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1

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

2

Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Rejai, Bahman (Lakewood, CO); Bain, Richard L. (Golden, CO); Overend, Ralph P. (Lakewood, CO)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

The results shown in Figures 10 and 11 demonstrate that the formation of butenes was very sensitive to the alcohol partial pressure. A small elevation of the alcohol pressure suppressed the formation of butenes rather drastically at both 90 and 117{degree}C. The synthesis rates of DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers were not significantly affected at 90{degree}C, although there was a trend to increase the space time yield of DME as the alcohol pressure was increased. At the reaction temperature of 117{degree}C, all of the ethers showed increasing productivities as the pressure of the reactants was increased (Figure 11). An isotope labelling experiment was carried out to provide mechanistic insight into the manner in which methanol and isobutanol react together to form DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers and to determine if MTBE were derived from MIBE.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Menszak, J.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.; Kim, D.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Final technical report, September 25, 1990--December 24, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research was to develop the methodology for the catalytic synthesis of ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers. The last stage of the synthesis involves direct coupling of synthesis gas-derived methanol and isobutanol that has been previously demonstrated by us to occur over superacid catalysts to yield MIBE and smaller amounts of MTBE at moderate pressures and a mixture of methanol and isobutene at low pressures. A wide range of organic resin catalysts and inorganic oxide and zeolite catalysts have been investigated for activity and selectivity in directly coupling alcohols, principally methanol and isobutanol, to form ethers and in the dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene in the presence of methanol. All of these catalysts are strong acids, and it was found that the organic and inorganic catalysts operate in different, but overlapping, temperature ranges, i.e. mainly 60--120{degrees}C for the organic resins and 90--175{degrees}C for the inorganic catalysts. For both types of catalysts, the presence of strong acid centers is required for catalytic activity, as was demonstrated by lack of activity of fully K{sup +} ion exchanged Nafion resin and zirconia prior to being sulfated by treatment with sulfuric acid.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of the above formula together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

Crivello, J.V.

1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

6

(2/94)(2-4,9/95)(7/97)(11,12/98)(1,9,11/99) Neuman Chapter 3 Haloalkanes, Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Ethers, and Amines from Organic Chemistry by Robert C. Neuman, Jr. Professor of Chemistry, emeritus://web.chem.ucsb.edu/~neuman/orgchembyneuman/> Chapter Outline of the Book ************************************************************************************** I. Foundations 1. Organic Molecules and Chemical Bonding 2. Alkanes and Cycloalkanes 3. Haloalkanes

Reed, Christopher A.

7

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydride-vinyl methyl ether Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4-Methyl-2-pentanol Other secondary alcohols... - quire handling with precautions. Acrolein tert-Butyl methyl ether Di(1-propynl) ether n... Methoxy-1,3,5,7- cyclooctatetraene...

8

Process for making propenyl ethers and photopolymerizable compositions containing them  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} (V) wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether, and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

Crivello, J.V.

1996-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

9

Petroleum Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

other refinery inputs including alcohols, ethers, bioesters, other refinery inputs including alcohols, ethers, bioesters, natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates capacity expansion and fuel consumption of domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming representation of U.S. refining activities in the five Petroleum Area Defense Districts (PADDs) (Figure 9). The model is created by aggregating individual refineries into one linear programmming representation for each PADD. This representation provides the marginal costs of production for a number of conventional and new petroleum products. In order to interact with other NEMS modules with different regional representations, certain PMM inputs and outputs are converted from PADD regions to other regional structures and vice versa. The linear programming results are used to determine

10

Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

T.A. Semelsberger

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sato, and N. Kato. 2003. Propane monooxygenase and NAD + -alcohol dehydrogenase in propane metabolism by Gordonia sp.tert-butyl ether by propane-grown Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Process for producing high purity isoolefins and dimers thereof by dissociation of ethers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkyl tertiary butyl ether or alkyl tertiary amyl ether is dissociated by vapor phase contact with a cation acidic exchange resin at temperatures in the range of 150 to 250 F at LHSV of 0.1 to 20 to produce a stream consisting of unreacted ether, isobutene or isoamylene and an alcohol corresponding to the alkyl radical. After the alcohol is removed, the ether/isoolefin stream may be fractionated to obtain a high purity isoolefin (99+%) or the ether/isoolefin stream can be contacted in liquid phase with a cation acidic exchange resin to selectively dimerize the isoolefin in a highly exothermic reaction, followed by fractionation of the dimerization product to produce high purity diisoolefin (97+%). In the case where the alkyl is C[sub 3] to C[sub 6] and the corresponding alcohol is produced on dissociation of the ether, combined dissociation-distillation may be carried out such that isoolefin is the overhead product and alcohol the bottom. 2 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Jones, E.M. Jr.; Hearn, D.

1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

13

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook - Petroleum Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Market Module Petroleum Market Module Assumption to the Annual Energy Outlook Petroleum Market Module Figure 8. Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts. Having problems, call our National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800 for help. The NEMS Petroleum Market Module (PMM) forecasts petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, other refinery inputs including alcohols, ethers, and bioesters natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates capacity expansion and fuel consumption of domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming representation of U.S. refining

14

Alcohol Consumption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Different forms of alcohol have different functions: as part of cleaners, fuel, medicine, etc. Worldwide the substance is well known as a component of different alcoholic beverages. These beverages differ no...

Gundula Barsch

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Near-Infrared Electrochromism in Electroactive Pentacenediquinone-Containing Poly(aryl ether)s  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Near-Infrared Electrochromism in Electroactive Pentacenediquinone-Containing Poly(aryl etherVed October 21, 2005 The synthesis and near-infrared electrochromic properties of pentacenediquinone-infrared electrochromic properties of pentacenediquinone-containing poly(aryl ether)s were studied

Wan, Xin-hua

16

Crown Ethers in Graphene Bring Strong, Selective Binding | ornl...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Characterization Crown Ethers in Graphene Bring Strong, Selective Binding November 14, 2014 Schematic showing a graphene sheet containing an array of ideal crown ethers....

17

Ethers have good gasoline-blending attributes  

SciTech Connect

Because of their compatibility with hydrocarbon gasoline-blending components, their high octane blending values, and their low volatility blending values, ethers will grow in use as gasoline blending components. This article discusses the properties of ethers as blending components, and environmental questions.

Unzelman, G.H.

1989-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

18

Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2007 Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, and bioesters), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. refining activities in the five Petroleum Area Defense Districts (PADDs) (Figure 9). The LP model is created by aggregating individual refineries within a PADD into one representative refinery, and linking all five PADD's via crude and product transit links. This representation provides the marginal costs of production for a number of conventional and new petroleum products. In order to interact with other NEMS modules with different regional representations,

19

Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers  

SciTech Connect

Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

EIA - Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 - Petroleum Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Market Module Petroleum Market Module Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 Petroleum Market Module Figure 9. Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. The NEMS Petroleum Market Module (PMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, bioesters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. refining

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Petroleum Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

This page intentionally left blank This page intentionally left blank 137 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Petroleum Market Module The NEMS Petroleum Market Module (PMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, bioesters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. refining activities in the five Petroleum Administration for

22

EIA-Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook - Petroleum Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Market Module Petroleum Market Module Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2007 Petroleum Market Module Figure 9. Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. The NEMS Petroleum Market Module (PMM) forecasts petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, and bioesters), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The PMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. refining

23

EIA - Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 - Petroleum Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Market Module Petroleum Market Module Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2010 Petroleum Market Module The NEMS Petroleum Market Module (PMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, bioesters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. Figure 9. Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts. The PMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. refining activities in the five Petroleum Area Defense Districts (PADDs) (Figure 9),

24

Production of methyl tert-alkyl ethers  

SciTech Connect

The transition to the use of unleaded gasolines has required the replacement of tetraethyl lead by oxygen-containing compounds such as methanol, ethanol, and ethers, which are termed {open_quotes}oxygenates{close_quotes} in the technical literature. These may be used in commercial gasolines in amounts of 10-15% by volume, equivalent to 2% oxygen by weight. When methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is used, the oxygen content may amount to 2.7% by weight. This oxygenate gives a significant improvement of knock resistance of naphtha fractions, the greatest effects being observed for straight-run naphthas and reformer naphthas produced under normal conditions; the MTBE also improves the engine power and economy characteristics and lowers the carbon monoxide content in the exhaust by 15-30% and the hydrocarbon content by 7-8%. This paper describes methods for the production of MTBE and also methyl tert-alkyl ethers.

Trofimov, V.A.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

The Thermal Decomposition of Diethyl Ether. V. The Production of Ethanol from Diethyl Ether and the Pyrolysis of Ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The Thermal Decomposition of Diethyl Ether. V. The Production of Ethanol from Diethyl Ether and the Pyrolysis of Ethanol G. R. Freeman The two modes of decomposition of ethanol at 525 degrees C, namely dehydration and dehydrogenation, are affected...

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Crown Ethers Flatten in Graphene for Strong, Specific Binding...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Crown Ethers Flatten in Graphene for Strong, Specific Binding ORNL discovery holds potential for separations, sensors, batteries, biotech and more This sheet of graphene contains...

27

Furfuryl alcohol cellular product  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Self-extinguishing rigid foam products are formed by polymerization of furfuryl alcohol in the presence of a lightweight, particulate, filler, zinc chloride and selected catalysts.

Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

1982-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

28

Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Crown Ethers in Nonaqueous Electrolytes for Lithium/Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The effects of three crown ethers, 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, and 18-crown-6, as additives and co-solvents in non-aqueous electrolytes on the cell performance of primary Li/air batteries operated in a dry air environment were investigated. Crown ethers have large effects on the discharge performance of non-aqueous electrolytes in Li/air batteries. A small amount (normally less than 10% by weight or volume in electrolytes) of 12-Crown-4 and 15-crown-5 reduces the battery performance and a minimum discharge capacity appears at the crown ether content of ca. 5% in the electrolytes. However, when the content increases to about 15%, both crown ethers improve the capacity of Li/air cells by about 28% and 16%, respectively. 15-Crown-5 based electrolytes even show a maximum discharge capacity in the crown ether content range from 10% to 15%. On the other hand, the increase of 18-crown-6 amount in the electrolytes continuously lowers of the cell performance. The different battery performances of these three crown ethers in electrolytes are explained by the combined effects from the electrolytes’ contact angle, oxygen solubility, viscosity, ionic conductivity, and the stability of complexes formed between crown ether molecules and lithium ions.

Xu, Wu; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Deyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jiguang

2010-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

30

Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming  

SciTech Connect

Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

31

Alcohol | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Alcohol Alcohol Dataset Summary Description The Energy Statistics Database contains comprehensive energy statistics on the production, trade, conversion and final consumption of primary and secondary; conventional and non-conventional; and new and renewable sources of energy. The Energy Statistics dataset, covering the period from 1990 on, is available at UNdata. This dataset relates to the consumption of alcohol by the transportation industry. Source United Nations (UN) Date Released December 09th, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords Agriculture Alcohol consumption transportation industry UN Data application/xml icon UN Data: consumption by transportation industry XML (xml, 95 KiB) text/csv icon UN Data: consumption by transportation industry XLS (csv, 21.6 KiB)

32

Reactions of Methyl Perfluoroalkyl Ethers with Isopropyl Alcohol: Experimental and Theoretical Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

B&W Pantex, LLC, Amarillo, Texas 79120, United States ... Chemicals and Materials ... Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics (2007), 9 (29), 3864-3871 CODEN: PPCPFQ; ISSN:1463-9076. ...

Howard C. Knachel; Vladimir Benin; Chadwick D. Barklay; Janine C. Birkbeck; Billy D. Faubion; William E. Moddeman

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

33

Peak-Shift Technique in Gas-Liquid Chromatography : Trimethylsilyl Ether Derivatives of Alcohols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... in Mass Spectrometry. Proc. Joint Conf. by Inst. Petroleum Hydrocarbon Res. Group and ASTM Comm. E-14, edit. by Waldron, J. (Pergamon Press, London 1959) ...

STANLEY H. LANGER; PETER PANTAGES

1961-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

34

State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Properties Investigation of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone)/Polyacrylonitrile Acid–Base Blend Membrane for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Acid–base blend membrane prepared from sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was detailedly evaluated for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application. SPEEK/PAN blend membrane exhibited dense and homogeneous cross-...

Zhaohua Li; Wenjing Dai; Lihong Yu; Le Liu; Jingyu Xi; Xinping Qiu; Liquan Chen

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Atmospheric chemistry of diethyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect

The mechanisms for the Cl-initiated and OH-initiated atmospheric oxidation of diethyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) have been determined. For diethyl ether the products are ethyl formate and formaldehyde and its atmospheric oxidation can be represented by C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC{sub 2}H{sub 5} + OH + 2NO {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC(O)H + HCHO + 2NO{sub 2} + HO{sub 2}. The mechanism for the atmospheric oxidation of ETBE is more complex, with 80% of the reaction being accounted for in terms of tert-butyl formate and formaldehyde. The remaining 20% the authors ascribe to 2-ethoxy-2-methylpropanal. The atmospheric oxidation of ETBE can be represented by ETBE + OH + 1.8NO {yields} 0.8HCOOC(CH{sub 3}){sub 3} + 0.2C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHO + HO{sub 2} + 0.8HCHO + 1.8NO{sub 2}. THe subsequent atmospheric chemistry of 2-ethoxy-2-methylpropanal the authors estimate to be represented by C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHO + OH + 3NO {yields} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}CO + C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OC(O)CH{sub 3} + HO{sub 2} + 3NO{sub 2}. These results are discussed in terms of the reactivity of these compounds in urban atmospheres.

Wallington, T.J.; Japar, S.M. (Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (USA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Atmospheric and combustion chemistry of dimethyl ether  

SciTech Connect

It has been demonstrated that dimethyl ether (DME) is an ideal diesel fuel alternative. DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, combines good fuel properties with low exhaust emissions and low combustion noise. Large scale production of this fuel can take place using a single step catalytic process converting CH{sub 4} to DME. The fate of DME in the atmosphere has previously been studied. The atmospheric degradation is initiated by the reaction with hydroxyl radicals, which is also a common feature of combustion processes. Spectrokinetic investigations and product analysis were used to demonstrate that the intermediate oxy radical, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}O, exhibits a novel reaction pathway of hydrogen atom ejection. The application of tandem mass spectrometry to chemi-ions based on supersonic molecular beam sampling has recently been demonstrated. The highly reactive ionic intermediates are sampled directly from the flame and identified by collision activation mass spectrometry and ion-molecule reactions. The mass spectrum reflects the distribution of the intermediates in the flame. The atmospheric degradation of DME as well as the unique fuel properties of a oxygen containing compound will be discussed.

Nielsen, O.J.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E.; Sehested, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Wallington, T.J. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

38

Alcohol Poisoning Death in New Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alcohol poisoning results from the rapid ingestion of large quantities of alcohol, which can lead to very high blood alcohol concentrations and death. In the past several years, the highly publicized alcohol-poisoning

unknown authors

39

Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-butyl ether (ETBE) for gasoline blending as a replacement for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because and be blended with ETBE in the gasoline pool. Even for neat operation, if the conversion is low, the unconverted

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

40

Kinetic mechanism of dimethyl ether production process using syngas from integrated gasification combined cycle power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a 1-step synthesis gas-to-dimethyl ether process, synthesis gas is converted into dimethyl ether (DME) in a single reactor. Three reactions are involved in this process: methanol synthesis, methanol dehydra...

Hee-Woo Park; Jin-Kuk Ha; Euy Soo Lee

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Hydrogen Generation from Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen Generation from Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units ... Vehicle manufacturers are rushing ahead with research into alternative fuels such as dimethyl ether (DME), biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen. ...

Marita Nilsson; Lars J. Pettersson; Bård Lindström

2006-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

42

Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana  

SciTech Connect

Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

None

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Alcohol Use, Comorbidity, and Mortality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with alcohol use: previous heart attack, previous stroke,and prior history of heart attack, stroke, hypertension, andNonsmoker Hypertension, % Heart attack, % Stroke, % Diabetes

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Alcohol policy process in Thailand.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The thesis describes and analyses the Thai alcohol policy process in the period 1997 - 2006, in order to investigate the characteristics and areas for… (more)

Thaksaphon, Thamarangsi

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Synthesis of Medium Ring Ethers. 5. The Synthesis of (+)-Laurencin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The eight-membered medium ring ether natural product (+)-laurencin 1 is the prototypical member of a growing family of marine natural product cyclic ethers isolated from red algae and those marine organisms which feed on Laurencia species. ... The reaction mixture immediately became yellow and gradually turned dark red as gas was evolved. ... We thank the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) UK for a research grant, Pfizer Central Research, and Corpus Christi College Cambridge for the award of a studentship and a Junior Research Fellow ship (J.W.B.), the Cambridge European Overseas Trust, Ciba (Novartis) and the Swiss Foundation for Gifted Students (scholarship to S.D.), and the Commission of the European Communities (TMR award to T.C.S.) for generous financial support. ...

Jonathan W. Burton; J. Stephen Clark; Sam Derrer; Thomas C. Stork; Justin G. Bendall; Andrew B. Holmes

1997-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

46

Dimethyl Ether Autoignition at Engine-Relevant Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

† Key Laboratory for Power Machinery and Engineering of M.O.E., Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, People’s Republic of China ... The autoignition of dimethyl ether (DME), an alternative diesel engine fuel, has been studied at elevated pressures. ... In addition to studies aimed at ascertaining the performance of compression–ignition internal combustion engines fuel with DME,(2, 3) there have been a number of studies focused on experimental characterization of fundamental combustion properties for DME. ...

Zhenhua Li; Weijing Wang; Zhen Huang; Matthew A. Oehlschlaeger

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

2' and 3' Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is disclosed a process for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. Said carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of said compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells.

Soloway, Albert H. (Worthington, OH); Barth, Rolf F. (Columbus, OH); Anisuzzaman, Abul K. (Columbus, OH); Alam, Fazlul (Anaheim, CA); Tjarks, Werner (Columbus, OH)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

The interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100)  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the interactions of water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) in order to model the effects of surface structure and humidity on the bonding and decomposition of perfluoroalkyl ether lubricants with metal surfaces. In order to understand the interactions on Ru(100), we have first investigated the interactions of each of these adsorbates alone on the clean surface. The interactions of water with Ru(100) have been studied using both thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). From these studies we conclude that a small amount of water dissociates on this surface (5--10% of a monolayer), but water is adsorbed in a predominantly molecular form on this surface with an increasing degree of hydrogen-bonding with increasing coverage. The effects of hydrogen and oxygen coadsorption on the interactions of water with this surface have also been studied using TDS. Finally, the interactions of coadsorbed water and perfluorodiethyl ether on Ru(100) have been investigated using TDS.

Leavitt, P.

1990-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

49

Gene therapy in alcoholic rats  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

70 70 Sept. 9, 2001 Gene Therapy Reduces Drinking in "Alcoholic" Rats UPTON, NY - Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory have shown that increasing the level of a brain protein important for transmitting pleasure signals can turn rats that prefer alcohol into light drinkers, and those with no preference into near teetotalers. The findings, published in the first September 2001 issue of the Journal of Neurochemistry (Vol. 78, No. 5), may have implications for the prevention and treatment of alcoholism in humans. "This is a preliminary study, but when you see a rat that chooses to drink 80 to 90 percent of its daily fluid as alcohol, and then three days later it's down to 20 percent, that's a dramatic drop in alcohol intake - a very clear change in behavior," said Panayotis Thanos, the lead researcher. "This gives us great hope that we can refine this treatment for future clinical use."

50

Thermodynamic properties of organic oxygen compounds XLIII. Vapour pressures of some ethers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Vapour pressures of methyl propyl, isopropyl methyl, butyl methyl, ethyl propyl, t-butyl methyl, dipropyl, di-isopropyl, di-t-butyl, and decyl methyl ethers were measured at pressures up to 205 kPa. The measured values were fitted by Antoine and by Chebyshev equations, values already published from this laboratory for three aromatic ethers were recomputed uniformly with the present results, and published values for four additional compounds were incorporated in a scheme for correlation of the vapour pressures of ethers. Estimates were made of the vapour pressures of 10 other ethers. Between 5 and 200 kPa the vapour pressures of ethers may be represented by a single equation in which carbon number or an effective carbon number is a parameter. Chebyshev equations are given for interpolation between the upper bounds of the measurements and the critical pressures of 11 ethers for which this property has been previously determined.

D Ambrose; J.H Ellender; C.H.S Sprake; R Townsend

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Synthesis of higher alcohols from carbon monoxide and hydrogen in a slurry reactor  

SciTech Connect

Higher, i.e. C{sub 2{sup +}}, alcohols are desired as gasoline additives, feedstocks for producing ethers and as alternative fuels for automobiles. In all cases, the backbone branching of an alcohol improves octane rating, which is essential for good engine performance. These types of branched, higher alcohols are the desired products for a process converting synthesis gas, a CO and H{sub 2} mixture, often generated from coal gasification. Based on this premise, promoted ZnCr oxide catalysts appear to be as one of the best avenues for further investigation. Once this investigation is complete, a natural extension is to replace the Cr in the ZnCr oxide catalyst with Mo and W, both in the same elemental triad with Cr. Mo has already been shown as an active HAS catalyst, both on a SiO{sub 2} support and in the MoS{sub 2} form. The three catalyst combinations, ZnMo, ZnW, and MnCr oxides will be tested in the stirred autoclave system. However, if none of the three indicate any comparable activity and/or selectivity toward higher alcohols as compared with other HAS catalysts, then an investigation of the effects of Cs promotion on the ZnCr oxide methanol catalysts will be executed.

McCutchen, M.S.

1992-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

52

E-Print Network 3.0 - allyl glycidyl ether Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science 15 () Trichloromethane ()1,1,2,2-1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane Summary: ;() Acrolein () Acrylic acid () Allyl zlcohol () Allyl chloride () Allyl glycidyl ether(AGE) ()2-...

53

POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AND POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN GALAPAGOS SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS WOLLEBAEKI)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p- dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) repre- sent persistent

Gobas, Frank

54

Development of a Dimethyl Ether (DME)-Fueled Shuttle Bus | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Alternative Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies Liquid Fuels from Biomass BiodieselFuelManagementBestPracticesReport.pdf...

55

Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the antarctic environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the historical record of dioxins, PCBs and DDTs in the same cores showed a decreasing trend. At present, PBDEs are recognized as a worldwide pollution problem since they have reached remote areas such as the deep ocean, the Arctic and Antarctica (de Boer et al... that cheerful and warm Brazilian spirit. You are my Aggie family! viii NOMENCLATURE #1; critical value of a statistical test used to reject the null hypothesis ANOVA Analysis of Variance BDE Brominated Diphenyl Ether BFR Brominated Flame Retardant DC...

Yogui, Gilvan Takeshi

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Structure and Reactivity of Alkyl Ethers Adsorbed on CeO2(111) Model Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The effect of surface hydroxyls on the adsorption of ether on ceria was explored. Adsorption of dimethyl ether (DME) and diethyl ether (DEE) on oxidized and reduced CeO{sub 2}(111) films was studied and compared with Ru(0001) using RAIRS and sXPS within a UHV environment. On Ru(0001) the ethers adsorb weakly with the molecular plane close to parallel to the surface plane. On the ceria films, the adsorption of the ethers was stronger than on the metal surface, presumably due to stronger interaction of the ether oxygen lone pair electrons with a cerium cation. This interaction causes the ethers to tilt away from the surface plane compared to the Ru(0001) surface. No pronounced differences were found between oxidized (CeO{sub 2}) and reduced (CeOx) films. The adsorption of the ethers was found to be perturbed by the presence of OH groups on hydroxylated CeOx. In the case of DEE, the geometry of adsorption resembles that found on Ru, and in the case of dimethyl ether DME is in between that one found on clean CeOx and the metal surface. Decomposition of the DEE was observed on the OH/CeOx surface following high DEE exposure at 300 K and higher temperatures. Ethoxides and acetates were identified as adsorbed species on the surface by means of RAIRS and ethoxides and formates by s-XPS. No decomposition of dimethyl ether was observed on the OH/CeOx at these higher temperatures, implying that the dissociation of the C-O bond from ethers requires the presence of {beta}-hydrogen.

F Calaza; T Chen; D Mullins; S Overbury

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

57

Structure and Reactivity of Alkyl Ethers Adsorbed on CeO(2)(111) Model Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The effect of surface hydroxyls on the adsorption of ether on ceria was explored. Adsorption of dimethyl ether (DME) and diethyl ether (DEE) on oxidized and reduced CeO{sub 2}(111) films was studied and compared with Ru(0001) using RAIRS and sXPS within a UHV environment. On Ru(0001) the ethers adsorb weakly with the molecular plane close to parallel to the surface plane. On the ceria films, the adsorption of the ethers was stronger than on the metal surface, presumably due to stronger interaction of the ether oxygen lone pair electrons with a cerium cation. This interaction causes the ethers to tilt away from the surface plane compared to the Ru(0001) surface. No pronounced differences were found between oxidized (CeO{sub 2}) and reduced (CeOx) films. The adsorption of the ethers was found to be perturbed by the presence of OH groups on hydroxylated CeOx. In the case of DEE, the geometry of adsorption resembles that found on Ru, and in the case of dimethyl ether DME is in between that one found on clean CeOx and the metal surface. Decomposition of the DEE was observed on the OH/CeOx surface following high DEE exposure at 300 K and higher temperatures. Ethoxides and acetates were identified as adsorbed species on the surface by means of RAIRS and ethoxides and formates by s-XPS. No decomposition of dimethyl ether was observed on the OH/CeOx at these higher temperatures, implying that the dissociation of the C-O bond from ethers requires the presence of {beta}-hydrogen.

Calaza, Florencia C [ORNL; Chen, Tsung-Liang [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Role of alkyl alcohol on viscosity of silica-based chemical gels for decontamination of highly radioactive nuclear facilities  

SciTech Connect

Silica-based chemical gel for the decontamination of nuclear facilities was prepared by using fumed silica as a viscosifier, a 0.5 M Ce (IV) solution dissolved in concentrated nitric acid as a chemical decontamination agent, and tripropylene glycol butyl ether (TPGBE) as a co-viscosifier. A new effective strategy for the preparation of the chemical gel was investigated by introducing the alkyl alcohols as organic solvents to effectively dissolve the co-viscosifier. The mixture solution of the co-viscosifier and alkyl alcohols was more effective in the control of viscosity than that of the co-viscosifier only in gel. Here, the alkyl alcohols played a key role as an effective dissolution solvent for the co-viscosifier in the preparation of the chemical gel, resulting in a reducing of the amount of the co-viscosifier and gel time compared with that of the chemical gel prepared without the alkyl alcohols. It was considered that the alkyl alcohols contributed to the effective dissolution of the co-viscosifier as well as the homogeneous mixing in the formation of the gel, while the co-viscosifier in an aqueous media of the chemical decontamination agent solution showed a lower solubility. The decontamination efficiency of the chemical gels prepared in this work using a multi-channel analyzer (MCA) showed a high decontamination efficiency of over ca. 94% and ca. 92% for Co-60 and Cs-137 contaminated on surface of the stainless steel 304, respectively. (authors)

Choi, B. S.; Yoon, S. B.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K. [Div. of Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Development, Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daedeok-daero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Decomposition of Ethanol and Dimethyl Ether During Chemical Vapour deposition Synthesis of Single-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl ether (DME) at typical SWNT growth conditions using to the predicted decomposition mechanism. Signature peak intensities indicated concentrations of both ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

60

Reaction Pathways and Energetics of Etheric C?O Bond Cleavage Catalyzed by Lanthanide Triflates  

SciTech Connect

Efficient and selective cleavage of etheric C?O bonds is crucial for converting biomass into platform chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. In this contribution, computational methods at the DFT B3LYP level of theory are employed to understand the efficacy of lanthanide triflate catalysts (Ln(OTf)3, Ln = La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Yb, and Lu) in cleaving etheric C?O bonds. In agreement with experiment, the calculations indicate that the reaction pathway for C?O cleavage occurs via a C?H ? O?H proton transfer in concert with weakening of the C?O bond of the coordinated ether substrate to ultimately yield a coordinated alkenol. The activation energy for this process falls as the lanthanide ionic radius decreases, reflecting enhanced metal ion electrophilicity. Details of the reaction mechanism for Yb(OTf)3-catalyzed ring opening are explored in depth, and for 1-methyl-d3-butyl phenyl ether, the computed primary kinetic isotope effect of 2.4 is in excellent agreement with experiment (2.7), confirming that etheric ring-opening pathway involves proton transfer from the methyl group alpha to the etheric oxygen atom, which is activated by the electrophilic lanthanide ion. Calculations of the catalytic pathway using eight different ether substrates indicate that the more rapid cleavage of acyclic versus cyclic ethers is largely due to entropic effects, with the former C?O bond scission processes increasing the degrees of freedom/particles as the transition state is approached.

Assary, Rajeev S.; Atesin, Abdurrahman C.; Li, Zhi; Curtiss, Larry A.; Marks, Tobin J.

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Composition and Digestibility of the Ether Extract of Hays and Fodders.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

556-712-5m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. BULLETIN NO . 150 AUGUST , 1912. Division o f Chemistry TECHNICAL BULLETIN Composition and Digestibility of the Ether Extract of Hays and Fodders By G S. FRAPS and J. B. RATHER POSTOFFICE... Digestibility of the Constituents............................................................. 23 Summary and Conclusions.......................................................................29 BLANK PAGE IN ORIGINAL Composition and Digestibility of the Ether...

Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

1912-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Proton-conducting polymer electrolyte membranes based on fluoropolymers incorporating perfluorovinyl ether sulfonic acids and fluoroalkenes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

acids. A novel synthetic route describing the preparation of perfluorovinyl ether monomer containing. The radical (co) and terpolymerization of 4-[(,,-trifluorovinyl)oxy]benzene sulfonyl chloride (TFVOBSC) with 1,1-difluoroethylene (or vinylidene fluoride, VDF), hexafluoropropene (HFP), and perfluoromethyl vinyl ether (PMVE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

63

Modelling the fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) during the municipal sewage treatment process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are an important source to the environment for many chemicals of concern (COCs). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are one such group of COCs of present day concern for which studies on fate and transport during the ... Keywords: chemical fate and transport, mass balance model, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, risk assessment, sewage treatment, water and wastewater management

Kerry N. McPhedran; Rajesh Seth

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites. | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites. Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites. Abstract: Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on...

65

Use of ethers as high-octane components of gasolines  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on a study of the possible utilization of methyl tert-amyl ether (MTAE) as an automotive gasoline component, both by itself and in combination with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). The naphtha used in these studies consisted of 80% reformer naphtha produced under severe conditions and 20% straight-run IBP-62/sup 0/C cut. The physicochemical properties of the MTAE, the MTBE, and the naphtha base stock are given. It is determined that MTAE, which has a slightly poorer knock resistance than MTBE, is fully equal to MTBE in all other respects and can be used as an automotive gasoline component; that a gasoline blend prepared from 89% naphtha base stock, 5.5% MTAE, and 5.5% MTBE meets all of the requirements of the standard GOST 2084-77 for Grade AI-93 gasoline; and that the use of MTAE offers a means for expanding the resources of high-octane components, lowering the toxicity of the gasolines and the exhaust gas (in comparison with organometallic antiknock agents), and bringing non-petroleum raw materials into the fuel production picture.

Gureev, A.A.; Baranova, G.N.; Korotkov, I.V.; Levinson, G.I.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Title Comb-shaped single ion conductors based on polyacrylate ethers and lithium alkyl sulfonate Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2005 Authors Sun, Xiao-Guang, Jun Hou, and John B. Kerr Journal Electrochimica Acta Volume 50 Pagination 1139-1147 Keywords ionic conductivity, plasticizer, polyacrylate ethers, single ion conductor Abstract Comb-shaped single ion conductors have been synthesized by sulfonation of small molecule chloroethyleneglycols, which, after ion exchange to the Li+ salt were then converted to the acrylate by reaction with acryloyl chloride and copolymerized with polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether acrylate (Mn = 454, n = 8) (PAE8-co-E3SO3Li);

67

Kinetic measurements of the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with hydroxy ethers, hydroxy ketones, and keto ethers  

SciTech Connect

Absolute rate constants were determined for the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with a series of hydroxy ethers as well as the simplest hydroxy ketone and keto ether with use of the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence technique. At 298 K, the measured rate constants were as follows (in units of 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}): 2-methoxyethanol, 12.5 {plus minus} 0.7; 2-ethoxyethanol, 18.7 {plus minus} 2.0; 2-butoxyethanol, 23.1 {plus minus} 0.9; 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, 22.0 {plus minus} 1.3; 3-methoxy-l-butanol, 23.6 {plus minus} 1.6; acetol, 3.0 {plus minus} 0.3; and methoxyacetone, 6.8 {plus minus} 0.6. The kinetic data for 2-methoxyethanol obtained between 240 and 440 K were used to derive the following Arrhenius expression: k{sub 1} = (4.5 {plus minus} 1.4) {times} 10{sup {minus}12} exp((325 {plus minus} 100)/T) (cm{sup 3} molecule{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}). The results for all seven reactants are discussed in terms of the prediction of OH rate constants for oxygenated organic compounds.

