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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols  

SciTech Connect

The temperature dependence of ether synthesis, particularly unsymmetric methylisobutylether (MIBE), was carried out over the Nafion-H microsaddles (MS) catalyst. The principal product formed under the rather severe reaction conditions of 1100 psig pressure and temperatures in the range of 123--157{degree}C was the expected MIBE formed directly by coupling the methanol/isobutanol reactants. In addition, significantly larger quantities of the dimethylether (DME) and hydrocarbon products were observed than were obtained under milder reaction conditions. Deactivation of the Nafion-H MS catalyst was determined by periodically testing the catalyst under a given set of reaction conditions for the synthesis of MIBE and MTBE from methanol/isobutanol = 2/1, i.e. 123{degree}C, 1100 psig, and total GHSV = 248 mol/kg cat/hr. After carrying out various tests over a period of 2420 hr, with intermittant periods of standing under nitrogen at ambient conditions, the yields of MIBE and MTBE had decreased by 25% and 41%, respectively. In order to gain insight into the role of the surface acidity in promoting the selective coupling of the alcohols to form the unsymmetric ether, the strengths of the acid sites on the catalysts are still being probed by calorimetric titrations in non-aqueous solutions. 11 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; DeTavernier, S.; Johannson, M.; Kieke, M.; Bastian, R.D.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Assessment of ether and alcohol fuels from coal. Volume 2. Technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A unique route for the indirect liquefaction of coal to produce transportation fuel has been evaluated. The resultant fuel includes alkyl tertiary alkyl ethers and higher alcohols, all in the gasoline boiling range. When blended into gasoline, the ether fuel provides several advantages over the lower alcohols: (1) lower chemical oxygen content, (2) less-severe water-separation problems, and (3) reduced front-end volatility effects. The ether fuel also has high-octane quality. Further, it can be utilized as a gasoline substitute in all proportions. Production of ether fuel combines several steps, all of which are or have been practiced on an industrial scale: (1) coal gasification, (2) gas cleanup and shift to desired H/sub 2/:CO ratio, (3) conversion of synthesis gas to isobutanol, methanol, and higher alcohols, (4) separation of alcohols, (5) chemical dehydration of isobutanol to isobutylene, and (6) etherification of isobutylene with methanol. A pilot-plant investigation of the isobutanol synthesis step was performed. Estimates of ether-fuel manufacturing costs indicate this process route is significantly more costly than synthesis of methanol. However, the fuel performance features provide incentive for developing the necessary process and catalyst improvements. Co-production of higher-molecular-weight co-solvent alcohols represents a less-drastic form of methanol modification to achieve improvement in the performance of methanol-gasoline blends. Costs were estimated for producing several proportions of methanol plus higher alcohols from coal. Estimated fuel selling price increases regularly but modestly with higher alcohol content.

Not Available

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Rejai, Bahman (Lakewood, CO); Bain, Richard L. (Golden, CO); Overend, Ralph P. (Lakewood, CO)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

5

Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

6

The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

Hadder, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); McNutt, B.D. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Petroleum Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

other refinery inputs including alcohols, ethers, bioesters, other refinery inputs including alcohols, ethers, bioesters, natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates capacity expansion and fuel consumption of domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming representation of U.S. refining activities in the five Petroleum Area Defense Districts (PADDs) (Figure 9). The model is created by aggregating individual refineries into one linear programmming representation for each PADD. This representation provides the marginal costs of production for a number of conventional and new petroleum products. In order to interact with other NEMS modules with different regional representations, certain PMM inputs and outputs are converted from PADD regions to other regional structures and vice versa. The linear programming results are used to determine

8

Determination of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and tert-Butyl Alcohol in Water by Solid-Phase Microextraction/Head Space Analysis in Comparison to EPA Method 5030/8260B  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is now one of the most common groundwater contaminants in the United States. Groundwater contaminated with MTBE is also likely to be contaminated with tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), because TBA is a component of commercial grade MTBE, TBA can also be used as a fuel oxygenate, and TBA is a biodegradation product of MTBE. In California, MTBE is subject to reporting at concentrations greater than 3 {micro}g/L. TBA is classified as a ''contaminant of current interest'' and has a drinking water action level of 12 {micro}g/L. In this paper, we describe the development and optimization of a simple, automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water and demonstrate the applicability of this method for monitoring MTBE and TBA contamination in groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. In this method, the headspace (HS) of a water sample is extracted with a carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber, the MTBE and TBA are desorbed into a gas chromatograph (GC), and detected using mass spectrometry (MS). The method is optimized for the routine analysis of MTBE and TBA with a level of quantitation of 0.3 {micro}g/L and 4 {micro}g/L, respectively, in water. MTBE quantitation was linear for over two orders of concentration (0.3 {micro}g/L -80 {micro}g/L). TBA was found to be linear within the range of 4 {micro}g/L-7,900 {micro}g/L. The lower level of detection for MTBE is 0.03 {micro}g/L using this method. This SPME method using headspace extraction was found to be advantageous over SPME methods requiring immersion of the fiber into the water samples, because it prolonged the life of the fiber by up to 400 sample analyses. This is the first time headspace extraction SPME has been shown to be applicable to the measurement of both MTBE and TBA at concentrations below regulatory action levels. This method was compared with the certified EPA Method 5030/8260B (purge-and-trap/GC/MS) using split samples from laboratory bioreactors treating MTBE contaminated water and applied to environmental samples collected throughout the East Bay area of California. Results from the SPME-HS/GC/MS method were directly comparable to the EPA Method 5030/8260B. This method provides an simple, inexpensive, accurate, and sensitive alternative to EPA Method 5030/8260B for the analysis of MTBE and TBA in water samples.

Oh, Keun-Chan; Stringfellow, William T.

2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

9

PURIFICATION OF ETHER  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

BS>A process for removing peroxides from ethers by sorption on a strong- base anion exchange resin in its hydroxyl form is described. Incorporation of the resin for storage is also covered. (AEC)

Feinstein, R.N.

1961-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook - Petroleum Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Market Module Petroleum Market Module Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook Petroleum Market Module Figure 8. Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts. Having problems, call our National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800 for help. The NEMS Petroleum Market Module (PMM) forecasts petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, other refinery inputs including alcohols, ethers, and bioesters natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates capacity expansion and fuel consumption of domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming representation of U.S. refining

11

Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

T.A. Semelsberger

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2007 Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, and bioesters), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. refining activities in the five Petroleum Area Defense Districts (PADDs) (Figure 9). The LP model is created by aggregating individual refineries within a PADD into one representative refinery, and linking all five PADD's via crude and product transit links. This representation provides the marginal costs of production for a number of conventional and new petroleum products. In order to interact with other NEMS modules with different regional representations,

13

Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

14

Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors  

SciTech Connect

A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xiao-Oing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY)

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

15

Alcohol fired alcohol fuel still  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The best method for using alcohol as the base for alcohol fuel distillation would be in the conservation of the initial heat input. In other words, the 20 gallon system would, at the end of a load, in effect waste a full gallon of alcohol fuel with each batch. Therefore either a continual feed system needs to be developed which would serve the 20 gallon heater or heat exchangers of some type should be designed to salvage a great portion of the heat. If, on the other hand, large amounts of fuel are not required, a large single batch still fired by alcohol would not be too wasteful. It would be adviseable that some form of alcohol fuel research both small and large scale be continued. While not necessarily an important part of the energy picture now, it may well be in the future. It could also open up overseas markets where fuels in liquid form are scarce, yet raw materials are not. Lastly, this project, while accomplishing muon, needs further study to make the system more efficient in fuel economy.

Johnson, F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

EIA - Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 - Petroleum Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Market Module Petroleum Market Module Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Petroleum Market Module The NEMS Petroleum Market Module (PMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, bioesters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. Figure 9. Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts. The PMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. refining activities in the five Petroleum Area Defense Districts (PADDs) (Figure 9),

17

EIA - Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 - Petroleum Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Market Module Petroleum Market Module Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 Petroleum Market Module Figure 9. Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. The NEMS Petroleum Market Module (PMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, bioesters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. refining

18

Petroleum Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

This page intentionally left blank This page intentionally left blank 137 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Petroleum Market Module The NEMS Petroleum Market Module (PMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, bioesters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. refining activities in the five Petroleum Administration for

19

EIA-Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook - Petroleum Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Market Module Petroleum Market Module Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2007 Petroleum Market Module Figure 9. Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. The NEMS Petroleum Market Module (PMM) forecasts petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, and bioesters), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. refining

20

CATALYSTS FOR HIGH CETANE ETHERS AS DIESEL FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A tungstena-zirconia (WZ) catalyst has been investigated for coupling methanol and isobutanol to unsymmetrical ethers, i.e. methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and compared with earlier studied sulfated-zirconia (SZ) and Nafion-H catalysts. In all cases, the ether synthesis mechanism is a dual site S{sub N}2 process involving competitive adsorption of reactants on proximal acid sites. At low reaction temperatures, methylisobutylether (MIBE) is the predominant product. However, at temperatures >135 C the WZ catalyst is very good for dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The surface acid sites of the WZ catalyst and a Nafion-H catalyst were diagnosed by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of N 1s shifts after adsorption of amines. Using pyridine, ethylenediamine, and triethylamine, it is shown that WZ has heterogeneous strong Broensted acid sites. Theoretical study located the transition state of the alcohol coupling reaction on proximal Broensted acid sites and accounted well for XPS core-level shifts upon surface acid-base interactions. While computations have not been carried out with WZ, it is shown that the SZ catalyst is a slightly stronger acid than CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}H (a model for Nafion-H) by 1.3-1.4 kcal/mol. A novel sulfated zirconia catalyst having proximal strong Broensted acid sites was synthesized and shown to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing MIBE or isobutene from methanol/isobutanol mixtures. The catalyst was prepared by anchoring 1,2-ethanediol bis(hydrogen sulfate) salt precursor onto zirconium hydroxide, followed by calcination to remove the -(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2})- bridging residues.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Heock-Hoi Kwon; James G. C. Shen; Qisheng Ma; Robert A. Hunsicker; Andrew P. Butler; Scott J. Bollinger

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. [801Methyl tert-butyl ether  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

22

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: RBOB with Ether, RBOB ...

23

Divinyl ether synthase gene and protein, and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

Howe, Gregg A. (East Lansing, MI); Itoh, Aya (Tsuruoka, JP)

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

24

Furfuryl alcohol cellular product  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Self-extinguishing rigid foam products are formed by polymerization of furfuryl alcohol in the presence of a lightweight, particulate, filler, zinc chloride and selected catalysts.

Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

1982-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

25

Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon and surfactants are contacted with a solution of alcohol and water to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon-surfactant mixture.

Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Alcohol fuel conversion apparatus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes an alcohol fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines comprising: fuel storage means for containing an alcohol fuel; primary heat exchange means in fluid communication with the fuel storage means for transferring heat to pressurized alcohol contained within the heat exchange means; a heat source for heating the primary heat exchange means; pressure relief valve means in closed fluid communication with the primary heat exchange means for releasing heated pressurized alcohol into an expansion chamber; converter means including the expansion chamber in fluid communication with the pressure relief valve means for receiving the heated pressurized alcohol and for the vaporization of the alcohol; fuel injection means in fluid communication with the converter means for injecting vaporized alcohol into the cylinders of an internal combustion engine for mixing with air within the cylinders for proper combustion; and pump means for pressurized pumping of alcohol from the 23 fuel storage means to the primary heat exchanger means, converter means, fuel injector means, and to the engine.

Carroll, B.I.

1987-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

27

Process for producing dimethyl ether form synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Process for producing dimethyl ether from synthesis gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

Pierantozzi, R.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

29

Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The effects of three crown ethers, 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, and 18-crown-6, as additives and co-solvents in non-aqueous electrolytes on the cell performance of primary Li/air batteries operated in a dry air environment were investigated. Crown ethers have large effects on the discharge performance of non-aqueous electrolytes in Li/air batteries. A small amount (normally less than 10% by weight or volume in electrolytes) of 12-Crown-4 and 15-crown-5 reduces the battery performance and a minimum discharge capacity appears at the crown ether content of ca. 5% in the electrolytes. However, when the content increases to about 15%, both crown ethers improve the capacity of Li/air cells by about 28% and 16%, respectively. 15-Crown-5 based electrolytes even show a maximum discharge capacity in the crown ether content range from 10% to 15%. On the other hand, the increase of 18-crown-6 amount in the electrolytes continuously lowers of the cell performance. The different battery performances of these three crown ethers in electrolytes are explained by the combined effects from the electrolytes’ contact angle, oxygen solubility, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and the stability of complexes formed between crown ether molecules and lithium ions.

Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

31

Alcohol | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alcohol Alcohol Dataset Summary Description The Energy Statistics Database contains comprehensive energy statistics on the production, trade, conversion and final consumption of primary and secondary; conventional and non-conventional; and new and renewable sources of energy. The Energy Statistics dataset, covering the period from 1990 on, is available at UNdata. This dataset relates to the consumption of alcohol by the transportation industry. Source United Nations (UN) Date Released December 09th, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords Agriculture Alcohol consumption transportation industry UN Data application/xml icon UN Data: consumption by transportation industry XML (xml, 95 KiB) text/csv icon UN Data: consumption by transportation industry XLS (csv, 21.6 KiB)

32

Production of hydrogen from alcohols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

Deluga, Gregg A. (St. Paul, MN); Schmidt, Lanny D. (Minneapolis, MN)

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

33

Fermentative alcohol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

Wilke, Charles R. (El Cerrito, CA); Maiorella, Brian L. (Berkeley, CA); Blanch, Harvey W. (Berkeley, CA); Cysewski, Gerald R. (Kennewick, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

By the end of 2005, 25 States had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of MTBE in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some State laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). AEO2006 assumes that all State MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Multipodal coordination of a tetracarboxylic crown ether with NH 4 + : A vibrational spectroscopy and computational study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The elucidation of the structural requirements for molecular recognition by the crown ether (18–crown–6)-2

Paola Hurtado; Francisco Gámez; Said Hamad; Bruno Martínez–Haya; Jeffrey D. Steill; Jos Oomens

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed appropriate and excellent catalysts for direct DME synthesis. The catalysts, Cu-Zn/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method, produce DME with high DME activity and high DME selectivity under milder reaction ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, direct synthesis, hydrogen, sol-gel method, syngas

Kaoru Takeishi; Yoshimi Akaike

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Alcoholes Biocarburantes de Extremadura Albiex | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Name Alcoholes Biocarburantes de Extremadura (Albiex) Place Spain Product Spanish bioethanol producer building a plant in Extremadura. References Alcoholes Biocarburantes de...

39

Gene therapy in alcoholic rats  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

70 70 Sept. 9, 2001 Gene Therapy Reduces Drinking in "Alcoholic" Rats UPTON, NY - Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory have shown that increasing the level of a brain protein important for transmitting pleasure signals can turn rats that prefer alcohol into light drinkers, and those with no preference into near teetotalers. The findings, published in the first September 2001 issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry (Vol. 78, No. 5), may have implications for the prevention and treatment of alcoholism in humans. "This is a preliminary study, but when you see a rat that chooses to drink 80 to 90 percent of its daily fluid as alcohol, and then three days later it's down to 20 percent, that's a dramatic drop in alcohol intake - a very clear change in behavior," said Panayotis Thanos, the lead researcher. "This gives us great hope that we can refine this treatment for future clinical use."

40

Alcohol fuels program technical review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

Not Available

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have studied the interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) in order to model the effects of surface structure and humidity on the bonding and decomposition of perfluoroalkyl ether lubricants with metal surfaces. In order to understand the interactions on Ru(100), we have first investigated the interactions of each of these adsorbates alone on the clean surface. The interactions of water with Ru(100) have been studied using both thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). From these studies we conclude that a small amount of water dissociates on this surface (5--10% of a monolayer), but water is adsorbed in a predominantly molecular form on this surface with an increasing degree of hydrogen-bonding with increasing coverage. The effects of hydrogen and oxygen coadsorption on the interactions of water with this surface have also been studied using TDS. Finally, the interactions of coadsorbed water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) have been investigated using TDS.

Leavitt, P.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

42

Synthesis of higher alcohols from carbon monoxide and hydrogen in a slurry reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Higher, i.e. C{sub 2{sup +}}, alcohols are desired as gasoline additives, feedstocks for producing ethers and as alternative fuels for automobiles. In all cases, the backbone branching of an alcohol improves octane rating, which is essential for good engine performance. These types of branched, higher alcohols are the desired products for a process converting synthesis gas, a CO and H{sub 2} mixture, often generated from coal gasification. Based on this premise, promoted ZnCr oxide catalysts appear to be as one of the best avenues for further investigation. Once this investigation is complete, a natural extension is to replace the Cr in the ZnCr oxide catalyst with Mo and W, both in the same elemental triad with Cr. Mo has already been shown as an active HAS catalyst, both on a SiO{sub 2} support and in the MoS{sub 2} form. The three catalyst combinations, ZnMo, ZnW, and MnCr oxides will be tested in the stirred autoclave system. However, if none of the three indicate any comparable activity and/or selectivity toward higher alcohols as compared with other HAS catalysts, then an investigation of the effects of Cs promotion on the ZnCr oxide methanol catalysts will be executed.

McCutchen, M.S.

1992-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

43

Alcohol fuel from Ohio farms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This booklet provides an introduction to technical, marketing, and regulatory issues involved in on-farm alcohol fuel production. Discussed are ethanol production provcesses, investment, potential returns, regulations and permits, and sources of financial and technical assistance. 2 figures. (DMC)

Jones, J.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

2007-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

45

Alcohol consumption, medical conditions and health behavior in older adults  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alcohol consumption In press, American JournalHealth Behavior Alcohol Consumption, Medical Conditions andin the association of alcohol consumption with health and

Satre, Derek; Gordon, Nancy P.; Weisner, Constance

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. Within the Combustion Laboratory of the Penn State Energy Institute, they have installed and equipped a Navistar V-8 direct-injection turbodiesel engine for measurement of gaseous and particulate emissions and examination of the impact of fuel composition on diesel combustion. They have also reconfigured a high-pressure viscometer for studies of the viscosity, bulk modulus (compressibility) and miscibility of blends of diesel fuel, dimethyl ether and lubricity additives. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have examined blends of an oxygenated fuel additive (a liquid fuel called CETANER{trademark}) produced by Air Products, for comparison with dimethyl ether blended at the same weight of oxygen addition, 2 wt.%. While they have not operated the engine on DME yet, they are now preparing to do so. A fuel system for delivery of DME/Diesel blends has been configured and initial investigations at low DME blend ratios (around 5-10 vol%) will begin shortly. They have also performed viscosity measurements on diesel fuel, DME and 50-50 blends of DME in diesel. These tests have verified that DME has a much lower viscosity than the diesel fuel and that the viscosity of the blended fuel is also much lower than the diesel base fuel. This has implications for the injection and atomization of the DME/diesel blends.

Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Interactions between Ether Phospholipids and Cholesterol as Determined by Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Cholesterol and ether lipids are ubiquitous in mammalian cell membranes, and their interactions are crucial in ether lipid mediated cholesterol trafficking. We report on cholesterol s molecular interactions with ether lipids as determined using a combination of small-angle neutron and Xray scattering, and all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. A scattering density profile model for an ether lipid bilayer was developed using MD simulations, which was then used to simultaneously fit the different experimental scattering data. From analysis of the data the various bilayer structural parameters were obtained. Surface area constrained MD simulations were also performed to reproduce the experimental data. This iterative analysis approach resulted in good agreement between the experimental and simulated form factors. The molecular interactions taking place between cholesterol and ether lipids were then determined from the validated MD simulations. We found that in ether membranes cholesterol primarily hydrogen bonds with the lipid headgroup phosphate oxygen, while in their ester membrane counterparts cholesterol hydrogen bonds with the backbone ester carbonyls. This different mode of interaction between ether lipids and cholesterol induces cholesterol to reside closer to the bilayer surface, dehydrating the headgroup s phosphate moiety. Moreover, the three-dimensional lipid chain spatial density distribution around cholesterol indicates anisotropic chain packing, causing cholesterol to tilt. These insights lend a better understanding of ether lipid-mediated cholesterol trafficking and the roles that the different lipid species have in determining the structural and dynamical properties of membrane associated biomolecules.

Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Cheng, Xiaolin [ORNL; Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Mostofian, Barmak [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Katsaras, John [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Dimethyl ether (DME): a clean fuel of the 21st century and catalysts for it  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is a substitute of LNG and light oil. DME burns without particulate matters and SOx, so DME is a clean fuel. DME is a storage and carrier of hydrogen. For these usages, useful catalysts such as DME steam reforming catalysts and DME ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, direct synthesis, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Catalysts for hydrogen production by steam reforming of dimethyl ether (DME)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is expected as one of clean fuels. We have been studying on DME steam reforming for hydrogen production. Copper alumina catalysts prepared by a sol-gel method produced large quantities of H2 with DME steam reforming. The reason was ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Development of single type copper alumina catalysts for hydrogen production from dimethyl ether (DME)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dimethyl ether (DME) is expected as one of clean fuels. We have been studying on DME steam reforming for hydrogen production. Copper alumina catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method produced large quantities of H2 with DME steam reforming. Aiming at ... Keywords: DME, alumina, catalyst, clean fuel, copper, dimethyl ether, hydrogen, sol-gel method, steam reforming

Kaoru Takeishi; Atsushi Ban

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Title Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2005 Authors Sun, Xiao-Guang, Jun Hou, and John B. Kerr Journal Electrochimica Acta Volume 50 Pagination 1139-1147 Keywords ionic conductivity, plasticizer, polyacrylate ethers, single ion conductor Abstract Comb-shaped single ion conductors have been synthesized by sulfonation of small molecule chloroethyleneglycols, which, after ion exchange to the Li+ salt were then converted to the acrylate by reaction with acryloyl chloride and copolymerized with polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether acrylate (Mn = 454, n = 8) (PAE8-co-E3SO3Li);

52

Autothermal Partial Oxidation of Ethanol and Alcohols  

Autothermal Reforming of Ethanol and Alcohols into Syngas Ethanol and alcohols can be converted into syngas using a robust autothermal reforming process. Syngas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be used to synthesize other ...

53

Alcohol Fuels Program. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The activities and accomplishments of the alcohol fuels program are reviewed briefly. Educational and promotional activities are described. (MHR)

Weiss, G.M.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Quantum ether: photons and electrons from a rotor model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give an example of a purely bosonic model -- a rotor model on the 3D cubic lattice -- whose low energy excitations behave like massless U(1) gauge bosons and massless Dirac fermions. This model can be viewed as a ``quantum ether'': a medium that gives rise to both photons and electrons. It illustrates a general mechanism for the emergence of gauge bosons and fermions known as ``string-net condensation.'' Other, more complex, string-net condensed models can have excitations that behave like gluons, quarks and other particles in the standard model. This suggests that photons, electrons and other elementary particles may have a unified origin: string-net condensation in our vacuum.

Michael Levin; Xiao-Gang Wen

2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

55

South Dakota alcohol fuel production handbook: permits, regulations, and assistance  

SciTech Connect

This handbook contains information on South Dakota alcohol legislation, and information on the various types of additional government program assistance available to the alcohol producer. It was prepared to assist potential alcohol producers with federal and state permit prerequisites. (DMC)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Formation of alcohol conversion catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method of the present invention involves a composition containing an intimate mixture of (a) metal oxide support particles and (b) a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, its method of manufacture, and its method of use for converting alcohols to aldehydes. During the conversion process, catalytically active metal oxide from the discrete catalytic metal oxide particles migrates to the oxide support particles and forms a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on the oxide support particle to form a catalyst composition having a higher specific activity than the admixed particle composition.

Wachs, Israel E. (Bridgewater, NJ); Cai, Yeping (Louisville, KY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Alcohol Outlets and Violent Crime in Washington D.C.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alcohol Availability and Crime: Evidence From Census Tractand Ontkush, M. J. Violent Crime and Alcohol Availability:Neighborhoods and Urban Crimes. Social Forces. 1996;75:619-

Franklin, F. Abron; LaVeist, Thomas A.; Webster, Daniel W.; Pan, William K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Solid alcohol fuel with hydration inhibiting coating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for preparing a solid alcohol fuel. It comprises: mixing an alcohol solution with a cellulose derivative having a hydration inhibiting coating thereby forming a slurry and then adding an effective amount sufficient to increase the pH level above 8, of a caustic material so as to effect hydration and solidification.

Gartner, S.

1990-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

59

DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work and challenges continued as it has been difficult to maintain operability of the shuttle bus due to fuel and component difficulties. In late June 2002, the pump head itself developed operational problems (loss of smooth function) leading to excessive stress on the magnetic coupling and excessive current draw to operate. A new pump head was installed on the system to alleviate this problem and the shuttle bus operated successfully on DME blends from 10-25 vol% on the shuttle bus loop until September 30, 2002. During the period of operation on the campus loop, the bus was pulled from service, operated at the PTI test track and real-time emissions measurements were obtained using an on-board emissions analyzer from Clean Air Technologies International, Inc. Particulate emissions reductions of 60% and 80% were observed at DME blend ratios of 12 vol.% and 25 vol.%, respectively, as the bus was operated over the Orange County driving cycle. Increases in NOx, CO and HC emissions were observed, however. In summary, the conversion of the shuttle bus was successfully accomplished, particulate emissions reductions were observed, but there were operational challenges in the field. Nonetheless, they were able to demonstrate reliable operation of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel blends.

Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Alcohol fuel research in Turkey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Turkey, like most of the developing countries of the world, has vast agricultural potential, yet the country is highly dependent on oil imports, which satisfy 90% of its crude oil demand. Since Turkey had an economy based on agriculture, the usage of national resources in the energy field is extremely important. In the first years of the Turkish Republic, in 1931, the usage of national resources as an alternative to conventional fuels became a subject of increasing interest. Since then a lot of research has been conducted, but only a limited amount of application has been realized. Alcohol has always occupied an important place among the alternative fuel studies. The subject has been the scope of some research institute projects and university and government development planning studies. In Turkey, one of the most important studies in this area has been undertaken by the authors` research group in their university. This study is a general review of alcohol usage as an alternative automotive fuel in Turkey. This review includes a short history of the subject, the approach of the government, the research results, possible developments on the subject in the near future, and finally, it concludes with proposals.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer-Erguedenler, A.; Aksoy, H.A. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

Kinoshita, C.M. (ed.)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Alcoholic fermentation of sorghum without cooking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sorgum was used as raw material for alcoholic fermentation without cooking. Two varieties of sorghum grown in Thailand, KU 439 and KU 257, contained 80.0 and 75.8% of total sugar. Optimum amount of sorghum for alcoholic fermentation should be between 30 and 35% (w/v) in the fermentation broth. In these conditions 13.0 and 12.6% (v/v) of alcohol could be obtained in 84 and 91.9% yield based on the theoretical value of the starch content from KU 439 and KU 257, respectively.

Thammarutwasik, P.; Koba, Y.; Ueda, S.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Small-scale alcohol fuel production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final report of a project to demonstrate the feasibility of small-scale alcohol fuel production. A list of equipment and costs incurred in contracting the still are included. No experimental results are presented. (DMC)

Evans, J.; McQueary, J.

1983-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

64

Third international symposium on alcohol fuels technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the opening of the Symposium, Dr. Sharrah, Senior Vice President of Continental Oil Company, addressed the attendees, and his remarks are included in this volume. The Symposium was concluded by workshops which addressed specific topics. The topical titles are as follows: alcohol uses; production; environment and safety; and socio-economic. The workshops reflected a growing confidence among the attendees that the alcohols from coal, remote natural gas and biomass do offer alternatives to petroleum fuels. Further, they may, in the long run, prove to be equal or superior to the petroleum fuels when the aspects of performance, environment, health and safety are combined with the renewable aspect of the biomass derived alcohols. Although considerable activity in the production and use of alcohols is now appearing in many parts of the world, the absence of strong, broad scale assessment and support for these fuels by the United States Federal Government was a noted point of concern by the attendees. The environmental consequence of using alcohols continues to be more benign in general than the petroleum based fuels. The exception is the family of aldehydes. Although the aldehydes are easily suppressed by catalysts, it is important to understand their production in the combustion process. Progress is being made in this regard. Of course, the goal is to burn the alcohols so cleanly that catalytic equipment can be eliminated. Separate abstracts are prepared for the Energy Data Base for individual presentations.

none,

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers and Isostructural  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide-Mediated Ketone Enolization: The Influence of Hindered Dialkyl Ethers of the enolization of 2-methylcyclohexanone mediated by lithium hexameth- yldisilazide (LiHMDS; TMS2NLi) solvated- bine to make lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS) one of the most important Bro¨nsted bases in organic

Collum, David B.

66

Direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas containing oxygen gas considering of biomass gasfication gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed appropriate and excellent catalysts for direct DME synthesis from syngas. The catalysts, Cu-Zn/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method, produce DME with high DME activity and high DME selectivity with long ... Keywords: DME, biomass, catalyst, clean fuel, dimethyl ether, direct synthesis, gasification gas, hydrogen, sol-gel method, syngas

Kaoru Takeishi; Akane Arase

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Alcohol Fuels Program technical review, Spring 1984  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The alcohol fuels program consists of in-house and subcontracted research for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel alcohols via thermoconversion and bioconversion technologies. In the thermoconversion area, the SERI gasifier has been operated on a one-ton per day scale and produces a clean, medium-Btu gas that can be used to manufacture methanol with a relatively small gas-water shift reaction requirement. Recent research has produced catalysts that make methanol and a mixture of higher alcohols from the biomass-derived synthetic gas. Three hydrolysis processes have emerged as candidates for more focused research. They are: a high-temperature, dilute-acid, plug-flow approach based on the Dartmouth reactor; steam explosion pretreatment followed by hydrolysis using the RUT-C30 fungal organism; and direct microbial conversion of the cellulose to ethanol using bacteria in a single or mixed culture. Modeling studies, including parametric and sensitivity analyses, have recently been completed. The results of these studies will lead to a better definition of the present state-of-the-art for these processes and provide a framework for establishing the research and process engineering issues that still need resolution. In addition to these modeling studies, economic feasibility studies are being carried out by commercial engineering firms. Their results will supplement and add commercial validity to the program results. The feasibility contractors will provide input at two levels: Technical and economic assessment of the current state-of-the-art in alcohol production from lignocellulosic biomass via thermoconversion to produce methanol and higher alcohol mixtures and bioconversion to produce ethanol; and identification of research areas having the potential to significantly reduce the cost of production of alcohols.

Not Available

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Alcohol fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An alcohol fuel conversion apparatus is described for internal combustion engines comprising: fuel storage means containing an alcohol fuel; primary heat exchanger means in fluid communication with the fuel storage means for transferring heat to pressurized alcohol contained within the heat exchanger means; a heat source for heating the heat exchange means; pressure relief valve means, in closed fluid communication with the primary heat exchange means, operable to release heated pressurized alcohol into an expansion chamber; converter means, including the expansion chamber, in fluid communication with the pressure relief valve means for receiving the heated pressurized alcohol and for the vaporization of the alcohol; carburetor means in fluid communication with the converter means for metering and mixing vaporized alcohol with air for proper combustion and for feeding the mixture to an internal combustion engine; and pump means for pressurized pumping of alcohol from the fuel storage means to the heat exchanger means, converter means, carburetor means, and to the engine.

Carroll, B.I.

1987-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

70

State of California BOARD OF EQUALIZATION ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE TAX REGULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

section 23007, is presumed to contain 0.5 percent or more alcohol by volume derived from flavors or other ingredients containing alcohol obtained from the distillation of fermented agricultural products, unless this

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

72

Alcohols as hydrogen-donor solvents for treatment of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for the hydroconversion of coal by solvent treatment at elevated temperatures and pressure wherein an alcohol having an .alpha.-hydrogen atom, particularly a secondary alcohol such as isopropanol, is utilized as a hydrogen donor solvent. In a particular embodiment, a base capable of providing a catalytically effective amount of the corresponding alcoholate anion under the solvent treatment conditions is added to catalyze the alcohol-coal reaction.

