable to (or greater than) that which is detectable via stacking, at all redshifts. CHILES' 5 arcsec resolution is more than adequate to prevent confusion influencing stacking of its data, throughout its bandpass range. FAST will be the most impeded by confusion, with HI surveys likely becoming heavily confused much beyond z = 0.1. The largest uncertainties in our model are the reds...

  9. Agricultural Industry Advanced Vehicle Technology: Benchmark Study for Reduction in Petroleum Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roger Hoy

    2014-09-01

    Diesel use on farms in the United States has remained relatively constant since 1985, decreasing slightly in 2009, which may be attributed to price increases and the economic recession. During this time, the United States’ harvested area also has remained relatively constant at roughly 300 million acres. In 2010, farm diesel use was 5.4% of the total United States diesel use. Crops accounting for an estimated 65% of United States farm diesel use include corn, soybean, wheat, hay, and alfalfa, respectively, based on harvested crop area and a recent analysis of estimated fuel use by crop. Diesel use in these cropping systems primarily is from tillage, harvest, and various other operations (e.g., planting and spraying) (Figure 3). Diesel efficiency is markedly variable due to machinery types, conditions of operation (e.g., soil type and moisture), and operator variability. Farm diesel use per acre has slightly decreased in the last two decades and diesel is now estimated to be less than 5% of farm costs per acre. This report will explore current trends in increasing diesel efficiency in the farm sector. The report combines a survey of industry representatives, a review of literature, and data analysis to identify nascent technologies for increasing diesel efficiency

  10. A Study in Blue: The Baryon Content of Isolated Low Mass Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradford, Jeremy D; Blanton, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    We study the baryon content of low mass galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR8), focusing on galaxies in isolated environments where the complicating physics of galaxy-galaxy interactions are minimized. We measure neutral hydrogen (HI) gas masses and line-widths for 148 isolated galaxies with stellar mass between $10^7$ and $10^{9.5} M_{\\odot}$. We compare isolated low mass galaxies to more massive galaxies and galaxies in denser environments by remeasuring HI emission lines from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey 40% data release. All isolated low mass galaxies either have large atomic gas fractions or large atomic gas fractions cannot be ruled out via their upper limits. We measure a median atomic gas fraction of $f_{\\rm gas} = 0.82 \\pm 0.13$ for our isolated low mass sample with no systems below 0.30. At all stellar masses, the correlations between galaxy radius, baryonic mass and velocity width are not significantly affected by environment. Finally, we estimate a median b...

  11. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

  12. Mulching as a countermeasure for crop contamination within the 30 km zone of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yera, T.S.; Vallejo, R.; Tent, J.; Rauret, G. [Univ. de Barcelona (Spain); Omelyanenko, N.; Ivanov, Y. [Ukrainian Inst. of Agricultural Radiology, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1999-03-15

    The effect of mulch soil cover on crop contamination by {sup 137}Cs was studied within the 30 km zone of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Experiments were performed with oats (Avena sativa) over a three year period. In 1992 soil surface was covered by a plastic net. In 1993 two straw mulch treatments were applied at a dose rate of 200 g m{sup {minus}2} using {sup 137}Cs contaminated and clean straw, respectively. A similar mulch treatment was applied in 1994, and two mulch doses of clean straw were tested. Protection of the soil with a plastic net significantly increased crop yield and reduced crop contamination. When clean straw was used as a mulch layer, a significant decrease of about 30--40% in {sup 137}Cs activity concentration was observed. Mulching with {sup 137}Cs contaminated straw did not reduce crop contamination, probably due to an increase in soil available {sup 137}Cs released from the contaminated mulch. Mulching has been shown to be an effective treatment both for reducing {sup 137}Cs plant contamination and improving crop yield. Therefore, it can be considered as a potential countermeasure in a post-accident situation.