Dagaut, P.; Liu, R.; Wallington, T.J.; Kurylo, M.J. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

1989-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

68

Hello, my name is ____, and I'm an alcoholic: A study of organizational identification and commitment to Alcoholics Anonymous  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vice (www.alcoholics- anonymous.org/ The alcoholic can recover, n.d.). This description of the dual components of alcoholism provides a glimpse into the difficulties alcoholics face, once they realize they have a drinking problem. A lifetime...

Hall, Dana Ferguson

2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

69

Separation of methyl t-butyl ether from close boiling C[sub 5] hydrocarbons by extractive distillation  

SciTech Connect

A method for recovering methyl t-butyl ether from a mixture of methyl t-butyl ether and 1-pentene which comprises distilling a mixture of methyl t-butyl ether and 1-pentene in the presence of about one part of an extractive agent per part of methyl t-butyl ether -- 1-pentene mixture, recovering the 1-pentene as overhead product and obtaining the methyl t-butyl ether and the extractive agent from the still pot, wherein said extractive agent consists of one material selected from the group consisting of sulfolane, nitroethane, t-butanol, ethylene glycol diacetate, 1-methoxy-2-propanol acetate, methyl isoamyl ketone, ethylene glycol methyl ether, propylene glycol phenyl ether and diethyl malonate.

Berg, L.

1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

70

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid-labile cholesterol-vinyl ether-peg...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Crystallization of Recombinant Crithidia fasciculata Tryparedoxin Summary: of 30% polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (PEG MME) 2000, 0.1 M TrisHCl, pH 8.2, 1% dimethyl Source:...

71

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in combusted residues and soils from an open burning site of electronic wastes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants due to their extensive use. Combusted residue from electronic waste (e-waste) combustion is one of the contamination sources ... tr...

Qian Luo; Ming Hong Wong; Zijian Wang; Zongwei Cai

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Solvent Effects on Cesium Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques were used to study crown ether-water interactions in solvents of low dielectric constants such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Water forms a 1:1 complex with a number of crown ethers including 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, 18-crown-6, dicyclohexano-18=crown-6, dicyclohexano-24-crown 8, and dibenzl-24-crown-8 in chloroform. Among these crown ethers, the 18-crown-6-H2 complex has the largest equilibrium constant (K=545) and 97% of the crown is complexed to water in chloroform. Addition of carbon tetrachloride to chloroform lowers the equilibrium constants of the crown-water complexes. The partition coefficients of crown ethers (D=crown in water/crown in solvent) between water and organic solvent also vary with solvent composition.

Chien M. Wai; Anne Rustenholtz; Shaofen Wang; Su-Chen Lee; Jamie Herman; Richard A. Porter

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Atmospheric chemistry of automotive fuel additives: Diisopropyl ether  

SciTech Connect

To quantify the atmospheric reactivity of diisopropyl ether (DIPE), we have conducted a study of the kinetics and mechanism of reaction 1: OH + DIPE {r_arrow} products. Kinetic measurements of reaction 1 were made using both relative (at 295 K) and absolute techniques (over the temperature range 240-440 K). Rate data from both techniques can be represented by the following: k{sub 1} = (2.2{sub -0.8}{sup +14}) x 10{sup -12} exp[(445 {plus_minus} 145)/T] cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1}. At 298 K, k{sub 1} = 9.8 x 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1}. The products of the simulated atmospheric oxidation of DIPE were identified using FT-IR spectroscopy; isopropyl acetate and HCHO were the main products. The atmospheric oxidation of DIPE can be represented by i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}O-i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7} + OH + 2NO {r_arrow} HCHO + i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}OC(O)CH{sub 3} + HO{sub 2} + 2NO{sub 2}. Our kinetic and mechanistic data were incorporated into a 1-day simulation of atmospheric chemistry to quantify the relative incremental reactivity of DIPE. Results are compared with other oxygenated fuel additives. 30 refs., 9 figs.

Wallington, T.J.; Andino, J.M.; Potts, A.R. [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (United States)] [and others

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work and challenges continued as it has been difficult to maintain operability of the shuttle bus due to fuel and component difficulties. In late June 2002, the pump head itself developed operational problems (loss of smooth function) leading to excessive stress on the magnetic coupling and excessive current draw to operate. A new pump head was installed on the system to alleviate this problem and the shuttle bus operated successfully on DME blends from 10-25 vol% on the shuttle bus loop until September 30, 2002. During the period of operation on the campus loop, the bus was pulled from service, operated at the PTI test track and real-time emissions measurements were obtained using an on-board emissions analyzer from Clean Air Technologies International, Inc. Particulate emissions reductions of 60% and 80% were observed at DME blend ratios of 12 vol.% and 25 vol.%, respectively, as the bus was operated over the Orange County driving cycle. Increases in NOx, CO and HC emissions were observed, however. In summary, the conversion of the shuttle bus was successfully accomplished, particulate emissions reductions were observed, but there were operational challenges in the field. Nonetheless, they were able to demonstrate reliable operation of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel blends.

Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Alcohol-based fuels from syngases  

SciTech Connect

Development of catalysts and reactor systems for producing alcohol-based fuels from coal-derived synthesis gases is outlined. Also, utilization of alcohol-based fuels either as gasoline blending stocks at 10-20% addition rates or as straight-run fuels is discussed. (Refs. 4).

Greene, M.I.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via...

77

Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of...

78

Application of sPC-SAFT-JC and sPC-SAFT-GV to Phase Equilibria Predictions of Alkane/Alcohol, Alcohol/Alcohol, and Water/Alcohol Binary Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Application of sPC-SAFT-JC and sPC-SAFT-GV to Phase Equilibria Predictions of Alkane/Alcohol, Alcohol/Alcohol, and Water/Alcohol Binary Systems ... This paper reports on the ability of sPC-SAFT extended with the polar terms of Gross and Vrabec (GV) and Jog and Chapman (JC) to predict the phase equilibria of alkane/alcohol, alcohol/alcohol, and water/alcohol binary systems. ... For these selected binary systems, the GV and JC polar terms deliver similar results when incorporated into sPC-SAFT. ...

Adriaan J. de Villiers; Cara E. Schwarz; Krasimir G. Chobanov; Andries J. Burger

2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

79

Ab initio calculations of various protonation sites in perfluorodiethyl ether: Models for high temperature lubricant decomposition?  

SciTech Connect

Although perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricants have found successful application in spacecraft mechanisms and computer hard drives, there eventual breakdown is irksome, and the mechanism of decomposition is the subject of much scrutiny. However, very little notice is taken of the monomer ethers on which the polymer lubricants are based. Recently, concerted studies of the Lewis base properties of various fluorinated ethers have been performed, both from an experimental and a theoretical viewpoint. As an extension of the theoretical work, this study presents ab initio theoretical consideration of the multiple potential basic sites within perfluorodiethyl ether, (CF{sub 3}CF{sub 2}){sub 2}O, by way of the proton affinity of the molecule at various possible protonation sites (i.e., oxygen and fluorine atoms). The results indicate that although protonation at the oxygen is more energetically favored, protonation at the fluorine is not much higher in energy and provides for formation of an excellent leaving group, HF.

Ball, D.W. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE SURVEYS By Michael J. Moran, Rick M. Clawges, and John S. Zogorski U.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

82

The Total Fatty Acids and Other Ether-Soluable Constituents of Feedstuffs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

586-914-10m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN NO. 169 SEPTEMBER, 19I4 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY The Total Fatty Acids and Other Ether-Soluble Constituents of Feedstuffs BY J. B. RATHER Assistant Chemist POSTOFFICE COLLEGE STATION... IS T .* In previous publications of this Experiment Station (Fraps and Bather, Bulletins Nos. 150 and 162) it has been shown that the un? saponifiable matter in the ether extract of hays and fodders averages about 58 per cent. Of the total extract, and is of much...

Rather, J. B. (James Burness)

1914-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Toxicity of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in Hydra attenuata and in rat whole embryo culture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A?TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE A Thesis by MARION CAROL BECKER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8cM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Toxicology TOXICITY OF POLYCHLORINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HYDRA A1TENUATA AND IN RAT WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE by MARION CAROL BECKER Approved as to style and content by: Stephen H. S (Ca...

Becker, Marion Carol

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

84

Is alcohol more dangerous than heroin? The physical, social and financial costs of alcohol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A recent paper claimed in its classification of harmful substances, that alcohol is more dangerous than heroin. This paper aims to weigh up some of the evidence in the literature on the physical, social and financial effects of alcohol and the associated disease burden. We will also explore alcohol within the context of emergency department (ED) presentations. Reasons for ED attendance can be overtly and directly alcohol related such as alcohol intoxication, assaults, injuries and falls and indirectly such as child neglect, psychological problems and chronic diseases. Alcohol is often viewed as an isolated incident or factor for ED presentations but there are data that refute this perception. In ED, the priority is to treat the patient and their primary complaint, however it may be appropriate to screen for alcohol use, give advice and potentially offer an intervention to the patient. With the recent UK and Australian guidelines on reducing health risks from drinking alcohol, the ED has the ability to play an active role in reducing the harmful effects of alcohol through screening, advising and undertaking intervention as appropriate. However this cannot be achieved in isolation but within the broader political and health policy framework. There is now a growing body of literature supporting the need to make alcohol less affordable, less easy to buy and reducing alcohol advertising. Although alcohol is a legal substance, this paper concludes that examining the wider effects in physical, social and financial terms, alcohol is more dangerous than heroin. It has become an endemic problem in society affecting the individual and the whole community.

Geraldine A. Lee; Marcus Forsythe

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Dimethyl ether (DME) from coal as a household cooking fuel in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technologies. Given China's rich coal resources, the production and use of coal-derived DME as a cooking fuelDimethyl ether (DME) from coal as a household cooking fuel in China Eric D. Larson Princeton gas (LPG) as a household cooking fuel. As such, DME is an attractive fuel for clean cooking. DME can

86

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkyl-tert alkyl ethers Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

> >> 1 7198 J. Org. Chem. 1995,60, 7198-7208 Gas Phase Decomposition of Conjugate Acid Ions of Simple Summary: of ProtonatedAlkyl tert-ButylEthers RO(H)C(CH&+ (To.6 Values in meV...

87

Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion investigations1 of water retention mechanism by cellulose ethers in mortars2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion investigations1 of water retention mechanism by cellulose : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2012.06.002 #12;2 ABSTRACT22 23 We show how nuclear magnetic spin-lattice relaxation dispersion of protons-water24 (NMRD) can be used to elucidate the effect of cellulose ethers

Boyer, Edmond

88

The influence of propylene glycol ethers on base diesel properties and emissions from a diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The oxygenated additives propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE), dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME) were studied to determine their influence on both the base diesel fuel properties and the exhaust emissions from a diesel engine (CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke). For diesel blends with low oxygen content (?4.0 wt.%), the addition of these compounds to base diesel fuel decreases aromatic content, kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and Conradson carbon residue. Also, each compound modifies the distillation curve at temperatures below the corresponding oxygenated compound boiling point, the distillate percentage being increased. The blend cetane number depends on the type of propylene glycol ether added, its molecular weight, and the oxygen content of the fuel. The addition of PGME decreased slightly diesel fuel cetane number, while PGEE and DPGME increased it. Base diesel fuel-propylene glycol ether blends with 1.0 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen contents were used in order to determine the performance of the diesel engine and its emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds (1000, 2500 and 4000 rpm). In general, at full load and in comparison with base diesel fuel, the blends show a slight reduction of oxygen-free specific fuel consumption. CO emissions are reduced appreciably for 2.5 wt.% of oxygen blends, mainly for PGEE and DPGME. \\{NOx\\} emissions are reduced slightly, but not the smoke. Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions decrease at 1000 and 2500 rpm, but not at 4000 rpm. At medium load, the effect of the additives is much less significant, due to the fact that the ratio oxygen from additive/oxygen from air is much lower.

F. Gómez-Cuenca; M. Gómez-Marín; M.B. Folgueras-Díaz

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Third international symposium on alcohol fuels technology  

SciTech Connect

At the opening of the Symposium, Dr. Sharrah, Senior Vice President of Continental Oil Company, addressed the attendees, and his remarks are included in this volume. The Symposium was concluded by workshops which addressed specific topics. The topical titles are as follows: alcohol uses; production; environment and safety; and socio-economic. The workshops reflected a growing confidence among the attendees that the alcohols from coal, remote natural gas and biomass do offer alternatives to petroleum fuels. Further, they may, in the long run, prove to be equal or superior to the petroleum fuels when the aspects of performance, environment, health and safety are combined with the renewable aspect of the biomass derived alcohols. Although considerable activity in the production and use of alcohols is now appearing in many parts of the world, the absence of strong, broad scale assessment and support for these fuels by the United States Federal Government was a noted point of concern by the attendees. The environmental consequence of using alcohols continues to be more benign in general than the petroleum based fuels. The exception is the family of aldehydes. Although the aldehydes are easily suppressed by catalysts, it is important to understand their production in the combustion process. Progress is being made in this regard. Of course, the goal is to burn the alcohols so cleanly that catalytic equipment can be eliminated. Separate abstracts are prepared for the Energy Data Base for individual presentations.

none,

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohols catalyst names Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

synthesized catalysts for alcohol synthesis. We focus on structural... the use of biogas to create alcohol for fuel. Higher alcohols ... Source: Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. -...

91

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol dependence results Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

With Deprivation and Summary: between age at onset of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol dependence: results of the National Longitudinal... at onset of alcohol use...

92

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol breath tests Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

VERSUS SOPHISTICATED MODELS OF BREATH ALCOHOL Summary: Alcohol & Alcoholism, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 61-67, 1996 SIMPLE VERSUS SOPHISTICATED MODELS OF BREATH... -2420, USA,...

93

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute alcohol intoxication Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to Alcohol Summary: "high" and "intoxication" during an intravenous (IV) alcohol infusion. Methods: Nine healthy control... (60 mg% 5 mg%) alcohol infusion. Numerical ratings...

94

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol effects Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

comply with all of the attached alcohol policies. Ticketed events serving alcohol must rent... that I have read and understood all policies, including the alcohol policy and I...

95

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcoholic beverage hormesis Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

may approve the sale of alcohol on campus, only the Division of Alcoholic Beverages... . Advertising for any university event where alcoholic ... Source: Sura, Philip - Department...

96

Extended performance of alcohol fumigation in diesel engines through different multipoint alcohol injection timing cycles  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the results of using multipoint port injection alcohol fumigation of a four-cycle turbocharged diesel engine in which the fumigation injection cycle was varied. The three cycles, dual with one-half of the alcohol injection on each engine revolution, single with all of the alcohol injection during the open intake valve revolution, and single with all of the alcohol injected during the closed intake valve revolution, lead to significant differences in the engines pressure-volume history and alcohol energy replacement tolerance. The engine was fumigated with both industrial grade ethanol and methanol and complete performance and emissions data (excluding aldehydes) were measured at low, medium, and high values of BMEP and rpm.

Savage, L.D.; White, R.A.; Cole, S.; Pritchett, G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Kinetics of liquid phase catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the kinetics of the liquid phase catalytic dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether investigated. The experiments were carried out under low concentrations of feed in a 1-L stirred autoclave, according to a statistical experimental design. The inert liquid phase used for this investigation was a 78:22 blend of paraffinic and naphthenic mineral oils. A complete thermodynamic analysis was carried out in order to determine the liquid phase concentrations of the dissolved species. A global kinetic model was developed for the rate of dimethyl ether synthesis in terms of the liquid phase concentration of methanol. The activation energy of the reaction was found to be 18,830 cal/gmol. Based on a step-wise linear regression analysis of the kinetic data, the order of the reaction which gave the best fit was 0.28 with respect to methanol.

Gogate, M.R.; Lee, B.G.; Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Kulik, C.J. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion  

SciTech Connect

We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

99

Dynamic Simulation of Startup in Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation with Input Multiplicity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dynamic Simulation of Startup in Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation with Input Multiplicity ... However, smaller internal rates inside the column that result from lower reboiler and condenser duty could increase the potential risk of flooding in the column and reduce the availability of reactants in the reactive section. ... Column simulations performed using both Pro/II and SpeedUp showed excellent agreement with previously published exptl. ...

Budi H. Bisowarno; Moses O. Tadé

2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

100

2[prime] and 3[prime] Carboranyl uridines and their diethyl ether adducts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for preparing carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds and their diethyl ether adducts, which exhibit a tenfold increase in boron content over prior art boron containing nucleoside compounds. The carboranyl uridine nucleoside compounds exhibit enhanced lipophilicity and hydrophilic properties adequate to enable solvation in aqueous media for subsequent incorporation of the compounds in methods for boron neutron capture therapy in mammalian tumor cells. No Drawings

Soloway, A.H.; Barth, R.F.; Anisuzzaman, A.K.; Alam, F.; Tjarks, W.

1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Effect of solvents on the radiation-induced polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers  

SciTech Connect

The effect of solvents on the radiation-induced cationic polymerization of ethyl and isopropyl vinyl ethers (EVE and IPVE, respectively) was investigated. EVE and IPVE polymerizations were carried out in bulk and in solution under superdry conditions in which polar impurities, especially water, have been reduced to negligible levels. This was accomplished by means of a sodium mirror technique using joint free baked out glass equipment and high vacuum. Plots of the monomer conversions and irradiation times were obtained for EVE and IPVE polymerizations in bulk and in benzene solution at constant monomer concentrations. The monomer concentration dependence of the polymerization rate was studied for EVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene, diethlyl ether, diglyme and methylene chloride, and for IPVE polymerization in bulk and in benzene. Solvent effect on the estimated propagating rate constants was examined for EVE and IPVE polymerization in bulk and in solution. The effect of temperature on the polymerization rate was also investigated for EVE polymerization in bulk ad in benzene, diethyl and diisopropyl ethers, methylene chloride and nitromethane, and for IPVE ploymerization in bulk and in benzene.

Hsieh, W.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

The energy relationships of corn production and alcohol fermentation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The energy relationships of corn production and alcohol fermentation ... The production of alcohol from corn lends itself well to illustrating the practical applications of scientific principles that deal with energy transformations and inefficiencies. ...

Thomas E. Van Koevering; Michael D. Morgan; Thomas J. Younk

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

The effects of alcohol use on zinc status  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alcohol consumption has been shown to have adverse affects on bone growth and maintenance, although the mechanism has not been elucidated. The objective of this research was to look at the relationship between zinc and alcohol as a possible...

Chapman, Lisa Louise

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine...

105

Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Drug Interactions with Ethanol (Alcohol)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ethanol (alcohol) is one of the most widely used legal drugs in the world. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) ... lead to a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction with ethanol, whic...

Lingtak-Neander Chan; Gail D. Anderson

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Alkali/TX sub 2 catalysts for CO/H sub 2 conversion to C sub 1 -C sub 4 alcohols  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to investigate and develop novel catalysts for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas into C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} alcohols by a highly selective process. Therefore, the variations of catalyst activity and selectivity for the synthesis of alcohols from H{sub 2}/CO {le}1 synthesis gas for a series of A/TX{sub 2} compounds, where A is a surface alkali dopant, T is a transition metal, and X is a S, Se, or Te, will be determined. The alkali component A, which is essential for C-O and C-C bond forming reactions leading to alcohols, will be highly dispersed on the TX{sub 2} surfaces by using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and chemical complexation/anchoring (CCA) methods. Catalysts that have been prepared during this quarter include RuS{sub 2}, NbS{sub 2}, K/MoS{sub 2}, and K/Crown either/MoS{sub 2}. Catalysts tested include KOH/MoS{sub 2} and K/Crown ether/MoS{sub 2}. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Brimer, A.; Richards, M.; Kieke, M.; Bastian, R.D.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

An explanation for enhanced perceptions of attractiveness after alcohol consumption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An explanation for enhanced perceptions of attractiveness after alcohol consumption L.G. Halseya alcohol consumption increases ratings of attractiveness to faces. This may help to explain increased attraction may be the result of alcohol consumption decreasing ability to detect bilateral asymmetry

Little, Tony

108

Alcohol synthesis from CO or CO.sub.2  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for producing alcohols from CO or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 utilizing a palladium-zinc on alumina catalyst are described. Methods of synthesizing alcohols over various catalysts in microchannels are also described. Ethanol, higher alcohols, and other C.sub.2+ oxygenates can produced utilizing Rh--Mn or a Fisher-Tropsch catalyst.

Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Robert A [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA; Cao, Chunshe [Houston, TX; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; White, James F [Richland, WA; Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Stevens, Don J [Richland, WA

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

109

Division of Human Resources Alcohol & Drug Testing (CDL)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Division of Human Resources Alcohol & Drug Testing (CDL) Definitions of Terms Employee Relations/Alcohol & Drug Testing (CDL) Questions: (813) 974-2970 Rev. 12/2008 The definitions listed below are for common words/phrases used in the alcohol and drug testing procedures. Accident - An occurrence associated

Meyers, Steven D.

110

Division of Human Resources Alcohol & Drug Testing for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Division of Human Resources Alcohol & Drug Testing for Jobs Requiring CDL Employee Relations/Alcohol & Drug Testing (CDL) Questions: (813) 974-2970 Rev. 12/2008 · Report for duty or remain on duty requiring-accident testing is required, or until he/she undergoes a post-accident alcohol test, whichever occurs first

Meyers, Steven D.

111

The Employee Stress and Alcohol Project: The development of a computer-based alcohol abuse prevention program for employees  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Employee Stress and Alcohol Project (ESAP) developed an interactive computer-based alcohol abuse prevention and early intervention program accessible to employees over the Internet. Behavioral health research...

Robert A. Matano Ph.D.…

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol ethyl alcohol Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

By The University of Texas at Arlington Police Department... 817-272-3381 Tips for Young Adults: The Truth about Alcohol If you are the victim of a crime on the U... . One...

113

REQUEST FORM PERMISSION TO SERVE ALCOHOL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Celebrations held off-site during lunch or other working hours should be strongly discouraged for reasons both of safety and loss of productivity. Employees who consume alcohol during any off-site luncheon or event shall not return to work the same day. If circumstances make it necessary to schedule off-site events

114

Marketing of Unhealthy Foods, Beverages, and Alcohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of other channels (movies, internet, billboards) shows similar exposure levels for youth Many new marketing is it located, what does it advertise and how is it related to intentions and use among young adolescents and driving Risky sexual behaviors Violent or deviant behaviors Alcohol abuse or dependence in both

Illinois at Chicago, University of

115

Detection and Quantification of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Strain PM1 by Real-Time TaqMan PCR  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...purification Fresh Water microbiology Geologic...Polymerase metabolism Water Pollution, Chemical...bioremediation detection ethers ground water hydrocarbons methyl tert-butyl...pollutants pollution remediation sampling water resources...

Krassimira R. Hristova; Christian M. Lutenegger; Kate M. Scow

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

A laser and molecular beam mass spectrometer study of low-pressure dimethyl ether flames  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) is studied in low-pressure flames using new molecular beam mass spectrometer and laser diagnostics. Two 30.0-Torr, premixed DME/oxygen/argon flames are investigated with stoichiometries of 0.98 and 1.20. The height above burner profiles of nine stable species and two radicals are measured. These results are compared to the detailed chemical reaction mechanism of Curran and coworkers. Generally good agreement is found between the model and data. The largest discrepancies are found for the methyl radical profiles where the model predicts qualitatively different trends in the methyl concentration with stoichiometry than observed in the experiment.

Andrew McIlroy; Toby D. Hain; Hope A. Michelsen; Terrill A. Cool

2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

118

Alcohol-based fuels from syngases  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes results of a research program which was undertaken to find the most advantageous method of using methanol in gasoline blends. It is demonstrated that a mixture called methanol and C/sub 2/C/sub 6/ saturated alcohols, called Alkanol fuel, has the potential for providing a gasoline-blending stock superior to that of straight-run methanol or ethanol. Extensive property data and test results are tabulated, plotted, and discussed. Economic considerations are included. 4 refs.

Greene, M.I.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Flash photolysis resonance fluorescence investigation of the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with cyclic ethers  

SciTech Connect

Absolute rate constants were measured for the gas-phase reactions of hydroxyl radicals with a series of dioxanes and other cyclic ethers by using the flash photolysis resonance fluorescence technique. Kinetic data for 1,3-dioxane and 1,4-dioxane, reactions 1 and 2, over the temperature range 240-440 K were used to derive the Arrhenius expressions. These results are compared to our earlier measurements for aliphatic ethers and are discussed in terms of reaction mechanisms and the prediction of reaction rates for such compounds from group reactivity values.

Dagaut, P.; Liu, R.; Wallington, T.J.; Kurylo, M.J. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

1990-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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121

Dry dig: Ethics and alcohol in Middle Eastern archaeological practice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ARTICLE DRY DIG ETHICS AND ALCOHOL IN MIDDLE EASTERNhad encountered discussions of ethics, archaeology, andtower discussions regarding ethics and archaeology can ring

Porter, Benjamin W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Catalytic distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic Distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) is investigated in this thesis. The solvent, ethylene glycol, is proposed as a means of… (more)

Safinski, Tomasz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Methods Andrew Ickes & Thomas Wallner Argonne National Laboratory 17 th Directions in...

124

HD Applications of Significantly Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

SI Engines Using Alcohol DI for Knock Avoidance Direct injection of a second fuel (ethanol or methanol) is explored as a means of avoiding knock in turbocharged,...

125

Hispanics, Blacks and Whites driving under the influence of alcohol: results from the 1995 National Alcohol Survey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Objective: To report nationwide survey data on patterns of driving under the influence of alcohol among Whites, Blacks and Hispanics. Method: Data were obtained from a probability sample consisting of 1582 Blacks, 1585 Hispanics and 1636 Whites in the US household population. Interviews averaging 1 h in length were conducted in respondents’ homes by trained interviewers. Results: Self-reported rates of driving a car after having drunk enough ‘to be in trouble if stopped by the police’ were highest among White and Hispanic men (22 and 21%, respectively), as were lifetime arrest rates for driving under the influence of alcohol (13% for White men, 19% for Hispanic men). Additionally, our analyses suggest that drinkers who drive under the influence of alcohol are more likely to be men (regardless of ethnicity), consume more alcohol, and be alcohol dependent than drinkers who do not engage in alcohol-impaired driving.

Raul Caetano; Catherine L Clark

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Title: Decomposition of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of ethanol and dimethyl-ether during CVD synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes Author list: Bo Hou (single-walled carbon nanotubes) was investigated. Gas-phase thermal decomposition of ethanol and DME ethanol and DME decomposition, confirming expected reaction trends and primary byproducts. Peak

Maruyama, Shigeo

127

Liver proteomics in progressive alcoholic steatosis  

SciTech Connect

Fatty liver is an early stage of alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver disease (ALD and NALD) that progresses to steatohepatitis and other irreversible conditions. In this study, we identified proteins that were differentially expressed in the livers of rats fed 5% ethanol in a Lieber–DeCarli diet daily for 1 and 3 months by discovery proteomics (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) and non-parametric modeling (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines). Hepatic fatty infiltration was significantly higher in ethanol-fed animals as compared to controls, and more pronounced at 3 months of ethanol feeding. Discovery proteomics identified changes in the expression of proteins involved in alcohol, lipid, and amino acid metabolism after ethanol feeding. At 1 and 3 months, 12 and 15 different proteins were differentially expressed. Of the identified proteins, down regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (? 1.6) at 1 month and up regulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (2.1) at 3 months could be a protective/adaptive mechanism against ethanol toxicity. In addition, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 a protein responsible for methionine metabolism and previously implicated in fatty liver development was significantly up regulated (1.4) at ethanol-induced fatty liver stage (1 month) while peroxiredoxin-1 was down regulated (? 1.5) at late fatty liver stage (3 months). Nonparametric analysis of the protein spots yielded fewer proteins and narrowed the list of possible markers and identified D-dopachrome tautomerase (? 1.7, at 3 months) as a possible marker for ethanol-induced early steatohepatitis. The observed differential regulation of proteins have potential to serve as biomarker signature for the detection of steatosis and its progression to steatohepatitis once validated in plasma/serum. -- Graphical abstract: The figure shows the Hierarchial cluster analysis of differentially expressed protein spots obtained after ethanol feeding for 1 (1–3) and 3 (4–6) months. C and E represent pair-fed control and ethanol-fed rats, respectively. Highlights: ? Proteins related to ethanol-induced steatosis and mild steatohepatitis are identified. ? ADH1C and ALDH2 involved in alcohol metabolism are differentially expressed at 1 and 3 months. ? Discovery proteomics identified a group of proteins to serve as potential biomarkers. ? Using nonparametric analysis DDT is identified as a possible marker for liver damage.

Fernando, Harshica [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Wiktorowicz, John E.; Soman, Kizhake V. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Khan, M. Firoze [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Shakeel Ansari, G.A., E-mail: sansari@utmb.edu [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Extent of Alcohol Consumption among Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...4). Alcohol consumption could exacerbate...6). Alcohol consumption has been investigated...brew or make at home? Current alcohol...estimate their average weekly consumption in units (1 unit...health, pain, and energy/vitality. Using...

Clare Frobisher; Emma R. Lancashire; Raoul C. Reulen; David L. Winter; Michael C.G. Stevens; and Michael M. Hawkins

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Direct hydro-liquefaction of sawdust in petroleum ether and comprehensive bio-oil products analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of temperature, time, hydrogen pressure and amount of catalyst on production distribution and the bio-oil yield obtained from the direct liquefaction of sawdust in the petroleum ether (60–90 °C) are investigated. The highest sawdust conversion obtained was 72.32% with a bio-oil yield of 47.69% were obtained at 370 °C, 40 min and 5wt.% catalyst content with the initial H2 pressure of 3.0 MPa. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) approach was utilized to analyze the non-volatile fraction. In this study, the composition of bio-oil could be analyzed in an unprecedented detail through a combination of GC–MS and FT-ICR MS techniques.

Dong Liu; Linhua Song; Pingping Wu; Yan Liu; Qingyin Li; Zifeng Yan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

131

Use of aluminum phosphate as the dehydration catalyst in single step dimethyl ether process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention pertains to a process for the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) directly from a synthesis gas in a single step (hereafter, the "single step DME process"). In this process, the synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides is contacted with a dual catalyst system comprising a physical mixture of a methanol synthesis catalyst and a methanol dehydration catalyst. The present invention is an improvement to this process for providing an active and stable catalyst system. The improvement comprises the use of an aluminum phosphate based catalyst as the methanol dehydration catalyst. Due to its moderate acidity, such a catalyst avoids the coke formation and catalyst interaction problems associated with the conventional dual catalyst systems taught for the single step DME process.

Peng, Xiang-Dong (Allentown, PA); Parris, Gene E. (Coopersburg, PA); Toseland, Bernard A. (Allentown, PA); Battavio, Paula J. (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Process for the production of ethylidene diacetate from dimethyl ether using a heterogeneous catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for producing ethylidene diacetate by the reaction of dimethyl ether, acetic acid, hydrogen and carbon monoxide at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that is stable to hydrogenation and comprises an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized heteroatoms, some of which heteroatoms are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the heteroatoms being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for 3 consecutive runs without loss in activity.

Ramprasad, Dorai (Allentown, PA); Waller, Francis Joseph (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Using Heteropolyacids in the Anode Catalyst Layer of Dimethyl Ether PEM Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

In this study, polarization experiments were performed on a direct dimethyl ether fuel cell (DMEFC). The experimental setup allowed for independent control of water and DME flow rates. Thus the DME flow rate, backpressure, and water flow rate were optimized. Three heteropoly acids, phosphomolybdic acid (PMA), phosphotungstic acid (PTA), and silicotungstic acid (STA) were incorporated into the anode catalyst layer in combination with Pt/C. Both PTA-Pt and STA-Pt showed higher performance than the Pt control at 30 psig of backpressure. Anodic polarizations were also performed, and Tafel slopes were extracted from the data. The trends in the Tafel slope values are in agreement with the polarization data. The addition of phosphotungstic acid more than doubled the power density of the fuel cell, compared to the Pt control.

Ferrell III, J. R.; Turner, J. A.; Herring, A. M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Stress, Risk Taking, Alcohol/Drugs, and Parents as Partners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

college � Particular Interests Alcohol and other drug abuse Prescription stimulant abuse Marijuana, bronchitis, Strep throat 9.0% Internet use/computer games 17.3% Finances 8.9% Depression 16.3% Alcohol use 8 other students are doing #12;Parents Still Matter! � In adolescents and young adults, shift

Stowell, Michael

135

Division of Human Resources Alcohol & Drug Testing (CDL)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Division of Human Resources Alcohol & Drug Testing (CDL) Summary of Program Responsibilities Employee Relations/Alcohol & Drug Testing (CDL) Questions: (813) 974-2970 Rev. 12/2008 · Report for duty for eight hours following an accident or until undergoing a post-accident test. · Report for duty or remain

Meyers, Steven D.

136

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol consumption city Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alcohol consumption city Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Dublin City University Student Alcohol Policy...

137

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol restrictions reduse Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Events, or Groups had age restrictions.9 Alcohol companies... on Metro trains and buses, there are no restrictions on the placement of alcohol ads on...

138

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic alcohols studies Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

alcohols studies Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aliphatic alcohols studies Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Journal of Electron...

139

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol synthesis catalysts Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

synthesized catalysts for alcohol synthesis. We focus on structural... the use of biogas to create alcohol for ... Source: Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. - Department of Materials...