Ross, David S. (Palo Alto, CA); Blessing, James E. (Menlo Park, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Alkali/TX sub 2 catalysts for CO/H sub 2 conversion to C sub 1 -C sub 4 alcohols  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to investigate and develop novel catalysts for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas into C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} alcohols by a highly selective process. Therefore, the variations of catalyst activity and selectivity for the synthesis of alcohols from H{sub 2}/CO {le}1 synthesis gas for a series of A/TX{sub 2} compounds, where A is a surface alkali dopant, T is a transition metal, and X is a S, Se, or Te, will be determined. The alkali component A, which is essential for C-O and C-C bond forming reactions leading to alcohols, will be highly dispersed on the TX{sub 2} surfaces by using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and chemical complexation/anchoring (CCA) methods. Catalysts that have been prepared during this quarter include RuS{sub 2}, NbS{sub 2}, K/MoS{sub 2}, and K/Crown either/MoS{sub 2}. Catalysts tested include KOH/MoS{sub 2} and K/Crown ether/MoS{sub 2}. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Brimer, A.; Richards, M.; Kieke, M.; Bastian, R.D.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Modeling the Nanophase Structural Dynamics of Phenylated Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone Ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) Membranes as a Function of Hydration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solvated phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) membranes in the presence of hydronium ions were modeled by classical molecular dynamics simulations. The characterization of the nanophase structure and dynamics of such membranes was carried out as a function of the water content lambda, where lambda is the number of water molecules per sulfonate group, for lambda values of 3.5, 6, 11, 25, and 40. Analysis of pair correlation functions supports the experimental observation of membrane swelling upon hydration as well the increase in water and hydronium ion diffusion with increasing lambda. While the average number of hydrogen bonds between hydronium ions and sulfonate groups is dramatically affected by the hydration level, the average lifetime of the hydrogen bonds remains essentially constant. The membrane is found to be relatively rigid and its overall flexibility shows little dependence on water content. Compared to Nafion, water and ion diffusion coefficients are considerably smaller at lower hydration levels and room temperature. However, at higher lambda values of 25 and 40 these coefficients are comparable to those in Nafion at a lambda value of 16. This study also shows that water diffusion in Ph-SPEEKK membranes at low hydration levels can be significantly improved by raising the temperature with important implications for proton conductivity.

Lins, Roberto D.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Dupuis, Michel

2011-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

75

2' and 3' Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a process for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. Said carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of said compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells.

Soloway, Albert H. (Worthington, OH); Barth, Rolf F. (Columbus, OH); Anisuzzaman, Abul K. (Columbus, OH); Alam, Fazlul (Anaheim, CA); Tjarks, Werner (Columbus, OH)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

2[prime] and 3[prime] Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. The carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of the compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells. No Drawings

Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.; Anisuzzaman, A.K.; Alam, F.; Tjarks, W.

1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Alcohol synthesis from CO or CO.sub.2  

SciTech Connect

Methods for producing alcohols from CO or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 utilizing a palladium-zinc on alumina catalyst are described. Methods of synthesizing alcohols over various catalysts in microchannels are also described. Ethanol, higher alcohols, and other C.sub.2+ oxygenates can produced utilizing Rh--Mn or a Fisher-Tropsch catalyst.

Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Robert A [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA; Cao, Chunshe [Houston, TX; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; White, James F [Richland, WA; Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Stevens, Don J [Richland, WA

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

78

Alcohol fuel production training program. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the project was to offer instruction in the small scale production of ethanol, which can be added to gasoline by about 10%. The course was designed to help farmers in particular to make ethanol to extend fuel use. This project has four objectives. They are: (1) design an alcohol fuel production course with appropriate equipment for hands-on training; (2) offer at least three training sessions on alcohol fuel production in Cumberland County each year of the project; (3) work with the Governor's Task Force on Gasohol to disseminate the necessary information on alcohol production to the public; (4) identify, in consultation with the New Jersey Department of Energy and Agriculture, other training sites in the state and offer at least three training sessions outside of Cumberland County during the second year of the project. As of March 31, 1982, Cumberland County College completed all activities and objectives outlined in its Appropriate Technology project ''Alcohol Fuel Production.'' Given the six month extension requested to accommodate farmers in other parts of the state and the growing season, this project was completed within the stated time schedule. Although the response for the course was high in the beginning of 1981, the increased supply of low cost fuels at the end of the year probably accounts for the decline in the public's willingness to take a course of this nature.

Burke, J.

1982-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

79

Developing alternative feedstocks for fuel alcohol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper briefly reviews recent research to examine the viability of energy sorghum as a feedstock for producing fuel alcohol. Energy sorghum is the name given to any sweet sorghum shown to be feasible for producing fuel alcohol. Energy sorghum can grow on a variety of soils, in 90 day cycles, with up to three crops a year. Crop rotation is rarely needed; most of the nitrogen and potassium returns to the soil. Harmon Engineering and Testing initiated an inhouse program to research sweet sorghum development. Equipment specifications and preliminary results are given. An ''energy farm'' process is explained step by step. Stalk juice, grain, and stalk fiber yields are listed. The use of bagasse and carbon dioxide is also considered.

Verma, V.K.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Carter, Richard D. (Lee' s Summit, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); Powers, Michael T. (Santa Rosa, CA)

1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

Bohnert, George W. (Harrisonville, MO); Carter, Richard D. (Lee' s Summit, MO); Hand, Thomas E. (Lee' s Summit, MO); Powers, Michael T. (Santa Rosa, CA)

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

82

Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

1997-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

83

The Search for Genes Related to a Low-Level Response to Alcohol Determined by Alcohol Challenges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background: A low level of response (LR) to alcohol seems to relate to a substantial proportion of the risk for alcoholism and to have significant heritability. Methods: This report describes the results of a genome-wide segregation analysis for the first 139 pairs of full siblings by using an alcohol challenge protocol as a direct measure of LR. Subjects from 18 to 29 years old were selected if the original screen indicated they had an alcohol-dependent parent, reported a personal history of drinking but had no evidence of alcohol dependence, and had a full sibling with similar characteristics. Body sway and Subjective High Assessment Scale scores were measured at baseline and at regular intervals after the administration of a measured dose of alcohol. Participants and available parents were genotyped for 811 microsatellite markers, and resulting data were analyzed with a variance component method. Results: Nine chromosome regions with logarithm of the odds ratio (LOD) between 2.2 and 3.2 were identified; several had previously been implicated regarding phenotypes relevant to alcoholism and the LR to alcohol. Several regions identified in the previous linkage study by using a retrospective self-report questionnaire were potentially confirmed by this study. The strongest evidence was on chromosomes 10, 11, and 22. Conclusions: Several chromosomal areas seem to relate to the low LR to alcohol as a risk factor for alcohol dependence.

Kirk C. Wilhelmsen; Marc Schuckit; Tom L. Smith; James V. Lee; Samantha K. Segall; Heidi S. Feiler; Jelger Kalmijn

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Eakin, David E. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

The Relationship Between Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use Among Teenagers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use among teenagers. This study examined three research questions: (1)… (more)

Rose, John Donald

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Electrocatalyst for Alcohol Oxidation at Fuel Cell Anodes - Energy ...  

Ethanol and other alcohols are nearly ideal reactants for fuel cells. Unfortunately they are difficult to oxidize, requiring breaking of carbon-carbon bonds. This ...

87

Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

1981-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

88

The effects of alcohol use on zinc status  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alcohol consumption has been shown to have adverse affects on bone growth and maintenance, although the mechanism has not been elucidated. The objective of this research was to look at the relationship between zinc and alcohol as a possible mechanism for the negative effects of ethanol consumption on bone health. Five studies were performed in order to analyze the effects of different types of alcohol consumption on female Sprague-Dawley rats of various ages. The animals were fed one of three diets (alcohol, pair-fed or chow). The rats were sacrificed at varying time intervals according to the specific study. Zinc analysis of the serum, femur and tibia was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The alcohol eventually affected the serum zinc status of the rats in the adolescent project. The zinc status of the animals in the moderate alcohol, 2-day binge, 5-day binge and short-term adult alcohol projects was not significantly altered due to the alcohol. A longer duration and/or a higher amount of ethanol was needed to consistently detect changes in the serum and bone zinc concentrations of all the animals. Although zinc status is altered by ethanol consumption, this relationship is not likely to be the sole mechanism behind the effects of alcohol on bone health.

Chapman, Lisa Louise

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Catalytic distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic Distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) is investigated in this thesis. The solvent, ethylene glycol, is proposed as a means of… (more)

Safinski, Tomasz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Research Article Rapeseed Oil Monoester of Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether as a New Biodiesel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copyright © 2011 Jiang Dayong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. A novel biodiesel named rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether is developed. This fuel has one more ester group than the traditional biodiesel. The fuel was synthesized and structurally identified through FT-IR and P 1P H NMR analyses. Engine test results show that when a tested diesel engine is fueled with this biodiesel in place of 0 # diesel fuel, engine-out smoke emissions can be decreased by 25.0%–75.0%, CO emissions can be reduced by 50.0%, and unburned HC emissions are lessened significantly. However, NOx emissions generally do not change noticeably. In the area of combustion performance, both engine in-cylinder pressure and its changing rate with crankshaft angle are increased to some extent. Rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether has a much higher cetane number and shorter ignition delay, leading to autoignition 1.1 ? CA earlier than diesel fuel during engine operation. Because of certain amount of oxygen contained in the new biodiesel, the engine thermal efficiency is improved 13.5%–20.4 % when fueled with the biodiesel compared with diesel fuel. 1.

Jiang Dayong; Wang Xuanjun; Liu Shuguang; Guo Hejun

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation in fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Binary and ternary electrocatalysts are provided for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. The binary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate selected from the group consisting of NiWO.sub.4 or CoWO.sub.4 or a combination thereof, and 2) Group VIII noble metal catalyst supported on the substrate. The ternary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate as described above, and 2) a catalyst comprising Group VIII noble metal, and ruthenium oxide or molybdenum oxide or a combination thereof, said catalyst being supported on said substrate.

Adzic, Radoslav R. (Setauket, NY); Marinkovic, Nebojsa S. (Coram, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Agricultural scientists cut alcohol fuel costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scientists at the US Department of Agriculture have succeeded in lowering the cost of making alcohol from corn by 15 cents to $1.64 per gallon. The cost of drying distillers' solubles dropped because at the end of each cooking/fermenting/distilling run, the solubles are used for cooking, cooling and fermenting in the next run. One evaporation of solubles is required after 10 runs, so energy cost is cut from 17 cents to 1.7 cents. The protein by-products recovered, can be used as swine and poultry feeds and as human food.

Not Available

1981-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

94

Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

Tedder, Daniel W. (Marietta, GA)

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

95

Alcohol and Other Drugs Office of Student Life  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to, buy alcohol for, or furnish alcohol to anyone under 21, even if you are the parent, legal or furnishing beer or intoxicating liquor to an person under 21 years of age, or buying it for any person under,Valium) Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) GHB Methaqualone (Quaalude) Fatigue; confusion; impaired coordination, memory, judgment

Jones, Michelle

96

Acceptorless Photocatalytic Dehydrogenation for Alcohol Decarbonylation and Imine Synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has come to light: Renewed interest in conversions of highly oxygenated materials has motivated studies of the organometallic-catalyzed photocatalytic dehydrogenative decarbonylation of primary alcohols into alkanes, CO, and H2 (see scheme). Methanol, ethanol, benzyl alcohol, and cyclohexanemethanol are readily decarbonylated. The photocatalysts are also active for amine dehydrogenation to give N-alkyl aldimines and H2.

Ho, Hung-An; Manna, Kuntal; Sadow, Aaron D.

2012-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

97

Alcohol Fuel Flexibility -- Progress And Prospects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper was prepared as the result of work by a member of the staff of the California Energy Commission. It does not necessarily represent the views of the Energy Commission, its employees, or the State of California. The Energy Commission, the State of California, its employees, contractors and subcontractors make no warrant, express or implied, and assume no legal liability for the information in this paper; nor does any party represent that the uses of this information will not infringe upon privately owned rights. This paper has not been approved or disapproved by the California Energy Commission nor has the California Energy Commission passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of the information in this paper. SEPTEMBER 2005 CEC-600-2005-038 2 Alcohol Fuel Flexibility -- Progress and Prospects Thomas MacDonald California Energy Commission 1516 Ninth St. Sacramento, California 95814 Phone (916) 654-4120 FAX (916) 654-4753 e-mail: tmacdona@energy.state.ca.us Fifteenth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels San Diego, CA September 26-28, 2005

Transportation Fuels Division; Thomas Macdonald; Thomas Macdonald

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. Phase 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii`s Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

Kinoshita, C.M. [ed.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Exhaust Emissions and Combustion Performances of Rapeseed Oil Monoester of Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether as a Novel Biodiesel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a novel biodiesel named rapeseed oil monoester of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether has been developed, which has one more ester group than traditional biodiesel. It was synthesized and structurally identified through FT-IR, 1H NMR analyses. ... Keywords: component, rapeseed oil monoester, synthesis, exhaust emissions, combustion performances

Jiang Dayong; Wang Xuanjun; Wang Wenguo; Han Qilong

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Use of aluminum phosphate as the dehydration catalyst in single step dimethyl ether process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present invention pertains to a process for the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) directly from a synthesis gas in a single step (hereafter, the "single step DME process"). In this process, the synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides is contacted with a dual catalyst system comprising a physical mixture of a methanol synthesis catalyst and a methanol dehydration catalyst. The present invention is an improvement to this process for providing an active and stable catalyst system. The improvement comprises the use of an aluminum phosphate based catalyst as the methanol dehydration catalyst. Due to its moderate acidity, such a catalyst avoids the coke formation and catalyst interaction problems associated with the conventional dual catalyst systems taught for the single step DME process.

Peng, Xiang-Dong (Allentown, PA); Parris, Gene E. (Coopersburg, PA); Toseland, Bernard A. (Allentown, PA); Battavio, Paula J. (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of Dinethyl Ether and Methanol  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for fuel cell applications. Methanol has long been considered as a fuel for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds due to its high energy density, low reforming temperature, and zero impurity content. However, it has not been accepted as the fuel of choice due its current limited availability, toxicity and corrosiveness. While methanol steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds has been extensively studied, the steam reforming of DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2CO{sub 2} + 6H{sub 2}, has had limited research effort. DME is the simplest ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) and is a gas at ambient conditions. DME has physical properties similar to those of LPG fuels (i.e. propane and butane), resulting in similar storage and handling considerations. DME is currently used as an aerosol propellant and has been considercd as a diesel substitute due to the reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions. DME is also being considered as a substitute for LPG fuels, which is used extensively in Asia as a fuel for heating and cooking, and naptha, which is used for power generation. The potential advantages of both methanol and DME include low reforming temperature, decreased fuel proccssor startup energy, environmentally benign, visible flame, high heating value, and ease of storage and transportation. In addition, DME has the added advantages of low toxicity and being non-corrosive. Consequently, DME may be an ideal candidate for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for both automotive and portable power applications. The steam reforming of DME has been demonstrated to occur through a pair of reactions in series, where the first reaction is DME hydration followed by MeOH steam reforming to produce a hydrogen rich stream.

Semelsberger, T. A. (Troy A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Proceedings of the alcohol fuel production and utilization conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conference was held to provide farmers, businesses, industries, and specialty groups with the best available information on current and projected activities related to the production and utilization of biomass for alcohol fuels. All aspects of the alcohol fuel production and utilization process were discussed. From biomass sources, through conversion processes to end-use products and applications were topics discussed by numerous experts. Other experts took this basic information and put it together into total systems. Speakers presented overviews on alcohol fuel related activities on state, regional, and national levels. Finally, commercialization incentives, funding sources, environmental considerations, research developments, safety considerations, and regulatory requirements were discussed as factors which must be addressed when considering the production and utilization of alcohol fuels. Separate abstracts have been prepared for items within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

New diversification strategies for the Japanese alcohol industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Japanese major alcoholic beverage companies, whose businesses are mainly the production and sale of beer products, stand at a strategic crossroads. There are several reasons: a slow decrease in the Japanese population, ...

Yoshimura, Toru, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Electrogenerative oxidation of lower alcohols to useful products  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the disclosed electrogenerative process for converting alcohols such as ethanol to aldehydes such as acetaldehyde, the alcohol starting material is an aqueous solution containing more than the azeotropic amount of water. Good first-pass conversions (<40% and more typically <50%) are obtained at operating cell voltages in the range of about 80 to about 350 millivolts at ordinary temperatures and pressures by using very high flow rates of alcohol to the exposed anode surface (i.e. the "gas" side of an anode whose other surface is in contact with the electrolyte). High molar flow rates of vaporized aqueous alcohol also help to keep formation of undesired byproducts at a low level.

Meshbesher, Thomas M. (4507 Weldin Rd., Wilmington, DE 19803)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachates from selected landfill sites in South Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The last few decades have seen dramatic growth in the scale of production and the use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants. Consequently, PBDEs such as BDE -28, -47, -66, -71, -75, -77, -85, -99, -100, -119, -138, -153, -154, and -183 have been detected in various environmental matrices. Generally, in South Africa, once the products containing these chemicals have outlived their usefulness, they are discarded into landfill sites. Consequently, the levels of PBDEs in leachates from landfill sites may give an indication of the general exposure and use of these compounds. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence and concentrations of most common PBDEs in leachates from selected landfill sites. The extraction capacities of the solvents were also tested. Spiked landfill leachate samples were used for the recovery tests. Separation and determination of the PBDE congeners were carried out with a gas chromatograph equipped with Ni{sup 63} electron capture detector. The mean percentage recoveries ranged from 63% to 108% (n = 3) for landfill leachate samples with petroleum ether giving the highest percentage extraction. The mean concentrations of PBDEs obtained ranged from ND to 2670 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 6638 pg l{sup -1}, ND to 7230 pg l{sup -1}, 41 to 4009 pg l{sup -1}, 90 to 9793 pg l{sup -1} for the Garankuwa, Hatherly, Kwaggarsrand, Soshanguve and Temba landfill sites, respectively. Also BDE -28, -47, -71 and BDE-77 were detected in the leachate samples from all the landfill sites; and all the congeners were detected in two of the oldest landfill sites. The peak concentrations were recorded for BDE-47 at three sites and BDE-71 and BDE-75 at two sites. The highest concentration, 9793 {+-} 1.5 pg l{sup -1}, was obtained for the Temba landfill site with the highest BOD value. This may suggest some influence of organics on the level of PBDEs. Considering the leaching characteristics of brominated flame retardants, there is a high possibility that with time these compounds may infiltrate into the groundwater around the sites since most of the sites are not adequately lined.

Odusanya, David O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Okonkwo, Jonathan O. [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)], E-mail: OkonkwoOJ@tut.ac.za; Botha, Ben [Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 175 Nelson Mandela Drive, Arcadia, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

DOE supported research in alcohol fuel technology development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy sponsored research in alcohol fuel technology development under the direction of Congress and Public Law 96-126. Twenty-seven research grants of about $50,000 each were funded to develop lower cost methods for alcohol fuel production. This paper discusses the objectives of the program and relates the accomplishments achieved by the research. A discussion of the highlights of several selected projects is included.

Dodds, J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites  

SciTech Connect

Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites using the methoxyacetic acid (MAA) metabolite of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether as the model compound. The results obtained demonstrate an MAA-induced decrease of the intracellular pH (pH{sub i}) of embryonic BALB/c-3T3 cells as well as of embryonic stem (ES)-D3 cells, at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation. These results suggest a mechanism for MAA-mediated embryotoxicity similar to the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the drugs valproic acid and acetazolamide (ACZ), known to decrease the pH{sub i}in vivo, and therefore used as positive controls. The embryotoxic alkoxyacetic acid metabolites ethoxyacetic acid, butoxyacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid also caused an intracellular acidification of BALB/c-3T3 cells at concentrations that are known to inhibit ES-D3 cell differentiation. Two other embryotoxic compounds, all-trans-retinoic acid and 5-fluorouracil, did not decrease the pH{sub i} of embryonic cells at concentrations that affect ES-D3 cell differentiation, pointing at a different mechanism of embryotoxicity of these compounds. MAA and ACZ induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of ES-D3 cell differentiation, which was enhanced by amiloride, an inhibitor of the Na{sup +}/H{sup +}-antiporter, corroborating an important role of the pH{sub i} in the embryotoxic mechanism of both compounds. Together, the results presented indicate that a decrease of the pH{sub i} may be the mechanism of embryotoxicity of the alkoxyacetic acid metabolites of the glycol ethers.

Louisse, Jochem, E-mail: jochem.louisse@wur.n [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE Wageningen (Netherlands); TNO Quality of Life, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); WUR/TNO Centre for Innovative Toxicology, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands); Bai Yanqing [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE Wageningen (Netherlands); Verwei, Miriam; Sandt, Johannes J.M. van de [TNO Quality of Life, PO Box 360, 3700 AJ Zeist (Netherlands); WUR/TNO Centre for Innovative Toxicology, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands); Blaauboer, Bas J. [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, PO Box 80176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M. [Division of Toxicology, Wageningen University, Tuinlaan 5, 6703 HE Wageningen (Netherlands); WUR/TNO Centre for Innovative Toxicology, PO Box 8000, 6700 EA Wageningen (Netherlands)

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Use of alcohol in farming applications: alternative fuels utilization program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of alcohol with diesel fuel has been investigated as a means of extending diesel fuel supplies. The ability to use ethanol in diesel-powered farm equipment could provide the means for increasing the near-term fuels self-sufficiency of the American farmer. In the longer term, the potential availability of methanol (from coal) in large quantities could serve to further decrease the dependency on diesel fuel. This document gives two separate overviews of the use of alcohols in farm equipment. Part I of this document compares alcohol with No. 1 and No. 2 diesel fuels and describes several techniques for using alcohol in farm diesels. Part II of this document discusses the use of aqueous ethanol in diesel engines, spark ignition engines and provides some information on safety and fuel handling of both methanol and ethanol. This document is not intended as a guide for converting equipment to utilize alcohol, but rather to provide information such that the reader can gain insight on the advantages and disadvantages of using alcohol in existing engines currently used in farming applications.

Borman, G.L.; Foster, D.E.; Uyehara, O.A.; McCallum, P.W.; Timbario, T.J.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

High-alcohol microemulsion fuel performance in a diesel engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Incidence of methanol use in diesel engines is increasing rapidly due to the potential to reduce both diesel particulate emissions and petroleum consumption. Because simple alcohols and conventional diesel fuel are normally immiscible, most tests to date have used neat to near-neat alcohol, or blends incorporating surfactants or other alcohols. Alcohol's poor ignition quality usually necssitates the use of often expensive cetane enhancers, full-time glow plugs, or spark assist. Reported herein are results of screening tests of clear microemulsion and micellar fuels which contain 10 to 65% C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} alcohol. Ignition performance and NO emissions were measured for clear, stable fuel blends containing alcohols, diesel fuel and additives such as alkyl nitrates, acrylic acids, and several vegetable oil derivatives. Using a diesel engine calibrated with reference fuels, cetane numbers for fifty four blends were estimated. The apparent cetane numbers ranged from around 20 to above 50 with the majority between 30 and 45. Emissions of nitric oxide were measured for a few select fuels and were found to be 10 to 20% lower than No. 2 diesel fuel. 36 refs., 87 figs., 8 tabs.

West, B.H.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Method of forming a dianhydrosugar alcohol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The invention includes methods of producing dianhydrosugars. A polyol is reacted in the presence of a first catalyst to form a monocyclic sugar. The monocyclic sugar is transferred to a second reactor where it is converted to a dianhydrosugar alcohol in the presence of a second catalyst. The invention includes a process of forming isosorbide. An initial reaction is conducted at a first temperature in the presence of a solid acid catalyst. The initial reaction involves reacting sorbitol to produce 1,4-sorbitan, 3,6-sorbitan, 2,5-mannitan and 2,5-iditan. Utilizing a second temperature, the 1,4-sorbitan and 3,6-sorbitan are converted to isosorbide. The invention includes a method of purifying isosorbide from a mixture containing isosorbide and at least one additional component. A first distillation removes a first portion of the isosorbide from the mixture. A second distillation is then conducted at a higher temperature to remove a second portion of isosorbide from the mixture.

Holladay, Johnathan E. (Kennewick, WA); Hu, Jianli (Kennewick, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Zhang, Xinjie (Burlington, MA)

2010-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

114

Geothermal source potential and utilization for alcohol production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using a potential geothermal source to drive a fuel grade alcohol plant. Test data from the well at the site indicated that the water temperature at approximately 8500 feet should approach 275/sup 0/F. However, no flow data was available, and so the volume of hot water that can be expected from a well at this site is unknown. Using the available data, numerous fuel alcohol production processes and various heat utilization schemes were investigated to determine the most cost effective system for using the geothermal resource. The study found the direct application of hot water for alcohol production based on atmospheric processes using low pressure steam to be most cost effective. The geothermal flow rates were determined for various sizes of alcohol production facility using 275/sup 0/F water, 235/sup 0/F maximum processing temperature, 31,000 and 53,000 Btu per gallon energy requirements, and appropriate process approach temperatures. It was determined that a 3 million gpy alcohol plant is the largest facility that can practically be powered by the flow from one large geothermal well. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared, operating costs were calculated, the economic feasibility of the propsed project was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.

Austin, J.C.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of the plant cell wall.

Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Alkaline-side extraction of technetium from tank waste using crown ethers and other extractants  

SciTech Connect

The chemical development of a new crown-ether-based solvent-extraction process for the separation of (Tc) from alkaline tank-waste supernate is ready for counter-current testing. The process addresses a priority need in the proposed cleanup of Hanford and other tank wastes. This need has arisen from concerns due to the volatility of Tc during vitrification, as well as {sup 99}Tc`s long half-life and environmental mobility. The new process offers several key advantages that direct treatability--no adjustment of the waste composition is needed; economical stripping with water; high efficiency--few stages needed; non-RCRA chemicals--no generation of hazardous or mixed wastes; co-extraction of {sup 90}Sr; and optional concentration on a resin. A key concept advanced in this work entails the use of tandem techniques: solvent extraction offers high selectivity, while a subsequent column sorption process on the aqueous stripping solution serves to greatly concentrate the Tc. Optionally, the stripping solution can be evaporated to a small volume. Batch tests of the solvent-extraction and stripping components of the process have been conducted on actual melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste as well as simulants of MVST and Hanford waste. The tandem process was demonstrated on MVST waste simulants using the three solvents that were selected the final candidates for the process. The solvents are 0.04 M bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (abbreviated di-t-BuCH18C6) in a 1:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar{reg_sign} M (an isoparaffinic kerosene); 0.02 M di-t-BuCH18C6 in 2:1 vol/vol TBP/Isopar M and pure TBP. The process is now ready for counter-current testing on actual Hanford tank supernates.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Moyer, B.A.; Presley, D.J.; Armstrong, V.S.; Haverlock, T.J.; Counce, R.M.; Sachleben, R.A.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

The lightness of being: mass, ether, and unification of the forces  

SciTech Connect

How can an electron be both a wave and a particle? At the same time? Because it is a quantum field. That key insight seems to be underappreciated, given the awe and mysticism that permeate most nontechnical discussions of modern physics. Perhaps the root of the problem is that most popularizations of quantum mechanics and of particle physics shy away from quantized fields, the natural language for microscopic phenomena. In 'The Lightness of Being: Mass, Ether, and the Unification of Forces', Frank Wilczek confronts quantum field theory head on, demystifying not only wave-particle duality but also the origin of mass for hadrons (that is, everyday matter). Wilczek is the Herman Feshbach Professor of Physics at MIT and a co-recipient of the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. His research has spanned almost all aspects of theoretical particle physics, with significant forays into condensed-matter physics and dense nuclear matter (condensed quark matter, one might say). Recurring themes are the richness of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the alluring ideas of unification. His breadth and depth make him a sought after speaker for colloquia and public lectures. Wilczek also contributes an occasional Reference Frame column to 'Physics Today'. The material in 'The Lightness of Being' reflects the scope of the author's research. The book consists of three parts: the quantum fields of QCD (the ether that makes mass), gravitation (the ether that feels mass), and unification. Part 1, which traces notions of mass from Isaac Newton's time through theoretical and computational results of the past 40 years, is the most substantial and original; it is rich, modern, and rooted in observed phenomena. Part 2 continues in the same vein as it connects gravity, also an observed phenomenon, to QCD. Part 3 is more conventional, for a popularization of particle physics, in its focus on speculative ideas that (still) await direct experimental tests. Readers of 'Physics Today' will know that Wilczek can write with wit, grace, and an uncanny facility for using lightweight language to express heavy-duty ideas. They will find much of that kind of writing in 'The Lightness of Being'. Wilczek addresses subtle ideas with vim and vigor. He avoids some of the jargon of quantum field theory; for example, he calls the vertex in a Feynman diagram a hub. In more ambitious terminology, he refers to space-filling, everfluctuating quantum fields--be they electrons, quarks, gluons, or gravity--as 'the Grid'. The term is supposed to be short and familiar, evoking the ubiquitous electric grid (and soon-to-beubiquitous computing grid). It also, for the expert, cleverly alludes to lattice gauge theory. Indeed, after vividly explaining how the dynamics of QCD and the constraints of Heisenberg uncertainty conspire to create mass from the Grid, Wilczek emphasizes that the picture is backed by lattice QCD computations of 'heroic' proportions. Unfortunately, too much of 'The Lightness' is laden with clunky affectation: silly names (a pulsed electron accelerator is called the 'ultrastroboscopic nanomicroscope'), sophomoric jokes ('hadron' is 'not a typo'), references to pop culture (Wilczek might have called quantum fields 'the Matrix, but the sequels tarnished that candidate'), and many pointless footnotes. In a public lecture the audience may guffaw at such jokes, but on the printed page they fall flat. Wilczek explains physics so well that the inappropriate humor is the biggest unexplained puzzle of the book. It is fine to be silly, even crude, as long as the reader's path to understanding is made easier. A joke can inform with an unexpected perspective or simply give the mind a pause to refresh. Some of the humor achieves such aims, but too many gags impede the pace of the otherwise fine exposition. Three appendices, a glossary, and a set of endnotes are crisp and sober. They are excellent. 'The Lightness of Being' is not unbearable, but it is weighed down with too much clutter to rank as a masterpiece. It's a pity: Wilczek's best writing--some of it in this book--is l

Kronfeld, Andreas S.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Generation of electricity with fuel cell using alcohol fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a method for generating electricity in a fuel cell, the fuel cell comprising a cathode, an electrolyte, an anode comprising a first, fluid-permeable face and a second face in contact with the electrolyte, and an external circuit connecting the cathode and the anode. It comprises bringing a lower primary alcohol into contact with the first fluid-permeable face of the anode, thereby permitting the lower primary alcohol to penetrate into the cross-section of the anode toward the second face; oxidizing the lower primary alcohol essentially to carbon dioxide and water at the second face of the anode, reducing a reducible gas at the cathode, and obtaining electricity from the fuel cell.

Reddy, N.R.K.V.; Taylor, E.J.