  13. HIghMass-high H I mass, H I-rich galaxies at z ? 0 sample definition, optical and H? imaging, and star formation properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Shan; Matsushita, Satoki [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Jones, Michael G.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Chengalur, Jayaram N. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Pune 411007 (India); Hunt, Leslie K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo East Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Masters, Karen L. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth POI 3FX (United Kingdom); Saintonge, Amelie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Spekkens, Kristine, E-mail: shan@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Royal Military College of Canada, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2014-09-20

    We present first results of the study of a set of exceptional H I sources identified in the 40% ALFALFA extragalactic H I survey catalog ?.40 as both being H I massive (M{sub HI}>10{sup 10} M{sub ?}) and having high gas fractions for their stellar masses: the HIghMass galaxy sample. We analyze UV- and optical-broadband and H? images to understand the nature of their relatively underluminous disks in optical and to test whether their high gas fractions can be tracked to higher dark matter halo spin parameters or late gas accretion. Estimates of their star formation rates (SFRs) based on spectral energy distribution fitting agree within uncertainties with the H? luminosity inferred current massive SFRs. The H II region luminosity functions, parameterized as dN/dlog L?L {sup ?}, have standard slopes at the luminous end (? ? –1). The global SFRs demonstrate that the HIghMass galaxies exhibit active ongoing star formation (SF) with moderate SF efficiency but, relative to normal spirals, a lower integrated SFR in the past. Because the SF activity in these systems is spread throughout their extended disks, they have overall lower SFR surface densities and lower surface brightness in the optical bands. Relative to normal disk galaxies, the majority of HIghMass galaxies have higher H? equivalent widths and are bluer in their outer disks, implying an inside-out disk growth scenario. Downbending double exponential disks are more frequent than upbending disks among the gas-rich galaxies, suggesting that SF thresholds exist in the downbending disks, probably as a result of concentrated gas distribution.

  14. Functional and structural diversity in GH62 ?-L-arabinofuranosidases from the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Amrit Pal [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry.; Nocek, Boguslaw P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Structureal Biology Center.; Xu, Xiaohui [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry.; Lowden, Michael J. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics.; Leyva, Juan Francisco [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics.; Stogios, Peter J. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry.; Cui, Hong [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry.; Leo, Rosa Di [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry.; Powlowski, Justin [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics and Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry.; Tsang, Adrian [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics and Dept. of Biology.; Savchenko, Alexei [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry.

    2014-05-01

    The genome of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum (strain CBS 625.91) harbours a wide range of genes involved in carbohydrate degradation, including three genes, abf62A, abf62B and abf62C, predicted to encode glycoside hydrolase family 62 (GH62) enzymes. Transcriptome analysis showed that only abf62A and abf62C are actively expressed during growth on diverse substrates including straws from barley, alfalfa, triticale and canola. The abf62A and abf62C genes were expressed in Escherichia coli and the resulting recombinant proteins were characterized. Calcium-free crystal structures of Abf62C in apo and xylotriose bound forms were determined to 1.23 and 1.48 Å resolution respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed Asp55, Asp171 and Glu230 as catalytic triad residues, and revealed the critical role of non-catalytic residues Asp194, Trp229 and Tyr338 in positioning the scissile ?-L-arabinofuranoside bond at the catalytic site. Further, the +2R substrate-binding site residues Tyr168 and Asn339, as well as the +2NR residue Tyr226, are involved in accommodating long-chain xylan polymers. Overall, our structural and functional analysis highlights characteristic differences between Abf62A and Abf62C, which represent divergent subgroups in the GH62 family.

  15. Functional and structural diversity in GH62 ?-L-arabinofuranosidases from the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaur, Amrit Pal [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry.; Nocek, Boguslaw P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Structureal Biology Center.; Xu, Xiaohui [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry.; Lowden, Michael J. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics.; Leyva, Juan Francisco [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics.; Stogios, Peter J. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry.; Cui, Hong [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry.; Leo, Rosa Di [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry.; Powlowski, Justin [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics and Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry.; Tsang, Adrian [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Centre for Structural and Functional Genomics and Dept. of Biology.; Savchenko, Alexei [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry.

