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Sample records for air-cooled chiller condenser

  1. Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Electric Chillers | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartmentEnergy Air-Cooled Electric Chillers

  2. Hybrid Air-Cooled Condenser - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hybrid Air-Cooled Condenser National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Geothermal energy has been a viable energy source...

  3. Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Electric Chillers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements for electric chillers, which are a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  4. Air-cooled Condensers in Next-generation Conversion Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: to reduce the costs associated with the generation of electrical power from air-cooled binary plants.

  5. Chapter 14: Chiller Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiessen, A.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol defines a chiller measure as a project that directly impacts equipment within the boundary of a chiller plant. A chiller plant encompasses a chiller--or multiple chillers--and associated auxiliary equipment. This protocol primarily covers electric-driven chillers and chiller plants. It does not include thermal energy storage and absorption chillers fired by natural gas or steam, although a similar methodology may be applicable to these chilled water system components. Chillers provide mechanical cooling for commercial, institutional, multiunit residential, and industrial facilities. Cooling may be required for facility heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or for process cooling loads (e.g., data centers, manufacturing process cooling). The vapor compression cycle, or refrigeration cycle, cools water in the chilled water loop by absorbing heat and rejecting it to either a condensing water loop (water cooled chillers) or to the ambient air (air-cooled chillers).

  6. Air-cooled condensers eliminate plant water use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wurtz, W.; Peltier, R. [SPX Cooling Technologies Inc. (United States)

    2008-09-15

    River or ocean water has been the mainstay for condensing turbine exhaust steam since the first steam turbine began generating electricity. A primary challenge facing today's plant developers, especially in drought-prone regions, is incorporating processes that reduce plant water use and consumption. One solution is to shed the conventional mindset that once-through cooling is the only option and adopt dry cooling technologies that reduce plant water use from a flood to a few sips. A case study at the Astoria Energy plant, New York City is described. 14 figs.

  7. Interim Report: Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants Improved Binary Cycle Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel S. Wendt; Greg L. Mines

    2010-09-01

    As geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop are utilized for power generation, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. This is expected to be the case with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) resources. These resources will likely require wells drilled to depths greater than encountered with hydrothermal resources, and will have the added costs for stimulation to create the subsurface reservoir. It is postulated that plants generating power from these resources will likely utilize the binary cycle technology where heat is rejected sensibly to the ambient. The consumptive use of a portion of the produced geothermal fluid for evaporative heat rejection in the conventional flash-steam conversion cycle is likely to preclude its use with EGS resources. This will be especially true in those areas where there is a high demand for finite supplies of water. Though they have no consumptive use of water, using air-cooling systems for heat rejection has disadvantages. These systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at the higher dry-bulb temperature), increased parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power generation on both a diurnal and annual basis (larger variation in the dry-bulb temperature). This is an interim report for the task ‘Air-Cooled Condensers in Next- Generation Conversion Systems’. The work performed was specifically aimed at a plant that uses commercially available binary cycle technologies with an EGS resource. Concepts were evaluated that have the potential to increase performance, lower cost, or mitigate the adverse effects of off-design operation. The impact on both cost and performance were determined for the concepts considered, and the scenarios identified where a particular concept is best suited. Most, but not all, of the concepts evaluated are associated with the rejection of heat. This report specifically addresses three of the concepts evaluated: the use of recuperation, the use of turbine reheat, and the non-consumptive use of EGS make-up water to supplement heat rejection

  8. Report on Preliminary Engineering Study for Installation of an Air Cooled Steam Condenser at Brawley Geothermal Plant, Unit No. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1982-03-01

    The Brawley Geothermal Project comprises a single 10 MW nominal geothermal steam turbine-generator unit which has been constructed and operated by the Southern California Edison Company (SCE). Geothermal steam for the unit is supplied through contract by Union Oil Company which requires the return of all condensate. Irrigation District (IID) purchases the electric power generated and provides irrigation water for cooling tower make-up to the plant for the first-five years of operation, commencing mid-1980. Because of the unavailability of irrigation water from IID in the future, SCE is investigating the application and installation of air cooled heat exchangers in conjunction with the existing wet (evaporative) cooling tower with make-up based on use of 180 gpm (nominal) of the geothermal condensate which may be made available by the steam supplier.

  9. Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Power Plants | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research at NRELDepartment ofEnergy 1 DOEEnergy Air-Cooled

  10. Effectiveness of Shading Air-Cooled Condensers of Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ElSherbini, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

    2010-01-01

    of the condenser and the high ambient temperatures can be detrimental for the energy performance. The effectiveness of shading the condensing unit to mitigate this adverse impact is investigated in this paper. A limiting analysis compares the performance of several...

  11. Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Optimization of hybrid-waterair-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011....

  12. Integrated Chiller System Reduce Building Operation and Maintenance Costs in Cold Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheets, N.; Liu, M.

    2003-01-01

    Although water-cooled chillers are more energy efficient than air-cooled chillers, a majority of chilled water systems use air-cooled chillers. In cold weather climates, air-cooled chillers are capable of functioning in low ambient temperatures...

  13. Improving Vortex Generators to Enhance the Performance of Air-Cooled Condensers in a Geothermal Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal

    2005-09-01

    This report summarizes work at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop strategies to enhance air-side heat transfer in geothermal air-cooled condensers such that it should not significantly increase pressure drop and parasitic fan pumping power. The work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, Yokohama National University, and the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India. A combined experimental and numerical investigation was performed to investigate heat transfer enhancement techniques that may be applicable to largescale air-cooled condensers such as those used in geothermal power applications. A transient heat transfer visualization and measurement technique was employed in order to obtain detailed distributions of local heat transfer coefficients on model fin surfaces. Pressure drop measurements were obtained for a variety of tube and winglet configurations using a single-channel flow apparatus that included four tube rows in a staggered array. Heat transfer and pressure drop measurements were also acquired in a separate multiple-tube row apparatus in the Single Blow Test Facility. In addition, a numerical modeling technique was developed to predict local and average heat transfer for these low-Reynolds number flows, with and without winglets. Representative experimental and numerical results were obtained that reveal quantitative details of local finsurface heat transfer in the vicinity of a circular tube with a single delta winglet pair downstream of the cylinder. Heat transfer and pressure-drop results were obtained for flow Reynolds numbers based on channel height and mean flow velocity ranging from 700 to 6500. The winglets were of triangular (delta) shape with a 1:2 or 1:3 height/length aspect ratio and a height equal to 90% of the channel height. Overall mean fin-surface heat transfer results indicate a significant level of heat transfer enhancement (in terms of Colburn j-factor) associated with deployment of the winglets with circular as well as oval tubes. In general, toe-in (common flow up) type winglets appear to have better performance than the toe-out (common flow down) type winglets. Comparisons of heat transfer and pressure drop results for the elliptical tube versus a circular tube with and without winglets are provided. During the course of their independent research, all of the researchers have established that about 10 to 30% enhancement in Colburn j-factor is expected. However, actual increase in heat transfer rate from a heat exchanger employing finned tubes with winglets may be smaller, perhaps on the order of 2 to 5%. It is also concluded that for any specific application, more full-size experimentation is needed to optimize the winglet design for a specific heat exchanger application. If in place of a circular tube, an oval tube can be economically used in a bundle, it is expected that the pressure drop across the tube bundle with the application of vortex generators (winglets) will be similar to that in a conventional circular tube bundle. It is hoped that the results of this research will demonstrate the benefits of applying vortex generators (winglets) on the fins to improve the heat transfer from the air-side of the tube bundle.

  14. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  15. Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n cEnergy (AZ,LocalEfficiency |< Back

  16. High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual...

  17. Air-to-air turbocharged air cooling versus air-to-water turbocharged air cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moranne, J.-P.; Lukas, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    In Europe, turbocharged air in diesel engines used in on-road vehicles is cooled only by air. It is expected that by 1990, ten to twelve percent of European heavy trucks with diesel engines will cool turbocharged air by water. Air-to-air turbocharges air cooling is reviewed and the evolution of air-to-water turbocharged air cooling presented before the two systems are compared.

  18. Introduction of Heat Recovery Chiller Control and Water System Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, J.

    2006-01-01

    The styles, feature and main concerns of heat recovery water system are discussed, and the entering condenser water temperature control is recommended for higher chiller efficiency and reliable operation. Three optimized water system designs...

  19. Health Monitoring and Continuous Commissioning of Centrifugal Chiller Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, J.; Wang, S.

    2004-01-01

    °C Tev Evaporating temperature °C Tchwr Chilled-water return temperature °C Pev Evaporating pressure Pa Mchw Chilled-water flow rate L/s Tcd Condensing temperature °C Tecw Entering condenser water temperature °C Tdis Compressor... discharge temperature °C Tlcw Leaving condenser water temperature °C Pev Condensing pressure Pa Mcw Condenser water flow rate L/s Welec Chiller electrical power input kW PCA models based on thermodynamic knowledge Two PCA models were here...

  20. Liquid metal reactor air cooling baffle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, A.

    1994-08-16

    A baffle is provided between a relatively hot containment vessel and a relatively cold silo for enhancing air cooling performance. The baffle includes a perforate inner wall positionable outside the containment vessel to define an inner flow riser therebetween, and an imperforate outer wall positionable outside the inner wall to define an outer flow riser therebetween. Apertures in the inner wall allow thermal radiation to pass laterally therethrough to the outer wall, with cooling air flowing upwardly through the inner and outer risers for removing heat. 3 figs.

  1. Liquid metal reactor air cooling baffle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A baffle is provided between a relatively hot containment vessel and a relatively cold silo for enhancing air cooling performance. The baffle includes a perforate inner wall positionable outside the containment vessel to define an inner flow riser therebetween, and an imperforate outer wall positionable outside the inner wall to define an outer flow riser therebetween. Apertures in the inner wall allow thermal radiation to pass laterally therethrough to the outer wall, with cooling air flowing upwardly through the inner and outer risers for removing heat.

  2. Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Ice Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for air-cooled ice machines, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  3. Air Cooling Technology for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Air Cooling Technology for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  4. A fundamentally new approach to air-cooled heat exchangers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. A longstanding but largely unrealized opportunity in energy efficiency concerns the performance of air-cooled heat exchangers used in air conditioners, heat pumps, and refrigeration equipment. In the case of residential air conditioners, for example, the typical performance of the air cooled heat exchangers used for condensers and evaporators is at best marginal from the standpoint the of achieving maximum the possible coefficient of performance (COP). If by some means it were possible to reduce the thermal resistance of these heat exchangers to a negligible level, a typical energy savings of order 30% could be immediately realized. It has long been known that a several-fold increase in heat exchanger size, in conjunction with the use of much higher volumetric flow rates, provides a straight-forward path to this goal but is not practical from the standpoint of real world applications. The tension in the market place between the need for energy efficiency and logistical considerations such as equipment size, cost and operating noise has resulted in a compromise that is far from ideal. This is the reason that a typical residential air conditioner exhibits significant sensitivity to reductions in fan speed and/or fouling of the heat exchanger surface. The prevailing wisdom is that little can be done to improve this situation; the 'fan-plus-finned-heat-sink' heat exchanger architecture used throughout the energy sector represents an extremely mature technology for which there is little opportunity for further optimization. But the fact remains that conventional fan-plus-finned-heat-sink technology simply doesn't work that well. Their primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this boundary layer region, diffusive transport is the dominant mechanism for heat transfer. The resulting thermal bottleneck largely determines the thermal resistance of the heat exchanger. No one has yet devised a practical solution to the boundary layer problem. Another longstanding problem is inevitable fouling of the heat exchanger surface over time by particulate matter and other airborne contaminants. This problem is especially important in residential air conditioner systems where often little or no preventative maintenance is practiced. The heat sink fouling problem also remains unsolved. The third major problem (alluded to earlier) concerns inadequate airflow to heat exchanger resulting from restrictions on fan noise. The air-cooled heat exchanger described here solves all of the above three problems simultaneously. The 'Air Bearing Heat Exchanger' provides a several-fold reduction in boundary layer thickness, intrinsic immunity to heat sink fouling, and drastic reductions in noise. It is also very practical from the standpoint of cost, complexity, ruggedness, etc. Successful development of this technology is also expected to have far reaching impact in the IT sector from the standpointpoint of solving the 'Thermal Brick Wall' problem (which currently limits CPU clocks speeds to {approx}3 GHz), and increasing concern about the the electrical power consumption of our nation's information technology infrastructure.

  5. Natural gas powered rotary water chiller development. Phase 1. Final report, September 1991-June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanborn, D.F.; Lakowske, R.L.; Byars, M.

    1993-06-01

    Objectives of the project were to evaluate performance and marketability of a rotary engine driven screw compressor for water chiller applications. Choice of a rotary engine was aimed at rotary compressor. Initial testing done with modified stock 13B rotary engine and experimental open compressor. Engine torque not sufficient for 70 ton compressor. Analysis concluded 50 ton best match for air cooled applications and 60 ton best for water cooled to get highest gas COP. Market analysis covered total water chiller market assuming relative costs of power would lead to gas cooling sales. Allowable cost premium for 3 yr payback determined for areas of country. Premium cost of 100 ton air cooled unit estimated and compared to market allowable premiums. Concluded product acceptance will be primarily in niche markets with high local electric power demand charges.

  6. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF AIR-COOLED FUEL CELLS Setareh Shahsavari

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    - cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). In the modeled fuel cell stack, forced air flow for thermal analysis of air-cooled PEMFC stacks, where temperature non-uniformity is high and thermal

  7. Parallel Condensing System As A Heat Sink For Power Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akhtar, S. Z.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional heat sink technologies of use the condenser/cooling tower arrangement or an air cooled condenser for condensing exhaust steam from steam turbines. Each of these two systems have certain advantages as well as disadvantages. This paper...

  8. Modification and Validation of a Universal Thermodynamic Chiller Model Used to Evaluate the Performance of Water-Cooled Centrifugal Chillers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa, I. E.; Cathey, M.; Medina, M. A.; Nutter, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    at the condenser. The model was developed as a tool for analyzing chiller performance. It was designed to predict the coefficient of performance (COP) and the total electrical energy consumed by the compressor. The input parameters included time-series values...

  9. Chillers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla,Thermal GradientChateau TebeauFuels JumpChile: EnergyChillers

  10. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Air-Cooled Ice Machines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for air-cooled ice machines, a product category covered by ENERGY STAR efficiency requirements. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies purchase ENERGY STAR-qualified products or FEMP-designated products in all product categories covered by these programs and in any acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  11. Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP Applications, April 2005 Guide to Developing Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Absorption for CHP...

  12. High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses the status of research at NREL on high temperature air-cooled power electronics thermal design.

