National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for alder maple willows

  1. Sediment Control: Willows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sediment Control: Willows Sediment Control: Willows LANL recently planted 10,000 willows and constructed wing ditches to increase sediment retention in Pueblo and Los Alamos canyons. August 1, 2013 Willows: Fall 2010 Willows: Fall 2010

  2. Sediment Control: Willows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sediment Control: Willows Sediment Control: Willows LANL recently planted 10,000 willows and constructed wing ditches to increase sediment retention in Pueblo and Los Alamos...

  3. Los Alamos plants willows for flood recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plants willows Los Alamos plants willows for flood recovery The Laboratory's Corrective Actions Program (CAP) planted nearly 10,000 willows to help preserve the Pueblo Canyon wetland after damage from September 2013 floods. June 18, 2014 In a flood recovery effort designed to stop further erosion in Pueblo Canyon, in April, Los Alamos planted nearly 10,000 willows along the stream banks surrounding the wetland. In a flood recovery effort designed to stop further erosion in Pueblo Canyon, Los

  4. Shanghai Maple Tongji University hybrid automobile research partnershi...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    An agreement between Shanghai Maple and Tongji University to produce hybrid cars for marketing by 2008. References: Shanghai Maple - Tongji University hybrid automobile research...

  5. Matrix Agro Pvt Ltd MAPL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Matrix Agro Pvt Ltd MAPL Jump to: navigation, search Name: Matrix Agro Pvt. Ltd. (MAPL) Place: Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India Zip: 500034 Sector: Biomass Product: Hyderabad-based...

  6. Suzhou Red Maple Wind Blade Mould Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Red Maple Wind Blade Mould Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Suzhou Red Maple Wind Blade Mould Co Place: Jiangsu Province, China Zip: 215400 Sector: Wind energy Product: Jiangsu...

  7. Alder Mutual Light Co, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alder Mutual Light Co, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Alder Mutual Light Co, Inc Address: 52124 WA-7 Place: Eatonville, WA Zip: 98328 Service Territory: WA Phone Number:...

  8. MHK Projects/White Alder Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Mitigation Efforts See Tethys << Return to the MHK database homepage Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMHKProjectsWhiteAlderProject&oldid679556...

  9. Definite Integrals, Some Involving Residue Theory Evaluated by Maple Code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, Kimiko o [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The calculus of residue is applied to evaluate certain integrals in the range (-{infinity} to {infinity}) using the Maple symbolic code. These integrals are of the form {integral}{sub -{infinity}}{sup {infinity}} cos(x)/[(x{sup 2} + a{sup 2})(x{sup 2} + b{sup 2}) (x{sup 2} + c{sup 2})]dx and similar extensions. The Maple code is also applied to expressions in maximum likelihood estimator moments when sampling from the negative binomial distribution. In general the Maple code approach to the integrals gives correct answers to specified decimal places, but the symbolic result may be extremely long and complex.

  10. Maple Valley, Washington: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Maple Valley is a city in King County, Washington. It falls under Washington's 8th congressional district.12...

  11. Maple Heights-Lake Desire, Washington: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    help OpenEI by expanding it. Maple Heights-Lake Desire is a census-designated place in King County, Washington.1 References US Census Bureau 2005 Place to 2006 CBSA...

  12. Maple Glen, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Maple Glen is a census-designated place in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania.1 References US Census Bureau 2005 Place to 2006 CBSA...

  13. Willow firing in retrofitted Irish peat plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broek, R. van den; Faaij, A.; Kent, T.

    1995-11-01

    Interest in biomass electricity in Ireland is being re-awakened by environmental concerns about CO{sub 2} emissions from power generation and the potential of biomass production to provide an alternative agricultural enterprise. The technical and economical feasibility of wood-fuelled power production using willow from energy farming in existing peat-fired plants in Ireland is being studied within the framework of the EU JOULE II+ programme. These options are compared with new combustion plants and a biomass integrated gasifier with combined cycle (BIG/CC). Background studies supplied data for yields of willow farming, establishment of willow plantations, harvesting methods, logistics and costs and efficiencies for different retrofit options at Irish peat plants. All technologies considered are currently available or are expected to be available in the near future. Neither agricultural subsidies nor possible CO{sub 2} taxes have been included. In the least cost supply scenario storage and chipping of wood is done at the power station. In this case wood is only stored in the form of sticks and wood harvested by a chips harvester is supplied to the plant directly during the harvesting season. Fuel costs at the plant gate were estimated between 3.3 and 11 EGU/GJ{sub LHV}. This wide range resulted in a wide range of kWh costs. For the lowest cost option they ranged between 5.4 and 15 ECUcents/kWh. The cheapest proven retrofit option is the conversion of the existing milled peat Lanesborough unit 3 into a bubbling fluidized bed with kWh costs ranging from 5.6 up to 16 ECUcents/kWh. For this plant, costs per tonne of avoided CO{sub 2} emissions varied between 1 and 70 ECU. It is noteworthy that the kWh costs for all options considered were very close. Especially in the high costs scenario a BIG/CC appeared to have lower kWh cost than all biomass combustion plants. Mainly for the retrofitted plants the fuel costs were by far the largest kWh cost component.

  14. Willow Springs, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Willow Springs is a village in Cook County and DuPage County, Illinois. It falls under Illinois' 3rd...

  15. Red Willow County, Nebraska: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hide Map This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Red Willow County is a county in Nebraska. Its FIPS County Code is 145. It is classified as...

  16. Willow Grove, Pennsylvania: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Willow Grove is a census-designated place in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania.1 References US Census Bureau 2005 Place to 2006 CBSA...

  17. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Canastota`

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-05-15

    A distinct male cultivar of Salix sachalinensis.times.S. miyabeana named `Canastota`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 2.7-fold more woody biomass than its female parent (Salix sachalinensis `SX61`), 28% greater woody biomass yield than its male parent (Salix miyabeana `SX64`), and 20% greater woody biomass yield than a standard production cultivar, Salix dasyclados `SV1` when grown in the same field for the same length of time (two growing seasons after coppice) in Tully, N.Y. `Canastota` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. `Canastota` displays a low incidence of rust disease or damage by willow sawfly.

  18. Efficient utilization of red maple lumber in glued-laminated timber beams. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janowiak, J.J.; Manbeck, H.B.; Hernandez, R.; Moody, R.C.; Blankenhorn, P.R.

    1995-09-01

    The feasibility of utilizing cant-sawn hardwood lumber, which would not usually be desired for furniture manufacture, was studied for the manufacture of structural glue-laminated (glulam) timber. Two red maple beam combinations were evaluated. Test results of 42 red maple glulam beams showed that it was feasible to develop structural glulam timber from cant-swan lumber. The glulam combinations made from E-rated lumber exceeded the target design bending stress of 2,400 lb/in 2 and met the target modulus of elasticity (MOE) of 1.8 x 106 lb/in 2.

  19. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    Today`s notice announces BPA`s proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA`s obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  20. DESIGNING AN OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2003-07-01

    During the period April 1, 2003--June 30, 2003, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) proceeded with demonstration operations at the Willow Island Generating Station and improvements to the Albright Generating Station cofiring systems. The demonstration operations at Willow Island were designed to document integration of biomass cofiring into commercial operations. The Albright improvements were designed to increase the resource base for the projects, and to address issues that came up during the first year of operations. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations.

  1. Characterization of vanadium ion uptake in sulfonated diels alder poly(phenylene) membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawton, Jamie; Jones, Amanda; Tang, Zhijiang; Lindsey, Melanie; Zawodzinski, Thomas A

    2015-11-28

    Sulfonated diels alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP), alternative aromatic hydrocarbon membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are characterized using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Membranes soaked in sulfuric acid and vanadyl sulfate are analyzed to determine the membrane environment in which the vanadyl ion (VO2+) diffuses in the membranes. These results are compared to Nafion 117 membranes. In contrast to Nafion, the VO2+ in SDAPP membranes exists in two different environments. The results of analysis of rotational diffusion determined from fits the EPR spectral lineshapes in comparison with previously reported permeation studies and measurements of partitioning functions reported here suggest that the diffusion pathways in SDAPP are very different than in Nafion.

  2. Characterization of vanadium ion uptake in sulfonated diels alder poly(phenylene) membranes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lawton, Jamie; Jones, Amanda; Tang, Zhijiang; Lindsey, Melanie; Zawodzinski, Thomas A

    2015-11-28

    Sulfonated diels alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP), alternative aromatic hydrocarbon membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are characterized using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Membranes soaked in sulfuric acid and vanadyl sulfate are analyzed to determine the membrane environment in which the vanadyl ion (VO2+) diffuses in the membranes. These results are compared to Nafion 117 membranes. In contrast to Nafion, the VO2+ in SDAPP membranes exists in two different environments. The results of analysis of rotational diffusion determined from fits the EPR spectral lineshapes in comparison with previously reported permeation studies and measurements of partitioning functions reported here suggest that themore » diffusion pathways in SDAPP are very different than in Nafion.« less

  3. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hesse, Cedar N.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Zak, Donald R.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-04-23

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes)more » in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact.« less

  4. Forest floor community metatranscriptomes identify fungal and bacterial responses to N deposition in two maple forests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesse, Cedar N.; Mueller, Rebecca C.; Vuyisich, Momchilo; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Gleasner, Cheryl D.; Zak, Donald R.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2015-04-23

    Anthropogenic N deposition alters patterns of C and N cycling in temperate forests, where forest floor litter decomposition is a key process mediated by a diverse community of bacteria and fungi. To track forest floor decomposer activity we generated metatranscriptomes that simultaneously surveyed the actively expressed bacterial and eukaryote genes in the forest floor, to compare the impact of N deposition on the decomposers in two natural maple forests in Michigan, USA, where replicate field plots had been amended with N for 16 years. Site and N amendment responses were compared using about 74,000 carbohydrate active enzyme transcript sequences (CAZymes) in each metatranscriptome. Parallel ribosomal RNA (rRNA) surveys of bacterial and fungal biomass and taxonomic composition showed no significant differences in either biomass or OTU richness between the two sites or in response to N. Site and N amendment were not significant variables defining bacterial taxonomic composition, but they were significant for fungal community composition, explaining 17 and 14% of the variability, respectively. The relative abundance of expressed bacterial and fungal CAZymes changed significantly with N amendment in one of the forests, and N-response trends were also identified in the second forest. Although the two ambient forests were similar in community biomass, taxonomic structure and active CAZyme profile, the shifts in active CAZyme profiles in response to N-amendment differed between the sites. One site responded with an over-expression of bacterial CAZymes, and the other site responded with an over-expression of both fungal and different bacterial CAZymes. Both sites showed reduced representation of fungal lignocellulose degrading enzymes in N-amendment plots. The metatranscriptome approach provided a holistic assessment of eukaryote and bacterial gene expression and is applicable to other systems where eukaryotes and bacteria interact.

  5. Vanadium redox flow battery efficiency and durability studies of sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene)s

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Kim, Soowhan; Stains, Ronald; Wei, Xiaoliang; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-07-01

    Sulfonated Diels Alder poly(phenylene) (SDAPP) was examined for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) use. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) was varied from 1.4, 1.6 and 2.0 meq/g in order to tune the proton conductivity and vanadium permeability. Coulombic efficiencies between 92 to 99% were observed, depending on IEC (lower IEC, higher coulombic efficiencies). In all cases the SDAPP displayed comparable energy efficiencies (88 - 90%) to Nafion 117 (88%) at 50mA/cm2. Membrane durability also was dependent on IEC; SDAPP with the highest IEC lasted slightly over 50 cycles while SDAPP with the lowest IEC lasted over 400 cycles and testing was discontinued only due to time constraints. Accelerated vanadium lifetime studies were initialed with SDAPP, by soaking films in a 0.1 M V5+ and 5.0 M total SO4-2 solution. The rate of degradation was also proportional with IEC; the 2 meq/g sample dissolved within 376 hours, the 1.6 meq/g sample dissolved after 860 hours, while the 1.4 meq/g sample broke apart after 1527 hours.

  6. Diels Alder polyphenylene anion exchange membrane for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Anderson, Travis M.

    2015-10-23

    Here highly conductive, solvent-resistant anionic Diels Alder polyphenylene (DAPP) membranes were synthesized with three different ionic contents and tested in an ionic liquid-based nonaqueous redox flow battery (RFB). These membranes display 3–10× increase in conductivity in propylene carbonate compared to some commercially available (aqueous) anion exchange membranes. The membrane with an ion content of 1.5 meq/g (DAPP1.5) proved too brittle for operation in a RFB, while the membrane with an ion content of 2.5 meq/g (DAPP2.5) allowed excessive movement of solvent and poor electrochemical yields (capacity fade). Despite having lower voltage efficiencies compared to DAPP2.5, the membrane with an intermediatemore » ion content of 2.0 meq/g (DAPP2.0) exhibited higher coulombic efficiencies (96.4% vs. 89.1%) and electrochemical yields (21.6% vs. 10.9%) after 50 cycles. Crossover of the electroactive species was the primary reason for decreased electrochemical yields. Analysis of the anolyte and catholyte revealed degradation of the electroactive species and formation of a film at the membrane-solution interface. Increases in membrane resistance were attributed to mechanical and thermal aging of the membrane; no chemical change was observed. As a result, improvements in the ionic selectivity and ionic conductivity of the membrane will increase the electrochemical yield and voltage efficiency of future nonaqueous redox flow batteries.« less

  7. Diels Alder polyphenylene anion exchange membrane for nonaqueous redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small, Leo J.; Pratt, III, Harry D.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Anderson, Travis M.

    2015-10-23

    Here highly conductive, solvent-resistant anionic Diels Alder polyphenylene (DAPP) membranes were synthesized with three different ionic contents and tested in an ionic liquid-based nonaqueous redox flow battery (RFB). These membranes display 3–10× increase in conductivity in propylene carbonate compared to some commercially available (aqueous) anion exchange membranes. The membrane with an ion content of 1.5 meq/g (DAPP1.5) proved too brittle for operation in a RFB, while the membrane with an ion content of 2.5 meq/g (DAPP2.5) allowed excessive movement of solvent and poor electrochemical yields (capacity fade). Despite having lower voltage efficiencies compared to DAPP2.5, the membrane with an intermediate ion content of 2.0 meq/g (DAPP2.0) exhibited higher coulombic efficiencies (96.4% vs. 89.1%) and electrochemical yields (21.6% vs. 10.9%) after 50 cycles. Crossover of the electroactive species was the primary reason for decreased electrochemical yields. Analysis of the anolyte and catholyte revealed degradation of the electroactive species and formation of a film at the membrane-solution interface. Increases in membrane resistance were attributed to mechanical and thermal aging of the membrane; no chemical change was observed. As a result, improvements in the ionic selectivity and ionic conductivity of the membrane will increase the electrochemical yield and voltage efficiency of future nonaqueous redox flow batteries.

  8. A National Assessment of Promising Areas for Switchgrass, Hybrid Poplar, or Willow Energy Crop Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.; Walsh, M.E.

