Sample records for ald en-lanc aster

  1. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarketsNov-14 Dec-14Has|Issues L EONARDO

  2. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarketsNov-14 Dec-14Has|Issues L EONARDO81 § ¨

  3. LAKESHORE AVON BR ANT-EDEN ALD EN-LANC ASTER AU BURN W SH ELDON

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S.MajorMarketsNov-14 Dec-14Has|Issues L EONARDO81 §

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: ALD

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALD Combining 'Tinkertoy' Materials with Solar Cells for Increased Photovoltaic Efficiency On December 4, 2014, in Energy, Materials Science, News, News & Events, Photovoltaic,...

  5. ALDS 1980 panel review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, D. L. [ed.] [ed.

    1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall goal of PNL (Pacific Northwest Laboratory) Applied Mathematical Sciences Research is development of a DOE (Department of Energy) capability for Analysis of Large Data Sets (ALDS) and transfer of this capability to other DOE laboratories and contractors. This capability is needed to satisfy DOE's increasing requirements for handling and analyzing large volumes of diverse energy and environmental data. The integrated statistics and computer science research includes the development of improved methodologies in data definition, data management, data analysis, and visual display. The purpose of this document is three-fold. First, the document is the permanent record of the ALDS 1979 panel review. Second, the document provides the PNL staff with a benchmark of where we were at the end of the second year of ALDS. Third, the document is available to laboratories, universities, and DOE headquarters as detailed description of the ALDS project, as well as an example of the new direction of AMS-funded research.

  6. ASTER | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1AMEE Jump to: navigation, search40 -Solar GmbHASP AG JumpASTER

  7. ald na stali: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2009) 12;ALD PRECURSORS FOR NON-METALS 8 oxygen nitrogen fluorine, carbon deposited as pure, single elements ALD films have been made...

  8. ASTER Bibliography February 21, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Kaihatsu, PAGE.IV.1(1)-IV.30(TOTAL 28P). #12;3 Sensors, systems, and next-generation satellites = Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Japan, 46(8), 445-448. Advanced and next-generation and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), (1996). Infrared spaceborne remote sensing IV; Proceedings

  9. aster dataset zoom: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    click once on the bar next to "Bounding Box" and a window will appear in which you can enter 6 Web site. Alternative Name panicled aster, Aster lanceolatus CiteSeer Summary: aster...

  10. aster frikartii: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 ASTER Users Handbook Michael Abrams Geosciences Websites Summary: 12;ASTER Users Handbook ASTER User...

  11. aster yellows group: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    way out to the far regions of the Aster's realm. Dawn 7 Asteraceae (Aster family) Canada goldenrod Renewable Energy Websites Summary: . Leaves are numer- ous and crowded along...

  12. aster yellows: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    way out to the far regions of the Aster's realm. Dawn 7 Asteraceae (Aster family) Canada goldenrod Renewable Energy Websites Summary: . Leaves are numer- ous and crowded along...

  13. Chapter 6.24 Picosun Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    by the ALD could be used for diffusion barriers and similar applications. 2.0 Materials Controls: Source/s used in the ALD machine contains the desired metal for deposition. This metal is bonded)3 is precursors used to deposit aluminum oxide. 4.5.2 TTIP: Titanium Tetrakis Isopropoxide, which supplies Ti

  14. ASTER Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: ASTER Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from ASTER satellite imagery. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. Areas that had temperature greater than 2?, and areas with temperature equal to 1? to 2?, were considered ASTER modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4547052.446651 m Left: 158917.090117 m Right: 4101162.228281 m Bottom: 4101162.228281 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  15. aster novi-belgii cultivars: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 ASTER Users Handbook Michael Abrams Geosciences Websites Summary: 12;ASTER Users Handbook ASTER User...

  16. Remote Detection Of Quaternary Borate Deposits With Aster Satellite...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Remote Detection Of Quaternary Borate Deposits With Aster Satellite Imagery As A Geothermal...

  17. Geothermal Exploration in Eastern California Using Aster Thermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    library Report: Geothermal Exploration in Eastern California Using Aster Thermal Infrared Data Abstract Remote sensing is a cost-effective tool that can be used to cover large...

  18. Harvard University Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD): An Enabler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deposition (CVD) One or more gases or vapors react to form a solid product Reaction started by heat mixing 2 vapors plasma Solid product can be a film particle nanowire nanotube precursor vapors byproduct vapors University Coatings on the Outside of Particles ALD AlN coating ZnS particles Used in electroluminescent back

  19. Novel Reactor Design and Metrology Study for Tungsten ALD process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    species Viscous flow condition Short gas residence time Fast gas switching Reactant + carrier gas Multiple Operation Modes Exposure Purge Small reactor volume Throttle Valve 5 torr 10-5 Torr carrier gas 5 torr 10Novel Reactor Design and Metrology Study for Tungsten ALD process Laurent Henn-Lecordier, Wei Lei

  20. Chapter 6.25 Cambridge Fiji F200 Plasma ALD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    system supports metal ALD primarily and has a remote inductively coupled plasma source to allow for low to keep electromagnetically sensitive devices such as cell phones away from the ICP coil. 4.2 Heating 4.2.1 Heater : The PEALD system includes several heating elements to bring various components to temperature

  1. Impact of ALD Coating on Mn-rich Cathode Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santhanagopalan, S.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LG Chem Power Inc. (LGCPI) and NREL have collaborated to demonstrate the scalability of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating process over the last 6 months, and the benefits of ALD coatings for long-term cycling and calendar life are being quantified. The objectives of this work are two-fold: 1) to evaluate the scalability of the process to coat LGCPI cathodes with alumina using the ALD technique, and 2) to demonstrate improvements in rate capability and life of ALD-coated LGCPI electrodes. NREL received samples of baseline material to be coated from LGCPI. NREL carried out ALD coating of the samples with help from a subcontractor, ALD Nanosolutions. NREL fabricated cells from those samples for quick screening and feedback to ALD Nanosolutions. LGCPI is currently fabricating larger-format cells for further evaluation.

  2. ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergySulfonate asAEEOpenOpenALD Vacuum Technologies

  3. Final Report: Novel ALD-Coated Nanoparticle Anodes for Enhanced Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groner, Markus

    2009-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Phase I effort is described in detail in the Phase I report given below. The key accomplishments of the Phase I project were (1) the demonstration of high stability LiCoO2 cathodes using ALD-coated LiCoO2 particles, as well as on ALD-coated LiCoO2 electrodes and (2) the demonstration of high stability of graphite anodes using ALD-coated graphite electrodes.

  4. From the Director: New ALDs in LCLS, SSRL and PPA and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    From the Director: New ALDs in LCLS, SSRL and PPA and a new Directorate in the Making Wednesday leadership to the laboratory that is delivering success not only in LCLS, but also in the LCLS Ultrafast for PPA. Effective July 1, Jo Stohr will take over from Dale Knutson as the LCLS ALD. Jo came to SLAC

  5. DEM GENERATION FROM ASTER SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CERRO SILLAJHUAY, CHILE/BOLIVIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolch, Tobias

    DEM GENERATION FROM ASTER SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CERRO SILLAJHUAY, CHILE/BOLIVIA, a volcano in the Andes of Chile/Bolivia, was developed from ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission ASTER satellite data of the Cerro Sillajhuay in the Andes of Chile/Bolivia. Fieldwork at the Cerro

  6. Aster jessicae Jessica's aster Status: State Endangered, USFWS Species of Concern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rank Gss; General Description Robust

    creeping rhizomes that tends to grow in large clumps. Plants grow to be 5 feet tall, but average about 3 feet. The herbage, particularly the upper portion, is covered with a dense, uniform, soft pubescence. Leaves are abundant, broadly lance-shaped and entire. Middle stem leaves generally partially clasp the stem and lower leaves tend to dry up and wither as the season progresses. Flowers are generally numerous, lavender in color, 1-1.5 inches in diameter, and form a broad cluster at the top of the plant. Identification Tips: A. jessicae is distinct in its unusually robust nature, dense pubescence, and cordate leaf bases. The only other aster found in the vicinity of Jessicas aster is A. occidentalis var. intermedius. This species generally inhabits more mesic microhabitats, has smaller flowers, is less robust, possesses few to no hairs, and lacks cordate leaf bases. Phenology: Flowering occurs in late summer and early fall (from late July through mid September). Fruit and seed maturation occurs in September and early October, with seed dispersal likely in mid to late October. Range: Local endemic; southeastern WA (Whitman Co.) and adjacent ID. Occurs in the Columbia Basin physiographic province. Habitat: The species occurs in Palouse grasslands and prairie/ forest transition zones, often in association with small drainages, but above water level on dry ground, 2500-2800 feet in elevation. It occurs primarily in the following habitat types (Daubenmire 1970): ponderosa pine/snowberry, Idaho fescue/snowberry, black hawthorn/snowberry, Idaho fescue/Nootka rosa, and Douglas fir/ ninebark. Other associated species include bluebunch wheatgrass, balsamroot, and yarrow. 1955 University of Washington Press. Illustration by John H. Rumely. Known distribution of

  7. aster microtubule dynamics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aster microtubule dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Collective behavior of...

  8. BulletinVol. 64 -No. 1 January 8, 2010 BNL's ALD Stokes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    the BulletinVol. 64 - No. 1 January 8, 2010 BNL's ALD Stokes Heads NYS Energy Policy Institute New building on site has at least one mechanical equip- ment room -- many buildings have two or three

  9. Control of Willow Baccharis and Spiny Aster With Pelleted Herbicides.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mutz, J.L.; Scifres, C.J.; Mohr, W.C.; Drawe, D.L.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ., professor, The Texas Agricultural Experiment Sta- tion (Department of Range Science) Mohr, W. C., range research technician, The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station (Department of Range Science) Drawe, D. L., assistant director, The Rob and Bessie... willow baccharis plant, and the number of plants completely defoliated were recorded within a 2-meter-wide belt down the center of each plot. Spiny Aster On June 1, 1976. an experiment was installed on the Rob and Bessie Welder Wildlife Foundation...

  10. ALD Functionalized Nanoporous Gold: Thermal Stability, Mechanical Properties, and Catalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biener, M M; Biener, J; Wichmann, A; Wittstock, A; Baumann, T F; Baeumer, M; Hamza, A V

    2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoporous metals have many technologically promising applications but their tendency to coarsen limits their long-term stability and excludes high temperature applications. Here, we demonstrate that atomic layer deposition (ALD) can be used to stabilize and functionalize nanoporous metals. Specifically, we studied the effect of nanometer-thick alumina and titania ALD films on thermal stability, mechanical properties, and catalytic activity of nanoporous gold (np-Au). Our results demonstrate that even only one-nm-thick oxide films can stabilize the nanoscale morphology of np-Au up to 1000 C, while simultaneously making the material stronger and stiffer. The catalytic activity of np-Au can be drastically increased by TiO{sub 2} ALD coatings. Our results open the door to high temperature sensor, actuator, and catalysis applications and functionalized electrodes for energy storage and harvesting applications.

  11. ALD of Al2O3 for Highly Improved Performance in Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A.; Jung, Y. S.; Ban, C.; Riley, L.; Cavanagh, A.; Yan, Y.; George, S.; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant advances in energy density, rate capability and safety will be required for the implementation of Li-ion batteries in next generation electric vehicles. We have demonstrated atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a promising method to enable superior cycling performance for a vast variety of battery electrodes. The electrodes range from already demonstrated commercial technologies (cycled under extreme conditions) to new materials that could eventually lead to batteries with higher energy densities. For example, an Al2O3 ALD coating with a thickness of ~ 8 A was able to stabilize the cycling of unexplored MoO3 nanoparticle anodes with a high volume expansion. The ALD coating enabled stable cycling at C/2 with a capacity of ~ 900 mAh/g. Furthermore, rate capability studies showed the ALD-coated electrode maintained a capacity of 600 mAh/g at 5C. For uncoated electrodes it was only possible to observe stable cycling at C/10. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al2O3 coating with a thickness of ~5 A can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 degrees C. The ALD-coated NG electrodes displayed a 98% capacity retention after 200 charge-discharge cycles. In contrast, bare NG showed a rapid decay. Additionally, Al2O3 ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 A have been shown to allow LiCoO2 to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs Li/Li+. Bare LiCoO2 rapidly deteriorated in the first few cycles. The capacity fade is likely caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte at higher potentials or perhaps cobalt dissolution. Interestingly, we have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO2 where we coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. We have also recently coated a binder free LiNi0.04Mn0.04Co02O2 electrode containing 5 wt% single-walled carbon nanotubes as the conductive additive and demonstrated both high rate capability as well as the ability to cycle the cathode to 5 V vrs. Li/Li+. Finally, we coated a Celgard (TM) separator and enabled stable cycling in a high dielectric electrolyte. These results will be presented in detail.

  12. Automated delineation of debris-covered glaciers based on ASTER data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolch, Tobias

    Automated delineation of debris-covered glaciers based on ASTER data Tobias Bolch, Manfred F, The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59808, USA, ulrich.kamp@mso.umt.edu Keywords: debris-covered glaciers, glacier mapping, morphometric analysis, ASTER DEM, Corona, Khumbu Himalaya ABSTRACT: Large areas

  13. Using ASTER remote sensing data set for geological mapping, Cecile Gomez a,*, Christophe Delacourt a,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delacourt, Christophe

    thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data for geological application. Visible, near-infrared and short wave infrared reflectance data (9 ASTER bands) have been proc- essed and interpreted in framework to apparent reflectance images corrected to illumination effects. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has

  14. ALD System UCLA Nanoelectronic Facility Fiji Thermal and Plasma Atomic Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jalali. Bahram

    not be heated above that temperature. Center heater maximum temperature is 400o C, while outer heater should temperature of the chemical used. Maximum for the precursor heater jacket is 200o C. #12;ALD System UCLA steps shown in Figure 1. Step. 1: Put in a sample which is hydroxylated from exposure to air, oxygen

  15. http://tinyurl.com/ald-michigan For more information, please email Dr. Khaled Mnaymneh at kmnay@lnf.umich.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daly, Samantha

    for numerous opportunities in the fields of semiconductor devices and memory, energy conversion and storage, and quantum confinement structures for energy conversion and storage devices. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD aspect ratios (above 2000:1), allowing for 3-dimensional engineering of complex nanostructured

  16. Cite this: RSC Advances, 2013, 3, Cathodic ALD V2O5 thin films for high-rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghodssi, Reza

    storage come into sight. Introduction Electrochemical energy storage devices with simultaneously high nanostructures.5 As a result, there has been fast growing interest in using ALD materials for energy storage energy storage3 Received 23rd November 2012, Accepted 21st January 2013 DOI: 10.1039/c3ra23031g www

  17. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4441550.552290 m Left: 271445.053363 m Right: 359825.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  18. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359681.975000 m Bottom: 4447251.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  19. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  20. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144691.792023 m Left: 285531.662851 m Right: 348694.182686 m Bottom: 4097005.210304 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  1. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolored County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  2. AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT Gate Structure Improvement Using Al2O3 Deposited by Plasma-Enhanced ALD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT Gate Structure Improvement Using Al2O3 Deposited by Plasma-Enhanced ALD R(0)438782894 Abstract - In this work we evaluate the influence of the Al2O3 ALD deposition technique on AlGaN/GaN MIS drastically reduced with a measured average of 1e-11 A/mm for a drain-source bias of 5V. 1. Introduction AlGaN

  3. Getting DEM from ASTER (~30m resolution) + importing it into ArcMap + georeferencing an image on top (e.g. satellite image, geological map)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the "Search Term" bar: type "ASTER GDEM" and the "ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model V002" will appear in the "Select Datasets" window at the bottom. Then, select the zone of interest in the "Spatial Search" window click once on the bar next to "Bounding Box" and a window will appear in which you can enter

  4. Nuclear Dependence of the Production of \\Upsilon Resonances at 800 GeV D. M. Alde, H. W. Baer, T. A. Carey, G. T. Garvey, A. Klein,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , particularly in connection with J=/ production in high­energy heavy ion collisions. 1\\Gamma6 Nuclear dependenceNuclear Dependence of the Production of \\Upsilon Resonances at 800 GeV D. M. Alde, H. W. Baer, T. A. Barlett, G. W. Hoffmann University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 1 #12; Abstract The yields of the 1S

  5. 2012 NNIN ALD Symposium ALD Staff Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; Remote Assisted - $165 · Rates ­ Non-academic ­Regular - $120/hr; Assisted use - $165/hr; Remote Assisted Reaction Unit #12;Problems (cont.) · Hot lid...melts things. ­ Put heat shield on hinge (custom - drawing available) #12;Heat Shield Hinge #12;#12;#12;Problems (cont.) · Hot lid...melts things. ­ Put heat shield

  6. Areas of Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  7. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Garfield County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Garfield Edition: First Note: This Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset differs from the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Garfield County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4442180.552290 m Left: 268655.053363 m Right: 359915.053363 m Bottom: 4312490.552290 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  8. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Routt County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Routt Edition: First Note: This Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset differs from the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Routt County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4501071.574000 m Left: 311351.975000 m Right: 359411.975000 m Bottom: 4447521.574000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  9. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Dolores County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Dolores Edition: First Note: This Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset differs from the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Dolores County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4186234.213315 m Left: 212558.673056 m Right: 232922.811862 m Bottom: 4176781.467043 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  10. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Chaffee County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Chaffee Edition: First Note: This Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset differs from the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Chaffee County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4333432.368072 m Left: 366907.700763 m Right: 452457.816015 m Bottom: 4208271.566715 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  11. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Archuleta County, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Warm Modeled Temperature Archuleta Note: This Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset differs from the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset. Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Archuleta County identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature between 1? and 2? were considered ASTER modeled warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies). Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4144825.235807 m Left: 285446.256851 m Right: 350577.338852 m Bottom: 4096962.250137 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  12. Areas of Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties, Colorado, as Identified from ASTER Thermal Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Very Warm Modeled Temperature Alamosa Saguache Edition: First Note: This Weakly Anomalous to Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset differs from the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset for this county (another remotely sensed CIRES product) by showing areas of modeled temperatures between 1? and 2? above the mean, as opposed to the greater than 2? temperatures contained in the Anomalous Surface Temperature dataset. Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains areas of anomalous surface temperature in Alamosa and Saguache Counties identified from ASTER thermal data and spatial based insolation model. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. The incoming solar radiation was calculated using spatial based insolation model developed by Fu and Rich (1999). Then the temperature due to solar radiation was calculated using emissivity derived from ASTER data. The residual temperature, i.e. temperature due to solar radiation subtracted from ASTER temperature was used to identify thermally anomalous areas. Areas that had temperature greater than 2? were considered ASTER modeled very warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies) Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4217727.601630 m Left: 394390.400264 m Right: 460179.841813 m Bottom: 4156258.036086 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  13. Applying Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) spectral indices for geological mapping and mineral identification on the Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corrie, Robert; Aitchison, Jonathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tibetan Plateau holds clues to understanding the dynamics and mechanisms associated with continental growth. Part of the region is characterized by zones of ophiolitic melange believed to represent the remnants of ancient oceanic crust and underlying upper mantle emplaced during oceanic closures. However, due to the remoteness of the region and the inhospitable terrain many areas have not received detailed investigation. Increased spatial and spectral resolution of satellite sensors have made it possible to map in greater detail the mineralogy and lithology than in the past. Recent work by Yoshiki Ninomiya of the Geological Survey of Japan has pioneered the use of several spectral indices for the mapping of quartzose, carbonate, and silicate rocks using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared (TIR) data. In this study, ASTER TIR indices have been applied to a region in western-central Tibet for the purposes of assessing their effectiveness for differentiatin...

  14. Part 3 of Lab 1: Supervised Classification in ERDAS IMAGINE In this part of Lab 1, based on 9 channels of an ASTER scene over the Bern/Thun region in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    ) and the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) sensors of ASTER. For detailed information on the sensors, please check NASA will be conducted. The 9 channels provided for this lab were acquired by the VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared with the defined classes listed. To evaluate your defined classes, click Evaluate Separability. This tool produces

  15. ALD Nanosolutions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergySulfonate asAEEOpenOpen

  16. Tir (Aster) Geothermal Anomalies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson EthanolTillson, New5661°, -86.0529604° Show MapTiptonTir

  17. 8 | harriman magazine By ROnALD MEyER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Ning

    for just over a year now, stationed in both Washington, D.C., and Almaty, Kazakhstan. What is the mission about economic development in Kazakhstan. The article you're referring to was an op-ed I produced for the EUROBAK (European Business Association of Kazakhstan) Global Monitor, a business magazine based

  18. Overview of ALD Precursors and Reaction Mechanisms Roy G. Gordon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -flammable, non-corrosive, non-toxic, simple and non-hazardous to make and inexpensive. Presenting Author: Roy GXe YttriumY 4 CopperCu DysprosiumDy ErbiumEr LithiumLi LutetiumLu MagnesiumMg RhodiumRh RutheniumRu Sulfur

  19. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Preparation of Noble Metal Catalysts - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand ModuleNational NuclearInnovation

  20. Aster Watches The World'S Volcanoes- A New Paradigm For Volcanological...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    From Orbit Abstract Onboard NASA Terra spacecraft is one of the most sophisticated earth observing instruments ever flown, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and...

  1. Remote Detection of Quaternary Borate Deposits with ASTER Satellite...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    geothermal fluids are sometimes associated with surface crusts of borate evaporite minerals. These borates can therefore potentially serve as a geothermal exploration tool if...

  2. aster digital image: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    click once on the bar next to "Bounding Box" and a window will appear in which you can enter 2 Digital Color Imaging Handbook CiteSeer Summary: Digital technology now enables...

  3. aster yellows phytoplasma: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    area were also analysed to map hydrothermal alteration associated with general clay minerals and Iron oxides, associated with gold mineralizatoin. Integrated analysis of...

  4. aster image gallery: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are also explored. S Zhonghua Sun Phd; Aneurysm Abdominal; Korean J Radiol 2005-01-01 357 Tri-County High School Exhibition Call for Entries Wayne State University Engineering...

  5. aster satellite images: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data, with no false positives. The failure rate is consistent with the inc... Lang, Dustin; Mierle, Keir; Blanton, Michael; Roweis, Sam 2009-01-01 267 The Satellite-substructure...

  6. Geothermal Exploration in Eastern California Using Aster Thermal Infrared

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library WebWesternLondon,Valley, Nv |Data |

  7. Remote Detection Of Quaternary Borate Deposits With Aster Satellite Imagery

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap JumpReliance Industries Limited Solar GroupAs A

  8. Remote Detection of Quaternary Borate Deposits with ASTER Satellite Imagery

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap JumpReliance Industries Limited Solar GroupAs Aas

  9. Aster Watches The World'S Volcanoes- A New Paradigm For Volcanological

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcatAntrimArkansasAshford,Asotin County,ResourceSpainObservations

  10. Impact of ALD Coating on Li/Mn-rich Cathode Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  11. Surface preparation for ALD of High-k dielectrics on InGaAs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melitz, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lux-Steiner, Materials Science and Engineering B-Solid StatePearton, Materials Science and Engineering B-Solid StatePearton, Materials Science and Engineering B-Solid State

  12. al2o3 metodom ald: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the macroscopic-scale friction laws known as Coulomb Goddard III, William A. 26 European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 6-10 September 2010, 2AO.1.4...

  13. Device Fabrication and Processing > Thin Film ALD, RF/DC Magnetic Materials and Co-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    .ien.gatech.edu Materials Processed > Dielectrics: SiO2, Si3N4,SiC, HfO2, ZnO, ZrO2, AlN, TiN, TiO2, Al2O3, additional dielectrics on request > Metals: Al, Cr, Ti, W, Ni, Mo, Pt, Fe, Cu, Ir, Pd, Ag, additional metals by request RIE; HBr-based ICP; Metals Al, Cr, Ti, W, Ag > Wet Etching: SiO2, Si3N4 Metals, Organic materials

  14. NOIJLVaiSINIWaV NOIlVlAldOdNI AOU3N3 Z661

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400,Information Administration22)May 28,NOIIVUISINII/UQV61-

  15. Clearwater Subbasin Assessment 116 November 2003 5 Vegetative Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the decline of native prairie forbs such as Jessica's aster (Aster jessicae) and Palouse goldenweed

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - aster dataset flyover Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Department of Geosciences, Universitetet i Oslo; Raup, Bruce H. - National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado at Boulder Collection: Geosciences 53 Wing...

  17. Some Factors Affecting the Response of Spiny Aster to Herbicide Sprays.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayeux, H.S. jr; Scifres, C.J.; Meyer, R.E.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an annual groundsel '~hillips, Tommy. 1975. Personal communication. Ranch man- ager, Greenlake Ranch, Victoria, TX 77015. (Senecio imparipinnatus Klatt .), Missouri ironweed (Vernonia missurica Raf.), and barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv...

  18. Combined SWIR and LWIR Mineral Mapping Using MASTER/ASTER | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png ElColumbia, North Carolina: EnergyCombined Heat

  19. Multispectral Imaging At Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area (Littlefield...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Imaging Sensor ASTER Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes ASTER airborne remote sensing. References E. Littlefield, W. Calvin (2009) Remote Sensing For Geothermal...

  20. Ampliacio de Models Matem`atics de la Fisica Llicenciatura de Matem`atiques / M`aster de Matem`atica Aplicada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grcia, Xavier

    identificar com un subgrup del grup lineal GL(n + 1, K), identifiqueu el grup de Galileu G com un subgrup de GL(5, R). (g) Identifiqueu l'`algebra de Lie del grup de Galileu, doneu-ne una base i calculeu els

  1. THE 2000 ERUPTION OF BEZYMIANNY VOLCANO CAPTURED WITH ASTER: A PROPOSAL TO INTEGRATE HIGH-RESOLUTION REMOTE SENSING DATA INTO REAL-TIME ERUPTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Michael

    /pixel), multi- spectral coverage (VNIR to TIR wavelengths), tunable gain settings (for monitoring hot targets

  2. for research Annual report 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    it obtained ISO 9001 certification, making it an exception among fishery databases. The Antea/Cuba. ASTER

  3. Beyond A/B/A/B... Unorthodox Pulse Sequences in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atomic Layer Deposition Group Develop ALD technology Apply ALD to emerging applications: Solar Cells Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) Heaters Flow Tube N2 Flow H2OTMA Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS

  4. 2005-3-21 1 Dynamic Equipment and Process Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    reactant in reactor Fast purge Gas inlet Half reaction starts ALD Reactor (P Gas outlet On/off valve ALD Reactor (P = Target P) Gas inlet Gas outlet ALD Reactor Gas inlet Gas outlet Half Viscous flow condition Viscous carrier gas flow replaces reactant effectively during purge Fast purge

  5. Multispectral Imaging At Columbus Salt Marsh Area (Shevenell...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thermal and emitted Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) imagery for mapping borate minerals in the field. Borate crusts that were partially mined during the 1800s were...