140

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohols quarterly technical Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Denmark, Fysikvej, Building 307, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark. The development... the use of biogas to create alcohol for fuel. Higher alcohols are favorable due to their high energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol drinking study Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Costs of the Problem >20% of Americans drink at levels that exceed... billion annually in lost productivity, absenteeism 12;What Are Alcoholism and Problem Drinking? Alcoholic......

142

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol dependent patients Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

memory deficits and executive dysfunctions in alcoholic Summary: , according to the DSM IV criteria of alcohol dependence (American ). Patients had no history of other...

143

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol abuse model Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Alcoholism Risk in Different Ethnic Groups Summary: ;12 month prevalence of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence by race-ethnicity from the National Longitudinal... ...

144

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol abusing runaway Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Alcoholism Risk in Different Ethnic Groups Summary: ;12 month prevalence of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence by race-ethnicity from the National Longitudinal... ...

145

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol dependence implicates Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

million individuals meet criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence... , according to the DSM IV criteria of alcohol dependence ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de...

146

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol dependence severity Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

alcohol dependence, drug addiction, craving, consumption (BMI... ;12 month prevalence of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence by race-ethnicity from the National Longitudinal......

147

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol abuse associations Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Alcoholism Risk in Different Ethnic Groups Summary: ;12 month prevalence of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence by race-ethnicity from the National Longitudinal......

148

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol abuse Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Alcoholism Risk in Different Ethnic Groups Summary: ;12 month prevalence of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence by race-ethnicity from the National Longitudinal... ...

149

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol dependence patients Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

memory deficits and executive dysfunctions in alcoholic Summary: , according to the DSM IV criteria of alcohol dependence (American ). Patients had no history of other...

150

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol dependence evidence Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

alcohol dependence, drug addiction, craving, consumption (BMI... ;12 month prevalence of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence by race-ethnicity from the National Longitudinal......

151

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol exposure related Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of thousands of alcohol-related... , Gordon, R, Hastings, G, "Impact of Alcohol Advertising and Media Exposure on ... Source: Yorke, James - Institute for Physical Science and...

152

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol drinking Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collection: Mathematics ; Engineering 10 brainfunction How Much Alcohol Summary: alcohol level can continue to rise after the person has stopped drinking, she should be...

153

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol drinking individuals Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

higher blood alcohol levels than heavier individuals, and are at higher risk... alcohol level can continue to rise after the person has stopped drinking, she should be...

154

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol drinking behaviors Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collection: Physics ; Materials Science 3 brainfunction How Much Alcohol Summary: alcohol level can continue to rise after the person has stopped drinking, she should be...

155

E-Print Network 3.0 - amino propargylic alcohols Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and aryl propargyl alcohols7 using our rhenium-catalyzed propargylic substitu- tion reaction.5 Avoiding... ) to propargylic alcohol 4 ... Source: Holman, Theodore -...

156

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol pendant groups Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pendant groups Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alcohol pendant groups Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Alcohol Use Policy The...

157

Drug-Alcohol Flush Reaction and Breath Acetaldehyde Concentration: No Interference with an Infrared Breath Alcohol Analyzer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......absorptiometry and absorbs IR energy at a wavelength...lntoxilyzerdevice were, on the average, less than those...00 mg/L the average Intoxilyzer readings...defense against over-consumption of alcohol. The...References 1. Home Office Report on...crease alcohol consumption. New Eng/. J......

A.W. Jones

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Sulfobutyl Ether b-Cyclodextrin (SBE-b-CD) in Eyedrops Improves the Tolerability of a Topically Applied Pilocarpine Prodrug in Rabbits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of a novel, modified ?-cyclodextrin (SBE4-?-CD; a variably substituted sulfobutyl ether with an average degree of substitution of four) on eye irritation and miotic response of an ophthalmically applied pilocarpine ...

Stella, Valentino J.; Jä rvinen, Tomi; Jä rvinen, Kristina; Thompson, Diame; Urtti, Arto

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Disintegration of Charged Liquid Jets: Results with Isopropyl Alcohol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Disintegration of Charged Liquid Jets: Results with Isopropyl Alcohol 10.1126/science.168.3927.118 A. L. Huebner Rocketdyne Division of North American Rockwaell Corporation 6633 Canogoa A venue, Canoga Park, Colifornia 91304 Disintegration processes...

A. L. Huebner

1970-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

160

Inductive Effect of Alkyl Chains on Alcohol Dehydration at Bridge...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

oxygen vacancy defects. For alcohols, it is well-established that their dissociation on bridge-bonded oxygen vacancies (BBOV’s) of a prototypical TiO2(110) surface proceeds...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Zymomonas mobilis Mutants with an Increased Rate of Alcohol Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 Received...retention of higher rates of ethanol production...beverages and fuel, variations...maintenance of higher rates of glycolysis...Department of Energy, Office of...Agriculture, Alcohol Fuels Program. We...

Y. A. Osman; L. O. Ingram

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Detection of Physiologically Relevant Alcohol Concentrations Using Raman Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is the first step in a series of studies to test the feasibility of using Raman Spectroscopy (RS) to non-invasively detect physiologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations. Blood tests, urine tests, and the breathalyzer are currently...

McKay, Joshua L.

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

163

The effects of alcohol and aspirin on neonatal brain development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solution that contained no alcohol. Body weights were measured daily, and forebrain, cerebellum, and brainstem weights were measured on PD 9. Forebrain, cerebellum, and brainstem weight to body weight ratios were calculated, and a significant effect...

Beshear, Myra Dawn

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

164

Patterns of role-impairment among alcoholic workers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

behavior of alcoholic workers. Five dimensions of work behavior were examined with respect to possible modes of role impairment: work efficiency; absenteeism; cover-up practices; job turn-over; and. lost-time accident rates. The data were obtained from... in general No relationship between alcoholism and lost- time accidents was found. Three factors which may explain the low rate of accidents among problem drinkers were identified: (l) most respondents reported that there was little possibility of having...

Goldstein, Carolyn Lesley Klein

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

165

Alcohol effects on navigational ability using ship handling simulator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, to examine the drinking status of officers on board multiple choice questionnaires were circularized under instruction and surveyed for 118 officers. Also, with a ship handling simulator, the effect of alcohol on maritime navigational performance is studied for the three blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) levels (0.0%, 0.05% and 0.08%). The eight participants were volunteer deck officer cadets in their senior year, at least 22 years of age, with previous experience on a bridge simulator. Additional experiments were done on maritime pilots. For baseline and performance trials, participants were randomized to one of four bridge simulator scenarios according to the current and the direction of the wind. In order to study the effects of alcohol on maritime navigational ability, (1) bio-signals using electrocardiogram (ECG), (2) performance using a simulator, and (3) mental workload using NASA-TLX were measured. As a result, this study found that alcohol intake significantly impairs the physical and mental ability of the ship operator. In particular, alcohol intake was found to have a direct correlation with changes in bio-signals such as heart rate not to mention simulator performance. In addition, alcohol intake increased mental workload according to the subjective mental workload evaluation undertaken by the test subject. The result of the analysis in this study includes the limited quantitative measure of the effects of alcohol, which is a major cause of operator fatigue. Relevance to Industry The alcohol effects on navigational ability and the frequency of drunken navigation are one of important interests in the maritime industry.

Hongtae Kim; Chan-Su Yang; Bong-Wang Lee; Young-Hoon Yang; Seoungkweon Hong

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase induction of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in H4IIE cells  

SciTech Connect

The ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction potencies of 29 polychlorinated diphenyl ethers were determined in the rat hepatoma H4IIE cell bioassay and compared with that of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Two polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were included as additional reference substances. PCDE congeners tested were PCDEs 47, 66, 77, 85, 99, 105, 118, 126, 128, 137, 138, 140, 147, 153, 154, 156, 157, 167, 170, 180, 181, 182, 190, 194, 195, 196, 197, 203 and 206. The purity of these congeners was > 99%. Because several of these congeners induced EROD activity when tested at high concentrations, the amount of PCDD and PCDF impurities of these active PCDEs was determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The activity of the active PCDEs was concluded to be mainly due to contamination with 2,3,7,8-chloro substituted PCDFS, because after an additional clean-up on a Florisil column, which removes PCDDs and PCDFs, only three PCDEs (156, 180, 194) remained active. The potencies of PCDEs 156, 180 and 194 (TEF {approximately} 10{sup {minus}6}), however, were about 100-fold less than that of PCB 77 (TEF {approximately} 10{sup {minus}4}). The poor induction potencies of the non- and mono-ortho-PCDEs indicates that PCDEs do not have structure-activity relationships analogous to those of PCBs. If the authors use EROD inducing potency in H4IIE cells as a relative measure of potential Ah receptor-mediated toxic potency, the PCDEs in the study would be expected to be less toxic than analogous PCBs and considerably less-toxic than certain PCDDs and PCDFs.

Koistinen, J.; Sanderson, J.T.; Giesy, J.P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Nevalainen, T.; Paasivirta, J. [Univ. of Jyvaskyla (Finland)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

167

Mechanistic Investigation of Acid-Catalyzed Cleavage of Aryl-Ether Linkages: Implications for Lignin Depolymerization  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-oxygen bonds are the primary inter-monomer linkages lignin polymers in plant cell walls, and as such, catalyst development to cleave these linkages is of paramount importance to deconstruct biomass to its constituent monomers for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. For many decades, acid catalysis has been used to depolymerize lignin. Lignin is a primary component of plant cell walls, which is connected primarily by aryl-ether linkages, and the mechanism of its deconstruction by acid is not well understood, likely due to its heterogeneous and complex nature compared to cellulose. For effective biomass conversion strategies, utilization of lignin is of significant relevance and as such understanding the mechanisms of catalytic lignin deconstruction to constituent monomers and oligomers is of keen interest. Here, we present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalysis of a range of dimeric species exhibiting the b-O-4 linkage, the most common inter-monomer linkage in lignin. We demonstrate that the presence of a phenolic species dramatically increases the rate of cleavage in acid at 150 degrees C. Quantum mechanical calculations on dimers with the para-hydroxyl group demonstrate that this acid-catalyzed pathway differs from the nonphenolic dimmers. Importantly, this result implies that depolymerization of native lignin in the plant cell wall will proceed via an unzipping mechanism wherein b-O-4 linkages will be cleaved from the ends of the branched, polymer chains inwards toward the center of the polymer. To test this hypothesis further, we synthesized a homopolymer of b-O-4 with a phenolic hydroxyl group, and demonstrate that it is cleaved in acid from the end containing the phenolic hydroxyl group. This result suggests that genetic modifications to lignin biosynthesis pathways in plants that will enable lower severity processes to fractionate lignin for upgrading and for easier access to the carbohydrate fraction of the plant cell wall.

Sturgeon, M. R.; Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Foust, T. D.; Beckham, G. T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The lightness of being: mass, ether, and unification of the forces  

SciTech Connect

How can an electron be both a wave and a particle? At the same time? Because it is a quantum field. That key insight seems to be underappreciated, given the awe and mysticism that permeate most nontechnical discussions of modern physics. Perhaps the root of the problem is that most popularizations of quantum mechanics and of particle physics shy away from quantized fields, the natural language for microscopic phenomena. In 'The Lightness of Being: Mass, Ether, and the Unification of Forces', Frank Wilczek confronts quantum field theory head on, demystifying not only wave-particle duality but also the origin of mass for hadrons (that is, everyday matter). Wilczek is the Herman Feshbach Professor of Physics at MIT and a co-recipient of the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics. His research has spanned almost all aspects of theoretical particle physics, with significant forays into condensed-matter physics and dense nuclear matter (condensed quark matter, one might say). Recurring themes are the richness of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the alluring ideas of unification. His breadth and depth make him a sought after speaker for colloquia and public lectures. Wilczek also contributes an occasional Reference Frame column to 'Physics Today'. The material in 'The Lightness of Being' reflects the scope of the author's research. The book consists of three parts: the quantum fields of QCD (the ether that makes mass), gravitation (the ether that feels mass), and unification. Part 1, which traces notions of mass from Isaac Newton's time through theoretical and computational results of the past 40 years, is the most substantial and original; it is rich, modern, and rooted in observed phenomena. Part 2 continues in the same vein as it connects gravity, also an observed phenomenon, to QCD. Part 3 is more conventional, for a popularization of particle physics, in its focus on speculative ideas that (still) await direct experimental tests. Readers of 'Physics Today' will know that Wilczek can write with wit, grace, and an uncanny facility for using lightweight language to express heavy-duty ideas. They will find much of that kind of writing in 'The Lightness of Being'. Wilczek addresses subtle ideas with vim and vigor. He avoids some of the jargon of quantum field theory; for example, he calls the vertex in a Feynman diagram a hub. In more ambitious terminology, he refers to space-filling, everfluctuating quantum fields--be they electrons, quarks, gluons, or gravity--as 'the Grid'. The term is supposed to be short and familiar, evoking the ubiquitous electric grid (and soon-to-beubiquitous computing grid). It also, for the expert, cleverly alludes to lattice gauge theory. Indeed, after vividly explaining how the dynamics of QCD and the constraints of Heisenberg uncertainty conspire to create mass from the Grid, Wilczek emphasizes that the picture is backed by lattice QCD computations of 'heroic' proportions. Unfortunately, too much of 'The Lightness' is laden with clunky affectation: silly names (a pulsed electron accelerator is called the 'ultrastroboscopic nanomicroscope'), sophomoric jokes ('hadron' is 'not a typo'), references to pop culture (Wilczek might have called quantum fields 'the Matrix, but the sequels tarnished that candidate'), and many pointless footnotes. In a public lecture the audience may guffaw at such jokes, but on the printed page they fall flat. Wilczek explains physics so well that the inappropriate humor is the biggest unexplained puzzle of the book. It is fine to be silly, even crude, as long as the reader's path to understanding is made easier. A joke can inform with an unexpected perspective or simply give the mind a pause to refresh. Some of the humor achieves such aims, but too many gags impede the pace of the otherwise fine exposition. Three appendices, a glossary, and a set of endnotes are crisp and sober. They are excellent. 'The Lightness of Being' is not unbearable, but it is weighed down with too much clutter to rank as a masterpiece. It's a pity: Wilczek's best writing--some of it in this book--is l

Kronfeld, Andreas S.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Distribution of glycerol ether lipids in the oxygen minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The distributions of microbial glycerol ether lipids in suspended particulate matter in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Ocean (ETNP) were investigated. Nine groups of glycerol ether core lipids were detected and quantified: isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) (iso-GDGTs), isoprenoid glycerol dialkanol diethers (iso-GDDs) and hydroxylated isoprenoid \\{GDGTs\\} and \\{GDDs\\} (OH-GDGTs and OH-GDDs) of archaeal origin; branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (br-GDGTs) of bacterial origin and overly branched \\{GDGTs\\} (OB-GDGTs), sparsely branched \\{GDGTs\\} (SB-GDGTs), hybrid isoprenoid/branched \\{GDGTs\\} (IB-GDGTs) and a tentatively assigned H-shaped GDGT (H-1020) of unknown biological origin. The archaeal iso-GDGTs were the most abundant core lipids (89% of total), followed by iso-GDDs (4%), br-GDGTs (2%) and OH-GDGTs (1%). Archaeal intact polar \\{GDGTs\\} (IP GDGTs), including both mono- and diglycosidic iso-GDGTs, had depth profiles similar to OH-GDGTs and OH-GDDs, with a maximum concentration in the upper OMZ and secondary peaks in the mid and lower OMZ, suggesting similar but multiple planktonic sources. Core lipids of iso-GDGTs and other glycerol ethers showed deviating concentration profiles compared with IP \\{GDGTs\\} and OH-GDGTs and were most abundant in the mid OMZ. This is the first report of OH-GDDs, OB-GDGTs, SB-GDGTs, IB-GDGTs and H-1020 in the marine water column and the distribution patterns of these “orphan lipids” suggest that anaerobic planktonic microbes are their main source.

Sitan Xie; Xiao-Lei Liu; Florence Schubotz; Stuart G. Wakeham; Kai-Uwe Hinrichs

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Geothermal source potential and utilization for alcohol production  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using a potential geothermal source to drive a fuel grade alcohol plant. Test data from the well at the site indicated that the water temperature at approximately 8500 feet should approach 275/sup 0/F. However, no flow data was available, and so the volume of hot water that can be expected from a well at this site is unknown. Using the available data, numerous fuel alcohol production processes and various heat utilization schemes were investigated to determine the most cost effective system for using the geothermal resource. The study found the direct application of hot water for alcohol production based on atmospheric processes using low pressure steam to be most cost effective. The geothermal flow rates were determined for various sizes of alcohol production facility using 275/sup 0/F water, 235/sup 0/F maximum processing temperature, 31,000 and 53,000 Btu per gallon energy requirements, and appropriate process approach temperatures. It was determined that a 3 million gpy alcohol plant is the largest facility that can practically be powered by the flow from one large geothermal well. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared, operating costs were calculated, the economic feasibility of the propsed project was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.

Austin, J.C.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Alcohol Consumption and the Risk for Prostate Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Communications Alcohol Consumption and the Risk for...Welfare and Sports; World Cancer Research...association of alcohol consumption at recruitment...and nonalcohol energy intake. Overall, neither alcohol consumption at baseline nor...

Sabine Rohrmann; Jakob Linseisen; Timothy J. Key; Majken K. Jensen; Kim Overvad; Nina Føns Johnsen; Anne Tjønneland; Rudolf Kaaks; Manuela M. Bergmann; Cornelia Weikert; Androniki Naska; Antonia Trichopoulou; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Valeria Pala; Carlotta Sacerdote; Domenico Palli; Rosario Tumino; H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Alina Vrieling; Carlos A. González; Nerea Larrañaga; Carmen Navarro; Aurelio Barricarte; J. Ramon Quiros; Carmen Martínez-García; Göran Hallmans; Pär Stattin; Jonas Manjer; Elisabet Wirfält; Sheila Bingham; Key-Tee Khaw; Lars Egevad; Pietro Ferrari; Mazda Jenab; and Elio Riboli

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

The effect of alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on drinking behaviour in young people: systematic review of prospective cohort studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exposure to alcohol advertising, product placement and portrayal of alcohol use in the media is associated with an increased likelihood of subsequent alcohol consumption among 10 to 26 year olds.

Lesley A Smith; David R Foxcroft

2009-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

173

Alcohol consumption, Lewis phenotypes, and risk of ischemic heart disease  

SciTech Connect

The authors have previously found an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men with the Lewis phenotype Le(a[minus]b[minus]) and suggested that the Lewis blood group has a close genetic relation with insulin resistance. The authors have investigated whether any conventional risk factors explain the increased risk in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men. 3,383 men aged 53-75 years were examined in 1985-86, and morbidity and mortality during the next 4 years were recorded. At baseline, the authors excluded 343 men with a history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, or stroke. The potential risk factors examined were alcohol consumption, physical activity, tobacco smoking, serum cotinine, serum lipids, body-mass index, blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and social class. In 280 (9.6%) men with Le(a[minus]b[minus]), alcohol was the only risk factor significantly associated with risk of IHD. There was a significant inverse dose-effect relation between alcohol consumption and risk; trend tests, with adjustment for age, were significant for fatal IHD (p=0.02), all IHD (p=0.03), and all causes of death (p=0.02). In 2649 (90.4%) men with other phenotypes, there was a limited negative association with alcohol consumption. In Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men, a group genetically at high risk of IHD, alcohol consumption seems to be especially protective. The authors suggest that alcohol consumption may modify insulin resistance in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men.

Hein, H.O.; Suadicani, P.; Gyntelberg, F. (Rigshospitalet State Univ. Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Epidemiological Research Unit); Sorenson, H. (Rigshospitalet State Univ. Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Chemical Immunology); Hein, H.O. (Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Internal Medicine)

1993-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

174

STEP 1: TO BE COMPLETED BY ALCOHOL TECHNICIAN  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7 (07/03) OMB Control No. 1910-5122 7 (07/03) OMB Control No. 1910-5122 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Human Reliability Program (HRP) Alcohol Testing Form (Instructions for completing this form are attached.) STEP 1: TO BE COMPLETED BY ALCOHOL TECHNICIAN A. Employee Name __________________________________________________________________ (Print) First M.I. Last B. Employee ID No. __________________________________________________________ C. Employer Name __________________________________________________________ _____________________________________(____)________________ HRP Supervisor Phone Number D. Reason for Test: Random Reasonable Susp. Post-Accident Return to Duty Follow-up Pre-employment

175

Use of Nonionic Poly(Ethylene glycol) p-Isooctyl-Phenyl Ether (Triton X-100) Surfactant Mobile Phases in the Thin-Layer Chromatography of Heavy-Metal Cations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Article The analytical potential of poly(ethylene glycol) p-isooctyl-phenyl ether...40, March 2002 Use of Nonionic Poly(Ethylene glycol) p-Isooctyl-Phenyl Ether...Bidlingmeyer, S.N. Deming, W.P. Price, B. Sachok, and M. Petrusek. Retention......

Ali Mohammad; Eram Iraqi; Iftkhar Alam Khan

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Chemical Recycling of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol and Dimethyl Ether: From Greenhouse Gas to Renewable, Environmentally Carbon Neutral Fuels and Synthetic Hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemical Recycling of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol and Dimethyl Ether: From Greenhouse Gas to Renewable, Environmentally Carbon Neutral Fuels and Synthetic Hydrocarbons ... (1, 3-6) Methanol and derived dimethyl ether (DME) are also excellent fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE) and in a new generation of direct oxidation methanol fuel cells (DMFC), as well as convenient starting materials for producing light olefins (ethylene and propylene) and subsequently practically any derived hydrocarbon product. ... Methanol produced this way was used in the 19th century for lighting, cooking, and heating purposes but was later replaced by cheaper fuels, especially kerosene. ...

George A. Olah; Alain Goeppert; G. K. Surya Prakash

2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

177

Experimental investigation on thermal barrier coated diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-ethanol-diethyl ether blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work diesel-biodiesel-ethanol (DBE) and diesel-biodiesel-diethyl ether (DBD) fuels are tested with normal diesel engine and the diesel engine coated with the layers of aluminum oxide (Al 2O3) of 0.3?mm and yttria-stabilized zirconia of 0.2?mm. The various performance and emission parameters are analyzed and determined. The experimental work was carried out in a single cylinder water cooled engine coupled with eddy current dynamometer. The AVL make five gas analyzer and smoke meter were used to measure the different exhaust pollutants. The result shows that the brake thermal efficiency of coated engine is more than that of base diesel at high loads. The thermal barrier coated engine using fuel as diesel biodiesel and ethanol (TDBE) produces the lowest carbon monoxide (CO) emissions among all the fuels that are selected. In addition it produces the lowest carbon dioxide (CO2) at higher loads. Both the thermal barrier coated engine using fuel as diesel biodiesel and diethyl ether (TDBD) and TDBE have higher NOx emissions among almost all the fuels used. The TDBE and TDBD have higher smoke emissions at initial loads but eventually show lower smoke emissions at higher loads. The thermal barrier coated diesel engine fueled with DBE and DBD shows an increase in engine power and specific fuel consumption as well as significant improvements in exhaust gas emissions except NOx.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohols technical progress Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a pro- found effect on both your personal and your work life. When someone... adults -- abuse alcohol or are alcoholics. Throw in the ... Source: Oliver, Douglas L. - Department of...

179

Ag-Al2O3 Catalyst HC-SCR: Performance with Light Alcohols and...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Ag-Al2O3 Catalyst HC-SCR: Performance with Light Alcohols and Other Reductants Ag-Al2O3 Catalyst HC-SCR: Performance with Light Alcohols and Other Reductants 2004 Diesel Engine...

180

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol outcome expectancies Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Director Center of Alcohol Studies Gail G. Milgram, Ed.D., Professor Emerita Nancy M. Violette, Ph.D., LCSW... to use alcohol, tobacco and other drugs than the general...

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181

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcoholic beverage preference Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cocaine, and it is snorted, placed in alcoholic beverages, or smoked in combination with marijuana... Alcohol & Other Drugs How Do I Know If I Have A Drinking Problem? Below ......

182

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol chemical tests Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Higher Alcohols using Electron... and better production paths. One of these is using biogas to create alcohol as a fuel. ... Source: Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. - Department of...

183

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol drinking patterns Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for: alcohol drinking patterns Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 StraightTalk A guide for parents on teenage drinking Summary: to use alcohol? 14 Why do teenagers drink? 15 What...

184

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol hospitalizes dozens Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: for an alcohol related incident, police are NOT notified by the staff of the hospital. Not only... for alcohol related incidents at any of the local hospitals, including...

185

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol dependence increases Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Alcohol dependence in Native and Mexican Americans in San... ;12 month prevalence of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence by race-ethnicity from the National Longitudinal......

186

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol survey hablas Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Alcoholism Risk in Different Ethnic Groups Cindy L Ehlers... ;12 month prevalence of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence by race-ethnicity from the National ... Source:...

187

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol gas additives Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

alcohol. In addition, you will not want to use... , methyl gas, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, wood alcohol, carbon, water, and a lot of other... if gas storage tanks...

188

Alcohol Chemistry on Rutile TiO2(110): The Influence of Alkyl...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Alcohol Chemistry on Rutile TiO2(110): The Influence of Alkyl Substituents on Reactivity and Selectivity. Alcohol Chemistry on Rutile TiO2(110): The Influence of Alkyl Substituents...

189

Alcohol production from various enzyme-converted starches with or without cooking  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of alcoholic fermentation was compared by measuring alcoholic yields from various starch mashes, both cooked and uncooked. Alcohol yields from cooked and liquefied starch by bacterial ..cap alpha..-amylase were 93.9% for corn, 92.0% for cassava, 90.6% for potato, and 73.0% for babassu, whereas alcohol yields from raw starch were 90.0% for corn, 89.0% for cassava, 48.9% for babassu, and 11.4% for potato. (JMT)

Park, Y.K.; Rivera, B.C.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol synthesis cu-co-cr Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Psychopharmacology, Central Institute for Mental Health, D 68159 Mannheim, Germany I. Alcohol Addiction, Genetic... Susceptibility, and Neuroadaptation II. Animal...

191

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol synthesis cu-co Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Psychopharmacology, Central Institute for Mental Health, D 68159 Mannheim, Germany I. Alcohol Addiction, Genetic... Susceptibility, and Neuroadaptation II. Animal...

192

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol outlet density Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Psychopharmacology, Central Institute for Mental Health, D 68159 Mannheim, Germany I. Alcohol Addiction, Genetic... Susceptibility, and Neuroadaptation II. Animal...

193

Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures

194

Alcohol consumption is controlled by angiotensin II1 BJOERN MAUL,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Alcohol consumption is controlled by angiotensin II1 BJOERN MAUL,2 WOLF-EBERHARD SIEMS, MARGRET R- ther explain the effects in the transgenic mice. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS 1. Alcohol consumption is directly correlated with angiotensin levels To clarify the role of AII in alcohol consumption, we tested

Hoehe, Margret

195

Breast Cancer and Alcohol Consumption: A Case-Control Study in Northern Italy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...INTRODUCTION Alcohol consumption has been inconsistently...Since alcohol consumption is wide spread among...conducted in the homes of the respondents...following surgery (on average, 7.8 months after...estimating alcohol consumption in European countries...nutrient, and energy values were compiled...

Paolo Toniolo; Elio Riboli; Fulvia Protta; Martine Charrel; and Alberto P. M. Cappa

1989-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

DRD2 Gene Transfer Into the Nucleus Accumbens Core of the Alcohol Preferring and Nonpreferring Rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DRD2 Gene Transfer Into the Nucleus Accumbens Core of the Alcohol Preferring and Nonpreferring Rats in alcohol intake in Sprague Dawley rats. This overexpression of DRD2 reduced alcohol consumption in a two) and -nonpreferring (NP) rats. In addition, micro­positron emission tomography imaging was used at the completion

Homes, Christopher C.

197

Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

198

Digit switch evaluations and capillary IPA (isopropyl alcohol) study  

SciTech Connect

Capillary flow of isopropyl alcohol under the wire insulation of an eleven-wire cable dissolved trapped flux from the pretinning and soldering operations and caused it to deposit on the circuit board inside a digit switch. Conformal coatings were successful in sealing the wire insulation gap to prevent solvent flow. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

Mizik, P.M.; Kibalo, E.F.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

The University of Mississippi Drug and Alcohol Testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The University of Mississippi Drug and Alcohol Testing Summary/Purpose: In furtherance of the University's interest to maintain a drug-free workplace, the University reserves the right to test any of the University's interest to maintain a drug-free workplace, the University reserves the right to test any

Tchumper, Gregory S.

200

A Stereodivergent Approach to Amino Acids, Amino Alcohols, or  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of r-amino acids, amino alcohols, or oxazolidinones. The sequence includes the SN2 displacement Society Published on Web 07/08/2004 #12;regioselective and stereospecific SN2 displacement of an allylic as a readily available and recyclable chiral auxiliary for a short sequence of reactions that includes as one

Spino, Claude

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Impairment of Timing Behavior after Prolonged Alcohol Consumption in Rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and performance of DRL 30 days after alcohol was omitted from the diet. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (Carworth CFE strain), 90 days old, were reduced to 85 percent of their body weights (when they were fed freely) and were trained to press...

Don W. Walker; Gerhard Freund

1973-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

202

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

203

Role of Endocytosis in the Action of Ether Lipids on WEHI-3B, HL60, and FDCP-Mix A4 Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Lipid by WEHI-3B Cells Has an Energy- dependent and an Energy-independent Component. Uptake...protective agents, suggested that the energy-dependent component of ether...of ET-18-OCH., by FDCP-mix A4 cells was measured, it was...

G. W. Bazill and T. M. Dexter

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Production of Mixed Alcohols from Bio-syngas over Mo-based Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A series of Mo-based catalysts prepared by sol-gel method using citric acid as complexant were successfully applied in the high efficient production of mixed alcohols from bio-syngas derived from the biomass gasification. The Cu1Co1Fe1Mo1Zn0.5? 6%K catalyst exhibited a higher activity on the space-time yield of mixed alcohols compared with the other Mo-based catalysts. The carbon conversion significantly increases with rising temperature below 340 °C but the alcohol selectivity has an opposite trend. The maximum mixed alcohols yield derived from biomass gasification is 494.8 g/(kgcatal·h) with the C2+ (C2—C6 higher alcohols) alcohols of 80.4% under the tested conditions. The alcohol distributions are consistent with the Schulz-Flory plots except methanol. In the alcohols products the C2+ alcohols (higher alcohols) dominate with a weight ratio of 70%–85%. The Mo-based catalysts have been characterized by X-ray diffraction and N2 adsorption/desorption. The clean bio-fules of mixed alcohols derived from bio-syngas with higher octane values could be used as transportation fuels or petrol additives.

Song-bai Qiu; Wei-wei Huang; Yong Xu; Lu Liu; Quan-xin Li

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Reactions of 15-crown-5 and bis-15-crown-5 ethers with metal acetylacetonate ions in the gas phase  

SciTech Connect

A study was carried out on the ion-molecule reactions of ions arising in the dissociation of ferric, cobaltic, chromic, manganous, neodymium(II), gallium(III), and indium(III) acetylacetonates upon electron impact with 15-crown-5 and bis-15-crown-5. The ratio of the yields of (acac)x-1 /SUP M+L/ ions is determined by the case of reduction of M /SUP x+1+/ to M /SUP x+/ and for (acac)/sub 3/M complexes, this ratio decreases in the series Nd, In, GA > Cr > Fe, Co. The rate constant for the formation of acacCoL/sup +/ ions is greater than for acacFeL/sup +/ ions. The possibility of fixing transition metals in unstable oxidation states by crown ethers is demonstrated in the case of nickel.

Timofeev, O.S.; Bogatskii, A.V.; Gren, A.I.; Lobach, A.V.; Nekarsov, Y.S.; Zagorevskii, D.V.

1985-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

206

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

207

Single-Step Syngas-to-Dimethyl Ether Processes for Optimal Productivity, Minimal Emissions, and Natural Gas-Derived Syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Single-step conversion of synthesis gas (syngas, H2/CO mixture) to dimethyl ether (DME, CH3OCH3) is very attractive as a route for indirect coal liquefaction, natural gas utilization, and production of synthetic liquid fuels, fuel additives, and chemicals. ... The main driving force for developing a single-step syngas-to-DME process is to produce DME at a cost lower than that from the commercially available two-step process, namely, syngas-to-methanol followed by methanol dehydration in sequential reactors. ... Furthermore, the composition of most commercially available syngas (except that produced by a CO2?methane reformer) is not the optimal composition (1:1 H2:CO) for the syngas-to-DME reactor. ...