    1999-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to systematically assess the cropland acreage that could support energy crops and the expected farm gate and delivered prices of energy crops. The assessment is based on output from two modeling approaches: (1) the Oak Ridge County-Level Energy Crop (ORECCL) database (1996 version) and (2) the Oak Ridge Integrated Bioenergy Analysis System (ORIBAS). The former provides county-level estimates of suitable acres, yields, and farmgate prices of energy crops (switchgrass, hybrid poplar, willow) for all fifty states. The latter estimates delivered feedstock prices and quantities within a state at a fine resolution (1 km2) and considers the interplay between transportation costs, farmgate prices, cropland density, and facility demand. It can be used to look at any type of feedstock given the appropriate input parameters. For the purposes of this assessment, ORIBAS has been used to estimate farmgate and delivered switchgrass prices in 11 states (AL, FL, GA, IA, M N, MO, ND, NE, SC, SD, and TN). Because the potential for energy crop production can be considered from several perspectives, and is evolving as policies, economics and our basic understanding of energy crop yields and production costs change, this assessment should be viewed as a snapshot in time.

  9. Full cell study of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) anion and cation exchange membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Fujimoto, Cy; Sun, Che -Nan; Mench, Matthew M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Tang, Z. J.

    2015-11-14

    In this paper, we report on the performance of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries. The membranes were functionalized with quaternary ammonium groups to form an anion exchange membrane (QDAPP) and with sulfonic acid groups to form a cation exchange membrane (SDAPP). Both membrane classes showed similar conductivities in the battery environment, suggesting that the ion conduction mechanism in the material is not strongly affected by the moieties along the polymer backbone. The resistance to vanadium permeation in QDAPP was not improved relative to SDAPP, further suggesting that the polarity of the functional groups do not playmore » a significant role in the membrane materials tested. Both QDAPP and SDAPP outperformed Nafion membranes in cycling tests, with both achieving voltage efficiencies above 85% while maintaining 95% coulombic efficiency while at a current density of 200 mA/cm2.« less

  10. Full cell study of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) anion and cation exchange membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Fujimoto, Cy; Sun, Che -Nan; Mench, Matthew M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Tang, Z. J.

    2015-11-14

    In this paper, we report on the performance of Diels Alder poly(phenylene) membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries. The membranes were functionalized with quaternary ammonium groups to form an anion exchange membrane (QDAPP) and with sulfonic acid groups to form a cation exchange membrane (SDAPP). Both membrane classes showed similar conductivities in the battery environment, suggesting that the ion conduction mechanism in the material is not strongly affected by the moieties along the polymer backbone. The resistance to vanadium permeation in QDAPP was not improved relative to SDAPP, further suggesting that the polarity of the functional groups do not play a significant role in the membrane materials tested. Both QDAPP and SDAPP outperformed Nafion membranes in cycling tests, with both achieving voltage efficiencies above 85% while maintaining 95% coulombic efficiency while at a current density of 200 mA/cm2.

  11. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven split-system cooling equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Schmelzer, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenditures within the federal sector; one such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP)(formerly the Test Bed Demonstration program), seeks to evaluate new energy saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the federal government. This report describes the field evaluation conducted to examine the performance of a 15-ton natural-gas-engine- driven, split-system, air-conditioning unit. The unit was installed at a multiple-use building at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, a regular and reserve training facility north of Philadelphia, and its performance was monitored under the NTDP.

  12. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  13. DESIGNING AND OPPORTUNITY FUEL WITH BIOMASS AND TIRE-DERIVED FUEL FOR COFIRING AT WILLOW ISLAND GENERATING STATION AND COFIRING SAWDUST WITH COAL AT ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2004-06-01

    During the period July 1, 2000-March 31, 2004, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) conducted an extensive demonstration of woody biomass cofiring at its Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. This demonstration, cofunded by USDOE and Allegheny, and supported by the Biomass Interest Group (BIG) of EPRI, evaluated the impacts of sawdust cofiring in both cyclone boilers and tangentially-fired pulverized coal boilers. The cofiring in the cyclone boiler--Willow Island Generating Station Unit No.2--evaluated the impacts of sawdust alone, and sawdust blended with tire-derived fuel. The biomass was blended with the coal on its way to the combustion system. The cofiring in the pulverized coal boiler--Albright Generating Station--evaluated the impact of cofiring on emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) when the sawdust was injected separately into the furnace. The demonstration of woody biomass cofiring involved design, construction, and testing at each site. The results addressed impacts associated with operational issues--capacity, efficiency, and operability--as well as formation and control of airborne emissions such as NO{sub x}, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}2), opacity, and mercury. The results of this extensive program are detailed in this report.

  14. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  15. Maple River Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy, LLC Place: Galva, Iowa Zip: 51020 Product: US-based company that produces biodiesel by processing soybeans at its plant situated in Galva, Iowa. Coordinates:...

  16. Los Alamos plants willows for flood recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structures on Laboratory property. Collaborating with Mother Nature to control sediment migration, ADEP's Corrective Actions Program (CAP) and contractors TerranearPMC and...

  17. Fast-growing shrub willow named `Owasco`

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-07-03

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.Salix miyabeana named `Owasco`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 49% more woody biomass than one of its parents (`SX64`) and 39% more biomass than a current production cultivar (`SV1`). `Otisco` produced greater than 2.7-fold more stem biomass than two other current production cultivars, `SX67` and `SX61`. `Owasco` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. The stem biomass can be chipped and burned as a source of renewable energy, generating heat and/or electricity. `Owasco` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  18. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Oneida`

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P. [Marcellus, NY; Kopp, Richard F. [Marietta, NY; Smart, Lawrence B. [Geneva, NY; Volk, Timothy A. [Syracuse, NY

    2007-05-01

    A distinct male cultivar of Salix purpurea.times.S. miyabeana named `Oneida`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 2.7-times greater woody biomass than one of its parents (`SX67`) and greater than 36% more biomass than current production cultivars (`SV1` and `SX64`). `Oneida` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. The stem biomass can be chipped and burned as a source of renewable energy, generating heat and/or electricity. `Oneida` displays a low incidence of rust disease or damage by beetles or sawflies.

  19. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Otisco`

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-09-11

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.S. miyabeana named `Otisco`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 42% more woody biomass than one of its parents (`SX64`) and 33% more biomass than a current production cultivar (`SV1`). `Otisco` produced greater than 2.5-fold more stem biomass than two other current production cultivars, `SX67` and `SX61`. `Otisco` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. The stem biomass can be chipped and burned as a source of renewable energy, generating heat and/or electricity. `Otisco` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  20. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Millbrook`

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-04-24

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix purpurea.times.Salix miyabeana named `Millbrook`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 9% more woody biomass than one of its parents (`SX64`) and 2% more biomass than a current production cultivar (`SV1`). `Millbrook` produced greater than 2-fold more stem biomass than two other current production cultivars, `SX67` and `SX61`. `Millbrook` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. The stem biomass can be chipped and burned as a source of renewable energy, generating heat and/or electricity. `Millbrook` displays a low incidence of rust disease.

  1. Willow Well Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    75C348.15 K 167 F 626.67 R 1 USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: 1 km 1 USGS Mean Capacity: 1.3 MW 1 Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and...

  2. Maple Park, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Park, Illinois: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.9075282, -88.5992494 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice...

  3. Maple Grove Hot Springs Geothermal Area | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    95C368.15 K 203 F 662.67 R 1 USGS Estimated Reservoir Volume: 1 km 1 USGS Mean Capacity: 4 MW 1 Click "Edit With Form" above to add content History and...

  4. Maple Ridge 1a Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Developer PPM EnergyHorizon Wind Energy Energy Purchaser NYSERDAMarket Location Lewis County NY Coordinates 43.775565, -75.584614 Show Map Loading map......

  5. Maple Ridge Wind Farm (2006 portion) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Developer PPM EnergyHorizon Wind Energy Energy Purchaser NYSERDAMarket Location Lewis County NY Coordinates 43.775565, -75.584614 Show Map Loading map......

  6. Maple Ridge Wind Farm phase II | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Developer 'PPM EnergyHorizon Wind Energy Energy Purchaser NYSERDAMarket Location Lewis County NY Coordinates 43.775565, -75.584614 Show Map Loading map......

  7. Maple Ridge Wind Farm (2005 portion) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Developer 'PPM EnergyHorizon Wind Energy Energy Purchaser NYSERDAMarket Location Lewis County NY Coordinates 43.775565, -75.584614 Show Map Loading map......

  8. Willow Park, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Park, Texas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 32.7626286, -97.6505822 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"...

  9. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Fish Creek`

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-05-08

    A distinct male cultivar of Salix purpurea named `Fish Creek`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 30% more woody biomass than either of its parents (`94001` and `94006`) and 20% more biomass than a current production cultivar (`SV1`). `Fish Creek` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. The stem biomass can be chipped and burned as a source of renewable energy, generating heat and/or electricity. `Fish Creek` displays a low incidence of rust disease or damage by beetles or sawflies.

  10. City of Willow Springs, Missouri (Utility Company) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Springs Place: Missouri Phone Number: 417-469-2107 Website: www.willowspringsmo.comwork.h Outage Hotline: 417-469-2107 References: EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 -...

  11. Whispering Willow I Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Alliant (IP&L) Developer Alliant (IP&L) Energy Purchaser Alliant (IP&L) Location Franklin County IA...

  12. MHK Projects/Willow Island | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Installed Capacity (MW) 0 Main Overseeing Organization McGinnis Inc Project Licensing Environmental Monitoring and Mitigation Efforts See Tethys << Return to the MHK database...

  13. EA-1023: Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project, Eugene, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy's Bonneville Power Administration's proposal to fund habitat acquisition (of land or a conservation easement), wildlife...

  14. Willow Creek, Montana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Montana: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 48.99794, -109.727303 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"google...

  15. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Tully Champion`

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-08-28

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.S. miyabeana named `Tully Champion`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 25% more woody biomass than two current production clones (Salix dasyclados `SV1` and Salix miyabeana `SX64`), more than 2.5-fold greater biomass than one of its parents (Salix miyabeana `SX67`), and nearly 3-fold more biomass than another production clone (Salix sacchalinensis, `SX61`) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (two growing seasons after coppice) in Tully, N.Y. `Tully Champion` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Tully Champion` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  16. Willows Aid Flood Recovery in Los Alamos Desert

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LOS ALAMOS, N.M. – Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Associate Directorate of Environmental Programs (ADEP) has been busy with various flood recovery activities since last fall. 

  17. Improved Advanced Biomass Logistics Utilizing Woody Feedstocks...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Characterization throughout the supply chain * Baseline characterization of Willow ... models and optimize planning and management of new and existing systems ...

  18. Outagamie County, Wisconsin: Energy Resources | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hortonia, Wisconsin Hortonville, Wisconsin Howard, Wisconsin Kaukauna, Wisconsin Kimberly, Wisconsin Little Chute, Wisconsin Maine, Wisconsin Maple Creek, Wisconsin New...

  19. Clinton County, Michigan: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fowler, Michigan Grand Ledge, Michigan Hubbardston, Michigan Maple Rapids, Michigan Ovid, Michigan St. Johns, Michigan Westphalia, Michigan Retrieved from "http:...

  20. Kane County, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Illinois Elgin, Illinois Geneva, Illinois Gilberts, Illinois Hampshire, Illinois Hoffman Estates, Illinois Huntley, Illinois Kaneville, Illinois Lily Lake, Illinois Maple...

  1. DeKalb County, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Illinois Genoa, Illinois Hinckley, Illinois Kingston, Illinois Kirkland, Illinois Lee, Illinois Malta, Illinois Maple Park, Illinois Sandwich, Illinois Shabbona, Illinois...

  2. Retired lab physicist and computational pioneer, Lawrence Livermore

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Laboratory | National Nuclear Security Administration Retired lab physicist and computational pioneer, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Berni Alder, 2009 National Medal of Science Winner Berni Alder September 2009 National Medal of Science Winner President Obama has named Berni Alder, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory retired physicist, as a recipient of the National Medal of Science, the highest honor bestowed by the United States government on scientists, engineers, and

  3. Penobscot Tribe- 2012 Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With this award, the Penobscot Indian Nation will advance the preconstruction activities required to secure funding for the proposed 227-megawatt (MW) Alder Stream wind project.

  4. Washington's 8th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Companies in Washington's 8th congressional district GreenFoot Technologies Prometheus Energy Sunreps Utility Companies in Washington's 8th congressional district Alder...

  5. Madison County, Montana: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Number 6 Climate Zone Subtype B. Places in Madison County, Montana Alder, Montana Big Sky, Montana Ennis, Montana Harrison, Montana Norris, Montana Sheridan, Montana Silver...

  6. COMMENTS OF THE WESTERN PUBLIC AGENCIES GROUP IN RESPONSE TO...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Association, Tanner Electric Cooperative, the Cities of Port Angeles, Ellensburg and Milton, Washington, the Towns of Eatonville and Steilacoom, Washington; Alder Mutual Light...

  7. Energy Efficiency Post-2011 Review

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BPA Participants: Summer Goodwin Matt Tidwell Josh Warner (am only) Mark Ralston Darby Collins Dave Moody Anita Mertsching (am only) Kyna Alders (am only) Attendees (PPhone):...

  8. CX-011822: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Light Willow Demonstration CX(s) Applied: B3.6 Date: 01/09/2014 Location(s): South Carolina Offices(s): Savannah River Operations Office

  9. Method and apparatus for fluid dispersion (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A ; Anna, Shelley L ; Bontoux, Nathalie ; Link, Darren Roy ; Weitz, David A ; Gitlin, Irina ; Kumacheva, Eugenia ; Garstecki, Piotr ; Diluzio, Willow R ; Whitesides, George M ...

  10. Method and apparatus for fluid dispersion (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A. ; Anna, Shelley L. ; Bontoux, Nathalie ; Link, Darren Roy ; Weitz, David A. ; Gitlin, Irina ; Kumacheva, Eugenia ; Garstecki, Piotr ; Diluzio, Willow R. ; Whitesides, George M. ...

  11. ORNUTM-13249 DRAFT AN ECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF A VANADIUM

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... greater proportions of natural communities of willows, ... Verdure Creek and Montezuma Creek watersheds was land use. ... samples were counted on a gas proportional counter for 4 h. ...

  12. Method and apparatus for fluid dispersion (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A. ; Anna, Shelley L. ; Bontoux, Nathalie ; Link, Darren R. ; Weitz, David A. ; Gitlin, Irina ; Kumacheva, Eugenia ; Garstecki, Piotr ; Diluzio, Willow ; Whitesides, George M....

  13. Jasper County, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in Jasper County, Illinois Hidalgo, Illinois Newton, Illinois Rose Hill, Illinois Ste. Marie, Illinois Wheeler, Illinois Willow Hill, Illinois Yale, Illinois Retrieved from...

  14. Mohave County, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Creek, Arizona Mohave Valley, Arizona Mojave Ranch Estates, Arizona New Kingman-Butler, Arizona Peach Springs, Arizona Willow Valley, Arizona Retrieved from "http:...

  15. Regional Feedstock Partnership: Woody Crops Presentation for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... field tests including clone test and biomass yield studies ... yield decrease in top five cultivars for post 2005 ... Willow Bioenergy Crops-Big Flats", Cornell University, ...

  16. the Y-12 Times, March 2010

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Davies 20 years Document and Property Management: Juanita G. Harris Emergency Services: Paul L. Davis Jr., Charles E. Maples, Larry W. Stubbs and Richard B. Wolfe General...

  17. 2015 SSAA Awards | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Instabilities Materials University of California, Davis Scalettar, Richard Spectroscopic ... Compounds Materials University of California, San Diego Maple, M. Brian Novel d- and ...

  18. 2014 Updated 1st Qtr Package

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hargin, Kyna Alders, Kathy Rehmer, Brenda Weller 11:00 30 How to interpret BPA's Revenue Detail Report Danny Chen, Mai Truong 11:30 30 Background on Debt Optimization and...