1992-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

119

Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

State of California BOARD OF EQUALIZATION ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE TAX REGULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Samples and donations of alcoholic beverages shall be reported as sales. Each transfer of samples between licensees authorized to possess alcoholic beverages on which the California state alcoholic beverages taxes have not been paid (manufacturers, manufacturers ’ agents, distilled spirits wholesalers and rectifiers) shall be on an ex-tax basis, and shall be recorded on an invoice marked: “Samples.” Distilled spirits taxpayers receiving samples from other licensees in California shall record the receipt in form BOE-241-A. Samples received by direct importation shall be recorded in form BOE-242-A. Distilled spirits picked up at the licensed premises of a distilled spirits rectifier or wholesaler by a representative of a manufacturer or of a manufacturer’s agent to be used by him for sampling purposes, shall not be considered to be a transfer of samples between the licensees referred to in the second paragraph of this rule. Such deliveries of distilled

Regulation Treated; As Sales

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Alcohol Use among Restaurant Workers: An Examination of the Impact of Work-related Stress and Workplace Culture.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Despite reports indicating high levels of alcohol use in the restaurant industry, little research has examined alcohol use among restaurant workers in an in depth… (more)

Rocheleau, Gregory Christopher

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

STEP 1: TO BE COMPLETED BY ALCOHOL TECHNICIAN  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7 (07/03) OMB Control No. 1910-5122 7 (07/03) OMB Control No. 1910-5122 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Human Reliability Program (HRP) Alcohol Testing Form (Instructions for completing this form are attached.) STEP 1: TO BE COMPLETED BY ALCOHOL TECHNICIAN A. Employee Name __________________________________________________________________ (Print) First M.I. Last B. Employee ID No. __________________________________________________________ C. Employer Name __________________________________________________________ _____________________________________(____)________________ HRP Supervisor Phone Number D. Reason for Test: Random Reasonable Susp. Post-Accident Return to Duty Follow-up Pre-employment

123

Separation of Dimethyl Ether from Syn-Gas Components by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Permeability and selectivity in gas transport through poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using variable temperature mixed gas experiments is reported. Selected gases include H2, CO, CH4, CO2, and dimethyl ether (DME). The DME data is the first to be reported through these membranes. In this paper, the chosen polymers reflect both rubbery and crystalline materials. Rubbery polymers tend to be weakly size sieving, which, in this work, has resulted in larger permeabilities, lower separation factors, and lower activation energies of permeation (Ep). Conversely, the crystalline TPX membranes showed much greater sensitivity to penetrant size; although the gas condensability also played a role in transport.

Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Alcohol production from various enzyme-converted starches with or without cooking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effectiveness of alcoholic fermentation was compared by measuring alcoholic yields from various starch mashes, both cooked and uncooked. Alcohol yields from cooked and liquefied starch by bacterial ..cap alpha..-amylase were 93.9% for corn, 92.0% for cassava, 90.6% for potato, and 73.0% for babassu, whereas alcohol yields from raw starch were 90.0% for corn, 89.0% for cassava, 48.9% for babassu, and 11.4% for potato. (JMT)

Park, Y.K.; Rivera, B.C.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Continuous Flow Oxidation of Alcohols and Aldehydes Utilizing Bleach and Catalytic Tetrabutylammonium Bromide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a method for the oxidation of a range of alcohols and aldehydes utilizing a simple flow system of alcohols in EtOAc with a stream of 12.5% NaOCl and catalytic Bu[subscript 4]NBr. Secondary alcohols are oxidized ...

Leduc, Andrew B.

126

Synthesis of Cyclic Aza-Ether Compounds and Studies of Their Use as Anion Receptors in Non-Aqueous Lithium Halide Salt Solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A series of new anion receptors, based on cyclic aza-ether compounds, have been synthesized. In all of these cyclic aza-ether compounds, the electron-withdrawing group CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2} was attached to each of the nitrogen atoms. When used as additives, all of them can significantly increase the ionic conductivity of lithium halide salts in THF solutions. This is due to the complexation between these compounds and halide anions. Ionic conductivity studies show that the complexation behavior is related to both the ring structure of the cyclic compounds and the characteristics of the halide anions. X-ray diffraction data show that the diffraction patterns of the complex crystals are different from the pure cyclic aza-ether compounds. New Bragg peaks representing a large d-spacing ({approx}15 {angstrom}) are observed for the complex crystals which provides a clear evidence for complexation.

Lee, H. S.; Sun, X.; Yang, X. Q.; McBreen, J.; Callahan, J. H.; Choi, L. S.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

128

State of California BOARD OF EQUALIZATION ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE TAX REGULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effective October 1, 2008, for purposes of tax reporting, a taxpayer will be deemed to have correctly classified an alcoholic beverage as not being a distilled spirit, as defined by Business and Professions Code section 23005, if at the time taxes are imposed, as set forth in the Revenue and Taxation Code, division 2, part 14, chapters 4, 5, and

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Plasma Concentrations of/3-Endorphin, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone, and Cortisol in Drinking and Abstinent Chronic Alcoholics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

concentrations of l~-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol in drinking and abstinent chronic alcoholics. ALCOHOL 12(6) 525-529, 1995.-Previous studies of the relationship between the endogenous opioid system and alcohol consumption have reported contradictory results. To shed light on this connection, we compared plasma concentrations of B-endorphin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol in 70 alcoholic persons after different periods of abstinence and a group of 80 control subjects. Plasma B-endorphin was decreased in alcoholics (18.61 _+ 1.38 vs. 39.31 + 3.44 pg/ml), even after more than 10 years ' abstinence. This effect may be mediated by the tetrahydroisoquinoline system, and may thus result from chronic alcohol consumption. On the other hand, lowered circulating concentrations of/3-endorphin may be a cause, rather than an effect, of alcoholism. Plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol did not differ in alcoholics and controls (19.29 ± 1.66 vs. 13.27 _+ 1.85 pg/ml for ACTH, 20.37 ~ 0.78 vs. 17.22 _ 0.64 ng/ml for cortisol), and thus appear to have no relation with chronic alcohol consumption. Adrenocorticotropic hormone Alcoholism /3-Endorphins Cortisol Tetrahydroisoquinolines THE RELATIONSHIP between alcohol consumption, abuse, and dependence, and the endogenous opioid system (EOS) has been investigated frequently (7,8,10,24,28,34). Although the findings have been contradictory, it nonetheless appears clear

J. L. Del Arbol; L J. C. Aguirre; J. Raya; J. Rico; M. E. Ruiz-requenat; M. T. Miranda

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

CenterLineBowles Center for Alcohol Studies School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism--is designed for middle-school and high-school scienceCenterLineBowles Center for Alcohol Studies School of Medicine, University of North Carolina grant to develop a second science-based curriculum. Designed for high-school students,Fetal Alcohol

Crews, Stephen

131

Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening 2007 Progress Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are researching the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is obtaining commercially available mixed alcohol or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. The most promising catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. After a review of the literature in 2006 and conversations with companies that produce catalysts, it was determined that no commercial mixed-alcohol synthesis catalysts were available. One manufacturer supplied a modified methanol catalyst that was tested in the PNNL laboratory-scale system and provided to NREL for further testing. PNNL also prepared and tested the behavior of 10 other catalysts representing the distinct catalyst classes for mixed alcohol syntheses. Based on those results,testing in 2007 focused on the performance of the rhodium-based catalysts. The effects of adding promoters to the rhodium catalysts in addition to the manganese already being used were examined. The iron and rhenium promoters both stood out as achieving higher carbon selectivities , followed by Cu. Iridium and Li, on the other hand, had low carbon selectivity ratios of 0.27 and 0.22, respectively. Although testing of candidate promoters is not complete, it appears that Ir and Li promoters warrant further optimization and possibly combination to further improve STYs and carbon selectivities to C2+ oxygenates. However, using these promoters, it will be necessary to incorporate a separate hydrogenation catalyst to improve the yield of C2+ alcohols with respect to the other oxygenates. Fe, Re, and Cu stand out as possible candidates in this respect, but additional research is needed to examine whether they can be combined with the other promoters on the Rh-based catalyst or need to be optimized on a separate catalyst support that is either physically mixed or used in series with the promoted Rh-based catalyst.

Gerber, Mark A.; White, J. F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

The Effect of Time dealumination and Solvent Concentration in Synthesis of Zeolite Catalyst and Catalytic Test for DiEthyl Ether Production Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ethanol is an alternative energy, but its has three distinct disadvantages as a transportation fuel. Its availability is currently limited, and it has a lower volumetric heating value and a lower Reid vapour pressure (RVP) than gasoline. This paper focuses for this disadvantages and to solve this problem can do with converts ethanol to DiEthyl Ether product. This research produced DiEthyl Ether by ethanol dehydration process with zeolite as catalyst. The catalyst synthesis from natural material from District Gunung Kidul, Indonesia. The catalyst produced with dealumination, neutralization, drying and calcination processes. The zeolite catalyst was analysed of Si/Al, X-ray Diffraction and specific surface area. The catalyst product then used for ethanol dehydration to produce DiEthyl Ether. The results shown the biggest surface area is 184,52 m{sup 2}/gram at catalyst production at 10 hours for time dealumination. The crystallite of catalyst product is similar like shown at diffractogram of XRD analysis. The ratio Si/Al biggest is 313.7 that obtaining at catalyst production with 7 hours for time dealumination. The catalytic test use fixed bed reactor with 1 inci diameter and ethanol fermentation both as feed. The operation condition is 150 deg. C at temperature and atmosphere pressure. The compounds product in liquid phase are diethyl ether, methanol and water.

Widayat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Diponegoro University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industry Technology Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya Indonesia, Kampus Sukolilo Surabaya Indonesia (Indonesia); Roesyadi, A.; Rachimoellah, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industry Technology Institute of Technology Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya Indonesia, Kampus Sukolilo Surabaya Indonesia (Indonesia)

2009-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

133

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

134

Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Working Group Meeting Working Group Meeting 11/06/2007 Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols Sugars and Sugar Alcohols * * Problem: Problem: Need Need to develop renewable to develop renewable hydrogen production technologies using hydrogen production technologies using diverse diverse feedstocks feedstocks 10 15 20 CH 4 : C 6 H 14 ln(P) * * Description: Description: The BioForming The BioForming TM TM process uses process uses aqueous phase reforming to cost effectively aqueous phase reforming to cost effectively produce hydrogen from a range of feedstocks, produce hydrogen from a range of feedstocks, including glycerol and sugars. The key including glycerol and sugars. The key breakthrough is a proprietary catalyst that breakthrough is a proprietary catalyst that

135

Small-scale alcohol fuel plant. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective to decrease the cost of distillation by the use of solar heat and a vacuum system combined was achieved. My original design of a single pot type still was altered during construction by dividing the distillation tank into three sections with a condenser coil after each section so that 160+ proof alcohol can be acquired without extensive reflux. However, some reflux will still be necessary to extract the most alcohol possible from the mash. This proto-type still could be reproduced for use as an On the Farm Plant if the components are size matched and the modifications are incorporated as I have outlined in Conclusions and Recommendations on page No. 4 of this report.

Fitzcharles, H.M. III

136

Report to the Congress: strategic alcohol fuel reserve  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of developing a Strategic Alcohol Fuel Reserve (SAFURE) is examined in this report. The analysis compares each of three different ethanol storage program options to that portion of the currently-planned Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) which could be replaced by a particular SAFURE program. These options are: Ethanol Spare Production Capacity Utilization using essentially uneconomical, existing production capacity; Market Diversion through government purchases of ethanol for SAFURE storage, and Dedicated Plants using federal contracts to procure the entire output of five new plants. Based on this most recent analysis and other information currently available, it was concluded that the costs of acquiring, storing and managing an alcohol fuel reserve are substantially higher than the costs of the current SPR program. The net economic and security benefits of the current SPR program are also higher, and the budget costs of the SPR program are lower.

Not Available

1982-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Kowal, Andrzej (Cracow, PL)

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

138

Alcohol-free alkoxide process for containing nuclear waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of containing nuclear waste. A composition is first prepared of about 25 to about 80%, calculated as SiO.sub.2, of a partially hydrolyzed silicon compound, up to about 30%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed aluminum or calcium compound, about 5 to about 20%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed boron or calcium compound, about 3 to about 25%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed sodium, potassium or lithium compound, an alcohol in a weight ratio to hydrolyzed alkoxide of about 1.5 to about 3% and sufficient water to remove at least 99% of the alcohol as an azeotrope. The azeotrope is boiled off and up to about 40%, based on solids in the product, of the nuclear waste, is mixed into the composition. The mixture is evaporated to about 25 to about 45% solids and is melted and cooled.

Pope, James M. (Monroeville, PA); Lahoda, Edward J. (Edgewood, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about -10.degree. C. to about 30.degree. C. or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

Benkeser, Robert A. (West Lafayette, IN); Laugal, James A. (Lostant, IL); Rappa, Angela (Baltimore, MD)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

1985-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

State of California BOARD OF EQUALIZATION ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE TAX REGULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A person may be relieved from the liability for the payment of alcoholic beverage taxes, including any penalties and interest added to those taxes, when that liability resulted from the failure to make a timely return or a payment and such failure was found by the board to be due to reasonable reliance on written advice given by the board as described in California Code of Regulations, Title 18, Section 4902.

unknown authors

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Comparative Environmental Performance of Two-Diesel-Fuel Oxygenates: Dibutyl Maleate (DBM) and Triproplyene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (TGME)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many studies have shown that the addition of oxygen bearing compounds to diesel fuel can significantly reduce particulate emissions. To assist in the evaluation of the environmental performance of diesel-fuel oxygenates, we have implemented a suite of diagnostic models for simulating the transport of compounds released to air, water, and soils/groundwater as well as regional landscapes. As a means of studying the comparative performance of DBM and TGME, we conducted a series of simulations for selected environmental media. Benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) were also addressed because they represent benchmark fuel-related compounds that have been the subject of extensive environmental measurements and modeling. The simulations showed that DBM and TGME are less mobile in soil because of reduced vapor-phase transport and increased retention on soil particles. The key distinction between these two oxygenates is that DBM is predicted to have a greater potential than TGME for aerobic biodegradation, based on chemical structure.

Layton, D.W.; Marchetti, A.A.

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

144

Energy-efficient alcohol-fuel production. Technical final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The proposed utilization schedule for the alcohol fuel plant and methane generator is to produce 180 proof ethanol during the spring, summer, and fall (April to October). The ethanol will be used in the farm tractors and trucks during the planting, growing, and harvesting seasons. Some alcohol can be stored for use during the winter. The still will not be operated during the winter (November to March) when the methane from the digester will be used to replace fuel oil for heating a swine farrowing building. There are tentative plans to develop a larger methane generator, which will utilize all of the manure (dairy, beef, horses, and swine) produced on the ISU farm. If this project is completed, there will be enough methane to produce all of the alcohol fuel needed to operate all of the farm equipment, heat the buildings, and possibly generate electricity for the farm. The methane generating system developed is working so well that there is a great deal of interest in expanding the project to where it could utilize all of the livestock waste on the farm for methane production.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Removal of technetium from alkaline nuclear-waste media by a solvent-extraction process using crown ethers  

SciTech Connect

Crown ethers dissolved in suitably modified aliphatic kerosene diluents can be employed to extract technetium as pertechnetate anion (TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) with good extraction ratios from realistic simulants of radioactive alkaline nitrate waste. The modifiers utilized are non-halogenated and non-volatile, and the technetium can be removed from the solvent by stripping using water. The crown ethers bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 (di-t-BuCH18C6) and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) provide stronger TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extraction than dicyclohexano-21-crown-7 and 4-tert-butylcyclohexano 15-crown-5. Whereas DCH18C6 provides somewhat higher TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extraction ratios than the more lipophilic di-t-BuCH18C6 derivative, the latter was selected for further study owing to its lower distribution to the aqueous phase. Particularly good extraction and stripping results were obtained with di-t-BuCH 18C6 at 0.02 M in a 2:1 vol/vol blend of tributyl phosphate and Isopar{reg_sign} M. Using this solvent, 98.9% of the technetium contained (at 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M) in a Double-Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) Hanford tank waste simulant was removed following two cross-current extraction contacts. Two cross-current stripping contacts with deionized water afforded removal of 99.1% of the technetium from the organic solvent.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Presley, D.J.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

Joshi, Ashok V. (Salt Lake City, UT); Balagopal, Shekar (Sandy, UT); Pendelton, Justin (Salt Lake City, UT)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

147

Ligand Rearrangement Reactions of Cr(CO)6 in Alcohol Solutions:Experiment and Theory  

SciTech Connect

The ligand rearrangement reaction of Cr(CO)6 is studied in a series of alcohol solutions using ultrafast, infrared spectroscopy and Brownian dynamics simulations.

Shanoski, Jennifer E.; Glascoe, Elizabeth A.; Harris, Charles B.

2005-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

148

BSA 99-05: Anodes to Oxidize Alcohol in Fuel Cells  

BSA 99-05: Anodes to Oxidize Alcohol in Fuel Cells. BNL Reference Number: BSA 99-05. Summary. ... Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in ...

149

Biomass-based alcohol fuels: the near-term potential for use with gasoline  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report serves as an introduction to the requirements and prospects for a nationwide alcohol-gasoline fuel system based on alcohols derived from biomass resources. Technological and economic factors of the production and use of biomass-based methanol and ethanol fuels are evaluated relative to achieving 5 or 10 percent alcohol-gasoline blends by 1990. It is concluded the maximum attainable is a nationwide 5 percent methanol or ethanol-gasoline system replacing gasoline by 1990. Relative to existing gasoline systems, costs of alcohol-gasoline systems will be substantial.

Park, W.; Price, G.; Salo, D.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

REVIEW ARTICLE Alcohol and injury in Poland: review and training recommendations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background Alcohol plays a significant role in accidents, injuries, and their outcomes. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are 76.3 million people with alcohol use disorders worldwide; in 2000, 1.8 million deaths and loss of 58.3 million disability-adjusted life years were attributed to alcohol. Methods Although the association between alcohol consumption and trauma-related morbidity and mortality is well-documented, particularly in the US, there is much less At the time this paper was written, Dr. Wozniak was a Fogarty

Piotr Wozniak; Rebecca Cunningham; Sonia Kamat; Kristen L. Barry; Frederic C. Blow; Andrzej S. Zawadzki; P. Wozniak; R. Cunningham; S. Kamat; A. S. Zawadzki; R. Cunningham

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Catalytic conversion of C3+ alcohols to hydrocarbon blend-stock  

Catalytic conversion of C3+ alcohols to hydrocarbon blend-stock Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

152

Alcohol and Marijuana Use Across the Transition to Marriage: Group Differences and Psychosocial Factors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??It has been well-established that alcohol and marijuana use levels tend to decline during the transition to marriage, or the transition from single to married… (more)

Auerbach, Karen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Electron and hydrogen atom transfer mechanisms for the photoreduction of o-quinones. Visible light induced photoreactions of. beta. -lapachone with amines, alcohols, and amino alcohols  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

{beta}-Lapachone (1), a substituted o-naphthoquinone absorbing into the visible ({lambda}{sub max} = 424 nm in benzene), is cleanly and efficiently reduced to the corresponding semiquinone radical upon photolysis in degassed solutions with alcohols, amines, and {beta}-amino alcohols. The course and products of these photoreactions have been followed by NMR, ESR, fluorescence, and absorption spectroscopy. For all three types of reductant the overall reaction involves 2e{sup {minus}} oxidation of the donor, and the quantum efficiencies show a dependence upon quinone concentration indicative of the role of a second dark reduction of 1 by products of the primary photolysis. For amines and amino alcohols the reaction is initiated by single electron transfer quenching of triplet 1. For triethylamine the mechanism is indicated to be a sequence of two electron transfer-proton transfer steps culminating in two semiquinone radicals and the enamine Et{sub 2}NCH{double bond}CH{sub 2}. For amino alcohols a C-C cleavage concurrent with deprotonation of the alcohol (oxidative photofragmentation) occurs, in competition with reverse electron transfer, following the quenching step. For both amines and amino alcohols, limiting efficiencies of reaction approach 2 (for QH{sup {sm bullet}} formation). In contrast, both 2-propanol and benzyl alcohol are oxidized by excited states of 1 with much lower efficiency. The probable mechanism for photooxidation of the alcohols involves a H atom abstraction quenching of the excited state followed by an electron transfer-proton transfer sequence in which a ground-state 1 is reduced. Lower limiting efficiencies for photoreduction of 1 by the alcohols are attributed to inefficiencies of net H-atom transfer in the quenching step. 54 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

Xiaohong Ci; Whitten, D.G. (Univ. of Rochester, NY (USA)); Silveira da Silva, R.; Nicodem, D. (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

1989-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Optimum catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this contract are to discover and evaluate the catalytic properties of novel homogeneous, heterogeneous, or combination catalytic systems for the production of alcohol fuel extenders from syngas, to evaluate analytically and on the bench scale novel reactor concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products, and to develop on the bench scale the best combination of chemistry, reactor, and total process configuration to achieve the minimum product cost for conversion of syngas to liquid fuel products. Methanol production and heterogeneous catalysis utilizing transition elements supported on metal oxides with spinel structure are discussed. 12 figs., 16 tabs.

Not Available

1990-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

155

Novel reactor configuration for synthesis gas conversion to alcohols  

SciTech Connect

Research continued on the conversion of synthesis gas to alcohols and reactor configuration. Objectives for this quarter: the project stated on October 1, 1989 and according to the Task Schedule provided in the original work breakdown schedule, Task I was to be completed in the first quarter and Task II to be started. Task I consisted of construction of the slurry reactor set-up to be used in Task IV for determination of the reactor kinetics and procurement of the parts for automation equipment, separators, computer activated parts etc. for automation of the trickle bed rector and GC equipment. Task II consisted of standardization and automation of GC analysis protocols. 1 fig.

Akgerman, A.; Anthony, R.G. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Role of osteopontin in hepatic neutrophil infiltration during alcoholic steatohepatitis  

SciTech Connect

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major complication of heavy alcohol (EtOH) drinking and is characterized by three progressive stages of pathology: steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Alcoholic steatosis (AS) is the initial stage of ALD and consists of fat accumulation in the liver accompanied by minimal liver injury. AS is known to render the hepatocytes increasingly sensitive to toxicants such as bacterial endotoxin (LPS). Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), the second and rate-limiting step in the progression of ALD, is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation, neutrophil infiltration, and neutrophil-mediated parenchymal injury. However, the pathogenesis of ASH is poorly defined. It has been theorized that the pathogenesis of ASH involves interaction of increased circulating levels of LPS with hepatocytes being rendered highly sensitive to LPS due to heavy EtOH consumption. We hypothesize that osteopontin (OPN), a matricellular protein (MCP), plays an important role in the hepatic neutrophil recruitment due to its enhanced expression during the early phase of ALD (AS and ASH). To study the role of OPN in the pathogenesis of ASH, we induced AS in male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks. AS rats experienced extensive fat accumulation and minimal liver injury. Moderate induction in OPN was observed in AS group. ASH was induced by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks followed by LPS injection. The ASH rats had substantial neutrophil infiltration, coagulative oncotic necrosis, and developed higher liver injury. Significant increases in the hepatic and circulating levels of OPN was observed in the ASH rats. Higher levels of the active, thrombin-cleaved form of OPN in the liver in ASH group correlated remarkably with hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Finally, correlative studies between OPN and hepatic neutrophil infiltration was corroborated in a simple rat peritoneal model where enhanced peritoneal fluid neutrophil infiltration was noted in rats injected OPN intraperitoneally. Taken together these data indicate that OPN expression induced during ASH may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ASH by stimulating neutrophil transmigration.

Apte, Udayan M. [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Banerjee, Atrayee [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); McRee, Rachel [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Wellberg, Elizabeth [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Ramaiah, Shashi K. [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States)]. E-mail: sramaiah@cvm.tamu.edu

2005-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

157

Level of osteopenia and bone recovery in alcohol-fed adolescent rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adolescence is a period in human growth and development that is a time of rapid and drastic change. It is also known to be an age of widespread alcohol abuse. Studies addressing the reversibility of the deleterious effects of chronic alcohol consumption on young, actively growing adolescent bones have not been done. The objective of this study was to determine the level of bone recovery, if any, once an adolescent ceases alcohol consumption. Fifty, 4-week old, female, Sprague-Dawley rats were individually housed and maintained in an American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care-accredited facility at Texas A&M. The rats (n = 6 or 7 per group) were fed either alcohol (35% ethanol-derived calories), isocaloric liquid diet, or chow for 2 or 4 weeks, depending on the experimental group. The weekly blood alcohol concentrations averaged 309 [] 9 mg/dl. The rats were sacrificed 2 and 4 weeks after the experimental feeding began. The BioQuant Morphometric System was used to perform the histomorphometric analyses of the proximal tibia. Tibia bone volume per trabecular volume (BV/TV) in both age groups of alcohol and pair-fed animals was significantly less when compared to the chow 4 week animals. BV/TV was increased in the alcohol recovery group when compared to the alcohol 2 and 4 week groups, but the level of growth never reached the chow-fed 4 week group. Femur length, diameter and volume measurements increased in the alcohol recovery group when compared to both the alcohol 2 and 4 week groups. However, the length and volume parameters did not fully recover to equal those of the control chow 4 week animals, or even the some-age pair-fed animals. Femur diameter of the alcohol recovery animals was comparable to the alcohol 4 week animals, but less than the chow-fed. Alcohol also suppressed IGF-I levels. Full bone recovery did not occur within two weeks after removal of alcohol from the diet, suggesting the detrimental effects due to alcohol were not completely reversible during this time frame.

Spears, Heather Lynae

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Economics of producing fuel-grade alcohol from corn in western Ohio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The production of significant quantities of alcohol fuel will have important effects on the use of agricultural resources, including increased food prices. The two major objectives of this research were to determine (1) the potential effects of alcohol-fuel production on agriculture, and (2) the increase in energy prices needed for alcohol-fuel production to become economic. Western Ohio (the Corn Belt part of the state) was chosen for study. A quadratic-programming model with crop, livestock, and alcohol-fuel-production activities was used for analysis. Four alcohol-fuel-production levels were analyzed: 100, 200, 300 and 400 million gallons. The 400-million-gallon level represents western Ohio's share of alcohol-fuel production for a national gasohol program. The production of alcohol results in a high protein by-product feed that can substitute for soybean meal. Efficient use of this by-product is a crucial factor affecting resource use and food prices. At low alcohol-fuel production levels, 80% of the additional cropland required for increased corn production comes from the cropland released through by-product feeding. However, as alcohol-fuel production increases, livestock's ability to use efficiently this by-product feed decreases. This in turn, reduces greatly the cropland that can be released for increased corn production. Consequently, food prices increase substantially. The quantity of land released through by-product feeding, at high alcohol-fuel-production levels, can be increased if the corn is first wet milled. Wet milling produces high-protein feeds that can be used more efficiently by livestock. For alcohol-fuel production to become economic, crude oil prices must increase by ten cents per gallon for the wet-milling process and 22 cents per gallon for the conventional distillery process (1981 $).

Ott, S.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Solvent Effects on Metal Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids (DE-FG07-98ER 149 13)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to study the salvation effects of metal-crown ether complexation in different solvents. It has been suggested in the literature that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) is a tunable solvent because its salvation environment can be varied with the fluid density. In this project, spectroscopic techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were used to evaluate salvation effects of metal crown complexation in organic solvents and in SF-CO2. In most solvent extraction systems, water is often involved in the extraction processes. We have carried out extensive studies of water-crown ether interactions in different solvents and in SF-CO2 using NMR and FTIR techniques. Water molecules can be attached to crown ethers through hydrogen bonding of H-0-H to the oxygen atoms of crown ether cavities. This type of interaction is like a Lewis acid-Lewis base complexation. During the course of this project, we noticed that some CO2 soluble Lewis base such as tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) can also form such Lewis acid-Lewis base complexes with water and other inorganic acids including nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Inorganic acids (e.g. nitric acid) are normally not soluble in SF-CO2. However, because TBP is highly soluble in SF-CO2, an inorganic acid bound to TBP via hydrogen bonding becomes CO2 soluble. This Lewis acid-Lewis base complex approach provides a method of introducing inorganic acids into supercritical fluid CO2 for chemical reactions.

Wai, C.M.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Results of Reference List Query  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 1991) (54-1333 keV: acetophenone, acetylacetone, bakelite, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, cellulose-triacetate, ethanol, ether, ethylacetoacetate ...

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161

xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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181

Some economic implications of the utilization of alcohol for the production of energy  

SciTech Connect

The production rate of ethanol per unit of land was examined for different crops and the order of magnitude of the costs was calculated. Alcohol production programs in Brazil, Thailand and Sudan are described.

Bennett, M.C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Production of Mixed Alcohols from Bio-syngas over Mo-based Catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of Mo-based catalysts prepared by sol-gel method using citric acid as complexant were successfully applied in the high efficient production of mixed alcohols from bio-syngas

Song-bai Qiu; Wei-wei Huang; Yong Xu; Lu Liu; Quan-xin Li

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Partial oxidation for improved cold starts in alcohol-fueled engines: Phase 2 topical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Alcohol fuels exhibit poor cold-start performance because of their low volatility. Neat alcohol engines become difficult, if not impossible, to start at temperatures close to or below freezing. Improvements in the cold-start performance (both time to start and emissions) are essential to capture the full benefits of alcohols as an alternative transportation fuel. The objective of this project was to develop a neat alcohol partial oxidation (POX) reforming technology to improve an alcohol engine`s ability to start at low temperatures (as low as {minus}30 C) and to reduce its cold-start emissions. The project emphasis was on fuel-grade ethanol (E95) but the technology can be easily extended to other alcohol fuels. Ultimately a compact, on-vehicle, ethanol POX reactor was developed as a fuel system component to produce a hydrogen-rich, fuel-gas mixture for cold starts. The POX reactor is an easily controllable combustion device that allows flexibility during engine startup even in the most extreme conditions. It is a small device that is mounted directly onto the engine intake manifold. The gaseous fuel products (or reformate) from the POX reactor exit the chamber and enter the intake manifold, either replacing or supplementing the standard ethanol fuel consumed during an engine start. The combustion of the reformate during startup can reduce engine start time and tail-pipe emissions.

NONE

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Hydride transfer made easy in the oxidation of alcohols catalyzed by choline oxidase  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Choline oxidase (E.C. 1.1.3.17) catalyzes the two-step, four-electron oxidation of choline to glycine betaine with betaine aldehyde as enzyme-associated intermediate and molecular oxygen as final electron acceptor (Scheme 1). The gem-diol, hydrated species of the aldehyde intermediate of the reaction acts as substrate for aldehyde oxidation, suggesting that the enzyme may use similar strategies for the oxidation of the alcohol substrate and aldehyde intermediate. The determination of the chemical mechanism for alcohol oxidation has emerged from biochemical, mechanistic, mutagenetic, and structural studies. As illustrated in the mechanism of Scheme 2, the alcohol substrate is initially activated in the active site of the enzyme by removal of the hydroxyl proton. The resulting alkoxide intermediate is then stabilized in the enzyme-substrate complex via electrostatic interactions with active site amino acid residues. Alcohol oxidation then occurs quantum mechanically via the transfer of the hydride ion from the activated substrate to the N(5) flavin locus. An essential requisite for this mechanism of alcohol oxidation is the high degree of preorganization of the activated enzyme-substrate complex, which is achieved through an internal equilibrium of the Michaelis complex occurring prior to, and independently from, the subsequent hydride transfer reaction. The experimental evidence that support the mechanism for alcohol oxidation shown in Scheme 2 is briefly summarized in the Results and Discussion section.

Gadda, G.; Orville, A.; Pennati, A.; Francis, K.; Quaye, O.; Yuan, H.; Rungsrisuriyachai, K.; Finnegan, S.; Mijatovic, S.; Nguyen, T.

2008-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

185

Altered cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulation during hyperosmotic stress in adult rats developmentally exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the structurally similar chemicals polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) disrupt the function of multiple endocrine systems. PCBs and PBDEs disrupt the secretion of vasopressin (VP) from the hypothalamus during osmotic activation. Since the peripheral and central vasopressinergic axes are critical for osmotic and cardiovascular regulation, we examined whether perinatal PBDE exposure could impact these functions during physiological activation. Rats were perinatally dosed with a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71. Dams were given 0 (corn oil control), 1.7 (low dose) or 30.6 mg/kg/day (high dose) in corn oil from gestational day (GD) 6 through postnatal day (PND) 21 by oral gavage. In the male offspring exposed to high dose PBDE plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels were reduced at PND 21 and recovered to control levels by PND 60 when thyroid stimulating hormone levels were elevated. At 14-18 months of age, cardiovascular responses were measured in four groups of rats: Normal (Oil, normosmotic condition), Hyper (Oil, hyperosmotic stress), Hyper PBDE low (1.7 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress), and Hyper PBDE high (30.6 mg/kg/day DE-71 perinatally, hyperosmotic stress). Systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and heart rate (HR) were determined using tail cuff sphygmomanometry and normalized to pretreatment values (baseline) measured under basal conditions. Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. Hyper PBDE low and high dose rats showed 36.1 and 64.7% greater systolic BP responses at 3 h post hyperosmotic injection relative to pretreatment baseline, respectively. No treatment effects were measured for diastolic BP and HR. Hyper and Hyper PBDE rats showed increased mean plasma osmolality values by 45 min after injection relative to normosmotic controls. In contrast to Hyper rats, Hyper PBDE (high) rats showed a further increase in mean plasma osmolality at 3 h (358.3 {+-} 12.4 mOsm/L) relative to 45 min post hyperosmotic injection (325.1 {+-} 11.4 mOsm/L). Impaired osmoregulation in PBDE-treated animals could not be attributed to decreased levels of plasma vasopressin. Our findings suggest that developmental exposure to PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular reactivity and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation in late adulthood. - Highlights: > We examined whether PBDE exposure could impact osmotic and cardiovascular regulation. > Hyperosmotic treatment yielded significant changes in systolic BP in PBDE exposed rats only. > PBDEs may disrupt cardiovascular and osmoregulatory responses to physiological activation.