  6. Detection of Surface Temperature Anomalies in the Coso Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with the collection of ASTER images. The field data included reflectance, subsurface and surface temperatures, and radiosonde atmospheric profiles. We apply techniques...

  7. Analysis Of Hot Springs And Associated Deposits In Yellowstone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Aviris Remote Sensing Abstract The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and the Airborne VisibleIR Image Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were used...

  8. advanced spaceborne thermal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from and is used to measure volcanic thermal radiance. ASTER provides relatively high spatial resolution (90 m Wright, Robert 6 Advanced nanofabrication of thermal emission...

  9. areas and regions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chico region (2632S) Geosciences Websites Summary: of the highest watersheds. A glacier inventory performed with aerial photographs and ASTER images was combined data. Results...

  10. anodic fenton treatment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with atomic layer deposition (ALD) to fabricate Rubloff, Gary W. 32 Effects of carbon brush anode size and loading on microbial fuel cell performance in batch and continuous...

  11. Accelerator Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test Facility Vitaly Yakimenko October 6-7, 2010 ATF User meeting DOE HE, S. Vigdor, ALD - (Contact) T. Ludlam Chair, Physics Department V. Yakimenko Director ATF, Accelerator...

  12. Brookhaven National Laboratory | Accelerator Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advisory Committee's report, to the Chair of the Collider-Accelerator Department and the NPP ALD. The current membership of the Program Advisory Committee is listed below....

  13. Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) 1(1400) IG (JPC ) = 1-(1 -+)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. 1323.1 4.6 2 AOYAGI 93 BKEI - p - p 1406 20 3 ALDE

  14. Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) 1(1400) IG (JPC ) = 1-(1 -+)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the following data for averages, fits, limits, etc. 1323.1 4.6 2 AOYAGI 93 BKEI - p - p 1406 20 3 ALDE

  15. Atomic layer deposition of GaN using GaCl3 and NH3 Oh Hyun Kim, Dojun Kim, and Tim Andersona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    be grown at lower temperature than by CVD. As example, ALD growth of device quality GaAs, GaP, and InGaP

  16. Ruthenium / aerogel nanocomposits via Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biener, J; Baumann, T F; Wang, Y; Nelson, E J; Kucheyev, S O; Hamza, A V; Kemell, M; Ritala, M; Leskela, M

    2006-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general approach to prepare metal/aerogel nanocomposites via template directed atomic layer deposition (ALD). In particular, we used a Ru ALD process consisting of alternating exposures to bis(cyclopentadienyl)ruthenium (RuCp{sub 2}) and air at 350 C to deposit metallic Ru nanoparticles on the internal surfaces of carbon and silica aerogels. The process does not affect the morphology of the aerogel template and offers excellent control over metal loading by simply adjusting the number of ALD cycles. We also discuss the limitations of our ALD approach, and suggest ways to overcome these.

  17. A non-destructive method for measuring the mechanical properties of ultrathin films prepared by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qinglin [General Motors Global Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan 48090 (United States); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046 (United States); Xiao, Xingcheng, E-mail: xingcheng.xiao@gm.com; Verbrugge, Mark W. [General Motors Global Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan 48090 (United States); Cheng, Yang-Tse [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506-0046 (United States)

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanical properties of ultrathin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are critical for the liability of their coated devices. However, it has been a challenge to reliably measure critical properties of ALD films due to the influence from the substrate. In this work, we use the laser acoustic wave (LAW) technique, a non-destructive method, to measure the elastic properties of ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films by ALD. The measured properties are consistent with previous work using other approaches. The LAW method can be easily applied to measure the mechanical properties of various ALD thin films for multiple applications.

  18. 100 Years of Glacier Retreat in Central Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    100 Years of Glacier Retreat in Central Asia 100 Years of Glacier Retreat in Central Asia Jeffrey+GLIMS Glacier databaseMODIS+GLIMS Glacier database #12;Benchmark GlaciersBenchmark Glaciers #12;Everest ASTER Mosaic, 2001Everest ASTER Mosaic, 2001 #12;KhumbuKhumbu Glacier, Nepal, 1958Glacier, Nepal, 1958 #12

  19. WILLIAMS ET AL. VOL. 6 ' NO. 7 ' 61856196 ' 2012 www.acsnano.org

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Based on ALD-Modified SiO2 Aerogel Frameworks Vennesa O. Williams, Nak Cheon Jeong, Chaiya Prasittichai aerogels was fabricated on transparent conducting oxides for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). These templates were coated with ZnO via atomic layer deposition (ALD) to yield an electronically interconnected

  20. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Persis Drell, Director

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quake, Stephen R.

    . Reichanadter, Acting ALD L. Dardzinski Interim Assistant Director LCLS Directorate J. Sthr, ALD U. Bergmann, Facilities LCLS-II John Galayda Mechanical Engineering and Technical Support Division K. Fant Accelerator Research Division E. Colby LCLS Accelerator Systems Division A. Brachmann Instrumentation & Controls

  1. Title of Document: SENSOR BASED ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION FOR RAPID PROCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    processes. A novel wafer scale ALD reactor, which features fast gas switching, good process sensing manufacturability, we have explored new reactor designs and applied in-situ process sensing to W and HfO2 ALD compatibility and significant similarity to the real manufacturing environment, is constructed. The reactor has

  2. Atomic-Layer-Deposition Oxide Nanoglue for Sodium Ion Batteries Xiaogang Han,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Teng

    Atomic-Layer-Deposition Oxide Nanoglue for Sodium Ion Batteries Xiaogang Han,, Yang Liu,, Zheng Jia ABSTRACT: Atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) coatings have been increasingly used to improve battery performance/discharging. Battery tests in coin-cells further showed the ALD-Al2O3 coating remarkably boosts the cycling performance

  3. Activation of farnesoid X receptor attenuates hepatic injury in a murine model of alcoholic liver disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Weibin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China) [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhu, Bo; Peng, Xiaomin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhou, Meiling, E-mail: meilingzhou2012@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University and Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Department of Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University and Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai 200032 (China); Jia, Dongwei, E-mail: jiadongwei@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Gu, Jianxin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China) [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2014-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR attenuated alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis. Activation of FXR attenuated cholestasis and oxidative stress in mouse liver. -- Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common cause of advanced liver disease, and considered as a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic cholestasis is a pathophysiological feature observed in all stages of ALD. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and plays an essential role in the regulation of bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the role of FXR in the pathogenesis and progression of ALD remains largely unknown. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet. We used a specific agonist of FXR WAY-362450 to study the effect of pharmacological activation of FXR in alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we demonstrated that FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR by specific agonist WAY-362450 protected mice from the development of ALD. We also found that WAY-362450 treatment rescued FXR activity, suppressed ethanol-induced Cyp2e1 up-regulation and attenuated oxidative stress in liver. Our results highlight a key role of FXR in the modulation of ALD development, and propose specific FXR agonists for the treatment of ALD patients.

  4. DOI 10.1155/JNM/2006/64501 Atomic Layer Deposition for the Conformal Coating of Nanoporous Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is ideal for applying precise and conformal coatings over nanoporous materials. We have recently used ALD to coat two nanoporous solids: anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) and silica aerogels. AAO possesses hexagonally ordered pores with diameters d ? 40 nm and pore length L

  5. Remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of ZnO for thin film electronic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    Remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of ZnO for thin film electronic applications S: Available online 28 May 2012 Keywords: Remote plasma Atomic layer deposition (ALD) ZnO Thin film transistor of various reactant plasma parameters of remote plasma enhanced ALD (PEALD) on the ZnO thin film properties

  6. UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM OXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belanger, David P.

    UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM OXIDE A thesis submitted deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide on crystalline silicon and anodized aluminum substrates. A homemade ALD system is used with trimethylaluminum (TMA) and water as precursors to deposit uniform aluminum oxide

  7. Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition web coating with in situ monitoring of film thickness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yersak, Alexander S.; Lee, Yung C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1045 Regent Drive, 422 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0422 (United States); Spencer, Joseph A.; Groner, Markus D., E-mail: mgroner@aldnanosolutions.com [ALD NanoSolutions, Inc., 580 Burbank Street, Unit 100, Broomfield, Colorado 80020 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Spectral reflectometry was implemented as a method for in situ thickness monitoring in a spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) system. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were grown on a moving polymer web substrate at 100?C using an atmospheric pressure ALD web coating system, with film growth of 0.110.13?nm/cycle. The modular coating head design and the in situ monitoring allowed for the characterization and optimization of the trimethylaluminum and water precursor exposures, purge flows, and web speed. A thickness uniformity of 2% was achieved across the web. ALD cycle times as low as 76?ms were demonstrated with a web speed of 1?m/s and a vertical gap height of 0.5?mm. This atmospheric pressure ALD system with in situ process control demonstrates the feasibility of low-cost, high throughput roll-to-roll ALD.

  8. Characterization of CZTSSe photovoltaic device with an atomic layer-deposited passivation layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Wei, E-mail: wei.wu@dupont.com; Cao, Yanyan; Caspar, Jonathan V.; Guo, Qijie; Johnson, Lynda K.; Mclean, Robert S.; Malajovich, Irina; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy [DuPont Central Research and Development, Wilmington, Delaware 19880 (United States)

    2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a CZTSSe (Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S{sub 1?x},Se{sub x}){sub 4}) photovoltaic (PV) device with an ALD (atomic layer deposition) coated buffer dielectric layer for CZTSSe surface passivation. An ALD buffer layer, such as TiO{sub 2}, can be applied in order to reduce the interface recombination and improve the device's open-circuit voltage. Detailed characterization data including current-voltage, admittance spectroscopy, and capacitance profiling are presented in order to compare the performance of PV devices with and without the ALD layer.

  9. In situ synchrotron based x-ray techniques as monitoring tools for atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devloo-Casier, Kilian, E-mail: Kilian.DevlooCasier@Ugent.be; Detavernier, Christophe; Dendooven, Jolien [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Ludwig, Karl F. [Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin film deposition technique that has been studied with a variety of in situ techniques. By exploiting the high photon flux and energy tunability of synchrotron based x-rays, a variety of new in situ techniques become available. X-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are reviewed as possible in situ techniques during ALD. All these techniques are especially sensitive to changes on the (sub-)nanometer scale, allowing a unique insight into different aspects of the ALD growth mechanisms.

  10. Manual of the dicot flora of Brazos and surrounding counties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Monique Dubrule

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    petens AiL vsr. patendssinms(Und. ) T. & G. Aster sarteeus Vent. var. mbmphyffa DC. Astnrgelvs nuttagsnus DC. vw. ausbinue (Sm. )Shr. & Wigg. Asbugekrs nuttagenfm DC. var. nuttaganus 'Baechwfa texana (T. & G. ) Gray Boerhavte dalfse L. . Cagrhaf...

  11. The Cryosphere, 5, 271290, 2011 www.the-cryosphere.net/5/271/2011/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kb, Andreas

    generated DEMs from satellite stereo instruments of ASTER and SPOT5- HRS. After 3-D co (DEM). There are three (nearly) global elevation products available to the public today. The Shuttle

  12. REMOTE SENSING GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -ASTER that operate in visible, near infrared and short wave infrared wavelengths of electromagnetic spectrum and Reflection Radiometer) Imagery Collection in CPRM Examples of sensors used in the CPRM geologic projects #12

  13. AM ABEND DES 20. SEPTEMBER 2002 lste sich eine gigantische Eis-und Steinlawine vom Nord-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kb, Andreas

    #12;AM ABEND DES 20. SEPTEMBER 2002 lste sich eine gigantische Eis- und Steinlawine vom Nord- hang Eis nur schwer aus- zumachen: ein Teil der Gletscherflchen ist stets mit Schutt bedeckt. ASTER hat

  14. Atomic Layer Deposition of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films Using Nonhalogenated Jeffrey W. Elam,*, David A. Baker, Alex B. F. Martinson,, Michael J. Pellin, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    precise coatings to be applied on all exposed surfaces of nanoporous substrates such as aerogels10 using ALD techniques to apply metal oxide coatings onto porous supports such as anodic aluminum oxide

  15. Global and Regional Solutions Directorate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    at Pacific NW National Lab (PNNL) Founding Director Joint Global Change Research Institute (PNNL/UMd) ALD (PNNL) Environmental and Health Sciences Directorate; Emerging Technologies Chief Scientist Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Director PNNL Global Studies Program Other (PNNL): Center

  16. Osteopontin-mediated neutrophilic infiltration and higher liver injury in a female rodent alcoholic steatohepatitis model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Atrayee

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Females are known to be more susceptible to alcoholic liver disease (ALD), but the precise mechanism behind this increased susceptibility is not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify the molecular mechanism behind...

  17. Una experiencia mexicana en Hawaii: "Return Ticket" de Salvador Novo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortes, Mayra

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    que se destacan por su calidad potica, como el apstrofe alde origen sino que la calidad de esos productos es, incluso,para la ropa de buena calidad por su estatura, la imagen de

  18. Atomic Layer Deposition for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norem, J; Pellin, M J; Antoine, C Z; Ciovati, G; Kneisel, P; Reece, C E; Rimmer, R A; Cooley, L; Gurevich, A V; Ha, Y; Proslier, Th

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have begun using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to synthesize a variety of surface coatings on coupons and cavities as part of an effort to produce rf structures with significantly better performance and yield than those obtained from bulk niobium, The ALD process offers the possibility of conformally coating complex cavity shapes with precise layered structures with tightly constrained morphology and chemical properties. Our program looks both at the metallurgy and superconducting properties of these coatings, and also their performance in working structures. Initial results include: 1) evidence from point contact tunneling showing magnetic oxides can be a significant limitation to high gradient operation, 2) experimental results showing the production sharp niobium/oxide interfaces from a high temperature bake of ALD coated Al2O3 on niobium surfaces, 3) results from ALD coated structures.

  19. Analytic expressions for atomic layer deposition: Coverage, throughput, and materials utilization in cross-flow, particle coating, and spatial atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Elam, Jeffrey W., E-mail: jelam@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Energy Systems Division, 9700 S Cass Ave, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the authors present analytic models for atomic layer deposition (ALD) in three common experimental configurations: cross-flow, particle coating, and spatial ALD. These models, based on the plug-flow and well-mixed approximations, allow us to determine the minimum dose times and materials utilization for all three configurations. A comparison between the three models shows that throughput and precursor utilization can each be expressed by universal equations, in which the particularity of the experimental system is contained in a single parameter related to the residence time of the precursor in the reactor. For the case of cross-flow reactors, the authors show how simple analytic expressions for the reactor saturation profiles agree well with experimental results. Consequently, the analytic model can be used to extract information about the ALD surface chemistry (e.g., the reaction probability) by comparing the analytic and experimental saturation profiles, providing a useful tool for characterizing new and existing ALD processes.

  20. Scalable control program for multiprecursor flow-type atomic layer deposition system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selvaraj, Sathees Kannan [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Takoudis, Christos G., E-mail: takoudis@uic.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 and Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report the development and implementation of a scalable control program to control flow type atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor with multiple precursor delivery lines. The program logic is written and tested in LABVIEW environment to control ALD reactor with four precursor delivery lines to deposit up to four layers of different materials in cyclic manner. The programming logic is conceived such that to facilitate scale up for depositing more layers with multiple precursors and scale down for using single layer with any one precursor in the ALD reactor. The program takes precursor and oxidizer exposure and purging times as input and controls the sequential opening and closing of the valves to facilitate the complex ALD process in cyclic manner. The program could be used to deposit materials from any single line or in tandem with other lines in any combination and in any sequence.

  1. In-situ deposition of high-k dielectrics on III-V compound semiconductor in MOCVD system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Cheng-Wei, Ph.D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In situ deposition of high-k materials to passivate the GaAs in metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system was well demonstrated. Both atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods ...

  2. Reactor concepts for atomic layer deposition on agitated particles: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longrie, Delphine, E-mail: delphine.longrie@asm.com; Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe, E-mail: christophe.detavernier@ugent.be [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The number of possible applications for nanoparticles has strongly increased in the last decade. For many applications, nanoparticles with different surface and bulk properties are necessary. A popular surface modification technique is coating the particle surface with a nanometer thick layer. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is known as a reliable method for depositing ultrathin and conformal coatings. In this article, agitation or fluidization of the particles is necessary for performing ALD on (nano)particles. The principles of gas fluidization of particles will be outlined, and a classification of the gas fluidization behavior of particles based on their size and density will be given. Following different reactor concepts that have been designed to conformally coat (nano)particles with ALD will be described, and a concise overview will be presented of the work that has been performed with each of them ending with a concept reactor for performing spatial ALD on fluidized particles.

  3. Real-time observation and optimization of tungsten atomic layer deposition process cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Barozzi and Massimo Bersani ITC-IRST, 38050 Povo, Trento, Italy Received 16 September 2005; accepted 13,2 ALD holds similar promise in other technology frontier areas such as microelectromechanical systems

  4. Jacobsen of XSD Elected to American Physical Society Fellowship

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Appointed ALD for Photon Sciences APS, Other DOE Labs Help Develop New Cancer Fighting Drug APS News Archives: 2014 | 2013 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 2004...

  5. Chapman of XSD Wins Oxford Cryosystems Poster Prize

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Appointed ALD for Photon Sciences APS, Other DOE Labs Help Develop New Cancer Fighting Drug Paper on Fast Pharmaceuticals by APS Authors Featured in New Journal APS News Archives:...

  6. Directed inorganic modification of bi-component polymer fibers by selective vapor reaction and atomic layer deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Saad A.

    . The ALD process promotes selective precursor infusion into the inner core of a core/shell polymer fiber and transmission electron microscopy show that infusion yields selective dispersion of aluminum oxide in different

  7. Enhanced Performance in Fluorene-Free Organometal Halide Perovskite Light Emitting Diodes using Tunable, Low Electron-Affinity Oxide Electron-Injectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Chua, Matthew R.; Musselman, Kevin P.; Li, Guangru; Lai, May-Ling; Tan, Zhi-Kuang; Greenham, Neil C.; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.; Friend, Richard H.; Credgington, Dan

    2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    perovskites using an ALD-based technique is typically challenging because conventional ALD requires pumping down to vacuum, which increases the deposition time and reduces scalability.[21] In particular, this would require heating the perovskite (typically... deposited in open-air at low temperatures (150 C or below).[22,25] We were therefore able to directly load and unload the samples from the substrate holder, resulting in the samples only being heated for the time required to deposit the films (3 min...

  8. Controlling Atomic Layer Deposition of TiO2 in Aerogels through Surface Functionalization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, S; Baumann, T F; King, J S; Kucheyev, S; Wang, Y; Worsley, M A; Biener, J; Bent, S F; Hamza, A V

    2009-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This report demonstrates a chemical functionalization method for controlling atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO{sub 2} in low-density nanoporous materials. Functionalization of silica aerogel with trimethylsilane is shown to strongly suppress TiO{sub 2} growth via ALD. Subsequent modification of the functionalization through selective removal of the hydrocarbon groups reactivates the aerogel towards TiO{sub 2} deposition. These results demonstrate the potential use of ALD as a selective tool for creating novel nanoporous materials. Nanoporous materials present significant technological advantage for a wide range of applications, including catalysis, energy storage and conversion, nanoelectronics to name just a few (1-4). Hence, there is considerable interest in developing synthetic pathways for the fabrication of nanoporous materials with tailored properties. Aerogels (AGs) are unique low-density, open-cell porous materials consisting of submicrometer pores and ligaments that can be used as a robust material platform for designing novel nanoporous materials. In recent years, a synthetic approach based on ALD on AG templates has emerged as a promising method for the directed growth of nanoporous materials (5-11, 18). This approach has been used successfully to prepare millimeter-sized high aspect ratio aerogels coated uniformly with zinc oxide (ZnO), tungsten (W) and alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) (10, 11). The ALD process utilizes two sequential, self-limiting surface reactions resulting in a layer-by-layer growth mode. The self limiting nature of the surface reactions makes ALD a particularly suitable technique for uniform deposition onto high aspect ratio porous substrates. Additionally, chemical specificity of the surface reactions in ALD enables one to control the deposition process through selective functionalization of the substrate surface. In fact the functionalization of planar substrates such as silicon wafers with organosilane groups (R{sub n}SiX{sub 4-n} (n = 1-3)) has been shown to deactivate the substrate towards ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, ZnO, and TiO{sub 2} ALD processes (12-16). A possible mechanism for the deactivation effect is the blocking of surface functional groups, such as hydroxyl (OH) moieties, which serve as chemisorption sites for the ALD precursors and hence are essential for nucleating the deposition process. Henceforth, we shall refer to these surface functional groups as nucleation sites for the ALD process.

  9. Low temperature hydrogen plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of copper studied using in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaukulkar, Rohan P.; Rai, Vikrant R.; Agarwal, Sumit, E-mail: sagarwal@mines.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Thissen, Nick F. W. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an ideal technique to deposit ultrathin, conformal, and continuous metal thin films. However, compared to the ALD of binary materials such as metal oxides and metal nitrides, the surface reaction mechanisms during metal ALD are not well understood. In this study, the authors have designed and implemented an in situ reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (IRAS) setup to study the surface reactions during the ALD of Cu on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using Cu hexafluoroacetylacetonate [Cu(hfac){sub 2}] and a remote H{sub 2} plasma. Our infrared data show that complete ligand-exchange reactions occur at a substrate temperature of 80?C in the absence of surface hydroxyl groups. Based on infrared data and previous studies, the authors propose that Cu(hfac){sub 2} dissociatively chemisorbs on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface, where the Al-O-Al bridge acts as the surface reactive site, leading to surface O-Cu-hfac and O-Al-hfac species. Surface saturation during the Cu(hfac){sub 2} half-cycle occurs through blocking of the available chemisorption sites. In the next half-reaction cycle, H radicals from an H{sub 2} plasma completely remove these surface hfac ligands. Through this study, the authors have demonstrated the capability of in situ IRAS as a tool to study surface reactions during ALD of metals. While transmission and internal reflection infrared spectroscopy are limited to the first few ALD cycles, IRAS can be used to probe all stages of metal ALD starting from initial nucleation to the formation of a continuous film.

  10. Tunneling spectroscopy of superconducting MoN and NbTiN grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groll, Nickolas R., E-mail: ngroll@anl.gov; Klug, Jeffrey A.; Claus, Helmut; Pellin, Michael J.; Proslier, Thomas, E-mail: proslier@anl.gov [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Cao, Chaoyue; Becker, Nicholas G.; Zasadzinski, John F. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States); Altin, Serdar [Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Fizik Bolumu, Inonu Universitesi, 44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A tunneling spectroscopy study is presented of superconducting MoN and Nb{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}N thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The films exhibited a superconducting gap of 2?meV and 2.4?meV, respectively, with a corresponding critical temperature of 11.5?K and 13.4?K, among the highest reported T{sub c} values achieved by the ALD technique. Tunnel junctions were obtained using a mechanical contact method with a Au tip. While the native oxides of these films provided poor tunnel barriers, high quality tunnel junctions with low zero bias conductance (below ?10%) were obtained using an artificial tunnel barrier of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the film's surface grown ex situ by ALD. We find a large critical current density on the order of 4??10{sup 6}?A/cm{sup 2} at T?=?0.8T{sub c} for a 60?nm MoN film and demonstrate conformal coating capabilities of ALD onto high aspect ratio geometries. These results suggest that the ALD technique offers significant promise for thin film superconducting device applications.

  11. Modeling precursor diffusion and reaction of atomic layer deposition in porous structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keuter, Thomas, E-mail: t.keuter@fz-juelich.de; Menzler, Norbert Heribert; Mauer, Georg; Vondahlen, Frank; Vaen, Robert; Buchkremer, Hans Peter [Forschungszentrum Jlich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1), 52425 Jlich (Germany)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a technique for depositing thin films of materials with a precise thickness control and uniformity using the self-limitation of the underlying reactions. Usually, it is difficult to predict the result of the ALD process for given external parameters, e.g., the precursor exposure time or the size of the precursor molecules. Therefore, a deeper insight into ALD by modeling the process is needed to improve process control and to achieve more economical coatings. In this paper, a detailed, microscopic approach based on the model developed by Yanguas-Gil and Elam is presented and additionally compared with the experiment. Precursor diffusion and second-order reaction kinetics are combined to identify the influence of the porous substrate's microstructural parameters and the influence of precursor properties on the coating. The thickness of the deposited film is calculated for different depths inside the porous structure in relation to the precursor exposure time, the precursor vapor pressure, and other parameters. Good agreement with experimental results was obtained for ALD zirconiumdioxide (ZrO{sub 2}) films using the precursors tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)zirconium and O{sub 2}. The derivation can be adjusted to describe other features of ALD processes, e.g., precursor and reactive site losses, different growth modes, pore size reduction, and surface diffusion.

  12. Viscosity control of the dynamic self-assembly in ferromagnetic suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. L. Piet; A. V. Straube; A. Snezhko; I. S. Aranson

    2013-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies of dynamic self-assembly in ferromagnetic colloids suspended in liquid-air or liquid-liquid interfaces revealed a rich variety of dynamic structures ranging from linear snakes to axisymmetric asters, which exhibit novel morphology of the magnetic ordering accompanied by large-scale hydrodynamic flows. Based on controlled experiments and first principle theory, we argue that the transition from snakes to asters is governed by the viscosity of the suspending liquid where less viscous liquids favor snakes and more viscous, asters. By obtaining analytic solutions of the time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, we gain insights into the role of mean hydrodynamic flows and an overall balance of forces governing the self-assembly. Our results illustrate that the viscosity can be used to control the outcome of the dynamic self-assembly in magnetic colloidal suspensions.

  13. Property transformation of graphene with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited directly by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Li; Cao, Duo; Wang, Zhongjian; Xia, Chao [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, SIMIT, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng, Xinhong, E-mail: xh-cheng@mail.sim.ac.cn; Yu, Yuehui [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, SIMIT, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Shen, Dashen [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films are deposited directly onto graphene by H{sub 2}O-based atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the films are pinhole-free and continuously cover the graphene surface. The growth process of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films does not introduce any detective defects in graphene, suppresses the hysteresis effect and tunes the graphene doping to n-type. The self-cleaning of ALD growth process, together with the physically absorbed H{sub 2}O and oxygen-deficient ALD environment consumes OH{sup ?} bonds, suppresses the p-doping of graphene, shifts Dirac point to negative gate bias and enhances the electron mobility.