  19. Thermodynamic Data for Biomass Conversion and Waste Incineration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Woody and Tree Materials ALDER, EUROPEAN BLACK; AZnus gzutinosa; solid; Each tree was ... t h e weighted proportion of small (25%) and large (75%) material in t h e whole tree. ...

  20. United States Fuel Resiliency Volume I U.S. Fuels Supply Infrastructur...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Gulf States Utilities Co., Willow Glen Power Plant Wharf St. ... 42 TOM BEVILL LOCK AND DAM WILLAMETTE RIVER 15 ... 0.069 1065.3 0 0 CO Hay Canyon Treating Facility Encana ...

  1. MacDonald Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MacDonald Systems Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: MacDonald Systems Inc Address: 12804 Willow Centre Place: Houston, Texas Zip: 77066 Region: Texas Area Sector: Buildings...

  2. CX-006289: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Willow Creek Substation -Transformer Replacement and Substation ModificationsCX(s) Applied: B4.6Date: 07/26/2011Location(s): Grand County, ColoradoOffice(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region

  3. CX-009397: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Idaho Falls Power - Willow Creek Building Conduit Installation CX(s) Applied: B4.7 Date: 10/16/2012 Location(s): Idaho Offices(s): Nuclear Energy

  4. Biomass Engineering Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Engineering Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Biomass Engineering Ltd Place: Newton-le-Willows, United Kingdom Zip: WA12 8DN Product: The company designs and manufactures small...

  5. CX-011374: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Willow Creek Building Pedestrian Bridge Replacement CX(s) Applied: B2.5 Date: 08/25/2009 Location(s): Idaho Offices(s): Idaho Operations Office

  6. Table 2. Ten largest plants by generation capacity, 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Louisiana" ,"Plant","Primary energy source","Operating company","Net summer capacity (MW)" 1,"Nine Mile Point","Natural gas","Entergy Louisiana LLC",2083.3 2,"Willow Glen","Natural ...

  7. Development of a Single-Pass Cut-and-Chip Harvest System for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... size distribution of willow biomass samples collected during harvesting trials in ... FldSpd HiDel TiDel Turns Delays Landing Storage Effective Material Capacity (Mg hr -1 ) 0 ...

  8. Los Alamos National Laboratory names Jeffrey Mousseau Associate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a series of joint LANL-UNM studies. In a flood recovery effort designed to stop further erosion in Pueblo Canyon, in April, Los Alamos planted nearly 10,000 willows along the...

  9. Los Alamos National Laboratory selects three small businesses...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a series of joint LANL-UNM studies. In a flood recovery effort designed to stop further erosion in Pueblo Canyon, in April, Los Alamos planted nearly 10,000 willows along the...

  10. Report Explains How Bioenergy Supports Global Sustainability Goals |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Report Explains How Bioenergy Supports Global Sustainability Goals Report Explains How Bioenergy Supports Global Sustainability Goals May 4, 2015 - 12:47pm Addthis Agave sisilana growing in East Africa. Image courtesy of Jeff Cameron. Agave sisilana growing in East Africa. Image courtesy of Jeff Cameron. Willow to the rescue - combining bioenergy with waste treatment. Image courtesy of Par Aronsson. Willow to the rescue - combining bioenergy with waste treatment. Image

  11. Individual Permit for Storm Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laws » Individual Permit Individual Permit The Individual Permit authorizes the discharge of storm water associated with historical industrial activities at LANL from specified solid waste management units and areas of concern, collectively referred to as Sites. Canada del Buey Gage station in Mortandad Canyon Pajarito Canyon Sandia Canyon Willows planted for bank stabilization in Pueblo Canyon Willows planted for bank stabilization in Pueblo Canyon What's New Documents submitted to EPRR in

  12. CX-002438: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rocky Reach-Maple Valley Number-1 Transmission Line Bridge Replacement ProjectCX(s) Applied: B1.3Date: 05/03/2010Location(s): Kittitas County, WashingtonOffice(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  13. CX-005847: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rocky Reach - Maple Valley Access Road RepairCX(s) Applied: B1.3Date: 05/05/2011Location(s): King County, WashingtonOffice(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  14. CX-012823: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rocky Reach-Maple Valley #1 Line Bridge Installation CX(s) Applied: B1.3Date: 41873 Location(s): WashingtonOffices(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  15. BPA-2015-00508-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sammamish-Lakeside-Talbot project is that its south-to-north Total Transfer Capability (TIC) is lower as compared to the Maple Valley- SnaKing reconductor. However, the...

  16. Pressure dependence of the charge-density-wave and superconducting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    , TbTe 3 , and DyTe 3 Authors: Zocco, D. A. ; Hamlin, J. J. ; Grube, K. ; Chu, J.-H. ; Kuo, H.-H. ; Fisher, I. R. ; Maple, M. B. Publication Date: 2015-05-14 OSTI Identifier: ...

  17. Development of a new flux map processing code for moveable detector system in PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.; Lu, H.; Li, J.; Dang, Z.; Zhang, X.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the development of the flux map processing code MAPLE developed by China Nuclear Power Technology Research Institute (CNPPJ), China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGN). The method to get the three-dimensional 'measured' power distribution according to measurement signal has also been described. Three methods, namely, Weight Coefficient Method (WCM), Polynomial Expand Method (PEM) and Thin Plane Spline (TPS) method, have been applied to fit the deviation between measured and predicted results for two-dimensional radial plane. The measured flux map data of the LINGAO nuclear power plant (NPP) is processed using MAPLE as a test case to compare the effectiveness of the three methods, combined with a 3D neutronics code COCO. Assembly power distribution results show that MAPLE results are reasonable and satisfied. More verification and validation of the MAPLE code will be carried out in future. (authors)

  18. Portland HQ Letterhead

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as a result of that letter. Also, any documents that show BPA's intent to condemn private property to connect the Maple Valley-Rocky Reach line to the TSR site. Response: BPA has...

  19. Beamline 6-ID-B,C Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of electron doped manganites," S. Middey, M. Kareev, D. Meyers, X. Liu, Y. Cao, S. Tripathi, D. Yazici, M.B. Maple, P.J. Ryan, J.W. Freeland, J. Chakhalian, Appl. Phys. Lett....

  20. Intro to computer programming, no computer required! | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... "Computational thinking requires you to think in abstractions," said Papka, who spoke to computer science and computer-aided design students at Kaneland High School in Maple Park about ...

  1. Cost of Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as well as projections for the future. Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P. (March 2013). 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review. National Renewable...

  2. 2013 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cost of Wind Energy Review C. Mon, A. Smith, B. Maples, and M. Hand National Renewable ... arrester 5 External maintenance crane (Davit) Lifts small components (e.g., <2 metric ...

  3. CX-007996: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Rocky Reach-Maple Valley #1 Temporary Bridge Installation CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 02/07/2012 Location(s): Washington Offices(s): Bonneville Power Administration

  4. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, May 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1996-02-01

    Developing commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000 is the focus of the DOE/USDA sponsored Biomass Power for Rural Development project. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-I, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Facette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG). Phase-II of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. There will be testing of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials expected to occur at BED`s McNeill power station and potentially at one of GPU`s facilities. Phase-III will represent full-scale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis. Willow has been selected as the energy crop of choice for many reasons. Willow is well suited to the climate of the Northeastern United States, and initial field trials have demonstrated that the yields required for the success of the project are obtainable. Like other energy crops, willow has rural development benefits and could serve to diversify local crop production, provide new sources of income for participating growers, and create new jobs. Willow could be used to put a large base of idle acreage back into crop production. Additionally, the willow coppicing system integrates well with current farm operations and utilizes agricultural practices that are already familiar to farmers.

  5. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, Phase 2, July 1--September 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1999-01-01

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase 1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and forging the necessary agreements to demonstrate commercial willow production. The Phase 1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing final design plans for two utility pulverized coal boiler for 20 MW of biopower capacity; developing fuel supply plans for the project with a goal of establishing 365 ha (900 ac) of willow; obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase 2; obtaining construction and environmental permits; and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system. Beyond those Phase 1 requirements, the Consortium has already successfully demonstrated cofiring at Greenidge Station and has initiated development of the required nursery capacity for acreage scale-up. In Phase 2 every aspect of willow production and power generation from willow biomass will be demonstrated. The ultimate objective of Phase 2 is to transition the work performed under the Biomass Power for Rural Development project into a thriving, self-supported energy crop enterprise.

  6. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report Phase-II. Contractual reporting period October-December 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, Edward; The Salix Consortium

    2000-03-23

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase 1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and forging the necessary agreements to demonstrate commercial willow production. The Phase 1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing design plans for 2 utility pulverized coal boilers for 20 MW of biopower capacity; developing fuel supply plans for the project with a goal of establishing 365 ha (900 ac) of willow; obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase 2; obtaining construction and environmental permits; and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system.

  7. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.

    2006-04-04

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  8. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.

    2009-09-29

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  9. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R.; Simmons, Blake A.; Zifer, Thomas; Jamison, Gregory M.; Loy, Douglas A.; Rahimian, Kamyar; Long, Timothy M.; Wheeler, David R.; Staiger, Chad L.

    2009-11-24

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  10. Energy and Financial Markets Overview: Crude Oil Price Formation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    John Maples 2011 EIA Energy Conference April 26, 2011 Transportation and the Environment Light-duty vehicle combined Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards (CAFE) in three cases, 2005-2035 2 0 20 40 60 80 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035 miles per gallon Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2011 CAFE6 CAFE3 Reference John Maples, April 26, 2011 Light-duty vehicle delivered energy consumption and total transportation carbon dioxide emissions, 2005-2035 3 0 5 10 15 20 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025

  11. CX-002547: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    38: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-002438: Categorical Exclusion Determination Rocky Reach-Maple Valley Number-1 Transmission Line Bridge Replacement Project CX(s) Applied: B1.3 Date: 05/03/2010 Location(s): Kittitas County, Washington Office(s): Bonneville Power Administration Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has a need to construct a bridge across Cold Creek. Although a bridge once stood at this location, currently the only access to mile 47 of BPA?s Rocky Reach-Maple Valley

  12. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Weisgraber, T H (8) Gee, R. H. (3) Maiti, A. (3) Maxwell, R S (3) Weisgraber, T. H. (3) Aceves, S M (2) Alder, B J (2) Bernier, J V (2) Candy, J V (2) Chinn, S C (2) Chinn, S. C. ...

  13. TRB-94-2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Presentations at the 94th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting Washington DC, January 14, 2014 Numeric Modeling of Willow Valley Bridge Under Static Loading (PDF) POLARIS: General Purpose Agent-based Modeling Framework Specialized for High- Performance Transportation Simulations (PDF) POLARIS: Agent-Based Modeling Framework Development and Implementation for Integrated Travel Demand and Network and Operations Simulations (PDF)

  14. Biomass power for rural development: Phase 2. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1998-11-01

    The project undertaken by the Salix Consortium is a multi-phased, multi-partner endeavor. Phase-1 focused on initial development and testing of the technology and agreements necessary to demonstrate commercial willow production in Phase-2. The Phase-1 objectives have been successfully completed: preparing final design plans for two utility pulverized coal boilers, developing fuel supply plans for the project, obtaining power production commitments from the power companies for Phase-2, obtaining construction and environmental permits, and developing an experimental strategy for crop production and power generation improvements needed to assure commercial success. The R and D effort also addresses environmental issues pertaining to introduction of the willow energy system. Beyond those Phase-1 requirements the Consortium has already successfully demonstrated cofiring at Greenidge Station and developed the required nursery capacity for acreage scale-up. This past summer 105 acres were prepared in advance for the spring planting in 1998. Having completed the above tasks, the Consortium is well positioned to begin Phase-2. In phase-2 every aspect of willow production and power generation from willow will be demonstrated. The ultimate objective of Phase-2 is to transition the work performed under the Rural Energy for the Future project into a thriving, self-supported energy crop enterprise.

  15. CX-009235: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Willow Creek - Granby Tap 2.4 Kilovolt Distribution Line Structure 0/3A Pole Replacement Project CX(s) Applied: B4.6 Date: 09/20/2012 Location(s): Colorado Offices(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region

  16. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean C. Emerson; Timothy D. Davis; A. Peles; Ying She; Joshua Sheffel; Rhonda R. Willigan; Thomas H. Vanderspurt; Tianli Zhu

    2011-09-30

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood to hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide was repeatedly demonstrated in batch reactors varying in size from 50 mL to 7.6 L. The different wood sources (e.g., swamp maple, poplar, and commercial wood flour) were converted in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst and base at relatively low temperatures (e.g., 310 ???????°C) at sub-critical pressures sufficient to maintain the liquid phase. Both precious metal and base metal catalysts were found to be active for the liquid phase hydrolysis and reforming of wood. Pt-based catalysts, particularly Pt-Re, were shown to be more selective toward breaking C-C bonds, resulting in a higher selectivity to hydrogen versus methane. Ni-based catalysts were found to prefer breaking C-O bonds, favoring the production of methane. The project showed that increasing the concentration of base (base to wood ratio) in the presence of Raney Ni catalysts resulted in greater selectivity toward hydrogen but at the expense of increasing the production of undesirable organic acids from the wood, lowering the amount of wood converted to gas. It was shown that by modifying Ni-based catalysts with dopants, it was possible to reduce the base concentration while maintaining the selectivity toward hydrogen and increasing wood conversion to gas versus organic acids. The final stage of the project was the construction and testing of a demonstration unit for H2 production. This continuous flow demonstration unit consisted of wood slurry and potassium carbonate feed pump systems, two reactors for hydrolysis and reforming, and a gas-liquid separation system. The technical challenges associated with unreacted wood fines and Raney Ni catalyst retention limited the demonstration unit to using a fixed bed Raney Ni catalyst form. The lower activity of the larger particle Raney Ni in turn limited the residence time and thus the wood mass flow feed rate to 50 g min-1 for a 1 wt% wood slurry. The project demonstrated continuous H2 yields with unmodified, fixed bed Raney Ni, from 63% to 100% with correspond

  17. Computer experiments on the onset of turbulence (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Conference: Computer experiments on the onset of turbulence Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Computer experiments on the onset of turbulence Authors: Weisgraber, T H ; Alder, B J Publication Date: 2012-08-08 OSTI Identifier: 1056627 Report Number(s): LLNL-CONF-575632 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference: Presented at: 28th International Symposium on Rarefied Gas Dynamics, Zaragoza, Spain, Jul 09 - Jul 13, 2012

  18. 2012 Publications Resulting from the Use of NERSC Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 2012 Publications Resulting from the Use of NERSC Resources On their Allocation Year 2013 ERCAP Request Forms Principal Investigators reported 1,925 refereed publications (published or in press) for the preceding 12 months, based on using, at least in part, NERSC resources. Aldering | Greg Scalzo et al., A Search for New Candidate Super-Chandrasekhar-mass Type Ia Supernovae in the Nearby Supernova Factory Data Set, The Astrophysical Roepke et al., Constraining Type Ia Supernova Models: SN

  19. 2013 Publications Resulting from the Use of NERSC Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 2013 Publications Resulting from the Use of NERSC Resources On their Allocation Year 2014 ERCAP Request Forms Principal Investigators reported 1,977 refereed publications (published or in press) for the preceding 12 months, based on using, at least in part, NERSC resources. Aldering , Greg "Evidence of Environmental Dependencies of Type Ia Supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory indicated by Local H-alpha," the Nearby Supernova Factory 2013, Astronomy and Astrophysics, accepted.