Shah, Ashini [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Coburn, Cary G. [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Whitley, Rebecca; Shahidzadeh, Anoush; Gillard, Elizabeth R.; Nichol, Robert [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Leon-Olea, Martha [Neuromorfologia Funcional, Direccion de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria Ramon de la Fuente Muniz, Mexico City (Mexico); Gaertner, Mark [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S. [Neurotoxicology Branch, NHEERL/ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Curras-Collazo, Margarita C., E-mail: margarita.curras@ucr.edu [Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States); Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, 92521 (United States)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250°C to 380°C. High temperatures (e.g. 380°C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280°C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320°C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380°C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380°C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSV’s and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pdº particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Greene, Marvin I. (Oradell, NJ); Gelbein, Abraham P. (Morristown, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the analytical protocols that were developed during the last two years to analyze ''spent'' THQ (tetrahydroquinoline) slurry liquid. Identification of the components of the ''spent'' THQ should help to understand the influence of the slurry medium on the methanol synthesis reaction, and on other reactions with THQ as the slurry liquid. Silica gel liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to isolate and purify the major compounds in the ''spent'' slurry liquid. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to identify the major compounds. Methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl-THQ were found to comprise more than 80% of the ''spent'' liquid. The balance was various methylated indoles. A methyl group always is attached to the N atom in the ring structure. Speculative mechanisms are presented that may help to understand the interaction between the catalyst and the alkylated THQ slurry liquid, and the effect of liquid composition on the methanol synthesis reaction. A poster entitled ''Promoted Zinc Chromite Catalyst for Higher Alcohol Synthesis in a Slurry Reactor-2. Spent Liquid Analysis'' was presented at the AIChE National Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Nov 12-17, 2000.

Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Separation of alcohol-water mixtures using salts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Use of a salt (KF or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) to induce phase separation of alcohol-water mixtures was investigated in three process flowsheets to compare operating and capital costs with a conventional distillation process. The process feed was the Clostridia fermentation product, composed of 98 wt % water and 2 wt % solvents (70% 1-butanol, 27% 2-propanol, and 3% ethanol). The design basis was 150 x 10/sup 6/ kg/y of solvents. Phase equilibria and tieline data were obtained from literature and experiments. Three separation-process designs were developed and compared by an incremental economic analysis (+-30%) with the conventional separation technique using distillation alone. The cost of salt recovery for recycle was found to be the critical feature. High capital and operating costs make recovery of salt by precipitation uneconomical; however, a separation scheme using multiple-effect evaporation for salt recovery has comparable incremental capital costs ($1.72 x 10/sup 6/ vs $1.76 x 10/sup 6/) and lower incremental operating costs ($2.14 x 10/sup 6//y vs $4.83 x 10/sup 6//y) than the conventional separation process.

Card, J. C.; Farrell, L. M.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Geothermal source potential and utilization for methane generation and alcohol production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating a geothermally heated anaerobic digester with a fuel alcohol plant and cattle feedlot. Thin stillage produced from the alcohol production process and manure collected from the cattle feedlot would be digested in anaerobic digesters to produce biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, and residue. The energy requirements to maintain proper digester temperatures would be provided by geothermal water. The biogas produced in the digesters would be burned in a boiler to produce low-pressure steam which would be used in the alcohol production process. The alcohol plant would be sized so that the distiller's grains byproduct resulting from the alcohol production would be adequate to supply the daily cattle feed requirements. A portion of the digester residue would substitute for alfalfa hay in the cattle feedlot ration. The major design criterion for the integrated facilty was the production of adequate distiller's grain to supply the daily requirements of 1700 head of cattle. It was determined that, for a ration of 7 pounds of distiller's grain per head per day, a 1 million gpy alcohol facility would be required. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared for the proposed project, operating costs were calculated for a facility based on a corn feedstock, the economic feasibility of the proposed project was examined by calculating its simple payback, and an analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity of the project's economic viability to variations in feedstock costs and alcohol and distiller's grain prices.

Austin, J.C.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Impact of timing of alcohol use initiation and depressed mood on risky substance use among urban minority adolescents.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The current study involved the investigation of two research areas: (1) the effect of timing of alcohol use initiation on risky substance use in mid-adolescence,… (more)

Boohar, Ellen Moore

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Help! I need somebody (not just anybody) - the folktale's helper in personal experience narratives of recovering alcoholics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis explores the personal experience narratives of nine recovering alcoholics through the lens of folktale scholarship. Using Propp's structuralist model developed for folktales, I… (more)

Baker, Jedediah, 1980-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Alcoholic fermentation of raw cassava starch by Rhizopus koji without cooking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using only wheat bran koji from the Rhizopus strain, raw cassava starch and cassava pellets converted reasonably well to alcohol (ethanol) without cooking at 35 degrees C and pH 4.5-5.0. When the initial broth contained 30 g raw cassava starch, 10 g Rhizopus species koji, and 100 mL tap water, 12.1 g of alcohol was recovered by final distillation from fermented broth. In this case, 12.1 g alcohol corresponds to an 85.5% conversion rate based on the theoretical value of the starch content. When the initial broth contained 40 g cassava starch, 14.1 g of alcohol was recovered, where 14.1 g corresponds to a 74.5% conversion rate. The alcoholic fermentation process described in the present work is considered more effective and reasonable than the process using raw starch without cooking reported until now, since the new process makes it unnecessary to add yeast cells and glucoamylase preparation. (Refs. 15).

Fuijo, Y.; Suyanadona, P.; Attasampunna, P.; Ueda, S.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Alcoholic fermentation of raw cassava starch by Rhizopus koji without cooking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using only wheat bran koji from the Rhizopus strain, raw cassava starch and casava pellets converted reasonably well to alcohol (ethanol) without cooking at 35/sup 0/C and pH 4.5-5.0. When the initial broth contained 30 g raw cassava starch, 10 g Rhizopus sp. koji, and 100 mL tap water, 12.1 g of alcohol was recovered by final distillation from fermented broth. In this case, 12.1 g alcohol corresponds to an 85.5% conversion rate based on the theoretical value of the starch content. When the initial broth contained 40 g cassava starch, 14.1 g of alcohol was recovered, where 14.1 g corresponds to a 74.5% conversion rate. The alcoholic fermentation process described in the present work is considered more effective and reasonable than the process using raw starch without cooking reported until now, since the new process makes it unnecessary to add yeast cells and glucoamylase preparation.

Fujio, Y.; Suyanadona, P.; Attasampunna, P.; Ueda, S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Operational safety report for the cleaning of non-radioactive, sodium-wetted reactor components with ethyl alcohol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The safety aspects of the removal of sodium from nonradioactive reactor components by the alcohol process are described in detail. Pertinent properties of alcohol and hydrogen are presented. Relevant excerpts from the Occupational Safety and Health Act safety codes are presented, and a conceptual system is shown illustrating the application of these safety measures.

Humphrey, L.; Felton, L.; Goodman, L.; Pilicy, G.; Welch, F.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Stability and Lifetime of K-CoMoSx Mixed Alcohol Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Researchers have studied sulfide-type catalysts for the production of mixed alcohols from synthesis gas for several decades. Despite many advances in the art, these processes are not yet commercial, due in large part to mediocre economics and the added risk associated with uncertainty in catalyst lifetime. This talk will outline some recent studies in the lifetime and stability of K-CoMoSx-type mixed alcohol catalysts. Specifically, studies of long term operation (> 3000h), sulfiding agents, simulated methanol recycle, and morphology (probed via XRD and XPS) will be discussed, with the conclusion that these materials are likely to exhibit acceptable lifetimes in continuous operation.

Hensley, J. E.; Ruddy, D.; Schaidle, J.; Ferrell, J.; Thibodeaux, J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Peculiar points in the phase diagram of the water-alcohol solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The work is devoted to the investigation of nontrivial behavior of dilute water-alcohol solutions. The temperature and concentration dependencies of the contraction for aqueous solutions of ethanol and methanol are analyzed. The existence of a specific point, the so-called peculiar point, was established. It is shown that water-alcohol solutions of different types obey the principle of corresponding states if temperature and volume fraction are used as principal coordinates. In this case, the concentration of the peculiar point for different solutions is close to x_{\

Chechko, V E; Malomuzh, M P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Oxidative Mineralization and Characterization of Polyvinyl Alcohol Solutions for Wastewater Treatment  

SciTech Connect

The principal objectives of this study are to identify an appropriate polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) oxidative mineralization technique, perform compatibility and evaporation fate tests for neat and mineralized PVA, and determine potential for PVA chemical interferences which may affect ion exchange utilization for radioactive wastewater processing in the nuclear industry.

Oji, L.N.

1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

Lightweight methods to estimate influenza rates and alcohol sales volume from Twitter messages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze over 570 million Twitter messages from an eight month period and find that tracking a small number of keywords allows us to estimate influenza rates and alcohol sales volume with high accuracy. We validate our approach against government statistics ... Keywords: Classification, Regression, Social media

Aron Culotta

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Plasma Semicarbazide-Sensitive Amine Oxidase Activity in Type I and II Alcoholics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) which catalysis the deamination of primary amines is involved in vascular endothelial or tissue damage through the formation of reactive aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide and ammonia from endogenous substrates. In the present study, plasma SSAO activity, plasma and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation status, glutathione levels and the correlation between the plasma SSAO activity and lipid peroxidation were determined to clarify the mechanism of liver injury related to the oxidative stress in early- and late-onset (Type I and II) alcoholic subtypes. Plasma SSAO activity and, plasma and erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as the indicators of lipid peroxidation status of alcoholics were found to be significantly higher than those of the control group. Increased plasma SSAO activity was strongly correlated with the elevated plasma and erythrocyte MDA levels and decreased reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio in alcoholics suggesting that enhanced plasma SSAO activity might contribute to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) detected in the liver of the alcoholics.

Gülberk Uçar; Ba?aran Demir; Yaz??ma Adresi

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Electrochemical Investigation of Al–Li/LixFePO4 Cells in Oligo(ethylene glycol) Dimethyl Ether/LiPF6  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

1 M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in oligo(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether with a molecular weight, 500 g mol{sup -1} (OEGDME500, 1 M LiPF{sub 6}), was investigated as an electrolyte in experimental Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells. More than 60 cycles were achieved using this electrolyte in a Li-ion cell with an Al-Li alloy as an anode sandwiched between two Li x FePO{sub 4} electrodes (cathodes). Charging efficiencies of 96-100% and energy efficiencies of 86-89% were maintained during 60 cycles at low current densities. A theoretical investigation revealed that the specific energy can be increased up to 15% if conventional LiC{sub 6} anodes are replaced by Al-Li alloy electrodes. The specific energy and the energy density were calculated as a function of the active mass per electrode surface (charge density). The results reveal that for a charge density of 4 mAh cm{sup -2} about 160 mWh g{sup -1} can be reached with Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} batteries. Power limiting diffusion processes are discussed, and the power capability of Al-Li/LiFePO{sub 4} cells was experimentally evaluated using conventional electrolytes.

Wang, X.J.; Zhou, Y.N.; Lee, H.S.; Nam, K.W.; Yang, X.Q.; Haas, O.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Effect of incorporating cellulose nanocrystals from corncob on the tensile, thermal and barrier properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of incorporating cellulose nanocrystals fromcorncob (CNC) on the tensile, thermal, and barrier properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanocomposites was evaluated. The CNC were prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis at 45°C for 60 minutes, ...

Hudson Alves Silvério, Wilson Pires Flauzino Neto, Daniel Pasquini

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Dual bowl metering block for alcohol and/or nitro-methane burning carburetor and method of conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved carburetor metering block for converting a conventional gasoline carburetor to alcohol fuel involving a carburetor metering block means adapted to attach to a conventional carburetor and replace the removable fuel bowl and standard metering block wherein the improved carburetor metering block means is adapted to accept, simultaneously, a plurality of individual and separate fuel bowls. Such a device can inexpensively convert a conventional carburetor to the use of alcohol fuel consistent with sufficient fuel flow and adequate fuel level control.

Horton, J.A.

1984-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

205

Thermochemical Ethanol via Direct Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermochemical Ethanol via Thermochemical Ethanol via Direct Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass A. Dutta and S.D. Phillips Technical Report NREL/TP-510-45913 July 2009 Technical Report Thermochemical Ethanol via NREL/TP-510-45913 Direct Gasification and Mixed July 2009 Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass A. Dutta and S.D. Phillips Prepared under Task No. BB07.3710 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

206

Fabrication of silicon field emission tips for vacuum microelectronics by KOH/Alcohol/Water etching  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fabrication of sharp silicon tips for field emission cathodes by KOH/Alcohol/Water (KAW) solution was investigated. The KOH/Alcohol/Water solution was found to work better and easier than the Ethylene-Diamine/Pyrocathechol/Water solution in etching silicon tips. It etched the (100) silicon surface more slowly, but in a more controllable manor. The resulting tips were usually very uniform and pretty sharp in most studies. Actually, there were some systems showing non-uniform etching behavior. However, we were able to demonstrate that the uniformity could be improved by shifting the reaction from mass transfer controlled to chemical kinetics controlled. Such technique could allow us to fabricate uniform silicon cones even in a very primitive apparatus with non-uniform mass transfer. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Hui, W.C.; Hee, E.; Ciarlo, D.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Short-chain polymer rigidity due to the Debye process of monohydroxy alcohols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In addition to the ubiquitous structural relaxation of viscous supercooled liquids, monohydroxy alcohols and several other hydrogen-bonded systems display a strong single-exponential electrical low-frequency absorption. So far, this so-called Debye process could be observed only using dielectric techniques. Exploiting a combination of broad-band and high-resolution rheology experiments for three isomeric octanols, unambiguous mechanical evidence for the Debye process is found. Its spectral signature is similar to the viscoelastic fingerprint of small-chain polymers, enabling us to estimate the effective molecular weight for the supramolecular structure formed by the studied monohydroxy alcohols. This finding opens the venue for the application of further non-dielectric techniques directed at unraveling the microscopic nature of the Debye process and for an understanding of this phenomenon in terms of polymer concepts.

C. Gainaru; R. Figuli; T. Hecksher; B. Jakobsen; J. C. Dyre; M. Wilhelm; R. Böhmer

2013-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

208

Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2009 Progress Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been conducting research for the United States Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy, Biomass Program to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). This research has involved the screening of potential catalysts, and optimization of the more promising ones, using laboratory scale reactors. During 2009, the main goal of the testing program focused on optimizing selected supported catalysts containing rhodium (Rh) and manganese (Mn). Optimization involved examining different total concentrations and atomic ratios of Rh and Mn as well as that of the more promising promoters (Ir and Li) identified in the earlier screening studies. Evaluation of catalyst performance focused on attaining improvements with respect to the space-time-yield and converted carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates, with additional consideration given to the fraction of the oxygenates that were C2+ alcohols.

Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.; White, J. F.; Rummel, Becky L.

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

209

Technoeconomic Analysis of a Lignocellulosic Biomass Indirect Gasification Process to Make Ethanol via Mixed Alcohols Synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technoeconomic analysis of a 2000 tonne/day lignocellulosic biomass conversion process to make mixed alcohols via gasification and catalytic synthesis was completed. The process, modeled using ASPEN Plus process modeling software for mass and energy calculations, included all major process steps to convert biomass into liquid fuels, including gasification, gas cleanup and conditioning, synthesis conversion to mixed alcohols, and product separation. The gas cleanup area features a catalytic fluidized-bed steam reformer to convert tars and hydrocarbons into syngas. Conversions for both the reformer and the synthesis catalysts were based on research targets expected to be achieved by 2012 through ongoing research. The mass and energy calculations were used to estimate capital and operating costs that were used in a discounted cash flow rate of return analysis for the process to calculate a minimum ethanol selling price of $0.267/L ($1.01/gal) ethanol (U.S.$2005).

Phillips, S. D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Film Thickness Changes in EHD Sliding Contacts Lubricated by a Fatty Alcohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the appearance of abnormal film thickness features formed in elastohydrodynamic contacts lubricated by a fatty alcohol. Experiments were conducted by varying the slide to roll ratio between a steel ball and a glass disk in a ball-on-disk type device. Lauric alcohol was used as lubricant and film thickness was measured in the contact area by optical interferometry. Experimental results showed that the film thickness distributions under pure rolling conditions remained classical whereas the film shape changed when the slide to roll ratio was increased. The thickness in the central contact area increased and in the same time inlet and exit film thicknesses were modified. In addition, the film shapes observed when the ball surface was moving faster than the disk one and those obtained in the opposite case were different, i.e. when opposite signs but equal absolute values of the slide to roll ratio were applied.

Yagi, Kazuyuki

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

Wallner, T. (Energy Systems)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Hydrogenolysis Of 5-Carbon Sugars, Sugar Alcohols And Compositions For Reactions Involving Hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA); Miller, Dennis J. (Okemos, MI)

2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

213

Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements reveal the origin of the Debye process in monohydroxy alcohols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Monohydroxy alcohols show a structural relaxation and at longer time scales a Debye-type dielectric peak. From spin-lattice relaxation experiments using different nuclear probes an intermediate, slower-than-structural dynamics is identified for n-butanol. Based on these findings and on diffusion measurements, a model of self-restructuring, transient chains is proposed. The model is demonstrated to explain consistently the so far puzzling observations made for this class of hydrogen-bonded glass forming liquids.

C. Gainaru; R. Meier; S. Schildmann; C. Lederle; W. Hiller; E. A. Rössler; R. Böhmer

2010-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

214

Spectroscopic Analyses of the Biofuels-Critical Phytochemical Coniferyl Alcohol and Its Enzyme-Catalyzed Oxidation Products  

SciTech Connect

Lignin composition (monolignol types of coniferyl, sinapyl or p-coumaryl alcohol) is causally related to biomass recalcitrance. We describe multiwavelength (220, 228, 240, 250, 260, 290, 295, 300, 310 or 320 nm) absorption spectroscopy of coniferyl alcohol and its laccase- or peroxidase-catalyzed products during real time kinetic, pseudo-kinetic and endpoint analyses, in optical turn on or turn off modes, under acidic or basic conditions. Reactions in microwell plates and 100 mu L volumes demonstrated assay miniaturization and high throughput screening capabilities. Bathochromic and hypsochromic shifts along with hyperchromicity or hypochromicity accompanied enzymatic oxidations by laccase or peroxidase. The limits of detection and quantitation of coniferyl alcohol averaged 2.4 and 7.1 mu M respectively, with linear trend lines over 3 to 4 orders of magnitude. Coniferyl alcohol oxidation was evident within 10 minutes or with 0.01 mu g/mL laccase and 2 minutes or 0.001 mu g/mL peroxidase. Detection limit improved to 1.0 mu M coniferyl alcohol with Km of 978.7 +/- 150.7 mu M when examined at 260 nm following 30 minutes oxidation with 1.0 mu g/mL laccase. Our assays utilized the intrinsic spectroscopic properties of coniferyl alcohol or its oxidation products for enabling detection, without requiring chemical synthesis or modification of the substrate or product(s). These studies facilitate lignin compositional analyses and augment pretreatment strategies for reducing biomass recalcitrance.

Achyuthan, Komandoor; Adams, Paul; Simmons, Blake; Singh, Anup

2011-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

215

Economic and energetic evaluation of alcohol fuel production from agriculture: Yolo County, California  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation reviews the technical aspects of alcohol fuel production and consumption, examines the set of policy-related issues that affect both the private and the public sectors, and investigates the economic and energetic feasibility of small-scale on-farm production on a representative Sacramento Valley field and vegetable crop farm. Candidate feedstocks, including both starch and sugar-rich crops, are: barley, corn, fodder beet, grain sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, sugar beet, sweet sorghum, tomatoes, and wheat. The leading fuel crops were found to be sweet sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, corn, fodder beet, and grain sorghum in order of declining preference. With better than average crop yields and the current mix of financial incentives, the breakeven cost of alcohol fuel is $1.03 per gallon when diesel fuel and gasoline prices are $1.30 and $1.46, respectively. Without subsidy, the breakeven cost is $1.62 per gallon. An energy analysis was calculated for each of the feedstocks under consideration. With the exception of sweet sorghum, wheat, and barley, all feedstocks showed a negative net energy balance. The use of agricultural residues as a boiler fuel, however, made a significant difference in the overall energy balance. The role of government in energy policy is reviewed and typical policy instruments are discussed. Although on-farm alcohol fuel production is not currently economically competitive with gasoline and diesel fuel, technological innovation and the return of increasing petroleum prices could alter the situation.

Meo, M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Method and system for producing lower alcohols. [Heteropolyatomic lead salt coated with alkali metal formate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved catalyst for the reaction of carbon monoxide with water to produce methanol and other lower alcohols. It is a further object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol in which ethanol is also directly produced. It is another object to provide a process for the production of mixtures of methanol with ethanol and propanol from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. It is likewise an object to provide a system for the catalytic production of lower alcohols from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. In accordance with the present invention, a catalyst is provided for the reaction of carbon monoxide and water to produce lower alcohols. The catalyst includes a lead heteropolyatomic salt in mixture with a metal formate or a precursor to a metal formate.

Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.; Heiberger, J.J.

1983-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

217

Stocks of Total Crude Oil and Petroleum Products (Including SPR)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, and Reformulated GTAB Motor Gasoline Blending Components are discontinued as of the week ending June 4, ...

218

Stocks of SPR Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, and Reformulated GTAB Motor Gasoline Blending Components are discontinued as of the week ending June 4, ...

219

Stocks of Finished Motor Gasoline - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, and Reformulated GTAB Motor Gasoline Blending Components are discontinued as of the week ending June 4, ...

220

Stocks of SPR Crude Oil - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, and Reformulated GTAB Motor Gasoline Blending Components are discontinued as of the week ending June 4, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Exports of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Imports and stocks of RBOB with Ether and RBOB with Alcohol are discontinued as of the week ending June 4, 2010 reporting period. Due to independent ...

222

Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6): A colorless gas soluble in alcohol and ether, and slightly less soluble in water. It is used as a dielectric in ...

223

ENERGY DRINK CONSUMPTION (WITH AND WITHOUT ALCOHOL) AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO RISKY BEHAVIOR, RISK AWARENESS, AND BEHAVIORAL INTENTION IN COLLEGE STUDENTS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between energy drink consumption (with and without alcohol) and other risky behaviors; students’ overall awareness… (more)

Buchanan, Julia K

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Hydrogen-bond equilibria and life times in a supercooled monohydroxy alcohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dielectric loss spectra covering 13 decades in frequency were collected for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, a monohydroxy alcohol that exhibits a prominent Debye-like relaxation, typical for several classes of hydrogen-bonded liquids. The thermal variation of the dielectric absorption amplitude agrees well with that of the hydrogen-bond equilibrium population, experimentally mapped out using near infrared (NIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. Despite this agreement, temperature-jump NIR spectroscopy reveals that the hydrogen-bond switching rate does not define the frequency position of the prominent absorption peak. This contrasts with widespread notions and models based thereon, but is consistent with a recent approach.

C. Gainaru; S. Kastner; F. Mayr; P. Lunkenheimer; S. Schildmann; H. J. Weber; W. Hiller; A. Loidl; R. Böhmer

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

225

Vehicle-emission characteristics using mechanically emulsified alcohol/diesel fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A light-duty diesel vehicle fueled with an emulsified alcohol/diesel fuel was operated under cyclic mode. Emission and fuel economy measurements were taken during vehicle operation. The test results showed the volumetric fuel economy decreased slightly. Carbon monoxide emissions increased slightly, and oxides of nitrogen showed no significant change. Particulate emissions were reduced slightly, and the particulate extractables increased slightly. The environmental effect of these data cancel each other resulting in no significant changes in the total release of biological activity into the environment.

Allsup, J.R.; Seizinger, D.E.; Cox, F.W.; Brook, A.L.; McClellan, R.O.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project has been the pursuit of a catalyst system which would allow the selective production from syngas of methanol and isobutanol. It is desirable to develop a process in which the methanol to isobutanol weight ratio could be varied from 70/30 to 30/70. The 70/30 mixture could be used directly as a fuel additive, while, with the appropriate downstream processing, the 30/70 mixture could be utilized for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis. The indirect manufacture of MTBE from a coal derived syngas to methanol and isobutanol process would appear to be a viable solution to MTBE feedstock limitations. To become economically attractive, a process fro producing oxygenates from coal-derived syngas must form these products with high selectivity and good rates, and must be capable of operating with a low-hydrogen-content syngas. This was to be accomplished through extensions of known catalyst systems and by the rational design of novel catalyst systems.

Dombek, B.D.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood This article has been Contact us My IOPscience #12;Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood K to recover energy from biomass. The Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion

228

Environmental planning and assessment for highway vehicle use of alcohol fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is assisting the Office of Transportation Programs of the U.S. DOE in performing the required environmental planning and assessment for highway vehicle alcohol fuel commercialization in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). In this presentation the process for planning and assessment is given, specific documents resulting from the process are explained. NEPA requires an environmental impact statement (EIS) for every major federal action that may have a significant impact on the quality of the human environment. Three types of environmental documents record this process: the Environmental Development Plan (EDP), the Environmental Assessment (EA) and the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The transportation EDP describes the energy conserving technologies; identifies and ranks environmental concerns; outlines strategies to resolve the concerns on a priority basis; and proposes a research program to implement the strategies. This is done annually for the division. In addition, environmental codumentation is scheduled for each technology as it reaches different stages of development. One major document is the EA, prepared when it is not clear whether an EIS is necessary. The information to make such a decision is collected in one detailed assessment of the technology or program. An EIS may then be written if impacts are expected to be significant. An EA is being performed for alcohol (neat and blends) fuels for highway vehicles by ANL.

Bernard, III, M J; Bevilaqua, O M

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

(100) facets of ?-Al2O3: the active surfaces for alcohol dehydration reactions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol, and methanol dehydration reaction were studied on ?-Al2O3 in order to identify the catalytic active sites for alcohol dehydration reactions. Two high temperature (> 473 K) desorption features were observed following ethanol adsorption. Samples calcined at T?473 K displayed a desorption feature in the 523-533 K temperature range, while those calcined at T ? 673 K showed a single desorption feature at 498 K. The switch from the high to low temperature ethanol desorption correlated well with the dehydroxylation of the (100) facets of ?-Al2O3 that was predicted at 550 K DFT calculations. Theoretical DFT simulations of the mechanism of dehydration. on clean and hydroxylated ?-Al2O3(100) surfaces, find that a concerted elimination of ethylene from an ethanol molecule chemisorbed at an Al3+ pentacoordinated site is the rate limiting step for catalytic cycle on both surfaces. Furthermore, titration of the pentacoordinate Al3+ sites on the (100) facets of ?-Al2O3 by BaO completely turned off the methanol dehydration reaction activity. These results unambiguously demonstrate that only the (100) facets on ?-Al2O3 are the catalytic active surfaces for alcohol dehydration.

Kwak, Ja Hun; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles HF; Rousseau, Roger J.; Szanyi, Janos

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Under the influence of alcohol: The effect of ethanol and methanol on lipid bilayers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Extensive microscopic molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the effects of short-chain alcohols, methanol and ethanol, on two different fully hydrated lipid bilayer systems in the fluid phase at 323 K. It is found that ethanol has a stronger effect on the structural properties of the membranes. In particular, the bilayers become more fluid and permeable: Ethanol molecules are able to penetrate through the membrane in typical time scales of about 200 ns whereas for methanol that time scale is considerably longer, at least of the order of microseconds. We find good agreement with NMR and micropipette studies. We have also measured partitioning coefficients and the rate of crossing events for alcohols, i.e., typical time scale it takes for a molecule to cross the lipid bilayer and to move from one leaflet to the other. For structural properties, two-dimensional centre of mass radial-distribution functions indicate the possibility for quasi long-range order for ethanol-ethanol correlations in contrast to liquid-like behaviour for all other combinations.

Michael Patra; Emppu Salonen; Emma Terama; Roland Faller; Bryan W. Lee; Juha Holopainen; Mikko Karttunen

2004-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

231

Experimental researches of fuelling systems and alcohol blends on combustion and emissions in a two stroke Si engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuelling systems play a major role in the process of air-fuel mixture formation, due to this fact; the aim of this paper was to achieve an optimal mixture, which results in low exhaust emissions and best behavior of the combustion process. In order to ... Keywords: alcohols, combustion, engine, exhaust emissions, gasoline

Mihai Aleonte; Corneliu Cofaru; Radu Cosgarea; Maria Luminita Scutaru; Liviu Jelenschi; Gabriel Sandu

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Investigation of syngas interaction in alcohol synthesis catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work is described on the investigations of the interaction of syngas in the preparation of alcohols. The analysis of work performed on copper/cobalt/chromium catalysts and the effect of the method of preparation on magnetic properties of the catalysts is discussed.

Akundi, M.A.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Investigation of syngas interaction in alcohol synthesis catalysts. Quartery technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the work done on {open_quotes}Investigation of Syngas Interaction in Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts{close_quotes} during the last three months. In this report the results of the work done on the effect of CO adsorption on the magnetic character of cobalt in the Cu/Co/Cr catalysts is discussed.

Akundi, M.A.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Case studies, design, and economics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is a combination of process simulation and catalyst development aimed at identifying the most economical method for converting coal to syngas to linear higher alcohols to be used as oxygenated fuel additives. There are two tasks. The goal of Task 1 is to discover, study, and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas, and to explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. The goal of Task 2 is to simulate, by computer, energy efficient and economically efficient processes for converting coal to energy (fuel alcohols and/or power). The primary focus is to convert syngas to fuel alcohols. This report contains results from Task 2. The first step for Task 2 was to develop computer simulations of alternative coal to syngas to linear higher alcohol processes, to evaluate and compare the economics and energy efficiency of these alternative processes, and to make a preliminary determination as to the most attractive process configuration. A benefit of this approach is that simulations will be debugged and available for use when Task 1 results are available. Seven cases were developed using different gasifier technologies, different methods for altering the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas to the desired 1.1/1, and with the higher alcohol fuel additives as primary products and as by-products of a power generation facility. Texaco, Shell, and Lurgi gasifier designs were used to test gasifying coal. Steam reforming of natural gas, sour gas shift conversion, or pressure swing adsorption were used to alter the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas. In addition, a case using only natural gas was prepared to compare coal and natural gas as a source of syngas.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Liquid Fuel From Renewable Electricity and Bacteria: Electro-Autotrophic Synthesis of Higher Alcohols  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: UCLA is utilizing renewable electricity to power direct liquid fuel production in genetically engineered Ralstonia eutropha bacteria. UCLA is using renewable electricity to convert carbon dioxide into formic acid, a liquid soluble compound that delivers both carbon and energy to the bacteria. The bacteria are genetically engineered to convert the formic acid into liquid fuel—in this case alcohols such as butanol. The electricity required for the process can be generated from sunlight, wind, or other renewable energy sources. In fact, UCLA’s electricity-to-fuel system could be a more efficient way to utilize these renewable energy sources considering the energy density of liquid fuel is much higher than the energy density of other renewable energy storage options, such as batteries.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2011 Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Research during FY 2011 continued to examine the performance of RhMn catalysts on alternative supports including selected zeolite, silica, and carbon supports. Catalyst optimization continued using both the Davisil 645 and Merck Grade 7734 silica supports. Research also was initiated in FY 2011, using the both Davisil 645 silica and Hyperion CS-02C-063 carbon supports, to evaluate the potential for further improving catalyst performance, through the addition of one or two additional metals as promoters to the catalysts containing Rh, Mn, and Ir.

Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Rummel, Becky L.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2010 Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research for the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy, Biomass Program to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas. In recent years this research has primarily involved the further development of a silica-supported catalyst containing rhodium and manganese that was selected from earlier catalyst screening tests. A major effort during 2010 was to examine alternative catalyst supports to determine whether other supports, besides the Davisil 645 silica, would improve performance. Optimization of the Davisil 645 silica-supported catalyst also was continued with respect to candidate promoters iridium, platinum, and gallium, and examination of selected catalyst preparation and activation alternatives for the baseline RhMn/SiO2 catalyst.

Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; White, J. F.; Rummel, Becky L.; Stevens, Don J.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Weak dispersive forces between glass-gold macroscopic surfaces in alcohols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we concentrate on an experimental validation of the Lifshitz theory for van der Waals and Casimir forces in gold-alcohol-glass systems. From this theory weak dispersive forces are predicted when the dielectric properties of the intervening medium become comparable to one of the interacting surfaces. Using inverse colloid probe atomic force microscopy dispersive forces were measured occasionally and under controlled conditions by addition of salt to screen the electrostatic double layer force if present. The dispersive force was found to be attractive, and an order of magnitude weaker than that in air. Although the theoretical description of the forces becomes less precise for these systems even with full knowledge of the dielectric properties, we find still our results in reasonable agreement with Lifshitz theory.

P. J. van Zwol; G. Palasantzas; J. Th. M. DeHosson

2009-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

240

Adsorption of various alcohols on Illinois No. 6 coal in aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and aromacity of Illinois {number_sign}6 coal in water are relatively determined by evaluating equilibrium physical/chemical adsorption of probe compounds on the coal. Experiments on equilibrium adsorption loadings of various additives on 60--200 mesh Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (DECS-2; Randolph county) were performed to investigate relatively surface properties of the coal at 25{degree}C. The additives include various alcohols, alkanes and aromatic compounds. The main objectives of this research are to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals with the inverse liquid chromatography technique, using various probe compounds, to analyze flotation recoveries of coals with a micro-flotation apparatus in order to relate coal floatability to evaluated coal surface properties, and to delineate roles of coal-cleaning/handling additives with the inverse liquid chromatography technique.

Kwon, K.C.; Rigby, R.R.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Design of a high activity and selectivity alcohol catalyst. [Design of a flow microreactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research on the design of a high selectivity alcohol catalyst continued. During the first quarter of this project, our goals have been to overhaul key experimental equipment used in the previous project, plan and design new equipment and to identify a person to carry out the research program. The flow microreactor, previously assembled, has been reactivated and major improvements have been made both to the reactor and its attendant analytical instrumentation. This equipment is described later in this report. In addition to this, a state-of-the-art hydrogen chemisorption instrument has been designed and the components for its construction have been ordered. Additionally, four recent publications by the principal investigators on the subject of this project have appeared. 3 figs.

Foley, H.C.; Mills, G.A.

1990-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

242

Mutant alcohol dehydrogenase leads to improved ethanol tolerance in Clostridium thermocellum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, obligately anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a candidate microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into ethanol through consolidated bioprocessing. Ethanol intolerance is an important metric in terms of process economics, and tolerance has often been described as a complex and likely multigenic trait for which complex gene interactions come into play. Here, we resequence the genome of an ethanol-tolerant mutant, show that the tolerant phenotype is primarily due to a mutated bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE), hypothesize based on structural analysis that cofactor specificity may be affected, and confirm this hypothesis using enzyme assays. Biochemical assays confirm a complete loss of NADH-dependent activity with concomitant acquisition of NADPH-dependent activity, which likely affects electron flow in the mutant. The simplicity of the genetic basis for the ethanol-tolerant phenotype observed here informs rational engineering of mutant microbial strains for cellulosic ethanol production.

Brown, Steven D [ORNL; Guss, Adam M [ORNL; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Smolin, Nikolai [ORNL; Yang, Shihui [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Klingeman, Dawn Marie [ORNL; Bhandiwad, Ashwini [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel [ORNL; Raman, Babu [Dow Chemical Company, The; Shao, Xiongjun [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL; Lynd, Lee R [Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2012 Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Testing continued in FY 2012 to further improve the Ir-promoted RhMn catalysts on both silica and carbon supports for producing mixed oxygenates from synthesis gas. This testing re-examined selected alternative silica and carbon supports to follow up on some uncertainties in the results with previous test results. Additional tests were conducted to further optimize the total and relative concentrations of Rh, Mn, and Ir, and to examine selected promoters and promoter combinations based on earlier results. To establish optimum operating conditions, the effects of the process pressure and the feed gas composition also were evaluated.

Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Thompson, Becky L.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

A plant kinetic study of alcoholic fermentation using reversed-flow gas chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The reversed-flow gas chromatographic sampling technique is used to study the kinetics of alcoholic fermentation in a factory in conjunction with measurements of suspended particles in the fermenting medium. It was found that the overall process consists of four phases which have different first-order rate constants during ethanol formation. The second phase is the slowest with its rate constant being 4.3 and 13 times smaller than that of the first and third phases, respectively. There is also a decrease of suspended particles during the second phase. These results show that there is the possibility of increasing the rate constant during this phase, thereby increasing the overall production rate of ethanol significantly and thus lowering its cost of production.

Economopoulos, N.; Athanassopoulos, N. (B.G. Spiliopoulos Distilleri S.A., Patras (Greece)); Katsanos, N.A.; Karaiskakis, G.; Agathonos, P.; Vassilakos, Ch. (Univ. of Patras (Greece))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Investigation and demonstration of a rich combustor cold-start device for alcohol-fueled engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors have completed a study in which they investigated the use of a rich combustor to aid in cold starting spark-ignition engines fueled with either neat ethanol or neat methanol. The rich combustor burns the alcohol fuel outside the engine under fuel-rich conditions to produce a combustible product stream that is fed to the engine for cold starting. The rich combustor approach significantly extends the cold starting capability of alcohol-fueled engines. A design tool was developed that simulates the operation of the combustor and couples it to an engine/vehicle model. This tool allows the user to determine the fuel requirements of the rich combustor as the vehicle executes a given driving mission. The design tool was used to design and fabricate a rich combustor for use on a 2.8 L automotive engine. The system was tested using a unique cold room that allows the engine to be coupled to an electric dynamometer. The engine was fitted with an aftermarket engine control system that permitted the fuel flow to the rich combustor to be programmed as a function of engine speed and intake manifold pressure. Testing indicated that reliable cold starts were achieved on both neat methanol and neat ethanol at temperatures as low as {minus}20 C. Although starts were experienced at temperatures as low as {minus}30 C, these were erratic. They believe that an important factor at the very low temperatures is the balance between the high mechanical friction of the engine and the low energy density of the combustible mixture fed to the engine from the rich combustor.

Hodgson, J.W.; Irick, D.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Evaluation of Promoters for Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially-available catalysts or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially-available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. A total of 28 tests were conducted to evaluate 22 different promoters as well as an unpromoted catalyst. The following general trends were observed for the test results: • The highest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates occurred at the lowest reaction temperatures and accompanying lowest space time yields (STYs). • The lowest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates occurred at the highest reaction temperatures because of high carbon conversion to hydrocarbons. • The highest C2+-oxygenate STYs occurred between 300°C and 325°C, with the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) adjusted when necessary to maintain carbon conversion ranges between ~ 30 and 40 percent. Higher carbon selectivity to hydrocarbons at higher temperatures resulted in lower C2+-oxygenate STYs. • When catalysts were heated to between 300°C and 325°C the catalysts showed evidence of some deactivation with respect to C2+ oxygenate productivity, accompanied by reduced chain growth for the hydrocarbon products. The degree of deactivation and the temperature at which it occurred varied between the different catalysts tested. Of all of the catalysts evaluated, the Li-promoted catalysts had the highest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates (47 percent) under the conditions at which the maximum C2+-oxygenate STYs were obtained.

Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

247

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthsis gas. Quarterly technical progress report number 10, 1 January 1994--31 March 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The WVU plug-flow microreactor system is now complete. Screening runs with this system will commence. Computer control is being installed in the second WVU unit. Additional hardware has been suggested for this system so that it can be used either to screen additional catalysts or to obtain kinetic data on selected catalyst samples. Synthetic preparations and characterizations of molybdenum-based sulfide and nitride catalysts are ongoing. Modelling studies are continuing satisfactorily. A more detailed model of the reaction kinetics, to account for individual alcohols rather than a lumped highter-alcohol, has been inserted into the model of a plug-flow reactor. A solution methodology to maximize the profitability of alcohol production, separation and blending has been developed. The temperatures, pressures, flowrates, and key component recoveries in the separation steps are the optimization variables. The probability of this process becoming economically feasible in the near future appears to be extremely small given the low return on capital investment associated with the production of alcohol from coal. If coal derived alcohols are to become alternative transportation fuels, then the capital cost associated with the process must be reduced, specifically the cost of the gasifiers, or significant changes need to be made in the composition of the mixed alcohol product. A methodology for performing Monte Carlo studies to determine quantitatively the uncertainties relevant to future decisions to build an alcohol-fuels plant is still being developed.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Densities and viscosities for binary mixtures of N-methyldiethanolamine + triethylene glycol monomethyl ether from 25 C to 70 C and N-methyldiethanolamine + ethanol mixtures at 40 C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent studies done on the absorption and desorption of acid gases (CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S) from natural gas, petroleum, and ammonia synthesis streams have shown that aqueous solutions of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) can be used effectively for the selective removal of H{sub 2}S. This paper reports the measured values of the density and viscosity of binary mixtures of N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TEGMME) at five temperatures in the range 25 C to 70 C over the whole concentration range. The authors also report the density and viscosity of the binary mixture MDEA + ethanol at 40 C. The results are compared with data for aqueous mixtures and other alkanolamines when these are available. The derived excess molar volumes and viscosity deviations were correlated as a function of composition. The Grunberg-Nissan interaction energy constants are also reported.

Henni, A.; Maham, Y.; Tontiwachwuthikul, P.; Chakma, A.; Mather, A.E.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

A project to improve the capabilities of minorities in energy fields and a cost benefit analysis of an ethyl alcohol plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project being reported in this document had three components: (1) a research project to carry out cost-benefit analysis of an ethyl alcohol plant at Tuskegee University, (2) seminars to improve the high-technology capabilities of minority persons, and (3) a class in energy management. The report provides a background on the three components listed above. The results from the research on the ethyl alcohol plant, are discussed, along with the seminars, and details of the energy management class.

Sara, T.S.; Jones, M. Jr.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Investigation of syngas interaction in alcohol synthesis catalysts. Quarterly technical progress report, February 1, 1994--April 30, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work presents the progress of the work done during the second quarter on {open_quotes}Investigation of syngas interaction in Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts.{close_quotes} The essential results have been presented at the second annual Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Private Sector/Energy Research and Development Technology Transfer Symposium. The primary objective of this project is to examine the relations between the catalytic and magnetic properties of the copper-cobalt higher alcohol synthesis catalysts. Since extensive catalytic results are available from the studies of the IFP group, the authors have undertaken to investigate the magnetic character by studying the Zero Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ZFNMR) of cobalt and hysterisis character of the Cu/Co catalysts. The authors have examined three different aspects of these catalysts. (a) effect of metal ratio, (b) effect of method of preparation, and (c) effect of selectivity.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Sixteenth quarterly technical progress report, October--December, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. Among our previous best catalysts was the family consisting of potassium-promoted Pd on a Zn/Cr spinel oxide prepared via controlled pH precipitation. We have now examined the effect of potassium promotion on (1) a Zn/Cr/O spinel and (2) on ZnO; these two individual components are used together to make our best support. The presence of excess zinc oxide has a beneficial effect on the performance of Zn/Cr spinel oxide catalysts (1) promoted with cesium and (2) promoted with both cesium and palladium. The presence of the excess zinc oxide results in a more active and selective catalyst to total alcohols and increased isobutanol rates, demonstrating the effectiveness of zinc oxide addition to the spinel support. Potassium addition promotes higher alcohol synthesis on a commercial Zn/Cr spinel oxide methanol synthesis catalyst. Incremental potassium levels (1, 3 and 5 wt%) result in an increase in total alcohol selectivity, while isobutanol. rates are maximized at 1 wt% potassium. The commercial catalyst promoted with potassium is slightly less active for isobutanol synthesis and less selective to total alcohols when compared with our spinel formulation promoted with potassium and containing excess ZnO. Surface science studies have shown that the surface of these catalysts is predominately ZnO and alkali. With use, the ZnO is reduced to Zn metal, and Cr migrates to the surface giving increased surface acidity. In addition tends to lower the overall acidity. Hydrogen can be observed on the catalyst surface by surface science studies. Hydrogen on the active catalyst is associated with the palladium.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, October--December 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. Our current targets for isobutanol-producing catalysts are to produce an equimolar mixture of methanol and isobutanol with a productivity for isobutanol of > 50 g/Kg-hr. Reactor system modifications, undertaken to improve data quality, have been completed. The changes should help eliminate differences between the two reactors and allow for more accurate determination of higher molecular weight products. To calibrate our new reactor system, we have retested our ``best`` isobutanol catalyst, 10-DAN-54 (a promoted Zn/Cr/Mn spinel oxide). Under standard test conditions (400{degrees}C, 1000 psi, 12000 GHSV and syngas ratio = 1:1), this catalyst produces 200--252 g/kg-hr of total alcohols (total alcohol selectivities of 57--68%) with an isobutanol rate of 94--130 g/kg-hr and a MeOH/i-BuOH product mole ratio of 3. These results compare with a productivity of 112 g/kg-hr of total alcohols (total alcohol selectivity of 86%) with an isobutanol rate of 38 g/kg-hr and a MeOH/i-BuOH product mole ratio of 3 observed in the original microreactor system configuration. It should be remembered that the test apparatus is designed for screening only. Detailed, more reliable data for kinetic modeling must be generated using larger catalyst charges (> 10g) and in larger scale test equipment.

Not Available

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

253

Effect of Hypericum perforatum CO2 extract on the motivational properties of ethanol in alcohol-preferring rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — Aims: Extracts of Hypericum perforatum (HPE) attenuate voluntary ethanol intake in different lines of alcohol-preferring rats. The present study evaluated the effect of the intragastric (IG) administration of a CO 2 Hypericum perforatum extract (HPCO 2) on operant ethanol self-administration, as well as on voluntary ethanol intake, after a period of ethanol deprivation in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Methods: HPCO 2 was administered by means of an indwelling IG catheter, 1 h before the tests. For the self-administration experiments, the rats were trained to self-administer 10 % (v/v) ethanol in 30-min daily sessions under a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement. HPCO 2 was also tested on 0.2 % w/v saccharin self-administration. For the ethanol deprivation experiments, rats that had a previous experience with voluntary ethanol drinking were deprived of ethanol for 9 days, whereas water and food were freely available; HPCO 2 was given by IG injection 1 h before the ethanol re-presentation. Results: HPCO 2 in doses of 31 or 125 mg/kg but not 7 mg/kg, significantly reduced ethanol self-administration, while it did not modify saccharin self-administration. The same doses of the extract abolished the increased ethanol intake following ethanol deprivation. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that HPCO 2 markedly reduces the reinforcing properties of ethanol in the selfadministration paradigm, as well as the increase of ethanol intake following ethanol deprivation. These findings further support the view that the use of HPE may represent an interesting pharmacological approach in the treatment of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

Marina Perfumi; Laura Mattioli; Laura Forti; Maurizio Massi; Roberto Ciccocioppo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Preliminary economic investigations have focused on cost reduction measures in the production of syngas from coal. A spread sheet model has been developed which can determine the cost of syngas production based upon the cost of equipment and raw materials and the market value of energy and by-products. In comparison to natural gas derived syngas, coal derived syngas is much more expensive, suggesting a questionable economic status of coal derived alcohol fuels. While it is possible that use of less expensive coal or significant integration of alcohol production and electricity production may reduce the cost of coal derived syngas, it is unlikely to be less costly to produce than syngas from natural gas. Fuels evaluation is being conducted in three parts. First, standard ASTM tests are being used to analyze the blend characteristics of higher alcohols. Second, the performance characteristics of higher alcohols are being evaluated in a single-cylinder research engine. Third, the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols are being investigated. The equipment is still under construction and the measurement techniques are still being developed. Of particular interest is n-butanol, since the MoS{sub 2} catalyst produces only linear higher alcohols. There is almost no information on the combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol, hence the importance of gathering this information in this research.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Potential impact of Thailand's alcohol program on production, consumption, and trade of cassava, sugarcane, and corn  

SciTech Connect

On the first of May 1980, Thailand's fuel-alcohol program was announced by the Thai government. According to the program, a target of 147 million liters of ethanol would be produced in 1981, from cassava, sugarcane, and other biomasses. Projecting increases in output each year, the target level of ethanol produciton was set at 482 million liters of ethanol for 1986. The proposed amount of ethanol production could create a major shift up in the demand schedule of energy crops such as cassava, sugarcane, and corn. The extent of the adjustments in price, production, consumption, and exports for these energy crops need to be evaluated. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential impact of Thailand's fuel-alcohol program on price, production, consumption, and exports of three potential energy crops: cassava, sugarcane, and corn. Econometric commodity models of cassava, sugarcane, and corn are constructed and used as a method of assessment. The overall results of the forecasting simulations of the models indicate that the fuel-alcohol program proposed by the Thai government will cause the price, production, and total consumption of cassava, sugarcane, and corn to increase; on the other hand, it will cause exports to decline. In addition, based on the relative prices and the technical coefficients of ethanol production of these three energy crops, this study concludes that only cassava should be used to produce the proposed target of ethanol production.

Boonserm, P.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Batch Microreactor Studies of Lignin Depolymerization by Bases. 1. Alcohol Solvents  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass feedstocks contain roughly 10-30% lignin, a substance that can not be converted to fermentable sugars. Hence, most schemes for producing biofuels (ethanol) assume that the lignin coproduct will be utilized as boiler fuel to provide heat and power to the process. However, the chemical structure of lignin suggests that it will make an excellent high value fuel additive, if it can be broken down into smaller molecular units. From fiscal year 1997 through fiscal year 2001, Sandia National Laboratories was a participant in a cooperative effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the University of Utah to develop and scale a base catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) process for lignin conversion. SNL's primary role in the effort was to utilize rapidly heated batch microreactors to perform kinetic studies, examine the reaction chemistry, and to develop alternate catalyst systems for the BCD process. This report summarizes the work performed at Sandia during FY97 and FY98 with alcohol based systems. More recent work with aqueous based systems will be summarized in a second report.

MILLER, JAMES E.; EVANS, LINDSEY; LITTLEWOLF, ALICIA; TRUDELL, DANIEL E.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Long-Term Testing of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2013 Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research since 2005 to develop a catalyst for the conversion of synthesis gas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) into mixed alcohols for use in liquid transportation fuels. Initially, research involved screening possible catalysts based on a review of the literature, because at that time, there were no commercial catalysts available. The screening effort resulted in a decision to focus on catalysts containing rhodium and manganese. Subsequent research identified iridium as a key promoter for this catalyst system. Since then, research has continued to improve rhodium/manganese/iridium-based catalysts, optimizing the relative and total concentrations of the three metals, examining baseline catalysts on alternative supports, and examining effects of additional promoters. Testing was continued in FY 2013 to evaluate the performance and long-term stability of the best catalysts tested to date. Three tests were conducted. A long-term test of over 2300 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was conducted with the best carbon-supported catalyst. A second test of about 650 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was performed for comparison using the same catalyst formulation on an alternative carbon support. A third test of about 680 hr duration at a single set of operating conditions was performed using the best silica-supported catalyst tested to date.

Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Thompson, Becky L.

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

258

Development of miscella refining process for cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol system: laboratory-scale evaluations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A technologically feasible cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol (IPA) miscella refining process was developed to produce high quality cottonseed oil. Individual steps necessary to refine cottonseed oil-IPA miscella were determined and improved. These were: 1) homogenization of the cottonseed oil-IPA miscella with caustic solution; 2) centrifugation; 3) separation of miscella layers; 4) desolventization, 5) water washing and drying; and 6) bleaching. In neutralization, the miscella was mixed with 20 Be' caustic solution (50% excess) by using a Sonolator for 15 times. The refined oils from both the bottom and top layers were water washed using 12.5% and 20% (w/w) hot water, respectively. The water washing efficiently recovered the oil from the top layer miscella and reduced the soap and phosphorus content. The water washed and dried oils from the bottom and top layers were treated with 0.5% and 4% (w/w) acid activated bleaching clay, respectively. Good quality refined and bleached oil was obtained. However, the quality of the bleached oil produced from bottom layer was better than that from the top layer. Comparative experiments with both IPA and hexane systems showed that the new refining process developed in this study could produce a higher quality refined oil from the cottonseed oil-IPA miscella than from the cottonseed oil-hexane miscella.

Chau, Chi-Fai

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Transetherification method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transetherification is carried out in a catalytic distillation reactor, wherein the catalytic structure also serves as a distillation structure, by feeding a first ether to the catalyst bed to at least partially dissociate it into a first olefin and a first alcohol while concurrently therewith feeding either a second olefin (preferably a tertiary olefin) having a higher boiling point than said first olefin or a second alcohol having a higher boiling point than said first alcohol to the catalyst whereby either the second olefin and the first alcohol or the first olefin and the second alcohol react to form a second ether which has a higher boiling point than the first ether, which second ether is concurrently removed as a bottoms in the concurrent reaction-distillation to force that reaction to completion, while the unreacted first olefin or first alcohol is removed in the overhead. 1 fig.

Hearn, D.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

260

Transetherification method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Transetherification is carried out in a catalytic distillation reactor, wherein the catalytic structure also serves as a distillation structure, by feeding a first ether to the catalyst bed to at least partially dissociate it into a first olefin and a first alcohol while concurrently therewith feeding either a second olefin (preferably a tertiary olefin) having a higher boiling point than said first olefin or a second alcohol having a higher boiling point than said first alcohol to the catalyst whereby either the second olefin and the first alcohol or the first olefin and the second alcohol react to form a second ether which has a higher boiling point than the first ether, which second ether is concurrently removed as a bottoms in the concurrent reaction-distillation to force that reaction to completion, while the unreacted first olefin or first alcohol is removed in the overhead.

Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 8, 1 July, 1993--30 September, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Task 1, the preparation of catalyst materials, is proceeding actively. At WVU, catalysts based on Mo are being prepared using a variety of approaches to alter the oxidation state and environment of the Mo. At UCC and P, copper-based zinc chromite spinel catalysts will be prepared and tested. The modeling of the alcohol-synthesis reaction in a membrane reactor is proceeding actively. Under standard conditions, pressure drop in the membrane reactor has been shown to be negligible. In Task 2, base case designs had previously been completed with a Texaco gasifier. Now, similar designs have been completed using the Shell gasifier. A comparison of the payback periods or production cost of these plants shows significant differences among the base cases. However, a natural gas only design, prepared for comparison purposes, gives a lower payback period or production cost. Since the alcohol synthesis portion of the above processes is the same, the best way to make coal-derived higher alcohols more attractive economically than natural gas-derived higher alcohols is by making coal-derived syngas less expensive than natural gas-derived syngas. The maximum economically feasible capacity for a higher alcohol plant from coal-derived syngas appears to be 32 MM bbl/yr. This is based on consideration of regional coal supply in the eastern US, coal transportation, and regional product demand. The benefits of economics of scale are illustrated for the base case designs. A value for higher alcohol blends has been determined by appropriate combination of RVP, octane number, and oxygen content, using MTBE as a reference. This analysis suggests that the high RVP of methanol in combination with its higher water solubility make higher alcohols more valuable than methanol.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Potential sources of non-petroleum based alcohols for vehicular fleet testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The quantity of alcohol required to supply all of the US Department of Energy's vehicular fleet test fuel needs during the period fiscal year 1980 through 1982 could reach on the order of 1.5 and 1.6 million gallons per year of 200 proof ethanol and fuel-grade methanol, respectively. During the time frame of fiscal year 1982 through 1987, vehicular fleet testing fuel needs could approach 8 and 10 million gallons per year of ethanol and methanol, respectively. In terms of supply, all of the ethanol fleet test fuel requirements can be satisfied by domestic fermentation ethanol from non-petroleum/non-natural gas resources. Initially, the major ethanol fermentation firms are potentially capable of supplying the necessary quantity of ethanol. As the test project progresses and fleet size expands, the outlook for ethanol supply from the major firms as well as from other private sources, both existing and planned, is very promising. This supply outlook could be altered significantly if an expanding Gasohol market demands a major portion of the available ethanol production. It is in the Federal Government's best interest to arrange for ethanol supply agreements as soon as possible so that fleet test volume requirements can be assured. The supply situation for methanol from non-petroleum/non-natural gas resources is not very promising. It appears that methanol produced from coal or biomass will not be available before 1985 at the earliest, assuming that a decision to construct a sizeable plant is made immediately. As such, fuel grade methanol for use in the reliability fleet test project will most likely have to be obtained from the existing petroleum/natural gas-based methanol market. This market is currently operating at a level below maximum capacity and several older mothballed plants can be reactivated if the economic situation warrants.

Not Available

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Fifteenth quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The previous best catalysts consisted of potassium-promoted Pd on a Zn/Cr spinel oxide prepared via controlled pH precipitation. The authors have now examined the effect of cesium addition to the Zn/Cr spinel oxide support. Surprisingly, cesium levels required for optimum performance are similar to those for potassium on a wt% basis. The addition of 3 wt% cesium gives isobutanol rates > 170 g/kg-hr at 440 C and 1,500 psi with selectivity to total alcohols of 77% and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of 1.4: this performance is as good as their best Pd/K catalyst. The addition of both cesium and palladium to a Zn/Cr spinel oxide support gives further performance improvements. The 5 wt% cesium, 5.9 wt% Pd formulation gives isobutanol rates > 150 g/kg-hr at 440 C and only 1,000 psi with a selectivity to total alcohols of 88% and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of 0.58: this is their best overall performance to date. The addition of both cesium and palladium to a Zn/Cr/Mn spinel oxide support that contains excess Zn has also been examined. This spinel was the support used in the synthesis of 10-DAN-54, the benchmark catalyst. Formulations made on this support show a lower overall total alcohol rate than those using the spinel without Mn present, and require less cesium for optimal performance.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

264

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Twelfth quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The authors have prepared an improved version of 10-DAN-54, a Zn/Cr/Mn spinel oxide promoted with Pd and K. This material (16-DMM-68) has acceptable elemental analysis for the expected composition and possesses the desired high surface area of >80 m{sup 2}/g. The catalyst has extra added potassium vs. the standard catalyst, 10-DAN-54, as previous work had indicated that more potassium is required for optimal performance. In tests under standard conditions (400 C, 1,000 psi, GHSV = 12,000, syngas ratio = 1), this catalyst shows a selectivity to total alcohols of 84% and produces > 100 g/kg/hr of isobutanol with a MeOH/i-BuOH mole ratio = 4.7. The authors have tested 16-DMM-68 at temperatures above 400 C and pressures up to 1,500 psi (GHSV = 12,000, syngas ratio = 1). At 440 C and 1500 psi, this catalyst shows a selectivity to total alcohols of 64% and produces 179 g/kg/hr of isobutanol with a MeOH/i-BuOH mole ratio = 2.2. This is their best overall performance to data. The catalyst operates at syngas conversions up to 28% with good selectivity to total alcohols due to the extra added alkali. This performance can be compared with 10-DAN-54, which could only operate up to 20% conversion before hydrocarbon formation became a serious inefficiency.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

265

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Fourteenth quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The project objectives are: (1) To discover, study, and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. In particular, novel heterogeneous catalysts will be studied and optimized for the production of: (a) C{sub 1}-C{sub 5} alcohols using conventional methanol synthesis conditions, and (b) methanol and isobutanol mixtures which may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. (2) To explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (3) To develop on the bench scale the best combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor, and total process configuration to achieve the minimum product cost for the conversion of syngas to liquid products. The authors have prepared a comparative Zn/Cr spinel oxide support that contains excess ZnO and have looked at the catalytic performance of (a) the bare support, (b) a potassium traverse on the bare support to determine the effect of alkali addition in the absence of Pd and (c) a potassium traverse on the support impregnated with 6 wt% Pd. The bare support is an inefficient methanol catalyst. Alkali addition results in an increase in selectivity to total alcohols vs. the bare support and a dramatic increase higher alcohol synthesis. Pd addition results in further improvements in performance. Selectivities increase with K loading. The 5 wt% K, 5.9 wt% Pd catalyst produces > 100 g/kg-hr of isobutanol at 440 C and 1,000 psi, with 85% selectivity to total alcohols and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of <2. The authors intend to continue formulation screening using K/Pd formulations on ZnO and ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared conventionally and via controlled pH precipitation. They will also examine the effect of Cs in place of K as the alkali promoter and the use of Rh instead of Pd as a promoter.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

266

Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based buffering membranes for isoelectric trapping separations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Isoelectric trapping (IET) in multicompartment electrolyzers (MCE) has been widely used for the electrophoretic separation of ampholytic compounds such as proteins. In IET, the separation occurs in the buffering membranes that form a step-wise pH gradient in the MCE. Typically, buffering membranes have been made by copolymerizing acrylamide with Immobiline compounds, which are acidic and basic acylamido buffers. One major problem, however, is that these buffering membranes are not stable when exposed to high concentrations of acid and base due to hydrolysis of the amide bonds. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based, or PVA-based, membranes were made as an alternative to the polyacrylamide-based membranes since they provide more hydrolytic and mechanical stability. Four mid-pH, PVA-based buffering membranes that contain single ampholytes were synthesized. These buffering membranes were used to trap small molecular weight pI markers for up to three hours, and were also used in desalting experiments to remove strong electrolytes from a solution of ampholytes. Additionally, the membranes were used in IET experiments to separate mixtures of pI markers, and to fractionate the major proteins in chicken egg white. The membranes did not show any degradation when stored in 3 M NaOH for up to 6 months and were shown to tolerate current densities as high as 16 mA/cm2. In addition, six series of PVA-based membranes, whose pH values can be tuned over the 3 < pH < 10 range, were synthesized by covalently binding aminodicarboxylic acids, and monoamines or diamines to the PVA matrix. These tunable buffering membranes were used in trapping experiments to trap ampholytes for up to three hours, and in desalting experiments to remove strong electrolytes from a solution of ampholytes. These tunable buffering membranes were also used in IET experiments to separate proteins, some with pI values that differ by only 0.1 pH unit. The tunable buffering membranes did not show any signs of degradation when exposed to 3 M NaOH for up to 3 months, and could be used in IET experiments with current densities as high as 20 mA/cm2. These tunable buffering membranes are expected to broaden the application areas of isoelectric trapping separations.

Craver, Helen C.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report number 12, July 1--September 30, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Both plug-flow microreactor systems at WVU are now functioning. Screening runs on these systems were started using carbide and nitride catalysts first, to avoid any question of contamination of the system with sulfur. The carbide and nitride catalysts are characterized by high activity but low selectivity towards alcohols. The Chevrel-phase catalysts tested have much lower activities but may be more selective to alcohols. Catalyst synthesis procedures are attempting to offset this tendency, and also to characterize and prepare sulfide catalyst by other approaches. At UCC and P, test runs on the reactor system have commenced. Higher alcohols up to butanol were observed and identified at high temperatures. Modeling studies have concentrated on the catalytic membrane reactor. The topical report, originally submitted last quarter, was revised after some errors were found. This report includes the design and economics for the seven cases discussed in previous quarterly reports. In the topical report, it is shown that a judicious choice of coal:natural gas feed ratio to the alcohol synthesis process allows the Shell Gasifier to be nearly competitive with natural gas priced at of $3.00/MMBtu. The advantage of the Shell Gasifier over the Texaco Gasifier is that the former produces a syngas with a lower H{sub 2}:CO ratio. When the feed to the process is coal only, there is no difference in the projected economics that would favor one gasifier over the other. The potential of co-generation of electric power with high alcohol fuel additives has been investigated. Preliminary results have revealed that a once-through alcohol synthesis process with minimal gas clean-up may provide an attractive alternative to current designs given the prevailing economic status of IGCC units.