  14. High performance organic field-effect transistors with ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} gate insulator deposited directly onto the organic semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, S., E-mail: shimpei@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Husermann, R. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan) [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Chiba, D. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan) [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 322-0012 (Japan); Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimamura, K.; Ono, T. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Batlogg, B. [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland)] [Laboratory for Solid State Physics, ETH Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We have produced stable organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with an ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} gate insulator deposited directly on top of rubrene single crystals by atomic layer deposition (ALD). We find that ALD is a gentle deposition process to grow thin films without damaging rubrene single crystals, as results these devices have a negligibly small threshold voltage and are very stable against gate-bias-stress, and the mobility exceeds 1 cm{sup 2}/V s. Moreover, the devices show very little degradation even when kept in air for more than 2 months. These results demonstrate thin HfO{sub 2} layers deposited by ALD to be well suited as high capacitance gate dielectrics in OFETs operating at small gate voltage. In addition, the dielectric layer acts as an effective passivation layer to protect the organic semiconductor.

  15. Low interface defect density of atomic layer deposition BeO with self-cleaning reaction for InGaAs metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, H. S. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Yum, J. H. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States) [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Johnson, D. W. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States) [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); Texas A and M University College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Harris, H. R. [Texas A and M University College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)] [Texas A and M University College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Hudnall, Todd W. [Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States)] [Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, Texas 78666 (United States); Oh, J. [Yonsei University, Incheon, 406-840 (Korea, Republic of)] [Yonsei University, Incheon, 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Kirsch, P.; Wang, W.-E. [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States)] [SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741 (United States); Bielawski, C. W.; Banerjee, S. K.; Lee, J. C. [The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)] [The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Lee, H. D. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we discuss atomic configuration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) beryllium oxide (BeO) using the quantum chemistry to understand the theoretical origin. BeO has shorter bond length, higher reaction enthalpy, and larger bandgap energy compared with those of ALD aluminum oxide. It is shown that the excellent material properties of ALD BeO can reduce interface defect density due to the self-cleaning reaction and this contributes to the improvement of device performance of InGaAs MOSFETs. The low interface defect density and low leakage current of InGaAs MOSFET were demonstrated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the corresponding electrical results.

  16. Atomic Layer Deposition for SRF Cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proslier, Th.; Ha, Y.; Zasadzinski, J.; /IIT, Chicago; Ciovati, G.; Kneissel, P.; Reece, C.; Rimmer, R.; /Jefferson Lab; Gurevich, A.; /Natl. High Mag. Field Lab.; Cooley, L.; Wu, G.; /Fermilab; Pellin, M.; /Argonne

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have begun using Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) to synthesize a variety of surface coatings on coupons and cavities as part of an effort to produce rf structures with significantly better performance and yield than those obtained from bulk niobium, The ALD process offers the possibility of conformally coating complex cavity shapes with precise layered structures with tightly constrained morphology and chemical properties. Our program looks both at the metallurgy and superconducting properties of these coatings, and also their performance in working structures. Initial results include: (1) results from ALD coated cavities and coupons, (2) new evidence from point contact tunneling (PCT) showing magnetic oxides can be a significant limitation to high gradient operation, (3) a study of high pressure rinsing damage on niobium samples.

  17. Enhanced photoresponse of conformal TiO{sub 2}/Ag nanorod array-based Schottky photodiodes fabricated via successive glancing angle and atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haider, Ali; Biyikli, Necmi, E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800, Turkey and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Cansizoglu, Hilal; Cansizoglu, Mehmet Fatih; Karabacak, Tansel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, Arkansas 72204 (United States); Okyay, Ali Kemal [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the authors demonstrate a proof of concept nanostructured photodiode fabrication method via successive glancing angle deposition (GLAD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). The fabricated metal-semiconductor nanorod (NR) arrays offer enhanced photoresponse compared to conventional planar thin-film counterparts. Silver (Ag) metallic NR arrays were deposited on Ag-film/Si templates by utilizing GLAD. Subsequently, titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) was deposited conformally on Ag NRs via ALD. Scanning electron microscopy studies confirmed the successful formation of vertically aligned Ag NRs deposited via GLAD and conformal deposition of TiO{sub 2} on Ag NRs via ALD. Following the growth of TiO{sub 2} on Ag NRs, aluminum metallic top contacts were formed to complete the fabrication of NR-based Schottky photodiodes. Nanostructured devices exhibited a photo response enhancement factor of 1.49??10{sup 2} under a reverse bias of 3 V.

  18. Solution based prompt inorganic condensation and atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films: A side-by-side comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Sean W.; Conley, John F., E-mail: jconley@eecs.oregonstate.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-5501 (United States); Wang, Wei; Keszler, Douglas A. [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-4003 (United States)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A comparison was made of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on Si via prompt inorganic condensation (PIC) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). Currentvoltage measurements as a function of annealing temperature indicate that the solution-processed PIC films, annealed at 500?C, exhibit lower leakage and roughly equivalent breakdown strength in comparison to ALD films. PIC films are less dense than as-deposited ALD films and capacitancevoltage measurements indicate a lower relative dielectric constant. On the basis of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, it is found that the 500?C anneal results in the formation of a ?6?nm thick interfacial SiO{sub 2} layer at the Si interface. This SiO{sub 2} interfacial layer significantly affects the electrical performance of PIC Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on Si.

  19. Growth mode evolution of hafnium oxide by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, Xianglong; Ma, Fei; Ma, Dayan, E-mail: madayan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Xu, Kewei [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China and Department of Physics and Opt-electronic Engineering, Xi'an University of Arts and Science, Xi'an 710065, Shaanxi (China)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    HfO{sub 2} thin films were deposited using tetrakis-ethylmethylamido hafnium and H{sub 2}O as precursors on silicon by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The morphology and microstructures at different ALD cycles were characterized by atomic force microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Based on the heightheight correlation function and power spectral density function, quantitative analysis of surface morphologies was performed. Three characteristic dimensions (?{sub 1}, ?{sub 2}, and ?{sub 3}) corresponding to three surface structures, islands, local and global fluctuations, were identified. The evolution of ALD growth mode at range of the three critical scales was investigated, respectively. It suggests the transformation of growth mode from quasi two-dimensional layer-by-layer to three-dimensional island for global fluctuations.

  20. Low temperature thin film transistors with hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, S., E-mail: bolat@ee.bilkent.edu.tr, E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, B. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); UNAM, National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ozgit-Akgun, C.; Biyikli, N. [UNAM, National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Okyay, A. K., E-mail: bolat@ee.bilkent.edu.tr, E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); UNAM, National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We report GaN thin film transistors (TFT) with a thermal budget below 250?C. GaN thin films are grown at 200?C by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). HCPA-ALD-based GaN thin films are found to have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure with an average crystallite size of 9.3?nm. TFTs with bottom gate configuration are fabricated with HCPA-ALD grown GaN channel layers. Fabricated TFTs exhibit n-type field effect characteristics. N-channel GaN TFTs demonstrated on-to-off ratios (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF}) of 10{sup 3} and sub-threshold swing of 3.3?V/decade. The entire TFT device fabrication process temperature is below 250?C, which is the lowest process temperature reported for GaN based transistors, so far.

  1. Surface modification of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by ozone via atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lushington, Andrew; Liu, Jian; Tang, Yongji; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang, E-mail: xsun@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of ozone as an oxidizing agent for atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes is rapidly growing due to its strong oxidizing capabilities. However, the effect of ozone on nanostructured substrates such as nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) and pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PCNTs) are not very well understood and may provide an avenue toward functionalizing the carbon nanotube surface prior to deposition. The effects of ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs and PCNTs using 10?wt. % ozone at temperatures of 150, 250, and 300?C are studied. The effect of ozone pulse time and ALD cycle number on NCNTs and PCNTs was also investigated. Morphological changes to the substrate were observed by scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements were also conducted to determine surface area, pore size, and pore size distribution following ozone treatment. The graphitic nature of both NCNTs and PCNTs was determined using Raman analysis while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to probe the chemical nature of NCNTs. It was found that O{sub 3} attack occurs preferentially to the outermost geometric surface of NCNTs. Our research also revealed that the deleterious effects of ozone are found only on NCNTs while little or no damage occurs on PCNTs. Furthermore, XPS analysis indicated that ALD ozone treatment on NCNTs, at elevated temperatures, results in loss of nitrogen content. Our studies demonstrate that ALD ozone treatment is an effective avenue toward creating low nitrogen content, defect rich substrates for use in electrochemical applications and ALD of various metal/metal oxides.

  2. Capacitance and conductance versus voltage characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers prepared by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition at 25?C??T???200?C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henkel, Karsten, E-mail: henkel@tu-cottbus.de; Tallarida, Massimo; Schmeier, Dieter [Applied Physics and Sensors, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg, K.-Wachsmann-Allee 17, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); Gargouri, Hassan; Gruska, Bernd; Arens, Michael [Sentech Instruments GmbH, Schwarzschildstrae 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited (PE-ALD) samples were prepared at substrate temperatures in the range between room temperature (RT) and 200?C and investigated by capacitancevoltage and conductancevoltage recordings. The measurements are compared to standard thermal atomic layer deposition (T-ALD) at 200?C. Very low interface state density (D{sub it}) ?10{sup 11}?eV{sup ?1}?cm{sup ?2} could be achieved for the PE-ALD process at 200?C substrate temperature after postdeposition anneal (PDA) in forming gas at 450?C. The PDA works very effectively for both the PE-ALD and T-ALD at 200?C substrate temperature delivering also similar values of negative fixed charge density (N{sub fix}) around ?2.5??10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2}. At the substrate temperature of 150?C, highest N{sub fix} (?2.9??10{sup 12}?cm{sup ?2}) and moderate D{sub it} (2.7??10{sup 11}?eV{sup ?1}?cm{sup ?2}) values were observed. The as deposited PE-ALD layer at RT shows both low D{sub it} in the range of (1 to 3)??10{sup 11}?eV{sup ?1} cm{sup ?2} and low N{sub fix} (?4.4??10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?2}) at the same time. The dependencies of N{sub fix}, D{sub it}, and relative permittivity on the substrate temperatures and its adjustability are discussed.

  3. Numerical modeling of carrier gas flow in atomic layer deposition vacuum reactor: A comparative study of lattice Boltzmann models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Dongqing; Chien Jen, Tien [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Li, Tao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Yuan, Chris, E-mail: cyuan@uwm.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3200 North Cramer Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper characterizes the carrier gas flow in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) vacuum reactor by introducing Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to the ALD simulation through a comparative study of two LBM models. Numerical models of gas flow are constructed and implemented in two-dimensional geometry based on lattice BhatnagarGrossKrook (LBGK)-D2Q9 model and two-relaxation-time (TRT) model. Both incompressible and compressible scenarios are simulated and the two models are compared in the aspects of flow features, stability, and efficiency. Our simulation outcome reveals that, for our specific ALD vacuum reactor, TRT model generates better steady laminar flow features all over the domain with better stability and reliability than LBGK-D2Q9 model especially when considering the compressible effects of the gas flow. The LBM-TRT is verified indirectly by comparing the numerical result with conventional continuum-based computational fluid dynamics solvers, and it shows very good agreement with these conventional methods. The velocity field of carrier gas flow through ALD vacuum reactor was characterized by LBM-TRT model finally. The flow in ALD is in a laminar steady state with velocity concentrated at the corners and around the wafer. The effects of flow fields on precursor distributions, surface absorptions, and surface reactions are discussed in detail. Steady and evenly distributed velocity field contribute to higher precursor concentration near the wafer and relatively lower particle velocities help to achieve better surface adsorption and deposition. The ALD reactor geometry needs to be considered carefully if a steady and laminar flow field around the wafer and better surface deposition are desired.

  4. Surface and interfacial reaction study of InAs(100)-crystalline oxide interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhernokletov, D. M. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Laukkanen, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku FI-20014 (Finland)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku FI-20014 (Finland); Dong, H.; Brennan, B.; Kim, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Galatage, R. V. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Yakimov, M.; Tokranov, V.; Oktyabrsky, S. [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)] [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Wallace, R. M. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States) [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2013-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A crystalline oxide film on InAs(100) is investigated with in situ monochromatic x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction before and after in situ deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as well as upon air exposure. The oxidation process leads to arsenic and indium trivalent oxidation state formation. The grown epitaxial oxide-InAs interface is stable upon ALD reactor exposure; however, trimethyl aluminum decreases oxidation states resulting in an unreconstructed surface. An increase in oxide concentration is also observed upon air exposure suggesting the crystalline oxide surface is unstable.

  5. Nucleation and growth of MgO atomic layer deposition: A real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Han; Fu, Kan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269. (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269. (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of MgO thin films from bis(cyclopentadienyl) magnesium and H{sub 2}O was studied using in-situ real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), ex-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. It is found that the initial growth is not linear during the first ten cycles, and magnesium silicate forms spontaneously on the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates at 250 C. Submonolayer sensitivity of SE is demonstrated by the analysis of each half-cycle and self-limiting adsorption, revealing characteristic features of hetero- and homo-MgO ALD processes.

  6. DANE TECHNICAL NOTE INFN -LNF, Accelerator Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN)

    -5 MISURA QUADRUPOLO ASTER #2 CON SISTEMA DANFYSIK RICERCA DELL'ASSE MAGNETICO B. Bolli, F. Iungo, C. Sanelli, M. Sardone Nel seguito si riportano i risultati relativi alla misura dell'asse magnetico del. #12;MM-5 pg. 3 FIG. 1 #12;MM-5 pg. 4 Le misure per l'individuazione dell'asse magnetico vanno

  7. Evaluation of the Bioherbicide Phoma macrostoma for Use in Southern Turfgrass Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Jonathon M.

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    (DAT) . 13 Figure 2 Henderson-Tilton % control of slender aster ............................................ 14 Figure 3 Henderson-Tilton % control of broadleaf weeds in greenhouse studies ... 32 Figure 4 Weed injury of broadleaf weeds... ....................... 46 Table 5 Growth chamber ANOVA for weed biomass dry weights and percent control........................................................................................... 48 Table 6 Growth Chamber Henderson-Tilton % control as influenced...

  8. Activating Mutations of NOTCH1 in Human T Cell Acute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Activating Mutations of NOTCH1 in Human T Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Andrew P. Weng,1 Stephen C. Blacklow,1 A. Thomas Look,2 Jon C. Aster1 - Very rare cases of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) harbor chromosomal translocations that involve NOTCH1, a gene encoding a trans- membrane

  9. PINGREE PARK HERBACEOUS SPECIES LIST GRASSES & GRASSLIKES FORBS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pussytoes heartleaf Arnica cudweed or sagewort Locoweed or milk vetch bistort fireweed hairy golden aster (POACEAE) - Perennial bunchgrass - Auricles that clasp the stem - Introduced, cool-season forage grass - Medium length awns - Short awns 3. Bromopsis inermis smooth brome (POACEAE) - Perennial cool

  10. CHAPTER 8. QUANTITATIVE GEOLOGICAL SURFACE PROCESSES EXTRACTED FROM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY AND REMOTE SENSING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Michael

    , the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument has been observing the Earth's surface at high spatial resolution and in multiple wavelength bands during the day and night and lithological mapping because the energy emitted from the surface is sensitive to most of the major rock forming

  11. Ice in Volcanic Clouds: When and Where? William I Rose, Gregg JS Bluth and I Matthew Watson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluth, Gregg

    of large ash particles in descent. Ash fall occurs most markedly from the high energy first stage Very High Resolution Radiometer; MODIS= Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer; ASTER= Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer; TOMS= Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer occur and when

  12. From Measurements to Models: What Satellite and Sub-Orbital Instruments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    uncertainty upper bounds for ~1 W/m2 TOA DARF accuracy: ~ 0.02 CCSP - SAP 2.3, 2009 #12;Aerosol-location time series Regional Context R. Kahn #12;The NASA Earth Observing System's Terra Satellite ASTER First Light: February 24, 2000 MODIS CERES MISR MOPITT Terra Project Office / NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

  13. ERSDAC and Its ActivityERSDAC and Its ActivityERSDAC and Its Activity ERSDACERSDACEarth Remote Sensing Data Analysis Center, Tokyo, Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exploration and Exploitation Monitoring , Management of Agriculture(rice, wheat) and Forestry. Disaster and Reflection Radiometer) - NASA, U.S. - CERESCERES ((Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) MISRMISR) Remote Sensing Data Center Operation of ASTER "Ground Data System" (GDS) and PALSAR GDS Production

  14. business.uts.edu.au inistration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    University of Technology, Sydney

    business models we are creating for the future. We conduct cutting edge research, engage activelybusiness.uts.edu.au UTS: BUSINESS EM BA ExEcutivE M astEr of BusinEss adM inistration 2012 #12;Aspacewherecreativity isencouragedandall ideasarewelcome. UTS Business School will soon be home to Sydney's newest

  15. Asociaciones Trasformacion de codons a aminoacidos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giménez, Domingo

    de Programaci´on M´aster de Bioinform´atica Asociaciones y tablas hash Domingo Gim´enez C dispersi´on) El trabajo sobre conjuntos o diccionarios con listas o arrays tiene un tiempo lineal: para

  16. BY DAVID CYRANOSKI hree years after a tsunami led to reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napp, Nils

    energy by 2040. Two floating, 7-megawatt wind turbines, the world's largest, are scheduled to come online in the wake of the dis- aster, the current administration is ready to re-embrace the technology. Yet,Germany.Inside,about100research- erswillworkacrossareasincludingsolar,hydro- gen, wind and geothermal power. Deputy

  17. EEll pplluummaacchhoo ddeell RRoo GGrraannddee ddee AAaassccoo vviissttoo ppoorr ccuuaattrroo sseennssoorreess Santo Navarro Morales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    imgenes satelitales. El presente trabajo se pretendi medir el rea de influencia del Ro corresponden a momentos de flujo alto del Ro Grande de Aasco. La idea de este trabajo es comparar los cuatro ASTER), por estar AVIRIS montado en avin y captar los objetivos desde menor distancia

  18. Monitoring rapid temporal change in a volcano with coda wave interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snieder, Roel

    Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico, USA Received 29 July 2004; revised 5 November 2004^t and Roel Snieder Center for Wave Phenomena and Department of Geophysics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, USA Richard C. Aster and Philip R. Kyle Department of Earth and Environmental Science, New Mexico

  19. Synergistic Machine Learning: Collaboration and Topology Exploitation in Dynamic Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    -PI), JPL Researcher in Computer Science Rick Aster, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMTSynergistic Machine Learning: Collaboration and Topology Exploitation in Dynamic Environments NSF: Terran Lane (PI), Univ. of New Mexico (UNM) Associate Professor of Computer Science Kiri Wagstaff (co

  20. EARSeL eProceedings 5, 1/2006 51 EVALUATION OF QUICKBIRD AND IKONOS IMAGERY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kb, Andreas

    EARSeL eProceedings 5, 1/2006 51 EVALUATION OF QUICKBIRD AND IKONOS IMAGERY FOR ASSESSMENT OF HIGH. So far, mainly satellite sensors such as Landsat-5/7, SPOT-3/4, or ASTER have been used for investigating glacial hazards. The recent emergence of commercial satellite sensors with very high spatial

  1. ' ^ DEO 4 161 --Riso Report No. 153

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ' ^ DEO 4 161 -- Riso Report No. 153 1 lASTER ^ ^ Danish Atomic Energy Commission :0 0^ Research Establishment Riso Investigations on Methods of Producing Crystalline AmmoniumTMUranyl Carbonate and its Applicability for Production of Uranium-Dioxide Powder and Pellets by Margrethe Jensen The Danish Atomic Energy

  2. Adaptive Routing in Underwater Delay/Disruption Tolerant Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Jun-Hong

    , such as oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, dis- aster prevention, assisted pose a range of challenges to underwater commu- nication and networking. Firstly, acoustic communication is usually employed in underwater sensor networks, and acoustic channels feature high error rate

  3. CARACTERISATION DES REJETS MINIERS DANS LE BASSIN VERSANT DE LA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) VNIR (Visible Near Infrared), SWIR les donnes multispectrales du domaine VNIR (Visible Near Infrared), SWIR (Shortwave Infrared) et TIR (Thermal Infrared) de l'image ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer). Nous

  4. Cadenas de caracteres Expresiones regulares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gimnez, Domingo

    Algoritmos, de la asignatura de Programacion Master de Bioinformatica Cadenas y expresiones regularesimbolos. Normalmente se almacenan en un vector (un array de una dimension). Las operaciones mas comunes son: Asignacion

  5. SOLAR SYSTEM Lethalbilliards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claeys, Philippe

    bombardment. The abundant micrometeorites in the 480-million-year-old Ordovician limestones of southern Sweden is inferred from the lunar cratering record8 . Although its traces have been erased 30 NATURE|Vol 449- ment probably resulted from colliding aster- oids disturbed by changes in the orbits of the giant gas

  6. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 559571, 2008 www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/8/559/2008/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kb, Andreas

    frequently affect the slopes of ice-capped volcanoes. They can be triggered by volcano-ice interac- tions Hazards and Earth System Sciences Assessing lahars from ice-capped volcanoes using ASTER satellite data reservoirs are supposed to be a more realistic scenario for lahar genera- tion than sudden ice melting

  7. The ASU 100 Cities Project and the Mars Space Flight Facility (MSFF) are developing JEarth, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    models - such as GTOPO30 ! Vector-based shapefiles, including geology, ecology, social and political.echo.eos.nasa.gov ! ASTER and GTOPO 30 DEMs and profile tools ! Incorporation of CAP LTER shapefiles for the 200 point available Mars data sets !Global datasets and individual images !Regional maps and mosaics !Shapefiles

  8. 2037 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim wileyonlinelibrary.comsmall 2011, 7, No. 14, 20372040 Silver Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    .[35] ALD synthesis of hollow sphere and nano- tube structures composed of Al2O3 have been also reported sized colloidal particles (silica spheres, polymer spheres, or monodisperse nanocrystals) are assem of monolayer hollow inorganic silica and inorganic hybrid spheres is also reported through the colloid

  9. Physics 2, 62 (2009) Heralding the storage of light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuletic, Vladan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Physics 2, 62 (2009) Viewpoint Heralding the storage of light Julien Laurat Laboratoire Kastler, demonstrate an atomic quantum mem- ory where the successful storage of a light beam is her- alded [2-level scheme with two ground states and one excited state--boosted this broad effort. A "write" laser pulse

  10. NFC Industrial Access and Equipment Rates valid 7/1/13 to 6/30/14 RATES SUBJECT TO CHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    NFC Industrial Access and Equipment Rates valid 7/1/13 to 6/30/14 RATES SUBJECT TO CHANGE ACCESS/USE UNITS RATE ACCESS FEE monthly fee $91.00 LAB USAGE FEE per lab session $67.50 LAB USAGE MAX PER MONTH per month $631.00 EQUIPMENT INCLUDED EQUIPMENT UNITS RATE ALDATOMIC LAYER DEP ALD Savannah 200 minute

  11. Supporting Online Materials Electron Microscopy Observation of TiO2 Nanocrystal Evolution in High-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xudong

    ) A horizontal tube furnace system was used to perform the vapor deposition of ZnO NW. A small quartz tube 25 cm of the ALD chamber (stainless steel tube with a diameter of 2 inch) and 10 cm downstream away from the precursor injection nozzle. During the growth, a constant flow of 40 sccm N2 was applied into the chamber

  12. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200702781 Aerogel Templated ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as substructure templates. The aerogel templates are coated with ZnO via atomic layer deposition (ALD) to yieldDOI: 10.1002/adma.200702781 Aerogel Templated ZnO Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells** By Thomas W. Hamann produced from coating tem- plates of high aspect ratio substructures, exhibiting initial efficiencies up

  13. Carbon nanofiber supercapacitors with large areal capacitances James R. McDonough,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    growth rather than CNT growth see supplementary information Fig. S1 .10 Carbon aerogels CAs have also with nanosized MnO2 loaded inside aerogel pores.7 Preparation of our CNF-based SC electrodes consists of two approxi- mately 1 1 0.2 cm3 is conformally coated with a 1 nm alumina layer by atomic layer deposition ALD

  14. Mechanisms of Atomic Layer Deposition on Substrates with Ultrahigh Aspect Ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as a very promising method for controlled coating of the inner surfaces of monolithic nanoporous aerogel (AG suited for coating substrates with ultrahigh aspect ratios (J103), including nanoporous solids. Here, we study the ALD of Cu and Cu3N on the inner surfaces of low-density nanoporous silica aerogel monoliths

  15. Impact of Chemical States on the Effective Work Function of Metal Gate and High-kappa Dielectric Materials on Novel Heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coan, Mary

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    during the deposition of HfO2 using ALD and TEMAH as the reactant without breaking the Hf-N bond. The formation of a Ga-N(CH3)(CH2CH3) bond is significant because with the introduction of water into the system, the methyl and ethylmethyl groups may react...

  16. Learning and Teaching Academic Training and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Painter, Kevin

    and Development website for news and updates throughout the year: www.hw.ac.uk/ald Learning & Teaching Symposium and collaborations with external institutions and national bodies (including the Higher Education Academy, LEADS is accredited by the Higher Education Academy (HEA). It provides new teachers or tutors

  17. Biotechnology at the Cutting Edge - Keasling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keasling, Jay

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jay Keasling, Berkeley Lab ALD for Biosciences and CEO of the Joint BioEnergy Institute, appears in a video on biotechnology at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. The video is part of en exhibit titled "Science in American Life," which examines the relationship between science, technology, progress and culture through artifacts, historical photographs and multimedia technology.

  18. Initiation of atomic layer deposition of metal oxides on polymer substrates by water plasma pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Brandt, E.; Grace, Jeremy M. [Eastman Kodak Company, 1999 Lake Avenue, Rochester, New York 14650-2022 (United States)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of surface hydroxyl content in atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide (AO) on polymers is demonstrated by performing an atomic layer deposition of AO onto a variety of polymer types, before and after pretreatment in a plasma struck in water vapor. The treatment and deposition reactions are performed in situ in a high vacuum chamber that is interfaced to an x-ray photoelectron spectrometer to prevent adventitious exposure to atmospheric contaminants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to follow the surface chemistries of the polymers, including theformation of surface hydroxyls and subsequent growth of AO by ALD. Using dimethyl aluminum isopropoxide and water as reactants, ALD is obtained for water-plasma-treated poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN). For PS, PP, and PEN, initial growth rates of AO on the native (untreated) polymers are at least an order of magnitude lower than on the same polymer surface following the plasma treatment. By contrast, native PVA is shown to initiate ALD of AO as a result of the presence of intrinsic surface hydroxyls that are derived from the repeat unit of this polymer.