  20. New Light on Dark Energy (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Linder, Eric; Ho, Shirly; Aldering, Greg; Fraiknoi, Andrew

    2011-06-08

    A panel of Lab scientists ? including Eric Linder, Shirly Ho, and Greg Aldering ? along with Andrew Fraiknoi, the Bay Area's most popular astronomy explainer, gathered at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre on Monday, April 25, 2011, for a discussion about "New Light on Dark Energy." Topics will include hunting down Type 1a supernovae, measuring the universe using baryon oscillation, and whether dark energy is the true driver of the universe.

  1. Supernova Twins: Making Standard Candles More Standard Than Ever

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Supernova Twins: Making Standard Candles More Standard Than Ever Supernova Twins: Making Standard Candles More Standard Than Ever New Modeling Method Measures Cosmological Distances With Far Greater Accuracy January 13, 2016 Contact: Paul Preuss, paul_preuss@lbl.gov, +1 415 272 3253 supernovatwins From left, Greg Aldering, Kyle Boone, Hannah Fakhouri and Saul Perlmutter of the Nearby Supernova Factory. Behind them is a poster of a supernova spectrum. Matching spectra among different supernovae

  2. TRACC Home

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Presentations, Conferences, and Papers from the Archive Presentations at the 94th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting Washington DC, January 14, 2014 Numeric Modeling of Willow Valley Bridge Under Static Loading (PDF) POLARIS: General Purpose Agent-based Modeling Framework Specialized for High- Performance Transportation Simulations (PDF) POLARIS: Agent-Based Modeling Framework Development and Implementation for Integrated Travel Demand and Network and Operations Simulations (PDF) TRACC

  3. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, January 1, 1997--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1997-08-01

    Detailed task progress reports and schedules are provided for the DOE/USDA sponsored Biomass Power for Rural Development project. The focus of the project is on developing commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-1, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-II of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is under way. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill power station. Phase-III will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis.

  4. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, April 1, 1997--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1997-08-01

    Detailed task progress reports and schedules are provided for the DOE/USDA sponsored Biomass Power for Rural Development project. The focus of the project is on developing commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-I, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-H of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is under way. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill power station. Phase-III will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis.

  5. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1998-05-01

    The focus of the DOE/USDA sponsored biomass power for rural development project is to develop commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-1, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-2 of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is underway. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill Power Station. Phase-3 will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis. During the fourth quarter of 1997 the Consortium submitted a Phase-2 proposal. A few of the other more important milestones are outlined below. The first quarter of 1998 will be dominated by pre-planting activity in the spring.

  6. John Day River Sub-Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project; 2008 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Russ M.; Alley, Pamela D.; Goin Jr, Lonnie

    2009-07-15

    Work undertaken in 2008 included: (1) Seven new fence projects were completed thereby protecting approximately 10.97 miles of streams with 16.34 miles of riparian fence; (2) Renewal of one expired lease was completed thereby continuing to protect 0.75 miles of stream with 1.0 mile of riparian fence. (3) Maintenance of all active project fences (106.54 miles), watergaps (78), spring developments (33) were checked and repairs performed; (3) Planted 1000 willow/red osier on Fox Creek/Henslee property; (4) Planted 2000 willows/red osier on Middle Fork John Day River/Coleman property; (5) Planted 1000 willow/red osier cuttings on Fox Creek/Johns property; (6) Since the initiation of the Fish Habitat Project in 1984 we have 126.86 miles of stream protected using 211.72 miles of fence protecting 5658 acres. The purpose of the John Day Fish Habitat Enhancement Program is to enhance production of indigenous wild stocks of spring Chinook and summer steelhead within the sub basin through habitat protection, enhancement and fish passage improvement. The John Day River system supports the largest remaining wild runs of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead in Northeast Oregon.

  7. Presentation Title

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Independent Statistics & Analysis Annual Energy Outlook 2016 For AEO2016 Working Group March 09, 2016 | Washington, DC By Trisha Hutchins, Melissa Lynes, John Maples, Mark Schipper, and David Stone Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Analysis Modeling updates in the transportation sector Updates to the Annual Energy Outlook 2016 * New regional stock model for on-road vehicles - Reflects Polk annual data for cars, light trucks, Class 2B, Class 3, Class 4-6, and Class 7&8 vehicles

  8. Presentation Title

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Annual Energy Outlook 2016 For AEO2016 Working Group December 15, 2015| Washington, DC By Trisha Hutchins, Melissa Lynes, John Maples, and Mark Schipper Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Analysis Modeling updates in the transportation sector AEO2016 Transportation Demand Model Updates * Domestic and international marine - International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) * On-road vehicles - Light duty vehicles (LDV) - Heavy duty vehicles (HDV) * Side cases

  9. Annual Energy Outlook 2015 Modeling updates in the Transportation sector

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    For AEO2015 Working Group July 30, 2014 | Washington, DC By Nicholas Chase, Trisha Hutchins, John Maples Office of Energy Consumption and Efficiency Analysis Modeling updates in the transportation sector Data updates 2 * Update historical fuel consumption data to latest state energy data (2011), annual national data from Monthly Energy Review (2012), and most recent Short-Term Energy Outlook * Update historical light-duty vehicle attribute data through 2013 (pending) * Update historical

  10. Biomass power for rural development. Technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuhauser, E.

    1998-03-01

    The focus of the DOE/USDA sponsored biomass power for rural development project is to develop commercial energy crops for power generation by the year 2000. The New York based Salix Consortium project is a multi-partner endeavor, implemented in three stages. Phase-1, Final Design and Project Development, will conclude with the preparation of construction and/or operating permits, feedstock production plans, and contracts ready for signature. Field trials of willow (Salix) have been initiated at several locations in New York (Tully, Lockport, King Ferry, La Fayette, Massena, and Himrod) and co-firing tests are underway at Greenidge Station (NYSEG) and Dunkirk Station (NMPC). Phase-2 of the project will focus on scale-up of willow crop acreage, construction of co-firing facilities at Dunkirk Station (NMPC), and final modifications for Greenidge Station. Cofiring willow is also under consideration for GPU`s Seward Station where testing is underway. There will be an evaluation of the energy crop as part of the gasification trials occurring at BED`s McNeill power station. Phase-3 will represent fullscale commercialization of the energy crop and power generation on a sustainable basis. During the third quarter of 1997, much of the Consortium`s effort has focused on outreach activities, continued feedstock development, fuel supply planning, and fuel contract development, and preparation for 1998 scale-up activities. The Consortium also submitted a Phase-1 extension proposal during this period. A few of the more important milestones are outlined below. The fourth quarter of 1997 is expected to be dominated by Phase-II proposal efforts and planning for 1998 activities.

  11. Interpolation Methods and the Accuracy of Lattice-Boltzmann Mesh Refinement

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Interpolation Methods and the Accuracy of Lattice-Boltzmann Mesh Refinement Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interpolation Methods and the Accuracy of Lattice-Boltzmann Mesh Refinement Authors: Guzik, S M ; Weisgraber, T H ; Colella, P ; Alder, B J Publication Date: 2012-10-18 OSTI Identifier: 1226215 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-594615 DOE Contract Number: AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal

  12. LBNL-41172 Discovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    41172 Discovery of a Supernova Explosion at Half the Age of the Universe and its Cosmological Implications S. Perlmutter, G. Aldering, M. Della Valle, S. Deustua, R. S. Ellis, S. Fabbro, A. Fruchter, G. Goldhaber, A. Goobar, D. E. Groom, 1. M. Hook, A. G. Kim, M. Y. Kim, R.A. Knop, C. Lidman, R. G. McMahon, P. Nugent, R. Pain, N. Panagia, C. R. Pennypacker, P. Ruiz-Lapuente, B. Schaefer & N. Walton (The Supernova Cosmology Project) This work was supported in part by the Director, Office of

  13. University of Delaware | Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation | Aromatics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Thrust Green Aromatics Transition state for the Diels-Alder reaction of 2,5-dimethylfuran and ethylene in zeolite LiY Most polymers and plastics require six-carbon ring structures. Sugars (such as glucose and xylose) derived from cellulose and hemicellulose are converted into five-atom ring structures called furans, which consist of four carbons and one oxygen. In order to make the right carbon atom ring, CCEI has introduced technology for the production of aromatics from furans by

  14. Method of making thermally removable adhesives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aubert, James H.

    2004-11-30

    A method of making a thermally-removable adhesive is provided where a bismaleimide compound, a monomeric furan compound, containing an oxirane group an amine curative are mixed together at an elevated temperature of greater than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a homogeneous solution, which, when cooled to less than approximately 70.degree. C., simultaneously initiates a Diels-Alder reaction between the furan and the bismaleimide and a epoxy curing reaction between the amine curative and the oxirane group to form a thermally-removable adhesive. Subsequent heating to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. causes the adhesive to melt and allows separation of adhered pieces.

  15. Nitrogen Removal from Natural Gas

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nitrogen Removal from Natural Gas Phase II Draft Final Report Contract Number DE-AC21-95MC32199--02 Contract Period: July 29, 1996 - December 31, 1999 prepared by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. 1360 Willow Road Menlo Park, CA 94025 December 22, 1999 for the U.S. Department of Energy Morgantown Energy Technology Center Morgantown, WV Contributors to this Report: K.A. Lokhandwala M.B. Ringer T.T. Su Z. He I. Pinnau J.G. Wijmans A. Morisato K. Amo A. Da Costa R.W. Baker R. Olsen H. Hassani

  16. Wellhead to wire utilization of remote gas resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, R.A.; Hines, T.L.

    1998-12-31

    Utilization of remote gas resources in developing countries continues to offer challenges and opportunities to producers and contractors. The Aguaytia Gas and Power Project is an example where perseverance and creativity resulted in successful utilization of natural gas resources in the Ucayali Region of Central Peru, a country which previously had no natural gas infrastructure. The resource for the project was first discovered by Mobil in 1961, and remained undeveloped for over thirty years due to lack of infrastructure and markets. Maple Gas won a competitively bid contract to develop the Aguaytia gas reserves in March of 1993. The challenges facing Maple Gas were to develop downstream markets for the gas, execute contracts with Perupetro S.A. and other Peruvian government entities, raise financing for the project, and solicit and execute engineering procurement and construction (EPC) contracts for the execution of the project. The key to development of the downstream markets was the decision to generate electric power and transmit the power over the Andes to the main electrical grid along the coast of Peru. Supplemental revenue could be generated by gas sales to a small regional power plant and extraction of LPG and natural gasoline for consumption in the Peruvian market. Three separate lump sum contracts were awarded to Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) companies for the gas project, power project and transmission project. Each project presented its unique challenges, but the commonalities were the accelerated schedule, high rainfall in a prolonged wet season and severe logistics due to lack of infrastructure in the remote region. This presentation focuses on how the gas plant contractor, ABB Randall, working in harmony with the developer, Maple Gas, tackled the challenges to monetize a remote gas resource.

  17. OBSERVATION O F T H E FORBIDDEN MAGNETIC DIPOLE TRANSITION 62P%+72P%IN ATOMIC THALLIUM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GROVE C OAL D EGAS CEDAR COVE COAL D EGAS BLU E CREEK COAL DEGAS BR OOKWOOD C OAL D EGAS ST AR ROBIN SONS BEND COAL D EGAS BLU FF COR INNE MOU NDVILLE COAL D EGAS BLU EGU T CR EEK WH ITE OAK CREEK COAL DEGAS BEAVERT ON BLU FF FAYETTE W SN EAD S CREEK SPLU NGE PAR HAM N MUSGR OVE CR EEK MCCRAC KEN MOU NTAIN DAVIS C HAPEL BAC ON BLOOMING GROVE MT Z ION FAIRVIEW JASPER BLOWHORN CREEK MAPLE BRAN CH KEN NEDY COAL F IRE CR EEK MCGEE LAKE SILOAM MILLPOR T FERNBANK DAVIS C HAPEL NE DETROIT E BEANS F

  18. Pressure dependence of the charge-density-wave and superconducting states

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in GdTe 3 , TbTe 3 , and DyTe 3 (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Pressure dependence of the charge-density-wave and superconducting states in GdTe 3 , TbTe 3 , and DyTe 3 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pressure dependence of the charge-density-wave and superconducting states in GdTe 3 , TbTe 3 , and DyTe 3 Authors: Zocco, D. A. ; Hamlin, J. J. ; Grube, K. ; Chu, J.-H. ; Kuo, H.-H. ; Fisher, I. R. ; Maple, M. B. Publication Date: 2015-05-14 OSTI Identifier: 1179758

  19. AmeriFlux US-Bar Bartlett Experimental Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Bar Bartlett Experimental Forest. Site Description - The Bartlett Experimental Forest (448170 N, 71830 W) is located within the White Mountains National Forest in north-central New Hampshire, USA. The 1050 ha forest extends across an elevational range from 200 to 900 m a.s.l. It was established in 1931 and is managed by the USDA Forest Service Northeastern Research Station in Durham, NH. The climate is humid continental with short, cool summers (mean July temperature, 19.8C) and long, cold winters (mean January temperature, 9.8C). Annual precipitation averages 130 cm and is distributed evenly throughout the year. Soils are developed from glacial till and are predominantly shallow, well-drained spodosols. At lowto mid-elevation, vegetation is dominated by northern hardwoods (American beech, Fagus grandifolia; sugar maple, Acer saccharum; yellow birch, Betula alleghaniensis; with some red maple, Acer rubrum and paper birch, Betula papyrifera). Conifers (eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis; eastern white pine, Pinus strobus; red spruce, Picea rubens) are occasionally found intermixed with the more abundant deciduous species but are generally confined to the highest (red spruce) and lowest (hemlock and pine) elevations. In 2003, the site was adopted as a NASA North American Carbon Program (NACP) Tier-2 field research and validation site. A 26.5 m high tower was installed in a low-elevation northern hardwood stand in November, 2003, for the purpose of making eddy covariance measurements of the forest–atmosphere exchange of CO2, H2O and radiant energy. Continuous flux and meteorological measurements began in January, 2004, and are ongoing. Average canopy height in the vicinity of the tower is approximately 20–22 m. In the tower footprint, the forest is predominantly classified into red maple, sugar maple, and American beech forest types. Leaf area index in the vicinity of the tower is 3.6 as measured by seasonal litterfall collection, and 4.5 as measured by the optically based Li-Cor LAI-2000 instrument. Further site information: http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/durham/4155/bartlett.htm

  20. AmeriFlux US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Munger, J. William [Harvard University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ha1 Harvard Forest EMS Tower (HFR1). Site Description - The Harvard Forest tower is on land owned by Harvard University. The site is designated as an LTER site. Most of the surrounding area was cleared for agrigulture during European settlement in 1600-1700. The site has been regrowing since before 1900 (based on tree ring chronologies) and is now predominantly red oak and red maple, with patches of mature hemlock stand and individual white pine. Overstory trees were uprooted by hurricane in 1938. Climate measurements have been made at Harvard Forest since 1964.

  1. Popular Science Recognizes Innovative Solar Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    COAL D EGAS BLU E CREEK COAL DEGAS BR OOKWOOD C OAL D EGAS ST AR ROBIN SONS BEND COAL D EGAS BLU FF COR INNE MOU NDVILLE COAL D EGAS BLU EGU T CR EEK WH ITE OAK CREEK COAL DEGAS BEAVERT ON BLU FF FAYETTE W SN EAD S CREEK SPLU NGE PAR HAM N MUSGR OVE CR EEK MCCRAC KEN MOU NTAIN DAVIS C HAPEL BAC ON BLOOMING GROVE MT Z ION FAIRVIEW JASPER BLOWHORN CREEK MAPLE BRAN CH KEN NEDY COAL F IRE CR EEK MCGEE LAKE SILOAM MILLPOR T FERNBANK DAVIS C HAPEL NE DETROIT E BEANS F ERRY LEXIN GT ON PET ERSON COAL

  2. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.