  13. Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    North, William Edward (Winter Springs, FL)

    2000-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

  14. Evaluation of Aqua-Ammonia Chiller Technologies and Field Site Installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL

    2007-09-01

    The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has sponsored Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review, select, and evaluate advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia, chiller technologies. The selection criteria was that units have COP values of 0.67 or better at Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) 95 F outdoor rating conditions, an active refrigerant flow control, and a variable-speed condenser fan. These features are expected to allow these units to operate at higher ambient temperatures (up to the maximum operating temperature of 110 F) with minimal degradation in performance. ORNL evaluated three potential manufacturers of advanced, gas-fired, 5-ton, aqua-ammonia chillers-Robur, Ambian, and Cooling Technologies. Unfortunately, Robur did not meet the COP requirements and Cooling Technologies could not deliver a unit to be tested at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-ORNL environmental chamber testing facility for thermally activated heat pumps. This eliminated these two technologies from further consideration, leaving only the Ambian chillers for evaluation. Two Ambian chillers were evaluated at the DOE-ORNL test facility. Overall these chillers operated well over a wide range of ambient conditions with minimal degradation in performance due to several control strategies used such as a variable speed condenser fan, a modulating burner, and active refrigerant flow control. These Ambian pre-commercial units were selected for installation and field testing at three federal facilities. NFESC worked with ORNL to assist with the site selection for installation and evaluation of these chillers. Two sites (ORNL and Naval Surface Warfare Center [NSWC] Corona) had a single chiller unit installed; and at one site (Naval Amphibious Base [NAB] Little Creek), two 5-ton chillers linked together were installed to provide 10 tons of cooling. A chiller link controller developed under this project was evaluated in the field test at Little Creek.

  15. Air Cooling for High Temperature Power Electronics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

    2014-09-01

    Current emphasis on developing high-temperature power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely air-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-air heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and air supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an air-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline air-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction temperature. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction temperature, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.

  16. Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

    1998-01-01

    Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

  17. Liquid Cooling v. Air Cooling Evaluation in the Maui High-Performance...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Cooling Evaluation in the Maui High-Performance Computing Center Liquid Cooling v. Air Cooling Evaluation in the Maui High-Performance Computing Center Study evaluates the...

  18. Advanced Low Temperature Absorption Chiller Module Integrated...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Absorption Chiller Module Integrated with a CHP System at a Distributed Data Center - Presentation by Exergy Partners Corp., June 2011 Advanced Low Temperature...

  19. Healthcare Energy: Spotlight on Chiller Plants

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building Technologies Office conducted a healthcare energy end-use monitoring project for two sites. Read details about the chiller plant energy results.

  20. Air cooling of a VCSEL diode array on quartz Christiane Gimkiewicz, Jurgen Jahns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Air cooling of a VCSEL diode array on quartz Christiane Gimkiewicz, J¨urgen Jahns Planar optics dissipate heat power densities on the order of 10 W/cm2 . Air cooling is a common method for heat removal a quartz substrate. Applying a constant electrical power the variation of the air flow results

  1. Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Chillers Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency...

  2. Forced-Air Cooling Reduces 1-MCP Application Duration on Plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.) without Reducing Effectiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crisosto, Carlos H.

    257 Forced-Air Cooling Reduces 1-MCP Application Duration on Plums (Prunus salicina Lindl.) without-air cooling, ripening, saving energy, shelf life, softening Abstract A new application technology of applying 1-MCP during forced-air cooling (FAC) was tested in plums. The application time for 1-MCP

  3. Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Keolian

    2011-03-31

    This Final Report describes the accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement project DE-FC26-04NT42113 - Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller - whose goal is to design, fabricate and test a thermoacoustic piezoelectric generator and chiller system for use on over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel trucks, driven alternatively by the waste heat of the main diesel engine exhaust or by a burner integrated into the thermoacoustic system. The thermoacoustic system would utilize engine exhaust waste heat to generate electricity and cab air conditioning, and would also function as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for idle reduction. The unit was to be tested in Volvo engine performance and endurance test cells and then integrated onto a Class 8 over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel truck for further testing on the road. The project has been a collaboration of The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Clean Power Resources Inc., and Volvo Powertrain (Mack Trucks Inc.). Cost share funding was provided by Applied Research Laboratory, and by Clean Power Resources Inc via its grant from Innovation Works - funding that was derived from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Los Alamos received its funding separately through DOE Field Work Proposal 04EE09.

  4. Modeling and optimization of a chiller plant Xiupeng Wei*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    . The chillers have varying energy efficiency. Since the chiller plant model derived from data-driven approach of chillers, cooling towers, pumps and chilled water storage tanks. It is frequently used to air conditioning was found and controlled to reduce fluc- tuation in chiller efficiency in different operating conditions

  5. Cold side thermal energy storage system for improved operation of air cooled power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Daniel David

    2012-01-01

    Air cooled power plants experience significant performance fluctuations as plant cooling capacity reduces due to higher daytime temperature than nighttime temperature. The purpose of this thesis is to simulate the detailed ...

  6. Absorption chillers: Part of the solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Occhionero, A.J. (American Gas Cooling Center, Arlington, VA (United States)); Hughes, P.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Reid, E.A. (Columbia Gas Distribution Co., Columbus, OH (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming, and implementation economics are considered as they relate to the advisability of expanding the application of absorption chillers. Introductory and background information are provided to put the discussion in the proper context. Then all four issues are discussed separately as they relate to absorption chillers. Acid rain and ozone depletion concerns, and implementation economics, are found to support the expanded use of absorption chillers. The global warming concern is found to be more of a gray area, but the areas of benefit correspond well with the conditions of greatest economic advantage. All things considered, absorption chillers are believed to be part of the environmental and economic solution. It is further believed that integrated resource planning (IRP) processes that consider electric and gas technologies on an equal footing would come to the same conclusion for many regions of the United States. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Effect of Ambient Design Temperature on Air-Cooled Binary Plant Output

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Air-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular air temperature. Nominally this air temperature is the annual mean or average air temperature for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design air temperature has on power generation for an air-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid temperature and fluctuating ambient temperatures. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet temperature limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal air-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient temperatures as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.

  8. Development of a compensation chamber for use in a multiple condenser loop heat pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roche, Nicholas Albert

    2013-01-01

    The performance of many electronic devices is presently limited by heat dissipation rates. One potential solution lies in high-performance air-cooled heat exchangers like PHUMP, the multiple condenser loop heat pipe presented ...

  9. Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    objective: To improve the efficiency and output variability of geothermal-based ORC power production systems with minimal water consumption by deploying: 1) a hybrid-waterair...

  10. Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    selected because it would provide both cost and performance advantages. The evaporative system, however, consumes a significant amount of water during heat rejection that would...

  11. Development of an air-cooled, loop-type heat pipe with multiple condensers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kariya, H. Arthur (Harumichi Arthur)

    2012-01-01

    Thermal management challenges are prevalent in various applications ranging from consumer electronics to high performance computing systems. Heat pipes are capillary-pumped devices that take advantage of the latent heat ...

  12. Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI VenturesNewSt.InformationImprovements Oil andOpowergeothermal ORC system

  13. Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills and ReduceNovemberDOE'sManagementOpenEIthe U.S.

  14. Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal Lab

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand DaltonSolar EnergyAerodynallIndustriasInformationProductsandCall

  15. Hybrid Air-Cooled Condenser for Power Plants and other applications -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHighHussein Khalil Hussein Khalil Director of the Nuclear

  16. Calculating chiller emissions and source energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aumann, D.J. [Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Various analyses have compared the emissions and over-all source energy use of different chillers. However, these analyses are typically based on national or regional electric power plant annual averages or rely on outdated emissions data that do not account for scrubbers and other pollution controls applied in response to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). Other analyses have used power generation data for a specific utility but require hourly generation profiles, which are difficult to obtain. Thus, many of the existing models are either too general to provide valuable information or too complex to be practical for the day-to-day applications engineers face. This paper introduces a simple yet reliable hand calculation method for estimating the combustion-related emissions and source energy use of gas and electric chillers. The user needs to supply only two inputs: annual chiller system energy use and the utility`s power generation mix during chiller operation. The analysis supplies electric power plant heat rates and emission factors. Referenced guidelines are documented for all calculation inputs.

  17. Converting Centrifugal Chillers to HCFC-123 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siebert, B.

    1994-01-01

    of large water chillers in addressing the CFC issue. These owners, for a variety of reasons, chose to address the issue through the conversion of the existing equipment to an HCFC refrigerant. For each of the three owners, the option of converting...

  18. Reducing Air Compressor Work by Using Inlet Air Cooling and Dehumidification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardy, Mark James

    2011-02-22

    both vapor compression and absorption cycle chillers to cool and dehumidify the inlet air. The results show that the performance increases as much as 8 percent for the compressor system with absorption inlet cooling and as much as 5 percent when using...

  19. Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Henry C.

    2012-01-01

    is Just Prior to Cooling Air Entering IT Equipment FigureGadgil, A.J. and Tschudi, W.F. , Air Corrosivity in U.S.Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in

  20. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers Absorption chillers use heat, instead of mechanical energy, to provide cooling. The mechanical vapor compressor is replaced...

  1. Promising Technology: Magnetic Bearing Variable-Speed Centrifugal Chillers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Magnetic bearing variable speed centrifugal chillers save energy compared to conventional chillers by eliminating friction with the magnetic bearings and by improving efficiency at partial loads with the variable speed drive. In addition to saving energy, the magnetic bearings eliminate the maintenance costs associated with lubricating conventional metal bearings.

  2. Data Mining for Modeling Chiller Systems in Data Centers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Data Mining for Modeling Chiller Systems in Data Centers Debprakash Patnaik1 , Manish Marwah2 in data centers, particularly the chiller ensemble. These infrastructures are poorly understood due transitions and aid in diagnostics and prediction. We showcase experimental results using a HP data center

  3. Evaluation of chiller modeling approaches and their usability for fault detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sreedharan, Priya

    2001-01-01

    turbines. The vapor-compression chiller models include algorithms for centrifugal, reciprocating, and screw

  4. ISSUANCE 2015-12-11: Final Rule Regarding Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Rule Regarding Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

  5. Thermodynamic modeling and optimization of a screw compressor chiller and cooling tower system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graves, Rhett David

    2004-09-30

    , absorption, thermoelectric, and thermoacoustic (Gordon and Ng 1995). Chiller models have been used to predict the performance of thermal storage 6 systems (Henze et al. 1997) and whole chiller plant systems (Lau et al. 1985). Chiller models have also been... used to aid in the development of control algorithms for chiller plants (Flake et al. 1997). There have been several attempts to generate an ?optimal? operating scheme using the Whillier cooling tower model, a chiller model, or a combination of both...

  6. Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo's structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated.

  7. Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

    1995-04-11

    A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo`s structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated. 5 figures.

  8. Demonstration of HVAC chiller control for power grid frequency regulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Po-An (Po-An Leo)

    2015-01-01

    Secondary frequency regulation is a necessary electric grid ancillary service that balances electric power system supply and demand on short time intervals of seconds to minutes. Commercial HVAC chillers may be well ...

  9. Adaptive Optimization of Central Chiller Plant Equipment Sequencing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.; Priest, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    the optimal sequence of central refrigeration equipment (chillers, cooling towers, pumps) to operate in an industrial plant. The control algorithm adapts the optimal equipaent sequence to reflect changes in the plant's cooling load and outside air... primary pumps totaling 625 horsepower and two chilled water booster pumps totaling 200 horsepower. Heat rejected by the chillers' vapor-compression cycles is rejected to the atmosphere by five cooling towers totaling 4,335 tons of refrigeration...

  10. Semi-Empirical Screw Compressor Chiller Model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, I. C.; Culp, C.; Graves, R. D.

    2008-01-01

    temperature difference between the outlet and inlet of the evaporator. The required measured parameters of the model are the evaporator water inlet and outlet temperatures and mass flow, the refrigerant temperature in the condenser and evaporator...

  11. Cost reduction in absorption chillers: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1989-02-01

    A research program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has addressed the possibility of dramatically lowering the first costs of absorption chillers through lowered material intensity and the use of lower cost materials, primarily in the heat exchangers which make up the bulk of the operating components of these systems. This must be done while retaining the best performance characteristics available today, a gross design point coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.3 and a net design (seasonal) average COP of 1.0 (0.90) in a directly fired, double effect unit. We have investigated several possible routes to these goals, and here report on these findings, focusing on the areas that appear most promising. The candidate technologies include the use of polymer film heat exchangers in several applications, the use of thin strips of new, corrosion resistant alloys to replace thicker, less impervious metals in applications exposed to gas flames, and copper or cupro-nickel foils in contact with system water. The use of such materials is only possible in the context of new heat exchanger and system designs, which are also discussed. To lend focus, we have concentrated on a directly fired double effect system providing capacity only. If successful, these techniques will also find wide applicability in heat pumps, cogeneration systems, solar cooling, heat recovery and chemical process heat transfer. 46 refs., 24 figs., 22 tabs.

  12. Cooling circuit for steam and air-cooled turbine nozzle stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Itzel, Gary Michael (Clifton Park, NY); Yu, Yufeng (Guilderland, NY)

    2002-01-01

    The turbine vane segment includes inner and outer walls with a vane extending therebetween. The vane includes leading and trailing edge cavities and intermediate cavities. An impingement plate is spaced from the outer wall to impingement-cool the outer wall. Post-impingement cooling air flows through holes in the outer wall to form a thin air-cooling film along the outer wall. Cooling air is supplied an insert sleeve with openings in the leading edge cavity for impingement-cooling the leading edge. Holes through the leading edge afford thin-film cooling about the leading edge. Cooling air is provided the trailing edge cavity and passes through holes in the side walls of the vane for thin-film cooling of the trailing edge. Steam flows through a pair of intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling of the side walls. Post-impingement steam flows to the inner wall for impingement-cooling of the inner wall and returns the post-impingement cooling steam through inserts in other intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling the side walls of the vane.

  13. Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Henry C.; Han, Taewon; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Tschudi, William F.

    2011-07-17

    There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: closed and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percent age of the recirculation air is make-up air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both closed and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups: (1) Outside - coupons sheltered, located near or at the supply air inlet, but located before any filtering, (2) Supply - starting just after initial air filtering continuing inside the plenums and ducts feeding the data center rooms, and (3) Inside located inside the data center rooms near the IT equipment. Each coupon was exposed for thirty days and then sent to a laboratory for a corrosion rate measurement analysis. The goal of this research was to investigate whether gaseous contamination is a concern for U.S. data center operators as it relates to the reliability of IT equipment. More specifically, should there be an increased concern if outside air for IT equipment cooling is used To begin to answer this question limited exploratory measurements of corrosion rates in operating data centers in various locations were undertaken. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the precision of the measurements (2) What are the approximate statistical distributions of copper and silver corrosion rates in the sampled data centers(3) To what extent are copper and silver corrosion measurements related (4) What is the relationship of corrosion rate measurements between outside-air cooled data centers compared to closed data centers (5) How do corrosivity measurements relate to IT equipment failure rates The data from our limited sample size suggests that most United States data center operators should not be concerned with environmental gaseous contamination causing high IT equipment failure rates even when using outside-air cooling. The research team recommends additional basic research on how environmental conditions, specifically gaseous contamination, affect electronic equipment reliability.

  14. A Control Scheme of Enhanced Reliability for Multiple Chiller Plants Using Mergerd Building Cooling Load Measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, S.; Sun, Y.; Huang, G.; Zhu, N.

    2008-01-01

    the cooling load using chiller models based on the instantaneous chiller electrical power input and condition measured variables. The control performance of the proposed scheme is validated in this paper....

  15. A neuro-computational approach to chiller fault identification and isolation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prabhu, Rahul Srinivas

    2002-01-01

    This thesis develops a steady state model of a reciprocating, single-stage, vapor compression chiller, based on thermodynamic principles and the ASHRAE HVAC-1 primary toolkit model, to predict and diagnose the behavior of the chiller...