  19. Meet the trillions of tiny allies that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennett, Daniel

    & A n WALKABLE TOWNS n IS GLUTEN-FREE FOR ME? MAGA ZINE OF THE GER ALD J. AND DOROTHY R. FRIEDMAN SCHOOL- cer and exercise study, for example, took several years and entailed developing a complicated search any good? By Julie Flaherty 14 If You Build It, They Will Walk Thoughtful town planning can get

  20. For More Information: http://www.nuc.berkeley.edu/ or 510-642-4077 The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a U.S. Department of Energy,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakhor, Avideh

    . As ALD, Dr. Icenhour leads three research divisions (Fusion and Materials for Nuclear Systems, Nuclear computing, advanced materials, nuclear science and engineering, biological and environmental science, energy capabilities are described, and the presentation focuses on the range of nuclear R&D programs

  1. Atomic layer deposition of photoactive CoO/SrTiO{sub 3} and CoO/TiO{sub 2} on Si(001) for visible light driven photoelectrochemical water oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngo, Thong Q.; Hoang, Son; McDaniel, Martin D.; Buddie Mullins, C.; Ekerdt, John G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Posadas, Agham; Seo, Hosung; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Utess, Dirk; Triyoso, Dina H. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Dresden, Wilschdorfer Landstrasse 101, Dresden DE-01109 (Germany)] [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Dresden, Wilschdorfer Landstrasse 101, Dresden DE-01109 (Germany)

    2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Cobalt oxide (CoO) films are grown epitaxially on Si(001) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using a thin (1.6 nm) buffer layer of strontium titanate (STO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The ALD growth of CoO films is done at low temperature (170180 C), using cobalt bis(diisopropylacetamidinate) and water as co-reactants. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy are performed to characterize the crystalline structure of the films. The CoO films are found to be crystalline as-deposited even at the low growth temperature with no evidence of Co diffusion into Si. The STO-buffered Si (001) is used as a template for ALD growth of relatively thicker epitaxial STO and TiO{sub 2} films. Epitaxial and polycrystalline CoO films are then grown by ALD on the STO and TiO{sub 2} layers, respectively, creating thin-film heterostructures for photoelectrochemical testing. Both types of heterostructures, CoO/STO/Si and CoO/TiO{sub 2}/STO/Si, demonstrate water photooxidation activity under visible light illumination. In-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to measure the band alignment of the two heterojunctions, CoO/STO and CoO/TiO{sub 2}. The experimental band alignment is compared to electronic structure calculations using density functional theory.

  2. Biotechnology at the Cutting Edge - Keasling

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Keasling, Jay

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Jay Keasling, Berkeley Lab ALD for Biosciences and CEO of the Joint BioEnergy Institute, appears in a video on biotechnology at the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History. The video is part of en exhibit titled "Science in American Life," which examines the relationship between science, technology, progress and culture through artifacts, historical photographs and multimedia technology.

  3. NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing Integrated ESH Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    NSF/SRC Engineering Research Center for Environmentally Benign Semiconductor Manufacturing 1 Integrated ESH Assessment: Cu CVD and ALD Unit Process Optimization (Thrust C, Task C-5) Wei Lei, Soon Cho for System Research University of Maryland, College Park Department of Chemical and Environmental

  4. Enantioselective Organocatalytic Indole Alkylations. Design of a New and Highly Effective Chiral Amine for Iminium Catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMillan, David W. C.

    structural motifs of established value in medicinal chemistry or complex target synthesis. In this regard the capacity of iminium catalysis to mediate the enantioselective coupling of pyrroles and R, -unsaturated alde nucleophiles. Despite struc- tural similarities, it has long been established7 that the pyrrole -system

  5. Development of atomic layer deposition-activated microchannel plates for single particle detection at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorelikov, Dmitry, E-mail: dmitry@arradiance.com; Sullivan, Neal; Rouffignac, Philippe de; Li, Huazhi; Narayanamoorthy, Jayasri; Tremsin, Anton S. [Arradiance Inc., 142 North Road, Sudbury, Massachusetts 01776 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is used to nanoengineer functional films inside the pores of microchannel plate (MCP) electron multipliers, enabling a novel MCP manufacturing technology that substantially improves performance and opens novel applications. The authors have developed custom tools and recipes for the growth of conformal films, with optimized conductance and secondary electron emission inside very long channels (?620??m diameter and >600??m length, with tens of millions of channels per single MCP) by ALD. The unique ability to tune the characteristics of these ALD films enables their optimization to applications where time-resolved single particle imaging can be performed in extreme conditions, such as high counting rates at cryogenic temperatures. Adhesion of the conductive and emissive nanofilms to the 20??m pore MCP glass substrates and their mechanical stability over a very wide range of temperatures (10700?K) were confirmed experimentally. Resistance of ALD MCPs was reproducible during multiple cool-down cycles with no film degradation observed. Optimizing resistance of novel MCPs for operation at cryogenic temperature should enable high count rate event detection at temperatures below 20?K.

  6. Initial growth, refractive index, and crystallinity of thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition AlN films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Bui, Hao, E-mail: H.VanBui@utwente.nl; Wiggers, Frank B.; Gupta, Anubha; Nguyen, Minh D.; Aarnink, Antonius A. I.; Jong, Michel P. de; Kovalgin, Alexey Y., E-mail: A.Y.Kovalgin@utwente.nl [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P. O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have studied and compared the initial growth and properties of AlN films deposited on Si(111) by thermal and plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum and either ammonia or a N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture as precursors. In-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to monitor the growth and measure the refractive index of the films during the deposition. The authors found that an incubation stage only occurred for thermal ALD. The linear growth for plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) started instantly from the beginning due to the higher nuclei density provided by the presence of plasma. The authors observed the evolution of the refractive index of AlN during the growth, which showed a rapid increase up to a thickness of about 30?nm followed by a saturation. Below this thickness, higher refractive index values were obtained for AlN films grown by PEALD, whereas above that the refractive index was slightly higher for thermal ALD films. X-ray diffraction characterization showed a wurtzite crystalline structure with a (101{sup }0) preferential orientation obtained for all the layers with a slightly better crystallinity for films grown by PEALD.

  7. Atomic Layer Deposition on Suspended Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes via

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and mechanical properties of the nanotubes. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) on single-walled carbon nanotubesAtomic Layer Deposition on Suspended Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes via Gas-Phase Noncovalent, 2005; Revised Manuscript Received February 6, 2006 ABSTRACT Alternating exposures of nitrogen dioxide

  8. Carbon Nanosheets and Nanostructured Electrodes in Organic Photovoltaic Devices: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-321

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, D.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanosheet thin films were employed as nanostructured electrodes in organic solar cells. Due to the nanostructured texture of the carbon nanosheet electrodes, there was an increase in performance over standard ITO electrodes with very thick active layers. ZnO deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD) was used as a hole blocking layer to provide for carrier selectivity of the carbon nanosheets.

  9. ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATOMIC-LAYER-DEPOSITED ALUMINUM OXIDE FOR THE SURFACE PASSIVATION OF HIGH-EFFICIENCY SILICON SOLAR to those measured on reference cells passivated by an aluminum-annealed thermal SiO2, while those of the Al of aluminum ox- ide (Al2O3) grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) pro- vide an excellent level of sur

  10. Gas phase reaction products during tungsten atomic layer deposition using WF6 and Si2H6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Steven M.

    Gas phase reaction products during tungsten atomic layer deposition using WF6 and Si2H6 R. K; published 23 July 2004 The gas phase reaction products during tungsten W atomic layer deposition ALD using WF6 and Si2H6 were studied using quadrupole mass spectrometry. The gas phase reactions products were

  11. Energy Technology Division research summary - 1999.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Technology Division provides materials and engineering technology support to a wide range of programs important to the US Department of Energy. As shown on the preceding page, the Division is organized into ten sections, five with concentrations in the materials area and five in engineering technology. Materials expertise includes fabrication, mechanical properties, corrosion, friction and lubrication, and irradiation effects. Our major engineering strengths are in heat and mass flow, sensors and instrumentation, nondestructive testing, transportation, and electromechanics and superconductivity applications. The Division Safety Coordinator, Environmental Compliance Officers, Quality Assurance Representative, Financial Administrator, and Communication Coordinator report directly to the Division Director. The Division Director is personally responsible for cultural diversity and is a member of the Laboratory-wide Cultural Diversity Advisory Committee. The Division's capabilities are generally applied to issues associated with energy production, transportation, utilization, or conservation, or with environmental issues linked to energy. As shown in the organization chart on the next page, the Division reports administratively to the Associate Laboratory Director (ALD) for Energy and Environmental Science and Technology (EEST) through the General Manager for Environmental and Industrial Technologies. While most of our programs are under the purview of the EEST ALD, we also have had programs funded under every one of the ALDs. Some of our research in superconductivity is funded through the Physical Research Program ALD. We also continue to work on a number of nuclear-energy-related programs under the ALD for Engineering Research. Detailed descriptions of our programs on a section-by-section basis are provided in the remainder of this book.

  12. Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Dean

    2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

  13. The effects of electronic data processing on office personnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Donald Howard

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    finanolal concern, listed their obJectlves, ln order of importance? ss clerical laborsaving, f'aster reportfnq of information, and. obtaining new information. Company 8, a Houston industrial firm, reported that they sought to "reduce costs" and "obtain... information not, prac tical before. " Company 0, also a Houston industrial concern, re aborted that, their obJectives were to "save more money than we spend and do things ws could not do before. " It -ight be added here that business machine manu...

  14. A comparison of visual cuing methods in large displays during performance of a secondary task

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rankin, John Edgar

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A CO?PARISON OF VISUAL CUING KETHODS IN IARGE DISPLAYS DURING PERFORNANCE OF A SECONDARY TASK A Thesis by JOHN EDGAR RANKIN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAN University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of WiASTER OF SCIENCE December 1971 Major Subjects Industrial Engineering A COMPARISON OF VISUAL CUING METHODS IN LARGE DISPLAYS DURING PERFORMANCE OF A SECONDARY TASK A Thesis by JOHN EDGAR RANKIN Approved as to style and content by& Chairman...

  15. UNIVERSIDADE DA CORU~NA PLAN DE ESTUDIOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraguela, Basilio B.

    ´ecnicos como orga- nizativos y de gesti´on). El creciente grado de optatividad permite al estudiante dise- ratorio de Control de Calidad de la Demarcaci´on de Carre- teras del Estado en Galicia dependiente del´on general del sistema universitario espa~nol. El Plan de Estu- dios de M´aster en Ingenier´ia de Caminos

  16. Calibration of a SCARA robot manipulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brock, Timothy Boland

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CALIBRATION OF A SCARA ROBOT MANIPULATOR A Thesis By TIMOTHY BOLAND BROCK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of lvlASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major... Subject: Mechanical Engineering CALIBRATION OF A SCARA ROBOT MANIPULATOR A Thesis By TIMOTHY BOLAND BROCK Approved as to style and contem by: Make McDermon (Chair of Committee) Michael J. ins (Head of Department) uis J. Everett (Member) Karan...

  17. Synthesis and Understanding of Novel Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stair, Peter C. [Northwestern University] [Northwestern University

    2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The research took advantage of our capabilities to perform in-situ and operando Raman spectroscopy on complex systems along with our developing expertise in the synthesis of uniform, supported metal oxide materials to investigate relationships between the catalytically active oxide composition, atomic structure, and support and the corresponding chemical and catalytic properties. The project was organized into two efforts: 1) Synthesis of novel catalyst materials by atomic layer deposition (ALD). 2) Spectroscopic and chemical investigations of coke formation and catalyst deactivation. ALD synthesis was combined with conventional physical characterization, Raman spectroscopy, and probe molecule chemisorption to study the effect of supported metal oxide composition and atomic structure on acid-base and catalytic properties. Operando Raman spectroscopy studies of olefin polymerization leading to coke formation and catalyst deactivation clarified the mechanism of coke formation by acid catalysts.

  18. Ultra-low loading Pt nanocatalysts prepared by atomic layer deposition on carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, J S; Wittstock, A; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S O; Wang, Y M; Baumann, T F; Giri, S; Hamza, A V; Baeumer, M; Bent, S F

    2008-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Using atomic layer deposition (ALD), we show that Pt nanoparticles can be deposited on the inner surfaces of carbon aerogels (CA). The resultant Pt-loaded materials exhibit high catalytic activity for the oxidation of CO even at loading levels as low as {approx}0.05 mg Pt/cm{sup 2}. We observe a conversion efficiency of nearly 100% in the temperatures range 150-250 C, and the total conversion rate seems to be only limited by the thermal stability of our CA support in ambient oxygen. Our ALD approach described here is universal in nature, and can be applied to the design of new catalytic materials for a variety of applications, including fuel cells, hydrogen storage, pollution control, green chemistry, and liquid fuel production.

  19. Influence of Atomic Layer Deposition Temperatures on TiO2/n-Si MOS Capacitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Daming [Kansas State University; Hossain, T [Kansas State University; Garces, N. Y. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.; Nepal, N. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Eddy, C.R., Jr. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C.; Edgar, J H [Kansas State University

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the influence of temperature on the structure, composition, and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited on n-type silicon (100) by atomic layer deposition (ALD). TiO2 layers around 20nm thick, deposited at temperatures ranging from 100 to 300 C, were studied. Samples deposited at 250 C and 200 C had the most uniform coverage as determined by atomic force microscopy. The average carbon concentration throughout the oxide layer and at the TiO2/Si interface was lowest at 200 C. Metal oxide semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) were fabricated, and profiled by capacitance-voltage techniques. Negligible hysteresis was observed from a capacitance-voltage plot and the capacitance in the accumulation region was constant for the sample prepared at a 200 C ALD growth temperature. The interface trap density was on the order of 1013 eV-1cm-2 regardless of the deposition temperature.

  20. Hybrid inorganicorganic superlattice structures with atomic layer deposition/molecular layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tynell, Tommi; Yamauchi, Hisao; Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) techniques is successfully employed to fabricate thin films incorporating superlattice structures that consist of single layers of organic molecules between thicker layers of ZnO. Diethyl zinc and water are used as precursors for the deposition of ZnO by ALD, while three different organic precursors are investigated for the MLD part: hydroquinone, 4-aminophenol and 4,4?-oxydianiline. The successful superlattice formation with all the organic precursors is verified through x-ray reflectivity studies. The effects of the interspersed organic layers/superlattice structure on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of ZnO are investigated through resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements at room temperature. The results suggest an increase in carrier concentration for small concentrations of organic layers, while higher concentrations seem to lead to rather large reductions in carrier concentration.

  1. Film properties of low temperature HfO{sub 2} grown with H{sub 2}O, O{sub 3}, or remote O{sub 2}-plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, Claudia, E-mail: Claudia.Richter@namlab.com; Schenk, Tony; Schroeder, Uwe [NaMLab gGmbH, Noethnitzerstr. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Mikolajick, Thomas [NaMLab gGmbH, Noethnitzerstr. 64, 01187 Dresden, Germany and Institut fr Halbleiter und Mikrosystemtechnik, TU Dresden, Noethnitzerstr. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A reduction of the deposition temperature is necessary for atomic layer deposition (ALD) on organic devices. HfO{sub 2} films were deposited by ALD on silicon substrates in a wide temperature range from 80 to 300?C with tetrakis[ethylmethylamino]hafnium as metal precursor and H{sub 2}O, O{sub 3}, or an remote O{sub 2}-plasma as oxygen source. Growth rate and density were correlated to electrical properties like dielectric constant and leakage current of simple capacitor structures to evaluate the impact of different process conditions. Process optimizations were performed to reduce film imperfections visible at lower deposition temperatures. Additionally, the influence of postdeposition annealing on the structural and electrical properties was studied.

  2. Infrared study on room-temperature atomic layer deposition of HfO{sub 2} using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium and remote plasma-excited oxidizing agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanomata, Kensaku [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510, Japan and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, 5-3-1 Kojimachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0083 (Japan); Ohba, Hisashi; Pungboon Pansila, P.; Ahmmad, Bashir; Kubota, Shigeru; Hirahara, Kazuhiro; Hirose, Fumihiko, E-mail: fhirose@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Room-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO{sub 2} was examined using tetrakis (ethylmethylamino)hafnium (TEMAH) and remote plasma-excited water and oxygen. A growth rate of 0.26?nm/cycle at room temperature was achieved, and the TEMAH adsorption and its oxidization on HfO{sub 2} were investigated by multiple internal reflection infrared absorption spectroscopy. It was observed that saturated adsorption of TEMAH occurs at exposures of ?1??10{sup 5}?L (1 L?=?1??10{sup ?6} Torr s) at room temperature, and the use of remote plasma-excited water and oxygen vapor is effective in oxidizing the TEMAH molecules on the HfO{sub 2} surface, to produce OH sites. The infrared study suggested that HfOH plays a role as an adsorption site for TEMAH. The reaction mechanism of room temperature HfO{sub 2} ALD is discussed in this paper.

  3. Ultra-thin microporous/hybrid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ying-Bing (Albuquerque, NM); Cecchi, Joseph L. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultra-thin hybrid and/or microporous materials and methods for their fabrication are provided. In one embodiment, the exemplary hybrid membranes can be formed including successive surface activation and reaction steps on a porous support that is patterned or non-patterned. The surface activation can be performed using remote plasma exposure to locally activate the exterior surfaces of porous support. Organic/inorganic hybrid precursors such as organometallic silane precursors can be condensed on the locally activated exterior surfaces, whereby ALD reactions can then take place between the condensed hybrid precursors and a reactant. Various embodiments can also include an intermittent replacement of ALD precursors during the membrane formation so as to enhance the hybrid molecular network of the membranes.

  4. LDRD Project 52523 final report :Atomic layer deposition of highly conformal tribological coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jungk, John Michael (University of Minnesota); Dugger, Michael Thomas; George, Steve M. (University of Colorado); Prasad, Somuri V.; Grubbs, Robert K.; Moody, Neville Reid; Mayer, Thomas Michael; Scharf, Thomas W.; Goeke, Ronald S.; Gerberich, William W. (University of Minnesota)

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Friction and wear are major concerns in the performance and reliability of micromechanical (MEMS) devices. While a variety of lubricant and wear resistant coatings are known which we might consider for application to MEMS devices, the severe geometric constraints of many micromechanical systems (high aspect ratios, shadowed surfaces) make most deposition methods for friction and wear-resistance coatings impossible. In this program we have produced and evaluate highly conformal, tribological coatings, deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD), for use on surface micromachined (SMM) and LIGA structures. ALD is a chemical vapor deposition process using sequential exposure of reagents and self-limiting surface chemistry, saturating at a maximum of one monolayer per exposure cycle. The self-limiting chemistry results in conformal coating of high aspect ratio structures, with monolayer precision. ALD of a wide variety of materials is possible, but there have been no studies of structural, mechanical, and tribological properties of these films. We have developed processes for depositing thin (<100 nm) conformal coatings of selected hard and lubricious films (Al2O3, ZnO, WS2, W, and W/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminates), and measured their chemical, physical, mechanical and tribological properties. A significant challenge in this program was to develop instrumentation and quantitative test procedures, which did not exist, for friction, wear, film/substrate adhesion, elastic properties, stress, etc., of extremely thin films and nanolaminates. New scanning probe and nanoindentation techniques have been employed along with detailed mechanics-based models to evaluate these properties at small loads characteristic of microsystem operation. We emphasize deposition processes and fundamental properties of ALD materials, however we have also evaluated applications and film performance for model SMM and LIGA devices.

  5. CONCEPT: N-TYPE SILICON SOLAR CELLS WITH SURFACE-PASSIVATED SCREEN-PRINTED ALUMINUM-ALLOYED REAR EMITTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE ALU+ CONCEPT: N-TYPE SILICON SOLAR CELLS WITH SURFACE- PASSIVATED SCREEN-PRINTED ALUMINUM-ALLOYED ABSTRACT Aluminum-doped p-type (Al-p + ) silicon emitters fabricated by means of screen-printing and firing-Si) and atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as well as Al2O3/SiNx stacks, where the silicon

  6. Plasma enhanced atomic layer batch processing of aluminum doped titanium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehnert, Wolfgang; Ruhl, Guenther; Gschwandtner, Alexander [Infineon Technologies AG, Wernerwerkstrasse 2, Regensburg, 93049 (Germany); R3T GmbH, Hochstrasse 1, Taufkirchen, 82024 (Germany)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Among many promising high-k dielectrics, TiO{sub 2} is an interesting candidate because of its relatively high k value of over 40 and its easy integration into existing semiconductor manufacturing schemes. The most critical issues of TiO{sub 2} are its low electrical stability and its high leakage current density. However, doping TiO{sub 2} with Al has shown to yield significant improvement of layer quality on Ru electrodes [S. K. Kim et al., Adv. Mater. 20, 1429 (2008)]. In this work we investigated if atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al doped TiO{sub 2} is feasible in a batch system. Electrical characterizations were done using common electrode materials like TiN, TaN, or W. Additionally, the effect of plasma enhanced processing in this reactor was studied. For this investigation a production batch ALD furnace has been retrofitted with a plasma source which can be used for post deposition anneals with oxygen radicals as well as for directly plasma enhanced ALD. After evaluation of several Ti precursors a deposition process for AlTiO{sub x} with excellent film thickness and composition uniformity was developed. The effects of post deposition anneals, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interlayers between electrode and TiO{sub 2}, Al doping concentration, plasma enhanced deposition and electrode material type on leakage current density are shown. An optimized AlTiO{sub x} deposition process on TaN electrodes yields to leakage current density of 5 x 10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2} at 2 V and k values of about 35. Thus, it could be demonstrated that a plasma enhanced batch ALD process for Al doped TiO{sub 2} is feasible with acceptable leakage current density on a standard electrode material.

  7. Dispersion engineered high-Q silicon Nitride Ring-Resonators via Atomic Layer Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riemensberger, Johann; Herr, Tobias; Brasch, Victor; Holzwarth, Ronald; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate dispersion engineering of integrated silicon nitride based ring resonators through conformal coating with hafnium dioxide deposited on top of the structures via atomic layer deposition (ALD). Both, magnitude and bandwidth of anomalous dispersion can be significantly increased. All results are confirmed by high resolution frequency-comb-assisted-diode-laser spectroscopy and are in very good agreement with the simulated modification of the mode spectrum.

  8. Fabrication of AlN/BN bishell hollow nanofibers by electrospinning and atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haider, Ali; Kayaci, Fatma; Uyar, Tamer; Biyikli, Necmi, E-mail: biyikli@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Okyay, Ali Kemal [National Nanotechnology Research Center (UNAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aluminum nitride (AlN)/boron nitride (BN) bishell hollow nanofibers (HNFs) have been fabricated by successive atomic layer deposition (ALD) of AlN and sequential chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of BN on electrospun polymeric nanofibrous template. A four-step fabrication process was utilized: (i) fabrication of polymeric (nylon 6,6) nanofibers via electrospinning, (ii) hollow cathode plasma-assisted ALD of AlN at 100?C onto electrospun polymeric nanofibers, (iii) calcination at 500?C for 2 h in order to remove the polymeric template, and (iv) sequential CVD growth of BN at 450?C. AlN/BN HNFs have been characterized for their chemical composition, surface morphology, crystal structure, and internal nanostructure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and selected area electron diffraction. Measurements confirmed the presence of crystalline hexagonal BN and AlN within the three dimensional (3D) network of bishell HNFs with relatively low impurity content. In contrast to the smooth surface of the inner AlN layer, outer BN coating showed a highly rough 3D morphology in the form of BN nano-needle crystallites. It is shown that the combination of electrospinning and plasma-assisted low-temperature ALD/CVD can produce highly controlled multi-layered bishell nitride ceramic hollow nanostructures. While electrospinning enables easy fabrication of nanofibrous template, self-limiting reactions of plasma-assisted ALD and sequential CVD provide control over the wall thicknesses of AlN and BN layers with sub-nanometer accuracy.

  9. The World of Dark Shadows Issue 15

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Multiple Contributors

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    " he an.w.red br\\Uqua lI* ~han dOD't troUble,' .be an.pped back. "Thank the captain but t.ll h1a I'd rather .ta1 wbere I . -SUit ,oura.lt," be .ald, ahruss.d and turned to go. Wait, ple.... Betore ;you go, oould you get that book tor ? pel...

  10. Synthesis and Applications of Double-Gyroid-Structured Functional Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Maik

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 8.3.5 ALD of zinc oxide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 8.3.6 Dye-sensitized solar cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 8.4 Concluding remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185... film template has been demonstrated in dye-sensitized solar cells.[3] In contrast to this earlier example, a functional thin film device based on the double- gyroid morphology that out-performs existing technologies has yet to be demonstrated. 5...

  11. Synthesis of Pt?Pd Core?Shell Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition: Application in Propane Oxidative Dehydrogenation to Propylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Y.; Liu, Bin; Lu, Junling; Lobo-Lapidus, Rodrigo J.; Wu, Tianpin; Feng, Hao; Xia, Xiaoxing; Mane, Anil U.; Libera, Joseph A.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, J. W.

    2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed to synthesize supported Pt?Pd bimetallic particles in the 1 to 2 nm range. The metal loading and composition of the supported Pt?Pd nanoparticles were controlled by varying the deposition temperature and by applying ALD metal oxide coatings to modify the support surface chemistry. Highresolution scanning transmission electron microscopy images showed monodispersed Pt?Pd nanoparticles on ALD Al2O3 - and TiO2 -modi?ed SiO2 gel. X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed that the bimetallic nanoparticles have a stable Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. Density functional theory calculations revealed that the most stable surface con?guration for the Pt? Pd alloys in an H2 environment has a Pt-core, Pd-shell nanostructure. In comparison to their monometallic counterparts, the small Pt?Pd bimetallic core?shell nanoparticles exhibited higher activity in propane oxidative dehydrogenation as compared to their physical mixture.

  12. Bump formation in the runaway electron tail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Decker, J; Flp, T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Runaway electrons are generated in a magnetized plasma when the parallel electric field exceeds a critical value. For such electrons with energies typically reaching tens of MeV, the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac (ALD) radiation force, in reaction to the synchrotron emission, is significant and can be the dominant process limiting the electron acceleration. The effect of the ALD-force on runaway electron dynamics in a homogeneous plasma is investigated using the relativistic finite-difference Fokker-Planck codes LUKE [Decker & Peysson, Report EUR-CEA-FC-1736, Euratom-CEA, (2004)] and CODE [Landreman et al, Comp. Phys. Comm. 185, 847 (2014)]. Under the action of the ALD force, we find that a bump is formed in the tail of the electron distribution function if the electric field is sufficiently large. We also observe that the energy of runaway electrons in the bump increases with the electric field amplitude, while the population increases with the bulk electron temperature. The presence of the bump divides the elec...