    2002-11-01

    We investigated factors affecting the distribution and abundance of Yellowstone cutthroat trout (YCT), the abundance of all trout, and species richness in several drainages in the upper Snake River basin in Idaho. A total of 326 randomly selected sites were visited within the four study drainages, and of these, there was sufficient water to inventory fish and habitat in 56 of the sites in the Goose Creek drainage, 64 in the Raft River drainage, 54 in the Blackfoot River drainage, and 27 in the Willow Creek drainage. Fish were captured in 36, 55, 49, and 22 of the sites, respectively, and YCT were present at 17, 37, 32, and 13 of the sites, respectively. There was little consistency or strength in the models developed to predict YCT presence/absence and density, trout density, or species richness. Typically, the strongest models had the lowest sample sizes. In the Goose Creek drainage, sites with YCT were higher in elevation and lower in conductivity. In the Raft River drainage, trout cover was more abundant at sites with YCT than without YCT. In the Blackfoot River drainage, there was less fine substrate and more gravel substrate at sites with YCT than at sites without YCT. In the Willow Creek drainage, 70% of the sites located on public land contained YCT, but only 35% of private land contained YCT. The differences in variable importance between drainages suggests that factors that influence the distribution of YCT vary between drainages, and that for the most part the variables we measured had little influence on YCT distribution. n sites containing YCT, average cutthroat trout density was 0.11/m{sup 2}, 0.08/m{sup 2}, 0.10/m{sup 2}, and 0.08/m{sup 2} in the Goose Creek, Raft River, Blackfoot River, and Willow Creek drainages, respectively. In sites containing trout in general, average total trout density in these same drainages was 0.16/m{sup 2}, 0.15/m{sup 2}, 0.10/m{sup 2}, and 0.10/m{sup 2}. Models to predict YCT density, total trout density, and species richness were either weak (i.e., explained little variation) or contained small sample sizes. Based on our results, it appears that factors other than those we measured are affecting fish populations in these drainages.

  3. Method of making thermally removable polyurethanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.; Durbin-Voss, Marvie Lou

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable polyurethane material by heating a mixture of a maleimide compound and a furan compound, and introducing alcohol and isocyanate functional groups, where the alcohol group and the isocyanate group reacts to form the urethane linkages and the furan compound and the maleimide compound react to form the thermally weak Diels-Alder adducts that are incorporated into the backbone of the urethane linkages during the formation of the polyurethane material at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. The polyurethane material can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The polyurethane material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  4. The economics of biomass production in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.; Walsh, M.E.; Lichtenberg, E.; Roningen, V.O.; Shapouri, H.

    1995-12-31

    Biomass crops (e.g. poplar, willow, switchgrass) could become important feedstocks for power, liquid fuel, and chemical production. This paper presents estimates of the potential production of biomass in the US under a range of assumptions. Estimates of potential biomass crop yields and production costs from the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) are combined with measures of land rents from USDA`s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), to estimate a competitive supply of biomass wood and grass crops. Estimates are made for one potential biomass use--electric power production--where future costs of electricity production from competing fossil fuels set the demand price. The paper outlines the methodology used and limitations of the analysis.

  5. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement; 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laws, Troy S.

    1996-06-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife`s Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. Major activities undertaken during this report period included: (1) Flood damage assessment of project leases after the May 1995 and November 1995 floods, (2) reconstruction of 0.75 miles of riparian fence, (3) inspection and routine maintenance of 14.8 miles of fence, (4) collection of approximately 55,000 native willow and cottonwood cuttings and installation of approximately 21,600 of these material, (5) implementation of two bioengineering projects and initiation of a third project, (6) installation of approximately 30 tree/rootwads for fish habitat enhancement, (7) removal of an abandoned flood irrigation dam/fish barrier, (8) collection and summarization of physical and biological monitoring data, and (9) extensive interagency coordination.

  6. Umatilla River Subbasin Fish Habitat Improvement; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laws, Troy S.

    1995-06-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife`s Umatilla Basin Habitat Improvement Project. Major activities undertaken during this report period included: 1) Flood damage assessment of project leases after the May 1994 flood, 2) reconstruction of 1.25 miles of high tensile steel fence, 3) inspection and routine maintenance of 14.8 miles of fence, 4) collection of approximately 6,600 cottonwood and willow cuttings for transplanting in spring of 1995, 5) establishment of three bioengineered habitat restoration demonstration projects, 6) Implementation of a streambank stabilization workshop (bioengineering techniques) for Umatilla Basin residents and resource agency personnel, 7) collection and summarization of physical and biological monitoring data, and 8) extensive interagency coordination.

  7. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone – Field Treatability Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2010-01-11

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is present both in the aquifer near the river and in the vadose and riparian zones of the river’s shore at 100-NR-2. Phytoextraction of 90Sr is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua). Past studies have shown that willow roots share uptake mechanisms for Sr with Ca, a plant macronutrient as well as no discrimination between Sr and 90Sr. Willow 90Sr concentration ratios [CR’s; (pCi 90Sr/g dry wt. of new growth tissue)/(pCi 90Sr/g soil porewater)] were consistently greater than 65 with three-quarters of the assimilated label partitioned into the above ground shoot. Insect herbivore experiments also demonstrated no significant potential for bioaccumulation or food chain transfer from their natural activities. The objectives of this field study were three-fold: (1) to demonstrate that a viable, “managed” plot of coyote willows can be established on the shoreline of the Columbia River that would survive the same microenvironment to be encountered at the 100-NR-2 shoreline; (2) to show through engineered barriers that large and small animal herbivores can be prevented from feeding on these plants; and (3) to show that once established, the plants will provide sufficient biomass annually to support the phytoextraction technology. A field treatability demonstration plot was established on the Columbia River shoreline alongside the 100-K West water intake at the end of January 2007. The plot was delimited by a 3.05 m high chain-link fence and was approximately 10 x 25 m in size. A layer of fine mesh metal small animal screening was placed around the plot at the base of the fencing to a depth of 45 cm. A total of sixty plants were placed in six slightly staggered rows with 1-m spacing between plants. The actual plot size was 0.00461 hectare (ha). At the time of planting (March 12, 2007), the plot was located about 10 m from the river’s edge. Less than two weeks later (March 21), the river began the spring rise. Periodic (daily) or continuous flooding occurred at the site over the next 3 to 4 months. River levels at times were over the top of the enclosure’s fence. This same pattern was repeated for the next 2 years. It was however evident that even submerged for part, or all of the day, that the plants continued to flourish. There were no indications of herbivory or animal tracks observed within the plot although animals were present in the area. Biomass production over the three years followed a typical growth curve with a yield of about 1 kg for the first year when the trees were establishing themselves, 4 kg for the second, and over 20 kg for the third when the trees were entering the exponential phase of growth. On a metric Ton per hectare (mT/ha) basis this would be 0.2 mT/ha in 2007, 0.87 mT/ha in 2008, and 4.3 mT/ha in 2009. Growth curve extrapolation predicts 13.2 mT/ha during a fourth year and potentially 29.5 mT/ha following a fifth year. Using the observed Ca and Sr concentrations found in the plant tissues, and Sr CR’s calculated from groundwater analysis, projected biomass yields suggest the trees could prove effective in removing the contaminant from the 100-NR-2 riparian zone.

  8. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Food Chain Transfer Studies for Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.

    2009-04-01

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys drinking water standards for groundwater (8 picocuries/L) by as much as a factor of 1000 at several locations within the Hanford 100-N Area and along the 100-N Area Columbia River shoreline). Phytoextraction, a managed remediation technology in which plants or integrated plant/rhizosphere systems are employed to phytoextract and/or sequester 90Sr, is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River as part of a treatment train that includes an apatite barrier to immobilize groundwater transport of 90Sr. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua) to extract 90Sr from the vadose zone soil and aquifer sediments (phytoextraction) and filter 90Sr (rhizofiltration) from the shallow groundwater along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. The stem and foliage of coyote willows accumulating 90Sr may present not only a mechanism to remove the contaminant but also can be viewed as a source of nutrition for natural herbivores, therefore becoming a potential pathway for the isotope to enter the riparian food chain. Engineered barriers such as large and small animal fencing constructed around the field plot will control the intrusion of deer, rodents, birds, and humans. These efforts, however, will have limited effect on mobile phytophagous insects. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the potential for food chain transfer by insects prior to placement of the remediation technology at 100-N. Insect types include direct consumers of the sap or liquid content of the plants vascular system (xylem and phloem) by aphids as well as those that would directly consume the plant foliage such as the larvae (caterpillars) of Lepidoptera species. Heavy infestations of aphids feeding on the stems and leaves of willows growing in 90Sr-contaminated soil can accumulate a small amount (~0.15 0.06%) of the total label removed from the soil by the plant over a 17-day exposure period. The 90Sr in the exuded honeydew during this period amounted to 1.17 0.28% of this total label. The honeydew would eventually be deposited into the soil at the base of the plant, but the activity would be so dispersed as to be undetectable. Moth larvae will consume 90Sr contaminated leaves but retain very little of the label (~0.02%) and only that contained in their digestive tracts. As the moths pupated and became adults, they contained no detectable amounts of 90Sr. Over the 10-day exposure period, ~4% of the phytoextracted 90Sr was lost from the plant as moth feces. However, like the honeydew, feces dispersed into the soil were undetectable. As the plant diminishes the content of 90Sr in the soil, the activity of the label in the leaves and new stems would also diminish. The results of these studies indicate that the risk for detectable transfer of 90Sr from willow trees growing in the contaminated soil along the 100-N shoreline through the food chain of herbivorous insects would be very slight to non-existent

  9. Soil carbon sequestration and land use change associated with biofuel production: Empirical evidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Zhangcai; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Kwon, Hoyoung; Mueller, Steffen; Wander, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) change can be a major impact of land use change (LUC) associated with biofuel feedstock production. By collecting and analyzing data from worldwide field observations with major LUCs from cropland, grassland and forest to lands producing biofuel crops (i.e., corn, switchgrass, Miscanthus, poplar and willow), we were able to estimate SOC response ratios and sequestration rates and evaluate the effects of soil depth and time scale on SOC change. Both the amount and rate of SOC change were highly dependent on the specific land transition. Irrespective of soil depth or time horizon, cropland conversions resulted in an overall SOC gain of 6-14% relative to initial SOC level, while conversion from grassland or forest to corn (without residue removal) or poplar caused significant carbon loss (9-35%). No significant SOC changes were observed in land converted from grasslands or forests to switchgrass, Miscanthus or willow. The SOC response ratios were similar in both 0-30 and 0-100 cm soil depths in most cases, suggesting SOC changes in deep soil and that use of top soil only for SOC accounting in biofuel life cycle analysis (LCA) might underestimate total SOC changes. Soil carbon sequestration rates varied greatly among studies and land transition types. Generally, the rates of SOC change tended to be the greatest during the 10 years following land conversion, and had declined to approach 0 within about 20 years for most LUCs. Observed trends in SOC change were generally consistent with previous reports. Soil depth and duration of study significantly influence SOC change rates and so should be considered in carbon emission accounting in biofuel LCA. High uncertainty remains for many perennial systems, field trials and modeling efforts are needed to determine the site- and system-specific rates and direction of change associated with their production.

  10. AmeriFlux US-MMS Morgan Monroe State Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Rich; Novick, Kim

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-MMS Morgan Monroe State Forest. Site Description - Owned by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IDNR), the Morgan Monroe State Forest, the site's namesake, is operated thanks to the long-term agreement between Indiana University and IDNR. The first settlers cleared the surrounding ridges for farming, but were largely unsuccessful. The state of Indiana purchased the land in 1929, creating the Morgan Monroe State Forest. Many of the trees in the tower footprint are 60-80 years old, surviving selective logging that ended over the past 10 years. Today, the forest is a secondary successional broadleaf forest within the maple-beech to oak hickory transition zone of the eastern deciduous forest.

  11. Tappable Pine Trees: Commercial Production of Terpene Biofuels in Pine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: The University of Florida is working to increase the amount of turpentine in harvested pine from 4% to 20% of its dry weight. While enhanced feedstocks for biofuels have generally focused on fuel production from leafy plants and grasses, the University of Florida is experimenting with enhancing fuel production in a species of pine that is currently used in the paper pulping industry. Pine trees naturally produce around 3-5% terpene content in the wood—terpenes are the energy-dense fuel molecules that are the predominant components of turpentine. The team aims to increase the terpene storage potential and production capacity while improving the terpene composition to a point at which the trees could be tapped while alive, like sugar maples. Growth and production from these trees will take years, but this pioneering technology could have significant impact in making available an economical and domestic source of aviation and diesel biofuels.

  12. AmeriFlux US-Syv Sylvania Wilderness Area

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Desai, Ankur [University of Wisconsin

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Syv Sylvania Wilderness Area. Site Description - Old growth forest consisting primarily of sugar maple and eastern hemlock. Note that a small lake to the north and data analyses suggest that wind direction screening is appropriate (see Desai, A.R., Bolstad, P.V., Cook, B.D., Davis, K.J., and Carey, E.V., 2005. Comparing net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide between an old-growth and mature forest in the upper midwest, USA. Ag. For. Met. 128(1-2): 33-55 (doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2004). Site was chosen to represent an end member representative of the upland forests in the WLEF tall tower flux footprint. (Note, however, that old growth forests are not found within the WLEF tall tower flux footprint.)

  13. Mechanisms controlling soil carbon sequestration under atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.L. Sinsabaugh; D.R. Zak; D.L. Moorhead

    2008-02-19

    Increased atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can alter the processing and storage of organic carbon in soils. In 2000, we began studying the effects of simulated atmospheric N deposition on soil carbon dynamics in three types of northern temperate forest that occur across a wide geographic range in the Upper Great Lakes region. These ecosystems range from 100% oak in the overstory (black oak-white oak ecosystem; BOWO) to 0% overstory oak (sugar maple-basswood; SMBW) and include the sugar maple-red oak ecosystem (SMRO) that has intermediate oak abundance. The leaf litter biochemistry of these ecosystems range from highly lignified litter (BOWO) to litter of low lignin content (SMBW). We selected three replicate stands of each ecosystem type and established three plots in each stand. Each plot was randomly assigned one of three levels of N deposition (0, 30 & 80 kg N ha-1 y-1) imposed by adding NaNO3 in six equal increments applied over the growing season. Through experiments ranging from the molecular to the ecosystem scales, we produced a conceptual framework that describes the biogeochemistry of soil carbon storage in N-saturated ecosystems as the product of interactions between the composition of plant litter, the composition of the soil microbial community and the expression of extracellular enzyme activities. A key finding is that atmospheric N deposition can increase or decrease the soil C storage by modifying the expression of extracellular enzymes by soil microbial communities. The critical interactions within this conceptual framework have been incorporated into a new class of simulations called guild decomposition models.

  14. IMPACTS OF INTERACTING ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND O3 ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONING OF A NORTHERN FOREST ECOSYSTEM: OPERATING AND DECOMMISSIONING THE ASPEN FACE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton, Andrew J.; Zak, Donald R.; Kubiske, Mark E.; Pregitzer, Kurt S.