  16. Design Considerations, Installation and Operation of the Two-Stage Parallel Flow Absorption Chiller 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hufford, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    process heat recovery. The high performance (COP = 1.14), and reduced maintenance cost of the two-stage parallel flow absorption chiller provides a notable improvement over the conventional single stage absorption chillers (COP = .6). The infamous...

  17. Predicting Improved Chiller Performance Through Thermodynamic Modeling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa, I. E.; Cathey, M.; Medina, M. A.; Nutter, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    Technology Conference, Houston, TX, April 22-23, 1998 Cooling ~ WaterLOOp Tower T ctmJ in Qcond T cond Condenser T cond nu' Expanding device Refrigerant Loop Q evap =Qcool Evaporator T ovap nul in T ovop Tev-"p WaterLoop Cooling...

  18. Helium-Based Soundwave Chiller: Trillium: A Helium-Based Sonic Chiller- Tons of Freezing with 0 GWP Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Penn State is designing a freezer that substitutes the use of sound waves and environmentally benign refrigerant for synthetic refrigerants found in conventional freezers. Called a thermoacoustic chiller, the technology is based on the fact that the pressure oscillations in a sound wave result in temperature changes. Areas of higher pressure raise temperatures and areas of low pressure decrease temperatures. By carefully arranging a series of heat exchangers in a sound field, the chiller is able to isolate the hot and cold regions of the sound waves. Penn State’s chiller uses helium gas to replace synthetic refrigerants. Because helium does not burn, explode or combine with other chemicals, it is an environmentally-friendly alternative to other polluting refrigerants. Penn State is working to apply this technology on a large scale.

  19. NONEQUILIBRIUM SULFUR CAPTURE & RETENTION IN AN AIR COOLED SLAGGING COAL COMBUSTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bert Zauderer

    2003-04-21

    Calcium oxide injected in a slagging combustor reacts with the sulfur from coal combustion to form sulfur-bearing particles. The reacted particles impact and melt in the liquid slag layer on the combustor wall by the centrifugal force of the swirling combustion gases. Due to the low solubility of sulfur in slag, it must be rapidly drained from the combustor to limit sulfur gas re-evolution. Prior analyses and laboratory scale data indicated that for Coal Tech's 20 MMBtu/hour, air-cooled, slagging coal combustor slag mass flow rates in excess of 400 lb/hr should limit sulfur re-evolution. The objective of this 42-month project was to validate this sulfur-in-slag model in a group of combustor tests. A total of 36 days of testing on the combustor were completed during the period of performance of this project. This was more that double the 16 test days that were required in the original work statement. The extra tests were made possible by cost saving innovations that were made in the operation of the combustor test facility and in additional investment of Coal Tech resources in the test effort. The original project plan called for two groups of tests. The first group of tests involved the injection of calcium sulfate particles in the form of gypsum or plaster of Paris with the coal into the 20 MMBtu/hour-combustor. The second group of tests consisted of the entire two-step process, in which lime or limestone is co-injected with coal and reacts with the sulfur gas released during combustion to form calcium sulfate particles that impact and dissolve in the slag layer. Since this sulfur capture process has been validated in numerous prior tests in this combustor, the primary effort in the present project was on achieving the high slag flow rates needed to retain the sulfur in the slag.

  20. Sustainable Operation and Management of Data Center Chillers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramakrishnan, Naren

    Sustainable Operation and Management of Data Center Chillers using Temporal Data Mining Debprakash, Virginia Tech, VA 24061, USA HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA 94034, USA ABSTRACT Motivation: Data centers of data centers, including power management, networking, and cooling infrastructure, is hence crucial

  1. Covered Product Category: Water-Cooled Electric Chillers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including water-cooled electric chillers, which is a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  2. Efficient solar cooling: first ever non-tracking solar collectors powering a double effect absorption chiller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poiry, Heather Marie

    2011-01-01

    Based Performance Analysis of a Solar Absorption Cooling andExperimental Investigation of a Solar Adsorption ChillerKreith, Jan F. Kreider. "Solar Cooling." Principles of Solar

  3. ISSUANCE 2015-07-27: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  4. Energy Management of Chiller Plant for Improved Efficiency and Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, D. P.; Rice, L. S.

    1987-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-87-09-28.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 27133 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-87-09-28.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ENERGY MANAGEMENT... Physical Plant Division Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA ABSTRACT This paper describes a success story on energy man agement of the chiller plant at Georgia Tech. A multilevel control and optimization method is implemented by using...

  5. Best Practices for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms Efficient HVAC Systems: Variable-Speed-Drive Chillers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    facilities. At part-load conditions, the pumps and heat rejection device often operated at constant speed-Speed-Drive Chillers Tengfang Xu June 15, 2005 The project is funded by the California Energy Commission's Industrial of individual components and subsystems in the plant. Major components include chillers, water pumps

  6. Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application). The experiments and simulations focused on the air-cooled Ballard Nexa fuel cell. The experimental

  7. Design and Analysis of High-Performance Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger with an Integrated Capillary-Pumped Loop Heat Pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Matthew

    We report the design and analysis of a high-power air-cooled heat exchanger capable of dissipating over 1000 W with 33 W of input electrical power and an overall thermal resistance of less than 0.05 K/W. The novelty of the ...

  8. Efficient solar cooling: first ever non-tracking solar collectors powering a double effect absorption chiller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poiry, Heather Marie

    2011-01-01

    able to operate with a solar thermal efficiency of 50% at afor the total solar irradiation Efficiency is calculated by:of the solar collector thermal efficiency. 6.2 Chiller

  9. Efficient solar cooling: first ever non-tracking solar collectors powering a double effect absorption chiller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poiry, Heather Marie

    2011-01-01

    23-2011 Power [kW] Chiller Sun Collectors Natural Gas Figurea North-South collector showing the incoming sun rays, reda North-South collector showing the incoming sun rays, red

  10. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers - Steam Tip Sheet #14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on waste steam to power absorption chillers provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  11. In-situ gamma-PHA measurements to support unconditional release of 235-F chiller units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salaymeh, S.R.

    2000-02-17

    The Analytical Development Section of Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the Facility Decommission Division (FDD) to conduct in-situ gamma-ray pulse height analysis measurements to support the unconditional release of 235-F chiller units. The chiller units were used to cool process water in the 235-F facility. The measurements' main goal is to confirm that there is no process-related contaminants present on the chillers. For each of the two F-area clean water chillers, the authors have acquired ten gamma-ray pulse height analysis spectra. This report will discuss the purpose of the measurements, the experimental setup, data acquisition, calculations and results, and a conclusion of the study.

  12. Case Study Walnut Hill United Methodist Church - Dallas, Texas, Chiller Replacement Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.

    1998-01-01

    In March of 1992 Walnut Hill United Methodist Church in Dallas, Tx. decided that their existing thermal storage and electric reciprocating chiller system were both in need of replacement. After analyzing several options, they chose to install 150...

  13. Cost reductions in absorption chillers. Final report, June 1984-May 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Absorption chillers have great difficulty competing with the electric-driven compression alternative, due in part to modest operating efficiencies and largely to high first costs. This project is an assessment of the possibility of lowering the costs of absorption chillers dramatically by the use of low material intensity in the design of a new generation of these machines. Breakeven costs for absorption chillers, their heat exchangers and heat exchanger materials were established which will allow commercial success. Polymeric and metallic materials appropriate to particular components and which meet the cost goals were identified. A subset of these materials were tested and ordered by success in tolerating conditions and materials found in absorption chiller applications. Conceptual designs which indicate the practicality of the low material intensity approach were developed. The work reported here indicates that there is a high probability that this apporach will be successful.

  14. Using Mentor, an Expert System, to Perform Preventative Maintenance and Diagnostics on Centrifugal Chillers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culp, C.; Mills, R.

    1990-01-01

    undergone several upgrades and enhancements since then. This paper will discuss the human interface needs for this application, the functional characteristics of the expert system, the development environment and a case history of maintenance on a chiller....

  15. Air-Cooled Stack Freeze Tolerance Freeze Failure Modes and Freeze Tolerance Strategies for GenDriveTM Material Handling Application Systems and Stacks Final Scientific Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hancock, David, W.

    2012-02-14

    Air-cooled stack technology offers the potential for a simpler system architecture (versus liquid-cooled) for applications below 4 kilowatts. The combined cooling and cathode air allows for a reduction in part count and hence a lower cost solution. However, efficient heat rejection challenges escalate as power and ambient temperature increase. For applications in ambient temperatures below freezing, the air-cooled approach has additional challenges associated with not overcooling the fuel cell stack. The focus of this project was freeze tolerance while maintaining all other stack and system requirements. Through this project, Plug Power advanced the state of the art in technology for air-cooled PEM fuel cell stacks and related GenDrive material handling application fuel cell systems. This was accomplished through a collaborative work plan to improve freeze tolerance and mitigate freeze-thaw effect failure modes within innovative material handling equipment fuel cell systems designed for use in freezer forklift applications. Freeze tolerance remains an area where additional research and understanding can help fuel cells to become commercially viable. This project evaluated both stack level and system level solutions to improve fuel cell stack freeze tolerance. At this time, the most cost effective solutions are at the system level. The freeze mitigation strategies developed over the course of this project could be used to drive fuel cell commercialization. The fuel cell system studied in this project was Plug Power's commercially available GenDrive platform providing battery replacement for equipment in the material handling industry. The fuel cell stacks were Ballard's commercially available FCvelocity 9SSL (9SSL) liquid-cooled PEM fuel cell stack and FCvelocity 1020ACS (Mk1020) air-cooled PEM fuel cell stack.

  16. Replacing Inefficient Equipment - An Engineering Analysis to Justify Purchasing A More Efficient Chiller 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Bensouda, N.

    2005-01-01

    determinate of office building and chiller energy use, is the building schedule and office temperature that is maintained within the space. Thermostat control (day and night settings for cooling and heating within the terminal electronic controller...REPLACING INEFFICIENT EQUIPMENT --- AN ENGINEERING ANALYSIS TO JUSTIFY PURCHASING A MORE EFFICIENT CHILLER Hui Chen, P.E. Project Engineer W. D. Turner, Ph.D., P.E. Professor, Director Song Deng, P.E. Asst. Research Engineer...

  17. ISSUANCE 2015-12-17: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  18. ISSUANCE 2015-12-17: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

  19. Chiller Controls-related Energy Saving Opportunities in FederalFacilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Chillers are a significant component of large facility energy use. The focus of much of the development of chilled water systems in recent years has been on optimization of set point and staging controls, improvements in chiller design to increase efficiency and accommodate chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerant replacements. Other improvements have been made by upgrading controls to the latest digital technologies, improving access and monitoring via communications and sophisticated liquid crystal displays (LCD), more robust fault diagnostics and operating and maintenance information logging. Advances have also been made in how chiller plant systems are designed and operated, and in the diversity of chiller products that are available to support innovative approaches. As in many industries, these improvements have been facilitated by advances in, and lower costs for, enabling technologies, such as refrigerants, compressor design, electronics for controls and variable frequency drives (VFD). Along with the improvements in electronics one would expect that advances have also been made in the functionality of unit controls included with chillers. Originally, the primary purpose of this project was to investigate the state of practice of chiller unit controllers in terms of their energy saving capabilities. However, early in the study it was discovered that advances in this area did not include incorporation of significantly different capabilities than had existed 10-15 years ago. Thus the scope has been modified to provide an overview of some of the basic controls-related energy saving strategies that are currently available along with guideline estimates of their potential and applicability. We have minimized consideration of strategies that could be primarily implemented via design practices such as chiller selection and plant design, and those that can only be implemented by a building management system (BMS). Also, since most of the floor space of federal buildings occurs in large buildings, we have focused on water-cooled screw and centrifugal chillers of 100 ton capacity and greater. However, the role of reciprocating and gas chillers (absorption and engine driven) is discussed briefly. Understanding the demographics of chiller deployment in the federal sector, state of practice of energy savings strategies and control features availability will help federal energy managers and program implementers to make informed decisions in support of energy saving performance contracting (ESPC) and other programs.

  20. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  1. Analysis and System Design of a Large Chiller Plant for Korea, with or without Thermal Storage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, C.; Simmonds, P.

    1996-01-01

    . Furthermore, a local code requirement mandates that a maximum of 60% of the peak cooling load be satisfied by electricity. This leads to consideration of alternatives such as natural gas hels and use of thermal storage in the design and selection... -- Gas-Fred Absorption Chillers and Thermal Storage: The fourth scheme considered was a mixed plant. 60% of the building's peak cooling load was provided by two (2) 1,020-ton gas-fired absorption chillers, while the remaining 40% was provided...

  2. Condensing vs. Non-Condensing

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    new construction * More expensive * More maintenance * Newer designs not as well proven * More parts to break * Condensate disposal * Retrofits are complex * Orphaned WH THANK YOU...

  3. Nonequilibrium sulfur capture and retention in an air cooled slagging coal combustor. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zauderer, B.

    1996-09-01

    The primary project objective is to determine the degree of sulfur retention in slag in a full scale cyclone coal combustor. This non-equilibrium process is a key step in the capture and retention of sulfur released during coal combustion by the interaction with calcium based sorbent particles. By encapsulating the sulfur bearing calcium particles in slag, the need for landfilling of this waste is eliminated. This objective will be implemented through a series of up to 20 one day tests carried out in a 20 MMBtu/hr air cooled, slagging combustor-boiler installation located in Philadelphia, PA. The project will consist of two tasks. Task 1 consists of the experiments conducted in the 20 MMBtu/hr combustor, and task 2 will consist of analysis of this data. All the operating procedures for this effort have been developed in the 7 years of operation of this combustor.

  4. Advances in Energy Efficiency, Capital Cost, and Installation Schedules for Large Capacity Cooling Applications Using a Packaged Chiller Plant Approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierson, T. L.; Andrepont, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    include: 1) dramatic reductions in unit capital costs of installed chiller plant capacity on a dollar per ton basis, 2) marked improvements in total procurement and installation schedules, 3) significantly smaller space requirements, and 4) enhanced...

  5. Two (2) 175 Ton (350 Tons total) Chiller Geothermal Heat Pumps for recently commissioned LEED Platinum Building

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will operate; collect data; and market the energy savings and capital costs of a recently commissioned chiller geothermal heat pump project to promote the wide-spread adoption of this mature technology.

  6. A Fluidized Bed Chiller: A New Approach in Making Slush-Ice 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klaren, D. G.; Van Der Meer, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-91-06-05.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 29778 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-91-06-05.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 A FLUIDIZED BED... CHILLER: A NEW APPROACH IN MAKING SLUSH-ICE Dr.Ir. D.G. Klaren M.Sc. Technical Director Gebr. Scheffers B.V. Schiedam, The Netherlands ABSTRACT A fluidized bed heat exchanger already successfully applied for heat transfer applications involving...

  7. Assessment and economic analysis of the MOD III Stirling-engine driven chiller system. Final report, October 1989-July 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moryl, J.