  13. Atomic layer deposited lithium aluminum oxide: (In)dependency of film properties from pulsing sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miikkulainen, Ville, E-mail: ville.miikkulainen@helsinki.fi; Nilsen, Ola; Fjellvg, Helmer [Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology (SMN), Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1126 Blindern, NO-0318 Oslo (Norway); Li, Han; King, Sean W. [Intel Corporation, 5200 NE Elam Young Parkway, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, University of Jyvskyl, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyvskyl (Finland)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) holds markedly high potential of becoming the enabling method for achieving the three-dimensional all-solid-state thin-film lithium ion battery (LiB). One of the most crucial components in such a battery is the electrolyte that needs to hold both low electronic conductivity and at least fair lithium ion conductivity being at the same time pinhole free. To obtain these desired properties in an electrolyte film, one necessarily has to have a good control over the elemental composition of the deposited material. The present study reports on the properties of ALD lithium aluminum oxide (Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z}) thin films. In addition to LiB electrolyte applications, Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} is also a candidate low dielectric constant (low-k) etch stop and diffusion barrier material in nanoelectronics applications. The Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} films were deposited employing trimethylaluminum-O{sub 3} and lithium tert-butoxide-H{sub 2}O for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}O/LiOH, respectively. The composition was aimed to be controlled by varying the pulsing ratio of those two binary oxide ALD cycles. The films were characterized by several methods for composition, crystallinity and phase, electrical properties, hardness, porosity, and chemical environment. Regardless of the applied pulsing ratio of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}O/LiOH, all the studied ALD Li{sub x}Al{sub y}O{sub z} films of 200 and 400 nm in thickness were polycrystalline in the orthorhombic ?-LiAlO{sub 2} phase and also very similar to each other with respect to composition and other studied properties. The results are discussed in the context of both fundamental ALD chemistry and applicability of the films as thin-film LiB electrolytes and low-k etch stop and diffusion barriers.

  14. Energy Technology Division research summary 1997.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Technology Division provides materials and engineering technology support to a wide range of programs important to the US Department of Energy. As shown on the preceding page, the Division is organized into ten sections, five with concentrations in the materials area and five in engineering technology. Materials expertise includes fabrication, mechanical properties, corrosion, friction and lubrication, and irradiation effects. Our major engineering strengths are in heat and mass flow, sensors and instrumentation, nondestructive testing, transportation, and electromechanics and superconductivity applications. The Division Safety Coordinator, Environmental Compliance Officers, Quality Assurance Representative, Financial Administrator, and Communication Coordinator report directly to the Division Director. The Division Director is personally responsible for cultural diversity and is a member of the Laboratory-wide Cultural Diversity Advisory Committee. The Division's capabilities are generally applied to issues associated with energy production, transportation, utilization or conservation, or with environmental issues linked to energy. As shown in the organization chart on the next page, the Division reports administratively to the Associate Laboratory Director (ALD) for Energy and Environmental Science and Technology (EEST) through the General Manager for Environmental and Industrial Technologies. While most of our programs are under the purview of the EEST ALD, we also have had programs funded under every one of the ALDs. Some of our research in superconductivity is funded through the Physical Research Program ALD. We also continue to work on a number of nuclear-energy-related programs under the ALD for Engineering Research. Detailed descriptions of our programs on a section-by-section basis are provided in the remainder of this book. This Overview highlights some major trends. Research related to the operational safety of commercial light water nuclear reactors (LWRS) is funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In addition to our ongoing work on environmentally assisted cracking and steam generator integrity, a major new multiyear program has been initiated to assess the performance of high-burnup fuel during loss-of-coolant accidents. The bulk of the NRC research work is carried out in four ET sections: Corrosion: Mechanics of Materials; Irradiation Performance: and Sensors, Instrumentation, and Nondestructive Evaluation. The Transportation of Hazardous Materials Section is the other main contributor; staff from that Section have worked closely with NRC staff to draft a new version of the NRC Standard Review Plan that will be used to provide guidance to NRC reviewers of applications for the renewal of nuclear plant licenses.

  15. Outline for a course in oil production accounting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Eugene Marshall, Jr

    1948-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , 01Mqrrakl labor 180. 0g~traot labor 180, 03~cokfng and hauling 180, 04~eau out and suabldng 180, 0~all servic4ng 180. o&4as 11th exyense 180, 0V~ and aster 180~0~agylies 180. 0C?dLoyafrs~oaterL?ls 180 1CMLu~e ampere 180. 11~ting erode o..., 19~ndry ?yaipnsnt 2&hdchg and Spaniel Trust punds 2$ Trust funds anlmoatsd 26 Trust Tunds 5mrested 3~eralnpsd property nr leases 31~sing properties 310~re4ng royalties 3154erm iILvoatment intangible oosts (if oayitaliseg) 311qGb4eceebeM oost...

  16. The production of activated silica with carbon dioxide gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayes, William Bell

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ional to the per cent of carbon dioxi. de 1n the flue gas for a constant total gas flow rate. REFE REN CES l. Andrews, R. V, , Hanford Works Eocument (1952), 2. Andrews, R. V. & J. A. W. W. A, , ~46 82 (1954). 3. Andrews, R. V, , Personal Communication 4... of the reciuire . ents for the dedree of iliASTER OF SCIENCE Janus', 1956 Major Subject: Chemi. cal Engineering TH PRODUCTION OP ACTIVATED SILICA 7iIITH CARBON DIOXIDE GAS A Thesis William Bell Hayes III Approved as to style and content by: Chairmen...

  17. Effect of copper and iron on the oxidative flavor deterioration of ice cream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miah, Md. Abdul Hamid

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECT GF CCFPlB\\ AND IRCN ". N THE CXIDATIVE FLAVCR DCTCRICB . T" N ' F ICE CIGAR A Thesis Xd, Ahdul Hajsid Nish Submitted to the (hadvete School of the Agricultural and Vechanical Collage of Texas in partial fclfilIment of the requiresents... for the degree of "ASTER CP SCIENCE Jhnuary I~ Nc )or Sub)catt Dairy &~actures EFFECT GF COFFER ARD IRON CR Tlm OXIDATIVE FLAVOR DETKRI/Z'TJ ' CF ICE CRE//P A Thesis Pi? Pbdul Hasid 'Pish Approved as to style and content by: I /'i'I /' ' / , r...

  18. Computing dynamic height from temperature profiles north of 30N in the Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Anthony

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COMPUTING DYNAMIC HEIGHT FROM TEMPERATURE PROFILES NORTH OP 30"N IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN A Thesis by ANTHONY O' BRIEN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of 1f...ASTER OF SCIENCF. May 1978 Major Subject: Oceanography COMPUTING DYNA11IC HEIGHT FROM TE1IPERATURE PROFILES NORTH OF 30 N IN THE PACI1'IC OCEAN A thesis by ANTHONY O' BRIEN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Com ittee) (Head of Depar nt...

  19. Levels of job satisfaction and role perceptions held by extension agents of INTA'S Regional Parana in Argentina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaha, Francisco Jose

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LEVELS OF JOB SATISFACTION AND ROLE PERCEPTIONS BELD BY EXTENSION AGENTS OF INTA'S REGIONAL PARANA ZN ARGENTINA A Thesis FRANCISCO JOSE BLAHA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6N University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the decree of i%ASTER OF SCIENCE Nay 1983 Major Subject: Agricultural Educat'on LEVELS OF JOB SATISFACTION AND ROLE PERCEPTIONS HELD BY EXTENSION AGENTS OF INTAiS REGIONAL PARANA IN ARGENTINA A Thesis by FRANCISCO JOSE BLAHA Approved as to style...

  20. A mathematical model for the performance of the compressed-film, floating-deck, flat-plate solar-energy collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Ho-Kai

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of FiASTER OP SCIENCE August 197~ MaJor SubJect: Chemical Engineering A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPRESSED-FILM, FLOATING-DECK~ PLAT-PLATE SOLAR-ENERGY COLLECTOR A Thesis by HO-KAI CHAN Approved as to style... and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head o Department) (Member) (Member) August 1975 ABSTRACT A Mathematical Model for the Performance of the Compressed-Film, Floating-Deck, Flat-Plate Solar-Energy Co'lector (August 1975) Ho-Kai Chan, B. S...

  1. The Design and Dimensional Analysis of a Tesla Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Bobby Dean

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 12 square feet, 2024-T3 slclad aluminum alloy sheet. . 040 inch thick 10. 9 scluare feet. 5AE 30303 stainless steel sheet, . 025-inch thick 11. 2, ~KF, 6USOOS flange type self-aligning ball bearings The turbine case was formed by welding 1/4-inch...THE DESIGN AND DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS OF A TESLA TURBINE A Thesis By BOBBY DEAN RICHARDBON Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and mechanical College of Texas in psrtial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of ASTER...

  2. Effects of dietary phosphorus and high ambient temperature on egg shell quality in hens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Christopher Anthony

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF DIETARY PHOSPHORUS AND HIG11 AMB1ENT TEMPERATURE ON EGG SHELL QUALITY IN HENS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER ANTHONY BAI1EEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A@I University in Partial fuI. fillme ~t of the requirement... for the degree of F1ASTER OF SCIENCE May 19 79 Major Subject: Poultry Science EFFECTS OF DIETARY PHOSPHORUS AND HIGH AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON EGG SHELL QUALITY IN HENS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER ANTHONY BAILEY Approved as to style and content by; ( hairm...

  3. Hail formation as a mechanism of rapid ash aggregation in volcanic plumes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Eaton, Alexa R.; Mastin, Larry G.; Herzog, Michael; Schwaiger, Hans F.; Schneider, David J.; Wallace, Kristi L.; Clarke, Amanda B.

    2015-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    ,36, we compared the fall deposit resulting from 158! event 5 with and without an aggregated grain size distribution (see Methods). In 159! agreement with the mapped deposits, our results indicate that aggregation increased the 160! near-source ashfall... concentration. View is from the east. Topography is from the 30 m-resolution 573! digital elevation model (ASTER GDEM V2). 574! 10 8 6 4 2 0 -2 -4 0 20 40 1 4 16 63 250 1,000 4,000 16,000 (?)!! W ei gh t % Particle diameter (m) a c b 1,000 100 10...

  4. A mathematical model for the performance of the compressed-film, floating-deck, flat-plate solar-energy collector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Ho-Kai

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of FiASTER OP SCIENCE August 197~ MaJor SubJect: Chemical Engineering A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPRESSED-FILM, FLOATING-DECK~ PLAT-PLATE SOLAR-ENERGY COLLECTOR A Thesis by HO-KAI CHAN Approved as to style... and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head o Department) (Member) (Member) August 1975 ABSTRACT A Mathematical Model for the Performance of the Compressed-Film, Floating-Deck, Flat-Plate Solar-Energy Co'lector (August 1975) Ho-Kai Chan, B. S...

  5. Optimization of operating parameters for the Texas A&M Variable Energy Cyclotron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolters, Richard Arthur

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the degree of iViASTER OI" SCIENCE January I9G9 Major Subie& t: NUCLEAR ENGINEERING OPTIMIZATION OF PZBATIbi'C PARAMETERS I OR TF E TEXAS A@iVl VARIAI31 E ENEBCY CTC1. OTBON A Thesis by RICIIABD ART 'UB WOLTERS, J R. Approved as to slyle and cor tent... assistance throughout the course of this work; The AEC and the Cyclotron Institute I' or my assistantship so that I could continue my education in Nuclear Engineering; TAMVEC personnel for making the working atmosphere en- joyable; Dr, R, G. Cochran, Dr...

  6. Roll-to-roll atomic layer deposition process for flexible electronics encapsulation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maydannik, Philipp S., E-mail: philipp.maydannik@lut.fi; Kriinen, Tommi O.; Lahtinen, Kimmo; Cameron, David C. [Advanced Surface Technology Research Laboratory, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Sderlund, Mikko; Soininen, Pekka [Beneq Oy, P.O. Box 262, 01511 Vantaa (Finland); Johansson, Petri; Kuusipalo, Jurkka [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 589, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Moro, Lorenza; Zeng, Xianghui [Samsung Cheil Industries, San Jose R and D Center, 2186 Bering Drive, San Jose, California 95131 (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At present flexible electronic devices are under extensive development and, among them, flexible organic light-emitting diode displays are the closest to a large market deployment. One of the remaining unsolved challenges is high throughput production of impermeable flexible transparent barrier layers that protect sensitive light-emitting materials against ambient moisture. The present studies deal with the adaptation of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) process to high-throughput roll-to-roll production using the spatial ALD concept. We report the development of such a process for the deposition of 20?nm thickness Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} diffusion barrier layers on 500?mm wide polymer webs. The process uses trimethylaluminum and water as precursors at a substrate temperature of 105?C. The observation of self-limiting film growth behavior and uniformity of thickness confirms the ALD growth mechanism. Water vapor transmission rates for 20?nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates were measured as a function of substrate residence time, that is, time of exposure of the substrate to one precursor zone. Moisture permeation levels measured at 38?C/90% relative humidity by coulometric isostaticisobaric method were below the detection limit of the instrument (<5??10{sup ?4}?g/m{sup 2} day) for films coated at web moving speed of 0.25?m/min. Measurements using the Ca test indicated water vapor transmission rates ?5??10{sup ?6} g/m{sup 2} day. Optical measurements on the coated web showed minimum transmission of 80% in the visible range that is the same as the original PEN substrate.

  7. Atomic and molecular layer deposition for surface modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vh-Nissi, Mika, E-mail: mika.vaha-nissi@vtt.fi [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI?02044 VTT (Finland); Sievnen, Jenni; Salo, Erkki; Heikkil, Pirjo; Kentt, Eija [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI?02044 VTT (Finland); Johansson, Leena-Sisko, E-mail: leena-sisko.johansson@aalto.fi [Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Forest Products Technology, PO Box 16100, FI?00076 AALTO (Finland); Koskinen, Jorma T.; Harlin, Ali [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, PO Box 1000, FI?02044 VTT (Finland)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic and molecular layer deposition (ALD and MLD, respectively) techniques are based on repeated cycles of gassolid surface reactions. A partial monolayer of atoms or molecules is deposited to the surface during a single deposition cycle, enabling tailored film composition in principle down to molecular resolution on ideal surfaces. Typically ALD/MLD has been used for applications where uniform and pinhole free thin film is a necessity even on 3D surfaces. However, thin even non-uniform atomic and molecular deposited layers can also be used to tailor the surface characteristics of different non-ideal substrates. For example, print quality of inkjet printing on polymer films and penetration of water into porous nonwovens can be adjusted with low-temperature deposited metal oxide. In addition, adhesion of extrusion coated biopolymer to inorganic oxides can be improved with a hybrid layer based on lactic acid. - Graphical abstract: Print quality of a polylactide film surface modified with atomic layer deposition prior to inkjet printing (360 dpi) with an aqueous ink. Number of printed dots illustrated as a function of 0, 5, 15 and 25 deposition cycles of trimethylaluminum and water. - Highlights: ALD/MLD can be used to adjust surface characteristics of films and fiber materials. Hydrophobicity after few deposition cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to e.g. complex formation. Same effect on cellulosic fabrics observed with low temperature deposited TiO{sub 2}. Different film growth and oxidation potential with different precursors. Hybrid layer on inorganic layer can be used to improve adhesion of polymer melt.

  8. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ting; Du, Min [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ministry of Education Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Xing, Mingyou [Department of Infectious Diseases, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Liu, Liegang [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ministry of Education Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Yao, Ping, E-mail: yaoping@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ministry of Education Lab of Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan 430030 (China)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 ?mol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin. The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.

  9. High-reliability passivation of hydrogen-terminated diamond surface by atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daicho, Akira, E-mail: notevayas-tales@ruri.waseda.jp; Saito, Tatsuya; Kurihara, Shinichiro; Kawarada, Hiroshi, E-mail: kawarada@waseda.jp [School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Hiraiwa, Atsushi [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Waseda University, 513 Waseda-tsurumaki, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan)

    2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) of a hydrogen-terminated diamond surface provides a unique p-type conducting layer for high-performance transistors, the conductivity is highly sensitive to its environment. Therefore, the surface must be passivated to preserve the 2DHG, especially at high temperature. We passivated the surface at high temperature (450?C) without the loss of C-H surface bonds by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and investigated the thermal reliability of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film. As a result, C-H bonds were preserved, and the hole accumulation effect appeared after the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition by ALD with H{sub 2}O as an oxidant. The sheet resistivity and hole density were almost constant between room temperature and 500?C by the passivation with thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film thicker than 38?nm deposited by ALD at 450?C. After the annealing at 550?C in air The sheet resistivity and hole density were preserved. These results indicate the possibility of high-temperature application of the C-H surface diamond device in air. In the case of lower deposition temperatures, the sheet resistivity increased after air annealing, suggesting an insufficient protection capability of these films. Given the result of sheet resistivity after annealing, the increase in the sheet resistivity of these samples was not greatly significant. However, bubble like patterns were observed in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films formed from 200 to 400?C by air annealing at 550?C for 1 h. On the other hand, the patterns were no longer observed at 450?C deposition. Thus, this 450?C deposition is the sole solution to enabling power device application, which requires high reliability at high temperatures.

  10. CO-CATALYTIC ABSORPTION LAYERS FOR CONTROLLED LASER-INDUCED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michaelis, F.B.; Weatherup, R.S.; Bayer, B.C.; Bock, M.C.D; Sugime, H.; Caneva, S.; Robertson, J.; Baumberg, J.J.; Hofmann, S.

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    ,38 by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using a Cambridge Nanotech Savannah system and a 200C process with tri[methyl]aluminium and water both carried in a N2(20 sccm) flow for 200 cycles 39,40. Ta layers are sputter deposited (100W, 35sccm Ar, 3.510-3 mbar... it is optically compensated). Thermal CVD. CNT growth is also carried out in a custom-built cold-wall CVD chamber with a resistive graphite heater element. Samples are heated to ~670C and annealed for 5 min in a non-reducing (~10-3 mbar vacuum) or reducing...

  11. Accelerated deployment of nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts. Final CRADA Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Libera, J.A.; Snyder, S.W.; Mane, A.; Elam, J.W.; Cronauer, D.C.; Muntean, J.A.; Wu, T.; Miller, J.T. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); ( ES)

    2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanomanufacturing offers an opportunity to create domestic jobs and facilitate economic growth. In response to this need, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy issued a Research Call to develop nanomanufacturing capabilities at the National Laboratories. High performance catalysts represent a unique opportunity to deploy nanomanufacturing technologies. Re-refining of used lube oil offers an opportunity to create manufacturing jobs and decrease dependence on imported petroleum. Improved catalysts are required to produce a better quality product, decrease environmental impact, extend catalyst life, and improve overall economics of lube oil re-refining. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) in cooperation with Universal Lubricants, Inc. (ULI) and Chemical Engineering Partners (CEP) have carried out a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to prepare nanostructured hydrotreating catalysts using atomic layer deposition (ALD) to exhibit superior performance for the re-refining of used lube oil. We investigated the upgrading of recycled lube oil by hydrogenation using commercial, synthetically-modified commercial catalysts, and synthesized catalysts. A down-flow (trickle bed) catalytic unit was used for the hydrogenation experiments. In addition to carrying out elemental analyses of the various feed and product fractions, characterization was undertaken using H{sup 1} and C{sup 13} NMR. Initially commercial were evaluated. Second these commercial catalysts were promoted with precious metals using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Performance improvements were observed that declined with catalyst aging. An alternate approach was undertaken to deeply upgrade ULI product oils. Using a synthesized catalyst, much lower hydrogenation temperatures were required than commercial catalysts. Other performance improvements were also observed. The resulting lube oil fractions were of high purity even at low reaction severity. The products recovered from both the ALD and other processes were water-white (even those from the low temperature, low residence time (high space velocity), low conversion runs). These results indicate that highly upgraded recycle lube oils can be produced using ALD-deposited active metal catalysts. The use of H{sup 1} and C{sup 13} NMR for the characterization of the treated lube oils has been shown to be effective.

  12. Solvent extraction of inorganic acids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ysrael, Miguel Curie

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Page 10 27 NOi'!: KCL ITU8l: BIBLIOG. :l PI!Y ct:"P. '. t:OI:t 28 30 32 LIDT DF FIGUP, . " Al'!D T?DL. '. I F igure . olubility curve of wat-r and glycerol etl'er s I-'age 4 3 ~ '=quilibrium diagram for amyl alcohol- water-HC1... Correlation of eq;ilibrium da!. a of amyl alcohol-water-HC1 12 13 ~ ~ selectivity diagram for alcohol- 5 ~, '~electivity diagram for ethers G. Mole fr:ction di=tribution diagrav. . 7 ~ Activity coefficient of acids in water 0 ~ "ctivity coefficient...

  13. The influence of an instructional set on the ability to fake on the Kern Assertiveness Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karten, Stephen Jay

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    appraisal of strategies for assessing social skills. Behavioral Assessment, 1, 157 ? 176. Bellack, A. S. , Hersen, M. , & Lamparski, D. (1979a) Role-play tests for assessing social skills: Are they al'd. 6 e th 7 f l. 3o 1 f c~aolt( a d Cl'h' 1 ~PA 1... meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Philadelphia, PA. Lick, J. R. , & Vnger, T. E. (1975). External validity of laboratory fear assessment: Implications from two * f. d' *. J al f c~lc' d cl' 'cal P~s h 1 , 43, 646...

  14. A computerized student fee system for Texas A&M University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Lester Seth

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    accounts for each student who has a scholarshi. p or contract. The fee summary card is used by the fee update program for recording the payment of fees or for revising a student's fee statement. ~0 eratin~ Procedures (l) Verify all fee rates contained... at A&ld which includes procedures for the collection and recording of student fee data, the calculation of student fees and t' he preparation of fee statements, the updating of student fees and the revision of fee statements, the distribution of fees...

  15. FYI: July 3, 1985 - December 19, 1985

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    perience in a university environment, preferably at KU; ability to establish bibliographi cal identity of bpth foreign and English language materials; interest in or experience working with historical research materials. Library staff interested... proced{ tr ' e ~ ~ wert? discussed, inclucinu the possibility of chi~rqing th e ~H.'::' E r rpv i e vJ cDflliTlitt.ee with writi' "lq procedures to be recornnlended. It was agreed that tt,e ballot st,otAld tJe issued in tt,e version agreed upon...

  16. Gradient limits and SCRF performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norem, J.; Pellin, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconducting rf gradients are limited by a number of mechanisms, among them are field emission, multipactor, Lorentz detuning, global and local heating, quench fields, Q-Slope, assembly defects, and overall power use. We describe how each of these mechanisms interacts with the cavity fields and show how significant improvements may be possible assuming improvements in control over the cavity surface. New techniques such as Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), the use of layered composites, Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) smoothing and Dry Ice Cleaning (DIC) have been proposed as ways to control the surface.

  17. Methods for simultaneous control of lignin content and composition, and cellulose content in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Vincent Lee C.; Li, Laigeng

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a method of concurrently introducing multiple genes into plants and trees is provided. The method includes simultaneous transformation of plants with multiple genes from the phenylpropanoid pathways including 4CL, CAld5H, AldOMT, SAD and CAD genes and combinations thereof to produce various lines of transgenic plants displaying altered agronomic traits. The agronomic traits of the plants are regulated by the orientation of the specific genes and the selected gene combinations, which are incorporated into the plant genome.

  18. Dark Matters Issue 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @, clocd? I knoB a4n @v Pr* dEcG Th'r eds aslb,n drp Fisc Dncrirc my der I will l.ave K'ald alonc THlt TIMEI AND you c$ ontv guN whe? els! i hidt l Dis&s Tl* Dvs Lrlnlg K'M. ltw fining I id.npr 1h. I.r![ig"lc n lmk ds6i bricfne Wu lolc vd 10. Klmad hav' o...

  19. Biexciton emission from single isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen pairs in GaAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takamiya, Kengo; Fukushima, Toshiyuki; Yagi, Shuhei; Hijikata, Yasuto; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku , Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Onabe, Kentaro [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Katayama, Ryuji [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied photoluminescence (PL) from individual isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) pairs in GaAs. Sharp emission lines due to exciton and biexciton were observed from individual isoelectronic traps in nitrogen atomic-layer doped (ALD) GaAs. The binding energy of biexciton bound to individual isoelectronic traps was approximately 8 meV. Both the exciton and biexciton luminescence lines show completely random polarization and no fine-structure splitting. These results are desirable to the application to the quantum cryptography used in the field of quantum information technology.

  20. ALDACOR INC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergySulfonate asAEEOpenOpenALD Vacuum

  1. ALDACOR | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergySulfonate asAEEOpenOpenALD VacuumALDACOR Jump to:

  2. ALLETE Inc., d/b/a Minnesota Power Smart Grid Project | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergySulfonate asAEEOpenOpenALD VacuumALDACOR Jump

  3. ALLETE, Inc. (Minnesota) EIA Revenue and Sales - April 2008 | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergySulfonate asAEEOpenOpenALD VacuumALDACOR

  4. ALLETE, Inc. (Minnesota) EIA Revenue and Sales - August 2008 | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTriWildcat 1 WindtheEnergySulfonate asAEEOpenOpenALD

  5. Pipeline corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Norris Brook Crossing Peabody, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted August 17--19, 1992, at the Norris Brook crossing in the town of Peabody, Essex County, Massachusetts. The pipeline at this site was installed during September and October 1990. A backhoe was used to install the pipeline. The pipe was assembled on the adjacent upland and slid into the trench, after which the backhoe was used again to fill the trench and cover the pipeline. Within two years after pipeline construction, a dense vegetative community, composed predominantly of native perennial species, had become established on the ROW. Compared with adjacent natural areas undisturbed by pipeline installation, there was an increase in purple loosestrife and cattail within the ROW, while large woody species were excluded from the ROW. As a result of the ROW`s presence, habitat diversity, edge-type habitat, and species diversity increased within the site. Crooked-stem aster, Aster prenanthoides (a species on the Massasschusetts list of plants of special concern), occurred in low numbers in the adjacent natural areas and had reinvaded the ROW in low numbers.