X. D. Peng; A. W. Wang; B. A. Toseland; P. J. A. Tijm

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

208

Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening 2007 Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are researching the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is obtaining commercially available mixed alcohol or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. The most promising catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. After a review of the literature in 2006 and conversations with companies that produce catalysts, it was determined that no commercial mixed-alcohol synthesis catalysts were available. One manufacturer supplied a modified methanol catalyst that was tested in the PNNL laboratory-scale system and provided to NREL for further testing. PNNL also prepared and tested the behavior of 10 other catalysts representing the distinct catalyst classes for mixed alcohol syntheses. Based on those results,testing in 2007 focused on the performance of the rhodium-based catalysts. The effects of adding promoters to the rhodium catalysts in addition to the manganese already being used were examined. The iron and rhenium promoters both stood out as achieving higher carbon selectivities , followed by Cu. Iridium and Li, on the other hand, had low carbon selectivity ratios of 0.27 and 0.22, respectively. Although testing of candidate promoters is not complete, it appears that Ir and Li promoters warrant further optimization and possibly combination to further improve STYs and carbon selectivities to C2+ oxygenates. However, using these promoters, it will be necessary to incorporate a separate hydrogenation catalyst to improve the yield of C2+ alcohols with respect to the other oxygenates. Fe, Re, and Cu stand out as possible candidates in this respect, but additional research is needed to examine whether they can be combined with the other promoters on the Rh-based catalyst or need to be optimized on a separate catalyst support that is either physically mixed or used in series with the promoted Rh-based catalyst.

Gerber, Mark A.; White, J. F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols (Presentation)  

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Working Group Meeting Working Group Meeting 11/06/2007 Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols Sugars and Sugar Alcohols * * Problem: Problem: Need Need to develop renewable to develop renewable hydrogen production technologies using hydrogen production technologies using diverse diverse feedstocks feedstocks 10 15 20 CH 4 : C 6 H 14 ln(P) * * Description: Description: The BioForming The BioForming TM TM process uses process uses aqueous phase reforming to cost effectively aqueous phase reforming to cost effectively produce hydrogen from a range of feedstocks, produce hydrogen from a range of feedstocks, including glycerol and sugars. The key including glycerol and sugars. The key breakthrough is a proprietary catalyst that breakthrough is a proprietary catalyst that

210

Alcohol-free alkoxide process for containing nuclear waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of containing nuclear waste. A composition is first prepared of about 25 to about 80%, calculated as SiO.sub.2, of a partially hydrolyzed silicon compound, up to about 30%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed aluminum or calcium compound, about 5 to about 20%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed boron or calcium compound, about 3 to about 25%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed sodium, potassium or lithium compound, an alcohol in a weight ratio to hydrolyzed alkoxide of about 1.5 to about 3% and sufficient water to remove at least 99% of the alcohol as an azeotrope. The azeotrope is boiled off and up to about 40%, based on solids in the product, of the nuclear waste, is mixed into the composition. The mixture is evaporated to about 25 to about 45% solids and is melted and cooled.

Pope, James M. (Monroeville, PA); Lahoda, Edward J. (Edgewood, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Kowal, Andrzej (Cracow, PL)

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

212

Production and Use of Alcohol on the Farm.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

projects. 4. The plant manufacturer should be able to guarantee the following production factors: ? Yield factor (gallons of alcohol produced per unit volume or weight of feedstock at a given dry starch and/or sugar content; for example, gallons per... of Operation Capital recovery (depreciation and interest) $ 90,000 x 0.1598 $125,000 x 0.1598 Insurance (estimated) Property taxes (estimated) Mise. (permits, bonding, ete.) Total Fixed Costs Average Fixed Cost Per Gallon Assumptions: Salvage value...

O'Neal, Henry; Rothe, Joe M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Fumigation of alcohol in a light duty automotive diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

A light-duty automotive diesel engine was fumigated with methanol and ethanol in amounts up to 35% and 50% of the total fuel energy respectively. The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) fumigation on engine performance at various operating conditions. Engine fuel efficiency, emissions, smoke, and the occurrence of severe knock were the parameters used to evaluate performance. Raw exhaust particulate and its soluble organic extract were screened for biological activity using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Results are given for a test matrix made up of twelve steady-state operating conditions. For all conditions except the 1/4 rack (light load) condition, modest thermal efficiency gains were noted upon ethanol fumigation. Methanol showed the same increase at 3/4 and full rack (high load) conditions. However, engine roughness or the occurrence of severe knock limited the maximum amount of alcohol that could be fumigated. Brake specific NO/sub x/ concentrations were found to decrease for all ethanol conditions tested. Oxides of nitrogen emissions, on a volume basis, decreased for all alcohol conditions tested. Based on the limited particulate data analyzed, it appears as though ethanol fumigation, like methanol fumigation, while lowering the mass of particulate emitted, does enhance the biological activity of that particulate.

Broukhiyan, E.M.H.; Lestz, S.S.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Ethynyl terminated ethers. Synthesis and thermal characterization of 2,2 bis (ethynyl-4-phenylcarbonyl-4-phenoxy-4-phenyl) propane and 2,2 bis (ethynyl-4-phenylsulfonyl-4-phenoxy-4-phenyl) propane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two ethynyl end-capped ethers 2,2 Bis [ethynyl-4-phenylsulfonyl-4-phenoxy-4-phenyl] propane and 2,2 Bis [ethynyl-4-phenylcarbonyl-4-phenoxy-4-phenyl] propane have been prepared by a three steps...

Georges Lucotte; Laurent Cormier; Bruno Delfort

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Efficient production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural through the dehydration of sugars with caprolactam hydrogen sulfate ([CPL]HSO4) ionic liquid catalyst in a water/proprylene glycol monomethyl ether mixed solvent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) through the dehydration of sugars...4) ionic liquid or using metal halide as the co-catalyst in a new water/proprylene glycol monomethyl ether solvent system....

Pingzhen Huang; Aijuan Gu; Jinxing Wang

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

Joshi, Ashok V. (Salt Lake City, UT); Balagopal, Shekar (Sandy, UT); Pendelton, Justin (Salt Lake City, UT)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

217

The effect of generalization of extinction on relapse following aversion therapy for alcoholism  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

therapeutic approaches have been taken in the treat- ment of alcoholism, yet low relapse rate continues to be the exception rather than the rule. Hadley and Hadley (1972) surveyed alcoholism treatment in California facilities and encountered the full range... therapy. To summarize: relapse of uncontrolled drinking after treatment continues in spite of numer- ous therapeutic efforts and approaches in the field, and research on alcoholism has been plagued with methodological problems, making conclusions...

Godsey, Robert Lane

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

218

Advances in the design of co-poly(ether-imide) membranes for CO2 separations. Influence of aromatic rigidity on crystallinity, phase segregation and gas transport  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In our previous works, it was observed a clear relationship between the structure and the properties for different copoly(ether-imide)s, besides a good relation was found between SAXS characterization and permeability results. Here, a series of aliphatic aromatic copoly(ether-imide)s, based on an aromatic diamine (ODA), a diamine terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO2000) of a molecular weight of 2000 g/mol and different aromatic dianhydrides (BPDA, BKDA (or BTDA) and PMDA) has been synthesized and characterized. The permeability for O2, N2, CO2 and CH4, increased with the rigidity of the monomers (BKDA CO2/N2 separation. This work gives indications on how to design advanced materials for this separation with the increasing possibilities of controlled structure and properties.

Alberto Tena; Ángel Marcos-Fernández; Mónica de la Viuda; Laura Palacio; Pedro Prádanos; Ángel E. Lozano; Javier de Abajo; Antonio Hernández

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in U.S. Sewage Sludges and Biosolids: Temporal and Geographical Trends and Uptake by Corn Following Land Application  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Robert C. Hale *, Mark J. La Guardia , Ellen Harvey , Da Chen , Thomas M. Mainor , and Drew R. Luellen , ... An internal standard (decachlorodiphenyl ether) was added and the final extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with electron-capture negative chemical ionization (EC-NCI). ... This work surveyed PBDE in spruce needles and air (gaseous and particle-bound) over an annual cycle to model PBDE accumulation in vegetation. ...

Robert C. Hale; Mark J. La Guardia; Ellen Harvey; Da Chen; Thomas M. Mainor; Drew R. Luellen; Lakhwinder S. Hundal

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

220

Solvent Effects on Metal Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids (DE-FG07-98ER 149 13)  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project is to study the salvation effects of metal-crown ether complexation in different solvents. It has been suggested in the literature that supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) is a tunable solvent because its salvation environment can be varied with the fluid density. In this project, spectroscopic techniques including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were used to evaluate salvation effects of metal crown complexation in organic solvents and in SF-CO2. In most solvent extraction systems, water is often involved in the extraction processes. We have carried out extensive studies of water-crown ether interactions in different solvents and in SF-CO2 using NMR and FTIR techniques. Water molecules can be attached to crown ethers through hydrogen bonding of H-0-H to the oxygen atoms of crown ether cavities. This type of interaction is like a Lewis acid-Lewis base complexation. During the course of this project, we noticed that some CO2 soluble Lewis base such as tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) can also form such Lewis acid-Lewis base complexes with water and other inorganic acids including nitric acid and hydrochloric acid. Inorganic acids (e.g. nitric acid) are normally not soluble in SF-CO2. However, because TBP is highly soluble in SF-CO2, an inorganic acid bound to TBP via hydrogen bonding becomes CO2 soluble. This Lewis acid-Lewis base complex approach provides a method of introducing inorganic acids into supercritical fluid CO2 for chemical reactions.

Wai, C.M.

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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221

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol problem services Sample Search...  

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screen- ing tools. Is Alcohol a Problem for You... : niaaaweb-r@exchange.nih.gov Internet address: ... Source: Lotko, William - Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College...

222

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol screening day Sample Search Results  

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At Michigan Tech I. Guiding Principles * Clear evidence exists... that the misuse and abuse of alcoholic beverages and drugs can erode the foundation of the University's ......

223

Alcohol Mixed with Caffeinated Energy Drinks: Consumption Patterns and Trends Among Canadian Youth & Young Adults.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Use of caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) and alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) is a growing trend worldwide, and in Canada, youth and young adults… (more)

McCrory, Cassondra

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Alcohol-Related Harm and Primary Health Care in British Columbia, Canada.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

???In recent years there has been a renewed focus on reducing the harms of addictive substances such as alcohol while at the same time restraining… (more)

Slaunwhite, Amanda Kathleen

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol expectancies integrating Sample...  

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most... many students: "I especially like the fact that the alcohol project ... Source: Daniel, Susan - Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University...

226

E-Print Network 3.0 - activity predicts alcohol Sample Search...  

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can start as low as blood alcohol levels ... Source: Kaminsky, Werner - Center for Nanotechnology and NanoTechnology & Department of Chemistry, University of Washington at Seattle...

227

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcoholic beverage consumption Sample Search...  

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consumption Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alcoholic beverage consumption Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 University of Nebraska at...

228

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol consumption affect Sample Search...  

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consumption affect Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alcohol consumption affect Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Dublin City University...

229

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol consumption aggravates Sample Search...  

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Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alcohol consumption aggravates Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Drug-Free School Statement (Student Policy)...

230

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute alcohol consumption Sample Search...  

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consumption Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: acute alcohol consumption Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 GENETIC VARIATION AND BRAIN GENE...

231

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol consumption disrupted Sample Search...  

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Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alcohol consumption disrupted Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 University of Toronto Governing Council...

232

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol consumption meals Sample Search...  

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Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alcohol consumption meals Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 University of Nebraska at Omaha Administrative...

233

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol consumption taqib Sample Search...  

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Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alcohol consumption taqib Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 0145-600819912304-059203.0010...

234

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol transportation fuels Sample Search...  

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resources demands new... and better production paths. One of these is using biogas to create alcohol as a fuel. Higher... Characterization of Catalysts for Synthesis of...

235

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol fuel production Sample Search Results  

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using Electron Microscopy Summary: and better production paths. One of these is using biogas to create alcohol as a fuel. Higher... Characterization of Catalysts for Synthesis of...

236

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol fuels Sample Search Results  

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using Electron Microscopy Summary: and better production paths. One of these is using biogas to create alcohol as a fuel. Higher... Characterization of Catalysts for Synthesis of...

237

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol fuels provisions Sample Search...  

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CA, USA,3 Alcohol and Drug Research, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland Source: Stockholm Observatory Collection: Physics 75 DistributorProducer...

238

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol dependence schizophrenia Sample...  

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search results for: alcohol dependence schizophrenia Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Curriculum Vitae Deanna Marie Barch Summary: , International Congress on Schizophrenia Research...

239

Seminars in Medicine of the Beth Israel Hospital, Boston: Medical Disorders of Alcoholism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...effects on vitamin A. Although ethanol is rich in energy, long-term consumption of up to 2000 calories per day in the form of alcohol does not produce the expected gain in body weight. This deficit can be attributed, in part, to the poor yield of energy produced from fat oxidation in damaged mitochondria... Alcohol is the most frequently abused drug throughout the world. In the United States, it is consumed regularly by about half the adult population, and about 15 to 20 million people are alcoholics. Alcoholism claims 100,000 lives annually and carries an ...

Lieber C.S.

1995-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

240

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol withdrawal delirium Sample Search...  

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ability to control... :www.nlm.nih.govmedlineplussubstanceabuseproblems.html 12;DSM-IV Definitions ALCOHOL ABUSE: episodic problems, no physical symptoms of withdrawal......

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol abusers compared Sample Search...  

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dependence smoking 12... :www.nlm.nih.govmedlineplussubstanceabuseproblems.html 12;DSM-IV Definitions ALCOHOL ABUSE: episodic problems, no physical symptoms of withdrawal......

242

Attitudinal Antecedents of the First- and Third-Person Effect of Alcohol Advertising On College Students.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Data collected from a survey questionnaire via personal interviews among 488 college students was used to examine relationships among attitude toward alcohol advertising, attitude toward… (more)

Begin, Georgia

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

E-Print Network 3.0 - allyl alcohols catalyzed Sample Search...  

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of Chicago Collection: Chemistry 25 Mechanism of Selective Oxidation of Propene to Acrolein on Bismuth Molybdates from Quantum Mechanical Calculations Summary: alcohol, allyl...

244

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol series based Sample Search Results  

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University, Kinsey Institute Collection: Biology and Medicine 5 ,t Hehuviorai Gmc.tic hltdds 373 Behavioral Genetic Models Summary: . Signifi- alcoholism. Although...

245

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol marketing predicts Sample Search...  

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marketing predicts Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alcohol marketing predicts Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Ancient history of sexual...

246

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol-based hand hygiene Sample Search...  

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of germs. Follow these everyday steps... with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. Alcohol-based hand cleaners are also effective... , including the CDC,...

247

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol-based formulations proposed Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of germs. Follow these everyday steps... with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze. Alcohol-based hand cleaners are also effective Source: Collection:...

248

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcoholism Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Information Sciences 50 Financial Policy Highlights: ReimbursementPayment for Summary: Financial Policy Highlights: ReimbursementPayment for Alcohol Purchases (Policy 2.1.1 -...

249

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcoholates Sample Search Results  

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Information Sciences 50 Financial Policy Highlights: ReimbursementPayment for Summary: Financial Policy Highlights: ReimbursementPayment for Alcohol Purchases (Policy 2.1.1 -...

250

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohols Sample Search Results  

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Information Sciences 50 Financial Policy Highlights: ReimbursementPayment for Summary: Financial Policy Highlights: ReimbursementPayment for Alcohol Purchases (Policy 2.1.1 -...

251

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol testing program Sample Search Results  

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fine; and attend an alcohol education program. It is illegal for anyone to host... ; completion of alcoholdrug education or training program. Lending a driver's license or...

252

E-Print Network 3.0 - anhydrous alcohol evaporated Sample Search...  

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peroxide Copper, chromium, iron, most metals or their salts, alcohols, acetone... , carbon tetrachloride or other chlorinated hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, halogens Ammonia...

253

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcoholic fatty liver Sample Search Results  

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of alcoholic fatty liver. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver... %-80%) aerobic process for energy production in the heart, liver, and skeletal muscle. Abnormalities of fatty... Dis...

254

Design and synthesis of the next generation of crown ethers for waste separations: An inter-laboratory comprehensive proposal. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The purpose of this task is to undertake the design, synthesis, and characterization of the next generation of crown ethers for metal-ion separations applicable to USDOE''s environmental needs. Target problems include: Li{sup +} ions leaching from burial sites at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; fission products 90 Sr and {sup 137}Cs contaminating high-level tank wastes at Hanford, INEEL, and Savannah River; and radium in wastes at the Niagara Falls Storage Site. Unfortunately, the technologies needed to address these problems either do not exist or exhibit substantial deficiencies. Separation techniques such as solvent extraction and ion exchange promise to play a strong role, especially as enhanced with highly selective crown ethers and calixarenes. This project is midway through year 2 of a 3-year effort. Below is given a summary of progress in the approximate period September, 1997, to May, 1998, for each of the four co-investigators at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the University of Tennessee (UTK). The overall approach entails utilization of theory and molecular modeling (PNNL), organic synthesis of novel crown compounds (ORNL), solvent extraction studies (ORNL and ANL), and studies of polymer-immobilized crown ethers (UTK).'

Moyer, B.A.; Hay, B.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Alexandratos, S.D.; Sachleben, R.A.; Chiarizia, R.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Promoting effect of polyoxyethylene octylphenol ether on Cu/ZnO catalysts for low-temperature methanol synthesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cu/ZnO catalysts were prepared by the co-precipitation method with the addition of OP-10 (polyoxyethylene octylphenol ether) and were chemically and structurally characterized by means of XRD, BET, H2-TPR, CO-TPD and N2O-titration. The effect of OP-10 addition on the activity of Cu/ZnO for the slurry phase methanol synthesis at 150 °C was evaluated. The results showed that Cu/ZnO prepared with addition of 8% OP-10 (denoted as C8) exhibited the promoted activity for the methanol synthesis. The conversion of CO and the STY (space time yield) of methanol were 42.5% and 74.6% higher than those of Cu/ZnO prepared without addition of OP-10 (denoted as C0), respectively. The precursor of C8 contained more aurichalcite and rosasite, and the concerted effect of Cu-Zn in C8 was found to be stronger than that in C0. Compared with C0, C8 showed smaller particle size, lower reduction temperature and larger BET and Cu surface areas.

Ling Liu; Tiansheng Zhao; Qingxiang Ma; Yufang Shen

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase induction potency of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells  

SciTech Connect

Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) are structurally similar to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some PCDE congeners have been reported to cause toxic responses similar to those caused by some of the non-ortho-substituted PCBs, which are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Twenty-nine PCDEs were tested for their potency as AhR agonists relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by measuring their ability to induce the cytochrome P-450 1A1-associated enzyme activity, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), in the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. All PCDE congeners tested were found to be inactive as EROD inducers except for PCDE 156, which was a weak EROD inducer with a 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalency factor of about 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}. During this study the authors determined that small amounts of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) that occurred as impurities in the PCDE preparations were the cause of the apparent EROD induction initially measured in their experiments. Once the PCDF impurities were removed by purification on florisil, little or no activity could be attributed to the PCDEs.

Koistinen, J.; Sanderson, J.T.; Giesy, J.P. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Nevalainen, T.; Paasivirta, J. [Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Investigation of HCCI Combustion of Diethyl Ether and Ethanol Mixtures Using Carbon 14 Tracing and Numerical Simulations  

SciTech Connect

Despite the rapid combustion typically experienced in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), components in fuel mixtures do not ignite in unison or burn equally. In our experiments and modeling of blends of diethyl ether (DEE) and ethanol (EtOH), the DEE led combustion and proceeded further toward completion, as indicated by {sup 14}C isotope tracing. A numerical model of HCCI combustion of DEE and EtOH mixtures supports the isotopic findings. Although both approaches lacked information on incompletely combusted intermediates plentiful in HCCI emissions, the numerical model and {sup 14}C tracing data agreed within the limitations of the single zone model. Despite the fact that DEE is more reactive than EtOH in HCCI engines, they are sufficiently similar that we did not observe a large elongation of energy release or significant reduction in inlet temperature required for light-off, both desired effects for the combustion event. This finding suggests that, in general, HCCI combustion of fuel blends may have preferential combustion of some of the blend components.

Mack, J H; Dibble, R W; Buchholz, B A; Flowers, D L

2004-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

258

Calcitriol inhibits Ether-a go-go potassium channel expression and cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Antiproliferative actions of calcitriol have been shown to occur in many cell types; however, little is known regarding the molecular basis of this process in breast carcinoma. Ether-a-go-go (Eag1) potassium channels promote oncogenesis and are implicated in breast cancer cell proliferation. Since calcitriol displays antineoplastic effects while Eag1 promotes tumorigenesis, and both factors antagonically regulate cell cycle progression, we investigated a possible regulatory effect of calcitriol upon Eag1 as a mean to uncover new molecular events involved in the antiproliferative activity of this hormone in human breast tumor-derived cells. RT real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that calcitriol suppressed Eag1 expression by a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent mechanism. This effect was accompanied by inhibition of cell proliferation, which was potentiated by astemizole, a nonspecific Eag1 inhibitor. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot demonstrated that Eag1 and VDR abundance was higher in invasive-ductal carcinoma than in fibroadenoma, and immunoreactivity of both proteins was located in ductal epithelial cells. Our results provide evidence of a novel mechanism involved in the antiproliferative effects of calcitriol and highlight VDR as a cancer therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment and prevention.

Garcia-Becerra, Rocio [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Diaz, Lorenza, E-mail: lorenzadiaz@gmail.com [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Camacho, Javier [Department of Pharmacology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Pharmacology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Barrera, David; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Morales, Angelica [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz, Cindy Sharon [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Avila, Euclides [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bargallo, Enrique [Department of Breast Tumors, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Breast Tumors, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arrecillas, Myrna [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)] [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Monodisperse porous polymer particles containing macrocyclic ether as a new class of sorbent for SR(II) separation  

SciTech Connect

Strontium{sup 90} is one of the typical fission products that may be found in high level liquid waste (HLLW). Separation of Sr{sup 90} prior to the vitrification is beneficial to the final treatment of solid radioactive waste. In this study, a new class of sorbent for Sr(II) was developed by loading the macrocyclic ether DtBuCH18C6 into the monodisperse porous polymer particles (MPPPs). The MPPPs are well-known as a promising chromatographic material due to the uniform particle size, porous morphology, good compatibility with organic extractants, and rigid matrix. The structure and micro-morphology of the sorbent particles were characterized. The adsorption behavior towards Sr(II) in HNO{sub 3} media was investigated by both batch and column experiments. High adsorption efficiency and selective separation of Sr(II) was obtained. The sorbent particles can be recycled for at least several times before obvious lose of the adsorption ability. This kind of sorbent possesses the potential to be used for strontium separation in radioactive liquid waste.

Leng, Yuxiao; Bai, Feifei [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Faculty of Chemical Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 100084 (China); Ye, Gang; Wei, Jichao; Wang, Jianchen; Chen, Jing [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Synergistic effect of mixing dimethyl ether with methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and soot formation  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and soot formation in counterflow diffusion flames of methane, ethane, propane, and ethylene fuels mixed with dimethyl ether (DME) have been investigated. Planar laser-induced incandescence and fluorescence techniques were employed to measure relative soot volume fractions and PAH concentrations, respectively. Results showed that even though DME is known to be a clean fuel in terms of soot formation, DME mixture with ethylene fuel increases PAH and soot formation significantly as compared to the pure ethylene case, while the mixture of DME with methane, ethane, and propane decreases PAH and soot formation. Numerical calculations adopting a detailed kinetics showed that DME can be decomposed to produce a relatively large number of methyl radicals in the low-temperature region where PAH forms and grows; thus the mixture of DME with ethylene increases CH{sub 3} radicals significantly in the PAH formation region. Considering that the increase in the concentration of O radicals is minimal in the PAH formation region with DME mixture, the enhancement of PAH and soot formation in the mixture flames of DME and ethylene can be explained based on the role of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation. Methyl radicals can increase the concentration of propargyls, which could enhance incipient benzene ring formation through the propargyl recombination reaction and subsequent PAH growth. Thus, the result substantiates the importance of methyl radicals in PAH and soot formation, especially in the PAH formation region of diffusion flames. (author)

Yoon, S.S. [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi-do 445-706 (Korea); Anh, D.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon 305-380 (Korea); Chung, S.H. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Life cycle study of coal-based dimethyl ether as vehicle fuel for urban bus in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, a life cycle model of coal-based dimethyl ether (CBDME) as a vehicle fuel is established for China. Its life cycle from well to wheel are divided into three phases. They are feedstock extraction, fuel production and fuel consumption in vehicle. The primary energy consumption (PEC) and global warming potential (GWP) of CBDME pathway are analyzed and compared with coal-based diesel (CBD) as a latent rival to replace conventional petroleum-based diesel (CPBD). This study demonstrates that the LCA methodology is very suitable and effective for the choice of vehicle fuels. One result is that the greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission of coal-based vehicle fuel pathways is usually concentrated on fuel production stage. The percentages of CBDME and CBD pathways both exceed 60%. The application of carbon capture and storage (CCS) is helpful for coal-based vehicle fuel pathways to improve their global warming effect dramatically. Compared with CBD pathway, CBDME pathway consumes less PEC and emits less \\{GHGs\\} emission as well. Even though the CCS and CH4-fired generation are used, the advantages of CBDME are still kept. For saving petroleum energy and reducing global warming effect, CBDME has greater potential than CBD to substitute CPBD under current fuel synthesis technologies. If the hurdles such as the maturity of engine and vehicle technologies, corresponding regulations and standards and infrastructures are reliably solved, CBDME will have better prospect in China.

Liang Zhang; Zhen Huang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

T4 DNA condensation in water-alcohol media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The process of compaction of high molecular weight DNA T4 is investigated directly in a AFM liquid cell. The AFM-images of globules formed by DNA molecules in the result of compaction in water-alcohol environments at high izopropanol concentration (80%) are received; it is found that at intermediate concentration of izopropanol (40-50%) the DNA molecules form partially compacted formations in which the separate coils of macromolecules twist in toroidal structures. It is shown using the technique of deconvolution of the AFM-images that the globule include only one closely packed DNA molecule. The model of DNA packing is proposed on the basis of AFM experiment.

M. O. Gallyamov; O. A. Pyshkina; V. G. Sergeyev; I. V. Yaminsky

2011-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

263

Role of osteopontin in hepatic neutrophil infiltration during alcoholic steatohepatitis  

SciTech Connect

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major complication of heavy alcohol (EtOH) drinking and is characterized by three progressive stages of pathology: steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Alcoholic steatosis (AS) is the initial stage of ALD and consists of fat accumulation in the liver accompanied by minimal liver injury. AS is known to render the hepatocytes increasingly sensitive to toxicants such as bacterial endotoxin (LPS). Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), the second and rate-limiting step in the progression of ALD, is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation, neutrophil infiltration, and neutrophil-mediated parenchymal injury. However, the pathogenesis of ASH is poorly defined. It has been theorized that the pathogenesis of ASH involves interaction of increased circulating levels of LPS with hepatocytes being rendered highly sensitive to LPS due to heavy EtOH consumption. We hypothesize that osteopontin (OPN), a matricellular protein (MCP), plays an important role in the hepatic neutrophil recruitment due to its enhanced expression during the early phase of ALD (AS and ASH). To study the role of OPN in the pathogenesis of ASH, we induced AS in male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks. AS rats experienced extensive fat accumulation and minimal liver injury. Moderate induction in OPN was observed in AS group. ASH was induced by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks followed by LPS injection. The ASH rats had substantial neutrophil infiltration, coagulative oncotic necrosis, and developed higher liver injury. Significant increases in the hepatic and circulating levels of OPN was observed in the ASH rats. Higher levels of the active, thrombin-cleaved form of OPN in the liver in ASH group correlated remarkably with hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Finally, correlative studies between OPN and hepatic neutrophil infiltration was corroborated in a simple rat peritoneal model where enhanced peritoneal fluid neutrophil infiltration was noted in rats injected OPN intraperitoneally. Taken together these data indicate that OPN expression induced during ASH may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ASH by stimulating neutrophil transmigration.

Apte, Udayan M. [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Banerjee, Atrayee [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); McRee, Rachel [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Wellberg, Elizabeth [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States); Ramaiah, Shashi K. [Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A and M University, MS4467, College Station, TX 77843-4467 (United States)]. E-mail: sramaiah@cvm.tamu.edu

2005-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

264

Alcohol Dispersions of Calcium Hydroxide Nanoparticles for Stone Conservation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Alcohol dispersions of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles, the so-called nanolimes, are emerging as an effective conservation material for the consolidation of stone, mortars, and plasters present in old masonry and/or mural paintings. ... Considering that past studies on the consolidation of stone using nanolime dispersions have focused on carbonate stones such as limestones, here we test the ability of these treatments to consolidate silicate stones. ... D’Armada, P.; Hirst, E.Nano-lime for consolidation of plaster and stone J. Architect. ...

Carlos Rodriguez-Navarro; Amelia Suzuki; Encarnacion Ruiz-Agudo

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

265

Gas-Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of Long-Chain Fatty Alcohols  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......6 FEBRUARY 1968 of lithium aluminum hydride hydrogenolysis...starting materials for the synthesis of glyceryl ethers...polar liquid phases. Acetate derivatives used by...TMS) and trifluoro- acetate (TFA) derivatives...the methyl esters by lithium aluminum hydride reduction......

Randall Wood

1968-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Floated Catalyst CVD Generation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Alcohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Floated Catalyst CVD Generation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Alcohol Shigeo Maruyama to other configuration, a floated catalyst type generation of SWNTs. Using ferrocene as a precursor of floated iron catalyst clusters, high-purity SWNTs were generated from alcohol. Mist of ferrocene ethanol

Maruyama, Shigeo

267

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol abuse measurement Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

metabolism and sensitivity... .0% N 21 18.0% N s5 U.S. U.S. Sweden Registration DSM-III alcohol abusedependence DSM-III alcohol... ) (N 577) (0.37) kJ.S. DSM-III...

268

Updated 10/2012 Alcohol/Substance Abuse Treatment OP/IOP/PHP*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Updated 10/2012 Alcohol/Substance Abuse Treatment OP/IOP/PHP* Please note patient or family member, some limitations with Medicare 4 Adult locations with OP, IOP, and sometimes PHP 1) Plainville 2) New-OP, IOP, PHP; Primary Substance Abuse-OP, IOP; Senior Program > 55y.o., alcohol only substance, take

Oliver, Douglas L.

269

Analysis of Fatty Acid and Alcoholic Components of Sebaceous Lipid Types  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......chromatography of the acetates. Ratios were determined...specificity for the synthesis of alcohols. Introduction...and Alcohols For the synthesis of cyclopropanoid acids...the methyl esters with lithium aluminum hydride. The...anhydride and the respective acetates together with the methyl......

Hugh J. O'Neill; Leon L. Gershbein

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

The harmful effects of late-onset alcohol consumption on cortical bone in aged rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study looked at the effects of late-onset alcohol consumption for 8 weeks on the aged rat model (15 months old). Thirty 15 month old female Fisher 344 rats were divided into three diet groups: Alcohol (n=9), pair-fed (n=9), and pellet (n=6...

Bowlin, Julie Lee

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

271

Ethanol-induced alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) potentiates pneumolysin in Streptococcus pneumoniae  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Rights Reserved. 2014 research-article Ethanol-induced alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE...showed that S. pneumoniae type 2 D39 is ethanol tolerant, and that alcohol up-regulates...factor. Moreover, in the presence of ethanol, S. pneumoniae AdhE produced acetaldehyde...

Truc Thanh Luong; Eun-Hye Kim; Jong Phil Bak; Cuong Thach Nguyen; Sangdun Choi; David E. Briles; Suhkneung Pyo; Dong-Kwon Rhee

2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

272

Exploring Spatial Associations between On-Sale Alcohol Availability, Neighborhood Population Characteristics, and Violent Crime in a Geographically Isolated City  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Objectives. Despite the increasing evidence of the associations between alcohol availability and violence, there are still inconsistent findings on the effects of on- and off-sale alcohol outlets on violent crime. The aim of this study...

Han, Daikwon; Gorman, Dennis M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Standard calculation of ethanol elimination rate is not sufficient to provide ethanol substitution therapy in the postoperative course of alcohol-dependent patients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Objective:...Alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) is a severe complication during postoperative treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. Besides the use of clomethiazole, clonidine, and benzodiazepi...

L. Wilkens; H. Ruschulte; H. Rückoldt; H. Hecker; D. Schröder…

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992, 114, 4265-4268 4265 allyl alcohol vs that of acrolein). Alternatively, one could argue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

J. Am. Chem. SOC.1992, 114, 4265-4268 4265 allyl alcohol vs that of acrolein). Alternatively, one could argue that acrolein liberates vinyl groups and allyl alcohol liberates acetylene; the former would The principal influences of the C = C group of allyl alcohol and acrolein are on the bonding configuration

Helgaker, Trygve

275

Pyrochlore-Based Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pyrochlore-Based Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Pyrochlore-Based Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov PON-13-006 August 2013 Opportunity This technology provides an advantageous means to convert syngas into a class of chemicals known as higher oxygenates as well as other long-chain hydrocarbons. Research is currently active on this patent-pending technology "Method of CO and/or CO2 Hydrogenation Using Doped Mixed Metal Oxides." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Significance * Improves the conversion of syngas from natural gas, coal, or biomass * Enhances the potential use of oxygenates as

276

Adsorption and Diffusion of Alcohol Vapors by Argonne Premium Coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption and Diffusion of Alcohol Vapors by Argonne Premium Coals ... Adsorption of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and n-butanol by Pocahontas No. 3, Upper Freeport, Illinois No. 6, and Beulah-Zap Argonne premium coals was investigated to clarify the effect of alkyl group bulk on adsorption and to evaluate the micropore and cross-linked structure of coals. ... Coals are thought to have a large surface area with an interconnected network of slitlike pores.1 However, Larsen et al.2 measured the adsorption of various gases on five Argonne Premium coals and, except for Beulah-Zap lignite, found that the very steep dependence of BET surface area was related to the molecular volume of the gas. ...