    1990-07-01

    The Stirling engine is an inherently clean and efficient engine. With the requirements for environmentally benign emissions and high energy efficiency, the Stirling engine is an attractive alternative to both internal combustion (IC) engines and electric motors. The study evaluated a Stirling-engine-driven chiller package. Technically, the Stirling engine is a good selection as a compressor drive, with inherently low vibrations, quiet operation, long life, and low maintenance. Exhaust emissions are below the projected 1995 stringent California standards. Economically, the Stirling-engine-driven chiller is a viable alternative to both IV-engine and electric-driven chillers, trading off slightly higher installed cost against lower total operating expenses. The penetration of a small portion of the projected near-term stationary engine market opportunity will provide the volume production basis to achieve competitively priced engines.

  8. Air cooling for Vertex Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arantza Oyanguren

    2012-02-28

    The vertex detectors are crucial detectors for future linear e+e- colliders since they must give the most accurate location of any outgoing charged particles originating from the interaction point. The DEPFET collaboration is developing a new type of pixel sensors which provide very low noise and high spatial resolution. In order to precisely determine the track and vertex positions, multiple scattering in the detector has to be reduced by minimizing the material in the sensors, cooling, and support structures. A new method of cooling by blowing air over the sensors has been developed and tested. It is applied in the design and construction of the Belle-II detector and may be used in the new generation of vertex detectors for linear colliders.

  9. Air Cooling R&D

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  10. Computer Room Fresh Air Cooling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenger, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    payback and must not compromise re1 iabil i ty. POSS IB ILITIES FOR REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION To offer reduced energy consumption during periods of 1 ow wbi ent temperature, computer room air handlers can be fitted with economizer coils to precool... the air using fluid from a sensible, or for lower fluid temperatures, an evaporative heat rejector (Figure 1). As the ambient temperature rises close to the required supply air temperature, operation of the economizer coil is limited...

  11. Air Cooling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: Energy Resources JumpAdelan1986)Ahoskie,Ainsworth

  12. Preconcentrator with high volume chiller for high vapor pressure particle detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L

    2013-10-22

    Apparatus and method for collecting particles of both high and low vapor pressure target materials entrained in a large volume sample gas stream. Large volume active cooling provides a cold air supply which is mixed with the sample gas stream to reduce the vapor pressure of the particles. In embodiments, a chiller cools air from ambient conditions to 0-15.degree. C. with the volumetric flow rate of the cold air supply being at least equal to the volumetric flow rate of the sample gas stream. In further embodiments an adsorption media is heated in at least two stages, a first of which is below a threshold temperature at which decomposition products of the high vapor pressure particle are generated.

  13. Advanced cogeneration and absorption chillers potential for service to Navy bases. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.; Butcher, T.A.; Leigh, R.W.; McDonald, R.J.; Pierce, B.L.

    1996-04-01

    The US military uses millions of Btu`s of thermal energy to heat, cool and deliver process thermal energy to buildings on military bases, much of which is transmitted through a pipeline system incorporating thousands of miles of pipe. Much of this pipeline system is in disrepair and is nearing the end of its useful life, and the boilers which supply it are old and often inefficient. In 1993, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) proposed to SERDP a three-year effort to develop advanced systems of coupled diesel cogenerators and absorption chillers which would be particularly useful in providing a continuation of the services now provided by increasingly antiquated district systems. In mid-February, 1995, BNL learned that all subsequent funding for our program had been canceled. BNL staff continued to develop the Program Plan and to adhere to the requirements of the Execution Plan, but began to look for ways in which the work could be made relevant to Navy and DoD energy needs even without the extensive development plan formerly envisioned. The entire program was therefore re-oriented to look for ways in which small scale cogeneration and absorption chilling technologies, available through procurement rather than development, could provide some solutions to the problem of deteriorated district heating systems. The result is, we believe, a striking new approach to the provision of building services on military bases: in many cases, serious study should be made of the possibility that the old district heating system should be removed or abandoned, and small-scale cogenerators and absorption chillers should be installed in each building. In the remainder of this Summary, we develop the rationale behind this concept and summarize our findings concerning the conditions under which this course of action would be advisable and the economic benefits which will accrue if it is followed. The details are developed in the succeeding sections of the report.

  14. 2014-11-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register extension of the public comment period regarding energy conservation standards for small, large and very large air-cool commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on November 25, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  15. Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for CHP Applications, April 2005 Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition Flash High-Pressure Condensate to Regenerate Low-Pressure Steam...

  16. Chiller Start/Stop Optimization for a Campus-wide Chilled Water System with a Thermal Storage Tank Under a Four-Period Electricity Rate Schedule 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D.; Contreras, O.

    2002-01-01

    be expected, the complication in the rate structure also requires more involved control over the tank charging and discharging processes. A chiller start-stop optimization program has been developed and implemented into the Energy Management and Control System...

  17. Program Potential: Estimates of Federal Energy Cost Savings from Energy Efficient Procurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Copier Electric Storage Water Heaters Room Air CleanersSource Heat Pumps Air?Cooled Chillers Water?Cooled ChillersGas Storage Water Heaters Gas Furnaces Air-Source Heat Pumps

  18. Re-Condensation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatia, P.; Kozman, T.

    2004-01-01

    of Condensate = %CR [%] Return Steam Flow Rate = SFR [lbs/hr] Installation Labor Rate = LR [$] Length of Condensate = L [ft] Pipe Cost to install condensate = Ccp [$] pipes Condensate Load to be = CL....00044 × (P) 2 + 0.154 × (P) + 1.767 Equation (1) SFR = TS × (%CR) × (%FS) Equation (2) Ccp = [62.838 × LN (SFR) + 107.14] × [1 + 0.5 × ((LR ? 60) / 60)] × L Equation (3) Use: LR = 30 if unknown & Internal Labor...

  19. Research on Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Scrolling Chiller with ANN 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Y.; Zheng, J.; Liu, Z.; Yang, C.; Peng, P.

    2006-01-01

    , charge non-condense gas, shift temperature of cooling water and alter outside cold load. A set of characteristic parameters are defined in order to differentiate these faults and clarify the reasons. Finally, an FDD tool is programmed based on ANN...

  20. Condensation Energy of a Spacetime Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clovis Jacinto de Matos; Pavol Valko

    2010-12-17

    Starting from an analogy between the Planck-Einstein scale and the dual length scales in Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity, and assuming that space-time is a condensate of neutral fermionic particles with Planck mass, we derive the baryonic mass of the universe. In that theoretical framework baryonic matter appears to be associated with the condensation energy gained by spacetime in the transition from its normal (symetric) to its (less symetric) superconducting-like phase. It is shown however that the critical transition temperature cannot be the Planck temperature. Thus leaving open the enigma of the microscopic description of spacetime at quantum level.

  1. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  2. Electrohydrodynamically enhanced condensation heat transfer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wawzyniak, Markus

    1993-01-01

    In a condenser the thickness of the liquid condensate film covering the cooled surface constitutes a resistance to the heat transfer. By establishing a non uniform electric field in the vicinity of the condensation surface the extraction of liquid...

  3. Leptogenesis via Higgs condensate relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, L; Pearce, L; Kusenko, A

    2015-01-01

    decays of the Higgs condensate, and we present a detailedthe time-dependent Higgs condensate and the lepton- number-we include the effects of Higgs condensate decay, with both

  4. Advanced Low Temperature Absorption Chiller Module Integrated with a CHP System at a Distributed Data Center- Presentation by Exergy Partners Corp., June 2011

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Develop & Demonstrate an Advanced Low Temp Heat Recovery Absorption Chiller Module, given by Richard Sweetser of Exergy Partners Corp., at the U.S. DOE Industrial Distributed Energy Portfolio Review Meeting in Washington, D.C. on June 1-2, 2011.

  5. Development and Verification for the Control Method Using Surplus Pressure of Primary Pumps in Chiller Plant Systems for Air Conditioning which Adopts Primary/Secondary Piping Systems PPT 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsushita, N.; Fujimura, M.; Sumiyoshi, D.; Akashi, Y.

    2012-01-01

    (chiller side) and secondary flow loop (load side). It is a huge energy loss, because the primary pumps use their head to lead much flow to the decoupler. Therefore, we have developed new control method using surplus pressure of the primary pump to reduce...

  6. Optimizing the Low Temperature Cooling Energy Supply: Experimental Performance of an Absorption Chiller, a Compression Refrigeration Machine and Direct Cooling - a Comparison 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhrhan, S.; Gerber, A.

    2012-01-01

    Machine or the Absorption Chiller provided with heat from Combined Heat and Power Plants - has the lowest primary energy consumption at what load level. For low levels this is direct cooling. If demand exceeds the capacity of direct cooling, the absorption...

  7. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

    1983-01-01

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

  8. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  9. Mechanism of dropwise condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Umur, Aydin

    1963-01-01

    From a study of surface phenomena, information is obtained about conditions under which net condensation can occur. An experimental examination of the surface, using an optical method capable of detecting thin films of ...

  10. Ghost condensate busting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilic, Neven; Tupper, Gary B; Viollier, Raoul D E-mail: gary.tupper@uct.ac.za

    2008-09-15

    Applying the Thomas-Fermi approximation to renormalizable field theories, we construct ghost condensation models that are free of the instabilities associated with violations of the null-energy condition.

  11. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  12. Quantum Condensed Matter | Neutron Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Condensed Matter SHARE Quantum Condensed Matter Neutron scattering is a uniquely powerful probe for measuring the structure and dynamics of condensed matter. As such it is...

  13. Quantum Condensed Matter | More Science | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantum Condensed Matter SHARE Quantum Condensed Matter Neutron scattering is a uniquely powerful probe for measuring the structure and dynamics of condensed matter. As such it is...

  14. Economical Condensing Turbines? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Turbines? by J.E.Dean, P.E. Steam turbines have long been used at utilities and in industry to generate power. There are three basic types of steam turbines: condensing, letdown 1 and extraction/condensing. ? Letdown turbines reduce the pressure... of the incoming steam to one or more pressures and generate power very efficiently, assuming that all the letdown steam has a use. Two caveats: ? Letdown turbines produce power based upon steam requirements and not based upon power requirements, and ? If all...

  15. Steam Condensation Induced Waterhammer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirsner, W.

    2000-01-01

    mer-- i.e. fast moving steam picking up a slug of condensate and hurling it downstream against an elbow or a valve. Condensation Induced Waterham mer can be 100 times more powerful than this type of waterhammer. Because it does not require flowing... to seek relief from the Owner. A compromise was negotiated after the first week- steam would be de-energized at midnight before each workday, asbestos abators would start work at 4:00 a.m. and finish by noontime at which time steam would be restored...

  16. Direct Evaporative Precooling Model and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Evaporative condenser pre-cooling expands the availability of energy saving, cost-effective technology options (market engagement) and serves to expedite the range of options in upcoming codes and equipment standards (impacting regulation). Commercially available evaporative pre-coolers provide a low cost retrofit for existing packaged rooftop units, commercial unitary split systems, and air cooled chillers. We map the impact of energy savings and peak energy reduction in the 3 building types (medium office, secondary school, and supermarket) in 16 locations for three building types with four pad effectivenesses and show the effect for HVAC systems using either refrigerants R22 or R410A

  17. The Color Glass Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gelis; E. Iancu; J. Jalilian-Marian; R. Venugopalan

    2010-02-01

    We provide a broad overview of the theoretical status and phenomenological applications of the Color Glass Condensate effective field theory describing universal properties of saturated gluons in hadron wavefunctions that are extracted from deeply inelastic scattering and hadron-hadron collision experiments at high energies.

  18. Condensate removal device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maddox, James W. (Newport News, VA); Berger, David D. (Alexandria, VA)

    1984-01-01

    A condensate removal device is disclosed which incorporates a strainer in unit with an orifice. The strainer is cylindrical with its longitudinal axis transverse to that of the vapor conduit in which it is mounted. The orifice is positioned inside the strainer proximate the end which is remoter from the vapor conduit.

  19. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguirre, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate can be very light, $10^{-22}\\,{\\rm eV} \\lesssim m \\lesssim 10^2\\,{\\rm eV}$; the lower limit arises from constraints on small-scale structure formation, while the upper bound ensures that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of deco...

  20. Condensates in Relativistic Scalar Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guy D. Moore

    2015-11-02

    Scalar field theory with large infrared initial occupancy develops very large deep-infrared occupancy, which locally resembles a Bose-Einstein condensate. We study the structure and spatial coherence of this condensate. The O(N) symmetric theory with N>1 is qualitatively different than N=1. We explain the thermodynamical reason why, for N>1, the condensate locally carries nearly maximal conserved charge density. We also show how this property impedes the condensate's decay, and we show that it prevents the condensate from ever becoming fully spatially homogeneous. For N condensate can carry topological defects, but these do not appear to control the large-k tail in its power spectrum, which is the same for N=8 where there are no topological defects.

  1. Materials/Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCentermillion toMSDSMaterials andMaterials/Condensed Matter Print

  2. Condensed Matter and Magnet Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    helimagnets and the development of a cryogen-free apparatus for spherical neutron polarimetry." Read more... Cutting-edge condensed matter physics research, high magnetic field...

  3. Color Glass Condensate and Glasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francois Gelis

    2010-09-06

    In this talk, I review the Color Glass Condensate theory of gluon saturation, and its application to the early stages of heavy ion collisions.

  4. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing boilers achieve higher efficiencies than conventional boilers by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases.

  5. Chapter 14: Chiller Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures: September 2011 Â… May 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeVehicle ReplacementStatesA CaseNovemberto3: Assessing4: Chiller

  6. Healthcare Energy Efficiency Research and Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanzisera,, Judy Lai, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    centrifugal chillers with constant primary, variable secondary chilled water pumpscentrifugal chiller was added in 1988. Chilled and condensing water is constant volume with dedicated pumps

  7. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...

  8. Program Potential: Estimates of Federal Energy Cost Savings from Energy Efficient Procurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Commercial Air?Source Heat Pumps Air?Cooled Chillers Water?Heaters Gas Furnaces Air-Source Heat Pumps Boilers CentralAir Conditioners Electric Heat Pump Water Heaters Electric

  9. Design of parallel plate condensers with sintered wicks for a loop heat pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koveal, Catherine Helene

    2010-01-01

    New innovations and integrations of existing cooling methods are needed to enable high performance operation of high power electronic equipment. Air-cooled solutions are attractive due to their simplicity; however these ...

  10. Strategies in Optimizing Condensate Return 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, D.

    2003-01-01

    good drainage. ? Install receiver vents of the proper size. Receiver vent lines that are too small restrict the loss of flash steam. This in turn results in hotter condensate return temperatures and potential problems with cavitation of electric...

  11. Condensate System Troubleshooting and Optimization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenkins, B. V.

    1983-01-01

    the amount of alkalinity in boiler feedwater, and thus, the amount of carbon dioxide generated by alkalinity breakdown. 3. Condensate polishing, that is, using ion exchange resin to remove and filter hardness and corrosion products, is an effective... for this decision is the individual plant's trea ment performance and operating history. Another benefit of filming amines noted some users is an improvement in heat transfer, due to the film promoting nuc ate condensation. by e An alternative to filming...

  12. Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam Sterilizer Condensate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Sterilizer Condensate Retrofit Kit Water-Efficient Technology Opportunity: Steam Sterilizer Condensate Retrofit Kit Steam sterilizers are heated by steam that condenses and...

  13. Leptogenesis via neutrino production during Higgs condensate relaxation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearce, L; Yang, L; Kusenko, A; Peloso, M

    2015-01-01

    of the time-dependent condensate, the vacuum state caneffective when the Higgs condensate decays rapidly and attime-dependent scalar condensate to the lepton (and baryon)

  14. Return Condensate to the Boiler | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Return Condensate to the Boiler Return Condensate to the Boiler This tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems...