    2014-06-30

    Two of the most important and pervasive greenhouse gases driving global change and impacting forests in the U.S. and around the world are atmospheric CO2 and tropospheric O3. As the only free air, large-scale manipulative experiment studying the interaction of elevated CO2 and O3 on forests, the Aspen FACE experiment was uniquely designed to address the long-term ecosystem level impacts of these two greenhouse gases on aspen-birch-maple forests, which dominate the richly forested Lake States region. The project was established in 1997 to address the overarching scientific question: “What are the effects of elevated [CO2] and [O3], alone and in combination, on the structure and functioning of northern hardwood forest ecosystems?” From 1998 through the middle of the 2009 growing season, we examined the interacting effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on ecosystem processes in an aggrading northern forest ecosystem to compare the responses of early-successional, rapid-growing shade intolerant trembling aspen and paper birch to those of a late successional, slower growing shade tolerant sugar maple. Fumigations with elevated CO2 (560 ppm during daylight hours) and O3 (approximately 1.5 x ambient) were conducted during the growing season from 1998 to 2008, and in 2009 through harvest date. Response variables quantified during the experiment included growth, competitive interactions and stand dynamics, physiological processes, plant nutrient status and uptake, tissue biochemistry, litter quality and decomposition rates, hydrology, soil respiration, microbial community composition and respiration, VOC production, treatment-pest interactions, and treatment-phenology interactions. In 2009, we conducted a detailed harvest of the site. The harvest included detailed sampling of a subset of trees by component (leaves and buds, fine branches, coarse branches and stem, coarse roots, fine roots) and excavation of soil to a depth of 1 m. Throughout the experiment, aspen and birch photosynthesis increased with elevated CO2 and tended to decrease with elevated O3, compared to the control. In contrast to aspen and birch, maple photosynthesis was not enhanced by elevated CO2. Elevated O3 did not cause significant reductions in maximum photosynthesis in birch or maple. In addition, photosynthesis in ozone sensitive clones was affected to a much greater degree than that in ozone tolerant aspen clones. Treatment effects on photosynthesis contributed to CO2 stimulation of aboveground and belowground growth that was species and genotype dependent, with birch and aspen being most responsive and maple being least responsive. The positive effects of elevated CO2 on net primary productivity NPP were sustained through the end of the experiment, but negative effects of elevated O3 on NPP had dissipated during the final three years of treatments. The declining response to O3 over time resulted from the compensatory growth of O3-tolerant genotypes and species as the growth of O3-sensitive individuals declined over time. Cumulative NPP over the entire experiment was 39% greater under elevated CO2 and 10% lower under elevated O3. Enhanced NPP under elevated CO2 was sustained by greater root exploration of soil for growth-limiting N, as well as more rapid rates of litter decomposition and microbial N release during decay. Results from Aspen FACE clearly indicate that plants growing under elevated carbon dioxide, regardless of community type or ozone level, obtained significantly greater amounts of soil N. These results indicate that greater plant growth under elevated carbon dioxide has not led to “progressive N limitation”. If similar forests growing throughout northeastern North America respond in the same manner, then enhanced forest NPP under elevated CO2 may be sustained for a longer duration than previously thought, and the negative effect of elevated O3 may be diminished by compensatory growth of O3-tolerant plants as they begin to dominate forest communities. By the end of the experiment, elevated CO2 increased ecosystem C content by 11%, whereas elevated O3 decreased ecosystem C content by 9%. Total ecosystem C content in the interaction treatment (elevated CO2 and O3) did not significantly differ from that of the control. Total ecosystem C content responded similarly to the treatments across the three forest communities. The treatment effects on ecosystem C content resulted from differences in tree biomass, particularly woody tissues (branches, stem, and coarse roots), and lower C content in the near-surface mineral soil. During its duration, the Aspen FACE project involved collaboration between scientists from 9 countries, and over the course of the experiment there were over 120 Aspen FACE scientific users. These scientists helped produce 75 publications during the most recent funding period (2008-2014) and 207 peer-reviewed publications (169 in refereed journals) since the beginning of the project.

  15. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fsh Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, R. Todd

    2001-12-31

    The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla River Basin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Habitat enhancement projects continued to be maintained on 44 private properties, four riparian easements and one in-stream enhancement agreement were secured, two new projects implemented and two existing projects improved to enhance anadromous fish habitat and natural fisheries production capabilities in the Umatilla River Basin. New project locations included sites on the mid Umatilla River and Buckaroo Creek. Improvements were implemented at existing project sites on the upper Umatilla River and Wildhorse Creek. A stream bank stabilization project was implemented at approximately River Mile 37.4 Umatilla River to stabilize 760 feet of eroding stream bank and improve in-stream habitat diversity. Habitat enhancements at this site included construction of six rock barbs with one large conifer root wad incorporated into each barb, stinging approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings, planting 195 tubling willows and 1,800 basin wildrye grass plugs, and seeding 40 pounds of native grass seed. Staff time to assist in development of a subcontract and fence materials were provided to establish eight spring sites for off-stream watering and to protect wetlands within the Buckaroo Creek Watershed. A gravel bar was moved and incorporated into an adjacent point bar to reduce stream energy and stream channel confinement within the existing project area at River Mile 85 Umatilla River. Approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings were stung and trenched into the stream channel margins and stream banks, and 360 basin wildrye grass plugs planted and 190 pounds of native grass seed broadcast on terraces between River Mile 10 and 12.5 within the existing Wildhorse Creek Project Area. Approximately 70 pounds of native grasses were seeded in the existing McKay Creek Project Area at approximately River Mile 21.5. Financial and in-kind cost share assistance was provided by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Fish and Wildlife Federation and the Umatilla National Forest for the enhancements at River Mile 37.4 Umatilla River and within the Buckaroo Creek Watershed. Monitoring continued to quantify effects of habitat enhancements in the upper basin. Maximum, minimum and average daily stream temperatures were collected from June through September at 22 sites. Suspended sediment samples were obtained at three gage stations to arrive at daily sediment load estimates. Photographs were taken at 94 existing and two newly established photo points to document habitat recovery. Umatilla Basin Watershed Assessment efforts were continued under a subcontract with Washington State University. This endeavor involves compiling existing information, identifying data gaps, determining habitat-limiting factors and recommending actions to improve anadromous fisheries habitat. This watershed assessment document and working databases will be completed in fiscal year 2002 and made available to assist project personnel with sub-watershed prioritization of habitat needs.

  16. Wildlife Protection, Mitigation, and Enhancement Planning Phase I, Dworshak Reservoir, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, H. Jerome

    1988-02-01

    Under direction of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980, and the subsequent Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, impacts to wildlife due to the development and operation of the US Army Corps of Engineers Dworshak Project have been examined. Using existing information, it has been determined that the project has resulted in the loss of 15,316 acres of elk habitat, 15,286 acres of white-tailed deer habitat, 16,986 acres of black bear habitat, 14,776 acres of ruffed grouse habitat, 13,616 acres of pileated woodpecker habitat, and 66 acres of yellow warbler habitat (scrub-shrub/red alder). Acreages of mallard, Canada goose, river otter, and beaver habitat could not be determined from existing information. The interagency work group has recommended that a HEP (Habitat Evaluation Procedure) be used to determine changes in the quantity and quality of target species habitat in the study area, due to the development and operation of Dworshak Reservoir. 60 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume III (Overview and Tools).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  18. Liquid products from the continuous flash pyrolysis of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, D.S.; Piskorz, J.; Radlein, D.

    1985-01-01

    A bench-scale continuous flash pyrolysis unit using a fluidized bed at atmospheric pressure has been employed to investigate conditions for maximum organic liquid yields from various biomass materials. Liquid yields for poplar-aspen were reported previously, and this work describes results for the flash pyrolysis of maple, poplar bark, bagasse, peat, wheat straw, corn stover, and a crude commercial cellulose. Organic liquid yields of 60-70% mf can be obtained from hardwoods and bagasse, and 40-50% from agricultural residues. Peat and bark with lower cellulose content give lower yields. The effects of the addition of lime and of a nickel catalyst to the fluid bed are reported also. A rough correlation exists between has content and maximum organic liquid yield, but the liquid yield correlates better with the alpha-cellulose content of the biomass. General relationships valid over all reaction conditions appear to exist among the ratios of final decomposition products also, and this correlation is demonstrated for the yields of methane and carbon monoxide.

  19. Anaerobic fermentation of woody biomass pretreated with supercritical ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, P.J.; Chou, Y.C.T.

    1986-10-01

    The degradability of ground hardwood by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium thermocellum with or without Thermoanaerobacter strain B6A) was greatly enhanced by pretreatment of the substrate with supercritical ammonia. Relative to C. thermocellum monocultures, cocultures of C. thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacter strain B6A degraded 1.5-fold more pretreated soft maple but produced 2- 5-fold more fermentation end products because Thermoanaerobacter sp. removed reducing sugars produced by C. thermocellum during the fermentation. Dry weight losses were not totally accounted for in end products, due to formation of partially degraded material (<0.4 ..mu..m diameter wood particles) during the fermentation. One pretreated hardwood, Southern red oak, was fermented poorly because it released soluble inhibitors at the 60/sup 0/C incubation temperature. Considerable (6- to 11-fold) increases in substrate degradability were also noted for supercritical ammonia-pretreated wood materials fermented in an in vitro rumen digestibility assay. Degradation of pretreated softwoods by either thermophilic or mesophilic fermentation was not measurable under the conditions tested.

  20. CTUIR Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project : A Columbia River Basin Fish Habitat Project 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoverson, Eric D.; Amonette, Alexandra

    2009-02-09

    The Umatilla Anadromous Fisheries Habitat Project (UAFHP) is an ongoing effort to protect, enhance, and restore riparian and instream habitat for the natural production of anadromous salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin, Northeast Oregon. Flow quantity, water temperature, passage, and lack of in-stream channel complexity have been identified as the key limiting factors in the basin. During the 2008 Fiscal Year (FY) reporting period (February 1, 2008-January 31, 2009) primary project activities focused on improving instream and riparian habitat complexity, migrational passage, and restoring natural channel morphology and floodplain function. Eight primary fisheries habitat enhancement projects were implemented on Meacham Creek, Birch Creek, West Birch Creek, McKay Creek, West Fork Spring Hollow, and the Umatilla River. Specific restoration actions included: (1) rectifying one fish passage barrier on West Birch Creek; (2) participating in six projects planting 10,000 trees and seeding 3225 pounds of native grasses; (3) donating 1000 ft of fencing and 1208 fence posts and associated hardware for 3.6 miles of livestock exclusion fencing projects in riparian areas of West Birch and Meacham Creek, and for tree screens to protect against beaver damage on West Fork Spring Hollow Creek; (4) using biological control (insects) to reduce noxious weeds on three treatment areas covering five acres on Meacham Creek; (5) planning activities for a levee setback project on Meacham Creek. We participated in additional secondary projects as opportunities arose. Baseline and ongoing monitoring and evaluation activities were also completed on major project areas such as conducting photo point monitoring strategies activities at the Meacham Creek Large Wood Implementation Project site (FY2006) and at additional easements and planned project sites. Fish surveys and aquatic habitat inventories were conducted at project sites prior to implementation. Proper selection and implementation of the most effective site-specific habitat restoration plan, taking into consideration the unique characteristics of each project site, and conducted in cooperation with landowners and project partners, was of paramount importance to ensure each project's success. An Aquatic Habitat Inventory was conducted from river mile 0-8 on Isquulktpe Creek and the data collected was compared with data collected in 1994. Monitoring plans will continue throughout the duration of each project to oversee progression and inspire timely managerial actions. Twenty-seven conservation easements were maintained with 23 landowners. Permitting applications for planned project activities and biological opinions were written and approved. Project activities were based on a variety of fisheries monitoring techniques and habitat assessments used to determine existing conditions and identify factors limiting anadromous salmonid abundance in accordance with the Umatilla River Subbasin Salmon and Steelhead Production Plan (NPPC 1990) and the Final Umatilla Willow Subbasin Plan (Umatilla/Willow Subbasin Planning Team 2005).

  1. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

  2. Chemistry of Furan Conversion into Aromatics and Olefins over HZSM-5: A Model Biomass Conversion Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Huber, George W.

    2011-06-03

    The conversion of furan (a model of cellulosic biomass) over HZSM-5 was investigated in a thermogravimetric analysismass spectrometry system, in situ Fourier transform infrared analysis, and in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor. Furan adsorbed as oligomers at room temperature with a 1.73 of adsorbed furan/Al ratio. These oligomers were polycyclic aromatic compounds that were converted to CO, CO?, aromatics, and olefins at temperatures from 400 to 600 C. Aromatics (e.g., benzene, toluene, and naphthalene), oligomer isomers (e.g., benzofuran, 2,2-methylenebisfuran, and benzodioxane), and heavy oxygenates (C??{sub +} oligomers) were identified as intermediates formed inside HZSM-5 at different reaction temperatures. During furan conversion, graphite-type coke formed on the catalyst surface, which caused the aromatics and olefins formation to deactivate within the first 30 min of time on-stream. We have measured the effects of space velocity and temperature for furan conversion to help us understand the chemistry of biomass conversion inside zeolite catalysts. The major products for furan conversion included CO, CO?, allene, C?C? olefins, benzene, toluene, styrene, benzofuran, indene, and naphthalene. The aromatics (benzene and toluene) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) selectivity decreased with increasing space velocity. Unsaturated hydrocarbons such as allene, cyclopentadiene, and aromatics selectivity increased with increasing space velocity. The product distribution was selective to olefins and CO at high temperatures (650 C) but was selective to aromatics (benzene and toluene) at intermediate temperatures (450600 C). At low temperatures (450 C), benzofuran and coke contributed 60% of the carbon selectivity. Several different reactions were occurring for furan conversion over zeolites. Some important reactions that we have identified in this study include DielsAlder condensation (e.g., two furans form benzofuran and water), decarbonylation (e.g., furan forms CO and allene), oligomerization (allene forms olefins and aromatics plus hydrogen), and alkylation (e.g., furan plus olefins). The product distribution was far from thermodynamic equilibrium.

  3. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project: 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheeler, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    The Umatilla habitat improvement program is funded under the Northwest Power Planning Council`s Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program measure 704 (d) (1) 34.02, and targets the improvement of water quality and the restoration of riparian areas, spawning and rearing habitat of steelhead, spring and fall chinook and coho salmon. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation are responsible for enhancing stream reaches within the Reservation boundaries as guided by an implementation plan developed cooperatively with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife and the USDA Forest Service, Umatilla National Forest. Treatment areas included the lower 4 miles of Meacham Creek, the lower {1/4} mile of Boston Canyon Creek, and the Umatilla River between RM 78.5 and 80. The upper {1/2} of the Meacham Creek project area including Boston Canyon Creek, which were initially enhanced during 1989, were reentered for maintenance and continued enhancements. Approximately 2400 cu. yds. of boulders and 1000 cu. yds. of riprap was used in the construction of in-stream, stream bank and flood plain structures and in the anchoring of large organic debris (LOD) placements. In-stream structures were designed to increase instream cover and channel stability and develop of a defined thalweg to focus low summer flows. Flood plain structures were designed to reduce sediment inputs and facilitate deposition on flood plains. Riparian recovery was enhanced through the planting of over 1000 willow cuttings and 400 lbs. of grass seed mix and through the exclusion of livestock from the riparian corridor with 4.5 miles of high tensile smooth wire fence. Photo documentation and elevational transects were used to monitor changes in channel morphology and riparian recovery at permanent standardized points throughout the projects. Water quality (temperature and turbidity) data was collected at locations within the project area and in tributaries programmed for future enhancements.