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Yuki Terao; Takahiro Yoshida; Masashi Iino

2000-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

277

Use of superconductor type catalysts in the preparation of tertiary butyl alcohol from tertiary butyl hydroperoxide  

SciTech Connect

In a method wherein a solution of a tertiary butyl hydroperoxide charge stock in tertiary butyl alcohol is brought into contact with a catalytically effective amount of a hydroperoxide decomposition catalyst in a hydroperoxide decomposition reaction zone in liquid phase with agitation to convert said tertiary butyl hydroperoxide to decomposition products, principally tertiary butyl alcohol, the improvement is described which comprises: (a) using a superconductor as said hydroperoxide decomposition catalyst, and (b) recovering tertiary butyl alcohol from the products of said hydroperoxide decomposition reaction.

Sanderson, J.R.; Stockton, M.E.

1993-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

278

Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was developed for the synthesis of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas. Studied were temperatures of operation ranging from 250°C to 380°C. High temperatures (e.g. 380°C) are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst, utilized industrially for the synthesis of methanol at 220-280°C, suffers from a rapid deactivation when the reaction is conducted at high temperature (>320°C). On the contrary, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was found to be highly stable for methanol and DME synthesis at 380°C. The Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was thus further investigated for methanol and DME synthesis at P=34-69 bars, T= 250-380°C, GHSV= 5 000-18 000 h-1, and molar feeds H2/CO= 1, 2, and 3. Selectivity to DME increased with decreasing operating temperature, and increasing operating pressure. Increased GHSV’s and H2/CO syngas feed ratios also enhanced DME selectivity. Undesirable CH4 formation was observed, however, can be minimized through choice of process conditions and by catalyst design. By studying the effect of the Pd loading and the Pd:Zn molar ratio the formulation of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst was optimized. A catalyst with 5% Pd and a Pd:Zn molar ratio of 0.25:1 has been identified as the preferred catalyst. Results indicate that PdZn particles are more active than Pdº particles for the synthesis of methanol and less active for CH4 formation. A correlation between DME selectivity and the concentration of acid sites of the catalysts has been established. Hence, two types of sites are required for the direct conversion of syngas to DME: 1) PdZn particles are active for the synthesis of methanol from syngas, and 2) acid sites which are active for the conversion of methanol to DME. Additionally, CO2 formation was problematic as PdZn was found to be active for the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction, under all the conditions evaluated.

Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Dagle, Robert A.; Kovarik, Libor; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Alcohol-Folate Interactions in the Risk of Oral Cancer in Women: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2007;27:87-94. 7 WHO.int [Internet]. Geneva: WHO global status report...Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse 2004: Available from: http...alcconsumpt.pdf . 8 Cancer.org [Internet]. Alcohol and cancer. American...

Jayapriyaa R. Shanmugham; Athanasios I. Zavras; Bernard A. Rosner; and Edward L. Giovannucci

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Microcontact Imprinting of Algae on Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) for Biofuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microcontact Imprinting of Algae on Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) for Biofuel Cells ... The roadmap of algae biofuels technology in the U.S. has been elucidated since 2008 (http://www.orau.gov/algae2008/resources.htm). ...

Wen-Janq Chen; Mei-Hwa Lee; James L. Thomas; Po-Hsun Lu; Ming-Huan Li; Hung-Yin Lin

2013-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol exposure produces Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

produces Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Influence of Age at Drinking Onset on Long-Term Ethanol Self-Administration With Deprivation and Summary: of alcohol exposure. In particular,...

282

Cloning and sequencing of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis has been cloned and sequenced. This gene can be expressed at high levels in other organisms to produce acetaldehyde or to convert acetaldehyde to ethanol.

Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Conway, Tyrrell (Gainesville, FL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol exposure decreases Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

decreases Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Influence of Age at Drinking Onset on Long-Term Ethanol Self-Administration With Deprivation and Summary: of alcohol exposure. In particular,...

284

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol exposure alters Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

alters Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Influence of Age at Drinking Onset on Long-Term Ethanol Self-Administration With Deprivation and Summary: of alcohol exposure. In particular,...

285

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohols caries incidence Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Student Summary: incident of a similar nature. 4.6 Amnesty for Multiple Alcohol-Related Medical Emergencies (a) For those... This Policy provides that any student who is in need...

286

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol pilot study Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

pilot study Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alcohol pilot study Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Influence of Age at Drinking Onset on...

287

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohols aldehydes acids Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5087-5090,1988 0040-403988 3.00 + .oO Printed in Great Britain Pergamon Press plc Summary: been shown to convert aldehydes to methyl esters, whereas secondary alcohols...

288

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol prevention initiatives Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and other... of Drinking at U.S. Colleges." This report ... Source: Collection: Renewable Energy 30 2002 Society for the Study of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs Addiction,...

289

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol binge drinking Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Student Sub-Committee January 25, 2007 - 3:30 p.m. Thomas Room... agreed that students' parents should be notified and alcohol education was appropriate. o ... Source: Furman...

290

Patterns of sports sponsorship by gambling, alcohol and food companies: an Internet survey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sponsorship by alcohol, gambling and unhealthy food products is more than twice as common as sponsorship from other sources for sports popular with young people, suggesting that limits on unhealthy sponsorship should be considered.

Anthony Maher; Nick Wilson; Louise Signal; George Thomson

2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

291

Development of miscella refining process for cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol system: laboratory-scale evaluations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A technologically feasible cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol (IPA) miscella refining process was developed to produce high quality cottonseed oil. Individual steps necessary to refine cottonseed oil-IPA miscella were determined and improved...

Chau, Chi-Fai

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Factor structure analysis of the Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol - Spanish questionnaire among adolescents in Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the psychometric properties of the Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol (CEOA) questionnaire with Spanish speaking populations. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the factor structure of the Spanish version of the CEOA was assessed in a set of scores obtained...

Flato, Claudia Graciela

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

293

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol dependent hepatocyte Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in human liver tissue in vitro Summary: .M. Silva, P.J. O'Brien, Allyl alcohol- and acrolein-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes, Arch... bromide; Nac-acid,...

294

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol biomarker phosphatidylethanol Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and not the individual n-alkanes or n-alcohols themselves that constitute a biomarker (Jansen et al., 2006a). Obviously... location results in accumulation of biomarkers (in the...

295

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol-related brain damage Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

brain damage Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alcohol-related brain damage Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 R U Aware IIR U Aware II A...

296

Alcohol consumption and the risk of stroke among hypertensive and overweight men  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High blood pressure and overweight are risk factors for stroke. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of stroke according to the level of blood pr...

Sanna H. Rantakömi; Jari A. Laukkanen; Juhani Sivenius…

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Alcoholic biofuels as an admixture component for conventional and alternative diesel combustion processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biogenic admixture increases the possible savings in carbon dioxide emissions and reduces the dependency on fossil fuels. In this context especially alcohols not only provide the opportunity to optimize the tr...

Dipl.-Ing. Michael Kaack; Dr.-Ing. Christian Weiskirch…

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohols aldehydes acetals Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

alcohols aldehydes acetals Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 THE JOURNAL OF BIOL.OGICAL CHEMISTRY 0 1990 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Summary:...

299

E-Print Network 3.0 - alcohol aldehyde acetals Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for: alcohol aldehyde acetals Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 THE JOURNAL OF BIOL.OGICAL CHEMISTRY 0 1990 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Summary:...

300

Alcohol oxidizing enzymes and ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in rat pancreatic acinar AR42J cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP) is a serious inflammatory disease causing significant morbidity and mortality. Due to lack of a suitable animal model, the underlying mechanism of ACP is poorly understood. Ch...

Kamlesh K. Bhopale; Miriam Falzon…

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

The consequence of late-onset alcohol abuse in aged bone: a histomorhometric analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of decreased intake and absorption, bone quality is negatively affected because of the decrease in nutrients that determine bone health (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and vitamin D). Certain age-related physiological changes also promote osteoporosis... of ethanol treatment. Upon analysis of the bone content, they found that alcohol did not have an afFect on the bone mineral content such as calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Peng et. al. suggested that alcohol may induce an alteration...

Barker, Lisa Setchfield

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

302

The n-Alcohol Site in the Nicotinic Receptor Pore Is a Hydrophobic Patch  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The n-Alcohol Site in the Nicotinic Receptor Pore Is a Hydrophobic Patch† ... Using both single-channel and rapid patch perfusion electrophysiology, we measured how these mutations affect nAChR sensitivity to ethanol and hexanol. ... These results support the existence of a large inhibitory patch in the nAChR pore lining where interactions with alcohols are primarily due to hydrophobic forces. ...

Qiong L. Zhou; Qing Zhou; Stuart A. Forman

2000-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

303

Modeling Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogels in Water/Alcohol Mixtures with PC-SAFT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modeling Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogels in Water/Alcohol Mixtures with PC-SAFT ... The PC-SAFT equation of state is used for thermodynamic modeling of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) PNIPAAm in water and alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol). ... The statistical association fluid theory (SAFT) developed by Chapman et al.,(42) a generally accepted and powerful equation of state based on statistical thermodynamics, provides an excellent framework for a variety of extensions and modifications. ...

Markus C. Arndt; Gabriele Sadowski

2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

304

Alcohol flushing for enhanced removal of coal tar from contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Alcohol flushing for enhancing the removal of coal tar from contaminated soils and reducing coal tar concentrations in the aqueous-phase leachate was investigated. Four soil columns were packed with relatively undisturbed coal tar contaminated soils collected from a former coal gasification site. These columns were leached with water and then flushed with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) solutions. Initially, total coal tar concentrations in water leachate ranged from = 0.1 to 150 mg/L for the four columns. Coal tar concentrations in the column effluent generally increased three to five orders of magnitude during the initial IPA flush. Each column was flushed with 1-3 pore volumes of an IPA solution. Reduction of coal tar concentrations in water leachate, attributed to the alcohol flushing, was noted in three of the four columns. The total coal tar removed from the soil columns during the IPA flushes constituted from 54 to 97% of the total coal tar removed during both water leaching (240-800 pore volumes) and alcohol flushing (1-3 pore volumes). The alcohol flushing removed from 3 to 19 % of the total coal tar in the various soil columns. Results indicated that alcohol flushing can enhance the removal of coal tar from contaminated soils and can reduce the aqueous-phase coal tar concentrations in the leachate. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Hayden, N.J. [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States); Van der Hoven, E.J. [Living Technologies, Inc., Burlington, VT (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Adsorption and Reaction of C1-C3 Alcohols over CeOx(111) Thin Films  

SciTech Connect

This study reports the interaction of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol with well-ordered CeO{sub 2}(111) thin film surfaces. All of the alcohols adsorb at low temperature by forming alkoxy and hydroxyl species on the surface. On fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111), recombination occurs between some of the alkoxys and hydroxyls, resulting in alcohol desorption near 220 K. At the same temperature, some of the surface hydroxyls disproportionate to produce water and the loss of lattice O. The remaining alkoxys react above 550 K. The primary alcohols favor dehydrogenation products (aldehydes). There is a net loss of O from the system, resulting in a reduction of the ceria. The secondary alcohol, 2-propanol, undergoes primarily dehydration, producing propene with no net change in the cerium oxidation state. Reduced CeO{sub x}(111) competes with the gaseous products for available O. Little or no water is produced. The reaction selectivity for the C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} alcohols shifts toward favoring dehydration products. The loss of O from the alcohols leads to oxidation of the reduced ceria. Compared with the oxidized surface, the alkene desorption shifts to lower temperature, whereas the aldehyde desorption shifts to higher temperature. This indicates that, on the reduced surface, it is easier to break the C-O bond but more difficult to break the O-substrate bond.

D Mullins; S Senanayake; T Chen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

306

Alcohol-based fuels from syngases. [Alkanol fuels  

SciTech Connect

Explains how a mixture of methanol and C/sub 2/-C/sub 6/ saturated alcohols (Alkanol fuel) has the potential for providing a gasoline-blending stock superior to that of straight-run methanol or ethanol. Summarizes the technical and economic advantages of producing and utilizing Alkanol fuels. Although methanol is cheaper, Alkanols represent a higher-quality fuel product with lower-oxygen content and higher hydrogen content. Increasing the methanol content of the Alkanol mixture has the potential to reduce the Alkanols cost of production to the equivalent of that of methanol on a constant heating value basis. The optimal composition will depend on production costs as well as on the properties of Alkanol mixtures necessary to generate a premium, synthetic transportation fuel. The Mobil M-Gasoline Process is an alternative route to converting methanol to synthetic transportation fuels. Concludes that development of the Alkanols Process is in its early stages and further work needs to be done in identifying and solving potential technical bottlenecks related to catalyst stability/selectivity and recovery of water-free Alkanol fuel mixtures. Current work is involved in the study of the performance and stability of several catalyst candidates utilizing a slurry reaction system and in the identification of optimal compositions of Alkanols for use as gasoline blending stocks.

Greene, M.I.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH{sup -}) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH{sup -} and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH{sup +}) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was {approx} 1.5-fold greater in ADH{sup -} vs. ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH{sup -} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis.

Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.ed [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Wu Hai; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel [Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Treating isopropyl alcohol by a regenerative catalytic oxidizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Regenerative catalytic oxidizer (RCO) can be conveniently used to control emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), because of their thermal recovery efficiency (TRE), low fuel cost and high oxidation. In this work, catalysts with various metal weight loadings were prepared by deposition–precipitation, wet impregnation and incipient impregnation to treat isopropyl alcohol (IPA). We used the excellent catalytic performance in a pilot RCO to test IPA oxidation performance under various conditions. The best catalyst was selected and its TRE, bed temperature variations, pressure drops and selectivity of the catalyst were more widely discussed. The results demonstrate that the optimal catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation with 20 wt.% metal on ceramic honeycomb (CH). 20 wt.% Cu–Co/(CH) catalyst was the best catalyst used in a RCO because it was effective in treating IPA, with a CO2 yield of up to 95% at a heating zone temperature (Tset) = 400 °C under various conditions. It also had the largest tolerance of variations in inlet IPA concentration and gas velocity (Ug). This 20 wt.% Cu–Co/(CH) catalyst in a RCO performed well in terms of TRE, pressure drop and selectivity to CO2. The TRE range in a RCO was from 87.8 to 91.2% under various conditions, and decreased as Ug increased in a fixed Tset. The pressure drop increased with Ug and Tset. The selectivity to CO2 increased to over 95% at 300 °C, and that to propene remained at 2–5% from 200 to 400 °C. Finally, the stability test results indicated that the 20 wt.% Cu–Co/(CH) catalyst was very stable at various CO2 yields and temperatures.

Jie-Chung Lou; Shih-Wei Huang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

A randomized trial evaluating an mHealth system to monitor and enhance adherence to pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonadherence to prescribed medication regimens is a substantial barrier to the pharmacological management of alcohol use disorders. The availability of low-cost, sustainable interventions that maximize medication...

Susan A Stoner; Christian S Hendershot

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Restraint stress exacerbates alcohol-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cumulative exposure to multiple stresses may lead to aggravating the toxicity of each stress, qualitatively or quantitatively altering biological responses because of toxicological interaction. In this study, we intended to determine the possible effects of restraint stress on reproductive toxicity due to ethanol usage in male rats. Early pubertal male Wistar rats were subjected to either restraint stress (5 h/day) or alcohol intoxication (2 mg/kg body weight) or both for 60 days. Body weights of control and experimental rats were similar during the 60 days of this study. Testes were harvested, weighed, and prepared for enzyme assays, and cauda epididymides were isolated for the determination of density, motility, and viability of stored spermatozoa. Restraint stress or alcohol treatment significantly reduced testis weight and caused significant reductions in steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. Mean density, motility, and viability of stored spermatozoa were reduced in experimental rats. Plasma testosterone concentrations in rats subjected to restraint stress or alcohol were decreased compared with those of controls, concomitant with increased concentrations of LH and FSH in experimental rats. These data suggest that sub-chronic exposure to restraint stress or alcohol contribute to reduce testicular and epididymal function in exposed rats. The study also suggests that restraint stress exacerbates alcohol-induced reproductive toxicity in rats.

P. Hari Priya; B.P. Girish; P. Sreenivasula Reddy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Traumatic brain injury induces neuroinflammation and neuronal degeneration that is associated with escalated alcohol self-administration in rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractBackground Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects millions of people each year and is characterized by direct tissue injury followed by a neuroinflammatory response. The post-TBI recovery period can be associated with a negative emotional state characterized by alterations in affective behaviors implicated in the development of Alcohol Use Disorder in humans. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that post-TBI neuroinflammation is associated with behavioral dysfunction, including escalated alcohol intake. Methods Adult male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer alcohol prior to counterbalanced assignment into naïve, craniotomy, and TBI groups by baseline drinking. TBI was produced by lateral fluid percussion (LFP; >2 ATM; 25 ms). Alcohol drinking and neurobehavioral function were measured at baseline and following TBI in all experimental groups. Markers of neuroinflammation (GFAP and ED1) and neurodegeneration (FJC) were determined by fluorescence histochemistry in brains excised at sacrifice 19 days post-TBI. Results The cumulative increase in alcohol intake over the 15 days post-TBI was greater in TBI animals compared to naïve controls. A higher rate of pre-injury alcohol intake was associated with a greater increase in post-injury alcohol intake in both TBI and craniotomy animals. Immediately following TBI, both TBI and craniotomy animals exhibited greater neurobehavioral dysfunction compared to naïve animals. GFAP, IBA-1, ED1, and FJC immunoreactivity at 19 days post-TBI was significantly higher in brains from TBI animals compared to both craniotomy and naïve animals. Conclusions These results show an association between post-TBI escalation of alcohol drinking and marked localized neuroinflammation at the site of injury. Moreover, these results highlight the relevance of baseline alcohol preference in determining post-TBI alcohol drinking. Further investigation to determine the contribution of neuroinflammation to increased alcohol drinking post-TBI is warranted.

Jacques P. Mayeux; Sophie X. Teng; Paige S. Katz; Nicholas W. Gilpin; Patricia E. Molina

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in a Province in Italy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractBackground Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in Italy and Mediterranean cultures need clarification, as there are few studies and most are plagued by inaccurate reporting of antenatal alcohol use. Methods Maternal interviews (n = 905) were carried out in a population-based study of the prevalence and characteristics of FASD in the Lazio region of Italy which provided data for multivariate case control comparisons and multiple correlation models. Results Case control findings from interviews seven years post-partum indicate that mothers of children with FASD are significantly more likely than randomly-selected controls or community mothers to: be shorter; have higher body mass indexes (BMI); be married to a man with legal problems; report more drinking three months pre-pregnancy; engage in more current drinking and drinking alone; and have alcohol problems in her family. Logistic regression analysis of multiple candidate predictors of a FASD diagnosis indicates that alcohol problems in the child's family is the most significant risk factor, making a diagnosis within the continuum of FASD 9 times more likely (95% C.I. = 1.6 to 50.7). Sequential multiple regression analysis of the child's neuropsychological performance also identifies alcohol problems in the child's family as the only significant maternal risk variable (p<.001) when controlling for other potential risk factors. Conclusions Underreporting of prenatal alcohol use has been demonstrated among Italian and other Mediterranean antenatal samples, and it was suspected in this sample. Nevertheless, several significant maternal risk factors for FASD have been identified.

Mauro Ceccanti; Daniela Fiorentino; Giovanna Coriale; Wendy O. Kalberg; David Buckley; H. Eugene Hoyme; J. Phillip Gossage; Luther K. Robinson; Melanie Manning; Marina Romeo; Julie M. Hasken; Barbara Tabachnick; Jason Blankenship; Philip A. May

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Endorcine Effects of Pyrethroid Pesticide Esfenvalerate Metabolites; 3-Phenoxybenzyl Alcohol and 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-phenoxybenzyl alcohol are two metabolites common to many of the type I and type II pyrethroid pesticides. In vitro experiments were conducted in our laboratory using MCF-7 estrogen dependent breast cancer cells. These cells were grown in 96 well plates...) and .001 (.56 nm) mM both also showed proliferation greater than 1nM (.54 nm) estradiol at day 5. In vivo experiments were conducted by dosing immature female Sprague Dawley rats with 10mg/kg esfenvalerate, 10mg/kg 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol, and 10mg...

Chavez, Marco

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

315

Structural and electronic properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) using density functional theory  

SciTech Connect

The first principles calculations have been carried out to investigate the structural, electronic band structure density of states along with the projected density of states for poly(vinyl alcohol). Our structural calculation suggests that the poly(vinyl alcohol) exhibits monoclinic structure. The calculated structural lattice parameters are in excellent agreement with available experimental values. The band structure calculations reveal that the direct and indirect band gaps are 5.55 eV and 5.363 eV respectively in accordance with experimental values.

Dabhi, Shweta, E-mail: shwetadabhi1190@gmail.com; Jha, Prafulla K., E-mail: shwetadabhi1190@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumasinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364001 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

316

The effect of chronic ethanol consumption on enzyme activities of the energy-supplying metabolism and the alcohol-aldehyde oxidizing system in rat hearts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigated in rat hearts if chronic alcohol consumption causes an enzymatic adaption of the energy-supplying metabolism and/or of the alcohol- ... with a liquid diet for 10 weeks. Ethanol was added to this d...

Dr. H. H. Klein; U. Spaar; H. Kreuzer

317

Alcohol Quantity and Type on Risk of Recurrent Gout Attacks: An Internet-based Case-crossover Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractObjectives Although beer and liquor have been associated with risk of incident gout, wine has not. Yet anecdotally, wine is thought to trigger gout attacks. Further, how much alcohol intake is needed to increase the risk of gout attack is not known. We examined the quantity and type of alcohol consumed on risk of recurrent gout attacks. Methods We conducted a prospective Internet-based case-crossover study in the US among participants with gout and who had at least one attack during the 1 year of follow-up. We evaluated the association of alcohol intake over the prior 24 hours as well as the type of alcoholic beverage with risk of recurrent gout attack, adjusting for potential time-varying confounders. Results This study included 724 participants with gout (78% men, mean age 54 years). There was a significant dose-response relationship between amount of alcohol consumption and risk of recurrent gout attacks (P gout attack was 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.88) and 1.51 (95% CI, 1.09-2.09) times higher for >1-2 and >2-4 alcoholic beverages, respectively, compared with no alcohol consumption in the prior 24 hours. Consuming wine, beer, or liquor was each associated with an increased risk of gout attack. Conclusions Episodic alcohol consumption, regardless of type of alcoholic beverage, was associated with an increased risk of recurrent gout attacks, including potentially with moderate amounts. Individuals with gout should limit alcohol intake of all types to reduce the risk of recurrent gout attacks.

Tuhina Neogi; Clara Chen; Jingbo Niu; Christine Chaisson; David J. Hunter; Yuqing Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood This article has been Contact us My IOPscience #12;Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood K conversion of biomass provide a great variety of products: oils, alcohols and gases. After treatment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

319

Preparation of novel carbon microfiber/carbon nanofiber-dispersed polyvinyl alcohol-based nanocomposite material for lithium-ion electrolyte battery separator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

December 2012 Keywords: Li-ion battery separator Polyvinyl alcohol Carbon micro-nanofibers Suspension acetate to produce polyvinyl alcohol gel, ball-milling of the surfactant dispersed carbon micro of the polyvinyl alcohol gel formation, and the mixing of hydro- phobic reagents along with polyethylene glycol

Singh, Jayant K.

320

Miniature Enzyme-Based Electrodes for Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide Release from Alcohol-Injured Hepatocytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

generated by hepatocytes has not been undertaken to the best of our knowledge. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2Miniature Enzyme-Based Electrodes for Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide Release from Alcohol clinical and experimental studies, it has been found that the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS

Ferrara, Katherine W.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Stimulation of Fermentation and Yeast-like Morphogenesis in Mucor rouxii by Phenethyl Alcohol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of M. rouxii (IM 80) only if the gas phase contained C02, and this specific effect...could nevertheless produce a yeast-like phase in an- aerobiosis without exogenously...EFFECT OF PHENETHYL ALCOHOL ON M. ROUXII hydrate metabolism of yeast p. 289-306. In...

H. F. Terenzi; R. Storck

1969-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Synthesis of higher alcohols on copper catalysts supported on alkali-promoted basic oxides  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in higher alcohol synthesis and water±gas shift (WGS) reactions reversibly inhibits the formation. A detailed kinetic analysis shows that chain growth probabilities are very similar on K±CuyMg5CeOx and Cs of their higher water tolerance, reduced fuel volatility and lower vapor lock tendency, and also because

Iglesia, Enrique

323

Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Bioenergy Technologies Office develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case establishes cost targets for converting MSW to ethanol and other mixed alcohols via gasification.

324

Raman spectroscopic measurement of oxidation in supercritical water. 2: Conversion of isopropyl alcohol to acetone  

SciTech Connect

The oxidation of isopropyl alcohol in supercritical water has been investigated using Raman spectroscopy. Results for species concentration as a function of residence-time are presented for temperatures ranging from 400 to 480 C at constant pressure, 24.4 {+-} 0.3 MPa, and constant equivalence ratio, 0.88 {+-} 0.0. Acetone has been identified as the principal intermediate formed and subsequently destroyed, during the oxidation process. By assuming first-order kinetics for the destruction of both isopropyl alcohol and acetone, effective first-order rate constants have been determined from fits of the experimental data. Assuming Arrhenius behavior, the fits yield rate constants for isopropyl alcohol, k{sub eff,ipa} = 3.255 {times} 10{sup 22}(s{sup {minus}1}) exp [{minus}301.1 (kJ/mol)/RT], and for acetone, k{sub eff,ace} = 1.948 {times} 10{sup 10}(s{sup {minus}1}) exp[{minus}137.7(kJ/mol)/RT]. These results indicate that for temperatures greater than 425 C, the destruction of isopropyl alcohol proceeds faster than that of acetone.

Hunter, T.B.; Rice, S.F.; Hanush, R.G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility] [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

LEHIGH UNIVERSITY REQUEST TO SERVE ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES AT UNIVERSITY-SPONSORED EVENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, as indicated above, and for the catering of food by Lehigh University Dining Services, on the above indicated amounts of hors d'oeuvres or other food, as determined by Lehigh University Dining Services, in relation: Phone: Email: Date of Event: Event Title: Alcohol Service: Begin Time: End Time: Check here if wine

Napier, Terrence

326

Glucose Oxidase Encapsulated Polyvinyl Alcohol–Silica Hybrid Films for an Electrochemical Glucose Sensing Electrode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An amperometric glucose enzyme electrode was developed by the immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOD) in a composite material based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and partially prehydrolyzed tetraethyl orthosilicate (pphTEOS) on the surface of “in-house” fabricated graphite electrodes. ... Template-Synthesized Nanoscopic Gold Particles: Optical Spectra and the Effects of Particle Size and Shape ...

Umesh Lad; Girish M. Kale; Rayna Bryaskova

2013-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

327

Thermal Processing Techniques to Improve Metal Sulfide Mixed Alcohol Catalyst Performance  

SciTech Connect

Research over several decades by several institutions has shown that alkali-promoted metal sulfide catalysts are capable of producing mixed alcohols from syngas with high selectivity and yield. Unfortunately, process models suggest that syngas to mixed alcohol processes, and especially thermochemical biomass to mixed alcohol processes, require improvements to sulfide catalyst activity and/or selectivity for acceptable economics. These improvements, if incremental, cannot result in increased process complexity, capital expenditure, or catalyst costs. It is well accepted among catalyst researchers that thermal processing techniques like calcining and reduction can have profound effects on the properties and performance of finished catalysts, and that small variations in thermal processing do not usually affect the overall cost of the catalyst. Metal sulfide catalysts are no exception but surprisingly, little attention has been given to the effects of thermal treatment on bulk metal sulfide mixed alcohol catalysts. This presentation will discuss how parameters like temperature, dwell time, metal ratios, and purge gas affect the performance and physical properties of K-Co/Mo catalysts.

Hensley, J.; Menart, M.; Costelow, K.; Thibodeaux, J.; Yung, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Alcohol fuels. 1978-June, 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1978-Jun 80  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography covers Federally-funded research on alcohol based fuels that may be used in the future as a fuel source. The citations cover synthesis, chemical analysis, performance testing, processing, pollution, economics, environmental effects, and feasibility. (This updated bibliography contains 245 citations, 110 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Cavagnaro, D.M.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Alcohol fuels. 1978-June, 1980 (citations from the NTIS Data Base). Report for 1978-Jun 80  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography covers Federally-funded research on alcohol based fuels, including gasohol, that may be used in the future as a fuel source. The citations cover bioconversion of solid wastes, synthesis, chemical analysis, performance testing, processing, pollution, economics, environmental effects, and feasibility. (This updated bibliography contains 245 citations, none of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

Not Available

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Level of osteopenia and bone recovery in alcohol-fed adolescent rats  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

consumption on young, actively growing adolescent bones have not been done. The objective of this study was to determine the level of bone recovery, if any, once an adolescent ceases alcohol consumption. Fifty, 4-week old, female, Sprague-Dawley rats were...

Spears, Heather Lynae

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

331

Alcohol Consumption and Lung Cancer: A Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...particularly beer intake may increase lung cancer risk after...has been suggested to increase lung cancer risk in a...that alcohol intake may increase lung cancer risk (3...criteria to assess the quality of the studies were assessment...usual consumption of wine (including Japanese...

Elisa V. Bandera; Jo L. Freudenheim; and John E. Vena

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Drinking Drivers in Sweden Who Consume Denatured Alcohol Preparations: An Analytical-Toxicological Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of analyzing alcohol increases with the concentrationof...100-500 mg/L in red wine, whisky, and fruit...in the blood therefore increases under these conditions...system, and strong beer, wines, and spirits can only...Economic Control of Quality of the Manufac- tured......

A.W. Jones; Monica Lund; Eva Andersson

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Effect of Smoking and Alcohol Consumption on Laryngeal Cancer Risk in Coastal Texas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...separate measures for beer, wine, and hard liquor intake...interviewer-assessed poor quality data, leaving 151 cases...while nonsignificant increases in risk were associated...few respondents drank wine. Compared to nondrinkers...alcohol intake tended to increase and then taper off...

Roni T. Falk; Linda W. Pickle; Linda Morris Brown; Thomas J. Mason; Patricia A. Buffler; and Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr.

1989-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Gas transport properties of reverse-selective poly(ether-b-amide6)/[Emim][BF4] gel membranes for CO2/light gases separation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present research investigates deeply effect of 1-ethyl-3 methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Emim][BF4]) ionic liquid on separation performance and transport properties of poly(ether-b-amide6)(Pebax1657) at different operating pressures from 2 to 20 bar and temperatures from 25 to 65 °C. [Emim][BF4] showed interesting separation factor for CO2/light gases as a solvent and it was expected that its addition to Pebax1657 leads more amorphous structure, thereby diffusion and permeability of gases increase. [Emim][BF4] was added to the polymer solution up to 100 wt.% of Pebax1657 weight and permeation coefficients of CO2, H2, CH4 and N2 through the prepared membranes were measured. The results showed remarkable increment in permeation of all the tested gases, particularly CO2 and ideal selectivity of CO2/H2 enhanced significantly due to high solubility selectivity of the added compound. Effect of operating conditions on solubility coefficients were also investigated, thus sorption isotherms and activation energies of permeability, solubility and diffusion were calculated. In addition, the membranes were characterized by SEM, DSC, FT-IR spectroscopy and Tensile analysis to inspect changes in their physical and thermal properties, precisely.

Hesamoddin Rabiee; Ali Ghadimi; Toraj Mohammadi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Purification of a Water Extract of Chinese Sweet Tea Plant (Rubus suavissimus S. Lee) by Alcohol Precipitation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purification of a Water Extract of Chinese Sweet Tea Plant (Rubus suavissimus S. Lee) by Alcohol Precipitation ... To purify this water extract for potential elevated bioactivity, an alcohol precipitation (AP) consisting of gradient regimens was applied, and its resultants were examined through colorimetric and HPLC analyses. ... Prior to performing alcohol precipitation of the aqueous extract samples, various extract-to-water ratios ranging from 1:4 w/v to 1:8 w/v were tested to determine the amount of precipitant (thus the reciprocal amount of the purified extract) caused by extract solubility itself. ...

Gar Yee Koh; Guixin Chou; Zhijun Liu

2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

336

Consumption, possession or purchase of alcoholic beverages by any person less than twenty-one (21) years of age. Distribution of alcoholic beverages to anyone less than twenty-one (21) years of age.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Rule #1 Consumption, possession or purchase of alcoholic beverages by any person less than twenty from the Office of Student Conduct. #12;2 Rule #1 (continued) Consumption, possession or purchase

Suzuki, Masatsugu

337

The Last Step of Syringyl Monolignol Biosynthesis in Angiosperms Is Regulated by a Novel Gene Encoding Sinapyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...article. This work was supported by the Energy Biosciences Program, United States Department of Energy, and a Michigan Technological University...accumulation of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase from Norway spruce (Picea abies). Plant Mol. Biol...