NONE

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Novel Approaches to the Production of Higher Alcohols From Synthesis Gas. Quarterly report, January 1 - March 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

from earlier runs with ?zinc chromite? catalyst and three different slurry liquids: decahydronaphthalene (Decalin®, DHN), tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin, THN) and tetrahydroquinoline (THQ); 2) analyzing newly-obtained data from earlier thermal stability tests on DHN and THN, and 3) carrying out a thermal stability test on THQ. Both the activity and selectivity of ?zinc chromite? catalyst depended on the slurry liquid that was used. The catalyst activity for methanol synthesis was in the order: THQ > DHN > THN. Despite the basic nature of THQ, it exhibited the highest dimethyl ether (DME) production rates of the three liquids. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analyses of samples of THN and DHN were taken at the end of standard thermal stability tests at 375°C. With both liquids, the only measurable compositional change was a minor amount of isomerization. Analysis of a sample of THN after a thermal stability test at 425°C showed a small reduction in molecular weight, and a significant amount of opening of the naphthenic ring. Preliminary data from the tehrmal stability test of THQ showed that this molecule is more stable than DHN, but less stable than THN.

George W. Roberts

1997-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

269

Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using alcohol fuel (methanol and ethanol) as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides design guidelines for the safe use of alcohol fuel (Methanol or Ethanol). It is part of a series of individual monographs being published by the FTA providing guidelines for the safe use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and alcohol fuels (Methanol and Ethanol). Each report in this series describes, for the subject fuel, the important fuel properties, guidelines for the design and operation of bus fueling, storage and maintenance facilities, issues on personnel training and emergency preparedness.

Raj, P.K.; DeMarco, V.R.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

Nexant Inc.

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Bismuth as a modifier of Au Pd catalyst: Enhancing selectivity in alcohol oxidation by suppressing parallel reaction  

SciTech Connect

Bi has been widely employed as a modifier for Pd and Pt based catalyst mainly in order to improve selectivity. We found that when Bi was added to the bimetallic system AuPd, the effect on activity in alcohol oxidation mainly depends on the amount of Bi regardless its position, being negligible when Bi was 0.1 wt% and detectably negative when the amount was increased to 3 wt%. However, the selectivity of the reactions notably varied only when Bi was deposited on the surface of metal nanoparticles suppressing parallel reaction in both benzyl alcohol and glycerol oxidation. After a careful characterization of all the catalysts and additional catalytic tests, we concluded that the Bi influence on the activity of the catalysts could be ascribed to electronic effect whereas the one on selectivity mainly to a geometric modification. Moreover, the Bi-modified AuPd/AC catalyst showed possible application in the production of tartronic acid, a useful intermediate, from glycerol.

Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Wang, Di [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Berlin, Germany; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of Task 1 is to prepare and evaluate catalysts and to develop efficient reactor systems for the selective conversion of hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to alcohol fuel extender and octane enhancers. Task 1 is subdivided into three separate subtasks: laboratory and equipment setup; catalysis research; and reaction engineering and modeling. Research at West Virginia University (WVU) is focused on molybdenum-based catalysts for higher alcohol synthesis. Parallel research carried out at Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) is focused on transition-metal-oxide catalysts. During this time period, at WVU, we tried several methods to eliminate problems related to condensation of heavier products when reduced Mo-Ni-K/C materials were used as catalysts. We then resumed our kinetic study on the reduced Mo-Ni-K/C materials were used as catalysts. We then resumed our kinetic study on the reduced Mo-Ni-K/C catalysts. We have also obtained same preliminary results in our attempts to analyze quantitatively the temperature-programmed reduction spectra for C- supported Mo-based catalysts. We have completed the kinetic study for the sulfided Co-K-MoS{sub 2}/C catalyst. We have compared the results of methanol synthesis using the membrane reactor with those using a simple plug-flow reactor. At UCC, the complete characterization of selected catalysts has been completed. The results suggest that catalyst pretreatment under different reducing conditions yield different surface compositions and thus different catalytic reactivities.

NONE

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Thermal Decomposition of Bulk K-CoMoSx Mixed Alcohol Catalyst Precursors and Effects on Catalyst Morphology and Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cobalt molybdenum sulfide-type mixed alcohol catalysts were synthesized via calcination of precipitated bulk sulfides and studied with temperature programmed decomposition analysis. Precursors containing aqueous potassium were also considered. Precipitates thermally decomposed in unique events which released ammonia, carbon dioxide, and sulfur. Higher temperature treatments led to more crystalline and less active catalysts in general with ethanol productivity falling from 203 to 97 g (kg cat){sup -1} h{sup -1} when the calcination temperature was increased from 375 to 500 C. The addition of potassium to the precursor led to materials with crystalline potassium sulfides and good catalytic performance. In general, less potassium was required to promote alcohol selectivity when added before calcination. At calcination temperatures above 350 C, segregated cobalt sulfides were observed, suggesting that thermally decomposed sulfide precursors may contain a mixture of molybdenum and cobalt sulfides instead of a dispersed CoMoS type of material. When dimethyl disulfide was fed to the precursor during calcination, crystalline cobalt sulfides were not detected, suggesting an important role of free sulfur during decomposition.

Menart, M. J.; Hensley, J. E.; Costelow, K. E.

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

274

THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998  

SciTech Connect

This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5+}) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5+}) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline.

None

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

277

Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330°C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations was initiated in 2009. Computational investigations were performed first to elucidate understanding of the nature of the catalytically active site. Thermodynamic calculations revealed that Mn likely exists as a metallic alloy with Rh in Rh-rich environments under reducing conditions at the temperatures of interest. After determining that reduced Rh-Mn alloy metal clusters were in a reduced state, the activation energy barriers of numerous transition state species on the catalytically active metal particles were calculated to compute the activation barriers of several reaction pathways that are possible on the catalyst surface. Comparison of calculations with a Rh nanoparticle versus a Rh-Mn nanoparticle revealed that the presence of Mn enabled the reaction pathway of CH with CO to form an adsorbed CHCO species, which was a precursor to C2+ oxygenates. The presence of Mn did not have a significant effect on the rate of CH4 production. Ir was observed during empirical catalyst screening experiments to improve the activity and selectivity of Rh-Mn catalysts. Thus, the addition of Ir to the Rh-Mn nanoparticles also was probed computationally. Simulations of Rh-Mn-Ir nanoparticles revealed that, with sufficient Ir concentrations, the Rh, Mn and Ir presumably would be well mixed within a nanoparticle. Activation barriers were calculated for Rh-Mn-Ir nanoparticles for several C-, H-, and O-containing transitional species on the nanoparticle surface. It was found that the presence of Ir opened yet another reactive pathway whereby HCO is formed and may undergo insertion with CHx surface moieties. The reaction pathway opened by the presence of Ir is in addition to the CO + CH pathway opened by the presence of Mn. Similar to Mn, the presence of Ir was not found to not affect the rate of CH4 production.

Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 16, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of Task 1 is to prepare and evaluate catalysts and to develop efficient reactor systems for the selective conversion of hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to alcohol fuel extenders and octane enhancers. Task 1 is subdivided into three separate subtasks: laboratory setup; catalysis research; and reaction engineering and modeling. Research at West Virginia University (WVU) is focused on molybdenum-based catalysts for higher alcohol synthesis (HAS). Parallel research carried out at Union Carbide Chemicals and Plastics (UCC&P) is focused on transition-metal-oxide catalysts. Accomplishments to date are discussed in this report. In Task 2, during the past three months, much has been accomplished in fuel testing. Several tests have been run on pure indolene, and the data have been analyzed from these tests. The two limiting alcohol blends have been made, sent out for analysis and the results obtained. The emissions sampling system is undergoing changes necessary for running alcohol fuels. A cylinder pressure measurement system has been installed.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conversion of Lignocellulosic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis A. Dutta, M. Talmadge, and J. Hensley National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado M. Worley and D. Dudgeon Harris Group Inc. Atlanta, Georgia and Seattle, Washington D. Barton, P. Groenendijk, D. Ferrari, and B. Stears The Dow Chemical Company Midland, Michigan E.M. Searcy, C.T. Wright, and J.R. Hess Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, Idaho Technical Report NREL/TP-5100-51400 May 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard

280

Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Thirteenth quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The authors have tested a number of K/Pd promoted Zn/Mn/Cr spinel oxide catalysts within an experimental design to determine the effect of K, Pd, temperature and pressure on catalyst performance. High temperature operation (at 440 C) results in drastic loss in selectivities to total alcohols (down to 18--30%), and this obscures the effect of the catalyst formulation variables. It appears that at higher temperatures, the tube walls can also catalyze syngas conversion with a more hydrogen-rich syngas mix. Comparison with tests in a copper-lined tube with 1:1 syngas confirm this hypothesis. The design suggested that higher Pd loadings would be beneficial for isobutanol synthesis. The 6 wt% and a 9 wt% Pd formulation were tested with 1:2 syngas in copper-lined tubes. The 6 wt% Pd catalyst, at 440 C and 1,500 psi, produced 71 g/kg-hr of isobutanol with a methanol/isobutanol product mole ratio < 1. Under the same conditions, the 9 wt% Pd catalyst is again inferior, producing 52 g/kg-hr of isobutanol with a methanol/isobutanol product mole ratio = 1.7. Of particular interest here is that the 6 wt% Pd catalyst produces more higher alcohols than methanol on a molar basis at good rates using a syngas mix that could be derived from a Shell gasifier.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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281

Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China  

SciTech Connect

In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust, soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale electronic wastes (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18,500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-80,0000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89,600-14,3000 pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of {Sigma}PBDD/Fs and {Sigma}PBDEs (r = 0.769, p < 0.01) and between SPBDD/Fs and the previously reported SPCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.805, p < 0.01). The estimated daily human intakes of TEQs contributed by PBDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposures in e-waste recycling facilities were higher than the intakes of TEQs contributed by PCDD/Fs, calculated in our previous study. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Jing Ma; Rudolf Addink; Sehun Yun; Jinping Cheng; Wenhua Wang; Kurunthachalam Kannan [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China). School of Environmental Science and Engineering

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

U.S. Refinery & Blender Net Input - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

413: 353: 340: 289: 2008-2013: RBOB for Blending with Alcohol : 2005-2009: RBOB for Blending with Ether : 2005-2009: GTAB : 2005-2009: Conventional: 173: 117: 246 ...

283

PADD 3 Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

All stock levels are as of the end of the period. Data may not add to total due to independent rounding. Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, ...

284

Stocks of Propane/Propylene - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

All stock levels are as of the end of the period. Data may not add to total due to independent rounding. Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, ...

285

Stocks of Residual Fuel Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

All stock levels are as of the end of the period. Data may not add to total due to independent rounding. Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, ...

286

Cushing, Oklahoma Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

All stock levels are as of the end of the period. Data may not add to total due to independent rounding. Weekly data for RBOB with Ether, RBOB with Alcohol, ...

287

Development of alternative fuels from coal derived syngas. Topical report: Task 2.2, Demonstration of a one-step slurry-phase process for the production of dimethyl ether/methanol mixtures at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit  

SciTech Connect

This report documents engineering, modification, and operations efforts of demonstration of dimethyl-ether/methanol coproduction in a slurry-phase reactor, carried out in a 2-ft diameter bubble column reactor. Equipment modifications made it possible to remove the product DME and by-product CO{sub 2} from the reactor effluent. Coproduction of dimethyl-ether (DME) and methanol (MeOH) was accomplished in the slurry reactor by physically mixing two different catalysts. The catalyst used to produce MeOH from syngas was manufactured by BASF (type S3-86); the catalyst used to convert MeOH to DME was Catapal {gamma}-alumina. Ratio of MeOH to DME catalysts determined the selectivity towards DME. The demonstration sought to study effect of cocatalyst ratio on product selectivity. Three different proportions of DME catalyst were examined: 0, 6.6, and 19.3 wt % alumina. At each catalyst proportion, the plant was operated at two different gas space velocities. Some process variables were maintained at fixed conditions; most important variables included: reactor temperature (482F), reactor pressure (750 psig), and reactor feed gas composition (35% H{sub 2}, 51% CO,13% CO{sub 2} 1% other, nominal-molar basis).

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Sealed Gravitational Capillary Viscometry of Dimethyl Ether ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Huber, and MO McLinden, NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties-REFPROP, Version ...

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

289

Sealed Gravitational Capillary Viscometry of Dimethyl Ether ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... RF Hafer, Viscosity of Fluorinated Propane Isomers. ... EW Lemmon, An Equation of State for the ... Dense Fluids, Plenum Press, New York and London ...

2013-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

290

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 18, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At West Virginia University, preliminary studies were completed on the use of a membrane reactor for a BASF methanol synthesis catalyst, and the results were compared qualitatively with those from a non- permeable stainless steel tubular reactor. Promising non-sulfided Mo- based catalyst was screened and detailed parametric studies begun on selected non-sulfided catalysts. Kinetic study of a sulfided carbon- supported potassium-doped molybdenum-cobalt catalyst in the Rotoberty reactor continued. Post analyses of screening runs of previous promising non-sulfide molybdenum-based catalysts were completed by analyzing the liquid products collected using a GC/MS. At Union Carbide Corporation, the effect of high-temperature heat treatments of selected catalysts was tested. In all cases, heat treatments resulted in decreased total alcohol selectivity and decreased space time yield to all products affected. Also, catalyst screening was completed. Reduced Mo-Ni-K/C materials were found to be promising catalysts for high alcohol synthesis.

NONE

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Novel approaches to the production of higher alcohols from synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 16, July 1, 1994-- September 30, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Accomplishments for Task 2, liquid-phase, higher alcohol process with recycle of lower alcohols, are as follows: (1) a new reactor overhead system design has significantly improved retention of slurry oil during reactor operation at high temperature, ca. 375{degrees}C; (2) a series of ``blank`` (without catalyst) runs were made at 375{degrees}C to evaluate thermal stability of three potential slurry liquids, Drakeol{reg_sign}, Ethylflo{reg_sign} 180 and perhydrofluorene; and (3) the rate of methanol formation with the Cu/ZnO BASF S3-86 ``low temperature`` methanol synthesis catalyst was a strong function of stirrer speed at a ``standard`` set of operating conditions. This result suggest that the reaction rate is influenced or controlled by gas/liquid mass transfer, and may explain the previously-observed discrepancy between results from this laboratory and those from Air Products.

Roberts, G.W.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

The Non-alcoholic Beverage Market in the United States: Demand Interrelationships, Dynamics, Nutrition Issues and Probability Forecast Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There are many different types of non-alcoholic beverages (NAB) available in the United States today compared to a decade ago. Additionally, the needs of beverage consumers have evolved over the years centering attention on functionality and health dimensions. These trends in volume of consumption are a testament to the growth in the NAB industry. Our study pertains to ten NAB categories. We developed and employed a unique cross-sectional and time-series data set based on Nielsen Homescan data associated with household purchases of NAB from 1998 through 2003. First, we considered demographic and economic profiling of the consumption of NAB in a two-stage model. Race, region, age and presence of children and gender of household head were the most important factors affecting the choice and level of consumption. Second, we used expectation-prediction success tables, calibration, resolution, the Brier score and the Yates partition of the Brier score to measure the accuracy of predictions generated from qualitative choice models used to model the purchase decision of NAB by U.S. households. The Yates partition of the Brier score outperformed all other measures. Third, we modeled demand interrelationships, dynamics and habits of NAB consumption estimating own-price, cross-price and expenditure elasticities. The Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System, the synthetic Barten model and the State Adjustment Model were used. Soft drinks were substitutes and fruit juices were complements for most of non-alcoholic beverages. Investigation of a proposed tax on sugar-sweetened beverages revealed the importance of centering attention not only to direct effects but also to indirect effects of taxes on beverage consumption. Finally, we investigated factors affecting nutritional contributions derived from consumption of NAB. Also, we ascertained the impact of the USDA year 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans associated with the consumption of NAB. Significant factors affecting caloric and nutrient intake from NAB were price, employment status of household head, region, race, presence of children and the gender of household food manager. Furthermore, we found that USDA nutrition intervention program was successful in reducing caloric and caffeine intake from consumption of NAB. The away-from-home intake of beverages and potential impacts of NAB advertising are not captured in our work. In future work, we plan to address these limitations.

Dharmasena, Kalu Arachchillage Senarath

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 19, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of Task I is to prepare and evaluate catalysts and to develop efficient reactor systems for the selective conversion of hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to alcohol fuel extenders and octane enhancers. In Task 1, during this reporting period, we encountered and solved a problem in the analysis of the reaction products containing a small amount of heavy components. Subsequently, we continued with the major thrusts of the program. We analyzed the results from our preliminary studies on the packed-bed membrane reactor using the BASF methanol synthesis catalyst. We developed a quantitative model to describe the performance of the reactor. The effect of varying permeances and the effect of catalyst aging are being incorporated into the model. Secondly, we resumed our more- detailed parametric studies on selected non-sulfide Mo-based catalysts. Finally, we continue with the analysis of data from the kinetic study of a sulfided carbon-supported potassium-doped molybdenum-cobalt catalyst in the Rotoberty reactor. We have completed catalyst screening at UCC. The complete characterization of selected catalysts has been started. In Task 2, the fuel blends of alcohol and unleaded test gas 96 (UTG 96) have been made and tests have been completed. The testing includes knock resistance tests and emissions tests. Emissions tests were conducted when the engine was optimized for the particular blend being tested (i.e. where the engine produced the most power when running on the blend in question). The data shows that the presence of alcohol in the fuel increases the fuel`s ability to resist knock. Because of this, when the engine was optimized for use with alcohol blends, the engine produced more power and lower emission rates.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 9, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Catalysts based on molybdenum are being prepared using four different approaches. These materials have been characterized by IR, XRD and single-crystal studies. Modeling studies are continuing satisfactorily. The overall efficiency of each base case has been calculated and tested as a screening method to select feasible technologies. A methodology to determine the effects and influences of process variable uncertainties on the performance of a design has been developed. Input variables in the model to be considered include the reaction product distribution, the operating temperatures of equipment (e.g., gasifiers, separators, etc.), and the estimates of the thermodynamic model used in the computer aided design simulation of the process. The efficiency of the process can be modeled by calculation of output variables such as the payback period or the energy efficiency of the plant. The result will be a range of expected operating conditions for the process and an indication of which variables` uncertainties are most likely to affect process operating conditions. The stream exiting the reactor consists of alcohols, esters and water. The separation block consists of a network of distillation columns which separate the various alcohols and water. The choice and order of separation, operating conditions, degree of separation and amount to be bypassed are the random variables to be optimized by simulated annealing. The value of the above variables controls the mix of the alcohol streams to be used as gasoline additives exiting the network of distillation column. The total profitability is the price obtained by selling the various blended products after accounting for the cost of production of various alcohols.

Not Available

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Development of alcohol-based synthetic transportation fuels from coal-derived synthesis gases. First quarterly progress report, September 14-December 31, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chem Systems is carrying out an experimental program for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gases to a mixture of C/sub 1/-C/sub 4/ alcohols. The objectives of this contract are to: (1) develop a catalyst and reactor system for producing a mixture of C/sub 1/-C/sub 4/ alcohols, which we call Alkanol fuel, to be used as a synthetic transportation fuel and (2) assess the technical and economic feasibility of scaling the process concept to a commercial-scale application. Some of the accomplishments made this quarter were: (1) a small (75cc) fixed-bed, plug-flow, vapor phase reaction system was set up and operated utilizing catalyst bed dilution with inert media to help limit the large exotherm associated with the synthesis gas conversion reactions; (2) a total of fifteen (15) catalysts containing varying amounts of Cu, Co, Zn, Cr and K were prepared and seven of these catalysts were tested; (3) we have identified at least one promising catalyst composition which has resulted in a 30% conversion of carbon monoxide per pass (synthesis gas had a 3.5 H/sub 2//CO ratio) with a carbon selectivity to alcohols of about 80%.

None

1980-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

296

Catalysis for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis from Biomass Derived Syngas: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-292  

SciTech Connect

The Dow Chemical Company (Dow) developed and tested catalysts for production of mixed alcohols from synthesis gas (syngas), under research and development (R&D) projects that were discontinued a number of years ago. Dow possesses detailed laboratory notebooks, catalyst samples, and technical expertise related to this past work. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is conducting R&D in support of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to develop methods for economically producing ethanol from gasified biomass. NREL is currently conducting biomass gasification research at an existing 1/2 ton/day thermochemical test platform. Both Dow and NREL believe that the ability to economically produce ethanol from biomass-derived syngas can be enhanced through collaborative testing, refinement, and development of Dow's mixed-alcohol catalysts at NREL's and/or Dow's bench- and pilot-scale facilities. Dow and NREL further agree that collaboration on improvements in catalysts as well as gasifier operating conditions (e.g., time, temperature, upstream gas treatment) will be necessary to achieve technical and economic goals for production of ethanol and other alcohols.

Hensley, J.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report number 13, October 1--December 31, 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At WVU, Mo{sub 2}S{sub 3} was produced from gas-phase reactions at 1,100 C. The gas-phase reactor was modified to increase product yields and to decrease particle size. Four Chevrel phases were synthesized for catalytic evaluation. In addition, four supported alkali-modified MoS{sub 2} materials were prepared from a single-source precursor, K{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}S{sub 13}. Screening runs have been carried out on some of these materials and others prepared earlier. At UCC and P, test runs on the reactor system have commenced. Higher alcohols up to butanol were observed and identified at high temperatures. Significant progress has been made on the Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. Frequency distributions have been determined for all of the equipment blocks for the Texaco gasifier cases. For these cases, there is a 10% chance that the actual installed capital cost could exceed the estimated installed capital cost by $40 million dollars. This work will continue with inclusion of variable costs and prediction of the uncertainties in the return on investment. Modifications to the simulated annealing optimization program have been underway in order to increase the level of certainty that the final result is near the global optimum. Alternative design cases have been examined in efforts to enhance the economics of the production of high alcohols. One such process may be the generation of electric power using combustion turbines fueled by synthesis gas.

NONE

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburg, Corinne

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Alcohol dehydrogenase accentuates ethanol-induced myocardial dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in mice: role of mitochondrial death pathway. PLoS One 5: e8757  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Objectives: Binge drinking and alcohol toxicity are often associated with myocardial dysfunction possibly due to accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde although the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study was designed to examine the impact of accelerated ethanol metabolism on myocardial contractility, mitochondrial function and apoptosis using a murine model of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Methods: ADH and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Myocardial contractility, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis (death receptor and mitochondrial pathways) were examined. Results: Ethanol led to reduced cardiac contractility, enlarged cardiomyocyte, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, the effects of which were exaggerated by ADH transgene. In particular, ADH exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction manifested as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and accumulation of mitochondrial O2 N2. Myocardium from ethanoltreated mice displayed enhanced Bax, Caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression, the effect of which with the exception of Caspase-3 was augmented by ADH. ADH accentuated ethanol-induced increase in the mitochondrial death domain components pro-caspase-9 and cytochrome C in the cytoplasm. Neither ethanol nor ADH affected the expression of ANP, total pro-caspase-9, cytosolic and total pro-caspase-8, TNF-a, Fas receptor, Fas L and cytosolic AIF. Conclusions: Taken together, these data suggest that enhanced acetaldehyde production through ADH overexpression

Rui Guo; Jun Ren

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Liver Hypertrophy After Percutaneous Portal Vein Embolization: Comparison of N-Butyl-2-Cyanocrylate Versus Sodium Acrylate-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer Particles in a Swine Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: Percutaneous portal vein embolization (PPVE) induces hypertrophy of the future liver remnant before hepatic resection. The ideal embolic material has not yet been determined. We compared N-butyl-2-cyanocrylate (NBCA) with sodium acrylate-vinyl alcohol copolymer particles using a swine model. Materials and Methods: Twelve pigs underwent PPVE. Six pigs (group A) were embolized with NBCA, and 6 pigs (group B) were embolized with sodium acrylate-vinyl alcohol copolymer particles. Computed tomographic volumetry of the embolized lobe (EL) and the nonembolized lobe (NEL), along with liver function tests, was performed before and at 14 and 28 days after embolization. Tissue samples from both lobes were taken 14 and 28 days after PPVE. Results: NEL-volume and NEL-ratio increases were significantly higher in group A at 14 and 28 days after PPVE (78 and 52% and 91 and 66%, respectively) than in group B (32 and 12% and 28 and 10%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Percent change of the EL-volume was significantly higher for group A at 28 days after PPVE. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups regarding hepatocyte proliferation on the NEL and apoptosis on the EL at both time intervals. Conclusion: PPVE using NBCA is more efficient and causes more NEL hypertrophy than microspheres.

Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical School, General University Hospital Attikon (Greece); Theocharis, Stamatis, E-mail: theocharis@ath.forthnet.gr [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School (Greece); Ptohis, Nikolaos, E-mail: nikptohis@yahoo.gr; Alexopoulou, Efthimia, E-mail: ealex64@hotmail.com [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical School, General University Hospital Attikon (Greece); Mantziaras, George, E-mail: gmantziaras@yahoo.com [Academy of Athens, Biomedical Research Foundation (Greece); Kelekis, Nikolaos L., E-mail: kelnik@med.uoa.gr; Brountzos, Elias N., E-mail: ebrountz@med.uoa.gr [National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 2nd Department of Radiology, Medical School, General University Hospital Attikon (Greece)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Alcohol processing speed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central Valley Jr. Academy Central Valley Jr. Academy Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Our class has been studying about big cats. We studied cats' eyes. We learned why cats' eyes seem to glow in the dark. The back of each cat's eyes has mirror-like cells that reflect light. We used a coffee can and some construction paper to make a model of a cat's eye. We made the pupil oval shaped like a cat's eye. We shone a flashlight in the pupil and we saw the reflection. A book that we read said that nocturnal hungers mostly have long, oval-shaped pupils and daytime hunters have round pupils. We w want to know what difference that makes to an animal in being able to see.j Why do daytime hunters have round pupils and nocturnal hunters have oval shaped pupils. Do you know why?

302

Oil droplet in alcohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The elegant patterns formed by fluid droplets falling through a dissimilar liquid were first studied over a century ago.1 The emerging patterns are driven by hydrodynamic instabilities set up by velocity and density gradients ...

La Foy, Roderick R.

303

Adsorption of organic molecules at the mercury-solution interface: effect of anion specific adsorption on double layer properties. [Benzyl alcohol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adsorption of iso-pentanol, pentanoic acid, and benzyl alcohol at the mercury-solution interface was studied in HC1O/sub 4/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, NaNO/sub 3/, and NaF electrolytes. The Frumkin isotherm equation Ba = (theta/(1-theta))exp(2..cap alpha..theta) together with the implied charge vs. surface excess relation: q = (1-theta)q/sub w/ + thetaQ were used to analyze the experimental data. Linear charge vs surface excess plots were obtained for the aliphatic compounds over the entire potential region studied; for benzyl alcohol, plots were linear only at anodic potentials. The slopes of these lines agreed with those predicted by the above equation, with Q = C/sub org/(V-V/sub n/), for cathodic potentials. At potentials anodic to the electrocapillary maximum, deviations between experimental and theoretical slopes appeared. In the model proposed, the double layer consists of two parts. The layer closest to the surface is restricted to water molecules and specifically adsorbed ions. The second layer contains organic molecules exclusively; any charge necessary to balance the surface charge is considered to be in a monolayer adjacent to the organic layer. From the slope of the charge vs surface excess plots, it is possible to calculate the charge on the covered portion of the surface and then calculate the amount of specific adsorption. The relative amounts of specific adsorption are in agreement with known strengths of adsorption of the anions of the electrolyte. Capacity curves were also calculated and were in good agreement with experimental curves.

Buckfelder, J.J. III

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Alkali/TX[sub 2] catalysts for CO/H[sub 2] conversion to C[sub 1]-C[sub 4] alcohols  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to determine the patterns of variations of catalyst activity and selectivity for the synthesis of alcohols from H[sub 2]/CO synthesis gas. Since the source of carbon can be coal-derived synthesis gas, this research makes a contribution to the technology for high quality clean transportation fuels and for basic chemicals from coal. Catalysts prepared were principally based on MoS[sub 2], RuS[sub 2], TaS[sub 2], and NbS[sub 2]. Catalytic testing of these materials was carried out both before and after surface doping with Cs. In alcohol synthesis activation of hydrogen by the catalyst surface is essential. Knowledge of transition metal disulfide surface properties is important before the mechanism of hydrogen dissociation can be addressed. The electronic structures of MoS[sub 2], RuS[sub 2], and NbS[sub 2] were studied both theoretically and experimentally. Experimental valence bands were obtained by high resolution electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (HR-ESCA, also referred to as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and theoretical valence bands were calculated using solid state extended Hueckel theory. Comparison of two-dimensional (2-D) MoS[sub 2] theoretical valence bands with the experimental HR-ESCA valence bands of polycrystalline MoS[sub 2] led to parametrization of the S 3s, S 3p, and Mo 4d atomic ionization potentials and Slater-type coefficients and exponents. The S 3s and S 3p parameters obtained for MoS[sub 2] were used to obtain the NbS[sub 2] and RuS[sub 2] theoretical valence bands.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Richards-Babb, M.; Bastian, R.; Kieke, M.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Transition metal complexes of oxazolinylboranes and cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates: Catalysts for asymmetric olefin hydroamination and acceptorless alcohol decarbonylation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research presented and discussed in this dissertation involves the synthesis of transition metal complexes of oxazolinylboranes and cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates, and their application in catalytic enantioselective olefin hydroamination and acceptorless alcohol decarbonylation. Neutral oxazolinylboranes are excellent synthetic intermediates for preparing new borate ligands and also developing organometallic complexes. Achiral and optically active bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes are synthesized by reaction of 2-lithio-2-oxazolide and 0.50 equiv of dichlorophenylborane. These bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes are oligomeric species in solid state resulting from the coordination of an oxazoline to the boron center of another borane monomer. The treatment of chiral bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes with sodium cyclopentadienide provide optically active cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates H[PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 5})(Ox{sup R}){sub 2}] [Ox{sup R} = Ox{sup 4S-iPr,Me2}, Ox{sup 4R-iPr,Me2}, Ox{sup 4S-tBu]}. These optically active proligands react with an equivalent of M(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4} (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) to afford corresponding cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borato group 4 complexes {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup R}){sub 2}}M(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} in high yields. These group 4 compounds catalyze cyclization of aminoalkenes at room temperature or below, providing pyrrolidine, piperidine, and azepane with enantiomeric excesses up to 99%. Our mechanistic investigations suggest a non-insertive mechanism involving concerted C?N/C?H bond formation in the turnover limiting step of the catalytic cycle. Among cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borato group 4 catalysts, the zirconium complex {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup 4S-iPr,Me2}){sub 2}}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} ({S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}) displays highest activity and enantioselectivity. Interestingly, {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} also desymmetrizes olefin moieties of achiral non-conjugated aminodienes and aminodiynes during cyclization. The cyclization of aminodienes catalyzed by {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} affords diastereomeric mixture of cis and trans cylic amines with high diasteromeric ratios and excellent enantiomeric excesses. Similarly, the desymmetrization of alkyne moieties in {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}-catalyzed cyclization of aminodiynes provides corresponding cyclic imines bearing quaternary stereocenters with enantiomeric excesses up to 93%. These stereoselective desymmetrization reactions are significantly affected by concentration of the substrate, temperature, and the presence of a noncyclizable primary amine. In addition, both the diastereomeric ratios and enantiomeric excesses of the products are markedly enhanced by N-deuteration of the substrates. Notably, the cationic zirconium-monoamide complex [{S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2})][B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}] obtained from neutral {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} cyclizes primary aminopentenes providing pyrrolidines with S-configuration; whereas {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} provides R-configured pyrrolidines. The yttrium complex {S-2}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} also affords S-configured pyrrolidines by cyclization of aminopentenes, however the enantiomeric excesses of products are low. An alternative optically active yttrium complex {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup 4S-tBu}){sub 2}}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} ({S-3}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3}) is synthesized, which displays highly enantioselective in the cyclization of aminoalkenes at room temperature affording S-configured cyclic amines with enantiomeric excesses up to 96%. A noninsertive mechanism involving a six-membered transition state by a concerted C?N bond formation and N?H bond cleavage is proposed for {S-3}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} system based on the kinetic, spectroscopic, and stereochemical features. In the end, a series of bis- and tris(oxazolinyl)borato iridium and rhodium complexes are synthesized with bis(oxazolinyl)phenylborane [PhB(Ox{sup Me2}){sub 2}]{sub n}, tris(oxazolinyl)borane [B(Ox{sup Me2}){sub 3}]n, and tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate [To{sup M}]{sup ?}. All these new an

Manna, Kuntal [Ames Laboratory

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

306

Purifying contaminated water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Purifying contaminated water. [DOE patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process is presented for removing biorefactory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, C.G.