    2014-09-29

    The genome of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum (strain CBS 625.91) harbours a wide range of genes involved in carbohydrate degradation, including three genes, abf62A, abf62B and abf62C, predicted to encode glycoside hydrolase family 62 (GH62) enzymes. Transcriptome analysis showed that only abf62A and abf62C are actively expressed during growth on diverse substrates including straws from barley, alfalfa, triticale and canola. The abf62A and abf62C genes were expressed in Escherichia coli and the resulting recombinant proteins were characterized. Calcium-free crystal structures of Abf62C in apo and xylotriose bound forms were determined to 1.23 and 1.48 Å resolution respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed Asp55, Asp171 and Glu230 as catalytic triad residues, and revealed the critical role of non-catalytic residues Asp194, Trp229 and Tyr338 in positioning the scissile ?-L-arabinofuranoside bond at the catalytic site. Further, the +2R substrate-binding site residues Tyr168 and Asn339, as well as the +2NR residue Tyr226, are involved in accommodating long-chain xylan polymers. Overall, our structural and functional analysis highlights characteristic differences between Abf62A and Abf62C, which represent divergent subgroups in the GH62 family.

  16. Soil-to-Plant Concentration Ratios for Assessing Food Chain Pathways in Biosphere Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Fellows, Robert J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes work performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s project Assessment of Food Chain Pathway Parameters in Biosphere Models, which was established to assess and evaluate a number of key parameters used in the food-chain models used in performance assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities. Section 2 of this report summarizes characteristics of samples of soils and groundwater from three geographical regions of the United States, the Southeast, Northwest, and Southwest, and analyses performed to characterize their physical and chemical properties. Because the uptake and behavior of radionuclides in plant roots, plant leaves, and animal products depends on the chemistry of the water and soil coming in contact with plants and animals, water and soil samples collected from these regions of the United States were used in experiments at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to determine radionuclide soil-to-plant concentration ratios. Crops and forage used in the experiments were grown in the soils, and long-lived radionuclides introduced into the groundwater provide the contaminated water used to water the grown plants. The radionuclides evaluated include 99Tc, 238Pu, and 241Am. Plant varieties include alfalfa, corn, onion, and potato. The radionuclide uptake results from this research study show how regional variations in water quality and soil chemistry affect radionuclide uptake. Section 3 summarizes the procedures and results of the uptake experiments, and relates the soil-to-plant uptake factors derived. In Section 4, the results found in this study are compared with similar values found in the biosphere modeling literature; the study’s results are generally in line with current literature, but soil- and plant-specific differences are noticeable. This food-chain pathway data may be used by the NRC staff to assess dose to persons in the reference biosphere (e.g., persons who live and work in an area potentially affected by radionuclide releases) of waste disposal facilities and decommissioning sites.

  17. Geothermal source potential and utilization for methane generation and alcohol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating a geothermally heated anaerobic digester with a fuel alcohol plant and cattle feedlot. Thin stillage produced from the alcohol production process and manure collected from the cattle feedlot would be digested in anaerobic digesters to produce biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, and residue. The energy requirements to maintain proper digester temperatures would be provided by geothermal water. The biogas produced in the digesters would be burned in a boiler to produce low-pressure steam which would be used in the alcohol production process. The alcohol plant would be sized so that the distiller's grains byproduct resulting from the alcohol production would be adequate to supply the daily cattle feed requirements. A portion of the digester residue would substitute for alfalfa hay in the cattle feedlot ration. The major design criterion for the integrated facilty was the production of adequate distiller's grain to supply the daily requirements of 1700 head of cattle. It was determined that, for a ration of 7 pounds of distiller's grain per head per day, a 1 million gpy alcohol facility would be required. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared for the proposed project, operating costs were calculated for a facility based on a corn feedstock, the economic feasibility of the proposed project was examined by calculating its simple payback, and an analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity of the project's economic viability to variations in feedstock costs and alcohol and distiller's grain prices.