Laigeng Li; Xiao Fei Cheng; Jacqueline Leshkevich; Toshiaki Umezawa; Scott A. Harding; Vincent L. Chiang

338

Fabrication of ultrafine carbon fibers possessing a nanoporous structure from electrospun polyvinyl alcohol fibers containing silica nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ultrafine carbon fibers with a nanoporous structure were fabricated by the template method using silica nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in fibers of approximate diameter 500 nm, electrospun from an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol, CoCl2, ...

Koichi Sawada, Shinji Sakai, Masahito Taya

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Size distribution of associated clusters in liquid alcohols: Interpretation of simulation results in the frame of SAFT approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the frame of SAFT approach Ji� Janecek and Patrice Paricaud Citation: J. Chem. Phys. 139, 174502 (2013); doi in liquid alcohols: Interpretation of simulation results in the frame of SAFT approach Jir� Janecek1,2,a

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

340

Thermochemical Ethanol via Direct Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermochemical Ethanol via Thermochemical Ethanol via Direct Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass A. Dutta and S.D. Phillips Technical Report NREL/TP-510-45913 July 2009 Technical Report Thermochemical Ethanol via NREL/TP-510-45913 Direct Gasification and Mixed July 2009 Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass A. Dutta and S.D. Phillips Prepared under Task No. BB07.3710 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Hybridization of sugar alcohols into brucite interlayers via a melt intercalation process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the preparation of organic-brucite (BR) hybrids using harmless sugar alcohols (xylitol, XYL, and sorbitol, SOR). Since XYL and SOR are solid materials at room temperature, the hybridization was investigated by comparing two separate methods, hydrothermal treatment and melt mixing. BR-sugar alcohol hybrids were successfully prepared by a melt intercalation method at 175 °C. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses indicated that organic molecules were intercalated into the brucite layers, overcoming the barrier of hydroxyl bonds between the BR layers. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal analyses showed that the intercalated materials at 175 °C resulted in the formation of covalent Mg–O–C bond linkages on the interlayer surface of BR.

Kazuya Morimoto; Kenji Tamura; Tamao Hatta; Seiko Nemoto; Takuya Echigo; Jinhua Ye; Hirohisa Yamada

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Roles of Drinking Pattern and Type of Alcohol Consumed in Coronary Heart Disease in Men  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...smoking status; quintiles of body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters); use or nonuse of aspirin; physical exertion (in five categories); presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and a parental history of premature myocardial infarction; energy intake... It is widely accepted that moderate alcohol consumption protects against coronary heart disease. This large study in men adds new information by assessing the roles of the drinking pattern and the type of beverage consumed. Men who drank alcohol at least three to four times per week had a reduced risk of myocardial infarction. The association was strongest with beer and liquor, the predominant types of beverage consumed by this population.

Mukamal K.J.; Conigrave K.M.; Mittleman M.A.

2003-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

343

Bonding, vibrational, and electrical characteristics of CdS nanostructures embedded in polyvinyl alcohol matrix  

SciTech Connect

CdS nanocomposites have been grown in polyvinyl alcohol matrix by a chemical synthesis process. The transmission electron micrographs of nanocomposites synthesized at 70-90 deg. C temperature showed the growth of needlelike and junctionlike nanostructures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis revealed the growth of stoichiometric CdS without the formation of any intermediate phases at the CdS-polyvinyl alcohol interface. Raman spectra of first order longitudinal optical phonon peak has been analyzed using phonon dispersion model to detect the surface phonon modes in CdS nanoneedles and wires. The origin of negative differential resistance behavior in current-voltage characteristics for junctionlike CdS nanocomposites has been discussed.

Mondal, S. P.; Dhar, A.; Ray, S. K. [Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721 302 (India); Chakraborty, A. K. [Laboratory for Mechanical Systems Engineering EMPA, Duebendorf, Zurich, CH-8600 (Switzerland)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Mechanisms of alcohol-induced neuroteratology: an examination of the roles of fetal cerebral blood flow and hypoxia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

al., 1994). However, experiments in rats (which are typically more genetically homogenous) have indirectly supported these findings. Studies of optic nerve development and myelination during developmental alcohol exposure have shown hypoplasia.... Excitotoxicity has been indirectly demonstrated after acute alcohol exposure in early postnatal rats through inhibition of N- methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (Thomas et al., 1997, 2001). This inhibition of excitotoxicity led to reductions in the behavioral...

Parnell, Scott Edward

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

345

Homogeneous nucleation rates of higher n -alcohols measured in a laminar flow diffusion chamber  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nucleation rate isotherms of n-butanol n-pentanol n-hexanol n-heptanol and n-octanol were measured in a laminar flowdiffusion chamber using helium as carrier gas. The measurements were made at 250–310 K corresponding to reduced temperatures of 0.43–0.50 and at atmospheric pressure. Experimental nucleation rate range was from 10 3 to 10 7 ? cm ?3 ? s ?1 . The expression and accuracy of thermodynamic parameters in particular equilibrium vapor pressure were found to have a significant effect on calculated nucleation rates. The results were compared to the classical nucleation theory (CNT) the self-consistency corrected classical theory (SCC) and the Hale’s scaled model of the CNT. The average ratio between the experimental and theoretical nucleation rates for all alcohols used was 1.5×10 3 when the CNT was used and 0.2×10 ?1 when the SCC was used and 0.7×10 ?1 when the Hale’s scaled theory was used. The average values represent all the alcohols used at the same reduced temperatures. The average ratio was about the same throughout the temperature range although J exp /J the calculated with the Hale’s scaled theory increased slightly with increasing temperature. The saturation ratio dependency was predicted closest to experiment with the classical nucleation theory. The nucleation rates were compared to those found in the literature. The measurements were in reasonable agreement with each other. The molecular content of critical alcohol clusters was between 35 and 80 molecules. At a fixed reduced temperature the number of molecules in a critical cluster decreased as a function of alcohol carbon chain length. The number of molecules in critical clusters was compared to those predicted by the Kelvin equation. The theory predicted the critical cluster sizes well.

Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen; Heikki Lihavainen; Yrjö Viisanen; Markku Kulmala

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

An evaluation of pocket-model, numerical readout breath alcohol testing instruments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Beth Tessandori and Dr. Jerry Elledge. My appreciation is also extended to those who helped me corral and monitor the participants, including Donna Adler, Romona Clark, Jodi Luecke and Christie Dickson. Most of all, I thank the good Lord, who... also provide a digital readout of BrAC, either two or three digits to the right of the decimal. Passive alcohol sensors (PASs) surreptitiously collect normally exhaled breath from drivers during an interaction with law enforcement personnel...

Van Tassel, William Edward

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Maternal adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and thyroid hormone responses to chronic binge alcohol exposure throughout gestation: ovine model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-axis and thyroid gland to intermittent exposure to different concentrations of alcohol throughout pregnancy as potential indicators of abnormal fetal concentrations of these hormones possibly contributing to ARBD... throughout the worldalthough certain populations seem be more affected than others (Riley and McGee, 2005). There is an ongoing need to educate women about the potential risks associated with drinking during pregnancy, but it is also clear that more...

Tress, Ursula

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements reveal the origin of the Debye process in monohydroxy alcohols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Monohydroxy alcohols show a structural relaxation and at longer time scales a Debye-type dielectric peak. From spin-lattice relaxation experiments using different nuclear probes an intermediate, slower-than-structural dynamics is identified for n-butanol. Based on these findings and on diffusion measurements, a model of self-restructuring, transient chains is proposed. The model is demonstrated to explain consistently the so far puzzling observations made for this class of hydrogen-bonded glass forming liquids.

C. Gainaru; R. Meier; S. Schildmann; C. Lederle; W. Hiller; E. A. Rössler; R. Böhmer

2010-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

349

Modifications in the correlation function in poly(vinyl alcohol)/silica hybrid wet gels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Small-angle X-ray scattering was used to study modifications in the correlation function in tetraethoxysilane-derived poly(vinyl alcohol)/silica hybrids. An additional scattering at low q was found to overlap the fundamental mass-fractal scattering from the basic silica. The fraction of both contributions to the total correlation function was estimated; this is the first time that such a study has been carried out for mass-fractal structures.

Vollet, D.R.

2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

350

Neutron-reflectometry study of alcohol adsorption on various DLC coatings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are notable for their excellent tribological properties. Our understanding of the lubrication of DLC coatings has improved drastically over the past decade. However, only a few details are known about the properties of the adsorbed layers on DLC, which crucially affect their tribological properties under lubricated conditions. In this work we used neutron reflectometry to determine the thickness and the density of adsorbed layers of alcohol molecules on several different types of DLC coatings, i.e., non-hydrogenated (a-C) and hydrogenated, of which both non-doped (a-C:H) and doped (a-C:H:F and a-C:H:Si) coatings were used. The results showed that a 0.9-nm-thick and relatively dense (?45%) layer of alcohol adsorbed on the a-C coating. In contrast, no adsorption layer was found on the a-C:H, confirming the important role of hydrogen, which predominantly acts as a dangling-bond passivation source and affects the reactivity and tribochemistry of DLC coatings. The incorporation of F into a DLC coating also did not cause an increase in the adsorption ability with respect to alcohol molecules. On the contrary, the incorporation of Si increased the reactivity of the DLC coating so that a 1.3-nm-thick alcohol layer with a 35% bulk density was detected on the surface. We also discuss the very good agreement of the current results with the surface energy of selected coatings found in these experiments.

M. Kalin; R. Simi?; T. Hirayama; T. Geue; P. Korelis

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

Wallner, T. (Energy Systems)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Solubility of Sugars and Sugar Alcohols in Ionic Liquids: Measurement and PC-SAFT Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solubility of Sugars and Sugar Alcohols in Ionic Liquids: Measurement and PC-SAFT Modeling ... The measured data as well as previously published solubility data of glucose and fructose in these ILs were modeled by means of PC-SAFT using a molecular-based associative approach for ILs. ... PC-SAFT was used in this work as it has shown to be applicable to model the solubility of xylitol and sorbitol in ILs (Paduszy?ski; et al. ...

Aristides P. Carneiro; Christoph Held; Oscar Rodríguez; Gabriele Sadowski; Eugénia A. Macedo

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

353

Adsorption and Reaction of C(1)-C(3) Alcohols over CeO(x)(111) Thin Films  

SciTech Connect

This study reports the interaction of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol with well-ordered CeO{sub 2}(111) thin film surfaces. All of the alcohols adsorb at low temperature by forming alkoxy and hydroxyl species on the surface. On fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111), recombination occurs between some of the alkoxys and hydroxyls, resulting in alcohol desorption near 220 K. At the same temperature, some of the surface hydroxyls disproportionate to produce water and the loss of lattice O. The remaining alkoxys react above 550 K. The primary alcohols favor dehydrogenation products (aldehydes). There is a net loss of O from the system, resulting in a reduction of the ceria. The secondary alcohol, 2-propanol, undergoes primarily dehydration, producing propene with no net change in the cerium oxidation state. Reduced CeO{sub X}(111) competes with the gaseous products for available O. Little or no water is produced. The reaction selectivity for the C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} alcohols shifts toward favoring dehydration products. The loss of O from the alcohols leads to oxidation of the reduced ceria. Compared with the oxidized surface, the alkene desorption shifts to lower temperature, whereas the aldehyde desorption shifts to higher temperature. This indicates that, on the reduced surface, it is easier to break the C-O bond but more difficult to break the O-substrate bond.

Mullins, David R [ORNL; Senanayake, Sanjaya D [ORNL; Chen, Tsung-Liang [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Oxidation, Reduction, and Condensation of Alcohols over (MO3)3 (M=Mo, W) Nanoclusters  

SciTech Connect

The reactions of deuterated methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol and t-butanol over cyclic (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) clusters were studied experimentally with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and theoretically with coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory and density functional theory. The reactions of two alcohols per M3O9 cluster are required to provide agreement with experiment for D2O release, dehydrogenation and dehydration. The reaction begins with the elimination of water by proton transfers and forms an intermediate dialkoxy species which can undergo further reaction. Dehydration proceeds by a ? hydrogen transfer to a terminal M=O. Dehydrogenation takes place via an ? hydrogen transfer to an adjacent MoVI = O atom or a WVI metal center with redox involved for M = Mo and no redox for M = W. The two channels have comparable activation energies. H/D exchange to produce alcohols can take place after olefin is released or via the dialkoxy species depending on the alcohol and the cluster. The Lewis acidity of the metal center with WVI being larger than MoVI results in the increased reactivity of W3O9 over Mo3O9 for dehydrogenation and dehydration.

Fang, Zongtang; Li, Zhenjun; Kelley, Matthew S.; Kay, Bruce D.; Li, Shenggang; Hennigan, Jamie M.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Dixon, David A.

2014-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

355

Activation of farnesoid X receptor attenuates hepatic injury in a murine model of alcoholic liver disease  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. •Activation of FXR attenuated alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis. •Activation of FXR attenuated cholestasis and oxidative stress in mouse liver. -- Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common cause of advanced liver disease, and considered as a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic cholestasis is a pathophysiological feature observed in all stages of ALD. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and plays an essential role in the regulation of bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the role of FXR in the pathogenesis and progression of ALD remains largely unknown. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet. We used a specific agonist of FXR WAY-362450 to study the effect of pharmacological activation of FXR in alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we demonstrated that FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR by specific agonist WAY-362450 protected mice from the development of ALD. We also found that WAY-362450 treatment rescued FXR activity, suppressed ethanol-induced Cyp2e1 up-regulation and attenuated oxidative stress in liver. Our results highlight a key role of FXR in the modulation of ALD development, and propose specific FXR agonists for the treatment of ALD patients.

Wu, Weibin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China) [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhu, Bo; Peng, Xiaomin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhou, Meiling, E-mail: meilingzhou2012@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University and Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Department of Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University and Shanghai Institute of Medical Imaging, Shanghai 200032 (China); Jia, Dongwei, E-mail: jiadongwei@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Gu, Jianxin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China) [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

2014-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

356

The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Rates and predictors of DUI across Hispanic national groups  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines rates of self-reported driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol and 12-month and lifetime DUI arrest rates among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans and South/Central Americans in the U.S. population. Using a multistage cluster sample design, a total of 5224 individuals 18 years of age and older were selected from the household population in five metropolitan areas of the U.S.: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston and Los Angeles. The survey weighted response rate was 76%. Among men, 21% of Mexican Americans, 19.9% of South/Central Americans, 11.6% of Puerto Ricans and 6.9% of Cuban Americans reported DUI. Rates were lower among women, ranging from 9.7% for Mexican Americans to 1.3% for Cuban Americans. Mexican American men had the highest 12-month arrest rate (1.6%) and the highest lifetime arrest rate (11.2%). Drinkers who reported DUI were heavier drinkers than those not reporting DUI according to a variety of indicators. However, most DUI incidents involved non-alcohol-dependent drivers. Mexican Americans and South Central/Americans, men, younger drivers, those with less than high school education, those with higher income and higher alcohol consumption were more likely to report DUI and DUI arrests. These findings show that Hispanic national groups in the U.S. are diverse regarding drinking and DUI-related experiences.

Raul Caetano; Suhasini Ramisetty-Mikler; Lori A. Rodriguez

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

E-Print Network 3.0 - asymmetric dimethyl arginine-dimethylarginine...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

methyl acetate is selectively produced by reaction of dimethyl ether with carbon monoxide... .; "Superacid-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methane, Methyl Halides, Methyl Alcohol,...

358

E-Print Network 3.0 - acoustic wave vapor Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(6). While previous systems have demonstrated success in chemical... striking visual identification of a range of ligating vapors (including alcohols, amines, ethers... ,...

359

E-Print Network 3.0 - allyl methacrylate styrene Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tetrachloroethylene () Cyclohexanol () Cyclohexanone ()1- 1-Butyl alcohol ()2... ;() Acrolein () Acrylic acid () Allyl zlcohol () Allyl chloride () Allyl glycidyl ether(AGE) ()2-...

360

Alternative Fuels Data Center  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

compressed and liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), hydrogen, electricity, and fuels containing at least 85% ethanol, methanol, ether, or another alcohol....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Discusses results of cold- and hot-start transient tests using gasoline and 3 alcohol-gasoline blends (50% and 85% ethanol, and 83% iso-butanol)

362

The effects of acute alcohol exposure on the response properties of neurons in visual cortex area 17 of cats  

SciTech Connect

Physiological and behavioral studies have demonstrated that a number of visual functions such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and motion perception can be impaired by acute alcohol exposure. The orientation- and direction-selective responses of cells in primary visual cortex are thought to participate in the perception of form and motion. To investigate how orientation selectivity and direction selectivity of neurons are influenced by acute alcohol exposure in vivo, we used the extracellular single-unit recording technique to examine the response properties of neurons in primary visual cortex (A17) of adult cats. We found that alcohol reduces spontaneous activity, visual evoked unit responses, the signal-to-noise ratio, and orientation selectivity of A17 cells. In addition, small but detectable changes in both the preferred orientation/direction and the bandwidth of the orientation tuning curve of strongly orientation-biased A17 cells were observed after acute alcohol administration. Our findings may provide physiological evidence for some alcohol-related deficits in visual function observed in behavioral studies.

Chen Bo [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100101 (China); Xia Jing; Li Guangxing [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Zhou Yifeng, E-mail: zhouy@ustc.edu.c [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100101 (China)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

Vehicle-emission characteristics using mechanically emulsified alcohol/diesel fuels  

SciTech Connect

A light-duty diesel vehicle fueled with an emulsified alcohol/diesel fuel was operated under cyclic mode. Emission and fuel economy measurements were taken during vehicle operation. The test results showed the volumetric fuel economy decreased slightly. Carbon monoxide emissions increased slightly, and oxides of nitrogen showed no significant change. Particulate emissions were reduced slightly, and the particulate extractables increased slightly. The environmental effect of these data cancel each other resulting in no significant changes in the total release of biological activity into the environment.

Allsup, J.R.; Seizinger, D.E.; Cox, F.W.; Brook, A.L.; McClellan, R.O.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Hydrogen-bond equilibria and life times in a supercooled monohydroxy alcohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dielectric loss spectra covering 13 decades in frequency were collected for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, a monohydroxy alcohol that exhibits a prominent Debye-like relaxation, typical for several classes of hydrogen-bonded liquids. The thermal variation of the dielectric absorption amplitude agrees well with that of the hydrogen-bond equilibrium population, experimentally mapped out using near infrared (NIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. Despite this agreement, temperature-jump NIR spectroscopy reveals that the hydrogen-bond switching rate does not define the frequency position of the prominent absorption peak. This contrasts with widespread notions and models based thereon, but is consistent with a recent approach.

C. Gainaru; S. Kastner; F. Mayr; P. Lunkenheimer; S. Schildmann; H. J. Weber; W. Hiller; A. Loidl; R. Böhmer

2011-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

365

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria in the system methyl propanoate + n-butyl alcohol  

SciTech Connect

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria were determined at 74.66, 101.32, and 127.99 kPa for binary mixtures containing methyl propanoate + n-butyl alcohol by using a dynamic still with vapor and liquid circulation. No azeotrope was detected. The data were found to be thermodynamically consistent according to the point to point test. Application of the group-contribution models ASOG, UNIFAC, and modified UNIFAC to the activity coefficients at the three pressures studied gives average errors of less than 10%, 11%, and 3%, respectively.

Susial, P.; Ortega, J. (Univ. de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain). Lab. de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Emission Spectroscopy of Dissociative Allyl Iodide and Allyl Alcohol Excited at 199.7 nm B. F. Parsons, D. E. Szpunar, and L. J. Butler*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emission Spectroscopy of Dissociative Allyl Iodide and Allyl Alcohol Excited at 199.7 nm B. F investigated the emission spectroscopy of allyl iodide, CH2dCHCH2I, and allyl alcohol, CH2dCHCH2- OH, excited). The emission spectrum is dominated by activity in the CH2 wag and the CdC stretch, reflecting the dynamics

Butler, Laurie J.

367

Comparison of Hospital Laboratory Serum Alcohol Levels Obtained by an Enzymatic Method with Whole Blood Levels Forensically Determined by Gas Chromatography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Articles Comparison of Hospital Laboratory Serum Alcohol Levels Obtained...212 consecutive patients admitted to a hospital trauma center, serum was assayed for...least 0.080 g/dL. Comparison of hospital laboratory serum alcohol levels obtained......

Matthew T. Barnhill; Jr.; Donald Herbert; David J. Wells; Jr.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Investigation of syngas interaction in alcohol synthesis catalysts. Quartery technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the work done on {open_quotes}Investigation of Syngas Interaction in Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts{close_quotes} during the last three months. In this report the results of the work done on the effect of CO adsorption on the magnetic character of cobalt in the Cu/Co/Cr catalysts is discussed.

Akundi, M.A.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Spectroscopic Measurements of Low-Temperature Heat Release for Homogeneous Combustion Compression Ignition (HCCI) n-Heptane/Alcohol Mixture Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spectroscopic Measurements of Low-Temperature Heat Release for Homogeneous Combustion Compression Ignition (HCCI) n-Heptane/Alcohol Mixture Combustion ... (6) The earlier short heat release, LTHR, is characteristic of chemical oxidation at low temperature of the hydrocarbon fuel. ... lower heating value (kJ/kg) ...

Peerawat Saisirirat; Fabrice Foucher; Somchai Chanchaona; Christine Mounai?m-Rousselle

2010-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

370

Diagram of the Biofuel Production Process (SPORL -Alcohol Production):Introduction: The Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA) is an organization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diagram of the Biofuel Production Process (SPORL - Alcohol Production):Introduction: The Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA) is an organization that aims to create a sustainable aviation biofuels to determine the atmospheric emissions and emission sources that may be released from proposed NARA biofuels

Collins, Gary S.

371

Hydrogen Bond Breaking and Reformation in Alcohol Oligomers Following Vibrational Relaxation of a Non-Hydrogen-Bond Donating Hydroxyl Stretch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Bond Breaking and Reformation in Alcohol Oligomers Following Vibrational Relaxation of a Non-Hydrogen-Bond Donating Hydroxyl Stretch K. J. Gaffney, I. R. Piletic, and M. D. Fayer* Department measured with ultrafast infrared pump-probe experiments. Non-hydrogen-bond donating OD stretches (2690 cm-1

Fayer, Michael D.

372

Complex SrRuO3?Pt and LaRuO3?Pt Catalysts for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Complex SrRuO3?Pt and LaRuO3?Pt Catalysts for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells ... While currently LaRuO3/Pt composition possesses the highest activity, optimization of perovskite structure (by doping from A and B sites) may lead even to more advanced catalysts. ...

Aidong Lan; Alexander S. Mukasyan

2008-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

373

Bioactivation of food genotoxicants 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfuryl alcohol by sulfotransferases from human, mouse and rat: a comparative study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfuryl alcohol (FFA)...k cat/K M) of HMF sulfoconjugation of human SULT1A1 (13.7 s?1 M?1), mouse Sult1a1 (15.8 s?1 M?1) and 1d1 (4.8 s?1 M?1) and r...

Benjamin Sachse; Walter Meinl; Yasmin Sommer; Hansruedi Glatt…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Measurements of Drinking Patterns in the General Population and Possible Applications in Studies of the Role of Alcohol in Cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the fiscal interest of the state in alcohol as a lucrative vehicle for taxation. The statistics are thus often not specifically...sorts of studies when the much simpler homework of charting ecological correlations has only begun. But there are 2 reasons that...

Robin Room

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Chiral r-Substituted Carbonyls and Alcohols from the SN2 Displacement of Cuprates on Chiral Carbonates: An Alternative  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of reactions, based on the anti-selective SN2 addition of cuprates to allylic carbonates, transforms alkynesChiral r-Substituted Carbonyls and Alcohols from the SN2 Displacement of Cuprates on Chiral freedom of the vinyl group in 6 during the SN2 displacement step; the stereoselectivity of the cuprate

Spino, Claude

376

Generation of SWNTs on Si Wafer by Alcohol Catalytic CVD Shigeo Maruyama, Shohei Chiashi and Yuhei Miyauchi  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generation of SWNTs on Si Wafer by Alcohol Catalytic CVD Shigeo Maruyama, Shohei Chiashi and Yuhei ACCVD technique, lower temperature generation of SWNTs on Al patterned Si surface should be principally possible. We tried to generate SWNTs on Si wafer by ACCVD technique. Zeolite particles supporting Fe

Maruyama, Shigeo

377

Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2011 Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Research during FY 2011 continued to examine the performance of RhMn catalysts on alternative supports including selected zeolite, silica, and carbon supports. Catalyst optimization continued using both the Davisil 645 and Merck Grade 7734 silica supports. Research also was initiated in FY 2011, using the both Davisil 645 silica and Hyperion CS-02C-063 carbon supports, to evaluate the potential for further improving catalyst performance, through the addition of one or two additional metals as promoters to the catalysts containing Rh, Mn, and Ir.

Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Rummel, Becky L.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2012 Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Testing continued in FY 2012 to further improve the Ir-promoted RhMn catalysts on both silica and carbon supports for producing mixed oxygenates from synthesis gas. This testing re-examined selected alternative silica and carbon supports to follow up on some uncertainties in the results with previous test results. Additional tests were conducted to further optimize the total and relative concentrations of Rh, Mn, and Ir, and to examine selected promoters and promoter combinations based on earlier results. To establish optimum operating conditions, the effects of the process pressure and the feed gas composition also were evaluated.

Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Thompson, Becky L.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Reverse osmosis performance of modified polyvinyl alcohol thin-film composite membranes  

SciTech Connect

Membrane separation characteristics in the nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) regions of the filtration spectrum are governed by a complex combination of both steric hindrance and surface force interactions. NF and RO membranes having surface charges show unusual selectivity behavior not predicted on the basis of physical pore size alone. Hence, practical characterizations should employ techniques to gain insight on membrane function. In this work, the separation characteristics of an anionically charged modified polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) thin-film composite membrane under different operating pressures were investigated. A qualitative measurement of the surface force interactions between solutes and membrane polymer was conducted using liquid chromatography technique. An attempt was also made to study the chlorine resistance of the composite membrane.

Lang, K.; Chowdhury, G.; Matsuura, T.; Sourirajan, S. (Univ. of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato. 1. Acid hydrolysis and factors involved  

SciTech Connect

Factors affecting acid hydrolysis of sweet potato powder (SPP) to fermentable sugars were examined. These include HCl concentration, temperature, time, and levels of SPP. Maximum reducing sugar, reported as dextrose equivalent (DE), was detected after 24 min hydrolysis (1% SPP) in 0.034N HCl heated at 154 degrees celcius. These samples also had 3.43% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) based on dry weight. A high level of HMF (9.2%) was detected in 1% SPP heated at 154 degrees C in 0.10N HCl for 18 min. The lowest concentration of HMF formed (1.8%), at maximal DE of 61%, was established in samples containing 5% SPP and heated at 154 degrees C in 0.034N HCl for 48 min. Aqueous extracts of uncured SPP, examined by HPLC, contained glucose, fructose and sucrose, butdegreaded SPP had only glucose and fructose. Products of degraded SPP, under appropriate conditions, could be used for alcohol fermentation. (Refs. 18).

Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Case studies, design, and economics  

SciTech Connect

This project is a combination of process simulation and catalyst development aimed at identifying the most economical method for converting coal to syngas to linear higher alcohols to be used as oxygenated fuel additives. There are two tasks. The goal of Task 1 is to discover, study, and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas, and to explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. The goal of Task 2 is to simulate, by computer, energy efficient and economically efficient processes for converting coal to energy (fuel alcohols and/or power). The primary focus is to convert syngas to fuel alcohols. This report contains results from Task 2. The first step for Task 2 was to develop computer simulations of alternative coal to syngas to linear higher alcohol processes, to evaluate and compare the economics and energy efficiency of these alternative processes, and to make a preliminary determination as to the most attractive process configuration. A benefit of this approach is that simulations will be debugged and available for use when Task 1 results are available. Seven cases were developed using different gasifier technologies, different methods for altering the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas to the desired 1.1/1, and with the higher alcohol fuel additives as primary products and as by-products of a power generation facility. Texaco, Shell, and Lurgi gasifier designs were used to test gasifying coal. Steam reforming of natural gas, sour gas shift conversion, or pressure swing adsorption were used to alter the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas. In addition, a case using only natural gas was prepared to compare coal and natural gas as a source of syngas.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

From DSM-IV to DSM-5 alcohol use disorder: An overview of epidemiological data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractIntroduction The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) has made several changes to criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD). The objective of this systematic review is to assess if new DSM-5 diagnostic criteria will increase the prevalence rates of AUD in clinical and non-clinical samples as compared with DSM-IV criteria. Methods We searched PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO (via ProQuest) electronic databases, with no language restrictions. We included studies with data available on both DSM-IV (and DSM-IV-TR) and DSM-5 AUD in samples of adults, estimating from each study an expected increase in prevalence rates with relevant 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Twelve studies were included in this review. Seven studies showed an increase, two no substantial difference, and three a decrease in AUD prevalence according to DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, with differences in rates (95% CIs) varying between ? 12.4% (? 27.4 to + 5.6%) and + 61.3% (+ 46.7 to + 77.3%). Additional analyses provided confirmatory results. Conclusions DSM-5 diagnostic criteria seem to inflate prevalence rates of AUD as compared with DSM-IV. The increasing likelihood of a DSM-5 AUD diagnosis may be explained by the amount of DSM-IV ‘diagnostic orphans’ which are more prevalent than DSM-IV single-criterion alcohol abuse individuals. Further research should be aimed to study if similar trends are detectable also for other substance use disorders that experienced similar changes in DSM-5 diagnostic criteria.

Francesco Bartoli; Giuseppe Carrà; Cristina Crocamo; Massimo Clerici

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Synthesis and structure of complex metal oxides produced by interaction of iron and nickel acetylacetonates with hydrolysis products of titanium and zirconium alcoholates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The interaction of nickel and iron acetylacetonates with hydrolysis products of titanium and zirconium alcoholates and their mixture has been studied. It was shown that chemical synthesis of organometallic gel...

M. V. Tsodikov; O. V. Bukhtenko…

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Treatment of alcohol dependence in patients with co-morbid major depressive disorder – predictors for the outcomes with memantine and escitalopram medication  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Alcohol dependence comorbid with major depressive disorder poses a major challenge in the clinical setting. The results in the treatment with selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors have been conflicting. Thus, ...

Leea H Muhonen; Jari Lahti; David Sinclair…

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Selective Alcohol Dehydrogenation and Hydrogenolysis with Semiconductor-Metal Photocatalysts: Toward Solar-to-Chemical Energy Conversion of Biomass-Relevant Substrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Selective Alcohol Dehydrogenation and Hydrogenolysis with Semiconductor-Metal Photocatalysts: Toward Solar-to-Chemical Energy Conversion of Biomass-Relevant Substrates ... Coupled semiconductors of well-matched band energies are convenient to improve charge sepn. ...

T. Purnima A. Ruberu; Nicholas C. Nelson; Igor I. Slowing; Javier Vela

2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

386

The Behaviour of Electrolytes in Mixed Solvents. Part I. The Free Energies and Heat Contents of Hydrogen Chloride in Water-Ethyl Alcohol Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1 November 1929 research-article The Behaviour of Electrolytes in Mixed Solvents. Part I. The Free Energies and Heat Contents of Hydrogen Chloride in Water-Ethyl Alcohol Solutions J. A. V. Butler C. M. Robertson The Royal Society...

1929-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Anhydrous aluminum chloride as an alkylation catalyst: identification of mono- and dialkyl-benzenes from the condensation of tertiary butyl alcohol with benzene.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LIBRARY a a w c"I. I. SI - O~ TI:YAf ANHYDROUS ALUMINUM CHLORIDE AS AN ALKYLATION CATALYST: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DIALKYIZENZENES FROM THE CONDENSATION QF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENKENE IACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS 4 A Thesis Submitted...: IDENTIFICATION OF MONO- AND DI~NZZNES FROM THE CONDENSATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL WITH BENZENE A Thesis By LACEY EUGENE SCOGGINS Approved as to style and content hy: Chairman of Committee Head of Chemistry Department 1959 ACKNOWLEDGME1VTS The author...

Scoggins, Lacey E

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

The Non-alcoholic Beverage Market in the United States: Demand Interrelationships, Dynamics, Nutrition Issues and Probability Forecast Evaluation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

................................................... 192 4.10 Per capita volume of non-alcoholic beverages consumed at home in the United States in 2003 by poverty status .................... 193 5.1 Calibration graph for probabilities: probit model within-sample for isotonics... ............................................................... 256 5.2 Calibration graph for probabilities: probit model out-of-sample for isotonics ................................................................ 256 5.3 Calibration graph for probabilities: logit model within-sample for isotonics...