  6. Second Harmonic Generation Studies of Fe(II) Interactions with Hematite (?-Fe2O3)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, David S.; Hull, Christopher J.; Troiano, Julianne M.; Riha, Shannon C.; Martinson, Alex B.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron oxides are a ubiquitous class of compounds that are involved in many biological, geological, and technological processes, and the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple is a fundamental transformation pathway; however, the study of iron oxide surfaces in aqueous solution by powerful spectroscopic techniques has been limited due to "strong absorber problem". In this work, atomic layer deposition (ALD) thin films of polycrystalline alpha-Fe2O3 were analyzed using the Eisenthal chi((3)) technique, a variant of second harmonic generation that reports on interfacial potentials. By determining the surface charge densities at multiple pH values, the point of zero charge was found to be 5.5 +/- 0.3. The interaction of aqueous Fe(II) at pH 4 and in 1 mM NaCl with ALD-prepared hematite was found to be fully reversible and to lead to about 4 times more ferrous iron ions adsorbed per square centimeter than on fused-silica surfaces under the same conditions. The data are consistent with a recently proposed conceptual model for net Fe(II) uptake or release that is underlain by a dynamic equilibrium between Fe(II) adsorbed onto hematite, electron transfer into favorable surface sites with attendant Fe(III) deposition, and electron conduction to favorable remote sites that release and replenish aqueous Fe(II).

  7. Positron annihilation studies of the AlO{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}/Si interface in solar cell structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwardson, C. J.; Coleman, P. G. [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Li, T.-T. A.; Cuevas, A. [College of Engineering and Computer Science, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Ruffell, S. [Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Film and film/substrate interface characteristics of 30 and 60 nm-thick AlO{sub x} films grown on Si substrates by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD), and 30 nm-thick AlO{sub x} films by sputtering, have been probed using variable-energy positron annihilation spectroscopy (VEPAS) and Doppler-broadened spectra ratio curves. All samples were found to have an interface which traps positrons, with annealing increasing this trapping response, regardless of growth method. Thermal ALD creates an AlO{sub x}/SiO{sub x}/Si interface with positron trapping and annihilation occurring in the Si side of the SiO{sub x}/Si boundary. An induced positive charge in the Si next to the interface reduces diffusion into the oxides and increases annihilation in the Si. In this region there is a divacancy-type response (20 {+-} 2%) before annealing which is increased to 47 {+-} 2% after annealing. Sputtering seems to not produce samples with this same electrostatic shielding; instead, positron trapping occurs directly in the SiO{sub x} interface in the as-deposited sample, and the positron response to it increases after annealing as an SiO{sub 2} layer is formed. Annealing the film has the effect of lowering the film oxygen response in all film types. Compared to other structural characterization techniques, VEPAS shows larger sensitivity to differences in film preparation method and between as-deposited and annealed samples.

  8. Low sheet resistance titanium nitride films by low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition using design of experiments methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, Micheal, E-mail: micheal.burke@tyndall.ie; Blake, Alan; Povey, Ian M.; Schmidt, Michael; Petkov, Nikolay; Carolan, Patrick; Quinn, Aidan J., E-mail: aidan.quinn@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A design of experiments methodology was used to optimize the sheet resistance of titanium nitride (TiN) films produced by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) using a tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor in a N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} plasma at low temperature (250?C). At fixed chamber pressure (300 mTorr) and plasma power (300?W), the plasma duration and N{sub 2} flow rate were the most significant factors. The lowest sheet resistance values (163??/sq. for a 20?nm TiN film) were obtained using plasma durations ?40?s, N{sub 2} flow rates >60 standard cubic centimeters per minute, and purge times ?60?s. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy data revealed reduced levels of carbon contaminants in the TiN films with lowest sheet resistance (163??/sq.), compared to films with higher sheet resistance (400600??/sq.) while transmission electron microscopy data showed a higher density of nanocrystallites in the low-resistance films. Further significant reductions in sheet resistance, from 163??/sq. to 70??/sq. for a 20?nm TiN film (corresponding resistivity ?145 ??cm), were achieved by addition of a postcycle Ar/N{sub 2} plasma step in the PE-ALD process.

  9. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GeO{sub x} gate stack on germanium substrate fabricated by in situ cycling ozone oxidation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xu; Zeng, Zhen-Hua [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Microwave Device and IC Department, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Sheng-Kai, E-mail: wangshengkai@ime.ac.cn, E-mail: xzhang62@aliyun.com, E-mail: liuhonggang@ime.ac.cn; Sun, Bing; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Hu-Dong; Liu, Honggang, E-mail: wangshengkai@ime.ac.cn, E-mail: xzhang62@aliyun.com, E-mail: liuhonggang@ime.ac.cn [Microwave Device and IC Department, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang, Xiong, E-mail: wangshengkai@ime.ac.cn, E-mail: xzhang62@aliyun.com, E-mail: liuhonggang@ime.ac.cn [Advanced Photonics Center, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GeO{sub x}/Ge gate stack fabricated by an in situ cycling ozone oxidation (COO) method in the atomic layer deposition (ALD) system at low temperature is systematically investigated. Excellent electrical characteristics such as minimum interface trap density as low as 1.9??10{sup 11?}cm{sup ?2?}eV{sup ?1} have been obtained by COO treatment. The impact of COO treatment against the band alignment of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with respect to Ge is studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Based on both XPS and SE studies, the origin of gate leakage in the ALD-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is attributed to the sub-gap states, which may be correlated to the OH-related groups in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} network. It is demonstrated that the COO method is effective in repairing the OH-related defects in high-k dielectrics as well as forming superior high-k/Ge interface for high performance Ge MOS devices.

  10. C-H surface diamond field effect transistors for high temperature (400?C) and high voltage (500?V) operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawarada, H., E-mail: kawarada@waseda.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Institute of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kagami Memorial Laboratory for Material Science and Technology, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan); Tsuboi, H.; Naruo, T.; Yamada, T.; Xu, D.; Daicho, A.; Saito, T. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Hiraiwa, A. [Institute of Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    By forming a highly stable Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide on a C-H bonded channel of diamond, high-temperature, and high-voltage metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) has been realized. From room temperature to 400?C (673?K), the variation of maximum drain-current is within 30% at a given gate bias. The maximum breakdown voltage (V{sub B}) of the MOSFET without a field plate is 600?V at a gate-drain distance (L{sub GD}) of 7 ?m. We fabricated some MOSFETs for which V{sub B}/L{sub GD}?>?100?V/?m. These values are comparable to those of lateral SiC or GaN FETs. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited on the C-H surface by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 450?C using H{sub 2}O as an oxidant. The ALD at relatively high temperature results in stable p-type conduction and FET operation at 400?C in vacuum. The drain current density and transconductance normalized by the gate width are almost constant from room temperature to 400?C in vacuum and are about 10 times higher than those of boron-doped diamond FETs.

  11. High aspect ratio iridescent three-dimensional metalinsulatormetal capacitors using atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, Micheal, E-mail: micheal.burke@tyndall.ie; Blake, Alan; Djara, Vladimir; O'Connell, Dan; Povey, Ian M.; Cherkaoui, Karim; Monaghan, Scott; Scully, Jim; Murphy, Richard; Hurley, Paul K.; Pemble, Martyn E.; Quinn, Aidan J., E-mail: aidan.quinn@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report on the structural and electrical properties of TiN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiN metalinsulatormetal (MIM) capacitor structures in submicron three-dimensional (3D) trench geometries with an aspect ratio of ?30. A simplified process route was employed where the three layers for the MIM stack were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a single run at a process temperature of 250?C. The TiN top and bottom electrodes were deposited via plasma-enhanced ALD using a tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor. 3D trench devices yielded capacitance densities of 36 fF/?m{sup 2} and quality factors >65 at low frequency (200?Hz), with low leakage current densities (<3 nA/cm{sup 2} at 1 V). These devices also show strong optical iridescence which, when combined with the covert embedded capacitance, show potential for system in package (SiP) anticounterfeiting applications.

  12. Electrical behavior of atomic layer deposited high quality SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradhan, Sangram K.; Tanyi, Ekembu K.; Skuza, Jonathan R.; Xiao, Bo; Pradhan, Aswini K., E-mail: apradhan@nsu.edu [Center for Materials Research, Norfolk State University, 700 Park Ave., Norfolk, Virginia 23504 (United States)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comprehensive and systematic electrical studies were performed on fabrication of high quality SiO{sub 2} thin films MOS capacitor using the robust, novel, and simple atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique using highly reactive ozone and tris (dimethylamino) silane (TDMAS) precursors. Ideal capacitancevoltage curve exhibits a very small frequency dispersion and hysteresis behavior of the SiO{sub 2} MOS capacitor grown at 1?s TDMAS pulse, suggesting excellent interfacial quality and purity of the film as probed using x-ray photoelectron studies. The flat-band voltage of the device shifted from negative toward positive voltage axis with increase of TDMAS pulses from 0.2 to 2 s. Based on an equivalent oxide thickness point of view, all SiO{sub 2} films have gate leakage current density of (5.18??10{sup ?8} A/cm{sup 2}) as well as high dielectric break down fields of more than (?10 MV/cm), which is better and comparable to that of thermally grown SiO{sub 2} at temperatures above 800?C. These appealing electrical properties of ALD grown SiO{sub 2} thin films enable its potential applications such as high-quality gate insulators for thin film MOS transistors, as well as insulators for sensor and nanostructures on nonsilicon substrates.

  13. Catalytic nanoporous membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pellin, Michael J; Hryn, John N; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A nanoporous catalytic membrane which displays several unique features Including pores which can go through the entire thickness of the membrane. The membrane has a higher catalytic and product selectivity than conventional catalysts. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes serve as the catalyst substrate. This substrate is then subjected to Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), which allows the controlled narrowing of the pores from 40 nm to 10 nm in the substrate by deposition of a preparatory material. Subsequent deposition of a catalytic layer on the inner surfaces of the pores reduces pore sizes to less than 10 nm and allows for a higher degree of reaction selectivity. The small pore sizes allow control over which molecules enter the pores, and the flow-through feature can allow for partial oxidation of reactant species as opposed to complete oxidation. A nanoporous separation membrane, produced by ALD is also provided for use in gaseous and liquid separations. The membrane has a high flow rate of material with 100% selectivity. Also provided is a method for producing a catalytic membrane having flow-through pores and discreet catalytic clusters adhering to the inside surfaces of the pores.

  14. Fluidized-bed atomic layer deposition reactor for the synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Didden, Arjen P.; Middelkoop, Joost; Krol, Roel van de, E-mail: roel.vandekrol@helmholtzberlin.de [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department of Chemical Engineering, P.O. Box 5045, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Besling, Wim F. A. [NXP Semiconductors, High Tech Campus 32, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)] [NXP Semiconductors, High Tech Campus 32, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Nanu, Diana E. [Thin Film Factory B.V., Hemma Oddastrjitte 5, 8927 AA Leeuwarden (Netherlands)] [Thin Film Factory B.V., Hemma Oddastrjitte 5, 8927 AA Leeuwarden (Netherlands)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of a fluidized bed atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor is described in detail. The reactor consists of three parts that have all been placed in one protective cabinet: precursor dosing, reactor, and residual gas treatment section. In the precursor dosing section, the chemicals needed for the ALD reaction are injected into the carrier gas using different methods for different precursors. The reactor section is designed in such a way that a homogeneous fluidized bed can be obtained with a constant, actively controlled, reactor pressure. Furthermore, no filters are required inside the reactor chamber, minimizing the risk of pressure increase due to fouling. The residual gas treatment section consists of a decomposition furnace to remove residual precursor and a particle filter and is installed to protect the pump. In order to demonstrate the performance of the reactor, SiO{sub 2} particles have been coated with TiO{sub 2} using tetrakis-dimethylamino titanium (TDMAT) and H{sub 2}O as precursors. Experiments with varying pulse times show that saturated growth can be obtained with TDMAT pulse times larger than 600 s. Analysis of the powder with High-Angle Annular Dark-Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed that after 50 cycles, all SiO{sub 2} particles were coated with a 1.6 nm homogenous shell of TiO{sub 2}.

  15. Atom probe tomography studies of Al?O? gate dielectrics on GaN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazumder, Baishakhi, E-mail: bmazumder@engineering.ucsb.edu; Wu, Feng; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Liu, Xiang; Yeluri, Ramya; Mishra, Umesh K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Atom probe tomography was used to achieve three-dimensional characterization of in situ Al?O?/GaN structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Al?O? dielectrics grown at three different temperatures of 700, 900, and 1000 C were analyzed and compared. A low temperature GaN cap layer grown atop Al?O? enabled a high success rate in the atom probe experiments. The Al?O?/GaN interfaces were found to be intermixed with Ga, N, and O over the distance of a few nm. Impurity measurements data showed that the 1000 C sample contains higher amounts of C (4 10?/cm) and lower amounts of H (7 10?/cm), whereas the 700 C sample exhibits lower C impurities (<10?/cm) and higher H incorporation (2.2 10?/cm). On comparing with Al?O? grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), it was found that the MOCVD Al?O?/GaN interface is comparatively abrupt. Scanning transmission electron microscopy data showed that the 900 C and 1000 C MOCVD films exhibit polycrystalline nature, while the ALD films were found to be amorphous.

  16. Interfacial chemistry and valence band offset between GaN and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, T. L.; Ang, D. S. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)] [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Pan, J. S. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)] [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore)

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The interface region between Ga-face n-type GaN and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric (achieved via atomic-layer deposition or ALD) is investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An increase in the Ga-O to Ga-N bond intensity ratio following Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposition implies that the growth of an interfacial gallium sub-oxide (GaO{sub x}) layer occurred during the ALD process. This finding may be ascribed to GaN oxidation, which may still happen following the reduction of a thin native GaO{sub x} by trimethylaluminum (TMA) in the initial TMA-only cycles. The valence band offset between GaN and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, obtained using both core-level and valence band spectra, is found to vary with the thickness of the deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This observation may be explained by an upward energy band bending at the GaN surface (due to the spontaneous polarization induced negative bound charge on the Ga-face GaN) and the intrinsic limitation of the XPS method for band offset determination.

  17. Preparation of gallium nitride surfaces for atomic layer deposition of aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, A. J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Chagarov, E.; Kaufman-Osborn, T.; Kummel, A. C., E-mail: akummel@ucsd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Gu, S.; Wu, J.; Asbeck, P. M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Madisetti, S.; Oktyabrsky, S. [Department of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at AlbanyState University of New York, Albany, New York 12222 (United States)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined wet and dry cleaning process for GaN(0001) has been investigated with XPS and DFT-MD modeling to determine the molecular-level mechanisms for cleaning and the subsequent nucleation of gate oxide atomic layer deposition (ALD). In situ XPS studies show that for the wet sulfur treatment on GaN(0001), sulfur desorbs at room temperature in vacuum prior to gate oxide deposition. Angle resolved depth profiling XPS post-ALD deposition shows that the a-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide bonds directly to the GaN substrate leaving both the gallium surface atoms and the oxide interfacial atoms with XPS chemical shifts consistent with bulk-like charge. These results are in agreement with DFT calculations that predict the oxide/GaN(0001) interface will have bulk-like charges and a low density of band gap states. This passivation is consistent with the oxide restoring the surface gallium atoms to tetrahedral bonding by eliminating the gallium empty dangling bonds on bulk terminated GaN(0001)

  18. Laser damage properties of TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Yaowei; Liu Hao; Sheng Ouyang; Liu Zhichao; Chen Songlin; Yang Liming

    2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Research on thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for laser damage resistance is rare. In this paper, it has been used to deposit TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films at 110 deg. C and 280 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates. Microstructure of the thin films was investigated by x-ray diffraction. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of samples was measured by a damage test system. Damage morphology was studied under a Nomarski differential interference contrast microscope and further checked under an atomic force microscope. Multilayers deposited at different temperatures were compared. The results show that the films deposited by ALD had better uniformity and transmission; in this paper, the uniformity is better than 99% over 100 mm {Phi} samples, and the transmission is more than 99.8% at 1064 nm. Deposition temperature affects the deposition rate and the thin film microstructure and further influences the LIDT of the thin films. As to the TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, the LIDTs were 6.73{+-}0.47 J/cm{sup 2} and 6.5{+-}0.46 J/cm{sup 2} at 110 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates, respectively. The LIDTs at 110 deg. C are notably better than 280 deg. C.

  19. Refractory two-dimensional hole gas on hydrogenated diamond surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiraiwa, Atsushi [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Waseda University, 513 Waseda-tsurumaki, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Daicho, Akira; Kurihara, Shinichiro; Yokoyama, Yuki; Kawarada, Hiroshi [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG), induced on a hydrogenated diamond surface, is a solution to overcoming one of demerits of diamond, i.e., deep energy levels of impurities. This 2DHG is affected by its environment and accordingly needs a passivation film to get a stable device operation especially at high temperature. In response to this requirement, we achieved the high-reliability passivation forming an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film on the diamond surface using an atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) method with an H{sub 2}O oxidant at 450 Degree-Sign C. The 2DHG thus protected survived air annealing at 550 Degree-Sign C for an hour, establishing a stable high-temperature operation of 2DHG devices in air. In part, this achievement is based on high stability of C-H bonds up to 870 Degree-Sign C in vacuum and above 450 Degree-Sign C in an H{sub 2}O-containing environment as in the ALD. Chemically, this stability is supported by the fact that both the thermal decomposition of C-H bonds and reaction between C-H bonds and H{sub 2}O are endothermic processes. It makes a stark contrast to the instability of Si-H bonds, which decompose even at room temperature being exposed to atomic hydrogen. In this respect, the diamond 2DHG devices are also promising as power devices expectedly being free from many instability phenomena, such as hot carrier effect and negative-bias temperature instability, associated with Si devices. As to adsorbate, which is the other prerequisite for 2DHG, it desorbed in vacuum below 250 Degree-Sign C, and accordingly some new adsorbates should have adsorbed during the ALD at 450 Degree-Sign C. As a clue to this question, we certainly confirmed that some adsorbates, other than those at room temperature, adsorbed in air above 100 Degree-Sign C and remained at least up to 290 Degree-Sign C. The identification of these adsorbates is open for further investigation.

  20. High Rate and High Capacity Li-Ion Electrodes for Vehicular Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant advances in both energy density and rate capability for Li-ion batteries are necessary for implementation in electric vehicles. We have employed two different methods to improve the rate capability of high capacity electrodes. For example, we previously demonstrated that thin film high volume expansion MoO{sub 3} nanoparticle electrodes ({approx}2 {micro}m thick) have a stable capacity of {approx}630 mAh/g, at C/2 (charge/dicharge in 2 hours). By fabricating thicker conventional electrodes, an improved reversible capacity of {approx}1000 mAh/g is achieved, but the rate capability decreases. To achieve high-rate capability, we applied a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition coating to enable the high volume expansion and prevent mechanical degradation. Also, we recently reported that a thin ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating can enable natural graphite (NG) electrodes to exhibit remarkably durable cycling at 50 C. Additionally, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD films with a thickness of 2 to 4 {angstrom} have been shown to allow LiCoO{sub 2} to exhibit 89% capacity retention after 120 charge-discharge cycles performed up to 4.5 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Capacity fade at this high voltage is generally caused by oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte or cobalt dissolution. We have recently fabricated full cells of NG and LiCoO{sub 2} and coated both electrodes, one or the other electrode as well as neither electrode. In creating these full cells, we observed some surprising results that lead us to obtain a greater understanding of the ALD coatings. In a different approach we have employed carbon single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs) to synthesize binder-free, high-rate capability electrodes, with 95 wt.% active materials. In one case, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods are employed as the active storage anode material. Recently, we have also employed this method to demonstrate improved conductivity and highly improved rate capability for a LiNi{sub 0.4}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.2}O{sub 2} cathode material. Raman spectroscopy was employed to understand how the SWNTs function as a highly flexible conductive additive.

  1. Defects in nematic membranes can buckle into pseudospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John R. Frank; Mehran Kardar

    2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A nematic membrane is a sheet with embedded orientational order, which can occur in biological cells, liquid crystal films, manufactured materials, and other soft matter systems. By formulating the free energy of nematic films using tensor contractions from differential geometry, we elucidate the elastic terms allowed by symmetry, and indicate differences from hexatic membranes. We find that topological defects in the orientation field can cause the membrane to buckle over a size set by the competition between surface tension and in-plane elasticity. In the absence of bending rigidity the resulting shape is universal, known as a parabolic pseudosphere or a revolved tractrix. Bending costs oppose such buckling and modify the shape in a predictable manner. In particular, the anisotropic rigidities of nematic membranes lead to different shapes for aster and vortex defects, in principle enabling measurement of couplings specific to nematic membranes.

  2. Analysis of Glacier Recession in the Cordillera Apolobamba, Bolivia 1975-2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Latterman, LaDonna

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) and high resolution satellites such as Ikonos and QuickBird. These give researchers the opportunity to obtain a more large-scale and detailed analysis of changes taking place...?37'- 15?04' 68?58'- 69?14' 219.804 37.2 652 36 6,059 4,311 Chaupi Orko 14?40' 69?10' 129.357 21.9 346 19 6,059 4,365 Cololo 14?50' 69?06' 43.072 7.3 135 7.5 5,774 4,311 Ulla Khaya 15?00' 69?03' 47.375 8 171 9.5 5,669 4,390 Corillera De Munecas 15...

  3. Thermal Shock Effects Modeling On A Globe Valve Body-Bonnet Bolted Flange Joint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu, Jean-Philippe; Ferrari, Jerome; Hersant, David

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper attends to show efforts made at EDF R&D to improve comprehension of valve parts loadings during operation. Thermal shock in a globe valve is represented and modeled using EDF R&D Finite Element Analysis code (Code_Aster). Choices of modeling are discussed and balanced on the basis of "what an engineer can obtain without becoming a researcher". First simulation results are presented. Attention is focused on the evolution of Body-Bonnet Bolted Flange Joint (BBBFJ) tightening forces which are simulated during the thermal shock. An experimental setup is also presented for the studied valve, which implies thermocouple implementation for comparison of the simulated thermal field and strain measurement on each threaded rod to validate the mechanical modeling.

  4. Soil damping constants related to common soil properties in sands and clays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Gary Clive

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOIL D'c~. 'I'IIIG COESTAlxI. S PI', IslTED TO CO!~i'iOI& SOII. PRO& ERTIES J3I SAE1)S AND CL?"S A Thesis by Gary Olive G'boon Sr b':I' te'I to tho Gra=lu. . te Col lope of Texas Afxl Univcrsi ty in pert'al fulfillsent of the requirenent... for the Je;, ree of YiASTER Ol" SCIEI!CE August ISSS II. ';or Subject: Civil I:nSin er. nb SOIL DAMPING CONSTANTS REIATED TO COMMON SOIL PROPERTIES IN SANDS AND CLAYS A Thesis by Gary Clive Gibson Approved as to style and content by: (Head...

  5. Geothermal Target Areas in Colorado as Identified by Remote Sensing Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Target Areas Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as targets of potential geothermal activity. The Criteria used to identify the target areas include: hot/warm surface exposures modeled from ASTER/Landsat satellite imagery and geological characteristics, alteration mineral commonly associated with hot springs (clays, Si, and FeOx) modeled from ASTER and Landsat data, Coloradodo Geological Survey (CGS) known thermal hot springs/wells and heat-flow data points, Colorado deep-seated fault zones, weakened basement identified from isostatic gravity data, and Colorado sedimentary and topographic characteristics Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4546251.530446 m Left: 151398.567298 m Right: 502919.587395 m Bottom: 4095100.068903 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  6. Epitaxial Growth of GaN-based LEDs on Simple Sacrificial Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian Ferguson; Chris Summers

    2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to produce alternative substrate technologies for GaN-based LEDs by developing an ALD interlayer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on sacrificial substrates such as ZnO and Si. A sacrificial substrate is used for device growth that can easily be removed using a wet chemical etchant leaving only the thin GaN epi-layer. After substrate removal, the GaN LED chip can then be mounted in several different ways to a metal heat sink/reflector and light extraction techniques can then be applied to the chip and compared for performance. Success in this work will lead to high efficiency LED devices with a simple low cost fabrication method and high product yield as stated by DOE goals for its solid state lighting portfolio.

  7. Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry : atomic layer deposition of active catalytic metals. Activity report : January 1, 2005 - September 30, 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cronauer, D. C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry - specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it is desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. The broad goal is to produce diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. Originally the goal was to prepare shape-selective catalysts that would limit the formation of long-chain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage.' Such catalysts were prepared with silica-containing fractal cages. The activity was essentially the same as that of catalysts without the cages. We are currently awaiting follow-up experiments to determine the attrition strength of these catalysts. A second experimental stage was undertaken to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes and particulate supports. The concept was that of depositing active metals (i.e. ruthenium, iron or cobalt) upon membranes with well defined flow channels of small diameter and length such that the catalytic activity and product molecular weight distribution could be controlled. In order to rapidly evaluate the catalytic membranes, the ALD coating processes were performed in an 'exploratory mode' in which ALD procedures from the literature appropriate for coating flat surfaces were applied to the high surface area membranes. Consequently, the Fe and Ru loadings in the membranes were likely to be smaller than those expected for complete monolayer coverage. In addition, there was likely to be significant variation in the Fe and Ru loading among the membranes due to difficulties in nucleating these materials on the aluminum oxide surfaces. The first series of experiments using coated membranes demonstrated that the technology needed further improvement. Specifically, observed catalytic FT activity was low. This low activity appeared to be due to: (1) low available surface area, (2) atomic deposition techniques that needed improvements, and (3) insufficient preconditioning of the catalyst surface prior to FT testing. Therefore, experimentation was expanded to the use of particulate silica supports having defined channels and reasonably high surface area. This later experimentation will be discussed in the next progress report. Subsequently, we plan to evaluate membranes after the ALD techniques are improved with a careful study to control and quantify the Fe and Ru loadings. The preconditioning of these surfaces will also be further developed. (A number of improvements have been made with particulate supports; they will be discussed in the subsequent report.) In support of the above, there was an opportunity to undertake a short study of cobalt/promoter/support interaction using the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne. Five catalysts and a reference cobalt oxide were characterized during a temperature programmed EXAFS/XANES experimental study with the combined effort of Argonne and the Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) of the University of Kentucky. This project was completed, and it resulted in an extensive understanding of the preconditioning step of reducing Co-containing FT catalysts. A copy of the resulting manuscript has been submitted and accepted for publication. A similar project was undertaken with iron-containing FT catalysts; the data is currently being studied.