  15. Heat transfer via dropwise condensation on hydrophobic microstructured surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruleman, Karlen E. (Karlen Elizabeth)

    2009-01-01

    Dropwise condensation has the potential to greatly increase heat transfer rates. Heat transfer coefficients by dropwise condensation and film condensation on microstructured silicon chips were compared. Heat transfer ...

  16. Condensed hydrogen for thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucheyev, S. O.; Hamza, A. V. [Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power, in either pure fusion or fission-fusion hybrid reactors, is a possible solution for future world's energy demands. Formation of uniform layers of a condensed hydrogen fuel in ICF targets has been a long standing materials physics challenge. Here, we review the progress in this field. After a brief discussion of the major ICF target designs and the basic properties of condensed hydrogens, we review both liquid and solid layering methods, physical mechanisms causing layer nonuniformity, growth of hydrogen single crystals, attempts to prepare amorphous and nanostructured hydrogens, and mechanical deformation behavior. Emphasis is given to current challenges defining future research areas in the field of condensed hydrogens for fusion energy applications.

  17. Tripol condensate polishing - operational experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swainsbury, D. [Mission Energy Management Australia, Victoria (Australia)

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a brief outline of the Mission Energy Management Australia Company who operate and maintain the Loy Yang B Power Station in the Latrobe Valley, Victoria, Australia. Details of the plant configuration, the water/steam circuit and cycle chemistry are discussed. The arrangement of the TRIPOL Condensate Polishing Plant and it`s operational modes are examined. Results of the first twelve months operation of the TRIPOL plant are detailed. Levels of crud removal during early commissioning phases employing the pre-filter are presented. Typical parameters achieved during a simulated condenser leak and an operational run beyond the ammonia break point are also documented.

  18. Forced-convection condensation inside tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traviss, Donald P.

    1971-01-01

    High vapor velocity condensation inside a tube was studied analytically. The von Karman universal velocity distribution was applied to the condensate flow, pressure drops were calculated using the Lockhart- Martinelli ...

  19. Colliding and Moving Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colliding and Moving Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport by Ananth P. Chikkatur Submitted to the Department of Physics in partial fulfillment Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport

  20. Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taekoon Lee

    2015-03-27

    The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

  1. Vortices in condensate mixtures Christophe Josserand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vortices in condensate mixtures Christophe Josserand Laboratoire de Mod´elisation en M Statistique de l'Ecole normale sup´erieure, 24 Rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris C´edex 05, France In a condensate made of this observation. Thus if the two condensates are in slow relative translation one over the other, the composite

  2. Chiral condensate in neutron matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Kaiser; W. Weise

    2008-08-06

    A recent chiral perturbation theory calculation of the in-medium quark condensate $$ is extended to the isospin-asymmetric case of pure neutron matter. In contrast to the behavior in isospin-symmetric nuclear matter we find only small deviations from the linear density approximation. This feature originates primarily from the reduced weight factors (e.g. 1/6 for the dominant contributions) of the $2\\pi$-exchange mechanisms in pure neutron matter. Our result suggests therefore that the tendencies for chiral symmetry restoration are actually favored in systems with large neutron excess (e.g. neutron stars). We also analyze the behavior of the density-dependent quark condensate $(\\rho_n)$ in the chiral limit $m_\\pi\\to 0$.

  3. Polymer Bose--Einstein Condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Castellanos; G. Chacon-Acosta

    2013-01-22

    In this work we analyze a non--interacting one dimensional polymer Bose--Einstein condensate in an harmonic trap within the semiclassical approximation. We use an effective Hamiltonian coming from the polymer quantization that arises in loop quantum gravity. We calculate the number of particles in order to obtain the critical temperature. The Bose--Einstein functions are replaced by series, whose high order terms are related to powers of the polymer length. It is shown that the condensation temperature presents a shift respect to the standard case, for small values of the polymer scale. In typical experimental conditions, it is possible to establish a bound for $\\lambda^{2}$ up to $ \\lesssim 10 ^{-16}$m$^2$. To improve this bound we should decrease the frequency of the trap and also decrease the number of particles.

  4. Holographic Superconductors with Various Condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary T. Horowitz; Matthew M. Roberts

    2008-11-04

    We extend earlier treatments of holographic superconductors by studying cases where operators of different dimension condense in both 2+1 and 3+1 superconductors. We also compute a correlation length. We find surprising regularities in quantities such as $\\omega_g/T_c$ where $\\omega_g$ is the gap in the frequency dependent conductivity. In special cases, new bound states arise corresponding to vector normal modes of the dual near-extremal black holes.

  5. Color Glass Condensate and Glasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Gelis

    2012-11-26

    We review the Color Glass Condensate effective theory, that describes the gluon content of a high energy hadron or nucleus, in the saturation regime. The emphasis is put on applications to high energy heavy ion collisions. After describing initial state factorization, we discuss the Glasma phase, that precedes the formation of an equilibrated quark-gluon plasma. We end this review with a presentation of recent developments in the study of the isotropization and thermalization of the quark-gluon plasma.

  6. Extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA); Shafer, David (Fairfield, CT); McGuire, James (Pasadena, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Condenser system for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography where the condenser includes a series of segments of a parent aspheric mirror having one foci at a quasi-point source of radiation and the other foci at the radius of a ringfield have all but one or all of their beams translated and rotated by sets of mirrors such that all of the beams pass through the real entrance pupil of a ringfield camera about one of the beams and fall onto the ringfield radius as a coincident image as an arc of the ringfield. The condenser has a set of correcting mirrors with one of the correcting mirrors of each set, or a mirror that is common to said sets of mirrors, from which the radiation emanates, is a concave mirror that is positioned to shape a beam segment having a chord angle of about 25 to 85 degrees into a second beam segment having a chord angle of about 0 to 60 degrees.

  7. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Michael E.; Theregowda, Ranjani B.; Safari, Iman; Abbasian, Javad; Arastoopour, Hamid; Dzombak, David A.; Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Miller, David C.

    2013-10-01

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondary-treated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  8. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  9. Axions: Bose Einstein Condensate or Classical Field?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sacha Davidson

    2014-12-20

    The axion is a motivated dark matter candidate, so it would be interesting to find features in Large Scale Structures specific to axion dark matter. Such features were proposed for a Bose Einstein condensate of axions, leading to confusion in the literature (to which I contributed) about whether axions condense due to their gravitational interactions. This note argues that the Bose Einstein condensation of axions is a red herring: the axion dark matter produced by the misalignment mechanism is already a classical field, which has the distinctive features attributed to the axion condensate (BE condensates are described as classical fields). This note also estimates that the rate at which axion particles condense to the field, or the field evaporates to particles, is negligeable.

  10. Can Spacetime be a Condensate?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. L. Hu

    2005-05-21

    We explore further the proposal that general relativity is the hydrodynamic limit of some fundamental theories of the microscopic structure of spacetime and matter, i.e., spacetime described by a differentiable manifold is an emergent entity and the metric or connection forms are collective variables valid only at the low energy, long wavelength limit of such micro-theories. In this view it is more relevant to find ways to deduce the microscopic ingredients of spacetime and matter from their macroscopic attributes than to find ways to quantize general relativity because it would only give us the equivalent of phonon physics, not the equivalents of atoms or quantum electrodyanmics. It may turn out that spacetime is merely a representation of collective state of matter in some limiting regime of interactions, which is the view expressed by Sakharov. In this talk, working within the conceptual framework of geometro-hydrodynamics, we suggest a new way to look at the nature of spacetime inspired by Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) physics. We ask the question whether spacetime could be a condensate, even without the knowledge of what the `atom of spacetime' is. We begin with a summary of the main themes for this new interpretation of cosmology and spacetime physics, and the `bottom-up' approach to quantum gravity. We then describe the `Bosenova' experiment of controlled collapse of a BEC and our cosmology-inspired interpretation of its results. We discuss the meaning of a condensate in different context. We explore how far this idea can sustain, its advantages and pitfalls, and its implications on the basic tenets of physics and existing programs of quantum gravity.

  11. Alleviation of effective permeability reduction of gas-condensate due to condensate buildup near wellbore 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carballo Salas, Jose Gilberto

    2006-04-12

    When the reservoir pressure is decreased below dew point pressure of the gas near the wellbore, gas-condensate wells start to decrease production because condensate is separated from the gas around the wellbore causing a decrease in gas relative...

  12. Analysis of condensate banking dynamics in a gas condensate reservoir under different injection schemes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoval Rodriguez, Angelica Patricia

    2002-01-01

    condensate reservoir under natural depletion, and injection of methane, injection of carbon dioxide, produced gas recycling and water injection. To monitor the condensate banking dynamics near the wellbore area, such as oil saturation and compositional...

  13. Velocity condensation for magnetotactic bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rupprecht, Jean-Francois; Bocquet, Lydéric

    2015-01-01

    Magnetotactic swimmers tend to align along magnetic field lines against stochastic reorientations. We show that the swimming strategy, e.g. active Brownian motion versus run-and-tumble dynamics, strongly affects the orientation statistics. The latter can exhibit a velocity condensation whereby the alignment probability density diverges. As a consequence, we find that the swimming strategy affects the nature of the phase transition to collective motion, indicating that L\\'evy run-and-tumble walks can outperform active Brownian processes as strategies to trigger collective behavior.

  14. ,"Pennsylvania Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  15. ,"Nebraska Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  16. ,"Federal Offshore, Pacific (California) Lease Condensate Proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  17. Treatment of evaporator condensates by pervaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blume, Ingo (Hengelq, NL); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A pervaporation process for separating organic contaminants from evaporator condensate streams is disclosed. The process employs a permselective membrane that is selectively permeable to an organic component of the condensate. The process involves contacting the feed side of the membrane with a liquid condensate stream, and withdrawing from the permeate side a vapor enriched in the organic component. The driving force for the process is the in vapor pressure across the membrane. This difference may be provided for instance by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side, or by condensing the permeate. The process offers a simple, economic alternative to other separation techniques.

  18. ,"Michigan Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  19. ,"Kentucky Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  20. ,"Wyoming Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  1. ,"Arkansas Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  2. ,"Alabama Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  3. ,"Miscellaneous Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  4. ,"California Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  5. ,"Mississippi Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  6. ,"Colorado Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  7. ,"Louisiana Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  8. ,"Montana Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  9. ,"Oklahoma Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  10. ,"Florida Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  11. Considerations When Selecting a Condensing Economizer | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Consider Installing a Condensing Economizer Steam System Survey Guide Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition...

  12. The Condensate from Torus Knots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gorsky; A. Milekhin; N. Sopenko

    2015-06-22

    We discuss recently formulated instanton-torus knot duality in $\\Omega$-deformed 5D SQED on $\\mathbb{R}^4 \\times S^1$ focusing at the microscopic aspects of the condensate formation in the instanton ensemble. Using the chain of dualities and geometric transitions we embed the SQED with a surface defect into the $SU(2)$ SQCD with $N_f=4$ and identify the numbers $(n,m)$ of the torus $T_{n,m}$ knot as instanton charge and electric charge. The HOMFLY torus knot invariants in the fundamental representation provide entropic factor in the condensate of the massless flavor counting the degeneracy of the instanton--W-boson web with instanton and electric numbers $(n,m)$ but different spin and flavor content. Using the inverse geometrical transition we explain how our approach is related to the evaluation of the HOMFLY invariants in terms of Wilson loop in 3d CS theory. The reduction to 4D theory is briefly considered and some analogy with baryon vertex is conjectured.

  13. Observation of interference between two Bose condensates The spatial coherence of a Bose condensate was demonstrated by observing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Observation of interference between two Bose condensates The spatial coherence of a Bose condensate was demonstrated by observing interference between two Bose condensates [1]. They were created by cooling atoms the condensates expand for 40 milliseconds and overlap (see figure). This demonstrates that Bose condensed atoms

  14. Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeck, Alexander R. (Orlando, FL)

    2012-05-15

    A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

  15. Preconditioning Outside Air: Cooling Loads from Building Ventilation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosar, D.

    1998-01-01

    for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality", that has cascaded into building codes over the early to mid 1990's. There has been a twofold to fourfold increase in outside air requirements for many commercial building applications, compared to the 1981 version...

  16. Air Cooling Technology for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research at NRELDepartment of EnergyIndustryDepartment|

  17. Air Cooling Technology for Power Electronic Thermal Control | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research at NRELDepartment of

  18. Air Cooling Technology for Power Electronic Thermal Control | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research at NRELDepartment ofEnergy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel

  19. Air Cooling Technology for Power Electronic Thermal Control | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research at NRELDepartment ofEnergy 1 DOE Hydrogen and

  20. Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research at NRELDepartment ofEnergy 1 DOEEnergy

  1. Clean Air-Cool Planet Community Toolkit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButte County,Camilla,ThermalCubaParker,GeorgiaValley Geothermal ProjectCommunity

  2. Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls - BuildingofDepartmentHybirdNDE MethodHybrid and

  3. Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls - BuildingofDepartmentHybirdNDE MethodHybrid andDOE

  4. Quark condensate in two-flavor QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas DeGrand; Zhaofeng Liu; Stefan Schaefer

    2006-11-03

    We compute the condensate in QCD with two flavors of dynamical fermions using numerical simulation. The simulations use overlap fermions, and the condensate is extracted by fitting the distribution of low lying eigenvalues of the Dirac operator in sectors of fixed topological charge to the predictions of Random Matrix Theory.

  5. Dipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate Dynamics in A Chaotic Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moran, Roxanne Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Smith, Bose-Einstein Condensates in Dilute Gases (CambridgeDipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate Dynamics in A ChaoticDipolar Bose-Einstein Condensate Dynamics in A Chaotic

  6. Quark condensate for various heavy flavors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dmitri Antonov; Jose Emilio F. T. Ribeiro

    2012-10-04

    The quark condensate is calculated within the world-line effective-action formalism, by using for the Wilson loop an ansatz provided by the stochastic vacuum model. Starting with the relation between the quark and the gluon condensates in the heavy-quark limit, we diminish the current quark mass down to the value of the inverse vacuum correlation length, finding in this way a 64%-decrease in the absolute value of the quark condensate. In particular, we find that the conventional formula for the heavy-quark condensate cannot be applied to the c-quark, and that the corrections to this formula can reach 23% even in the case of the b-quark. We also demonstrate that, for an exponential parametrization of the two-point correlation function of gluonic field strengths, the quark condensate does not depend on the non-confining non-perturbative interactions of the stochastic background Yang-Mills fields.

  7. Light front distribution of the chiral condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Chang; Craig D. Roberts; Sebastian M. Schmidt

    2013-09-19

    The pseudoscalar projection of the pion's Poincare'-covariant Bethe-Salpeter amplitude onto the light-front may be understood to provide the probability distribution of the chiral condensate within the pion. Unlike the parton distribution amplitudes usually considered and as befitting a collective effect, this condensate distribution receives contributions from all Fock space components of the pion's light-front wave-function. We compute this condensate distribution using the Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) framework and show the result to be a model-independent feature of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Our analysis establishes that this condensate is concentrated in the neighbourhood of the boundaries of the distribution's domain of support. It thereby confirms the dominant role played by many-particle Fock states within the pion's light-front wave function in generating the chiral condensate on the light-front and verifies that light-front longitudinal zero modes do not play a material role in that process.