Dharmasena, Kalu Arachchillage Senarath

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

389

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary economic investigations have focused on cost reduction measures in the production of syngas from coal. A spread sheet model has been developed which can determine the cost of syngas production based upon the cost of equipment and raw materials and the market value of energy and by-products. In comparison to natural gas derived syngas, coal derived syngas is much more expensive, suggesting a questionable economic status of coal derived alcohol fuels. While it is possible that use of less expensive coal or significant integration of alcohol production and electricity production may reduce the cost of coal derived syngas, it is unlikely to be less costly to produce than syngas from natural gas. Fuels evaluation is being conducted in three parts. First, standard ASTM tests are being used to analyze the blend characteristics of higher alcohols. Second, the performance characteristics of higher alcohols are being evaluated in a single-cylinder research engine. Third, the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols are being investigated. The equipment is still under construction and the measurement techniques are still being developed. Of particular interest is n-butanol, since the MoS{sub 2} catalyst produces only linear higher alcohols. There is almost no information on the combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol, hence the importance of gathering this information in this research.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

The water footprint of biofuel produced from forest wood residue via a mixed alcohol gasification process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Forest residue has been proposed as a feasible candidate for cellulosic biofuels. However, the number of studies assessing its water use remains limited. This work aims to analyze the impacts of forest-based biofuel on water resources and quality by using a water footprint approach. A method established here is tailored to the production system, which includes softwood, hardwood, and short-rotation woody crops. The method is then applied to selected areas in the southeastern region of the United States to quantify the county-level water footprint of the biofuel produced via a mixed alcohol gasification process, under several logistic systems, and at various refinery scales. The results indicate that the blue water sourced from surface or groundwater is minimal, at 2.4 liters per liter of biofuel (l/l). The regional-average green water (rainfall) footprint falls between 400 and 443 l/l. The biofuel pathway appears to have a low nitrogen grey water footprint averaging 25 l/l at the regional level, indicating minimal impacts on water quality. Feedstock mix plays a key role in determining the magnitude and the spatial distribution of the water footprint in these regions. Compared with other potential feedstock, forest wood residue shows promise with its low blue and grey water footprint.

Yi-Wen Chiu; May Wu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Endovascular Treatment of Acute Arterial Hemorrhage in Trauma Patients Using Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was designed to determine the feasibility and efficacy of endovascular embolization with liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) in patients with acute traumatic arterial bleeding. Methods: This is a retrospective review of 13 patients (9 men and 4 women; mean age 45 years) with severe trauma who underwent embolotherapy using Onyx from November 2003 to February 2009. Bleeding was located in the pelvis (5 patients), kidney (3 patients), mesenteric region (2 patients), retroperitoneal space (2 patients), neck (1 patient), and thigh (1 patient). In three cases (23.1%), Onyx was used in conjunction with coils. We evaluate the technical and clinical success, procedural and embolization time, occurrence of rebleeding, and embolotherapy-related complications, such as necrosis or migration of Onyx into nontarget vessels. Results: In all patients, embolotherapy was technically and clinically successful on the first attempt. Control of bleeding could be reached with a mean time of 19 (range, 4-63) min after correct placement of the microcatheter in the feeding artery. No recurrent bleeding was detected. No unintended necrosis or migration of Onyx into a nontarget region was observed. During the follow-up period, three patients (23.1%) died due to severe intracranial hemorrhage, cardiac arrest, and sepsis. Conclusions: Transcatheter embolization with new liquid embolic agent Onyx is technically feasible and effective in trauma patients with acute arterial hemorrhage.

Mueller-Wille, R., E-mail: rene.mueller-wille@klinik.uni-regensburg.de; Heiss, P., E-mail: peter.heiss@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Herold, T., E-mail: thomas.herold@helios-kliniken.de [Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, Department of Radiology (Germany); Jung, E. M., E-mail: ernst-michael.jung@klinik.uni-regensburg.de; Schreyer, A. G., E-mail: andreas.schreyer@klinik.uni-regensburg.de; Hamer, O. W., E-mail: okka.hamer@klinik.uni-regensburg.de; Rennert, J., E-mail: janine.rennert@klinik.uni-regensburg.de; Hoffstetter, P., E-mail: P.hoffstetter@asklepios.com; Stroszczynski, C., E-mail: christian.stros@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Zorger, N., E-mail: Niels.Zorger@barmherzige-regensburg.de [Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brueder Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Alcohol fermentation of sweet potato - 1. Acid hydrolysis and factors involved  

SciTech Connect

Factors affecting acid hydrolysis of sweet potato powder (SPP) to fermentable sugars were examined. These include HCl concentration, temperature, time, and levels of SPP. Maximum reducing sugar, reported as dextrose equivalent (DE), was detected after 24 min hydrolysis (1% SPP) in 0.034N HCl heated at 154/degree/C. These samples also had 3.43% hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) based on dry weight. A high level of HMF (9.2%) was detected in 1% SPP heated at 154/degree/C in 0.10N HCl for 18 min. The lowest concentration of HMF formed (1.8%), at maximal DE of 61%, was established in samples containing 5% SPP and heated at 154/degree/C in 0.034N HCl for 48 min. Aqueous extracts of uncured SPP, examined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, contained glucose, fructose and sucrose, but degraded SPP had only glucose and fructose. Products of degraded SPP, Under appropriate conditions, could be used for alcohol fermentation. 18 refs.

Azhar, A.; Hamdy, M.K.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of Rh-based lanthanum zirconate pyrochlores for higher alcohol synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Two lanthanum zirconate pyrochlores (La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}; LZ) were prepared by Pechini method and tested for higher alcohols selectivity. In one, Rh was substituted into the pyrochlore lattice (LRZ, 1.7 wt%) while for the second, Rh was supported on an unsubstituted La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (R/LZ, 1.8 wt%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR) results show that the surface reducibility depends on whether the Rh is in (or supported on) the LZ pyrochlore. Rhodium in the LRZ is more reducible than rhodium supported on the R/LZ pyrochlore, likely due to the presence of a perovskite phase (LaRhO{sub 3}; identified by XRD), in which rhodium is more reducible. The formation of the perovskite accompanies that of the pyrochlore. CO hydrogenation results show higher ethanol selectivity for R/LZ than LRZ, possibly due to the strong interaction between Rh and LZ on the R/LZ, forming atomically close Rh{sup +}/Rh{sup 0} sites, which have been suggested to favor ethanol production.

Abdelsayed, Victor; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Poston, James A., Jr.; Spivey, James J.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Investigation of electrochemical properties of a poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) polymer blend  

SciTech Connect

Chemical sensors have wide applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, industrial applications, and others because of their versatility, ruggedness, sensitivity, selectivity, and economy. Electrochemical sensors are constructed by using a conducting medium, in this case graphite, and applying a constant potential while measuring changes in the current. Polymers are used for electrochemical sensors to exclude interferents from the electrode surface, to preconcentrate the analyte near the electrode, and in some cases to provide a matrix for the immobilization of analytes, such as enzymes. These functions of the polymer can serve to improve the detection limit of the sensor. This project involves the evaluation of a new polymer for electrode modification. The poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(acrylic acid) (PVA/PAA) polymer was originally developed as an ion exchanger for use in space batteries. It has also been used in wastewater cleanup because it will concentrate heavy metals in the presence of calcium ion. This polymer is also optically clear, so it can potentially be used for an optical sensor. We are interested in investigating the ion exchange properties of the PVA/PAA polymer, as well as the ability of this polymer to preconcentrate and exclude analytes on the basis of size, charge, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions.

DeSantis, C.O.; Seliskar, C.; Heineman, W.R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

395

Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends  

SciTech Connect

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL] [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL] [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL] [ORNL; Eibl, Mary A [ORNL] [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Ethanol exposure impairs glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity in the ca1 hippocampal region during the third trimester-equivalent of human pregnancy : implications for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder results from developmental exposure to ethanol. Although many organ systems are targeted by this teratogen, the central nervous system is exquisitely… (more)

Puglia, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Multiple Pathways for Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation by Ru(V)?O3+ and Ru(IV)?O2+  

SciTech Connect

Significant rate enhancements are found for benzyl alcohol oxidation by the Ru{sup V}?O{sup 3+} form of the water oxidation catalyst [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH{sub 2})]{sup 2+} [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2?-bipyridine] compared to Ru{sup IV}?O{sup 2+} and for the Ru{sup IV}?O{sup 2+} form with added bases due to a new pathway involving concerted hydride proton transfer (HPT).

Paul, Amit; Hull, Jonathan F; Norris, Michael R; Chen, Zuofeng; Ess, Daniel H.; Concepcion, Javier J; Meyer, Thomas J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Multiple Pathways for Benzyl Alcohol Oxidation by RuV=O3+ and RuIV=O2+  

SciTech Connect

Significant rate enhancements are found for benzyl alcohol oxidation by the Ru{sup V}?O{sup 3+} form of the water oxidation catalyst [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH{sub 2})]{sup 2+} [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2?-bipyridine] compared to Ru{sup IV}?O{sup 2+} and for the Ru{sup IV}?O{sup 2+} form with added bases due to a new pathway, concerted hydride proton transfer (HPT).

Paul, Amit; Hull, Jonathan F; Norris, Michael R; Chen, Zuofeng; Ess, Daniel H; Concepcion, Javier J; Meyer, Thomas J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Nonlinear optical properties of ZnO/poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films  

SciTech Connect

Extensive studies have already been reported on the optical characteristics of ZnO/polymer nanocomposite films, using a variety of polymers including transparent polymers such as polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate etc and many interesting results have been established regarding the non linear optical characteristics of these systems. Poly (vinyl alcohol)(PVA) is a water soluble polymer. Though the structural and optical studies of ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films have already been investigated, there are no detailed reports on the nonlinear optical characteristics of ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films, irrespective of the fact that these nanocomposite films can be synthesized using quite easy and cost effective methods. The present work is an attempt to study in detail the nonlinear optical behaviour of ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films using Z-scan technique. Highly transparent ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films were prepared from the ZnO incorporated PVA solution in water using spin coating technique. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the simple chemical route at room temperature. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show that the ZnO nanoparticles are of size around 10 nm. The ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, from which the presence of both PVA and ZnO in the nanocomposite was established. The optical absorptive nonlinearity in the nanocomposite films was investigated using open aperture Z-scan technique. The results indicate optical limiting type nonlinearity in the films due to two photon absorption in ZnO with efficiency more than 50%. These films also show a self defocusing type negative nonlinear refraction in closed aperture Z-scan experiment. The present studies indicate that, highly transparent and homogeneous films of ZnO/PVA nanocomposite can be obtained on glass substrates using simple methods, in a highly cost effective way, since PVA is water soluble. These nanocomposite films offer prospects of application as efficient optical limiters to protect light sensitive devices from the possible damage on exposure to high intensity radiation.

Jeeju, P. P., E-mail: jeejupp@gmail.com [Department of Physics, S N M College, Maliankara, Ernakulam, Kerala (India); Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Division for Research in Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022 (India); Chandrasekharan, K. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut, Kerala (India)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

400

Novel Approaches to the Production of Higher Alcohols From Synthesis Gas. Quarterly report, January 1 - March 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

Effort during this quarter was devoted to three areas: 1) analyzing the data from earlier runs with ?zinc chromite? catalyst and three different slurry liquids: decahydronaphthalene (Decalin®, DHN), tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin, THN) and tetrahydroquinoline (THQ); 2) analyzing newly-obtained data from earlier thermal stability tests on DHN and THN, and 3) carrying out a thermal stability test on THQ. Both the activity and selectivity of ?zinc chromite? catalyst depended on the slurry liquid that was used. The catalyst activity for methanol synthesis was in the order: THQ > DHN > THN. Despite the basic nature of THQ, it exhibited the highest dimethyl ether (DME) production rates of the three liquids. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analyses of samples of THN and DHN were taken at the end of standard thermal stability tests at 375°C. With both liquids, the only measurable compositional change was a minor amount of isomerization. Analysis of a sample of THN after a thermal stability test at 425°C showed a small reduction in molecular weight, and a significant amount of opening of the naphthenic ring. Preliminary data from the tehrmal stability test of THQ showed that this molecule is more stable than DHN, but less stable than THN.

George W. Roberts

1997-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers  

SciTech Connect

Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

402

Thermal Decomposition of Bulk K-CoMoSx Mixed Alcohol Catalyst Precursors and Effects on Catalyst Morphology and Performance  

SciTech Connect

Cobalt molybdenum sulfide-type mixed alcohol catalysts were synthesized via calcination of precipitated bulk sulfides and studied with temperature programmed decomposition analysis. Precursors containing aqueous potassium were also considered. Precipitates thermally decomposed in unique events which released ammonia, carbon dioxide, and sulfur. Higher temperature treatments led to more crystalline and less active catalysts in general with ethanol productivity falling from 203 to 97 g (kg cat){sup -1} h{sup -1} when the calcination temperature was increased from 375 to 500 C. The addition of potassium to the precursor led to materials with crystalline potassium sulfides and good catalytic performance. In general, less potassium was required to promote alcohol selectivity when added before calcination. At calcination temperatures above 350 C, segregated cobalt sulfides were observed, suggesting that thermally decomposed sulfide precursors may contain a mixture of molybdenum and cobalt sulfides instead of a dispersed CoMoS type of material. When dimethyl disulfide was fed to the precursor during calcination, crystalline cobalt sulfides were not detected, suggesting an important role of free sulfur during decomposition.

Menart, M. J.; Hensley, J. E.; Costelow, K. E.

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

403

Analyzing the effects of alcohol on IGF-I in bone and plasma and on IGF-I mRNA in the liver and bone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is known to be regulated by insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). This study was designed to determine if systemic and local IGF-I production is affected by alcohol consumption in a rat animal model. Experimental treatments included three groups...

Stine, Christina Nicole

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

404

The production of higher alcohols from syngas using potassium promoted Co/Mo/A12O3 and Rh/Co/Mo/A12O3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The optimized compositions K(4.9)/Co(2.7)/Mo(6.4)/A1203(gamma) and K(1.2)/ Rh(1.1)/Co(0.6)/Mo(5.7)/A1203(gamma) are both productive catalysts for higher alcohols. The incorporation of rhodium into the K/Co/Mo/A12

D. A. Storm

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

~A four carbon alcohol. It has double the amount of carbon of ethanol, which equates to a substantial increase in harvestable energy (Btu's).  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.0 psi. ~Butanol is an alcohol that can be but does not have to be blended with fossil fuels. ~Butanol existing pipelines and filling stations. ~Hydrogen generated during the butanol fermentation process is expected to increase dramatically if green butanol can be produced economically from low cost biomass

Toohey, Darin W.

406

Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conversion of Lignocellulosic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis A. Dutta, M. Talmadge, and J. Hensley National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado M. Worley and D. Dudgeon Harris Group Inc. Atlanta, Georgia and Seattle, Washington D. Barton, P. Groenendijk, D. Ferrari, and B. Stears The Dow Chemical Company Midland, Michigan E.M. Searcy, C.T. Wright, and J.R. Hess Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, Idaho Technical Report NREL/TP-5100-51400 May 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard

407

Lignin removal and benzene–alcohol extraction effects on lignin measurements of the hydrothermal pretreated bamboo substrate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lignin content of hydrothermal pretreated bamboo chips was determined by the two methods: TAPPI standard method (222om-06) and TAPPI standard method without benzene–alcohol extraction (BAE). The results showed that including BAE resulted in lower Klason lignin (KL) and acid soluble lignin (ASL) measurements in the prehydrolyzed substrate, that is to say, BAE removed parts of KL and ASL. Therefore, the TAPPI standard method should be modified by omitting the BAE for lignin measurements of pretreated substrate. The following lignin removal analysis suggested that lignin was removed from the bamboo substrate during pretreatment by a combination of degradation reaction and deconstruction; thereafter the pseudo lignin generated in the hydrothermal pretreatment and condensation reaction between the lignin fragments accounted for the later KL increase.

X.J. Ma; S.L. Cao; X.F. Yang; L. Lin; L.H. Chen; L.L. Huang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

A Historical Overview of Alcohol and Alcoholism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Duane Miller Wei Li Univ. of Tennessee Health Science Ctr., Memphis, TN; the Ohio...Denver, CO Malignant melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, accounting for 75...of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center; and the Van Vleet Endowed...

Mark Keller

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

A Historical Overview of Alcohol and Alcoholism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...do not know the whole truth about Korsakoff's...of the malign health consequences of smoking, especially...tell people the whole truth? The product of this...personal and social consequences; (b), that negative...to study the adverse consequences of over drinking and...

Mark Keller

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

A Historical Overview of Alcohol and Alcoholism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the teetotalers, with less faith in the power of moral suasion and more in the efficacy...not in the age of science? Could not the power of science at last be brought to bear on...translator). Der Wiener Mervart. (The ocean cruise of the Viennese), by Der Freudenleere...

Mark Keller

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Alcohol to Ester 21 ALCOHOL TO ESTER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.) Attach a Claisen adapter to the flask. Place a thermometer adapter with a thermometer in the main arm of the Claisen adapter so that the thermometer point is immersed in the liquid (but not so deep sulfuric acid (may be strong exotherm). Rapidly plug the Claisen adapter (with thermometer and condenser

Jasperse, Craig P.

412

Conversion of starch to ethanol in a recombinant saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing rice [alpha]-amylase from a novel Pichia pastoris alcohol oxidase promoter  

SciTech Connect

A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing and secreting rice [alpha]-amylase, converts starch to ethanol. The rice [alpha]-amylase gene (OS103) was placed under the transcriptional control of the promoter from a newly described Pichia pastoris alcohol oxidase genomic clone. The nucleotide sequences of ZZA1 and other methanol-regulated promoters were analyzed. A highly conserved sequence (TTG-N[sub 3]-GCTTCCAA-N[sub 5]-TGGT) was found in the 5' flanking regions of alcohol oxidase, methanol oxidase, and dihydroxyacetone synthase genes in Pichia pastoris, Hansenula polymorpha, and Candida biodinii S2. The yeast strain containing the ZZA1-OS103 fusion secreted biologically active enzyme into the culture media while fermenting soluble starch. 45 refs., 8 figs.

Kumagai, M.H.; Sverlow, G.G.; della-Cioppa, G.; Grill, L.K. (Biosource Genetics Corporation, Vacaville, CA (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Mesoscopic structuring and dynamics of alcohol/water solutions probed by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy and Pulsed Field Gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the structure of alcohol/water mixtures. Taking aqueous ethanol as a representative example, excess enthalpy, heat capacity, diffusivity, and viscosity all exhibit maxima or minima at ?15?20 mol %;12,16,20?23 this is attributable to Received: March 20, 2014... dielectric spectroscopy and the results were compared to femtosecond infrared pump? probe studies. By investigating a range of concentrations of aqueous tetramethylurea solutions it was found that the dynamics of the water molecules in close vicinity...

Li, Ruoyu; D'Agostino, Carmine; McGregor, James; Mantle, Michael D.; Zeitler, J. Axel; Gladden, Lynn F.

2014-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

414

Poly(vinyl alcohol) gel sublayers for reverse osmosis membranes. I. Insolubilization by acid-catalyzed dehydration  

SciTech Connect

Both flat-sheet and tubular composite reverse osmosis (RO) membranes were prepared by depositing aqueous solutions of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and a dehydration catalyst on asymmetric poly(arylether sulfone) (PES) substrate membranes. The PVA coatings were insolubilized by heat treatment to create stable hydrophilic gel-layer membranes. The influence of variables such as PVA concentration, catalyst concentration, curing time, and curing temperature was investigated. It was shown that a simple manipulation of one or two variables could lead to membranes with widely differing salt retention and water permeability characteristics. The insolubilized PVA coatings were intended to serve as hydrophilic gel sublayers on which ultra thin salt-retention barriers could ultimately be formed by interfacial polycondensation. For this purpose, high-flux gel layers were required, whereas salt-retention capabilities were not regarded as important. However, the promising salt retentions obtained as 2 MPa (up to 85% NaCl retention and 92% MgSO[sub 4] retention) showed that some of these PES-PVA composite membranes could function as medium-retention, medium-flux RO membranes, even in the absence of an interfacially formed salt-retention barrier.

Immelman, E.; Sanderson, R.D.; Jacobs, E.P.; Van Reenan, A.J. (Univ. of Stellenbosch, (South Africa). Inst. of Polymer Science)

1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

415

Acute and chronic ethanol exposure differentially alters alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the zebrafish liver  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chronic ethanol exposure paradigms have been successfully used in the past to induce behavioral and central nervous system related changes in zebrafish. However, it is currently unknown whether chronic ethanol exposure alters ethanol metabolism in adult zebrafish. In the current study we examine the effect of acute ethanol exposure on adult zebrafish behavioral responses, as well as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity in the liver. We then examine how two different chronic ethanol exposure paradigms (continuous and repeated ethanol exposure) alter behavioral responses and liver enzyme activity during a subsequent acute ethanol challenge. Acute ethanol exposure increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner. ADH activity was shown to exhibit an inverted U-shaped curve and ALDH activity was decreased by ethanol exposure at all doses. During the acute ethanol challenge, animals that were continuously housed in ethanol exhibited a significantly reduced locomotor response and increased ADH activity, however, ALDH activity did not change. Zebrafish that were repeatedly exposed to ethanol demonstrated a small but significant attenuation of the locomotor response during the acute ethanol challenge but ADH and ALDH activity was similar to controls. Overall, we identified two different chronic ethanol exposure paradigms that differentially alter behavioral and physiological responses in zebrafish. We speculate that these two paradigms may allow dissociation of central nervous system-related and liver enzyme-dependent ethanol induced changes in zebrafish.

Steven Tran; Magda Nowicki; Diptendu Chatterjee; Robert Gerlai

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Xylose in 20 Solvents: Insight into Interactions of the Solvents with Xylose, Furfural, and the Acid Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, the acid-catalyzed conversion of xylose to furfural was investigated in 20 solvents ranging from water, alcohol, ketones, furans, ethers, esters, hydrocarbons, and aromatics with the aim to understand their involvement in each step from ...Xylose can be converted to levulinic acid in iso-alcohols or to furfural in other solvents with very different yields.

Xun Hu; Roel J. M. Westerhof; Dehua Dong; Liping Wu; Chun-Zhu Li

2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

417

Deep eutectic solvents (DES) as green reaction media for the redox isomerization of allylic alcohols into carbonyl compounds catalyzed by the ruthenium complex [Ru(?3:?3-C10H16)Cl2(benzimidazole)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The bis-allyl Ru(IV) complex [Ru(?3:?3-C10H16)Cl2(benzimidazole)] (1c) is an active catalyst in the redox isomerization of allylic alcohols into saturated carbonyl compounds using, for the first time, Deep eutectic solvents (DES) as reaction media. A series of primary and secondary allylic alcohols could be isomerized into the corresponding carbonyl compounds in the absence of base. Although high activities and selectivities were reached at short reaction times and with low catalyst loadings (0.2 mol% in Ru) for monosubstituted allylic alcohols, for their disubstituted counterparts, high catalyst loading and longer reaction times were always required. It is important to note that the catalytic system: i) is active in a large-scale experiment, and ii) could be recycled up to four consecutive runs.

Cristian Vidal; Francisco J. Suárez; Joaquín García-Álvarez

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Production of hydrogen rich bio-oil derived syngas from co-gasification of bio-oil and waste engine oil as feedstock for lower alcohols synthesis in two-stage bed reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract High efficient production of lower alcohols (C1–C5 mixed alcohols) from hydrogen rich bio-oil derived syngas was achieved in this work. A non-catalytic partial oxidation (NPOX) gasification technology was successfully applied in the production and conditioning of bio-oil derived syngas using bio-oil (BO) and emulsifying waste engine oil (EWEO) as feedstock. The effects of water addition and feedstock composition on the gasification performances were investigated. When the BO20 and EWEO30 was mixed with mass ratio of 1: 0.33, the maximum hydrogen yield of 93.7% with carbon conversion of 96.7% was obtained, and the hydrogen rich bio-oil derived syngas was effectively produced. Furthermore, a two-stage bed reactor was applied in the downstream process of lower alcohols synthesis from hydrogen rich bio-oil derived syngas (H2/CO/CO2/CH4/N2 = 52.2/19.5/3.0/9.4/15.9, v/v). The highest carbon conversion of 42.5% and the maximum alcohol yield of 0.18 kg/kgcat h with selectivity of 53.8 wt% were obtained over the Cu/ZnO/Al2O3(2.5)//Cu25Fe22Co3K3/SiO2(2.5) catalyst combination system. The mechanism and evaluation for lower alcohols synthesis from model bio-oil derived syngas and model mixture gas were also discussed. The integrative process of hydrogen rich bio-oil derived syngas production and downstream lower alcohols synthesis, potentially providing a promising route for the conversion of organic wastes into high performance fuels and high value-added chemicals.

Haijun Guo; Fen Peng; Hairong Zhang; Lian Xiong; Shanggui Li; Can Wang; Bo Wang; Xinde Chen; Yong Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Alcohol processing speed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Central Valley Jr. Academy Central Valley Jr. Academy Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Our class has been studying about big cats. We studied cats' eyes. We learned why cats' eyes seem to glow in the dark. The back of each cat's eyes has mirror-like cells that reflect light. We used a coffee can and some construction paper to make a model of a cat's eye. We made the pupil oval shaped like a cat's eye. We shone a flashlight in the pupil and we saw the reflection. A book that we read said that nocturnal hungers mostly have long, oval-shaped pupils and daytime hunters have round pupils. We w want to know what difference that makes to an animal in being able to see.j Why do daytime hunters have round pupils and nocturnal hunters have oval shaped pupils. Do you know why?

420

Alcohol and Motor Accidents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... averaged 18 a day and the injuries more than 600. Half the deaths were among pedestrians and a fifth among pedal cyclists, while drivers of motor vehicles and their passengers ... vehicles and their passengers had only a third to a fourth as many accidents as pedestrians. Although the data of the Ministry of Transport indicate that only 1 in 80 ...

1937-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Alcohol and Culture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A. 1948. 3d edition. Ancient Egyp­ OOl>DS, E. R. 1956. Theof banquet scenes. Egyp­ tian taverns, like those in

Mandelbaum, David G.

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Assistant Director -Drugs, Alcohol, &  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiology Physical Therapy Medical Clinic Director of Medical Services Client Reception & Customer Services Resources Director of Business Services Dental Services Laboratory Services Women's Clinic Assistant

Rutledge, Steven

423

Ethyl Alcohol Production.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-1/2 bushel batch. 2. The ground grain is added to and mixed with 150 gallons of water (12 gallons per bushel) at 120 degrees F. This begins the cooking process, during which the grain mixture or mash is constantly agitated. A liquefying enzyme (Taka...-1/2 bushel batch. 2. The ground grain is added to and mixed with 150 gallons of water (12 gallons per bushel) at 120 degrees F. This begins the cooking process, during which the grain mixture or mash is constantly agitated. A liquefying enzyme (Taka...

O'Neal, Henry

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Genetic improvement of Escherichia coli for ethanol production: Chromosomal integration of Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase II  

SciTech Connect

Zymomonas mobilis genes for pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase II (adhB) were integrated into the Escherichia coli chromosome within or near the pyruvate formate-lyase gene (pfl). Integration improved the stability of the Z. mobilis genes in E. coli, but further selection was required to increase expression. Spontaneous mutants were selected for resistance to high levels of chloramphenicol that also expressed high levels of the Z. mobilis genes. Analogous mutants were selected for increased expression of alcohol dehydrogenase on aldehyde indicator plates. These mutants were functionally equivalent to the previous plasmid-based strains for the fermentation of xylose and glucose to ethanol. Ethanol concentrations of 54.4 and 41.6 g/liter were obtained from 10% glucose and 8% xylose, respectively. The efficiency of conversion exceeded theoretical limits (0.51 g of ethanol/g of sugar) on the basis of added sugars because of the additional production of ethanol from the catabolism of complex nutrients. Further mutations were introduced to inactivate succinate production (frd) and to block homologous recombination (recA).

Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Beall, D.S.; Mejia, J.P.; Shanmugam, K.T.; Ingram, L.O. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols  

SciTech Connect

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Studies in the Respiratory and Carbohydrate Metabolism of Plant Tissues. II. Interrelationship between the Rates of Production of Carbon Dioxide, of Lactic acid and of Alcohol in Potato Tubers under Anaerobic Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Production of Carbon Dioxide, of Lactic acid and of Alcohol in Potato Tubers under Anaerobic Conditions J. Barker A. F. El Saifi Data, presented in part I of this communication, for the changes in air and in nitrogen in the rate of production by potato...

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Resurrecting ancestral alcohol dehydrogenases J Michael Thomson1,4, Eric A Gaucher2, Michelle F Burgan3,4, Danny W De Kee2, Tang Li2, John P Aris1 &  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in fleshy fruits rapidly convert sugars into bulk ethanol through pyruvate. Pyruvate loses carbon dioxide to produce acetaldehyde, which is reduced by alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) to ethanol, which accumulates. Yeast later consumes the accumulated ethanol, exploiting Adh2, an Adh1 homolog differing by 24 (of 348

Gaucher, Eric

428

Results of the feasibility studies awarded under PL 96-126 and PL 96-304 for alcohol fuel production. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results from the feasibility study grants are summarized. The grants were to allow assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of construction and operation of commercial-scale alcohol fuel production facilities. Summarized are the process designs, financial and economic analyses, marketing analyses, and the environmental assessments. Use of current technology was declared to be adequate; no patents evolved from the studies. Suitable sites, served by transportation and utilities were located. Feedstock, energy sources, and raw materials were determined to be available. Environmental guidelines were found to be attainable and socioeconomic impacts and public acceptance of the projects were reported. Most of the proposed plants were declared to be economically feasible with profitability increasing with plant size. Financing was reported constrained by premium interest rates, an insecure ethanol market, and financial institution requirements for loan guarantees or high-equality loans.

Hosking, R.W.; Anderson, J.V.; Jones, K.W.; Plaster, D.S.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Influences of alcoholic solvents on spray pyrolysis deposition of TiO{sub 2} blocking layer films for solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells  

SciTech Connect

Influences of alcoholic solvents for titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate) (TPA) precursor solutions on the spray pyrolysis deposited TiO{sub 2} films and the photovoltaic performance of the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SDSCs) using these TiO{sub 2} films as the blocking layers were investigated. Smooth TiO{sub 2} films were obtained by spray pyrolysis deposition of a TPA solution in isopropanol (IPA) at a relatively low temperature of 260 Degree-Sign C. On the other hand, when ethanol was used as solvent, the TiO{sub 2} films fabricated at the same temperature showed much rougher surfaces with many pinholes. Our results showed that ethanol reacts with TPA to form titanium diethoxide bis(acetylacetonate) (TEA), which requires a higher thermal decomposition temperature than that of TPA. SDSCs with TiO{sub 2} blocking layer films fabricated using a TPA solution in IPA showed higher power conversion efficiencies with smaller variations. - Graphical abstract: Alcoholic solvents used for the TiO{sub 2} precursor play a critical role in determining the surface morphology of blocking layers and thus the photovoltaic performance of the SDSCs. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvent influences morphology of spray pyrolysis deposited TiO{sub 2} blocking layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ethanol reacts with TPA, resulting poor quality of blocking layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isopropanol is better than ethanol for obtaining smooth blocking layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SDSC with blocking layer made with isopropanol showed better performance.

Jiang, Changyun, E-mail: jiangc@imre.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)] [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore); Koh, Wei Lin; Leung, Man Yin [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)] [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore); Hong, Wei [Department of Chemical Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (WIN), University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West ON, Waterloo, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)] [Department of Chemical Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (WIN), University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West ON, Waterloo, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Li, Yuning, E-mail: yuning.li@uwaterloo.ca [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore) [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore); Department of Chemical Engineering and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology (WIN), University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West ON, Waterloo, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Zhang, Jie [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)] [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 Singapore (Singapore)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Transition metal complexes of oxazolinylboranes and cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates: Catalysts for asymmetric olefin hydroamination and acceptorless alcohol decarbonylation  

SciTech Connect

The research presented and discussed in this dissertation involves the synthesis of transition metal complexes of oxazolinylboranes and cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates, and their application in catalytic enantioselective olefin hydroamination and acceptorless alcohol decarbonylation. Neutral oxazolinylboranes are excellent synthetic intermediates for preparing new borate ligands and also developing organometallic complexes. Achiral and optically active bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes are synthesized by reaction of 2-lithio-2-oxazolide and 0.50 equiv of dichlorophenylborane. These bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes are oligomeric species in solid state resulting from the coordination of an oxazoline to the boron center of another borane monomer. The treatment of chiral bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes with sodium cyclopentadienide provide optically active cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates H[PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 5})(Ox{sup R}){sub 2}] [Ox{sup R} = Ox{sup 4S-iPr,Me2}, Ox{sup 4R-iPr,Me2}, Ox{sup 4S-tBu]}. These optically active proligands react with an equivalent of M(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4} (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) to afford corresponding cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borato group 4 complexes {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup R}){sub 2}}M(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} in high yields. These group 4 compounds catalyze cyclization of aminoalkenes at room temperature or below, providing pyrrolidine, piperidine, and azepane with enantiomeric excesses up to 99%. Our mechanistic investigations suggest a non-insertive mechanism involving concerted C?N/C?H bond formation in the turnover limiting step of the catalytic cycle. Among cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borato group 4 catalysts, the zirconium complex {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup 4S-iPr,Me2}){sub 2}}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} ({S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}) displays highest activity and enantioselectivity. Interestingly, {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} also desymmetrizes olefin moieties of achiral non-conjugated aminodienes and aminodiynes during cyclization. The cyclization of aminodienes catalyzed by {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} affords diastereomeric mixture of cis and trans cylic amines with high diasteromeric ratios and excellent enantiomeric excesses. Similarly, the desymmetrization of alkyne moieties in {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}-catalyzed cyclization of aminodiynes provides corresponding cyclic imines bearing quaternary stereocenters with enantiomeric excesses up to 93%. These stereoselective desymmetrization reactions are significantly affected by concentration of the substrate, temperature, and the presence of a noncyclizable primary amine. In addition, both the diastereomeric ratios and enantiomeric excesses of the products are markedly enhanced by N-deuteration of the substrates. Notably, the cationic zirconium-monoamide complex [{S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2})][B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}] obtained from neutral {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} cyclizes primary aminopentenes providing pyrrolidines with S-configuration; whereas {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} provides R-configured pyrrolidines. The yttrium complex {S-2}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} also affords S-configured pyrrolidines by cyclization of aminopentenes, however the enantiomeric excesses of products are low. An alternative optically active yttrium complex {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup 4S-tBu}){sub 2}}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} ({S-3}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3}) is synthesized, which displays highly enantioselective in the cyclization of aminoalkenes at room temperature affording S-configured cyclic amines with enantiomeric excesses up to 96%. A noninsertive mechanism involving a six-membered transition state by a concerted C?N bond formation and N?H bond cleavage is proposed for {S-3}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} system based on the kinetic, spectroscopic, and stereochemical features. In the end, a series of bis- and tris(oxazolinyl)borato iridium and rhodium complexes are synthesized with bis(oxazolinyl)phenylborane [PhB(Ox{sup Me2}){sub 2}]{sub n}, tris(oxazolinyl)borane [B(Ox{sup Me2}){sub 3}]n, and tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate [To{sup M}]{sup ?}. All these new an

Manna, Kuntal [Ames Laboratory

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

431

Purifying contaminated water. [DOE patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process is presented for removing biorefactory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, C.G.