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

308

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 15, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In Task 1, during this reporting period, the plug-flow reactor used for sulfided systems was converted to a Berty-type reactor. Subsequent to the conversion, we stopped screening sulfide catalysts. Prior to the conversion, six sulfide catalysts were prepared and evaluated: MoS{sub 2}, K{sub 0.7}MoS{sub 2}, Rb{sub 0.7}MoS{sub 2}, Cs{sub 0.7}MoS{sub 2}, Fe{sub 1-x}S/SiO{sub 2} and K{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}S/SiO{sub 2}. These catalysts were all produced by vapor-phase reactions, followed by alkali addition using incipient wetness techniques. The alkali/molybdenum catalysts all satisfied the project requirements for product selectivity and activity. The iron sulfides were poor catalysts, with conversion rates less than 1% and product distributions strongly favoring hydrocarbons. Materials produced subsequent to the conversion were all transition-metal nitrides or carbides. We tested a commercial Zn/Cr catalyst support, both bare and impregnated with potassium and cesium at various loadings. None of these catalysts looks promising for the production of higher alcohols. We also manufactured two new Zn/Cr supports which are available for testing now.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report number 20, July 1--September 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this time period, at WVU, the authors have obtained models for the kinetics of the HAS (higher alcohol synthesis) reaction over the Co-K-MoS{sub 2}/C catalyst. The Rotoberty reactor was then replaced in the reactor system by a plug-flow tubular reactor. Accordingly, the authors re-started the investigations on sulfide catalysts. The authors encountered and solved the leak problem from the sampling valve for the non-sulfided reactor system. They also modified the system to eliminate the condensation problem. Accordingly, they are continuing their kinetic studies on the reduced Mo-Ni-K/C catalysts. They have set up an apparatus for temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) studies, and have obtained some interesting results on TPR characterizations. At UCC, the complete characterization of selected catalysts has been started. The authors sent nine selected types of ZnO, Zn/CrO and Zn/Cr/MnO catalysts and supports for BET surface area, SEM, XRD and ICP. They also sent fresh and spent samples of the Engelhard Zn/CrO catalyst impregnated with 3 wt% potassium for ISS and XPS testing. In Task 2, work on the design and optimization portion of this task, as well as on the fuel testing, is completed. All funds have been expended and there are no personnel working on this project.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Composition and method for corrosion inhibition utilizing an epoxy resin, an amine curing agent, and alcohol and optionally a hydrocarbon diluent  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for treating metal surfaces of drilling equipment in a well for the recovery of natural fluids from a subterranean reservoir. It comprises an epoxy resin having more than one vicinal epoxide group per molecule; an N-tallow-1,3 diaminopropane curing agent for the epoxy resin, the curing agent and epoxy being present in an equivalent ratio of from about 1.5:1 to about 5:1; a hydrocarbon diluent present in an amount to maintain the composition in an essentially fluid state; and an alcohol selected from the group consisting of ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-proponal, n-butanol, n-pentanol, n-hexanol, n-heptanol, and combinations of any two or more thereof, present in an amount of about 10 to about 60 weight percent, based on the weight of the composition, into the well and allowing the composition to contact the metal surfaces for a time sufficient to form a corrosion-inhibiting film thereon.

Wu, Y.

1992-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

311

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

312

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

313

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report number 17, September 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this reporting period, there were three major thrusts in the WVU portion. First, we started a preliminary investigation on the use of a membrane reactor for HAS. Accordingly, the plug-flow reactor which had been isolated from sulfides was substituted by a membrane reactor. The tubular membrane was first characterized in terms of its permeation properties, i.e., the fluxes, permeances and selectivities of the components. After that, a BASF methanol-synthesis catalyst was tested under different conditions on the membrane reactor. The results will be compared with those from a non-permeable stainless steel tubular reactor under the same conditions. Second, we started a detailed study of one of the catalysts tested during the screening runs. Accordingly, a carbon-supported potassium-doped molybdenum-cobalt catalyst was selected to be run in the Rotoberty reactor. Finally, we have started detailed analyses of reaction products from some earlier screening runs in which non-sulfide molybdenum-based catalysts were employed and much more complicated product distributions were generally observed. These products could not hitherto be analyzed using the gas chromatograph which was then available. A Varian gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) is being used to characterize these liquid products. At UCC, we completed a screening of an Engelhard support impregnated with copper and cesium. We have met or exceeded three of four catalyst development targets. Oxygenate selectivity is our main hurdle. Further, we tested the effect of replacing stainless-steel reactor preheater tubing and fittings with titanium ones. We had hoped to reduce the yield of hydrocarbons which may have been produced at high temperatures due to Fischer-Tropsch catalysis with the iron and nickel in the preheater tube walls. Results showed that total hydrocarbon space time yield was actually increased with the titanium preheater, while total alcohol space time yield was not significantly affected.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

SciTech Connect

An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

315

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL AND ETHER ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

essential oil from R. rugosum was investigated for further development and application. The chemical and class composition of the oils are presented in Table 1.

316

Experimental Pathology Laboratories, Inc. Ethyl-Tertiary-Butyl Ether  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a plantation about 15-year-old in the Les Cedres area, near Montreal (45820H N, 73854H W). Trees in open

Bandettini, Peter A.

317

Direct Dimethyl Ether Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells for Portable Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Kosek, C. Cropley, and A. LaConti, in Proceedings of the 32nd Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering

318

CAMPUS SAFETY, DRUGS AND ALCOHOL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and may do so on a confidential basis. The UWPD monitors and records, on an annual basis, criminal also conducts petty cash assessments and physical security surveys. You can register your #12;3 bicycle Facilities" and WAC 478­136 www.washington.edu/provost/specialprograms/uuf.html WEAPONS The possession or use

Kaminsky, Werner

319

Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse (INP Toulouse) cole doctorale et discipline ou spcialit  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Energy Research (NIPER), 2) the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA), and 3) the U, benzene, alcohols, and various ether oxygenates. The purpose of the NIPER survey is generally to provide Number of samples Participation National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) survey U

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

A Study of EndtoEnd Web Access Failures Venkata N. Padmanabhan + Sriram Ramabhadran Sharad Agarwal + Jitendra Padhye +  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Energy Research (NIPER), 2) the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA), and 3) the U, benzene, alcohols, and various ether oxygenates. The purpose of the NIPER survey is generally to provide Number of samples Participation National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research (NIPER) survey U

Padmanabhan, Venkata N.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Alkali/TX{sub 2} catalysts for CO/H{sub 2} conversion to C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alcohols. Final technical progress report, September 1, 1988--August 31, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to determine the patterns of variations of catalyst activity and selectivity for the synthesis of alcohols from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas. Since the source of carbon can be coal-derived synthesis gas, this research makes a contribution to the technology for high quality clean transportation fuels and for basic chemicals from coal. Catalysts prepared were principally based on MoS{sub 2}, RuS{sub 2}, TaS{sub 2}, and NbS{sub 2}. Catalytic testing of these materials was carried out both before and after surface doping with Cs. In alcohol synthesis activation of hydrogen by the catalyst surface is essential. Knowledge of transition metal disulfide surface properties is important before the mechanism of hydrogen dissociation can be addressed. The electronic structures of MoS{sub 2}, RuS{sub 2}, and NbS{sub 2} were studied both theoretically and experimentally. Experimental valence bands were obtained by high resolution electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (HR-ESCA, also referred to as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and theoretical valence bands were calculated using solid state extended Hueckel theory. Comparison of two-dimensional (2-D) MoS{sub 2} theoretical valence bands with the experimental HR-ESCA valence bands of polycrystalline MoS{sub 2} led to parametrization of the S 3s, S 3p, and Mo 4d atomic ionization potentials and Slater-type coefficients and exponents. The S 3s and S 3p parameters obtained for MoS{sub 2} were used to obtain the NbS{sub 2} and RuS{sub 2} theoretical valence bands.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Richards-Babb, M.; Bastian, R.; Kieke, M.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

323

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Ethanol Plant Production Ethanol Plant Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as described in the Oxygenates definition. Oxygenates Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates. Fuel Ethanol: Blends of up to 10 percent by volume anhydrous ethanol (200 proof) (commonly referred to as the "gasohol waiver"). Methanol: Blends of methanol and gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol (GTBA) such that the total oxygen content does not exceed 3.5 percent by weight and the ratio of methanol to GTBA is less than or equal to 1. It is also specified that this blended fuel must meet ASTM volatility specifications (commonly referred to as the "ARCO" waiver).

324

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

Grinstead, R.R.

1962-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

325

Alcohol fuels bibliography, 1901-March 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This annotated bibliography is subdivided by subjects, as follows: general; feedstocks-general; feedstocks-sugar; feedstocks-starch; feedstocks-cellulose crops and residues; production; coproducts; economics; use as vehicle fuel; government policies; and environmental effects and safety. (MHR)

Not Available

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

The Effect of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Biomechanics Studies at the Advanced Photon Source Using High-Energy X- ... Reducing Bacteria Biofilm Corrosion Behavior of High Strength Steel (API-5L X80) ... LASER Powder Deposition of Titanium - Tantalum Alloys Surfaces for Use in ...

327

Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent ...  

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell; Hydropower, Wave and Tidal; Industrial Technologies; Solar Photovoltaic; ... NJ) Application Number: 08/ 577,723: Filed: ...

328

Faculty & Staff Alcohol and Other Drugs Handbook  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.2 None None Marijuana 25.0 6.7 3.1 PCP None None None Rohypnol None None None Tobacco 24.0 5.4 2.1 #12 ·Tranquilizers: Barbiturates ·GHB: Gammahydroxybutyrate ·Ruffies: Rohypnol Look for: Poor concentration, fatigue buying liquor? 12. Do you feel a sense of power when you drink? 13. Have you lost friends since you

Sze, Lawrence

329

Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis  

  This technology provides an advantageous means to convert syngas into a class of chemicals known as higher oxygenates as well as other long-chain ...

330

Sweet sorghum processing for alcohol production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Several processing techniques for producing ethanol from sweet sorghum were investigated. Fermentating chopped stalks yielded more ethanol than shredded sorghum or juice. Leaf removal prior to fermentation resulted in higher yields per unit feedstock. Removal of solids after fermentation yielded slightly more ethanol than solids removal before fermentation.

Schmulevich, I.; Coble, C.G.; Egg, R.P.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Direct Detection of Products from the Pyrolysis of 2-Phenethyl Phenyl Ether Mark W. Jarvis,*,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Pyrolysis." In Biomass Handbook; C. W. Hall, ed. Gordon and Breach: New York, 1989; pp. 379-385. (with Pyrolysis of Biomass Derived Volatile Matter." In Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion; R. P. "Biomass Pyrolysis. A Review of the Literature - Part 1: Carbohydrate Pyrolysis." In Advances in Solar

Dean, Anthony M.

332

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 2.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

will controlled by diffusion in the biofilm near the outlet of the reactor. A fundamental parameter and control in bioreactors equipped with some degree of instrumentation, fundamental knowledge for the proper handbook of physical-chemical properties and environmental fate for organic chemicals, Volume III. Volatile

333

Chlorine resistant desalination membranes based on directly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present invention provides a membrane, kit, and method of making a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane includes a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer includes one or more hydrophilic monomers having a sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer and a second monomer and one or more hydrophobic monomers having a non-sulfonated third monomer and a fourth monomer. The sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer introduces a sulfonate into the hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer prior to polymerization.

McGrath, James E. (Blacksburg, VA); Park, Ho Bum (Austin, TX); Freeman, Benny D. (Austin, TX)

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

334

Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and Resulting Concentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

include wood framing with plywood underlying the floor, twowith low-VOC paint. The plywood subfloor was covered with

Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, weed-eater, shovel, and a rake. A chipper, compost bin, or a large rented trash dumpster may be useful

336

Measurements of flatflame velocities of diethyl ether in air Fiona Gillespiea,b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is being drawn towards bioderived fuels, the most common of which is bioethanol. Bioethanol. %; however, bioethanol is produced primarily from food sources (corn, sugarcane, etc.) and its energy output to allow a sufficient flow of oxygen through the burner plate. Bronkhorst conversion coefficient factors

337

A New Biarylphosphine Ligand for the Pd-Catalyzed Synthesis of Diaryl Ethers under Mild Conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new bulky biarylphosphine ligand (L8) has been developed that allows the Pd-catalyzed C–O cross-coupling of a wide range of aryl halides and phenols under milder conditions than previously possible. A direct correlation ...

Salvi, Luca

338

Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor protein expression in cells treated with alcohol and cytokines; a study on alcoholism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

then removed from the cooling tower and T-spacers from thethe gel sandwich and the cooling tower were then filled withwas placed over the cooling tower and reservoir, the wires

Niu, Mingmei; Syapin, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Total Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

340

Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Input Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquid Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Oxygenates/Renewables Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

New concept for coal wettability evaluation and modulation. Technical progress report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This project is concerned concept for coal surface wettability evaluation and modulation. The objective of the work are to study the fundamental surface chemistry feature about the evaluation of the surface of coal, pyrite and coal pyrite, and also establish a new separation strategy which could contribute to the advanced coal cleaning for premium fuel application. In this quarter, the capillary rise of three coals, colorado mineral pyrite, and coal pyrite in butanol, pentanol, and butyl ether have been tested. The test results shown that the kinetic wettability of the five samples in the alcohol homolog are dependent on the carbon chain length, as the length of the carbon chain is shorter, the surface wettability is the better. Another test results shown that the kinetic wettability of coals are better than mineral pyrite and coal pyrite in the butyl ether.

Hu, Weibai

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

342

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

343

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. (2) Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. (3) Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. During the sixth quarter we completed the construction of the slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR), conducted initial shake-down experiments in a cold-flow mode, and finalized the selection process of the acid catalysts for conversion of syngas-produced alcohols and isobutylene to MTBE (scheme 2). Tasks 3, 4, and 5 are awaiting complete implementation of the SBCR system.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

344

Children's residential exposures to flame retardants, pesticides and pesticide degradation products, and the relationship of pesticides with autonomic nervous system functioning  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

diphenyl ethers: a flame-retardant additive in severaldiphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. Neurotoxicology. 28,diphenyl ethers: a flame-retardant additive in several

Quiros Alcala, Lesliam

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources. Annual performance report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year`s research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

Crivello, J.V.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

Crivello, J.V.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

UN Alcohol Energy Data: Consumption by Other Consumers The Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Other Consumers The Energy Statistics Database contains comprehensive energy statistics on the production, trade, conversion and final consumption of primary and secondary;...

348

UN Alcohol Energy Data: Consumption by other industries and constructi...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

other industries and construction The Energy Statistics Database contains comprehensive energy statistics on the production, trade, conversion and final consumption of primary and...

349

UN Alcohol Energy Data: Consumption by transportation industry...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

by transportation industry The Energy Statistics Database contains comprehensive energy statistics on the production, trade, conversion and final consumption of primary and...

350

Biodiesel, Biodiesel Feedstock, and Alcohol Fuel Production Property...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Clean Energy Analysis Low Emission Development Strategies Oil & Gas Smart Grid Solar U.S. OpenLabs Utilities Water Wind Page Actions View form View source History View...

351

Use of alcohol fuel: engine-conversion demonstration. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of ethanol as a fuel extender when mixed with gasoline, and the use of both hydrated and anhydrous ethanol as a fuel in gasoline and diesel engines are discussed. Required engine modifications for efficient use of ethanol are described, and include engine compression alterations, carburetor adjustments, and arrangement for fuel preheating. In 1981 and 1982 a demonstration of ethanol use in spark ignition engines was conducted at a major public park in South Carolina. The demonstration included a controlled road test with a pick-up truck and a demonstration of ethanol use in small, air cooled gasoline engines. One problem that was identified was that of contaminated fuel that clogged the fuel system after a few days' operation. (LEW)

Marsh, W.K. (ed.)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Pyrochlore-Based Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis  

gas, coal, or biomass • Enhances the potential use of oxygenates as neat fuels or fuel additives • Develops a catalyst with high selectivity for ...

353

Electrocatalysts for Alcohol Oxidation in Fuel Cells - Energy ...  

Platinum is an excellent catalyst and electrocatalyst. It is also expensive and vulnerable to poisoning by carbon monoxide in the reaction ...

354

Microbial Reduction of Furfurals to Furan Alcohols by a ...  

Wind Energy; Partners (27) Visual Patent Search; Success ... or esterified with acids to form esters that can be components of bio-diesel or ...

355

Thermal conductivity and viscosity of self-assembled alcohol ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Aldrich) that have hydrophilic heads facing inward and hydropho- bic tails facing outward into the base fluid PAO (Chevron Phillips Chemical ...

2011-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

356

Design of a high activity and selectivity alcohol catalyst  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to explore the secondary dehydration of methanol over [gamma]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] support and over bimetallic Rh-Mo/[gamma]- Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], a new series of K-doped Rh-Mo/[gamma]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts was synthesized. Work on synthesis of bimetallic Rh-Mo clusters is reported.

Foley, H.C.; Mills, G.A.

1992-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

357

Alcohol as a fuel for farm and construction equipment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work in three areas dealing with the utilization of ethanol as fuel for farm and construction diesels is summarized. The first part is a review of what is known about the retrofitting of diesels for use of ethanol and the combustion problems involved. The second part is a discussion of the work that has been done under the contract on the performance of a single-cylinder, open-chamber diesel using solutions and emulsions of diesel fuel with ethanol. Data taken include performance, emissions and cylinder pressure-time for diesel fuel with zero to forty percent ethanol by volume. Analysis of the data includes calculation of heat release rates using a single zone model. The third part is a discussion of work done retrofitting a multicylinder turbocharged farm tractor diesel to use ethanol by fumigation. Three methods of ethanol introduction are discussed; spraying ethanol upstream and downstream of the compressor and prevaporization of the ethanol. Data on performance and emissions are given for the last two methods. A three zone heat release model is described and results from the model are given. A correlation of the ignition delay using prevaporized ethanol fumigation data is also given. Comparisons are made between fumigation in DI and IDI engines.

Borman, G L; Foster, D E; Meyers, P S; Uyehara, O A

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Microbial Reduction of Furfurals to Furan Alcohols by a Microbial ...  

• Production of biofuel precursors Inventor Point of Contact James G. Elkins Biosciences Division Oak Ridge, Tennessee Licensing Contact Renae Speck

359

5-Carbon Alcohols for Drop-in Gasoline Replacement - Energy ...  

Low water solubility offers further cost advantages by enabling shipment of the fuel in the existing petroleum pipeline infrastructure. Finally, ...

360

Available Technologies: 5-Carbon Alcohols for Drop-in Gasoline ...  

Low water solubility offers further cost advantages by enabling shipment of the fuel in the existing petroleum pipeline infrastructure. Finally, ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Work during the report period was concentrated on developing analytical techniques. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was used in an attempt to define the best mobile phase to separate the components of ''spent'' tetrahydroquinoline by liquid chromatography in a silica gel column. Conditions have been defined for separating the light gases produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) over promoted ''zinc chromite'' catalysts. This will be done with a temperature-programmed Carboxen-1000 column, using a thermal conductivity detector for analysis. A Petrocol DM 150 capillary column will be purchased to separate the heavier products, which will be analyzed using a flame ionization detector.

Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

2000-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

362

PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, a ''zinc chromite'' catalyst promoted with 6 wt.% cesium (Cs) was evaluated at the following conditions: Temperature--375 C; Total Pressure--6.8 MPa (1000 psig); Gas Hourly Space Velocity (GHSV) - 5000 standard liters/kg(cat)-hr, and; H{sub 2}/CO feed ratio--1.0 mole/mole. Decahydronaphthalene (DHN) was used as the slurry liquid. The experiment lasted for eight days of continuous operation. Although the experimental data once again did not exhibit the desired degree of consistency, the data did show that methanol was the primary reaction product. The slurry liquid did not decompose or alkylate to a measurable extent during the continuous 8-day experiment. There was a relatively significant loss of catalyst surface area during the experiment. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of various fractions of ''spent'' THQ was carried out. The fractions were prepared by silica gel liquid chromatography (LC). Chemical formuli and probable structures for each major compound were obtained. However, a higher degree of purification will be necessary to allow nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis to be used for definitive compound identification. A new Maxpro gas booster (DLE 15-75) was purchased because the existing Haskel gas booster once again developed a severe leak of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and was judged to be unworthy of repair.

Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

2000-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

363

Stocks of Motor Gasoline RBOB with Alcohol Blending Components  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Stocks include those ...

364

Organization of Participation in the Meetings of Alcoholics Anonymous  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of meetings. Pragmatics, I, Makela, Klaus et al. (1996).about two million in in 1990 (Makela is The meetings are therelated international study (Makela et al. , 1996, pp. 261-

Arminen, Ilkka

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Cattail-to-alcohol project. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Harvesting, grinding, and fermentation of cattails and/or their rhizomes are described. The use of antibiotics to prevent massive contamination of microorganisms and cessation of fermentation is discussed.

None

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

State of California BOARD OF EQUALIZATION ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE TAX REGULATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

All beer consumed on a brewery’s premises shall be accounted for. (a) Except as provided in Subdivision (b), tax shall be paid on all beer consumed by brewery employees, visitors and others in a brewery tavern. Beer manufactured by the brewery for consumption in a brewery tavern, and which is placed in a storage tank designed for this purpose, shall be subject to tax at the time it is place in the storage tank. For purposes of this Regulation, a “tavern ” means a federally approved portion of the brewery premises where beer is sold to consumers. (b) Beer consumed by brewery employees, visitors and others is not subject to tax if consumed without charge

Consumption Of; Beer On; Brewery Premises

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Mechanism of formation of oil by the hot aqueous alkaline digestion of cellulose  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall mechanism of cellulose converson in hot aqueous alkali appears to be one of degradation through glucose to low molecular weight saccharinic acids, dihydroxybutyric acid, glycolic acid, and carbonyl products such as acetone, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, and similar compounds. Although the products identified in the present report were fairly complex furans, carbocyclic ketones, unsaturated hydrocarbons, and aromatic compounds, nevertheless, in most cases, they could have been formed from simple carbonyl compounds through a series of condensations involving carbanion intermediates. It is conceivable that residual alkali in the oil during acetone extraction could have given rise to diacetone alcohol as an artifact. This is refuted by examination of an aqueous residue which was extracted with diethyl ether and which was never exposed to any acetone: Compounds derived from diacetone alcohol (such as mesityl oxide or 4-methyl-3-penten-2-one) were also identified in the diethyl ether extract of the aqueous phase. Other compounds were identified in the oil acetone extract which could not have been derived from acetone or diacetone alcohol, but which could have been formed from other carbonyl compounds by the same mechanism. Hence, diacetone alcohol is a genuine product of cellulose conversion although apparently not an intermediate in further synthesis of other products. The further reaction of the postulated cyclic intermediates, and the route to formation of unsaturated hydrocarbons of high molecular weight is intended to be the next subject of investigation in the current work. The fundamental difference in the mechanism of cellulose conversion to oil by pyrolysis and by aqueous alkaline digestion predicted by theory is therefore confirmed. Pyrolysis products may be explained generally by carbonium ion and free radical reactions (in fact, cellulose decomposition is acid-catalyzed), while in aqueous alkali, nucleophilic carbanion reactions are favored.

Molten, P.M.; Miller, R.K.; Donovan, J.M.; Demmitt, T.F.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Aggregation behavior of hexaoxyethyleneglycol myristate and hexaoxyethyleneglycol mono (1-methyltridecane) ether and dynamics of their micelles in aqueous solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The title surfactants have similar critical micelle concentrations and cloud temperatures. Their micellar solutions have been investigated by time resolved fluorescence quenching in the range 2--25 c. The micelle aggregation numbers of both surfactants do not differ much, and increase with temperature. Aggregation numbers are large, suggesting anisotropic micelles, and the results show that the micelles are polydisperse. Fast intermicellar exchange of material becomes detectable on the fluorescence timescale ([approximately]1 [mu]s) above T [approx] 10 C, i.e., some 35--40 C below the cloud temperature of the solution. This exchange probably occurs via micelle collisions with temporary merging. Overall the behavior of these two surfactants is very similar to that of the other ethoxylated nonionic surfactants previously examined.

Alami, E.; Zana, R. (Inst. Charles Sadron, Strasbourg (France)); Van Os, N.M.; Jong, B. de; Kerkhof, F.J.M. (Koninklijke/Shell Lab., Amsterdam, (Netherlands)); Rupert, L.A.M. (Thornton Research Centre, Chester, (United Kingdom))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Experimental Determinations of Henry's Law Constants of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) to Evaluate Exposure to Aquatic Biota  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

correlated to the degree of chlorine substitution, PCB K Hincreased with ortho- chlorine substitution. In contrast,their high abundance. Both chlorine isotopes (amu 35 and 37)

Charles, M. Judith; Destaillats, Hugo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of benzene to phenol, catechol, and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzeneof benzene to phenol (and catechol), and toluene toa multi-component PH, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase and the meta-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Enantiomeric recognition of organic ammonium salts by chiral crown ethers based on the pyridino-18-crown-6 structure  

SciTech Connect

Enantiomeric recognition by several chiral dimethyl-substituted macrocycles of the pyridino-18-crown-6 type for chiral organic ammonium salts has been studied by titration calorimetry in CH/sub 3/OH, temperature-dependent /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy in CD/sub 2/CL/sub 2/, and selective crystallization. Results from the three procedures are consistent in demonstrating either host-guest recognition or nonrecognition in the systems investigated. Futhermore, enaniomeric recognition by one chiral host for a pair of chiral guests is correlated with X-ray crystallographic data for the same system. The chiral dimethyl-substituted ligands used in the study include three dimethyl diester pyridino-18-crown-6 ligands, dimethyl thiono diester pyridino-18-crown-6, and dimethyl-pyridino-18-crown-6 ligands. All of these ligands exhibited chiral recognition. Dimethylpyridino-18-crown-6 in complexation with (R)- and (S)-(..cap alpha..-(1-naphthyl)ethyl)ammonium perchlorate exhibited the largest ratio of ..delta..G/sub c/+ yet observed by the /sup 1/H NMR technique. A diphenyl-substituted diester pyridino-18-crown-6 where the phenyl substituents are in less rigid portion of the macrocycle failed to show chiral recognition.

Davidson, R.B.; Bradshaw, J.S.; Jones, B.A.; Dalley, N.K.; Christensen, J.J.; Izatt, R.M.

1984-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

372

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Energy Research (NIPER), 2) the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA), and 3) the U interested in fuel comparisons Thousands each year Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association (MVMA) National gasoline survey Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association 23 cities throughout the U.S. Summer of 1988

373

Synthesis and Characterization of Phenylethynyl Terminated Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s as Thermosetting Structural Adhesives and Composite Matrices.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract High temperature, solvent resistant materials which also display good mechanical properties are desired for use as aerospace structural adhesives and polymer matrix/carbon fiber composites.… (more)

Mecham, Sue Jewel

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by pure cultures of butane-degrading bacteria. Appl.of K s values for MTBE by butane- degrading bacteria (52).

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 - Petroleum Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Market Module (PMM) forecasts petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, other refinery inputs including alcohol and ethers, natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates capacity expansion and fuel consumption of domestic refineries. Petroleum Market Module (PMM) forecasts petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, other refinery inputs including alcohol and ethers, natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates capacity expansion and fuel consumption of domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming representation of refining activities in three U.S. regions. This representation provides the marginal costs of production for a number of traditional and new petroleum products. The linear programming results are used to determine end-use product prices for each Census Division using the assumptions and methods described below.100

376

Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas. Semi-annual report, July 1--December 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work on advanced fuel forms in 1996 focused on the synthesis of higher alcohols from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon dioxide (syngas) from coal gasification. Initial work in this project utilized a novel molybdenum sulfide catalyst previously shown to be active for hydrodesulfurization reactions of coal liquids. A pressurized fixed-bed flow-through reactor was constructed, and the MoS{sub 2} catalysts were tested with syngas under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, the catalysts, even with higher molybdenum loading and addition of promoters, failed to give alcohol products. A batch reactor test of the catalyst was also conducted, but did not produce alcohol products. Group VIII metals have been used previously in catalysts for syngas reactions. Ruthenium and rhodium catalysts were prepared by impregnation of a hydrotalcite support. Tests with these catalysts in flow-through reactors also did not produce the desired alcohol products. The formation of higher alcohols from smaller ones, such as methanol and ethanol, could be commercially important if high selectivity could be achieved. The methanol and ethanol would be derived from syngas and fermentation, respectively. Based on previous work in other laboratories, it was hypothesized that the hydrotalcite-supported MoS{sub 2} or Ru or Rh catalysts could catalyze the formation of butyl alcohols. Although the desired 1-butanol was obtained in batch reactions with the promoted ruthenium catalyst, the reaction was not as selective as desired. Product suitable for a lower-vapor-pressure gasoline oxygenate additive was obtained, but it may not be economical to market such products in competition with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE). Flow-through catalytic bed reactions were not successful.

Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Alternatives to traditional transportation fuels 1994. Volume 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this report, alternative and replacement fuels are defined in accordance with the EPACT. Section 301 of the EPACT defines alternative fuels as: methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; mixtures containing 85% or more (or such other percentage, but not less than 70%, as determined by the Secretary of Energy, by rule, to provide for requirements relating to cold start, safety, or vehicle functions) by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas; hydrogen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials; electricity (including electricity from solar energy); and any other fuel the Secretary determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. The EPACT defines replacement fuels as the portion of any motor fuel that is methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, coal-derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from solar energy), ethers, or any other fuel the Secretary of Energy determines, by rule, is substantially not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and substantial environmental benefits. This report covers only those alternative and replacement fuels cited in the EPACT that are currently commercially available or produced in significant quantities for vehicle demonstration purposes. Information about other fuels, such as hydrogen and biodiesel, will be included in later reports as those fuels become more widely used. Annual data are presented for 1992 to 1996. Data for 1996 are based on plans or projections for 1996.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Solvolytic liquefaction of wood under mild conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conversion of wood to liquid products requires cleavage of bonds which crosslink the wood structure. This study examines a low-severity wood solubilization process utilizing a solvent medium consisting of a small amount of sulfuric acid and a potentially wood-derivable alcohol. In one half hour of reaction time at 250/sup 0/C under 15 psia starting nitrogen pressure, over 95% of the wood (maf) was rendered acetone-soluble. The product is a soft, black, bitumen-like solid at room temperature but readily softens at 140/sup 0/C. Between 25 and 50% of the original wood oxygen, depending on alcohol used, was removed as water. Approximately 2 to 17% of the alcohols were retained in the product. Gel permeation chromatography showed that the product's median molecular weight is around 300. Based on experimental and literature results, a mechanism for wood solubilization is proposed. This involves protonation of the etheric oxygen atoms, leading to subsequent bond scission to form carbonium ions which are stabilized by solvent alkoxylation. At severe conditions, polymerization and condensation reactions result in acetone-insoluble materials.