  8. Nucleation and condensation model development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fry, H.; Lyman, J.; Breshears, D.; Zerkle, D.; Wilson, C.; Hewitt, C.; Gallegos, D.

    1996-09-01

    This is a final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to bring to maturity a theoretical and experimental capability of the Laboratory to perform basic research in nucleation and condensation of water vapor. This report provides a general description of this capability and summarizes specific work in two areas: development and use of a combustive flow facility (CFF) to measure water monomer depletion in a supersonic nozzle and nucleation pulse experiments for investigation of transport effects on water droplet growth dynamics. The later work was performed in collaboration with Dr. Wehrner Strey in Goettingen, Germany. Preliminary water absorption data from the CFF experiment are presented. The nucleation pulse data is described along with an analysis that shows under the condition of the experiment the growth rate of water droplets is limited by monomer diffusion.

  9. Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured Polysiloxane...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured Polysiloxane Elastomers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Compression set in Gas Blown Condensation Cured...

  10. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Uninsulated steam distribution and condensate return lines are a constant source of wasted energy. The table shows typical...

  11. Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss; Industrial Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 * August 2004 Industrial Technologies Program Suggested Actions * Inspect the condensate traps and determine if they are operating properly. * Review your condensate removal...

  12. Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Self-propelled sweeping removal of dropwise condensate Authors: Qu, Xiaopeng 1 ;...

  13. Air Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection Agency's Science and Ecosystem Support Division Air Handler Condensate Recovery at the Environmental Protection Agency's...

  14. Return Condensate to the Boiler, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Actions Reduce operating costs through maximizing the return of hot condensate to the boiler. Consider the following actions: If a condensate return system is absent,...

  15. Bose-Einstein Condensate general relativistic stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. H. Chavanis; T. Harko

    2011-08-19

    We analyze the possibility that due to their superfluid properties some compact astrophysical objects may contain a significant part of their matter in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate. To study the condensate we use the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, with arbitrary non-linearity. By introducing the Madelung representation of the wave function, we formulate the dynamics of the system in terms of the continuity equation and of the hydrodynamic Euler equations. The non-relativistic and Newtonian Bose-Einstein gravitational condensate can be described as a gas, whose density and pressure are related by a barotropic equation of state. In the case of a condensate with quartic non-linearity, the equation of state is polytropic with index one. In the framework of the Thomas-Fermi approximation the structure of the Newtonian gravitational condensate is described by the Lane-Emden equation, which can be exactly solved. The case of the rotating condensate is also discussed. General relativistic configurations with quartic non-linearity are studied numerically with both non-relativistic and relativistic equations of state, and the maximum mass of the stable configuration is determined. Condensates with particle masses of the order of two neutron masses (Cooper pair) and scattering length of the order of 10-20 fm have maximum masses of the order of 2 M_sun, maximum central density of the order of 0.1-0.3 10^16 g/cm^3 and minimum radii in the range of 10-20 km. In this way we obtain a large class of stable astrophysical objects, whose basic astrophysical parameters (mass and radius) sensitively depend on the mass of the condensed particle, and on the scattering length. We also propose that the recently observed neutron stars with masses in the range of 2-2.4 M_sun are Bose-Einstein Condensate stars.

  16. QCD condensates in ADS/QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacopo Bechi

    2009-09-25

    This paper focuses on some issues about condensates and renormalization in AdS/QCD models. In particular we consider the consistency of the AdS/QCD approach for scale dependent quantities as the chiral condensate questioned in some recent papers and the 4D meaning of the 5D cosmological constant in a model in which the QCD is dual to a 5D gravity theory. We will be able to give some arguments that the cosmological constant is related to the QCD gluon condensate.

  17. Deconfinement phase transition and the quark condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian S. Fischer

    2009-07-27

    We study the dual quark condensate as a signal for the confinement-deconfinement phase transition of QCD. This order parameter for center symmetry has been defined recently by Bilgici et al. within the framework of lattice QCD. In this work we determine the ordinary and the dual quark condensate with functional methods using a formulation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for the quark propagator on a torus. The temperature dependence of these condensates serves to investigate the interplay between the chiral and deconfinement transitions of quenched QCD.

  18. The Color Glass Condensate and Glasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larry McLerran

    2008-04-10

    These two lectures concern the Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma. These are forms of matter which might be studied in high energy hadronic collisions. The Color Glass Condensate is high energy density gluonic matter. It constitutes the part of a hadron wavefunction important for high energy processes. The Glasma is matter produced from the collision of two high energy hadrons. Both types of matter are associated with coherent fields. The Color Glass Condensate is static and related to a hadron wavefunction where the glasma is transient and evolves quickly after a collision. I present the properties of such matter, and some aspects of what is known of their properties.

  19. Dynamics of capillary condensation in aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nomura, R.; Miyashita, W.; Yoneyama, K.; Okuda, Y. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    Dynamics of capillary condensation of liquid {sup 4}He in various density silica aerogels was investigated systematically. Interfaces were clearly visible when bulk liquid was rapidly sucked into the aerogel. Time evolution of the interface positions was consistent with the Washburn model and their effective pore radii were obtained. Condensation was a single step in a dense aerogel and two steps in a low density aerogel. Crossover between the two types of condensation was observed in an intermediate density aerogel. Variety of the dynamics may be the manifestation of the fractal nature of aerogels which had a wide range of distribution of pore radii.

  20. The Tragic Fate in Chiller’s Later Dramas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lange, Francis Joseph

    1894-01-01

    Waster T h e s i s S e r a a n L a n g e , F r a n c i s J« 18S4 T r a g i c f a t e i n S c h i l l e r ' s l a t e r dramas. K, i -W r r ^ J I A J O O I , 0 - - . T ' '7 ( yf / (X 0 The anc i en t Oreek^ saw tha t there was no s t a b i l... i t y i n the heavens above o r i n the e a r t h below, tha t r u i n f o l l o w e d sueeesa an iwa t- r .col u<•< n the h e e l s of p r o s p e r i t y . Th i s he observed and h i s s i m p l e , c h i l d - l i k e mind f a n c i e d a t f i...

  1. Condensation on Slippery Asymmetric Bumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyoo-Chul Park; Philseok Kim; Neil He; Joanna Aizenberg

    2015-01-14

    Bumps are omnipresent from human skin to the geological structures on planets, which offer distinct advantages in numerous phenomena including structural color, drag reduction, and extreme wettability. Although the topographical parameters of bumps such as radius of curvature of convex regions significantly influence various phenomena including anti-reflective structures and contact time of impacting droplets, the effect of the detailed bump topography on growth and transport of condensates have not been clearly understood. Inspired by the millimetric bumps of the Namib Desert beetle, here we report the identified role of radius of curvature and width of bumps with homogeneous surface wettability in growth rate, coalescence and transport of water droplets. Further rational design of asymmetric convex topography and synergetic combination with slippery coating simultaneously enable self-transport, leading to unseen five-fold higher growth rate and an order of magnitude faster shedding time of droplets compared to superhydrophobic surfaces. We envision that our fundamental understanding and innovative design of bumps can be applied to lead enhanced performance in various phase change applications including water harvesting.

  2. Dual condensates at finite isospin chemical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The dual observables as order parameters for center symmetry are tested at finite isospin chemical potential $\\mu_I$ in a Polyakov-loop enhanced chiral model of QCD with physical quark masses. As a counterpart of the dressed Polyakov-loop, the first Fourier moment of pion condensate is introduced for $\\mu_I>{m_\\pi}/{2}$ under the temporal twisted boundary conditions for quarks. We demonstrate that this dual condensate exhibits the similar temperature dependence as the conventional Polyakov-loop. We confirm that its rapid increase with $T$ is driven by the evaporating of pion condensation. On the other hand, the dressed Polyakov-loop shows abnormal thermal behavior, which even decreases with $T$ at low temperatures due to the influence of pion condensate. We thus argue that in QCD the critical temperature extracting from a dual observable may have nothing to do with the quark confinement-deconfinement transition if the quark mass is very small.

  3. Dropwise Condensation on Micro- and Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    In this review we cover recent developments in the area of surface- enhanced dropwise condensation against the background of earlier work. The development of fabrication techniques to create surface structures at the micro- ...

  4. Condensation heat transfer on nanoengineered surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxson, Adam Taylor

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a series of three related studies with the aim of developing a surface that promotes robust dropwise condensation. Due to their remarkably low droplet adhesion, superhydrophobic surfaces were investigated ...

  5. Advanced materials for enhanced condensation heat transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxson, Adam Taylor

    2014-01-01

    This thesis investigates the use of three classes advanced materials for promoting dropwise condensation: 1. robust hydrophobic functionalizations 2. superhydrophobic textures 3. lubricant-imbibed textures We first define ...

  6. Hierarchical superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces for condensation applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez, Ken, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Many existing industrial systems, including thermal desalination plants and air conditioning systems, involve the process of condensation and are heavily dependent on this process for achieving adequate levels of energy ...

  7. Condensation heat transfer on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    Condensation is a phase change phenomenon often encountered in nature, as well as used in industry for applications including power generation, thermal management, desalination, and environmental control. For the past eight ...

  8. Dual condensates at finite isospin chemical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao Zhang; Qing Miao

    2015-07-26

    The dual observables as order parameters for center symmetry are tested at finite isospin chemical potential $\\mu_I$ in a Polyakov-loop enhanced chiral model of QCD with physical quark masses. As a counterpart of the dressed Polyakov-loop, the first Fourier moment of pion condensate is introduced for $\\mu_I>{m_\\pi}/{2}$ under the temporal twisted boundary conditions for quarks. We demonstrate that this dual condensate exhibits the similar temperature dependence as the conventional Polyakov-loop. We confirm that its rapid increase with $T$ is driven by the evaporating of pion condensation. On the other hand, the dressed Polyakov-loop shows abnormal thermal behavior, which even decreases with $T$ at low temperatures due to the influence of pion condensate. We thus argue that in QCD the critical temperature extracting from a dual observable may have nothing to do with the quark confinement-deconfinement transition if the quark mass is very small.

  9. Optimizing Steam & Condensate System: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatesan, V. V.; Norris, C.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of Steam & Condensate systems in any process plant results in substantial reduction of purchased energy cost. During periods of natural gas price hikes, this would benefit the plant in controlling their fuel budget significantly...

  10. Measured Impacts of Air Conditioner Condenser Shading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, D. S.; Barkaszi, S. F.; Sonne, J. K.

    1996-01-01

    A study has been conducted by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to examine if space cooling energy savings can be achieved from shading of residential air conditioning (AC) condenser units. The investigation consisted of before...

  11. Quantum reflection of Bose-Einstein Condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasquini, Thomas A., Jr

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in atom optics have brought Bose-Einstein condensates within 1 pm of solid surfaces where the atom-surface interactions can no longer be ignored. At long- range, the atom-surface interaction is described ...

  12. Cold condensation of dust in the ISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouillé, Gaël; Krasnokutski, Serge A; Krebsz, Melinda; Henning, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The condensation of complex silicates with pyroxene and olivine composition at conditions prevailing in molecular clouds has been experimentally studied. For this purpose, molecular species comprising refractory elements were forced to accrete on cold substrates representing the cold surfaces of surviving dust grains in the interstellar medium. The efficient formation of amorphous and homogeneous magnesium iron silicates at temperatures of about 12 K has been monitored by IR spectroscopy. The gaseous precursors of such condensation processes in the interstellar medium are formed by erosion of dust grains in supernova shock waves. In the laboratory, we have evaporated glassy silicate dust analogs and embedded the released species in neon ice matrices that have been studied spectroscopically to identify the molecular precursors of the condensing solid silicates. A sound coincidence between the 10 micron band of the interstellar silicates and the 10 micron band of the low-temperature siliceous condensates can be...

  13. Initial Conditions from Color Glass Condensate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Guangyao

    2013-08-06

    Nuclei at very high energy, characterized by a saturation scale, can be described by an e?ective theory of Quantum ChromoDynamics (QCD) called Color Glass Condensates. The earliest phase of the collision of two nuclei is ...

  14. Modeling and Optimization of Superhydrophobic Condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    Superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured surfaces for dropwise condensation have recently received significant attention due to their potential to enhance heat transfer performance by shedding water droplets via coalescence-induced ...

  15. ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOR AND SYMMETRY OF CONDENSATE SOLUTIONS IN ELECTROWEAK THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spirn, Daniel

    ASYMPTOTIC BEHAVIOR AND SYMMETRY OF CONDENSATE SOLUTIONS IN ELECTROWEAK THEORY ROBIN MING CHEN, YUJIN GUO, AND DANIEL SPIRN ABSTRACT. We study condensate solutions of a nonlinear elliptic equation of condensate solutions are discussed, based on which the refined asymptotic behavior of condensate solutions

  16. Gluon Condensate in Pion Superfluid beyond Mean Field Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin Jiang; Pengfei Zhuang

    2011-03-04

    We study gluon condensate in a pion superfluid, through calculating the equation of state of the system in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. While in mean field approximation the growing pion condensate leads to an increasing gluon condensate, meson fluctuations reduce the gluon condensate and the broken scalar symmetry can be smoothly restored at finite isospin density.

  17. Infinite statistics condensate as a model of dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebadi, Zahra; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir

    2013-11-01

    In some models, dark matter is considered as a condensate bosonic system. In this paper, we prove that condensation is also possible for particles that obey infinite statistics and derive the critical condensation temperature. We argue that a condensed state of a gas of very weakly interacting particles obeying infinite statistics could be considered as a consistent model of dark matter.

  18. Colliding and Moving Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chikkatur, Ananth P.

    2006-02-22

    In this thesis, two different sets of experiments are described. The first is an exploration of the microscopic superfluidity of dilute gaseous Bose- Einstein condensates. The second set

  19. The interplay between the condensate and instantons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Vercauteren; Henri Verschelde

    2011-02-10

    Using the Local Composite Operator formalism, we analytically study the dimension two gluon condensate in the presence of instantons. We first use the dilute gas approximation and partially solve the infrared problem of instanton physics. In order to find quantitative results, however, we turn to an instanton liquid model, where we find a two-component picture of the condensate: one component comes from instantons, a second component is non-perturbatively generated by quantum fluctuations around the instantons.

  20. Condensate polishers add operating reliability and flexibility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layman, C.M.; Bennett, L.L.

    2008-08-15

    Many of today's advanced steam generators favour either an all-volatile treatment or oxygenated treatment chemistry programme, both of which require strict maintenance of an ultra-pure boiler fedwater ro condensate system. Those requirements are many times at odds with the lower-quality water sources, such as greywater, available for plant makeup and cooling water. Adding a condensate polisher can be a simple, cost-effective solution. 4 figs.

  1. Comprehensive Savings in Condensate Return Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viola, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    SAVINGS IN CONDENSATE RETURN SYSTEMS Eugene 1. Viola Market Specialist Swagelok Solon, Ohio ABSTRACT Every steam system is plagued by problems from malfunctioning steam traps. Effects of such problems can easily lead to downtime, loss of production... and reliably monitor the performance of condensate collection and, in turn, improves the overall efficiency of the entire steam distribution system. Overall efficiency in steam systems not only reduces energy usage but also significantly diminishes long...