1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

432

Purifying contaminated water  

SciTech Connect

Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Fluctuating micro-heterogeneity in water–tert-butyl alcohol mixtures and lambda-type divergence of the mean cluster size with phase transition-like multiple anomalies  

SciTech Connect

Water–tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) binary mixture exhibits a large number of thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies. These anomalies are observed at surprisingly low TBA mole fraction, with x{sub TBA} ? 0.03–0.07. We demonstrate here that the origin of the anomalies lies in the local structural changes that occur due to self-aggregation of TBA molecules. We observe a percolation transition of the TBA molecules at x{sub TBA} ? 0.05. We note that “islands” of TBA clusters form even below this mole fraction, while a large spanning cluster emerges above that mole fraction. At this percolation threshold, we observe a lambda-type divergence in the fluctuation of the size of the largest TBA cluster, reminiscent of a critical point. Alongside, the structure of water is also perturbed, albeit weakly, by the aggregation of TBA molecules. There is a monotonic decrease in the tetrahedral order parameter of water, while the dipole moment correlation shows a weak nonlinearity. Interestingly, water molecules themselves exhibit a reverse percolation transition at higher TBA concentration, x{sub TBA} ? 0.45, where large spanning water clusters now break-up into small clusters. This is accompanied by significant divergence of the fluctuations in the size of largest water cluster. This second transition gives rise to another set of anomalies around. Both the percolation transitions can be regarded as manifestations of Janus effect at small molecular level.

Banerjee, Saikat; Furtado, Jonathan; Bagchi, Biman, E-mail: bbagchi@sscu.iisc.ernet.in [SSCU, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)] [SSCU, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

434

Basic study for the application of Cu supported ZnS and ZnO photocatalysts for the CO{sub 2} conversion into alcohol  

SciTech Connect

Transformation of CO{sub 2} into alcohol by using photocatalysts is one of the “green” methods to solve the environmental problem. In this study, to increase the activity, condition of Cu co-catalysts onto the substrate (Zn photocatalysts) were precisely controlled by obeying to relationship between the surface potential of substrate and the condition of metal complexes in solution by applying the metal complexes calculation using critical stability constants. By obeying to calculation results, Cu metal complexes with positively charged species, [(Cu{sup 2+})(MEA){sub 2}] and [(Cu{sup 2+})(MEA){sub 3}] and/or negatively charged species, [(Cu{sup 2+})(OH{sup ?})(cit{sup 3?})] monomer and dimmer, were stably synthesized. Absorption amount of Cu species was successfully controlled by using these solutions since surface potential of ZnO was negative. When the concentration of Cu in the solution was same, the difference of adsorption amount led the difference of the number of nuclear site of Cu particles. As a result, the size of co-catalysts in the case of MEA became smaller.

Kajino, Yasuharu, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp; Takahashi, Hideyuki, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp; Tohji, Kazuyuki, E-mail: hideyuki@mail.kankyo.tohoku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan)

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

435

Fluctuating micro-heterogeneity in water - tert-butyl alcohol mixtures and lambda-type divergence of the mean cluster size with phase transition-like multiple anomalies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water - tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) binary mixture exhibits a large number of thermodynamic and dynamic anomalies. These anomalies are observed at surprisingly low TBA mole fraction, with $x_{\\text{TBA}} \\approx 0.03 - 0.07$. We demonstrate here that the origin of the anomalies lies in the local structural changes that occur due to self-aggregation of TBA molecules. We observe a percolation transition of the TBA molecules at $x_{\\text{TBA}} \\approx 0.05$. We note that "islands" of TBA clusters form even below this mole fraction, while a large spanning cluster emerges above that mole fraction. At this percolation threshold, we observe a lambda-type divergence in the fluctuation of the size of the largest TBA cluster, reminiscent of a critical point. Alongside, the structure of water is also perturbed, albeit weakly, by the aggregation of TBA molecules. There is a monotonic decrease in the tetrahedral order parameter of water, while the dipole moment correlation shows a weak non-linearity. Interestingly, water molecules themselves exhibit a reverse percolation transition at higher TBA concentration, $x_{\\text{TBA}} \\approx 0.45$, where large spanning water clusters now break-up into small clusters. This is accompanied by significant divergence of the fluctuations in the size of largest water cluster. This second transition gives rise to another set of anomalies around. Both the percolation transitions can be regarded as manifestations of Janus effect at small molecular level.

Saikat Banerjee; Jonathan Furtado; Biman Bagchi

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

436

Simultaneous liquid–liquid and vapour–liquid equilibria predictions of selected oxygenated aromatic molecules in mixtures with alkanes, alcohols, water, using the polar GC-PC-SAFT  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Phase equilibria of oxygen-bearing aromatic compounds, hydrocarbons and water mixtures are of essential interest in many processes using feeds originating from biomass. The strong non-ideal thermodynamic behavior of these systems sometimes results in immiscibility with both water and alkanes. To address this problem, the GC-PPC-SAFT equation of state [Tamouza et al., 2004; Nguyen-Huynh et al., 2008a] is extended to some selected components: phenol, alkyl-phenols, alkyl-benzoates, benzaldehyde and anisole. However, as in these multifunctional compounds, the proximity of polar functional groups may result in a lack of transferability of the parameters from the monofunctional homologous species, some parameters have been adapted in view of physical arguments. Next, liquid–vapour and liquid–liquid equilibria of mixtures with n-alkanes were evaluated, using a predictive method for the binary interaction parameters (kij) [Nguyen-Huynh et al., 2008b]. Finally, mixtures with other associating compounds, as alcohols and water have also been considered. In all cases, both correlations and predictions are qualitatively and quantitatively satisfactory. The relative deviations obtained on bubble pressure of vapor–liquid equilibria are 4–8%, that is comparable to those obtained on previously investigated systems.

Nguyen-Huynh Dong; de Hemptinne Jean-Charles; Lugo Rafael; Passarello Jean-Philippe; Tobaly Pascal

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Liquefied Dimethyl Ether: An Energy-Saving, Green Extraction Solvent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Extraction is an essential procedure in the fields of food, pharmacy, and renewable bio-fuels, and it affords the recovery of desired components and the removal of undesired components from the natural feedstock....

Peng Li; Hisao Makino

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Alternative Fuels lDimethyl Ether Rheology and Materials Studies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: The Pennsylvania State University

439

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dimethyl Ether (DME): Fuel of...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

The AFDC is a resource of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program. Contacts | Web Site Policies | U.S. Department of Energy | USA.gov Content Last Updated: 01022015...

440

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Dimethyl Ether (DME) as a Transportatio...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

similar to that of propane, in that both are required to be kept in pressurized storage tanks at ambient temperature. DME has several fuel properties that make it attractive for...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Surface Modification of Silicone Elastomer Using Perfluorinated Ether  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a silicone-coated substrate.29 In addition, higher molecular weight perfluoropolyethers have been included

Chaudhury, Manoj K.

442

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Flame Retardants in Virginia Freshwater Fishes (USA)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Robert C. Hale ,* Mark J. La Guardia , Ellen P. Harvey , T. Matteson Mainor , William H. Duff , and Michael O. Gaylor ... Following solvent exchange to hexane, the halogenated compounds in the purified extracts were separated on a gas chromatograph (GC; Varian 3400, Sugar Land, TX), equipped with a 60-m DB-5 column (J&W Scientific, Folsom, CA; 0.25 ?m film, 0.32 i.d.). ...

Robert C. Hale; Mark J. La Guardia; Ellen P. Harvey; T. Matteson Mainor; William H. Duff; Michael O. Gaylor

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

443

The Ether Extract and the Chloroform Extract of Soils.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

KNJJUG................................................................................................................Mailing Clerk STATE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS. H U M T 9 L 3L H G U . 9 Z R 11 3J X C I T P P T L I 0 Y uUM T 9 L U 9 0. B. A U P s S 3 D D ...................................................... Austin t 3 T S D T L . L D 1u U M T 9 L U 9 i 3 P P... n R r . 0 T J ......................................................Brownwood A U O O 3J J 3U L T 9 U o V H 9 3 I S P D S 9 T X Z w R dU L T ...................................................... Austin DIRECTOR OF EXPERIMENT STATIONS. B. l U...

Fraps, G. S.; Rather, J. B.

1913-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Quantum-Gravity Phenomenology and the DSR Ether Theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Guided primarily by versions of a theoretical framework called Doubly Special Relativity, or DSR, that are supposed to entail speeds of light that vary with energy while preserving the relativity of inertial frames, quantum-gravity phenomenologists have recently been seeking clues to quantum gravity, in hoped-for differing times of arrival, for light of differing energies, from cosmologically distant sources. However, it has long been known that signals, of arbitrarily high speed in opposing directions, could be used to observe the translational state of (absolute) rest, as could signals of a fixed speed different from c. Consequently, the above versions of DSR are nonviable.

Kenneth M. Sasaki

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

445

Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial CuZnOAl2O3 catalyst, utilized...

446

Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocalello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

447

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Sediments of the Great Lakes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

source of many pollutants, including PCBs and dioxins, to the Great Lakes. This has been particularly analysis demonstrated that the pattern of PBDEs in Lake Superior sediments differs from those in air from the point sources. Sediments are an important sink and reservoir of per- sistent pollutants

Rockne, Karl J.

448

Network Structure of Cellulose Ethers Used in Pharmaceutical Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, have studied these two processes (1,3­6). Significant models have been proposed by Peppas molecules dissolve in water and are released by diffusion. The processes of swelling, ero- sion, and drug mathematical models that include all interrelated parameters and that fit accurately the experimental results

Peppas, Nicholas A.

449

European-Scale Modeling of Concentrations and Distribution of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in the Pentabromodiphenyl Ether Product  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Department of Environmental Science, Institute of Environmental and Natural Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4 YQ, United Kingdom ... Limited survey data in the Mediterranean (Cyprus) were surprisingly high (20); it was assumed that the advection into Europe from the south was probably lower, but this assumption needs to be tested by future field data. ... VP-derived EFs should be suited to solid?gas-phase releases (13) and may therefore describe outgassing of the lighter components of PeBDE under ambient temperatures from solid matrixes where they have been used as additives. ...

K. Prevedouros; K. C. Jones; A. J. Sweetman

2004-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

450

Alcohol Use, Comorbidity, and Mortality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2–3 drinks per day and having gout or anxiety or taking aby a doctor that they had gout, hepatitis, or ulcer disease,psychiatric conditions Gout, anxiety disorder (history of

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Drugs, Alcohol, & You (DAY) Programs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optometry Pharmacy Radiology Physical Therapy Medical Clinic Director of Medical Services Client Reception Resources Director of Business Services Dental Services Laboratory Services Women's Clinic Assistant

452

Alcoholic beverages Nuts and seeds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pork oat tabasco pepper feta cheese tequila malt wheat bread soybean citrus peel wasabi chickpea lard

Ahn, Yong-Yeol

453

THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...comnpounds are readily decomposed bv water and alcohol, giving the origriinal...J. STUTZMAN. The benzoin condensation is found to be reversible...oiaitge is readily soluble itt water. Newv heterocyclic arsenic...cent. of ether acid. The recovery an7d reflning of pyr-idine...

W. H. Hunter; Charles L. Parsons

1922-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

454

Functionalization of [60]fullerene by photoinduced electron transfer (PET): Syntheses of 1-substituted 1,2-dihydro[60]fullerenes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

[60]Fullerene is irradiated in the presence of the electron transfer sensitizer 9,10-dicyanoanthracene (DCA) under cosensitization with biphenyl. The generated radical cation C60•+ reacts with H-donors such as tert-butylmethyl ether, propionaldehyde and alcohols to give 1:1-adducts, the 1-substituted 1,2-dihydro[60]fullerenes.

Christina Siedschlag; Heinrich Luftmann; Christian Wolff; Jochen Mattay

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Simultaneous Efficiency, NOx, and Smoke Improvements through Diesel/Gasoline Dual-Fuel Operation in a Diesel Engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or liquefied petroleum gas, natural gas, biogas, hydrogen, and alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, iso-propanol, and n-butanol), and fuel additives (MTBE or methyl tertiary-butyl ether, H2O2 or hydrogen peroxide, 2-EHN or ethylhexyl nitrate and DTBP or di...

Sun, Jiafeng

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

456

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Ethanol Plant Production Ethanol Plant Production Definitions Key Terms Definition Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons. Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as described in the Oxygenates definition. Oxygenates Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates. Fuel Ethanol: Blends of up to 10 percent by volume anhydrous ethanol (200 proof) (commonly referred to as the "gasohol waiver"). Methanol: Blends of methanol and gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol (GTBA) such that the total oxygen content does not exceed 3.5 percent by weight and the ratio of methanol to GTBA is less than or equal to 1. It is also specified that this blended fuel must meet ASTM volatility specifications (commonly referred to as the "ARCO" waiver).

457

Alcohol and Historiography in Early China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Yunmeng county, Hubei province; dating to 217 BCE) note that it was a crime for commoners living on farms to sell jiu ? “ale/wine”.3 Furthermore, the text at the heart of what would later be referred to as the legalist doctrine that had shaped Qin... . An inscription cast on a bronze known as the “Da Yu ding” ???, which records King Kang’s ?? (r.1005/3-978 BCE) appointment of a minister named Yu ? (in 981 BCE), praises King Wu’s ?? success in overthrowing the Shang. It hails the Zhou for their sobriety...

Sterckx, Roel

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

The social situation of alcoholism in Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of apprenticeship in Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityDrinking and Sobriety in Japan. (Doctoral Dissertation). NewApproaches. Fukuoka, Japan: Kyushu University Press.

Maguire, Tara Ann

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpha -chloro ethers Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technologies and Information Sciences 31 NetInfo Editions 4.x User Manual Summary: and Internet addresses: alpha 192.42.172.1 bravo 192.42.172.2 charlie 192.42.172.3 Two of the...

460

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic crown ethers Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy 4 Aggregation and Reactivity of Phenyllithium Solutions Hans J. Reich,* D. Patrick Green, Marco A. Medina, Wayne S. Goldenberg, Summary: ), N,N-dimethylpropyl- eneurea...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Neutron Scattering Study of Vermiculite?Poly(vinyl methyl ether) Mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neutrons scattered by the gel samples were recorded on a two-dimensional area detector, software coded as 128 × 128 pixels, situated 1.5 m behind the samples, covering the approximate q range between 0.2 and 2 nm-1, where the wavenumber q is defined by the equation with ? being the scattering angle. ... The quartz sample cells used were practically transparent to neutrons at the wavelength utilized on the SANS-J, and the small angle neutron scattering from D2O was of low intensity and completely unstructured over the q range studied. ...

H. Jinnai; M. V. Smalley; T. Hashimoto; S. Koizumi

1996-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

462

Comparison of CO and NO Emissions from Propane, n-Butane, and Dimethyl Ether Premixed Flames  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements were made with a water-cooled stainless steel sampling probe situated above the visible reaction zone of a co-flow burner. ... Dehydration is satisfactory for DME production geared toward current demand but it is not cost-effective for the mass production of DME required for widespread fuel use.10 The recent and intense interest in DME as a transportation fuel has arisen from development of new methods to produce DME on a larger scale from natural gas10 and from syngas in a one-step slurry phase process. ...

Christopher A. Frye; André L. Boehman; Peter J. A. Tijm

1999-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

463

Determination of properties of PVE lubricants with HFC refrigerants[PolyVinylEther  

SciTech Connect

Polyalkyleneglycol (PAG) and polyol ester (POE) have been developed as refrigeration lubricants, used with HFC134a. PAG is used for automotive air conditioning systems and POE is used for domestic reciprocating refrigerators and for A/C systems. Although PAG exhibits good lubricity performance, it is difficult to use for domestic reciprocating refrigerators due to its low dielectric property. POE is difficult to use for automotive A/C systems, due to hydrolysis and poor lubricity performance. Polyvinylether (PVE) can be used in place of PAG and POE with HFC refrigerants. PVE is used for A/C systems as well as refrigerator and freezer applications. PVE is an ideal lubricant for use with HFCs.

Kaneko, Masato; Sakanoue, Shuichi; Tazaki, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Shoichi; Takagi, Minoru; Goodin, M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkyl tert-butyl ether Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

> >> 1 7198 J. Org. Chem. 1995,60, 7198-7208 Gas Phase Decomposition of Conjugate Acid Ions of Simple Summary: .S.Patent 5,091,590,1992. 0 1995American Chemical Society...

465

Tribology of Confined Fomblin-Z Perfluoropolyalkyl Ethers: Role of Chain-End Chemical Functionality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, polysiloxanes,1-4 polybutadiene,1,5 or perfluorinated perfluoropolyethers6-8) in which the chain end

Granick, Steve

466

Antarctic Research Bases: Local Sources of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Flame Retardants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Robert C. Hale †, Stacy L. Kim ‡, Ellen Harvey †, Mark J. La Guardia †, T. Matt Mainor †, Elizabeth O. Bush † and Elizabeth M. Jacobs † ... Purified extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). ...

Robert C. Hale; Stacy L. Kim; Ellen Harvey; Mark J. La Guardia; T. Matt Mainor; Elizabeth O. Bush; Elizabeth M. Jacobs

2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

467

Sulfonated Polybenzophenone/Poly(arylene ether) Block Copolymer Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Major car companies have announced that they will commercialize fuel cell vehicles from 2015. ... Future articles will describe the performance of these copolymers as proton-exchange membranes in hydrogen/air and direct methanol fuel cells. ...

Takahiro Miyahara; Tetsuji Hayano; Soichi Matsuno; Masahiro Watanabe; Kenji Miyatake

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

468

Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and Resulting Concentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with realistic air-exchange and product usage rates, theand total rate of air freshener product volatilization (26, 589-597. Cleaning Product and Air Freshener Emissions (

Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Fluoroalkylation of aryl ether perfluorocyclobutyl polymers S. Clark Ligon, Jr.a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Bernard Boutevinb , Dennis W. Smith, Jr.a* a Advanced Materials Research Laboratories, Department of Chemistry and Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), Clemson University applications [6,7], in aerospace coatings applications [8], and in battery electrolyte applications [9

Boyer, Edmond

470

Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

471

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

because of its low cost and blending characteristics. Depending on the season, reformulated gasoline of reactor per hour, a value comparable to other gasoline constituents. Such high performance could enhancer in gasoline. The use of MTBE increased rapidly after the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required

472

Ether-Induced Retrograde Amnesia for One-Trial Conditioning in Mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...16 January 1961 A World-wide Stratospheric Aerosol Layer Abstract. An aerosol layer has been identified by a stratospheric balloon and aircraft aerosol collection program. Meas-urements of horizontal extension and ver-tical distribution...

John P. Abt; Walter B. Essman; Murray E. Jarvik

1961-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

473

Synthesis and Modification of Alternating Copolymers Based on Vinyl Ethers, Chlorotrifluoroethylene, and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, in dynamic mode, under air, showed decomposition temperatures (Td,10%) higher than 200 °C. Electrochemical recent fuel cells technology, combining the best of both alkaline batteries and solid polymer electrolyte-exchange membranes, do not require noble metals (Pt, Ru...) as catalysts to function, which is one of the main

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

474

Fingerprints in the Ether: Using the Physical Layer for Wireless Authentication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transmitters (users) based on their channel frequency responses in a given office environment. For several environment typical of wireless scenarios, the response of the medium along any transmit- receive path. In this paper we propose ways to exploit the fact that, in a typically rich scattering environment, the radio

Trappe, Wade

475

Measurements of flatflame velocities of diethyl ether in air Fiona Gillespiea,b  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Leclercb , Henry J. Currana a Combustion Chemistry Centre, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland on a flatflame burner using the heat flux method. The experimental pressure was 1 atm are compared with experimental and computational data reported in the literature. The data reported

Boyer, Edmond

476

Isolation of Acetobacterium sp. Strain AG, Which Reductively Debrominates Octa- and Pentabrominated Diphenyl Ether Technical Mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...day 33; all lactate was depleted by then, producing 7.5 mM...sediments contaminated with uranium(VI). Appl. Environ. Microbiol...Peterson. 2006. The 2005 World Health Organization reevaluation of...and neurotoxicity. Environ. Health Perspect. 119 . 44. Drake...

Chang Ding; Wai Ling Chow; Jianzhong He

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

477

Electronic structure of unsaturated ethers and thioethers by uv photoelectron spectroscopy andab initio quantum mechanical calculations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations and photoelectron (PE) spectroscopy measurements of ... and thioethers provided a reliable description of the electronic structure, in particular as far ...

G. Modena; F. Marcuzzi; E. Tondello; D. Ajó

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Exergy Analysis of the Process for Dimethyl Ether Production through Biomass Steam Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

About 6.37% of the total carbon is released to the environment in the form of wastewater and waste gas. ... If the heat for gasifying the biomass could be obtained from other energy resource, the carbon atom utilization could be increased greatly, and the CO2 emissions could be decreased considerably. ... A Cost?Benefit Assessment of Gasification-Based Biorefining in the Kraft Pulp and Paper Industry: Volume 1 Main Report; Princeton University: Princeton, NJ, 2006. ...

Xiangping Zhang; Christian Solli; Edgar G. Hertwich; Xiao Tian; Suojiang Zhang

2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

479

Environmental Microbiology (2001) 3(6), 407416 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation by a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tank (LUFT) remediation programme. A recent USGS study has estimated that as many as 9000 community, remediation actions are implemented at costs usually 10± 30% higher than those at sites without MTBE contamina- tion. The evaluation of innovative and cost-effective treatment such as bioremediation for MTBE spills

480

Biodegradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether by a Pure Bacterial Culture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...identify cost-effective remediation technologies. Relatively...treated with ENV735 as a remediation biocatalyst, but the strain...through the Small Business Innovative Research program (grant...situ bioaugmentation for remediation of chlorinated solvents in...

Paul B. Hatzinger; Kevin McClay; Simon Vainberg; Marina Tugusheva; Charles W. Condee; Robert J. Steffan

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "alcohols ethers bioesters" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Contaminated Water Using a Dense  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

discharge of organic compounds require that new, innovative tech- nologies and methods of remediation dioxide, making the DMP reactor a promising tool in the future remediation of water. Chemical and physical is transformed into a more toxic material or a substance that is more difficult to remediate, the treatment

Dandy, David

482

E-Print Network 3.0 - anesthesia ether cyclopropane Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technion, Israel Institute of Technology Collection: Chemistry 58 Three-Electron SN2 Reactions of Arylcyclopropane Cation Radicals. 2. Steric and Electronic Effects of...

483

Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Statistical Copolymers Bearing Perfluoroalkylsulfonic Acid Moieties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Number-average molecular weight (Mn) and polydispersity index (PDI) of the polymeric materials were measured using a gel permeation chromatography (GPC) system consisting of a Waters Alliance 2695 separation module, an online multiangle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector fitted with a gallium arsenide laser (power: 20 mW) operating at 690 nm (MiniDAWN, Wyatt Technology Inc.), an interferometric refractometer (Optilab DSP, Wyatt Technology Inc.), and two Polymer Laboratories mixed D columns (5 ?m bead size) connected in series. ... (23) After experimentation with several alternative neutralizing agents including pyridine and alkali metal hydroxides and carbonates, we determined that the aliphatic tertiary amine, N,N-diisopropylethylamine, produces a salt with favorable solubility and crystallization behavior. ... It is sparingly soluble in water, which facilitates isolation, and as will be shown, it may be used directly in polymerization, and under these conditions, the free amine is released and volatilized out of the polymer product. ...

Haibo Li; Andrew B. Jackson; Nathan J. Kirk; Kenneth A. Mauritz; Robson F. Storey

2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

484

SORPTION OF A NONIONIC POLYOXYETHYLENE LAURYL ETHER SURFACTANT BY 2:1 LAYER SILICATES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Surfactants find their way into the soil environment through agrochemical formulations, detergents, cosmetics, textiles and other...Ca-SWy, Ca-PC, Ca-IMV1 and Ca-IMV2. The elemental compositions of Ca-saturated clay samples were determined by inductively...

L. S. Sonon; M. L. Thompson

485

IDENTIFYING HEALTHY ALCOHOL CUSTOMS: A CULTURAL ANALYSIS COMPARING THE ITALIAN AND AMERICAN ALCOHOL CULTURES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research utilizes the methodology of qualitative research to investigate the drinking habits and culture of two countries: Italy and the United States. The thesis highlights statistical evidence provided by the two individual countries...

Williams, Cindy 1989-

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

486

Oral Squamous Cell Cancer Risk in Relation to Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Dehydrogenase-3 Genotypes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...considered unscorable. Quality control samples included...average percentage of increase in OSCC risk, and 95...corresponding proportions for wine were 3% for cases and...the magnitude of the increase was more pronounced among...associated with a 2.2% increase in OSCC risk (95% CI...

Stephen M. Schwartz; David R. Doody; E. Dawn Fitzgibbons; Sherianne Ricks; Peggy L. Porter; and Chu Chen

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Ozone-forming potential of a series of oxygenated organic compounds  

SciTech Connect

An incremental reactivity approach has been used to assess the relative ozone-forming potentials of various important oxygenated fuels/fuel additives, i.e., tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), dimethyl ether (DME), diethyl ether (DEE), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), in a variety of environments. Calculations were performed using a single-cell trajectory model, combined with the Lurmann-Carter-Coyner chemical mechanism, with (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratios ranging from 4 to 20. This work provides the first quantitative assessment of the air quality impact of release of these important oxygenated compounds. ETBE and DEE are the two most reactive compounds on a per carbon equivalent basis, while TBA is the least reactive species. At a (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratio of 8, which is generally typical of polluted urban areas in the United States, TBA, DME, MTBE, and ETBE all have incremental reactivities less than or equal to that of the urban NMHC mix. Thus, use of these additives in fuels may have a beneficial impact on urban ozone levels.

Japar, S.M.; Wallington, T.J.; Rudy, S.J.; Chang, Tai Y. (Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI (USA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Total Blender Net Input of Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Input Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquid Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Oxygenates/Renewables Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - Conventional, CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

489

Total Refinery Net Input of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Alaskan Crude Oil Receipts Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

490

Refinery & Blenders Net Input of Crude Oil  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Input Input Product: Total Crude Oil & Petroleum Products Crude Oil Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Normal Butane Isobutane Other Liquids Hydrogen/Oxygenates/Renewables/Other Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Oxygenates (excl. Fuel Ethanol) Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) All Other Oxygenates Renewable Fuels (incl. Fuel Ethanol) Fuel Ethanol Renewable Diesel Fuel Other Renewable Fuels Other Hydrocarbons Unfinished Oils (net) Unfinished Oils, Naphthas and Lighter Unfinished Oils, Kerosene and Light Gas Oils Unfinished Oils, Heavy Gas Oils Residuum Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC) (net) MGBC - Reformulated MGBC - Reformulated - RBOB MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Alcohol MGBC - Reformulated, RBOB for Blending w/ Ether MGBC - Reformulated, GTAB MGBC - Conventional MGBC - CBOB MGBC - Conventional, GTAB MGBC - Other Conventional Aviation Gasoline Blending Components (net) Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day

491

Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year's research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

Crivello, J.V.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources. Annual performance report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to design and synthesize novel monomers which orginate from renewable biological sources and to carry out their rapid, efficient, pollution-free and energy efficient cationic polymerization to useful products under the influence of ultraviolet light or heat. A summary of the results of the past year`s research on cationically polymerizable monomers derived from renewable sources is presented. Three major areas of investigation corresponding to the different classes of naturally occurring starting materials were investigated; epoxidized terpenes and natural rubber and vinyl ethers from alcohols and carbohydrates.

Crivello, J.V.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

The toxicity of triclosan, bisphenol A, bisphenol A diglycidyl ether to the regeneration of cnidarian, Hydra magnipapillata  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Triclosan, bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A ... cosmetics, cleaners and plastic bowls. However, triclosan has been detected in sewage samples after ... are commonly exposed to phenolic chemicals such as triclosan

Hyung-Geun Park; Min-Kyeong Yeo

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Biodegradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and Other Fuel Oxygenates by a New Strain, Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and the O2 consumption rate was measured with a 12-mm...France). The measured rates were corrected for endogenous...Cells were broken by three passes through a French press...from 105 to 200C at a rate of 10C/min. Helium...flushed with a Spectra-Physics SCM 400 vacuum flusher...

Alan François; Hugues Mathis; Davy Godefroy; Pascal Piveteau; Françoise Fayolle; Frédéric Monot

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Process Design, Simulation and Integration of Dimethyl Ether (DME) Production from Shale Gas by Direct and Indirect Methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reaction of partial oxidation is exothermic and the residence time is very short (? = 3.6-72 ms). The overall reaction between CH4 and O2 is; CH 4 + 0.5O 2 ? CO + 2H 2 ?H o 298K = ?36 kJ/mol (3... sufficient cooling of reactor to continue healthy reactor conditions because the reactions that occur in reactor are highly exothermic [32]. Type of reactor has significant effect on the final products in reactor. Multitubular fixed-bed reactors...

Karagoz, Secgin

2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

496

Performance and Emissions of a Compression-Ignition Engine Fueled with Dimethyl Ether and Rapeseed Oil Blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sorenson and Mikkelsen2 had studied DME in a modified diesel engine, and their results showed that the engine could achieve ultralow-emission prospects without a fundamental change in combustion systems. ... Meanwhile, these parameters are compared with those of pure diesel fuel in order to clarify the effect of blends on the combustion and emission of engines (a CI engine cannot run for much longer of a period with pure DME fuel, so a comparison is only made with pure diesel fuel). ... Moreover, owing to the lower calorific value of the blend compared to diesel fuel, the fuel supply amount per cycle for blend operation is enlarged by increasing the plunger stroke of the fuel pump in order to make the power and torque output of the blends approach those of the corresponding diesel engine. ...

Wang Ying; Zhou Longbao

2007-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

497

Fast Scan Ion Mobility Spectra of Diethyl, Dipropyl, and Dibutyl Ethers as Determined by the Plasma Chromatograph  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......v U U) The Beta VII plasma chromatograph is equipped...signal produced has a 5 kHz bandwidth. The oscilloscope...oscilloscope. Under identical plasma chromatographic conditions...a reaction chamber at atmospheric pressure where collisional...formed. The use of the plasma chromatograph as an identi......

Michael M. Metro; Roy A. Keller

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Induction of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE)-Oxidizing Activity in Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 by MTBE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...directly from the culture vessels. In experiments that followed...time course of organic acid consumption as well as MTBE oxidation...determine the extent of MTBE consumption and the accumulation of TBA...detectable growth or MTBE consumption occurred when cells were incubated...

Erika L. Johnson; Christy A. Smith; Kirk T. O'Reilly; Michael R. Hyman

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Enhancing Transport of Hydrogenophaga flava ENV735 for Bioaugmentation of Aquifers Contaminated with Methyl tert-Butyl Ether  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...column was washed with the surfactant solution. d The sand was prewashed with the surfactant solution, and the cells...washed with BSM without surfactant. This work was supported...bacteria through a sandy soil. Appl. Environ. Microbiol...

Sheryl H. Streger; Simon Vainberg; Hailiang Dong; Paul B. Hatzinger

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Treatment of methyl t-butyl ether contaminated water using a dense medium plasma reactor, a mechanistic and kinetic investigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, a mechanistic and kinetic investigation Derek C. Johnson1 , Vasgen A. Shamamian2 , John H. Callahan2 , Ferencz S in the future remediation of water. Chemical and physical mechanisms, together with carbon balances, are used

Dandy, David