Yu, S.M.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Method for etherifications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing tertiary ethers from C.sub.4 or C.sub.5 streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C.sub.4 's and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C.sub.5 's wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Method for etherifications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for producing tertiary ethers from C[sub 4] or C[sub 5] streams containing isobutene and isoamylene respectively in a process wherein a acidic cation exchange resin is used as the catalyst and as a distillation structure in a distillation reactor column, wherein the improvement is the operation of the catalytic distillation in two zones at different pressures, the first zone containing the catalyst packing and operated a higher pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 15 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 5] which favors the etherification reaction and the second zone being a distillation operated at a lower pressure in the range of 0 to 100 psig in the case of C[sub 4] and 0 to 15 psig in the case of C[sub 5] wherein a first overhead from the first zone is fractionated to remove a portion of the unreacted alcohol from the first overhead and to return a condensed portion containing said alcohol to the first zone and to produce a second overhead having less alcohol than said first overhead. 3 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Task 4.9 -- Value-added products from syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work on advanced fuel forms in 1996 focused on the synthesis of higher alcohols from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon dioxide (syngas) from coal gasification. The conversion of coal gasification products to commercially valuable alcohols will provide an important new market for current and future gasification plants. Initial work in this project utilized a novel molybdenum sulfide catalyst previously shown to be active for hydrodesulfurization reactions of coal liquids. The support for the active metal sulfide is a layered mixed oxide (hydrotalcite) capable of interaction with the metal sites for catalysis of carbon monoxide reductions. These catalysts have a high surface area, are highly porous, and have basic and acidic functionality. A pressurized fixed-bed flow-through reactor was constructed, and the MoS{sub 2} catalysts were tested with syngas under a variety of conditions. Unfortunately, the catalysts, even with higher molybdenum loading and addition of promoters, failed to give alcohol products. A batch reactor test of the catalyst was also conducted, but did not produce alcohol products. Group 8 metals have been used previously in catalysts for syngas reactions. Ruthenium and rhodium catalysts were prepared by impregnation of a hydrotalcite support. Tests with these catalysts in flow-through reactors also did not produce the desired alcohol products. The formation of higher alcohols from smaller ones, such as methanol and ethanol, could be commercially important if high selectivity could be achieved. The methanol and ethanol would be derived from syngas and fermentation, respectively. Based on previous work in other laboratories, it was hypothesized that the hydrotalcite supported MoS{sub 2} or Ru or Rh catalysts could catalyze the formation of butyl alcohols. Although the desired 1-butanol was obtained in batch reactions with the promoted Ru catalyst, the reaction was not as selective as desired. Product suitable for a lower-vapor-pressure gasoline oxygenate additive was obtained, but it may not be economical to market such products in competition with methyl tertiary-butyl-ether. Flow-through catalytic bed reactions were not successful.

Olson, E.S.; Sharma, R.K.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Market Module Petroleum Market Module The NEMS Petroleum Market Module (PMM) forecasts petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, other refinery inputs including alcohol and ethers, natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates capacity expansion and fuel consumption of domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming representation of refining activities in three U.S. regions. This representation provides the marginal costs of production for a number of traditional and new petroleum products. The linear programming results are used to determine end-use product prices for each Census Division using the assumptions and methods described below.106

383

ConsumTechNotes2011.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Note: Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials Aviation Gasoline (Finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifi- cations are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specifica- tion MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on finished aviation gasoline. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components: Naphthas that will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes ox- ygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are re- ported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates. Barrel

384

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Exports by Destination Exports by Destination Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

385

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 1999 - Petroleum Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

petroleum.gif (4999 bytes) petroleum.gif (4999 bytes) The NEMS Petroleum Market Module (PMM) forecasts petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, other refinery inputs including alcohol and ethers, natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates capacity expansion and fuel consumption of domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming representation of refining activities in three U.S. regions. This representation provides the marginal costs of production for a number of traditional and new petroleum products. The linear programming results are used to determine end-use product prices for each Census Division using the assumptions and methods described below. 75

386

CSSX Radiolytic H2 Generation ("Thermolysis") -- Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this work was to determine the radiolytic hydrogen gas yield of irradiated CSSX solvent at several temperatures. The active ingredient of this solvent is calix[4]arene-bis-(t-octylbenzo) crown-6, a calixarene crown ether used for cesium complexation. The solvent also contains 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol, a fluorinated alcoholic solvent modifer used to improve the solubility of the calixarene and its cesium complex in the Isopar L diluent. Isopar L is a branch-chain alkane and comprises most of the mixture. Samples of this solution were irradiated to various absorbed ?-ray doses in gas-tight sample containers, which were then sampled for hydrogen gas content. The methods are described below.

Bruce J. Mincher

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Area of Entry Area of Entry Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

388

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Stocks by Type Stocks by Type Definitions Key Terms Definition Alaskan in Transit Alaskan crude oil stocks in transit by water between Alaska and the other States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

389

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. Imports by Country of Origin U.S. Imports by Country of Origin Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

390

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Refinery Stocks Refinery Stocks Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

391

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

and Blender Net Inputs and Blender Net Inputs Definitions Key Terms Definition Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline.

392

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Supply and Disposition Balance Supply and Disposition Balance Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

393

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquid Fuels Market Module Liquid Fuels Market Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 145 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Liquid Fuels Market Module The NEMS Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, esters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the LFMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The LFMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. petroleum refining

394

OSHA List of Hazardous Chemicals  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OSHA List of Hazardous Chemicals OSHA List of Hazardous Chemicals ACETALDEHYDE ACETAMIDE ACETIC ACID ACETIC ANHYDRIDE ACETONE ACETONItr ILE ACETYLAMINOFLUORENE, 2- ACETYLENE ACETYLENE DICHLORIDE ACETYLENE TETRABROMIDE ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID (ASPIRIN) ACROLEIN ACRYLAMIDE ACRYLIC ACID ACRYLONITRILE ACTINOMYCIN D ADRIAMYCIN AFLATOXINS ALDRIN ALLYL ALCOHOL ALLYL CHLORIDE ALLYL GLYCIDYL ETHER (AGE) ALLYL PROPYL DISULFIDE ALUMINA ALUMINUM, METAL DUST, AS AL ALUMINUM, PYRO POWDERS, AS AL ALUMINUM, SOLUBLE SALTS, AS AL ALUMINUM, WELDING FUMES, AS AL ALUMINUM, ALKYLS, NOT OTHERWISE CLASSIFIED, AS AL ALUMINUM OXIDE, AS AL AMINOANTHRAQUINONE (AAQ), AMINOAZOTOLUENE, O- AMINOBIPHENYL, 4- AMINOETHANOL, 2- AMINO-2-METHYLANTHRAQUINONE, 1- AMINO-5-(5-NITRO-2-FURYL)- -1, 3,4-THIADIADIAZOLE, 2- AMINOPYRIDINE, 2- AMINO-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE, 3-

395

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Products Supplied Products Supplied Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

396

PriceTechNotes2011.vp  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

ASTM: The American Society for Testing and Materials. Aviation Gasoline (Finished): A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in aviation reciprocating engines. Fuel specifi- cations are provided in ASTM Specification D 910 and Military Specifica- tion MIL-G-5572. Note: Data on blending components are not counted in data on finished aviation gasoline. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components: Naphthas that will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates. Barrel (petroleum): A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Biomass Waste:

397

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

PAD District Imports by Country of Origin PAD District Imports by Country of Origin Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

398

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Imports by Destination Imports by Destination Definitions Key Terms Definition Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton. Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates.

399

Petroleum Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

This page inTenTionally lefT blank 135 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Petroleum Market Module The NEMS Petroleum Market Module (PMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, esters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. refining activities in the five Petroleum Administration for

400

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2001 - Petroleum Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Market Module Petroleum Market Module The NEMS Petroleum Market Module (PMM) forecasts petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, other refinery inputs including alcohol and ethers, natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates capacity expansion and fuel consumption of domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming representation of refining activities in three U.S. regions. This representation provides the marginal costs of production for a number of traditional and new petroleum products. The linear programming results are used to determine end-use product prices for

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401

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Studies at PNNL are directed toward new solvent formulation for the practical sodium pseudohydroxide extraction systems.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Printed in Great Britain 107 The Decomposition of Toluene by Soil Bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strains of two bacteria, a Pseudomonas and an Achromobacter, which grow with toluene, benzene or certain other related aromatic compounds as sole carbon source were isolated from soil. The use of aromatic compounds by these bacteria was an induced phenomenon. Toluene-grown organisms oxidized without lag toluene, benzene, catechol, &methylcatechol, benzyl alcohol and, more slowly, o- and m-cresol, but not benzaldehyde or benzoic acid. 3-Methylcatechol, acetic acid, pyruvic acid, and a yellow ether-soluble acidic substance which was colourless in acid solution, were detected in toluene-oxidizing cultures. Acetic and pyruvic acids were also formed during the bacterial oxidation of 8-methylcatechol. 3-Methylcatechol is probably an early stage in the bacterial metabolism of toluene; benzaldehyde and benzoic acid seem not to be intermediates in this metabolism.

D. Claus

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

A survey of Opportunities for Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Hydrocarbon Compatible Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass is uniquely able to supply renewable and sustainable liquid transportation fuels. In the near term, the Biomass program has a 2012 goal of cost competitive cellulosic ethanol. However, beyond 2012, there will be an increasing need to provide liquid transportation fuels that are more compatible with the existing infrastructure and can supply fuel into all transportation sectors, including aviation and heavy road transport. Microbial organisms are capable of producing a wide variety of fuel and fuel precursors such as higher alcohols, ethers, esters, fatty acids, alkenes and alkanes. This report surveys liquid fuels and fuel precurors that can be produced from microbial processes, but are not yet ready for commercialization using cellulosic feedstocks. Organisms, current research and commercial activities, and economics are addressed. Significant improvements to yields and process intensification are needed to make these routes economic. Specifically, high productivity, titer and efficient conversion are the key factors for success.

Jovanovic, Iva; Jones, Susanne B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Dai, Ziyu; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhu, Yunhua

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A major obstacle to improving spark ignition engine efficiency is the limitations on compression ratio imposed by tendency of hydrocarbon fuels to knock (autoignite). A research program investigated the knock problem in spark ignition engines. Objective was to understand low and intermediate temperature chemistry of combustion processes relevant to autoignition and knock and to determine fuel property effects. Experiments were conducted in an optically and physically accessible research engine, static reactor, and an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR). Chemical kinetic models were developed for prediction of species evolution and autoignition behavior. The work provided insight into low and intermediate temperature chemistry prior to autoignition of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, 1-pentene, n-heptane, iso-octane and some binary blends. Study of effects of ethers (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE ) and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) on the oxidation and autoignition of primary reference fuel (PRF) blends.

Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

1995-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

405

Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Part 1  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions, the production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level.

NONE

1997-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

406

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2002 - Petroleum Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Market Module Petroleum Market Module The NEMS Petroleum Market Module (PMM) forecasts petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, other refinery inputs including alcohol and ethers, natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates capacity expansion and fuel consumption of domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming representation of refining activities in three U.S. regions. This representation provides the marginal costs of production for a number of traditional and new petroleum products. The linear programming results are used to determine end-use product prices for

407

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Input Input Definitions Key Terms Definition Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas which will be used for blending or compounding into finished aviation gasoline (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, and xylene). Excludes oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Oxygenates are reported as other hydrocarbons, hydrogen, and oxygenates. Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline. Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include:

408

Slide 1  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(poly (ether ether ketone)) Products ranging from membrane separation filters to heat transfer devices Not-for-profit research company, providing energy and natural gas...

409

Refinery Stocks of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Crude Oil Petroleum Products Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane/Ethylene Propane/Propylene Normal Butane/Butylene Isobutane/Isobutylene Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils Naphthas and Lighter Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Alcohol* MGBC - RBOB for Blending with Ether* MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional CBOB MGBC - Conventional GTAB MGBC - Conventional Other Aviation Gasoline Blending Components Finished Motor Gasoline Reformulated Reformulated Blended with Fuel Ethanol Reformulated, Other Conventional Gasoline Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol Conventional Gasoline Blended with Fuel Ethanol, Ed55 and Lower Conventional Other Gasoline Finished Aviation Gasoline Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel Kerosene Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate Fuel Oil, 15 ppm and Under Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 500 ppm Residual Fuel Oil Less than 0.31 Percent Sulfur 0.31 to 1.00 Percent Sulfur Greater than 1.00 Percent Sulfur Petrochemical Feedstocks Naphtha for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Other Oils for Petrochemical Feedstock Use Special Naphthas Lubricants Waxes Petroleum Coke Marketable Coke Asphalt and Road Oil Miscellaneous Products Period-Units: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels

410

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of vitrification. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudo hydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Engle, Nancy L.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Keever, Tamara J.; Marchand, Alan P.; Gadthula, Srinivas; Gore, Vinayak K.; Huang, Zilin; Sivappa, Rasapalli; Tirunahari, Pavan K.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

2005-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

411

Ion Recognition Approach to Volume Reduction of Alkaline Tank Waste by Separation of Sodium Salts  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research involving collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is to explore new approaches to the separation of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, and other sodium salts from high-level alkaline tank waste. The principal potential benefit is a major reduction in disposed waste volume, obviating the building of expensive new waste tanks and reducing the costs of low-activity waste immobilization. Principles of ion recognition are being researched toward discovery of liquid-liquid extraction systems that selectively separate sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate from other waste components. The successful concept of pseudohydroxide extraction using fluorinated alcohols and phenols is being developed at ORNL and PNNL toward a greater understanding of the controlling equilibria, role of solvation, and of synergistic effects involving crown ethers. Synthesis efforts are being directed toward enhanced sodium binding by crown ethers, both neutral and proton-ionizable. Studies with real tank waste at PNNL will provide feedback toward solvent compositions that have promising properties.

Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-induced alterations in vitamin A and thyroid hormone concentrations in the rat during lactation and early postnatal development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In experimental animals fed standard laboratory diets, penta-BDE mixtures can decrease circulating thyroid hormone and liver vitamin A concentrations. A substantial number of pregnant women and their children have marginal vitamin A status, potentially increasing their risk of adverse effects to penta-BDE exposure. The current study investigated the effects of maternal gestational and lactational penta-BDE exposure on thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis in rats of sufficient vitamin A (VAS) or marginal vitamin A (VAM) status and their offspring. Dams were administered daily oral doses of 18 mg/kg DE-71 (a penta-BDE mixture) or a corn oil vehicle from gestation day 6 through lactation day (LD) 18. Thyroid hormone and vitamin A homeostasis were assessed in plasma and tissues of LD 19 dams and postnatal day (PND) 12, 18, and 31 pups. DE-71 exposure induced hepatomegaly in VAS and VAM pups at all timepoints and increased testes weights at PND 31. While liver vitamin A concentrations were low in DE-71 treated dams and pups, plasma retinol concentrations and plasma retinol binding protein levels were only low in VAM animals exposed to DE-71. DE-71 exposure lowered plasma thyroxine concentrations in VAS and VAM dams and pups. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations were high in VAM dams exposed to DE-71, suggesting that marginal vitamin A status enhances the susceptibility to thyroid hormone axis disruption by DE-71. These results support the concept that marginal vitamin A status in pregnant women may increase the risk for PBDE-induced disruptions in vitamin A and thyroid hormone homeostasis.

Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Cherr, Gary N. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California-Davis, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Hanna, Lynn A. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Keen, Carl L. [Department of Nutrition, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States) and Department of Internal Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: clkeen@ucdavis.edu

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Alternative fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A DOE/PETC funded study was conducted to examine the use of a liquid phase mixed alcohol synthesis (LPMAS) plant to produce gasoline blending ethers. The LPMAS plant was integrated into three utilization scenarios: a coal fed IGCC power plant, a petroleum refinery using coke as a gasification feedstock, and a standalone natural gas fed partial oxidation plant. The objective of the study was to establish targets for the development of catalysts for the LPMAS reaction. In the IGCC scenario, syngas conversions need only be moderate because unconverted syngas is utilized by the combined cycle system. A once through LPMAS plant achieving syngas conversions in the range of 38--49% was found to be suitable. At a gas hourly space velocity of 5,000 sL/Kg-hr and a methanol:isobutanol selectivity ratio of 1.03, the target catalyst productivity ranges from 370 to 460 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. In the petroleum refinery scenario, high conversions ({approximately}95%) are required to avoid overloading the refinery fuel system with low Btu content unconverted syngas. To achieve these high conversions with the low H{sub 2}/CO ratio syngas, a recycle system was required (because of the limit imposed by methanol equilibrium), steam was injected into the LPMAS reactor, and CO{sub 2} was removed from the recycle loop. At the most economical recycle ratio, the target catalyst productivity is 265 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. In the standalone LPMAS scenario, essentially complete conversions are required to achieve a fuel balanced plant. At the most economical recycle ratio, the target catalyst productivity is 285 g iBuOH/Kg-hr. The economics of this scenario are highly dependent on the cost of the natural gas feedstock and the location of the plant. For all three case scenarios, the economics of a LPMAS plant is marginal at current ether market prices. Large improvements over demonstrated catalyst productivity and alcohol selectivity are required.

Unknown

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

May 2012Volunteer Volunteer 11  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Glutamic acid Anaerobic digestion mass Cellulose Biogas Bio oil Gasoline Diesel Butanol Dimethyl ether

Sharp, Kim

415

AOCS Official Method Ba 3-38  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This method determines the substances extracted by petroleum ether under the conditions of the test.

416

Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

East, Anthony (Madison, NJ); Jaffe, Michael (Maplewood, NJ); Zhang, Yi (Harrison, NJ); Catalani, Luiz H (Carapicuiba, BR)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

417

UN Alcohol Energy Data: Consumption for Non-Energy Uses The Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for Non-Energy Uses The Energy Statistics Database contains comprehensive energy statistics on the production, trade, conversion and final consumption of primary and secondary;...

418

NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed and streamlined the experimental systems: (a) Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) photosynthesis, ball-milling, and chemical synthesis of Fe, Co, and Cu nanoparticle catalysts; (b) Sol-gel method for mesoporous {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, hybrid alumina/silica granular supports; (c) Three sol-gel/oil-drop catalyst preparation methods to incorporate metal nanoparticles into mesoporous 1 mm granular supports; (d) Low-cost GC-TCD system with hydrogen as carrier gas for the determination of wide spectrum of alkanes produced during the F-T reactions; and (e) Gas-flow reactor and microchannel reactor for fast screening of catalysts. The LISD method could produce Co, Cu, and Fe (5 nm) nanoparticles, but in milligram quantities. We could produce nanoparticles in gram quantities using high-energy ball milling and chemical synthesis methods. Ball milling gave wide particle size distribution compared to the chemical synthesis method that gave almost uniform size ({approx}5 nm) particles. Metal nanoparticles Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe were loaded (2-12 wt%) uniformly into {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, or alumina/silica hybrid supports by combined sol-gel/oil-drop methods followed by calcination and hydrogenation steps, prior to syngas FT reaction studies. The properties of metal loaded {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} granules were compared for the two precursors: aluminum tri-sec-butoxide (ALTSB) and aluminum tri-iso-propoxide (ALTIP). The effect of solgel supports alumina, silica, and alumina/silica hybrid were examined on catalytic properties. Metal loading efficiencies for pure metal catalysts increased in the order Co, Cu and Fe in agreement with solubility of metal hydroxides. In case of mixed metals, Co and Cu seams to interfere and reduce Fe metal loading when metal nitrate solutions are used. The solubility differences of metal hydroxides would not allow precise control of metal loading. We have overcome this problem by introducing a novel method of nanoparticle metal oxide co-entrapped sol-gel that gave the highest metal loading with precise control and reproducibility, and greater mechanical strength of granules than the metal nitrate solution co-entrapping and wet impregnation methods. Both, slurry-phase-batch and gas-phase-continuous-flow, reactors were used for syngas conversion reactions. Our investigations of Co and Fe thin film deposited micro-reactors showed higher CO/H{sub 2} conversion for Fe compared to Co. The catalytic activity for CO/H{sub 2} conversion was observed in the increasing order for the nanocatalysts Cu, Co, Fe, Co/Fe, Cu/Co and Cu/Fe in alumina sol-gel support, and Co/Fe showed the highest yield for methane. The optimization of CO/H{sub 2} ratio indicated that 1:1 ratio gave more alkanes distribution in F-T process with Co/Fe (6% each) impregnated on alumina. We could estimate the activity of catalysts (involving Co, Fe) during hydrogenation and after catalytic reaction using magnetization studies. In summary our accomplishments are: (1) Novel chemical methods for the synthesis of (5 nm) Fe, Co, Cu nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. (2) Developing a method of metal oxide nanoparticles addition to alumina/silica sol-gel to control metal loading of pure and mixed metal catalysts compositions in high yields. (3) A low-cost GC-TCD system to analyze wide spectrum of alkanes (F-T reaction products). (4) Fe/Co mixed metal alumina/silica mesoporous catalysts with higher FT activity. (5) Characterizing nanoparticle catalysts and supports for detail understanding of FT-process.

Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane

2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

419

Sampling for Beryllium Surface Contamination using Wet, Dry and Alcohol Wipe Sampling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research project was conducted at the National Nuclear Security Administration's Kansas City Plant, operated by Honeywell Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, in conjunction with the Safety Sciences Department of Central Missouri State University, to compare relative removal efficiencies of three wipe sampling techniques currently used at Department of Energy facilities. Efficiencies of removal of beryllium contamination from typical painted surfaces were tested by wipe sampling with dry Whatman 42 filter paper, with water-moistened (Ghost Wipe) materials, and by methanol-moistened wipes. Test plates were prepared using 100 mm X 15 mm Pyrex Petri dishes with interior surfaces spray painted with a bond coat primer. To achieve uniform deposition over the test plate surface, 10 ml aliquots of solution containing 1 beryllium and 0.1 ml of metal working fluid were transferred to the test plates and subsequently evaporated. Metal working fluid was added to simulate the slight oiliness common on surfaces in metal working shops where fugitive oil mist accumulates over time. Sixteen test plates for each wipe method (dry, water, and methanol) were processed and sampled using a modification of wiping patterns recommended by OSHA Method 125G. Laboratory and statistical analysis showed that methanol-moistened wipe sampling removed significantly more (about twice as much) beryllium/oil-film surface contamination as water-moistened wipes (p< 0.001), which removed significantly more (about twice as much) residue as dry wipes (p <0.001). Evidence for beryllium sensitization via skin exposure argues in favor of wipe sampling with wetting agents that provide enhanced residue removal efficiency.

Kerr, Kent

2004-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

420

THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type kinetic schemes were derived for the formation of methanol through butanol and total hydrocarbons over a Co-K-MoS{sub 2}/C catalyst. Reduced Mo-Ni-K/C materials continue to be considered as promising catalysts for HAS. A kinetic study of this catalyst has been started. TPR results on alkali-substituted Mo/C are beginning to be amenable to a systematic quantitative analysis. The characterization studies of transition-metal-oxide catalysts has ended. Consideration of various models for the performance of a packed-bed membrane reactor in the synthesis of methanol indicates that a model involving large (but finite) permeances of CO and MeOH may be optimal. Comparison of the membrane reactor with a packed-bed tubular reactor indicates that the former may be advantageous at low total flow rates.

NONE

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The kinetic data for a Mo-Ni-K/C catalyst were completed. Kinetic schemes were derived for the formation of methanol and ethanol over this catalyst. TPR results on alkali-substituted Mo/C are beginning to be amenable to a systematic quantitative analysis.

NONE

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this time period, we finished the kinetic study on the reduced Mo-Ni-K/C catalyst. Experimental work on this project is essentially over. We are continuing the development of kinetic models for this catalyst. We are also continuing with the quantitative analyses of TPR spectra from K-Mo/C catalysts. We request a meeting with USDOE to consider plans to follow up the current work.

NONE

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Thermochemical Ethanol via Direct Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates process design and technoeconomic criteria for a direct gasification process for conversion of biomass to ethanol. Follow-up to NREL/TP-510-41168.

Dutta, A.; Phillips, S. D.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This process design and technoeconomic evaluation addresses the conversion of biomass to ethanol via thermochemical pathways that are expected to be demonstrated at the pilot level by 2012.

Phillips, S.; Aden, A.; Jechura, J.; Dayton, D.; Eggeman, T.

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Adolescent Brain Development and the Risk for Alcohol and Other Drug Problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B. S. , et al. (2007). Catechol-o- methyltransferase enzymethe dopamine degrading enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (

Bava, Sunita; Tapert, Susan F.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Electrophysiological evidence of enhanced performance monitoring in recently abstinent alcoholic men  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The neural basis of human error processing: reinforcementNeurophysiological indices of errors in human: is the error

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Web-based intervention for alcohol use in women of childbearing potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cashell-Smith, et al. (2004). Web-based screening and brief2007). A controlled trial of web-based feedback for heavyhigh-risk drinking prevention web site for college students.

Howlett, Katia Delrahim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Biodegradable microfluidic scaffolds for tissue engineering from amino alcohol-based poly(ester amide) elastomers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biodegradable polymers with high mechanical strength, flexibility and optical transparency, optimal degradation properties and biocompatibility are critical to the success of tissue engineered devices and drug delivery ...

Wang, Jane

429

Prenatal alcohol exposure pattern and timing and minor structural malformations and growth deficiencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

using guided interview techniques to help aid recall. Rulesusing guided interview techniques to help aid recall. Rules

Sawada, Glenda Haruna

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Prenatal alcohol exposure pattern and timing and minor structural malformations and growth deficiencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al. , 1991) trimester Detroit (Jacobson et al. , 0.4 tobeen examined. A study of Detroit infants (n=480) followedof Tactile Information: Detroit and Cape Town Findings.

Sawada, Glenda Haruna

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have produced Co, Cu, and Fe nano-particles by Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) as evidenced by TEM investigations. Sizes of the nano-particles created are in the order of 5 nm. The LISD system could generate nano-particles in quantities only in the order of a milligram. This may be mainly due to the limited photo induced reactions taking place on the surface of the solutions. We have designed experiments to use drop flow technique with LISD for nano-particle deposition on microreactors. Preliminary work has been done on Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors. We are also investigating the catalytic properties of nano-particles of FeO and CoO prepared by ball milling and dispersed into sol-gel prepared alumina granules. We have continued our investigation of catalytic reactions of Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe on alumina support. The metal oxides were first reduced with hydrogen and used for the conversion of CO/H{sub 2}. The surface area of the catalysts has been determined by nitrogen disorption. They are in the range of 200-300 m{sup 2}/g. Cu, Co, Fe, Co/Fe, Cu/Co and Cu/Fe showed increasing order of catalytic activity for CO/H{sub 2} conversion. We are also studying catalytic conversion rates for CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixtures using these catalysts. Our investigations of Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors showed higher CO/H{sub 2} conversion for Fe compared to Co. We have used vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to study the magnetic characteristics of as prepared, reduced, post-reaction catalysts. Comparative study of the ferromagnetic component of these samples gives the reduction efficiency and the changes in metal centers during catalytic reactions. Magnetic studies of post-reaction Co and Fe micro-reactors show that more carbide formation occurs for iron compared to cobalt.

Setala V. Naidu

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed effective nanoparticle incorporated heterogeneous F-T catalysts starting with the synthesis of Fe, Co, Cu nanoparticles using Fe(acac){sub 3}, Co(acac){sub 2}, and Cu(acac){sub 2} precursors and incorporating the nanoparticles into alumina sol-gel to yield higher alkanes production. SEM/EDX, XRD, BET, VSM and SQUID experimental techniques were used to characterize the catalysts, and GC/MS were used for catalytic product analysis. The nanoparticle oxide method gave the highest metal loading. In case of mixed metals it seems that Co or Cu interferes and reduces Fe metal loading. The XRD pattern for nanoparticle mixed metal oxides show alloy formation between cobalt and iron, and between copper and iron in sol-gel prepared alumina granules. The alloy formation is also supported by DTA and VMS data. The magnetization studies were used to estimate the catalyst activity in pre- and post-catalysts. A lower limit of {approx}40% for the reduction efficiency was obtained due to hydrogenation at 450 C for 4 hrs. About 85% of the catalyst has become inactive after 25 hrs of catalytic reaction, probably by forming carbides of Fe and Co. The low temperature (300 K to 4.2 K) SQUID magnetometer results indicate a superparamagnetic character of metal nanoparticles with a wide size distribution of < 20 nm nanoparticles. We have developed an efficient and economical procedure for analyzing the F-T products using low cost GC-TCD system with hydrogen as a carrier gas. Two GC columns DC 200/500 and Supelco Carboxen-1000 column were tested for the separation of higher alkanes and the non-condensable gases. The Co/Fe on alumina sol-gel catalyst showed the highest yield for methane among Fe, Co, Cu, Co/Fe, Cu/Co, Fe/Cu. The optimization of CO/H{sub 2} ratio indicated that 1:1 ratio gave more alkanes distribution in F-T process with Co/Fe (6% each) impregnated on alumina mesoporous catalyst.

Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

433

A Publication of the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and stereos. A deal too good to be true usually means the item is stolen. It is illegal to buy or sell stolen sexually assaulted. Drugs such as Rohypnol and GHB are used to spike drinks for the purpose of sedating

Devoto, Stephen H.

434

Noble Metal Based Nanomaterials in the Application of Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Fuel cells are envisaged to be a new generation of power sources which convert chemical energy into electrical energy with, theoretically, both economical and… (more)

Su, Liang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Maximizing the efficiency of a speed rail for the preparation of alcoholic beverages.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??M.S. Typically bartenders will arrange liquor bottles in a bar based on their own preferences. This research project describes an alternative way to arrange the… (more)

Riley, Ashley S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

NQR-NMR studies of higher alcohol synthesis Cu-Co catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have investigated a series of Cu/Co catalysts supported on Titanium Dioxide. This study has sought to examine and compare the nature and effect of the supports Chromia and Titania (Cr[sub 2]O[sub 3], and TiO[sub 2]) on the magnetic character of the Cu-Co-Cr and Cu-Co-TiO[sub 2] catalysts. The magnetization results for Cu/Co, Cu/Co/Cr, Cu/Co/TiO[sub 2] system are presented along with the magnetization data for the unsupported Cu/Co catalysts and data for supported catalysts. Pure cobalt metal has a magnetic moment of 161 emu/g. The measured emu values and the corresponding reduction percentages are given for the various catalysts investigated. The vibration sample magnetometer determines S[sub s], the saturation magnetization, emu per gram of the composite sample. The magnetization values reported are emu per gram of cobalt in the composite. As such the data normally reflects the proportion of cobalt metal that is reduced to metallic form. However, if electronic exchanges occur between cobalt and other elements in the system, the magnetic moment itself differs from the assumed value of 161 emu/g Co then the emu value observed will be the resultant due to the electronic charge density modifications in Co as well as reduction to metallic state. Our earlier NMR studies reveal such electronic structural modifications occur for Cobalt in Cu-Co and Co-TiO[sub 2] systems. The magnetization data in column 3 for Cu-Co-TiO[sub 2] systems unambiguously shows such electron exchanges do occur between cobalt and titania.

Murty, A.N.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN ESCALATION OF TOBACCO USE: IMPULSIVITY AND ALCOHOL USE.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Like adolescents, young adults are at risk of initiating tobacco use and escalating to daily use and tobacco dependence. However, not every young adult who… (more)

Lee, Dustin C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

NON-MEDICAL ADHD PRESCRIPTION STIMULANT USE AND SIMULTANEOUS ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The non-medical use of prescription stimulants (NMPS) used to treat Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is common among college students. Research shows that NMPS users… (more)

Egan, Kathleen L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Prenatal alcohol exposure pattern and timing and minor structural malformations and growth deficiencies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

al. , 1998). The best-fitting hockey stick functions for theother features, such as “hockey stick” palmar crease, haveexcavatum, camptodactyly, “hockey stick” palmar creases,

Sawada, Glenda Haruna

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Alcohol production with solar distillation. Final report, March 31, 1982-June 30, 1982  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to determine it an absorber in a solar distillation unit that would provide a more efficient and effective way to produce fuel grade ethanol. Four tests of distilling ethanol were made. Numerous other tests were conducted distiling water, drying an assortment at materials, cooking food, and heating various liquids. The absorber in the solar distillation unit creates much heat on the glazing. The mixture in the solar distillation unit, does not have to reach temperatures that boil water to produce distillate.

Wuestenberg, D.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.