  8. Plasmonic materials based on ZnO films and their potential for developing broadband middle-infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesim, Yunus E., E-mail: yunus.kesim@bilkent.edu.tr; Battal, Enes [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 (Turkey); UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 (Turkey); Okyay, Ali K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 (Turkey); UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara, 06800 (Turkey)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Noble metals such as gold and silver have been extensively used for plasmonic applications due to their ability to support plasmons, yet they suffer from high intrinsic losses. Alternative plasmonic materials that offer low loss and tunability are desired for a new generation of efficient and agile devices. In this paper, atomic layer deposition (ALD) grown ZnO is investigated as a candidate material for plasmonic applications. Optical constants of ZnO are investigated along with figures of merit pertaining to plasmonic waveguides. We show that ZnO can alleviate the trade-off between propagation length and mode confinement width owing to tunable dielectric properties. In order to demonstrate plasmonic resonances, we simulate a grating structure and computationally demonstrate an ultra-wide-band (415 ?m) infrared absorber.

  9. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Nayfeh, Ammar [Institute Center for Microsystems iMicro, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)] [Institute Center for Microsystems iMicro, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Okyay, Ali K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey) [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO{sub 2} layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V V{sub t} shift, the memory with CrO{sub 2} layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO{sub 2} layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  10. Nanostructure templating using low temperature atomic layer deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubbs, Robert K. (Albuquerque, NM); Bogart, Gregory R. (Corrales, NM); Rogers, John A. (Champaign, IL)

    2011-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are described for making nanostructures that are mechanically, chemically and thermally stable at desired elevated temperatures, from nanostructure templates having a stability temperature that is less than the desired elevated temperature. The methods comprise depositing by atomic layer deposition (ALD) structural layers that are stable at the desired elevated temperatures, onto a template employing a graded temperature deposition scheme. At least one structural layer is deposited at an initial temperature that is less than or equal to the stability temperature of the template, and subsequent depositions made at incrementally increased deposition temperatures until the desired elevated temperature stability is achieved. Nanostructure templates include three dimensional (3D) polymeric templates having features on the order of 100 nm fabricated by proximity field nanopatterning (PnP) methods.

  11. Hardware authentication using transmission spectra modified optical fiber.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grubbs, Robert K.; Romero, Juan A.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to authenticate the source and integrity of data is critical to the monitoring and inspection of special nuclear materials, including hardware related to weapons production. Current methods rely on electronic encryption/authentication codes housed in monitoring devices. This always invites the question of implementation and protection of authentication information in an electronic component necessitating EMI shielding, possibly an on board power source to maintain the information in memory. By using atomic layer deposition techniques (ALD) on photonic band gap (PBG) optical fibers we will explore the potential to randomly manipulate the output spectrum and intensity of an input light source. This randomization could produce unique signatures authenticating devices with the potential to authenticate data. An external light source projected through the fiber with a spectrometer at the exit would 'read' the unique signature. No internal power or computational resources would be required.

  12. The effects of temperature and soil moisture on the germination and emergence of three perennial warm season grasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohlenbusch, Paul Dietrich

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1'he seed unit was the extracted caryopsls The caryopsos were examined under magnification to insure that only w?hole, undamaged seed units w re used, Cne hundred treated c:. . ryopses distribut??d evenly over blotter or pl n ed at a one-h, *, lf... within 'SOOI83d 3Wli 3Ald. h03SNOO 338'. 83hO 3AIJV1AWAQ S3WIS38 38ALVII3dW33. NAOd LV S3SSVBS 33IIHJ dO NOIJVNII%I3S 1 38ASIB I wvBs sdvo30ls Xo ' C 'LD 'LD 'Lee 'Lee 1 99 1 I9 'L 99 '1 '169 90 ?99 169 'ale 19l 'Lel Cl '196 1 CD C 00...

  13. X-ray absorption spectroscopy elucidates the impact of structural disorder on electron mobility in amorphous zinc-tin-oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siah, Sin Cheng, E-mail: siahsincheng@gmail.com, E-mail: buonassisi@mit.edu; Lee, Yun Seog; Buonassisi, Tonio, E-mail: siahsincheng@gmail.com, E-mail: buonassisi@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Lee, Sang Woon; Gordon, Roy G. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Heo, Jaeyeong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Shibata, Tomohiro; Segre, Carlo U. [Physics Department and CSRRI, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois 606016 (United States)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the correlation between the atomic structures of amorphous zinc-tin-oxide (a-ZTO) thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and their electronic transport properties. We perform synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the K-edges of Zn and Sn with varying [Zn]/[Sn] compositions in a-ZTO thin films. In extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements, signal attenuation from higher-order shells confirms the amorphous structure of a-ZTO thin films. Both quantitative EXAFS modeling and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) reveal that structural disorder around Zn atoms increases with increasing [Sn]. Field- and Hall-effect mobilities are observed to decrease with increasing structural disorder around Zn atoms, suggesting that the degradation in electron mobility may be correlated with structural changes.

  14. On the reliability of nanoindentation hardness of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown on Si-wafer by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xuwen, E-mail: xuwen.liu@aalto.fi; Haimi, Eero; Hannula, Simo-Pekka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Aalto University School of Chemical Technology, Vuorimiehentie 2A, FI-00076 Espoo (Finland); Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Puurunen, Riikka L. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Tietotie 3, FI-02044 Espoo (Finland)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The interest in applying thin films on Si-wafer substrate for microelectromechanical systems devices by using atomic layer deposition (ALD) has raised the demand on reliable mechanical property data of the films. This study aims to find a quick method for obtaining nanoindentation hardness of thin films on silicon with improved reliability. This is achieved by ensuring that the film hardness is determined under the condition that no plastic deformation occurs in the substrate. In the study, ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films having thickness varying from 10 to 600?nm were deposited on a single-side polished silicon wafer at 300?C. A sharp cube-corner indenter was used for the nanoindentation measurements. A thorough study on the Si-wafer reference revealed that at a specific contact depth of about 8?nm the wafer deformation in loading transferred from elastic to elasticplastic state. Furthermore, the occurrence of this transition was associated with a sharp increase of the power-law exponent, m, when the unloading data were fitted to a power-law relation. Since m is only slightly material dependent and should fall between 1.2 and 1.6 for different indenter geometry having elastic contact to common materials, it is proposed that the high m values are the results from the inelastic events during unloading. This inelasticity is linked to phase transformations during pressure releasing, a unique phenomenon widely observed in single crystal silicon. Therefore, it is concluded that m could be used to monitor the mechanical state of the Si substrate when the whole coating system is loaded. A suggested indentation depth range can then be assigned to each film thickness to provide guidelines for obtaining reliable property data. The results show good consistence for films thicker than 20?nm and the nanoindentation hardness is about 11?GPa independent of film thickness.

  15. New Homogeneous Standards by Atomic Layer Deposition for Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butterworth, A.L.; Becker, N.; Gainsforth, Z.; Lanzirotti, A.; Newville, M.; Proslier, T.; Stodolna, J.; Sutton, S.; Tyliszczak, T.; Westphal, A.J.; Zasadzinski, J. (UCB)

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantification of synchrotron XRF analyses is typically done through comparisons with measurements on the NIST SRM 1832/1833 thin film standards. Unfortunately, these standards are inhomogeneous on small scales at the tens of percent level. We are synthesizing new homogeneous multilayer standards using the Atomic Layer Deposition technique and characterizing them using multiple analytical methods, including ellipsometry, Rutherford Back Scattering at Evans Analytical, Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (SXRF) at Advanced Photon Source (APS) Beamline 13-ID, Synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) at Advanced Light Source (ALS) Beamlines 11.0.2 and 5.3.2.1 and by electron microscopy techniques. Our motivation for developing much-needed cross-calibration of synchrotron techniques is borne from coordinated analyses of particles captured in the aerogel of the NASA Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). The Stardust Interstellar Dust Preliminary Examination (ISPE) team have characterized three sub-nanogram, {approx}1{micro}m-sized fragments considered as candidates to be the first contemporary interstellar dust ever collected, based on their chemistries and trajectories. The candidates were analyzed in small wedges of aerogel in which they were extracted from the larger collector, using high sensitivity, high spatial resolution >3 keV synchrotron x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SXRF) and <2 keV synchrotron x-ray transmission microscopy (STXM) during Stardust ISPE. The ISPE synchrotron techniques have complementary capabilities. Hard X-ray SXRF is sensitive to sub-fg mass of elements Z {ge} 20 (calcium) and has a spatial resolution as low as 90nm. X-ray Diffraction data were collected simultaneously with SXRF data. Soft X-ray STXM at ALS beamline 11.0.2 can detect fg-mass of most elements, including cosmochemically important oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon, which are invisible to SXRF in this application. ALS beamline 11.0.2 has spatial resolution better than 25 nm. Limiting factors for Stardust STXM analyses were self-imposed limits of photon dose due to radiation damage concerns, and significant attenuation of <1500 eV X-rays by {approx}80{micro}m thick, {approx}25 mg/cm{sup 3} density silica aerogel capture medium. In practice, the ISPE team characterized the major, light elements using STXM (O, Mg, Al, Si) and the heavier minor and trace elements using SXRF. The two data sets overlapped only with minor Fe and Ni ({approx}1% mass abundance), providing few quantitative cross-checks. New improved standards for cross calibration are essential for consortium-based analyses of Stardust interstellar and cometary particles, IDPs. Indeed, they have far reaching application across the whole synchrotron-based analytical community. We have synthesized three ALD multilayers simultaneously on silicon nitride membranes and silicon and characterized them using RBS (on Si), XRF (on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and STXM/XAS (holey Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). The systems we have started to work with are Al-Zn-Fe and Y-Mg-Er. We have found these ALD multi-layers to be uniform at {micro}m- to nm scales, and have found excellent consistency between four analytical techniques so far. The ALD films can also be used as a standard for e-beam instruments, eg., TEM EELS or EDX. After some early issues with the consistency of coatings to the back-side of the membrane windows, we are confident to be able to show multi-analytical agreement to within 10%. As the precision improves, we can use the new standards to verify or improve the tabulated cross-sections.

  16. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Summers; Hisham Menkara; Brent Wagner

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the ??anti-quenching? behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, ??large? nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material systems, the encapsulation of ZnSeS particle phosphors and ZnSeS screens with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} using ALD was shown to improve the stability by >8X and also increased the luminescence efficiency due to improved surface passivation and optical coupling. A large-volume fluidized bed ALD system was designed that can be adapted to a commercial ALD or vapor deposition system. Throughout the program, optical simulations were developed to evaluate and optimize various phosphor mixtures and device configurations. For example, to define the scattering properties of nanophosphors in an LED device or in a stand-off screen geometry. Also this work significantly promoted and assisted in the implementation of realistic phosphor material models into commercial modeling programs.

  17. Impact of surface morphology of Si substrate on performance of Si/ZnO heterojunction devices grown by atomic layer deposition technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazra, Purnima; Singh, Satyendra Kumar [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Motilal Neheru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad 211004 (India); Jit, Satyabrata, E-mail: sjit.ece@itbhu.ac.in [Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the authors have investigated the structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of silicon nanowire (SiNW)/zinc oxide (ZnO) coreshell nanostructure heterojunctions and compared their characteristics with Si/ZnO planar heterojunctions to investigate the effect of surface morphology of Si substrate in the characteristics of Si/ZnO heterojunction devices. In this work, ZnO thin film was conformally deposited on both p-type ?100? planar Si substrate and substrate with vertically aligned SiNW arrays by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. The x-ray diffraction spectra show that the crystalline structures of Si/ZnO heterojunctions are having (101) preferred orientation, whereas vertically oriented SiNW/ZnO coreshell heterojunctions are having (002)-oriented wurtzite crystalline structures. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Si/ZnO heterojunctions show a very sharp single peak at 377?nm, corresponding to the bandgap of ZnO material with no other defect peaks in visible region; hence, these devices can have applications only in UV region. On the other hand, SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions are having band-edge peak at 378?nm along with a broad emission band, spreading almost throughout the entire visible region with a peak around 550?nm. Therefore, ALD-grown SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions can emit green and red light simultaneously. Reflectivity measurement of the heterojunctions further confirms the enhancement of visible region peak in the PL spectra of SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions, as the surface of the SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions exhibits extremely low reflectance (<3%) in the visible wavelength region compared to Si/ZnO heterojunctions (>20%). The currentvoltage characteristics of both Si/ZnO and SiNW/ZnO heterojunctions are measured with large area ohmic contacts on top and bottom of the structure to compare the electrical characteristics of the devices. Due to large surface to-volume ratio of SiNW/ZnO coreshell heterojunction devices, the output current rating is about 130 times larger compared to their planar version at 2 V forward bias voltage. This higher output current rating can be exploited for fabricating high-performance nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices in near future.

  18. Investigation of the impact of insulator material on the performance of dissimilar electrode metal-insulator-metal diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alimardani, Nasir; Tan, Cheng; Lampert, Benjamin P.; Conley, John F., E-mail: jconley@eecs.oregonstate.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); King, Sean W. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); French, Benjamin L. [Ocotillo Materials Laboratory, Intel Corporation, Chandler, Arizona 85248 (United States)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of thin film metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes is investigated for a variety of large and small electron affinity insulators using ultrasmooth amorphous metal as the bottom electrode. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2} amorphous insulators are deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD). Reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) is utilized to measure the band-gap energy (E{sub G}) and energy position of intrinsic sub-gap defect states for each insulator. E{sub G} of as-deposited ALD insulators are found to be Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}?=?3.8?eV, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}?=?4.4?eV, ZrO{sub 2}?=?5.4?eV, HfO{sub 2}?=?5.6?eV, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}?=?6.4?eV, and SiO{sub 2}?=?8.8?eV with uncertainty of 0.2?eV. Current vs. voltage asymmetry, non-linearity, turn-on voltage, and dominant conduction mechanisms are compared. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} are found to operate based on Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows the highest asymmetry. ZrO{sub 2}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} based diodes are found to be dominated by Frenkel-Poole emission at large biases and exhibit lower asymmetry. The electrically estimated trap energy levels for defects that dominate Frenkel-Poole conduction are found to be consistent with the energy levels of surface oxygen vacancy defects observed in REELS measurements. For HfO{sub 2}, conduction is found to be a mix of trap assisted tunneling and Frenkel-Poole emission. Insulator selection criteria in regards to MIM diodes applications are discussed.

  19. Impact of composition and crystallization behavior of atomic layer deposited strontium titanate films on the resistive switching of Pt/STO/TiN devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aslam, N.; Rodenbcher, C.; Szot, K.; Waser, R.; Hoffmann-Eifert, S., E-mail: su.hoffmann@fz-juelich.de [Peter-Grnberg Institute (PGI-7), Forschungszentrum Jlich and JARA-FIT, 52425 Jlich (Germany); Longo, V.; Roozeboom, F.; Kessels, W. M. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The resistive switching (RS) properties of strontium titanate (Sr{sub 1+x}Ti{sub 1+y}O{sub 3+(x+2y)}, STO) based metal-oxide-metal structures prepared from industrial compatible processes have been investigated focusing on the effects of composition, microstructure, and device size. Metastable perovskite STO films were prepared on Pt-coated Si substrates utilizing plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) from cyclopentadienyl-based metal precursors and oxygen plasma at 350?C, and a subsequent annealing at 600?C in nitrogen. Films of 15?nm and 12?nm thickness with three different compositions [Sr]/([Sr]?+?[Ti]) of 0.57 (Sr-rich STO), 0.50 (stoichiometric STO), and 0.46 (Ti-rich STO) were integrated into Pt/STO/TiN crossbar structures with sizes ranging from 100??m{sup 2} to 0.01??m{sup 2}. Nano-structural characterizations revealed a clear effect of the composition of the as-deposited STO films on their crystallization behavior and thus on the final microstructures. Local current maps obtained by local-conductivity atomic force microscopy were in good agreement with local changes of the films' microstructures. Correspondingly, also the initial leakage currents of the Pt/STO/TiN devices were affected by the STO compositions and by the films' microstructures. An electroforming process set the Pt/STO/TiN devices into the ON-state, while the forming voltage decreased with increasing initial leakage current. After a RESET process under opposite voltage has been performed, the Pt/STO/TiN devices showed a stable bipolar RS behavior with non-linear current-voltage characteristics for the high (HRS) and the low (LRS) resistance states. The obtained switching polarity and nearly area independent LRS values agree with a filamentary character of the RS behavior according to the valence change mechanism. The devices of 0.01??m{sup 2} size with a 12?nm polycrystalline stoichiometric STO film were switched at a current compliance of 50??A with voltages of about 1.0?V between resistance states of about 40?k? (LRS) and 1 M? (HRS). After identification of the influences of the films' microstructures, i.e., grain boundaries and small cracks, the remaining RS properties could be ascribed to the effect of the [Sr]/([Sr]?+?[Ti]) composition of the ALD STO thin films.

  20. Stable retrograde orbits around the triple system 2001 SN263

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Araujo, R A N; Prado, A F B A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NEA 2001 SN263 is the target of the ASTER MISSION - First Brazilian Deep Space Mission. Araujo et al. (2012), characterized the stable regions around the components of the triple system for the planar and prograde cases. Knowing that the retrograde orbits are expected to be more stable, here we present a complementary study. We now considered particles orbiting the components of the system, in the internal and external regions, with relative inclinations between $90^{\\circ}< I \\leqslant180^{\\circ}$, i.e., particles with retrograde orbits. Our goal is to characterize the stable regions of the system for retrograde orbits, and then detach a preferred region to place the space probe. For a space mission, the most interesting regions would be those that are unstable for the prograde cases, but stable for the retrograde cases. Such configuration provide a stable region to place the mission probe with a relative retrograde orbit, and, at the same time, guarantees a region free of debris since they are expect...

  1. MTI Ground Truth Collection Ivanpah Dry Lake Bed, California, May, July, and August 2002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David L. Hawley

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-agency collaboration successfully completed a series of ground truth measurements at the Ivanpah Dry Lake bed during FY 2002. Four collection attempts were made: two in May, one in July, and one in August. The objective was to collect ground-based measurements and airborne data during Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite overpasses. The measurements were to aid in the calibration of the satellite data and in algorithm validation. The Remote Sensing Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Los Alamos National Laboratory; and the University of Arizona participated in the effort. Field instrumentation included a sun photometer on loan from the University of Arizona and the Remote Sensing Laboratory's radiosonde weather balloon, weather station, thermal infrared radiometers, and spectral radiometer. In addition, three reflectance panels were deployed; certain tests used water baths set at two different temperatures. Local weather data as well as sky photography were collected. May presented several excellent days; however, it was later learned that tasking for the satellite was not available. A combination of cloud cover, wind, and dusty conditions limited useful data collections to two days, August 28 and 29. Despite less-than- ideal weather conditions, the data for the Multispectral Thermal Imager calibration were obtained. A unique set of circumstances also allowed data collection during overpasses of the LANDSAT7 and ASTER satellites.

  2. A Search for Subkilometer-sized Ordinary Chondrite Like Asteroids in the Main-Belt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, H W; Chen, Y T; Ip, W H; Chang, C K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The size-dependent effects of asteroids on surface regolith and collisional lifetimes suggest that small asteroids are younger than large asteroids. In this study, we performed multicolor main-belt asteroid (MBA) survey by Subaru telescope/Suprime-Cam to search for subkilometer-sized ordinary chondrite (Q-type) like MBAs. The total survey area was 1.5 deg^2 near ecliptic plane and close to the opposition. We detected 150 MBAs with 4 bands (B, V , R, I) in this survey. The range of absolute magnitude of detected asteroids was between 13 and 22 magnitude, which is equivalent to the size range of kilometer to sub-kilometer diameter in MBAs. From this observation, 75 of 150 MBAs with color uncertainty less than 0.1 were used in the spectral type analysis, and two possible Q-type aster- oids were detected. This mean that the Q-type to S-type ratio in MBAs is 0.5 to 2 (Binzel et al., 2004; Dandy et al., 2003). Therefore, Q-t...

  3. ASTROMETRY.NET: BLIND ASTROMETRIC CALIBRATION OF ARBITRARY ASTRONOMICAL IMAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lang, Dustin; Mierle, Keir; Roweis, Sam [Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, 6 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Hogg, David W.; Blanton, Michael [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)], E-mail: dstn@astro.princeton.edu

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have built a reliable and robust system that takes as input an astronomical image, and returns as output the pointing, scale, and orientation of that image (the astrometric calibration or World Coordinate System information). The system requires no first guess, and works with the information in the image pixels alone; that is, the problem is a generalization of the 'lost in space' problem in which nothing-not even the image scale-is known. After robust source detection is performed in the input image, asterisms (sets of four or five stars) are geometrically hashed and compared to pre-indexed hashes to generate hypotheses about the astrometric calibration. A hypothesis is only accepted as true if it passes a Bayesian decision theory test against a null hypothesis. With indices built from the USNO-B catalog and designed for uniformity of coverage and redundancy, the success rate is >99.9% for contemporary near-ultraviolet and visual imaging survey data, with no false positives. The failure rate is consistent with the incompleteness of the USNO-B catalog; augmentation with indices built from the Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog brings the completeness to 100% with no false positives. We are using this system to generate consistent and standards-compliant meta-data for digital and digitized imaging from plate repositories, automated observatories, individual scientific investigators, and hobbyists. This is the first step in a program of making it possible to trust calibration meta-data for astronomical data of arbitrary provenance.

  4. Tensegrity and Motor-Driven Effective Interactions in a Model Cytoskeleton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shenshen Wang; Peter G. Wolynes

    2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Actomyosin networks are major structural components of the cell. They provide mechanical integrity and allow dynamic remodeling of eukaryotic cells, self-organizing into the diverse patterns essential for development. We provide a theoretical framework to investigate the intricate interplay between local force generation, network connectivity and collective action of molecular motors. This framework is capable of accommodating both regular and heterogeneous pattern formation, arrested coarsening and macroscopic contraction in a unified manner. We model the actomyosin system as a motorized cat's cradle consisting of a crosslinked network of nonlinear elastic filaments subjected to spatially anti-correlated motor kicks acting on motorized (fibril) crosslinks. The phase diagram suggests there can be arrested phase separation which provides a natural explanation for the aggregation and coalescence of actomyosin condensates. Simulation studies confirm the theoretical picture that a nonequilibrium many-body system driven by correlated motor kicks can behave as if it were at an effective equilibrium, but with modified interactions that account for the correlation of the motor driven motions of the actively bonded nodes. Regular aster patterns are observed both in Brownian dynamics simulations at effective equilibrium and in the complete stochastic simulations. The results show that large-scale contraction requires correlated kicking.

  5. Non-equilibrium structure and dynamics in a microscopic model of thin film active gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. A. Head; W. J. Briels; G. Gompper

    2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In the presence of ATP, molecular motors generate active force dipoles that drive suspensions of protein filaments far from thermodynamic equilibrium, leading to exotic dynamics and pattern formation. Microscopic modelling can help to quantify the relationship between individual motors plus filaments to organisation and dynamics on molecular and supra-molecular length scales. Here we present results of extensive numerical simulations of active gels where the motors and filaments are confined between two infinite parallel plates. Thermal fluctuations and excluded-volume interactions between filaments are included. A systematic variation of rates for motor motion, attachment and detachment, including a differential detachment rate from filament ends, reveals a range of non-equilibrium behaviour. Strong motor binding produces structured filament aggregates that we refer to as asters, bundles or layers, whose stability depends on motor speed and differential end-detachment. The gross features of the dependence of the observed structures on the motor rate and the filament concentration can be captured by a simple one-filament model. Loosely bound aggregates exhibit super-diffusive mass transport, where filament translocation scales with lag time with non-unique exponents that depend on motor kinetics. An empirical data collapse of filament speed as a function of motor speed and end-detachment is found, suggesting a dimensional reduction of the relevant parameter space. We conclude by discussing the perspectives of microscopic modelling in the field of active gels.

  6. Use of high resolution satellite images for tracking of changes in the lineament structure, caused by earthquakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arellano-Baeza, A A; Trejo-Soto, M

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last decades strong efforts have been made to apply new spaceborn technologies to the study and possible forecast of strong earthquakes. In this study we use ASTER/TERRA multispectral satellite images for detection and analysis of changes in the system of lineaments previous to a strong earthquake. A lineament is a straight or a somewhat curved feature in an image, which it is possible to detect by a special processing of images based on directional filtering and or Hough transform. "The Lineament Extraction and Stripes Statistic Analysis" (LESSA) software package, developed by Zlatopolsy (1992, 1997). We assume that the lineaments allow to detect, at least partially, the presence ruptures in the Earths crust, and therefore enable one to follow the changes in the system of faults and fractures associated with strong earthquakes. We analysed 6 earthquakes occurred in the Pacific coast of the South America and XXX with the Richter scale magnitude >4.5. They were located in the regions with small season...

  7. Cathode encapsulation of organic light emitting diodes by atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keuning, W.; Weijer, P. van de; Lifka, H.; Kessels, W. M. M.; Creatore, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Philips Research Laboratories, High Tech Campus 4, P.O. Box WAG12, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films synthesized by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) at room temperature (25 deg. C) have been tested as water vapor permeation barriers for organic light emitting diode devices. Silicon nitride films (a-SiN{sub x}:H) deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition served as reference and were used to develop Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H stacks. On the basis of Ca test measurements, a very low intrinsic water vapor transmission rate of {<=} 2 x 10{sup -6} g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} and 4 x 10{sup -6} g m{sup -2} day{sup -1} (20 deg. C/50% relative humidity) were found for 20-40 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 300 nm a-SiN{sub x}:H films, respectively. The cathode particle coverage was a factor of 4 better for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films compared to the a-SiN{sub x}:H films and an average of 0.12 defects per cm{sup 2} was obtained for a stack consisting of three barrier layers (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/a-SiN{sub x}:H/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}).

  8. An improved KSR 600 EB-gun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blum, M.; Choudhury, A.; Hugo, F.; Knell, F.; Scholz, H. [ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH, Erlensee (Germany)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    For high power applications in Electron Beam Cold Hearth Remelting particularly for production purposes ALD Vacuum Technologies GmbH has now developed an improved KSR 600 EB-gun. The gun is equipped with an oil-insulated gun hood and beam generator with watercooled heat exchanger. For melting at high pressure levels a complete newly designed pressure stage and accelerating voltages between 45 kV and 50 kV can be used. To realize a defined energy input with a fine beam spot at any operation angle a new high frequency deflection unit is available. This is also the way to minimize undesired evaporation losses of alloying constituents with high vapor pressure. The high frequency deflection unit runs with low eddy current losses, inspite of the fact that the vacuum side of the unit is completely ceramic-free - accordingly no possibility to incorporate ceramic particles Into the melt. In order to achieve highest capability a now control concept based on commercial hardware and special designed software is under realization. The paper describes the gun with all informations about the controlling concept.