  2. Ram Village South Chiller Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, Richard M.

    Northside Naval Armory Lenoir School of Business Parking Deck Morrison Storage Parking House Ruffin Thurston Brauer Mary Ellen Annex Robert Allison Fetzer Hall Paint Shop Labs Hill Dr. Hinton President's Parking

  3. Nanolubricants to Improve Chiller Performance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecialAPPENDIX FOrigin ofAllenDepartmentNYSERDANanolubricants to Improve

  4. Laser Isotope Separation Employing Condensation Repression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eerkens, Jeff W.; Miller, William H.

    2004-09-15

    Molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) techniques using condensation repression (CR) harvesting are reviewed and compared with atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), gaseous diffusion (DIF), ultracentrifuges (UCF), and electromagnetic separations (EMS). Two different CR-MLIS or CRISLA (Condensation Repression Isotope Separation by Laser Activation) approaches have been under investigation at the University of Missouri (MU), one involving supersonic super-cooled free jets and dimer formation, and the other subsonic cold-wall condensation. Both employ mixtures of an isotopomer (e.g. {sup i}QF{sub 6}) and a carrier gas, operated at low temperatures and pressures. Present theories of VT relaxation, dimerization, and condensation are found to be unsatisfactory to explain/predict experimental CRISLA results. They were replaced by fundamentally new models that allow ab-initio calculation of isotope enrichments and predictions of condensation parameters for laser-excited and non-excited vapors which are in good agreement with experiment. Because of supersonic speeds, throughputs for free-jet CRISLA are a thousand times higher than cold-wall CRISLA schemes, and thus preferred for large-quantity Uranium enrichments. For small-quantity separations of (radioactive) medical isotopes, the simpler coldwall CRISLA method may be adequate.

  5. Light-gas effect on steam condensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, M.H.; Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Herranz, L.E. [Centro de Investigcaiones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-12-01

    In a postulated reactor accident, the loss of coolant results in a release of high-temperature steam into the containment. Under these circumstances steam condensation onto containment walls provides an effective mechanism of energy removal. However, the presence of noncondensable gas is known to degrade the heat transfer. It has also been found that the introduction of a light noncondensable gas has little effect until sufficient quantities are present to disrupt the buoyancy forces. Our investigation shows the dramatic effect of high concentrations of light gas decreasing steam condensation rates under anticipated accident conditions for AP600, with helium as the simulant for hydrogen.

  6. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2007-07-03

    Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  7. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun

    2006-07-25

    Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  8. $?$-particle condensate states in $^{16}$O

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Ohkubo; Y. Hirabayashi

    2011-02-09

    The existence of a rotational band with the $\\alpha$+$^{12}$C($0_2^+$) cluster structure, in which three $\\alpha$ particles in $^{12}$C($0_2^+$) are locally condensed, is demonstrated near the four-$\\alpha$ threshold of $^{16}$O in agreement with experiment. This is achieved by studying structure and scattering for the $\\alpha$+$^{12}$C($0_2^+$) system in a unified way. A drastic reduction (quenching) of the moment of the inertia of the $0^+$ state at 15.1 MeV just above the four-$\\alpha$ threshold in $^{16}$O suggests that it could be a candidate for the superfluid state in $\\alpha$-particle condensation.

  9. Colored condensates deep inside neutron stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Blaschke

    2014-07-28

    It is demonstrated how in the absence of solutions for QCD under conditions deep inside compact stars an equation of state can be obtained within a model that is built on the basic symmetries of the QCD Lagrangian, in particular chiral symmetry and color symmetry. While in the vacuum the chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken, it gets restored at high densities. Color symmetry, however, gets broken simultaneously by the formation of colorful diquark condensates. It is shown that a strong diquark condensate in cold dense quark matter is essential for supporting the possibility that such states could exist in the recently observed pulsars with masses of 2 $M_\\odot$.

  10. Finite-temperature phase diagram of a polarized Fermi condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    at zero temperature on the molecular Bose­Einstein condensate side. On this basis, we argue investigation of the crossover from a Bose­Einstein condensate (BEC) of diatomic molecules to the Bardeen

  11. Novel ground states of Bose-condensed gases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abo-Shaeer, Jamil R

    2005-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) provide a novel tool for the study of macroscopic quantum phenomena and condensed matter systems. Two of the recent frontiers, quantized vortices and ultracold molecules, are the subject of ...

  12. Heat transfer during film condensation of potassium vapor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroger, Detlev Gustav

    1966-01-01

    The object of this work is to investigate theoretically and experimentally the following two phases of heat transfer during condensation of potassium vapore, a. Heat transfer during film condensation of pure saturated ...

  13. Feasibility of waterflooding Soku E7000 gas-condensate reservoir 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajayi, Arashi

    2002-01-01

    We performed a simple 3D compositional reservoir simulation study to examine the possibility of waterflooding the Soku E7 gas-condensate reservoir. This study shows that water injection results in higher condensate recovery than natural depletion...

  14. Film condensation of liquid metals -- precision of measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Stanley James

    1969-01-01

    Major differences exist in results published by investigators of film condensation of liquid metal vapors. In particular, the reported dependence of the condensation coefficient on pressure has raised questions about both ...

  15. Transient direct-contact condensation on liquid droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Nelson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, direct-contact condensation on subcooled liquid droplets is studied in two parts. In the first part, simple design correlations for the condensation in a steady environment are developed based upon a conduction model. These correlations include the convective heat-transfer coefficient, condensation rate, total condensation, and the droplet-thermalization time. In the second part of the paper, the effect of a time-dependent saturation temperature on the condensation process is investigated. A rapid decrease in saturation temperature is typical of condensation environments in which the steam-supply rate is limited and condensation-induced depressurization becomes important. Design correlations are developed for condensation in an environment in which the saturation temperature decreases linearly with time. These correlations are graphically compared to the design correlations of the first part through a quasi-steady approach. The error associated with this approach is quantified as a function of the rate of change of the saturation temperature.

  16. Energy Conservation-As it Applies to Condensate Return Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sneary, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Valuable heat energy in condensate is wasted when it is vented to the atmosphere in the form of flash steam at many condensate pumping stations. This heat energy may be recovered and put to use if the pumping station can ...

  17. Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems for Condensers and Heat Exchangers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Someah, K.

    1991-01-01

    The on-line Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems (ATCS) for condensers and heat exchangers provide a positive means for automatic cleaning on a continuous basis, while the exchanger or condenser remains "on stream" and at ...

  18. Atmospheric Condensation Potential of Windows in Hot, Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Diasty, R.; Budaiwi, I.

    1992-01-01

    condensation rate has been obtained by utilizing a simplified transient uni-dimensional finite difference model. The results show that this model has enhanced the assessment of the potential for atmospheric condensation on windows in hot, humid climates...

  19. Automatic Tube Cleaning Systems for Condensers & Heat Exchangers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Someah, K.

    1993-01-01

    Condenser tube fouling contributes up to 50% of the total condenser tube heat transfer resistance. This fouling results in reduced heat exchanger performance, reduced production, increased operational cost, increased back pressure, increased tube...

  20. Evolutionary games of condensates in coupled birth-death processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knebel, Johannes; Krueger, Torben; Frey, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Condensation phenomena arise through a collective behaviour of particles. They are observed in both classical and quantum systems, ranging from the formation of traffic jams in mass transport models to the macroscopic occupation of the energetic ground state in ultra-cold bosonic gases (Bose-Einstein condensation). Recently, it has been shown that a driven and dissipative system of bosons may form multiple condensates. Which states become the condensates has, however, remained elusive thus far. The dynamics of this condensation are described by coupled birth-death processes, which also occur in evolutionary game theory. Here, we apply concepts from evolutionary game theory to explain the formation of multiple condensates in such driven-dissipative bosonic systems. We show that vanishing of relative entropy production determines their selection. The condensation proceeds exponentially fast, but the system never comes to rest. Instead, the occupation numbers of condensates may oscillate, as we demonstrate for a...

  1. Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    Water Management for Evaporatively Cooled Condensers Theresa Pistochini May 23rd, 2012 ResearchAirCapacity,tons Gallons of Water Continuous Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F Cyclic Test - Outdoor Air 110-115 Deg F #12 AverageWaterHardness(ppm) Cooling Degree Days (60°F Reference) 20% Population 70% Population 10

  2. Cosmic Background Radiation Due to Photon Condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. G. Sidharth

    1998-06-10

    It is shown that a collection of photons with nearly the same frequency exhibits a Bose "condensation" type of phenomenon at about 3 degrees K corresponding to a peak intensity at a wave length of about 0.4cm. This could give a mechanism for the observed Cosmic Background Radiation, and also explain some curious features.

  3. Di-Antiquarks condensation in Color Superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabio L. Braghin

    2006-11-30

    Some consequences of a classical vector field (chromo-electromagnetic field) coupled to quarks, which undergo to superfluid and/or superconductive states with diquark / diantiquark condensation, are investigated. For this, one scalar field exchange is considered in the lines investigated by Pisarski and Rischke \\cite{PISARSKI-RISCHKE} in the mean field approach. Some effects and possible consequences are discussed.

  4. Boson stars from a gauge condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Dzhunushaliev; K. Myrzakulov; R. Myrzakulov

    2006-12-28

    The boson star filled with two interacting scalar fields is investigated. The scalar fields can be considered as a gauge condensate formed by SU(3) gauge field quantized in a non-perturbative manner. The corresponding solution is regular everywhere, has a finite energy and can be considered as a quantum SU(3) version of the Bartnik - McKinnon particle-like solution.

  5. Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adeyeye, Adedeji Ayoola

    2004-09-30

    This project is a research into the effect of gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells. It is the result of a problem encountered in producing a low permeability formation from a well in South Texas owned by the El Paso Production...

  6. Proof of Concept: Cloud Condensation Nucleus Counter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    North Dakota project. The solid circle is the mean value, the horizontal line is the 50th percentile Price High Price #12;Research Applications · One commercially available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter. · Available since 2002 · Sold over 100 Units, Mostly Labs · Price is Approximately $70

  7. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Water Heaters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing water heaters achieve higher efficiencies than conventional water heaters by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases. Combustion gases are exhausted through a secondary heat exchanger where the latent heat of water vapor in the exhaust gas is transferred to the stored water. This technology enables the water heater to achieve thermal efficiencies up to 99%.

  8. An Analysis of Steam Process Heater Condensate Drainage Options 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risko, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    , Houston, TX, May 12-13, 1999 POTENTIAL INSTALLAnON DESIGNS -Stearn Inlet Control Valve with Outlet Steam Trap (Figure A). -Stearn Inlet Control Valve with Outlet Level Pot (Figure B). -Steam Inlet Control Valve with Outlet Condensate Level Control... (Figure C). -Condensate Outlet Control Valve and Level Override (Figure D). -Condensate Outlet Control Valve for Drainage and Set Point Control (Figure E). -Stearn Inlet Control Valve with Outlet Condensate PumplTrap Drainage (Figure F). An in...

  9. Mean evaporation and condensation coefficients based on energy dependent condensation probability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Struchtrup, Henning

    Maurice Bond and Henning Struchtrup* Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, P. Ward, Phys. Rev. E 59, 419 (1999)]. It is shown that mean condensation and evaporation coefficients

  10. Colliding and moving Bose-Einstein condensates : studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chikkatur, Ananth P., 1975-

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis, two different sets of experiments are described. The first is an exploration of the microscopic superfluidity of dilute gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates. The second set of experiments were performed using ...

  11. Coupling of pion condensate, chiral condensate and Polyakov loop in an extended NJL model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao Zhang; Yu-Xin Liu

    2007-05-09

    The Nambu Jona-Lasinio model with a Polyakov loop is extended to finite isospin chemical potential case, which is characterized by simultaneous coupling of pion condensate, chiral condensate and Polyakov loop. The pion condensate, chiral condensate and the Polyakov loop as functions of temperature and isospin chemical potential are investigated by minimizing the thermodynamic potential of the system. The resulting $(T,\\mu_I)$ phase diagram is studied with emphasis on the critical point and Polyakov loop dynamics. The tricritical point for the pion superfluidity phase transition is confirmed and the phase transition for isospin symmetry restoration in high isospin chemical potential region perfectly coincides with the crossover phase transition for Polyakov loop. These results are in agreement with the Lattice QCD data.

  12. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: HVAC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Xin

    2014-01-01

    combustion turbine chiller; electric chiller chiller; Screwturbine chillers, and electric chillers. DeST has screw

  13. REVIEW ARTICLE FOCUS BoseEinstein condensation in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    REVIEW ARTICLE FOCUS Bose­Einstein condensation in magnetic insulators The Bose­Einstein condensate-mail: thierry.giamarchi@physics.unige.ch; c.ruegg@ucl.ac.uk; olegt@jhu.edu Not long after Bose and Einstein . It is thus natural to ask whether these bosons can undergo Bose­ Einstein condensation and become superfluid

  14. Coherent spinor dynamics in a spin-1 Bose condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    ARTICLES Coherent spinor dynamics in a spin-1 Bose condensate MING-SHIEN CHANG, QISHU QIN, WENXIAN, for example, a Bose­Einstein condensate or a degenerate Fermi gas, the phase space accessible to low of coherent spin-changing collisions in a gas of spin-1 bosons. Starting with condensates occupying two spin

  15. A Variable Cell Model for Simulating Gas Condensate Reservoir Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Majed, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    , SPE-~~~ SPE 21428 A Variable Cell Model for Simulating Gas Condensate Reservoir Performance A of depletion performance of gas condensate reservoirs report the existence of a A variable cell model for simulating gas relatively high, near-constant, oil saturation in condensate reeervoir performance has been

  16. How to make a bilayer exciton condensate flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    ARTICLES How to make a bilayer exciton condensate flow JUNG-JUNG SU* AND A. H. MACDONALD Department@physics.utexas.edu. Published online: 24 August 2008; doi:10.1038/nphys1055 Among the many examples of Bose condensation considered in physics, electron­hole-pair (exciton) condensation has maintained special interest because

  17. Stability of Equilibria with a Condensate Marco Merkli y

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stability of Equilibria with a Condensate #3; Marco Merkli y Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics Bose gas with a condensate, interacting with a small system (quantum dot) which can trap #12;nitely many Bosons. Due to spontaneous symmetry breaking in the presence of the condensate, the system has

  18. Influence of current mass on the spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinji Maedan

    2009-12-18

    It is known that, in the chiral limit, spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate occurs in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model at finite density within a mean-field approximation. We study here how an introduction of current quark mass affects the ground state with the spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate. Numerical calculations show that, even if the current quark mass is introduced, the spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate can take place. In order to obtain the ground state, the thermodynamic potential is calculated with a mean-field approximation. The influence of finite current mass on the thermodynamic potential consists of following two parts. One is a part coming from the field energy of the condensate, which favors inhomogeneous chiral condensate. The other is a part coming from the Dirac sea and the Fermi sea, which favors homogeneous chiral condensate. We also find that when the spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate occurs, the baryon number density becomes spatially inhomogeneous.

  19. Condensation induced water hammer driven sterilization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kullberg, Craig M.