  18. Biomass Biorefinery for the production of Polymers and Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Oliver P. Peoples

    2008-05-05

    The conversion of biomass crops to fuel is receiving considerable attention as a means to reduce our dependence on foreign oil imports and to meet future energy needs. Besides their use for fuel, biomass crops are an attractive vehicle for producing value added products such as biopolymers. Metabolix, Inc. of Cambridge proposes to develop methods for producing biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in green tissue plants as well as utilizating residual plant biomass after polymer extraction for fuel generation to offset the energy required for polymer extraction. The primary plant target is switchgrass, and backup targets are alfalfa and tobacco. The combined polymer and fuel production from the transgenic biomass crops establishes a biorefinery that has the potential to reduce the nation’s dependence on foreign oil imports for both the feedstocks and energy needed for plastic production. Concerns about the widespread use of transgenic crops and the grower’s ability to prevent the contamination of the surrounding environment with foreign genes will be addressed by incorporating and expanding on some of the latest plant biotechnology developed by the project partners of this proposal. This proposal also addresses extraction of PHAs from biomass, modification of PHAs so that they have suitable properties for large volume polymer applications, processing of the PHAs using conversion processes now practiced at large scale (e.g., to film, fiber, and molded parts), conversion of PHA polymers to chemical building blocks, and demonstration of the usefulness of PHAs in large volume applications. The biodegradability of PHAs can also help to reduce solid waste in our landfills. If successful, this program will reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as contribute jobs and revenue to the agricultural economy and reduce the overall emissions of carbon to the atmosphere.

  19. Analysis of Factors Controlling Cell Cycle that Can Be Synchronized Nondestructively During Root Cap Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martha Hawes

    2011-02-04

    Publications and presentations during the final funding period, including progress in defining the substrate specificity, the primary goal of the project, are listed below. Both short-term and long-term responses mediated by PsUGT1 have been characterized in transgenic or mutant pea, alfalfa, and Arabidopsis with altered expression of PsUGT1. Additional progress includes evaluation of the relationship between control of the cell cycle by PsUGT1 and other glycosyltransferase and glycosidase enzymes that are co-regulated in the legume root cap during the onset of mitosis and differentiation. Transcriptional profiling and multidimensional protein identification technology ('MudPIT') have been used to establish the broader molecular context for the mechanism by which PsUGT1 controls cell cycle in response to environmental signals. A collaborative study with the Norwegian Forest Research Institute (who provided $10,000.00 in supplies and travel funds for collaborator Dr. Toril Eldhuset to travel to Arizona and Dr. H. H. Woo to travel to Norway) made it possible to establish that the inducible root cap system for studying carbohydrate synthesis and solubilization is expressed in gymnosperm as well as angiosperm species. This discovery provides an important tool to amplify the potential applications of the research in defining conserved cell cycle machinery across a very broad range of plant species and habitats. The final work, published during 2009, revealed an additional surprising parallel with mammalian immune responses: The cells whose production is controlled by PsUGT1 appear to function in a manner which is analogous to that of white blood cells, by trapping and killing in an extracellular manner. This may explain why mutation within the coding region of PsUGT1 and its homolog in humans (UGT1) is lethal to plants and animals. The work has been the subject of invited reviews. A postdoctoral fellow, eight undergraduate students, four M.S. students and three Ph.D. students have been supported.