  4. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation.

  5. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

  6. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ``may affect`` the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA).

  7. Development and Deployment of a Short Rotation Woody Crops Harvesting System Based on a Case New Holland Forage Harvester and SRC Woody Crop Header

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenbies, Mark; Volk, Timothy

    2014-10-03

    Demand for bioenergy sourced from woody biomass is projected to increase; however, the expansion and rapid deployment of short rotation woody crop systems in the United States has been constrained by high production costs and sluggish market acceptance due to problems with quality and consistency from first-generation harvesting systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crop conditions on the performance of a single-pass, cut and chip harvester based on a standard New Holland FR-9000 series forage harvester with a dedicated 130FB short rotation coppice header, and the quality of chipped material. A time motion analysis was conducted to track the movement of machine and chipped material through the system for 153 separate loads over 10 days on a 54-ha harvest. Harvester performance was regulated by either ground conditions, or standing biomass on 153 loads. Material capacities increased linearly with standing biomass up to 40 Mgwet ha-1 and plateaued between 70 and 90 Mgwet hr-1. Moisture contents ranged from 39 to 51% with the majority of samples between 43 and 45%. Loads produced in freezing weather (average temperature over 10 hours preceding load production) had 4% more chips greater than 25.4 mm (P < 0.0119). Over 1.5 Mgdry ha-1 of potentially harvested material (6-9% of a load) was left on site, of which half was commercially undesirable meristematic pieces. The New Holland harvesting system is a reliable and predictable platform for harvesting material over a wide range of standing biomass; performance was consistent overall in 14 willow cultivars.

  8. Systems Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, R.L.

    1998-03-17

    The Systems Studies Activity had two objectives: (1) to investigate nontechnical barriers to the deployment of biomass production and supply systems and (2) to enhance and extend existing systems models of bioenergy supply and use. For the first objective, the Activity focused on existing bioenergy markets. Four projects were undertaken: a comparative analysis of bioenergy in Sweden and Austria; a one-day workshop on nontechnical barriers jointly supported by the Production Systems Activity; the development and testing of a framework for analyzing barriers and drivers to bioenergy markets; and surveys of wood pellet users in Sweden, Austria and the US. For the second objective, two projects were undertaken. First, the Activity worked with the Integrated BioEnergy Systems (TBS) Activity of TEA Bioenergy Task XIII to enhance the BioEnergy Assessment Model (BEAM). This model is documented in the final report of the IBS Activity. The Systems Studies Activity contributed to enhancing the feedstock portion of the model by developing a coherent set of willow, poplar, and switchgrass production modules relevant to both the US and the UK. The Activity also developed a pretreatment module for switchgrass. Second, the Activity sponsored a three-day workshop on modeling bioenergy systems with the objectives of providing an overview of the types of models used to evaluate bioenergy and promoting communication among bioenergy modelers. There were nine guest speakers addressing different types of models used to evaluate different aspects of bioenergy, ranging from technoeconomic models based on the ASPEN software to linear programming models to develop feedstock supply curves for the US. The papers from this workshop have been submitted to Biomass and Bioenergy and are under editorial review.

  9. Dual Layer Monolith ATR of Pyrolysis Oil for Distributed Synthesis Gas Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawal, Adeniyi

    2012-09-29

    We have successfully demonstrated a novel reactor technology, based on BASF dual layer monolith catalyst, for miniaturizing the autothermal reforming of pyrolysis oil to syngas, the second and most critical of the three steps for thermochemically converting biomass waste to liquid transportation fuel. The technology was applied to aged as well as fresh samples of pyrolysis oil derived from five different biomass feedstocks, namely switch-grass, sawdust, hardwood/softwood, golden rod and maple. Optimization of process conditions in conjunction with innovative reactor system design enabled the minimization of carbon deposit and control of the H2/CO ratio of the product gas. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis of the integrated process using in part, experimental data from the project, indicates (1) net energy recovery of 49% accounting for all losses and external energy input, (2) weight of diesel oil produced as a percent of the biomass to be ~14%, and (3) for a ‘demonstration’ size biomass to Fischer-Tropsch liquid plant of ~ 2000 daily barrels of diesel, the price of the diesel produced is ~$3.30 per gallon, ex. tax. However, the extension of catalyst life is critical to the realization of the projected economics. Catalyst deactivation was observed and the modes of deactivation, both reversible and irreversible were identified. An effective catalyst regeneration strategy was successfully demonstrated for reversible catalyst deactivation while a catalyst preservation strategy was proposed for preventing irreversible catalyst deactivation. Future work should therefore be focused on extending the catalyst life, and a successful demonstration of an extended (> 500 on-stream hours) catalyst life would affirm the commercial viability of the process.

  10. Overcoming the Recalcitrance of Cellulosic Biomass by Value Prior to Pulping: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-221

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowell, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) project goal was to demonstrate the technical and commercial feasibility of introducing a new value stream into existing pulp and paper mills. Essentially the intent was to transfer the energy content of extracted hemicellulose from electricity and steam generated in the recovery boiler to a liquid transportation fuel. The hemicellulose fraction was extracted prior to pulping, fractionated, or conditioned if necessary, and fermented to ethanol. Commercial adaptation of the process to wood hemicelluloses was a prerequisite for using this less currently valued component available from biomass and wood. These hemicelluloses are predominately glucurono-xylan in hardwoods and galactoglucomannan in softwoods (with a significant softwood component of an arabino-xylan) and will yield fermentation substrates different from cellulose. NREL provided its expertise in the area of fermentation host evaluation using its Zymomonas strains on the CleanTech Partner's (CTP) VPP project. The project was focused on the production of fuel ethanol and acetic acid from hemicellulose streams generated from wood chips of industrially important hardwood and softwood species. NREL was one of four partners whose ethanologen was tested on the hydrolyzed extracts. The use of commercially available enzymes to treat oligomeric sugar extracts was also investigated and coupled with fermentation. Fermentations by NREL were conducted with the Zymomonas mobilis organism with most of the work being performed with the 8b strain. The wood extracts hydrolyzed and/or fermented by NREL were those derived from maple, mixed southern hardwoods, and loblolly pine. An unhydrolyzed variant of the mixed southern hardwood extract possessed a large concentration of oligomeric sugars and enzymatic hydrolysis was performed with a number of enzymes, followed by fermentation. The fermentation of the wood extracts was carried out at bench scale in flasks or small bioreactors, with a maximum volume of 500 mL.

  11. Modifying woody plants for efficient conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinus, R.J.; Dimmel, D.R.; Feirer, R.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Malcolm, E.W. )

    1990-07-01

    The Short Rotation Woody Crop Program (SRWCP), Department of Energy, is developing woody plant species as sources of renewable energy. Much progress has been made in identifying useful species, and testing site adaptability, stand densities, coppicing abilities, rotation lengths, and harvesting systems. Conventional plant breeding and intensive cultural practices have been used to increase above-ground biomass yields. Given these and foreseeable accomplishments, program leaders are now shifting attention to prospects for altering biomass physical and chemical characteristics, and to ways for improving the efficiency with which biomass can be converted to gaseous and liquid fuels. This report provides a review and synthesis of literature concerning the quantity and quality of such characteristics and constituents, and opportunities for manipulating them via conventional selection and breeding and/or molecular biology. Species now used by SRWCP are emphasized, with supporting information drawn from others as needed. Little information was found on silver maple (Acer saccharinum), but general comparisons (Isenberg 1981) suggest composition and behavior similar to those of the other species. Where possible, conclusions concerning means for and feasibility of manipulation are given, along with expected impacts on conversion efficiency. Information is also provided on relationships to other traits, genotype X environment interactions, and potential trade-offs or limitations. Biomass productivity per se is not addressed, except in terms of effects that may by caused by changes in constituent quality and/or quantity. Such effects are noted to the extent they are known or can be estimated. Likely impacts of changes, however effected, on suitability or other uses, e.g., pulp and paper manufacture, are notes. 311 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Interactive Supercomputing’s Star-P Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelman, Alan; Husbands, Parry; Leibman, Steve

    2006-09-19

    The thesis of this extended abstract is simple. High productivity comes from high level infrastructures. To measure this, we introduce a methodology that goes beyond the tradition of timing software in serial and tuned parallel modes. We perform a classroom productivity study involving 29 students who have written a homework exercise in a low level language (MPI message passing) and a high level language (Star-P with MATLAB client). Our conclusions indicate what perhaps should be of little surprise: (1) the high level language is always far easier on the students than the low level language. (2) The early versions of the high level language perform inadequately compared to the tuned low level language, but later versions substantially catch up. Asymptotically, the analogy must hold that message passing is to high level language parallel programming as assembler is to high level environments such as MATLAB, Mathematica, Maple, or even Python. We follow the Kepner method that correctly realizes that traditional speedup numbers without some discussion of the human cost of reaching these numbers can fail to reflect the true human productivity cost of high performance computing. Traditional data compares low level message passing with serial computation. With the benefit of a high level language system in place, in our case Star-P running with MATLAB client, and with the benefit of a large data pool: 29 students, each running the same code ten times on three evolutions of the same platform, we can methodically demonstrate the productivity gains. To date we are not aware of any high level system as extensive and interoperable as Star-P, nor are we aware of an experiment of this kind performed with this volume of data.

  13. Hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated mixed hardwood and purified microcrystalline cellulose by cell-free broth from Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynd, L.R.; Grethlein, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    The cellulase activity in cell-free broths from Clostridium thermocellum is examined on both dilute-acid-pretreated mixed hardwood (90% maple, 10% birch) and Avicel. Experiments were conducted in vitro in order to distinguish properties of the cellulase from properties of the organism and to evaluate the effectiveness of C. thermocellum cellulase in the hydrolysis of a naturally occurring, lignin-containing substrate. The results obtained establish that essentially quantitative hydrolysis of cellulose from pretreated mixed hardwood is possible using this enzyme system. Pretreatment with 1% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and a 9-s residence time at 220, 210, 200, and 180/sup 0/C allowed yields after enzymatic hydrolysis (percentage of glucan solubilized/glucan potentially solubilized) of 97.8, 86.1, 82.0, and 34.6%, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of mixed hardwood with no pretreatment resulted in a yield of 10.1%. Hydrolysis yields of greater than 95% were obtained from 0.6 g/l mixed hardwood pretreated at 220/sup 0/C in 7 hours at broth strengths of 60 and 80% (v/v) and in approximately 48 hours with 33% broth. Hydrolysis of pretreated mixed hardwood is compared to hydrolysis of Avicel. The initial rate of Avicel hydrolysis saturates with respect to enzyme, whereas the initial rate of hydrolysis of pretreated wood is proportional to the amount of enzyme present. Initial hydrolysis rates for pretreated wood and Avicel at 0.6 g/l are greater for wood at low broth dilutions (1.25:1 to 5:1) by up to 2.7-fold and greater for Avicel at high broth dilutions (5:1 to 50:1) by up to 4.3-fold. Maximum rates of hydrolysis are achieved at less than 2 g substrate/liter for both pretreated wood and Avicel).

  14. Alkali-metal/alkaline-earth-metal fluorine beryllium borate NaSr{sub 3}Be{sub 3}B{sub 3}O{sub 9}F{sub 4} with large nonlinear optical properties in the deep-ultraviolet region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reshak, A. H.; Huang, Hongwei; Kamarudin, H.; Auluck, S.

    2015-02-28

    The linear optical response and second harmonic generation (SHG) in alkali-metal/alkaline-earth-metal fluorine beryllium borate NaSr{sub 3}Be{sub 3}B{sub 3}O{sub 9}F{sub 4} are investigated by means of density functional theory. Calculations are performed using four types of exchange correlations: Ceperley-Alder local density approximation, Perdew Burke and Ernzerhof general gradient approximation, Engel-Vosko generalized gradient approximation, and the recently modified Becke-Johnson potential (mBJ). The mBJ approach brings the calculated band gap (7.20 eV) in excellent agreement with the experimental one (7.28 eV). The calculated values of the uniaxial anisotropy δε=−0.076 and the birefringence Δn(0)=0.052 indicate considerable anisotropy in the linear optical properties, which makes it favorable for the second harmonic generation. The dominant component of the second harmonic generation is χ{sub 111}{sup (2)}(ω). The value of |χ{sub 111}{sup (2)}(ω)| is about 1.2 pm/V at λ = 1064 nm in agreement with previous calculations. To analyze the origin of the high SHG of NaSr{sub 3}Be{sub 3}B{sub 3}O{sub 9}F{sub 4} single crystals, we have correlated the features of |χ{sub 111}{sup (2)}(ω)| spectra with the features of ε{sub 2}(ω) spectra as a function of ω/2 and ω. From the calculated dominant component |χ{sub 111}{sup (2)}(ω)|, we find that the microscopic first hyperpolarizability, β{sub 111}, the vector components along the dipole moment direction is 0.5 × 10{sup −30} esu at static limit and 0.6 × 10{sup −30} esu at λ = 1064 nm.

  15. Supplement Analysis for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program FEIS (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-15)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2001-06-19

    BPA proposes to clear unwanted vegetation in the rights-of-ways and around tower structures that may impede the operation and maintenance of the subject transmission lines. Work also includes clearing of a small (<1/4 mile) section of access road. All work will be in accordance with the National Electrical Safety Code and BPA standards. See Section 1.1 of the attached checklist for detailed information on each section of the referenced transmission lines. BPA will conduct the vegetation control with the goal of removing tall-growing vegetation that is currently or will soon be a hazard to the transmission lines and where possible to promote low-growing plant communities in the right-of-way. This project meets the standards and guidelines for the Transmission System Vegetation Management Program Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The vegetation needing control is mainly Douglas Fir, Alder, and blackberries as indicated in Section 1.2 of the attached checklist. The work involved in the ROW includes: clearing tall growing vegetation that is currently or will soon pose a hazard to the lines; treating the associated stumps and re-sprouts with herbicide to ensure that the roots are killed preventing new sprouts; and selectively eliminating tall growing vegetation before it reaches a height or density to begin competing with low-growing vegetation. All work will take place in existing rights-of-ways and around transmission structures. All work will be accomplished by selective vegetation control methods to assure that there is little potential harm to non-target vegetation and to low-growing plants. The work will provide system reliability and fire protection. Also, all off right-of-way trees that are potentially unstable and will fall within a minimum distance or into the zone where the conductors swing will be removed. Access roads will be treated using mowing and herbicide applications. The work will provide system reliability. The subject transmission lines range from 115kV to 230kV and are made up of accompanying access roads, steel and wooden transmission line structures and associated switching platforms. The minimum clearance ranges from 21 feet for 115kV lines to 23 feet for 230kV lines. ROW easement widths vary along the length of the project. Vegetation control for this project is designed to provide a 3 year maintenance free interval. In summary, the overall vegetation management scheme will be to selectively remove tall growing vegetation then apply selective herbicide treatment using cut stump applications.