  9. Chemical Bonding, Interfaces and Defects in Hafnium Oxide/Germanium Oxynitride Gate Stacks on Ge (100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshima, Yasuhiro; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Sun, Yun; /SLAC, SSRL; Kuzum, Duygu; /Stanford U.; Sugawara, Takuya; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Pianetta, Piero; /SLAC, SSRL; McIntyre, Paul C.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlations among interface properties and chemical bonding characteristics in HfO{sub 2}/GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge MIS stacks were investigated using in-situ remote nitridation of the Ge (100) surface prior to HfO{sub 2} atomic layer deposition (ALD). Ultra thin ({approx}1.1 nm), thermally stable and aqueous etch-resistant GeO{sub x}N{sub y} interfaces layers that exhibited Ge core level photoelectron spectra (PES) similar to stoichiometric Ge{sub 3}N{sub 4} were synthesized. To evaluate GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface defects, the density of interface states (D{sub it}) was extracted by the conductance method across the band gap. Forming gas annealed (FGA) samples exhibited substantially lower D{sub it} ({approx} 1 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}) than did high vacuum annealed (HVA) and inert gas anneal (IGA) samples ({approx} 1x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} eV{sup -1}). Germanium core level photoelectron spectra from similar FGA-treated samples detected out-diffusion of germanium oxide to the HfO{sub 2} film surface and apparent modification of chemical bonding at the GeO{sub x}N{sub y}/Ge interface, which is related to the reduced D{sub it}.

  10. Investigation of Some Transparent Metal Oxides as Damp Heat Protective Coating for CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Zaaunbrecher, B.; To, B.; Perkins, J.; Noufi, R.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the protective effectiveness of some transparent metal oxides (TMO) on CIGS solar cell coupons against damp heat (DH) exposure at 85oC and 85% relative humidity (RH). Sputter-deposited bilayer ZnO (BZO) with up to 0.5-um Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer and 0.2-um bilayer InZnO were used as 'inherent' part of device structure on CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG. Sputter-deposited 0.2-um ZnSnO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) 0.1-um Al2O3 were used as overcoat on typical BZO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG solar cells. The results were all negative -- all TMO-coated CIGS cells exhibited substantial degradation in DH. Combining the optical photographs, PL and EL imaging, SEM surface micro-morphology, coupled with XRD, I-V and QE measurements, the causes of the device degradations are attributed to hydrolytic corrosion, flaking, micro-cracking, and delamination induced by the DH moisture. Mechanical stress and decrease in crystallinity (grain size effect) could be additional degrading factors for thicker AZO grown on CdS/CIGS.

  11. Systematic evaluation of satellite remote sensing for identifying uranium mines and mills.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, Dianna Sue; Stork, Christopher Lyle; Smartt, Heidi Anne; Smith, Jody Lynn

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we systematically evaluate the ability of current-generation, satellite-based spectroscopic sensors to distinguish uranium mines and mills from other mineral mining and milling operations. We perform this systematic evaluation by (1) outlining the remote, spectroscopic signal generation process, (2) documenting the capabilities of current commercial satellite systems, (3) systematically comparing the uranium mining and milling process to other mineral mining and milling operations, and (4) identifying the most promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling that can be identified using satellite remote sensing. The Ranger uranium mine and mill in Australia serves as a case study where we apply and test the techniques developed in this systematic analysis. Based on literature research of mineral mining and milling practices, we develop a decision tree which utilizes the information contained in one or more observables to determine whether uranium is possibly being mined and/or milled at a given site. Promising observables associated with uranium mining and milling at the Ranger site included in the decision tree are uranium ore, sulfur, the uranium pregnant leach liquor, ammonia, and uranyl compounds and sulfate ion disposed of in the tailings pond. Based on the size, concentration, and spectral characteristics of these promising observables, we then determine whether these observables can be identified using current commercial satellite systems, namely Hyperion, ASTER, and Quickbird. We conclude that the only promising observables at Ranger that can be uniquely identified using a current commercial satellite system (notably Hyperion) are magnesium chlorite in the open pit mine and the sulfur stockpile. Based on the identified magnesium chlorite and sulfur observables, the decision tree narrows the possible mineral candidates at Ranger to uranium, copper, zinc, manganese, vanadium, the rare earths, and phosphorus, all of which are milled using sulfuric acid leaching.

  12. Living with genome instability: the adaptation of phytoplasmas todiverse environments of their insect and plant hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bai, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jianhua; Ewing, Adam; Miller, Sally A.; Radek, Agnes; Shevchenko, Dimitriy; Tsukerman, Kiryl; Walunas, Theresa; Lapidus, Alla; Campbell, John W.; Hogenhout Saskia A.

    2006-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Phytoplasmas (Candidatus Phytoplasma, Class Mollicutes) cause disease in hundreds of economically important plants, and are obligately transmitted by sap-feeding insects of the order Hemiptera, mainly leafhoppers and psyllids. The 706,569-bp chromosome and four plasmids of aster yellows phytoplasma strain witches broom (AY-WB) were sequenced and compared to the onion yellows phytoplasma strain M (OY-M) genome. The phytoplasmas have small repeat-rich genomes. The repeated DNAs are organized into large clusters, potential mobile units (PMUs), which contain tra5 insertion sequences (ISs), and specialized sigma factors and membrane proteins. So far, PMUs are unique to phytoplasmas. Compared to mycoplasmas, phytoplasmas lack several recombination and DNA modification functions, and therefore phytoplasmas probably use different mechanisms of recombination, likely involving PMUs, for the creation of variability, allowing phytoplasmas to adjust to the diverse environments of plants and insects. The irregular GC skews and presence of ISs and large repeated sequences in the AY-WB and OY-M genomes are indicative of high genomic plasticity. Nevertheless, segments of {approx}250 kb, located between genes lplA and glnQ are syntenic between the two phytoplasmas, contain the majority of the metabolic genes and no ISs. AY-WB is further along in the reductive evolution process than OY-M. The AY-WB genome is {approx}154 kb smaller than the OY-M genome, primarily as a result of fewer multicopy sequences, including PMUs. Further, AY-WB lacks genes that are truncated and are part of incomplete pathways in OY-M. This is the first comparative phytoplasma genome analysis and report of the existence of PMUs in phytoplasma genomes.

  13. ChEAS Data: The Chequamegon Ecosystem Atmosphere Study

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Davis, Kenneth J. [Penn State

    The Chequamegon Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (ChEAS) is a multi-organizational research effort studying biosphere/atmosphere interactions within a northern mixed forest in Northern Wisconsin. A primary goal is to understand the processes controlling forest-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide and the response of these processes to climate change. Another primary goal is to bridge the gap between canopy-scale flux measurements and the global CO2 flask sampling network. The ChEAS flux towers participate in AmeriFlux, and the region is an EOS-validation site. The WLEF tower is a NOAA-CMDL CO2 sampling site. ChEAS sites are primarily located within or near the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest in northern Wisconsin, with one site in the Ottawa National Forest in the upper peninsula of Michigan. Current studies observe forest/atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide at canopy and regional scales, forest floor respiration, photosynthesis and transpiration at the leaf level and use models to scale to canopy and regional levels. EOS-validation studies quantitatively assess the land cover of the area using remote sensing and conduct extensive ground truthing of new remote sensing data (i.e. ASTER and MODIS). Atmospheric remote sensing work is aimed at understanding atmospheric boundary layer dynamics, the role of entrainment in regulating the carbon dioxide mixing ratio profiles through the lower troposphere, and feedback between boundary layer dynamics and vegetation (especially via the hydrologic cycle). Airborne studies have included include balloon, kite and aircraft observations of the CO2 profile in the troposphere.

  14. Hepatic lipid profiling of deer mice fed ethanol using {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy: A dose-dependent subchronic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernando, Harshica; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.edu

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chronic alcohol abuse is a 2nd major cause of liver disease resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by a wide spectrum of pathologies starting from fat accumulation (steatosis) in early reversible stage to inflammation with or without fibrosis and cirrhosis in later irreversible stages. Previously, we reported significant steatosis in the livers of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH{sup ?}) vs. hepatic ADH-normal (ADH{sup +}) deer mice fed 4% ethanol daily for 2 months [Bhopale et al., 2006, Alcohol 39, 179188]. However, ADH{sup ?} deer mice fed 4% ethanol also showed a significant mortality. Therefore, a dose-dependent study was conducted to understand the mechanism and identify lipid(s) involved in the development of ethanol-induced fatty liver. ADH{sup ?} and ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 1, 2 or 3.5% ethanol daily for 2 months and fatty infiltration in the livers were evaluated by histology and by measuring dry weights of extracted lipids. Lipid metabolomic changes in extracted lipids were determined by proton ({sup 1}H) and {sup 31}phosphorus ({sup 31}P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR data was analyzed by hierarchical clustering (HC) and principle component analysis (PCA) for pattern recognition. Extensive vacuolization by histology and significantly increased dry weights of total lipids found only in the livers of ADH{sup ?} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls suggest a dose-dependent formation of fatty liver in ADH{sup ?} deer mouse model. Analysis of NMR data of ADH{sup ?} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls shows increases for total cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), triacylglycerides and unsaturation, and decreases for free cholesterol, phospholipids and allylic and diallylic protons. Certain classes of neutral lipids (cholesterol esters, fatty acyl chain (-COCH{sub 2}-) and FAMEs) were also mildly increased in ADH{sup ?} deer mice fed 1 or 2% ethanol. Only small increases were observed for allylic and diallylic protons, FAMEs and unsaturations in ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls. PCA of NMR data showed increased clustering by gradual separation of ethanol-fed ADH{sup ?} deer mice groups from their respective pair-fed control groups and corresponding ethanol-fed ADH{sup +} deer mice groups. Our data indicate that dose of ethanol and hepatic ADH deficiency are two key factors involved in initiation and progression of alcoholic fatty liver disease. Further studies on characterization of individual lipid entities and associated metabolic pathways altered in our deer mouse model after different durations of ethanol feeding could be important to delineate mechanism(s) and identify potential biomarker candidate(s) of early stage ALD. -- Highlights: ? Dose-dependent ethanol-induced fatty liver was studied in deer mouse model. ? A NMR-based lipidomic approach with histology and dry lipid weights was used. ? We used principal component analysis (PCA) to analyze the NMR lipidomic data. ? Dose-dependent clustering patterns by PCA were compared among the groups.

  15. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities for FY 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney,J.P.; Fox, K.

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory that maintains a primary mission focus the physical sciences, energy sciences, and life sciences, with additional expertise in environmental sciences, energy technologies, and national security. It is managed by Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC, (BSA) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). BNL's Fiscal year 2008 budget was $531.6 million. There are about 2,800 employees, and another 4,300 guest scientists and students who come each year to use the Laboratory's facilities and work with the staff. The BNL Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program reports its status to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) annually in March, as required by DOE Order 413.2B, 'Laboratory Directed Research and Development,' April 19, 2006, and the Roles, Responsibilities, and Guidelines for Laboratory Directed Research and Developlnent at the Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration Laboratories dated June 13, 2006. Accordingly, this is our Annual Report in which we describe the Purpose, Approach, Technical Progress and Results, and Specific Accomplishments of all LDRD projects that received funding during Fiscal Year 2008. BNL expended $12 million during Fiscal Year 2008 in support of 69 projects. The program has two categories, the annual Open Call LDRDs and Strategic LDRDs, which combine to meet the overall objectives of the LDRD Program. Proposals are solicited annually for review and approval concurrent with the next fiscal year, October 1. For the open call for proposals, an LDRD Selection Committee, comprised of the Associate Laboratory Directors (ALDs) for the Scientific Directorates, an equal number of scientists recommended by the Brookhaven Council, plus the Assistant Laboratory Director for Policy and Strategic Planning, review the proposals submitted in response to the solicitation. The Open Can LDRD category emphasizes innovative research concepts with limited management filtering to encourage the creativity of individual researchers. The competition is open to all BNL staff in programmatic, scientific, engineering, and technical support areas. Researchers submit their project proposals to the Assistant Laboratory Director for Policy and Strategic Planning. A portion of the LDRD budget is held for the Strategic LDRD (S-LDRD) category. Projects in this category focus on innovative R&D activities that support the strategic agenda of the Laboratory. The Laboratory Director entertains requests or articulates the need for S-LDRD funds at any time. Strategic LDRD Proposals also undergo rigorous peer review; the approach to review is tailored to the size and scope of the proposal. These Projects are driven by special opportunities, including: (1) Research project(s) in support of Laboratory strategic initiatives as defined and articulated by the Director; (2) Research project(s) in support of a Laboratory strategic hire; (3) Evolution of Program Development activities into research and development activities; and (4) ALD proposal(s) to the Director to support unique research opportunities. The goals and objectives of BNL's LDRD Program can be inferred fronl the Program's stated purposes. These are to (1) encourage and support the development of new ideas and technology, (2) promote the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and (3) develop new 'fundable' R&D projects and programs. The emphasis is clearly articulated by BNL to be on supporting exploratory research 'which could lead to new programs, projects, and directions' for the Laboratory. We explicitly indicate that research conducted under the LDRD Program should be highly innovative, and an element of high risk as to success is acceptable. To be one of the premier DOE National Laboratories, BNL must continuously foster groundbreaking scientific research. At Brookhaven National Laboratory one such method is through its LDRD Program. This discretionary research and d

  16. Novel Dual-Functional Membrane for Controlling Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Brinker; George Xomeritakis; C.-Y. Tsai; Ying-Bing Jiang

    2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    CO{sub 2} captured from coal-fired power plants represents three-quarters of the total cost of an entire carbon sequestration process. Conventional amine absorption or cryogenic separation requires high capital investment and is very energy intensive. Our novel membrane process is energy efficient with great potential for economical CO{sub 2} capture. Three classes of microporous sol-gel derived silica-based membranes were developed for selective CO{sub 2} removal under simulated flue gas conditions (SFG), e.g. feed of 10% vol. CO{sub 22} in N{sub 2}, 1 atm total pressure, T = 50-60 C, RH>50%, SO2>10 ppm. A novel class of amine-functional microporous silica membranes was prepared using an amine-derivatized alkoxysilane precursor, exhibiting enhanced (>70) CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity in the presence of H{sub 2}O vapor, but its CO{sub 2} permeance was lagging (<1 MPU). Pure siliceous membranes showed higher CO{sub 2} permeance (1.5-2 MPU) but subsequent densification occurred under prolonged SFG conditions. We incorporated NiO in the microporous network up to a loading of Ni:Si = 0.2 to retard densification and achieved CO2 permeance of 0.5 MPU and CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} selectivity of 50 after 163 h exposure to SFG conditions. However, CO{sub 2} permeance should reach greater than 2.0 MPU in order to achieve the cost of electricity (COE) goal set by DOE. We introduced the atomic layer deposition (ALD), a molecular deposition technique that substantially reduces membrane thickness with intent to improve permeance and selectivity. The deposition technique also allows the incorporation of Ni or Ag cations by proper selection of metallorganic precursors. In addition, preliminary economic analysis provides a sensitivity study on the performance and cost of the proposed membranes for CO{sub 2} capture. Significant progress has been made toward the practical applications for CO{sub 2} capture. (1 MPU = 1.0 cm{sup 3}(STP){center_dot}cm-2{center_dot}min-1{center_dot}atm-1)

  17. Liver proteomics in progressive alcoholic steatosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernando, Harshica [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Wiktorowicz, John E.; Soman, Kizhake V. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Khan, M. Firoze [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Shakeel Ansari, G.A., E-mail: sansari@utmb.edu [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fatty liver is an early stage of alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver disease (ALD and NALD) that progresses to steatohepatitis and other irreversible conditions. In this study, we identified proteins that were differentially expressed in the livers of rats fed 5% ethanol in a LieberDeCarli diet daily for 1 and 3 months by discovery proteomics (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) and non-parametric modeling (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines). Hepatic fatty infiltration was significantly higher in ethanol-fed animals as compared to controls, and more pronounced at 3 months of ethanol feeding. Discovery proteomics identified changes in the expression of proteins involved in alcohol, lipid, and amino acid metabolism after ethanol feeding. At 1 and 3 months, 12 and 15 different proteins were differentially expressed. Of the identified proteins, down regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (? 1.6) at 1 month and up regulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (2.1) at 3 months could be a protective/adaptive mechanism against ethanol toxicity. In addition, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 a protein responsible for methionine metabolism and previously implicated in fatty liver development was significantly up regulated (1.4) at ethanol-induced fatty liver stage (1 month) while peroxiredoxin-1 was down regulated (? 1.5) at late fatty liver stage (3 months). Nonparametric analysis of the protein spots yielded fewer proteins and narrowed the list of possible markers and identified D-dopachrome tautomerase (? 1.7, at 3 months) as a possible marker for ethanol-induced early steatohepatitis. The observed differential regulation of proteins have potential to serve as biomarker signature for the detection of steatosis and its progression to steatohepatitis once validated in plasma/serum. -- Graphical abstract: The figure shows the Hierarchial cluster analysis of differentially expressed protein spots obtained after ethanol feeding for 1 (13) and 3 (46) months. C and E represent pair-fed control and ethanol-fed rats, respectively. Highlights: ? Proteins related to ethanol-induced steatosis and mild steatohepatitis are identified. ? ADH1C and ALDH2 involved in alcohol metabolism are differentially expressed at 1 and 3 months. ? Discovery proteomics identified a group of proteins to serve as potential biomarkers. ? Using nonparametric analysis DDT is identified as a possible marker for liver damage.

  18. Analysis of Potential Leakage Pathways and Mineralization within Caprocks for Geologic Storage of CO(sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, James

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We used a multifaceted approach to investigate the nature of caprocks above, and the interface between, reservoir-?quality rocks that might serve as targets for carbon storage. Fieldwork in southeastern Utah examined the regional-? to m-?scale nature of faults and fractures across the sedimentiological interfaces. We also used microscopic analyses and mechanical modeling to examine the question as to how the contacts between units interact, and how fractures may allow fluids to move from reservoirs to caprock. Regional-?scale analyses using ASTER data enabled us to identify location of alteration, which led to site-?specific studies of deformation and fluid flow. In the Jurassic Carmel Formation, a seal for the Navajo Sandstone, we evaluated mesoscale variability in fracture density and morphology and variability in elastic moduli in the Jurassic Carmel Formation, a proposed seal to the underlying Navajo Sandstone for CO{sub 2} geosequestration. By combining mechano-?stratigraphic outcrop observations with elastic moduli derived from wireline log data, we characterize the variability in fracture pattern and morphology with the observed variability in rock strength within this heterolithic top seal. Outcrop inventories of discontinuities show fracture densities decrease as bed thickness increases and fracture propagation morphology across lithologic interfaces vary with changing interface type. Dynamic elastic moduli, calculated from wireline log data, show that Youngs modulus varies by up to 40 GPa across depositional interfaces, and by an average of 3 GPa across the reservoir/seal interface. We expect that the mesoscale changes in rock strength will affect the distributions of localized stress and thereby influence fracture propagation and fluid flow behavior within the seal. These data provide a means to closely tie outcrop observations to those derived from subsurface data and estimates of subsurface rock strength. We also studied damage zones associated normal faults in the Permian Cedar Mesa Sandstone, southeastern Utah. These faults are characterized by a single slip surfaces and damage zones containing deformation bands, veins, and joints. Field observations include crosscutting relationships, permeability increase, rock strength decrease, and ultraviolet light induced mineral fluorescence within the damage zone. These field observations combined with the interpreted paragenetic sequence from petrographic analysis, suggests a deformation history of reactivation and several mineralization events in an otherwise low-?permeability fault. All deformation bands and veins fluoresce under ultraviolet light, suggesting connectivity and a shared mineralization history. Pre-?existing deformation features act as loci for younger deformation and mineralization events, this fault and its damage zone illustrate the importance of the fault damage zone to subsurface fluid flow. We model a simplified stress history in order to understand the importance of rock properties and magnitude of tectonic stress on the deformation features within the damage zone. The moderate confining pressures, possible variations in pore pressure, and the porous, fine-?grained nature of the Cedar Mesa Sandstone results in a fault damage zone characterized by enhanced permeability, subsurface fluid flow, and mineralization. Structural setting greatly influences fracture spacing and orientation. Three structural settings were examined and include fault proximity, a fold limb of constant dip, and a setting proximal to the syncline hinge. Fracture spacing and dominant fracture orientation vary at each setting and distinctions between regional and local paleo-?stress directions can be made. Joints on the fold limb strike normal to the fold axis/bedding and are interpreted to be sub-?parallel to the maximum regional paleo-?stress direction as there is no fold related strain. Joints proximal to faults and the syncline hinge may have formed under local stress conditions associated with folding and faulting, and

  19. Shape-selective catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch chemistry : iron-containing particulate catalysts. Activity report : January 1, 2001 - December 31, 2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cronauer, D.; Chemical Engineering

    2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out a research program to create, prepare, and evaluate catalysts to promote Fischer-Tropsch (FT) chemistry--specifically, the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide to form long-chain hydrocarbons. In addition to needing high activity, it is desirable that the catalysts have high selectivity and stability with respect to both mechanical strength and aging properties. It is desired that selectivity be directed toward producing diesel fraction components and avoiding excess yields of both light hydrocarbons and heavy waxes. The goal is to produce shape-selective catalysts that have the potential to limit the formation of longchain products and yet retain the active metal sites in a protected 'cage'. This cage also restricts their loss by attrition during use in slurry-bed reactors. The first stage of this program was to prepare and evaluate iron-containing particulate catalysts. This activity report centers upon this first stage of experimentation with particulate FT catalysts. (For reference, a second experimental stage is under way to prepare and evaluate active FT catalysts formed by atomic-layer deposition [ALD] of active components on supported membranes.) To date, experimentation has centered upon the evaluation of a sample of iron-based, spray-dried catalyst prepared by B.H. Davis of the Center of Applied Energy Research (CAER) and samples of his catalyst onto which inorganic 'shells' were deposited. The reference CAER catalyst contained a high level of dispersed fine particles, a portion of which was removed by differential settling. Reaction conditions have been established using a FT laboratory unit such that reasonable levels of CO conversion can be achieved, where therefore a valid catalyst comparison can be made. A wide range of catalytic activities was observed with SiO{sub 2}-coated FT catalysts. Two techniques were used for SiO{sub 2}coating. The first involved a caustic precipitation of SiO{sub 2} from an organo-silicate onto the CAER catalyst. The second was the acidic precipitation of an organo-silicate with aging to form fractal particles that were then deposited onto the CAER catalyst. Several resulting FT catalysts were as active as the coarse catalyst on which they were prepared. The most active ones were those with the least amount of coating, namely about 2.2 wt% SiO{sub 2}. In the case of the latter acid technique, the use of HCl and HNO{sub 3} was much more effective than that of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe and analyze as-received and treated FT catalysts. It was observed that (1) spherical particles of CAER FT catalyst were made up of agglomerates of particles that were, in turn, also agglomerates; (2) the spray drying process of CAER apparently concentrated the Si precursor at the surface during drying; (3) while SEM pointed out broad differences in the appearance of the prepared catalyst particles, there was little indication that the catalysts were being uniformly coated with a cage-like protective surface, with perhaps the exception of HNO{sub 3}-precipitated catalyst; and (4) there was only a limited penetration of carbon (i.e., CO) into the FT catalyst during the conditioning and FT reaction steps.

  20. Innovative Methodology for Detection of Fracture-Controlled Sweet Spots in the Northern Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Jacobi; John Fountain; Stuart Loewenstein; Edward DeRidder; Bruce Hart

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    For two consecutive years, 2004 and 2005, the largest natural gas well (in terms of gas flow/day) drilled onshore USA targeted the Ordovician Trenton/Black River (T/BR) play in the Appalachian Basin of New York State (NYS). Yet, little data were available concerning the characteristics of the play, or how to recognize and track T/BR prospects across the region. Traditional exploration techniques for entry into a hot play were of limited use here, since existing deep well logs and public domain seismic were almost non-existent. To help mitigate this problem, this research project was conceived with two objectives: (1) to demonstrate that integrative traditional and innovative techniques could be used as a cost-effective reconnaissance exploration methodology in this, and other, areas where existing data in targeted fracture-play horizons are almost non-existent, and (2) determine critical characteristics of the T/BR fields. The research region between Seneca and Cayuga lakes (in the Finger Lakes of NYS) is on strike and east of the discovery fields, and the southern boundary of the field area is about 8 km north of more recently discovered T/BR fields. Phase I, completed in 2004, consisted of integrating detailed outcrop fracture analyses with detailed soil gas analyses, lineaments, stratigraphy, seismic reflection data, well log data, and aeromagnetics. In the Seneca Lake region, Landsat lineaments (EarthSat, 1997) were coincident with fracture intensification domains (FIDs) and minor faults observed in outcrop and inferred from stratigraphy. Soil gas anomalies corresponded to ENE-trending lineaments and FIDs. N- and ENE-trending lineaments were parallel to aeromagnetic anomalies, whereas E-trending lineaments crossed aeromagnetic trends. 2-D seismic reflection data confirmed that the E-trending lineaments and FIDs occur where shallow level Alleghanian salt-cored thrust-faulted anticlines occur. In contrast, the ENE-trending FIDs and lineaments occur where Iapetan rift faults have been episodically reactivated, and a few of these faults extend through the entire stratigraphic section. The ENE-trending faults and N-striking transfer zones controlled the development of the T/BR grabens. In both the Seneca Lake and Cayuga Lake regions, we found more FIDs than Landsat lineaments, both in terms of individual FIDs and trends of FIDs. Our fused Landsat/ASTER image provided more lineaments, but the structural framework inferred from these lineaments is incomplete even for the fused image. Individual lineaments may not predict surface FIDs (within 500m). However, an individual lineament that has been groundtruthed by outcrop FIDs can be used as a proxy for the trend of intense fracturing. Aeromagnetics and seismic reflection data across the discovery fields west of Keuka Lake demonstrate that the fields terminate on the east against northerly-striking faults that extend from Precambrian basement to, in some cases, the surface; the fields terminate in the west at N- and NW-striking faults. Seismic and well log data show that the fields must be compartmentalized, since different parts of the same field show different histories of development. T/BR fields south of the research area also terminate (on the east) against northerly-trending lineaments which we suggest mark faults. Phase II, completed in 2006, consisted of collection and analysis of an oriented, horizontal core retrieved from one of the T/BR fields in a graben south of the field area. The field is located along ENE-trending EarthSat (1997) lineaments, similar to that hypothesized for the study area. The horizontal core shows much evidence for reactivation along the ENE-trending faults, with multiple events of vein development and both horizontal and vertical stylolite growth. Horizontal veins that post- and pre-date other vein sets indicate that at least two orogenic phases (separated by unloading) affected vein development. Many of the veins and releasing bend features (rhombochasms) are consistent with strike-slip motion (oblique) along ENE-striking faults as a result