  20. Functional properties and structural characterization of rice ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Zarattini, Marco; Funck, Dietmar; Ruszkowski, Milosz; Nocek, Bogus?aw

    2015-07-28

    The majority of plant species accumulate high intracellular levels of proline to cope with hyperosmotic stress conditions. Proline synthesis from glutamate is tightly regulated at both the transcriptional and the translational levels, yet little is known about the mechanisms for post-translational regulation of the enzymatic activities involved. The gene coding in rice (Oryza sativa L.) for ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the second and final step in this pathway, was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli. The structural and functional properties of the affinity-purified protein were characterized. As for most species, rice P5C reductase was able to usemore »in vitro either NADH or NADPH as the electron donor. However, strikingly different effects of cations and anions were found depending on the pyridine nucleotide used, namely inhibition of NADH-dependent activity and stimulation of NADPH-dependent activity. Moreover, physiological concentrations of proline and NADP+ were strongly inhibitory for the NADH-dependent reaction, whereas the NADPH-dependent activity was mildly affected. Our results suggest that only NADPH may be used in vivo and that stress-dependent variations in ion homeostasis and NADPH/NADP+ ratio could modulate enzyme activity, being functional in promoting proline accumulation and potentially also adjusting NADPH consumption during the defense against hyperosmotic stress. The apparent molecular weight of the native protein observed in size exclusion chromatography indicated a high oligomerization state. We also report the first crystal structure of a plant P5C reductase at 3.40-Å resolution, showing a decameric quaternary assembly. It was possible to identify dynamic structural differences among rice, human, and bacterial enzymes.« less

  1. Coal fly ash and phospho-gypsum mixture as an amendment to improve rice paddy soil fertility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Y.B.; Ha, H.S.; Lee, C.H.; Kim, P.J.

    2008-04-15

    Rice is a plant that requires high levels of silica (Si). As a silicate NOD source to rice, coal fly ash (hereafter, fly ash), which has an alkaline pH and high available silicate and boron (B) contents, was mixed with phosphor-gypsum (hereafter, gypsum, 50%, wt wt{sup -1}), a by-product from the production of phosphate fertilizer, to improve the fly ash limitation. Field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of the mixture on soil properties and rice (Oryza sativa) productivity in silt loam (SiL) and loamy sand (LS) soils to which 0 (FG 0), 20 (FG 20), 40 (FG 40), and 60 (FG 60) Mg ha{sup -1} were added. The mixture increased the amount of available silicate and exchangeable calcium (Ca) contents in the soils and the uptake of silicate by rice plant. The mixture did not result in accumulation of heavy metals in soil and an excessive uptake of heavy metals by the rice grain. The available boron content in soil increased with the mixture application levels up to 1.42 mg kg{sup -1} following the application of 60 Mg ha{sup -1} but did not show toxicity. The mixture increased significantly rice yield and showed the highest yields following the addition of 30-40 Mg ha{sup -1} in two soils. It is concluded that the fly ash and gypsum mixture could be a good source of inorganic soil amendments to restore the soil nutrient balance in rice paddy soil.

  2. Root-Uptake of C-14 Acetic Acid by Various Plants and C-14 Dynamics Surrounding the Experimental Tessera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogiyama, S.; Takeda, H.; Uchida, S.; Suzuki, H.; Inubushi, K.

    2008-07-01

    Carbon-14 (C-14, t{sub 1/2} = 5.73x10{sup 3} yrs) from radioactive waste is one of the most important radioactive nuclides for environmental assessment in the context of geological disposal, and understanding the transfer of radioactive elements to plants is essential for public health safety. In order to obtain fundamental knowledge, culture experiments using marigold (Tagetes patula L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea S.), paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and carrot (Daucus carota L.) plants were conducted to examine root-uptake and dynamics of C-14 in the laboratory. The C-14 radioactivity in each plant part (e.g. shoot, root, edible part, etc.), medium (e.g. culture solution, sand, etc.), and air was determined. The distribution of C-14 in the plants was visualized using autoradiography. For a comparison, autoradiography was also done using Na-22. Results of the present study indicated that C-14 labeled CO{sub 2} gas was released from the culture solution to the atmosphere. Clear autoradiography images were observed in plants for the shoots and lower roots which were soaked in the culture solution. The upper roots which were not soaked in the culture solution were not clearly imaged. In the radiotracer experiment using Na-22, a clear image was observed for the whole carrot seedling, even including the upper root, on the autoradiography. However, the amounts of C-14 acetic acid absorbed by all the plants through their roots were considered to be very small. Inorganic carbon transformed from C-14 acetic acid would be taken up by plants through the roots, and some fraction of C-14 would be assimilated into the shoots by photosynthesis. (authors)