  16. QER- Comment of Jennifer Markens

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To the committee: In Germany, utilities companies who increased reliance on fossil fuels are now showing drastic losses. Utility revenues are spiraling. Is the Northeast going down this path? RWE"s Terium reported dismal earnings, and admitted that the utility had invested too heavily in fossil fuel plants at a time when it should have been thinking about renewables. Sadly, this model requires that utility companies work with communities around developing a different model. This model of renewable energy is a more resilient system, and offers long term stability with none of the down side of fossil fuels. It is clear that in the Merger between Northeast Utilities and Nstar, the fossil fuel death spiral is being continued, making us less competitive in world markets. A further concern for our small state is that with leaky, radioactive Marcellus gas going through our aquifers, and across some of our best heritage soils and farmlands, our food and products will suffer on world markets, too, since other countries are far more advanced in legislation about food and product safety. No one is going to buy radioactive maple syrup . . . or any farm products that absorb neurotoxins. Basically, any product that uses water for production will be adversely affected, never mind the health and well being of Massachusetts citizens whose health can be compromised, and the enormous loss of income, land, water, and expense of importing water, or effectively treating it- if that's possible. Our state will pay for this poor decision for decades and this decision will knee cap nearly every industry in Massachusetts. Our world class medical facilities will be overburdened, and if current practices are any indication, their medical research is likely to be muffled to protect and industry that has no interest in protecting us. This is a plan to enrich individuals at the expense of our citizens. We have the resources, and willing participants to make a different plan. High pressure pipelines represent the lowest and least effective use of eminent domain at this point in history and this is a foolhardy step for our state. Best regards, Jennifer Markens

  17. Effects of Warming on Tree Species’ Recruitment in Deciduous Forests of the Eastern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Clark, James S.; Mohan, Jacqueline

    2015-03-25

    Climate change is restructuring forests of the United States, although the details of this restructuring are currently uncertain. Rising temperatures of 2 to 8oC and associated changes in soil moisture will shift the competitive balance between species that compete for light and water, and so change their abilities to produce seed, germinate, grow, and survive. We have used large-scale experiments to determine the effects of warming on the most sensitive stage of species distributions, i.e., recruitment, in mixed deciduous forests in southern New England and in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Two questions organized our research: (1) Might temperate tree species near the “warm” end of their range in the eastern United States decline in abundance during the coming century due to projected warming? and (2) Might trees near the “cool” end of their range in the eastern United States increase in abundance, or extend their range, during the coming 100 years because of projected warming? To explore these questions, we exposed seedlings to air and soil warming experiments in two eastern deciduous forest sites; one at the Harvard Forest (HF) in central Massachusetts, and the other at the Duke Forest (DF) in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. We focused on tree species common to both Harvard and Duke Forests (such as red, black, and white oaks), those near northern range limits (black oak, flowing dogwood, tulip poplar), and those near southern range limits (yellow birch, sugar maple, Virginia pine). At each site, we planted seeds and seedlings in common gardens established in temperature-controlled, open-top chambers. The experimental design was replicated and fully factorial and involved three temperature regimes (ambient, +3oC and +5oC) and two light regimes (closed forest canopy (low light) and gap conditions (high light)). Measured variables included Winter/Spring responses to temperature and mid-Summer responses to low soil moisture. This research will advance our understanding of how the abundances and geographic distributions of several important eastern tree species near the cool and warm ends of their ranges will change during the century because of projected warming. Warming-induced changes in eastern tree abundances and distributions have the potential to affect both the quality and quantity of goods and services provided by eastern forests, and will therefore be of importance to society.

  18. Multicomponent Seismic Analysis and Calibration to Improve Recovery from Algal Mounds: Application to the Roadrunner/Towaoc area of the Paradox Basin, UTE Mountain UTE Reservation, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Hachey

    2007-09-30

    The goals of this project were: (1) To enhance recovery of oil contained within algal mounds on the Ute Mountain Ute tribal lands. (2) To promote the use of advanced technology and expand the technical capability of the Native American Oil production corporations by direct assistance in the current project and dissemination of technology to other Tribes. (3) To develop an understanding of multicomponent seismic data as it relates to the variations in permeability and porosity of algal mounds, as well as lateral facies variations, for use in both reservoir development and exploration. (4) To identify any undiscovered algal mounds for field-extension within the area of seismic coverage. (5) To evaluate the potential for applying CO{sub 2} floods, steam floods, water floods or other secondary or tertiary recovery processes to increase production. The technical work scope was carried out by: (1) Acquiring multicomponent seismic data over the project area; (2) Processing and reprocessing the multicomponent data to extract as much geological and engineering data as possible within the budget and time-frame of the project; (3) Preparing maps and data volumes of geological and engineering data based on the multicomponent seismic and well data; (4) Selecting drilling targets if warranted by the seismic interpretation; (5) Constructing a static reservoir model of the project area; and (6) Constructing a dynamic history-matched simulation model from the static model. The original project scope covered a 6 mi{sup 2} (15.6 km{sup 2}) area encompassing two algal mound fields (Towaoc and Roadrunner). 3D3C seismic data was to acquired over this area to delineate mound complexes and image internal reservoir properties such as porosity and fluid saturations. After the project began, the Red Willow Production Company, a project partner and fully-owned company of the Southern Ute Tribe, contributed additional money to upgrade the survey to a nine-component (3D9C) survey. The purpose of this upgrade to nine components was to provide additional shear wave component data that might prove useful in delineating internal mound reservoir attributes. Also, Red Willow extended the P-wave portion of the survey to the northwest of the original 6 mi{sup 2} (15.6 km{sup 2}) 3D9C area in order to extend coverage further to the northwest to the Marble Wash area. In order to accomplish this scope of work, 3D9C seismic data set covering two known reservoirs was acquired and processed. Three-dimensional, zero-offset vertical seismic profile (VSP) data was acquired to determine the shear wave velocities for processing the sh3Dseismic data. Anisotropic velocity, and azimuthal AVO processing was carried out in addition to the conventional 3D P-wave data processing. All P-, PS- and S-wave volumes of the seismic data were interpreted to map the seismic response. The interpretation consisted of conventional cross-plots of seismic attributes vs. geological and reservoir engineering data, as well as multivariate and neural net analyses to assess whether additional resolution on exploration and engineering parameters could be achieved through the combined use of several seismic variables. Engineering data in the two reservoirs was used to develop a combined lithology, structure and permeability map. On the basis of the seismic data, a well was drilled into the northern mound trend in the project area. This well, Roadrunner No.9-2, was brought into production in late April 2006 and continues to produce modest amounts of oil and gas. As of the end of August 2007, the well has produced approximately 12,000 barrels of oil and 32,000 mcf of gas. A static reservoir model was created from the seismic data interpretations and well data. The seismic data was tied to various markers identified in the well logs, which in turn were related to lithostratigraphy. The tops and thicknesses of the various units were extrapolated from well control based upon the seismic data that was calibrated to the well picks. The reservoir engineering properties were available from a number of wells in the project area. Multivariate regressions of seismic attributes versus engineering parameters, such as porosity, were then used to guide interpolation away from well control. These formed the basis for dynamic reservoir simulations. The simulations were used to assess the potential for additional reservoir development, and to provide insight as to how well the multivariate approach worked for assigning more realistic values of internal mound reservoir properties.

  19. Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, Angelo, Lamb, Dave; Scott, Jason

    2003-12-01

    Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake (Staff Communication). The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. The declines in native salmonid fish populations, particularly cutthroat and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), in the Coeur d'Alene basin have been the focus of study by the Coeur d' Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. It appears that there are a number of factors contributing to the decline of resident salmonid stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Ellis 1932; Oien 1957; Mallet 1969; Scholz et. al. 1985, Lillengreen et. al. 1993). These factors include: construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906; major changes in land cover types, agricultural activities and introduction of exotic fish species. Over 100 years of mining activities in the Coeur d'Alene River drainage have had devastating effects on the quality of the water in the Coeur d'Alene River and Coeur d'Alene Lake. Effluents from tailings and mining waste have contributed vast quantities of trace heavy metals to the system. Poor agricultural and forest practices have also contributed to the degradation of water quality and habitat suitability for resident salmonids. Increased sediment loads from agricultural runoff and recent and recovering clearcuts, and increases in water temperature due to riparian canopy removal may be two of the most important problems currently affecting westslope cutthroat trout. Increases in water temperature have reduced the range of resident salmonids to a fraction of its historic extent. Within this new range, sediment has reduced the quality of both spawning and rearing habitats. Historically, municipal waste contributed large quantities of phosphates and nitrogen that accelerated the eutrophication process in Coeur d'Alene Lake. However, over the last 25 years work has been completed to reduce the annual load of these materials. Wastewater treatment facilities have been established near all major municipalities in and around the basin. Species interactions with introduced exotics as well as native species are also acting to limit cutthroat trout populations. Two mechanisms are at work: interspecific competition, and species replacement. Competition occurs when two species utilize common resources, the supply of which is short; or if the resources are not in short supply, they harm each other in the process of seeking these resources. Replacement occurs when some environmental or anthropogenic change (e.g., habitat degradation, fishing pressure, etc.) causes the decline or elimination of one species and another species, either native or introduced, fills the void left by the other. In 1994, the Northwest Power Planning Council adopted the recommendations set forth by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe to improve the Reservation fishery. These recommended actions included: (1) Implement habitat restoration and enhancement measures in Alder, Benewah, Evans, and Lake Creeks; (2) Purchase critical watershed areas for protection of fis

  20. Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation; Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fish, Water, and Wildlife Program, REVISED 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, Angelo; Lamb, Dave; Scott, Jason

    2004-04-01

    Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake (Staff Communication). The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. The declines in native salmonid fish populations, particularly cutthroat and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), in the Coeur d'Alene basin have been the focus of study by the Coeur d' Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. It appears that there are a number of factors contributing to the decline of resident salmonid stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Ellis 1932; Oien 1957; Mallet 1969; Scholz et. al. 1985, Lillengreen et. al. 1993). These factors include: construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906; major changes in land cover types, agricultural activities and introduction of exotic fish species. Over 100 years of mining activities in the Coeur d'Alene River drainage have had devastating effects on the quality of the water in the Coeur d'Alene River and Coeur d'Alene Lake. Effluents from tailings and mining waste have contributed vast quantities of trace heavy metals to the system. Poor agricultural and forest practices have also contributed to the degradation of water quality and habitat suitability for resident salmonids. Increased sediment loads from agricultural runoff and recent and recovering clearcuts, and increases in water temperature due to riparian canopy removal may be two of the most important problems currently affecting westslope cutthroat trout. Increases in water temperature have reduced the range of resident salmonids to a fraction of its historic extent. Within this new range, sediment has reduced the quality of both spawning and rearing habitats. Historically, municipal waste contributed large quantities of phosphates and nitrogen that accelerated the eutrophication process in Coeur d'Alene Lake. However, over the last 25 years work has been completed to reduce the annual load of these materials. Wastewater treatment facilities have been established near all major municipalities in and around the basin. Species interactions with introduced exotics as well as native species are also acting to limit cutthroat trout populations. Two mechanisms are at work: interspecific competition, and species replacement. Competition occurs when two species utilize common resources, the supply of which is short; or if the resources are not in short supply, they harm each other in the process of seeking these resources. Replacement occurs when some environmental or anthropogenic change (e.g., habitat degradation, fishing pressure, etc.) causes the decline or elimination of one species and another species, either native or introduced, fills the void left by the other. In 1994, the Northwest Power Planning Council adopted the recommendations set forth by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe to improve the Reservation fishery. These recommended actions included: (1) Implement habitat restoration and enhancement measures in Alder, Benewah, Evans, and Lake Creeks; (2) Purchase critical watershed areas for protection of fis

  1. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Fisheries Program : Implementation of Fisheries Enhancement Opportunities on the Coeur dAlene Reservation : 2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Firehammer, Jon A.; Vitale, Angelo J.; Hallock, Stephanie A.

    2009-09-08

    Historically, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe depended on runs of anadromous salmon and steelhead along the Spokane River and Hangman Creek, as well as resident and adfluvial forms of trout and char in Coeur d'Alene Lake, for survival. Dams constructed in the early 1900s on the Spokane River in the City of Spokane and at Little Falls (further downstream) were the first dams that initially cut-off the anadromous fish runs from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe. These fisheries were further removed following the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. Together, these actions forced the Tribe to rely solely on the resident fish resources of Coeur d'Alene Lake for their subsistence needs. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe is estimated to have historically harvested around 42,000 westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) per year (Scholz et al. 1985). In 1967, Mallet (1969) reported that 3,329 cutthroat trout were harvested from the St. Joe River, and a catch of 887 was reported from Coeur d'Alene Lake. This catch is far less than the 42,000 fish per year the tribe harvested historically. Today, only limited opportunities exist to harvest cutthroat trout in the Coeur d'Alene Basin. It appears that a suite of factors have contributed to the decline of cutthroat trout stocks within Coeur d'Alene Lake and its tributaries (Mallet 1969; Scholz et al. 1985; Lillengreen et al. 1993). These factors included the construction of Post Falls Dam in 1906, major changes in land cover types, impacts from agricultural activities, and introduction of exotic fish species. The decline in native cutthroat trout populations in the Coeur d'Alene basin has been a primary focus of study by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Fisheries and Water Resources programs since 1990. The overarching goals for recovery have been to restore the cutthroat trout populations to levels that allow for subsistence harvest, maintain genetic diversity, and increase the probability of persistence in the face of anthropogenic influences and prospective climate change. This included recovering the lacustrine-adfluvial life history form that was historically prevalent and had served to provide both resilience and resistance to the structure of cutthroat trout populations in the Coeur d'Alene basin. To this end, the Coeur d'Alene Tribe closed Lake Creek and Benewah Creek to fishing in 1993 to initiate recovery of westslope cutthroat trout to historical levels. However, achieving sustainable cutthroat trout populations also required addressing biotic factors and habitat features in the basin that were limiting recovery. Early in the 1990s, BPA-funded surveys and inventories identified limiting factors in Tribal watersheds that would need to be remedied to restore westslope cutthroat trout populations. The limiting factors included: low-quality, low-complexity mainstem stream habitat and riparian zones; high stream temperatures in mainstem habitats; negative interactions with nonnative brook trout in tributaries; and potential survival bottlenecks in Coeur d'Alene Lake. In 1994, the Northwest Power Planning Council adopted the recommendations set forth by the Coeur d'Alene Tribe to improve the Reservation fishery (NWPPC Program Measures 10.8B.20). These recommended actions included: (1) Implement habitat restoration and enhancement measures in Alder, Benewah, Evans, and Lake Creeks; (2) Purchase critical watershed areas for protection of fisheries habitat; (3) Conduct an educational/outreach program for the general public within the Coeur d'Alene Reservation to facilitate a 'holistic' watershed protection process; (4) Develop an interim fishery for tribal and non-tribal members of the reservation through construction, operation and maintenance of five trout ponds; (5) Design, construct, operate and maintain a trout production facility; and (6) Implement a monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the hatchery and habitat improvement projects. These activities provide partial mitigation for the extirpation of anadromous fish resources from usual and

  2. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downing, Mark; Eaton, Laurence M; Graham, Robin Lambert; Langholtz, Matthew H; Perlack, Robert D; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Stokes, Bryce; Brandt, Craig C

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small-diameter trees were considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result of a burgeoning worldwide demand and concerns about long-term supplies. By the end of the summer, oil prices topped $70 per barrel (bbl) and catastrophic hurricanes in the Gulf Coast shut down a significant fraction of U.S. refinery capacity. The following year, oil approached $80 per bbl due to supply concerns, as well as continued political tensions in the Middle East. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was enacted in December of that year. By the end of December 2007, oil prices surpassed $100 per bbl for the first time, and by mid-summer 2008, prices approached $150 per bbl because of supply concerns, speculation, and weakness of the U.S. dollar. As fast as they skyrocketed, oil prices fell, and by the end of 2008, oil prices dropped below $50 per bbl, falling even more a month later due to the global economic recession. In 2009 and 2010, oil prices began to increase again as a result of a weak U.S. dollar and the rebounding of world economies.