  3. TASK 3.4--IMPACTS OF COFIRING BIOMASS WITH FOSSIL FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Melanie D. Hetland; Mark A. Musich; Charlene R. Crocker; Jonas Dahl; Stacie Laducer

    2001-08-01

    With a major worldwide effort now ongoing to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, cofiring of renewable biomass fuels at conventional coal-fired utilities is seen as one of the lower-cost options to achieve such reductions. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has undertaken a fundamental study to address the viability of cofiring biomass with coal in a pulverized coal (pc)-fired boiler for power production. Wheat straw, alfalfa stems, and hybrid poplar were selected as candidate biomass materials for blending at a 20 wt% level with an Illinois bituminous coal and an Absaloka subbituminous coal. The biomass materials were found to be easily processed by shredding and pulverizing to a size suitable for cofiring with pc in a bench-scale downfired furnace. A literature investigation was undertaken on mineral uptake and storage by plants considered for biomass cofiring in order to understand the modes of occurrence of inorganic elements in plant matter. Sixteen essential elements, C, H, O, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, B, Mo, and Cl, are found throughout plants. The predominant inorganic elements are K and Ca, which are essential to the function of all plant cells and will, therefore, be evenly distributed throughout the nonreproductive, aerial portions of herbaceous biomass. Some inorganic constituents, e.g., N, P, Ca, and Cl, are organically associated and incorporated into the structure of the plant. Cell vacuoles are the repository for excess ions in the plant. Minerals deposited in these ubiquitous organelles are expected to be most easily leached from dry material. Other elements may not have specific functions within the plant, but are nevertheless absorbed and fill a need, such as silica. Other elements, such as Na, are nonessential, but are deposited throughout the plant. Their concentration will depend entirely on extrinsic factors regulating their availability in the soil solution, i.e., moisture and soil content. Similarly, Cl content is determined less by the needs of the plant than by the availability in the soil solution; in addition to occurring naturally, Cl is present in excess as the anion complement in K fertilizer applications. An analysis was performed on existing data for switchgrass samples from ten different farms in the south-central portion of Iowa, with the goal of determining correlations between switchgrass elemental composition and geographical and seasonal changes so as to identify factors that influence the elemental composition of biomass. The most important factors in determining levels of various chemical compounds were found to be seasonal and geographical differences related to soil conditions. Combustion testing was performed to obtain deposits typical of boiler fouling and slagging conditions as well as fly ash. Analysis methods using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy and chemical fractionation were applied to determine the composition and association of inorganic materials in the biomass samples. Modified sample preparation techniques and mineral quantification procedures using cluster analysis were developed to characterize the inorganic material in these samples. Each of the biomass types exhibited different inorganic associations in the fuel as well as in the deposits and fly ash. Morphological analyses of the wheat straw show elongated 10-30-{micro}m amorphous silica particles or phytoliths in the wheat straw structure. Alkali such as potassium, calcium, and sodium is organically bound and dispersed in the organic structure of the biomass materials. Combustion test results showed that the blends fed quite evenly, with good burnout. Significant slag deposit formation was observed for the 100% wheat straw, compared to bituminous and subbituminous coals burned under similar conditions. Although growing rapidly, the fouling deposits of the biomass and coal-biomass blends were significantly weaker than those of the coals. Fouling was only slightly worse for the 100% wheat straw fuel compared to the coals. The wheat straw ash was found to show the greatest similar