    2004-05-11

    A method and apparatus (10) for treating a fluid or materials therein with acoustic energy has a vessel (14) for receiving the fluid with inner walls shaped to focus acoustic energy to a target zone within the vessel. One or more nozzles (26) are directed into the vessel (14) for injecting a condensable vapor, such as steam, into the vessel (14). The system may include a steam source (18) for providing steam as the condensable vapor from an industrial waste heat source. Steam drums (88) are disposed between the steam source (18) and nozzles (26) to equalize and distribute the vapor pressure. A cooling source (30) provides a secondary fluid for maintaining the liquid in the vessel (14) in subcooled conditions. A heating jacket (32) surrounds the vessel (14) to heat the walls of the vessel (14) and prevent biological growth thereon. A pressurizer (33) may operate the system at elevated pressures.

  20. Silicotitanate molecular sieve and condensed phases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M. (Albuquerque, NM); Nyman, May D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new microporous crystalline molecular sieve material having the formula Cs.sub.3 TiSi.sub.3 O.sub.95.cndot.3H.sub.2 O and its hydrothermally condensed phase, Cs.sub.2 TiSi.sub.6 O.sub.15, are disclosed. The microporous material can adsorb divalent ions of radionuclides or other industrial metals such as chromium, nickel, lead, copper, cobalt, zinc, cadmium, barium, and mercury, from aqueous or hydrocarbon solutions. The adsorbed metal ions can be leached out for recovery purposes or the microporous material can be hydrothermally condensed to a radiation resistant, structurally and chemically stable phase which can serve as a storage waste form for radionuclides.

  1. Collecting and Using Condensate on Site 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glawe, D.

    2013-01-01

    o n – D e c e m b e r 1 8 , 2 0 1 3 D i a n a D . G l a w e , P h D , P E , L E E D A P E n g i n e e r i n g S c i e n c e D e p a r t m e n t Collecting & using condensate on site ESL-KT-13-12-43 CATEE 2013: Clean Air... the other way around too…… saving energy saves water) ESL-KT-13-12-43 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 On site water sources • Condensate • Rainwater • Cooling...

  2. THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

    2001-08-06

    In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

  3. Fast transport of Bose-Einstein condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Torrontegui; Xi Chen; M. Modugno; S. Schmidt; A. Ruschhaupt; J. G. Muga

    2011-03-13

    We propose an inverse method to accelerate without final excitation the adiabatic transport of a Bose Einstein condensate. The method, applicable to arbitrary potential traps, is based on a partial extension of the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants, and provides transport protocols that satisfy exactly the no-excitation conditions without constraints or approximations. This inverse method is complemented by optimizing the trap trajectory with respect to different physical criteria and by studying the effect of noise.

  4. Pion condensation in a dense neutrino gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroaki Abuki; Tomas Brauner; Harmen J. Warringa

    2009-08-26

    We argue that using an equilibrated gas of neutrinos it is possible to probe the phase diagram of QCD for finite isospin and small baryon chemical potentials. We discuss this region of the phase diagram in detail and demonstrate that for large enough neutrino densities a Bose-Einstein condensate of positively charged pions arises. Moreover, we show that for nonzero neutrino density the degeneracy in the lifetimes and masses of the charged pions is lifted.

  5. Time Reversal of Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.; Georgeot, B.; Shepelyansky, D. L. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Universite de Toulouse III, CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2008-08-15

    Using Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we study the time reversibility of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in kicked optical lattices, showing that in the regime of quantum chaos, the dynamics can be inverted from explosion to collapse. The accuracy of time reversal decreases with the increase of atom interactions in BEC, until it is completely lost. Surprisingly, quantum chaos helps to restore time reversibility. These predictions can be tested with existing experimental setups.

  6. Spatially inhomogeneous condensate in asymmetric nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Sedrakian

    2001-01-03

    We study the isospin singlet pairing in asymmetric nuclear matter with nonzero total momentum of the condensate Cooper pairs. The quasiparticle excitation spectrum is fourfold split compared to the usual BCS spectrum of the symmetric, homogeneous matter. A twofold splitting of the spectrum into separate branches is due to the finite momentum of the condensate, the isospin asymmetry, or the finite quasiparticle lifetime. The coupling of the isospin singlet and triplet paired states leads to further twofold splitting of each of these branches. We solve the gap equation numerically in the isospin singlet channel in the case where the pairing in the isospin triplet channel is neglected and find nontrivial solutions with finite total momentum of the pairs. The corresponding phase assumes a periodic spatial structure which carries a isospin density wave at constant total number of particles. The phase transition from the BCS to the inhomogeneous superconducting phase is found to be first order and occurs when the density asymmetry is increased above 0.25. The transition from the inhomogeneous superconducting to the unpaired normal state is second order. The maximal values of the critical total momentum (in units of the Fermi momentum) and the critical density asymmetry at which condensate disappears are $P_c/p_F = 0.3$ and $\\alpha_c = 0.41$. The possible spatial forms of the ground state of the inhomogeneous superconducting phase are briefly discussed.

  7. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adi Armoni; Biagio Lucini; Agostino Patella; Claudio Pica

    2008-09-29

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric) representation and $N_f$ flavours of Majorana fermions in the adjoint representation have the same large $N$ value for any value of the mass of the (degenerate) fermions. Assuming the invariance of the theory under charge conjugation, we prove this statement on the lattice for staggered quenched condensates in SU($N$) Yang-Mills in the large $N$ limit. Then, we compute numerically those quenched condensates for $N$ up to 8. After separating the even from the odd corrections in $1/N$, we are able to show that our data support the equivalence; however, unlike other quenched observables, subleading terms in $1/N$ are needed for describing the data for the symmetric and antisymmetric representation at $N$=3. Possible lessons for the unquenched case are discussed.

  8. Measuring non-condensable gases in steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-11-15

    In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

  9. STATE OF CALIFORNIA THE RESOURCES AGENCY ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER, Governor CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -fired General Electric (GE) LM6000 PC SPRINT combustion turbine generators (CTGs), (2) a packaged wet cooling tower for cooling the air inlet chiller system, (3) air cooling for the fuel gas compressors and eliminate liquid discharge from the project, (8) an on-site septic system will be employed to dispose

  10. Bose Einstein Condensation as Dark Energy and Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masako Nishiyama; Masa-aki Morita; Masahiro Morikawa

    2004-03-24

    We study a cosmological model in which the boson dark matter gradually condensates into dark energy. Negative pressure associated with the condensate yields the accelerated expansion of the Universe and the rapid collapse of the smallest scale fluctuations into many black holes, which become the seeds of the first galaxies. The cycle of gradual sedimentation and rapid collapse of condensate repeats many times and self-regularizes the ratio of dark energy and dark matter to be order one.

  11. Hyperon bulk viscosity in the presence of antikaon condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debarati Chatterjee; Debades Bandyopadhyay

    2009-10-31

    We investigate the hyperon bulk viscosity due to the non-leptonic process $n + p \\rightleftharpoons p + \\Lambda $ in $K^-$ condensed matter and its effect on the r-mode instability in neutron stars. We find that the hyperon bulk viscosity coefficient in the presence of antikaon condensate is suppressed compared with the case without the condensate. The suppressed hyperon bulk viscosity in the superconducting phase is still an efficient mechanism to damp the r-mode instability in neutron stars.

  12. A two-component picture of the condensate with instantons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Vercauteren; Henri Verschelde

    2011-01-26

    We study the interplay between the condensate and instantons in non-Abelian gauge theory. Therefore we use the formalism of Local Composite Operators, with which the vacuum expectation value of this condensate can be analytically computed. We first use the dilute gas approximation and partially solve the infrared problem of instanton physics. In order to find quantitative results, however, we turn to an instanton liquid model, where we find how the different contributions to the condensate add up.

  13. Thermally Activated Dynamics of the Capillary Condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Restagno; L. Bocquet; T. Biben; E. Charlaix

    1999-08-10

    This paper is devoted to the thermally activated dynamics of the capillary condensation. We present a simple model which enables us to identify the critical nucleus involved in the transition mechanism. This simple model is then applied to calculate the nucleation barrier from which we can obtain informations on the nucleation time. We present a simple estimation of the nucleation barrier in slab geometry both in the two dimensional case and in the three dimensional case. We extend the model in the case of rough surfaces which is closer to the experimental case and allows comparison with experimental datas.

  14. Process Considerations in Surface Condenser Design 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.; Terranova, A.; Capel, A. C. P.

    1999-01-01

    and the lifetime costs incurred are orders of magnitude greater than the purchase price of the unit As with most heat exchangers, two separate groups are involved in the specification and design of surface condensers: the process engineers and the equipment... can be a larger and heavier unit and one that may be more prone to fouling. The choice of cheaper material may result in both a more expensive unit and much higher life time costs. Allowable tubeside pressure drop can have a controlling influence...

  15. Fermion mass generation without a condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkitesh Ayyar

    2014-12-05

    We study a lattice field theory model containing two flavors of massless staggered fermions with an onsite four-fermion interaction. The symmetry of the model forbids non-zero fermion bilinear order parameters that can generate a fermion mass. At weak couplings, we expect a massless fermion phase. At strong couplings, we can argue for the existence of massive fermions without the formation of any fermion bilinear condensate. Using Monte Carlo calculations in three space-time dimensions, we find evidence for a direct second order phase transition between the two phases.

  16. Condensation of Anyons in Frustrated Quantum Magnets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristian D. Batista; Rolando D. Somma

    2012-08-12

    We derive the exact ground space of a family of spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains with uniaxial exchange anisotropy (XXZ) and interactions between nearest and next-nearest-neighbor spins. The Hamiltonian family, H(Q), is parametrized by a single variable Q. By using a generalized Jordan-Wigner transformation that maps spins into anyons, we show that the exact ground states of H(Q) correspond to a condensation of anyons with statistical phase phi=-4Q. We also provide matrix-product state representations of some ground states that allow for the efficient computation of spin-spin correlation functions.

  17. Localized Domains of Disoriented Chiral Condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. K. Nandi; T. K. Nayak; B. Mohanty; D. P. Mahapatra; Y. P. Viyogi

    1999-03-12

    A new method to search for localized domains of disoriented chiral condensates (DCC) has been proposed by utilising the (eta-phi) phase space distributions of charged particles and photons. Using the discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) analysis technique, it has been found that the presence of DCC domains broadens the distribution of wavelet coefficients in comparison to that of normal events. Strength contours have been derived from the differences in rms deviations of these distributions by taking into account the size of DCC domains and the probability of DCC production in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. This technique can be suitably adopted to experiments measuring multiplicities of charged particles and photons.

  18. Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Condensing Heating and Water Heating Equipment Workshop Location: Washington Gas Light Appliance Training Facility 6801 Industrial Road Springfield, VA Date: October 9, 2014 Time:...

  19. ,"New Mexico Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production",10,"Annual",2014,"0...

  20. ,"New Mexico Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2014,"06302009"...

  1. New Mexico Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves in...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) New Mexico Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

  2. Return Condensate to the Boiler - Steam Tip Sheet #8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  3. Consider Installing a Condensing Economizer, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    systems, wallboard production facilities, greenhouses, food processing plants, pulp and paper mills, textile plants, and hospitals. Condensing economiz- ers require site-specific...

  4. ,"U.S. Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves",10,"Annual",2013,"06302009" ,"Release...

  5. ,"Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Lease Condensate Proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  6. ,"North Dakota Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  7. Theory of decoherence in Bose-Einstein condensate interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B J Dalton

    2007-02-03

    A full treatment of decoherence and dephasing effects in BEC interferometry has been developed based on using quantum correlation functions for treating interferometric effects. The BEC is described via a phase space distribution functional of the Wigner type for the condensate modes and the positive P type for the non-condensate modes. Ito equations for stochastic condensate and non-condensate field functions replace the functional Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution functional and stochastic averages of field function products determine the quantum correlation functions.

  8. ,"Lower 48 States Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  9. ,"North Louisiana Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  10. ,"New York Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  11. ,"Louisiana Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  12. ,"California Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  13. ,"TX, RRC District 10 Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  14. ,"Federal Offshore U.S. Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  15. ,"Kansas Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  16. ,"TX, RRC District 10 Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  17. ,"TX, RRC District 1 Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  18. ,"LA, State Offshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  19. ,"Texas Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  20. ,"Oklahoma Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  1. ,"Colorado Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  2. ,"Indiana Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  3. ,"TX, RRC District 5 Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  4. ,"CA, San Joaquin Basin Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  5. ,"TX, RRC District 3 Onshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  6. ,"TX, RRC District 8A Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  7. ,"Kentucky Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  8. ,"Ohio Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio...

  9. ,"Nebraska Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  10. ,"Ohio Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  11. Holographic 1/Nc correction from the chiral condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bum-Hoon Lee; Chanyong Park; Sunyoung Shin

    2010-10-06

    We investigate a gravity solution containing the gravitational backreaction of the massive scalar field dual to the chiral condensate, which corresponds to $1/N_c$ correction. In general, condensation changes the vacuum structure, so the present dual geometry is appropriate to describe the chiral condensate vacuum in the gauge theory side. After constructing the dual geometry numerically and applying the hard wall model we study the effect of the $1/N_c$ correction on the lightest meson spectra, which improves the values for lightest meson masses into the observations. In addition, we investigate the chiral condensate dependence the binding energy of heavy quarkonium.

  12. ,"Pennsylvania Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  13. ,"NM, East Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  14. ,"Montana Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

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    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  15. ,"CA, San Joaquin Basin Onshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

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    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  16. ,"LA, South Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

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    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  17. ,"Utah Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

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    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah...

  18. ,"TX, RRC District 4 Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

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    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

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  1. ,"NM, West Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

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    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

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  8. ,"Florida Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

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    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  9. ,"Miscellaneous Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

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    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  10. ,"NM, West Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

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    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  11. ,"NM, East Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

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  12. ,"Illinois Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

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    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  13. ,"TX, RRC District 7B Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

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    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  14. The two flavour Schwinger model: scaling of the scalar condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kei-ichi Nagai; Nils Christian; Karl Jansen; Beatrix Pollakowski

    2007-11-15

    We investigate the continuum limit scaling of the scalar condensate in the $N_f=2$ Schwinger model on the lattice. We employ maximally twisted mass Wilson fermions and overlap fermions. We compute the scalar condensate by taking the trace of the propagator (direct method) and by utilizing the integrated Ward-Takahashi identity. While the scalar condensate comes out consistent using these two methods for a given kind of lattice fermions, we find --quite surprisingly-- large discrepancies for the scalar condensate between twisted mass and overlap fermions. These discrepancies are only resolved when using the point split current for twisted mass fermions.

  15. ,"North Louisiana Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

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  16. ,"Lower 48 States Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

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    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  17. ,"Kansas Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

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    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  18. ,"TX, RRC District 3 Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

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    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  19. ,"CA, State Offshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

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    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  20. ,"CA, Los Angeles Basin Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

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    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  1. ,"CA, Los Angeles Basin Onshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

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    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  2. ,"TX, State Offshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

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    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  3. ,"North Dakota Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

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    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  4. ,"West Virginia Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes...

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    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  5. ,"Texas Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and...

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    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  6. ,"Wyoming Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  7. ,"West Virginia Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","West...

  8. ,"Alabama Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  9. ,"TX, State Offshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  10. ,"TX, RRC District 4 Onshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

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    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  11. ,"Utah Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and...

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    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  12. ,"TX, RRC District 9 Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

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    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  13. ,"TX, RRC District 8 Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

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    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  14. ,"TX, RRC District 2 Onshore Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  15. ,"TX, RRC District 6 Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  16. ,"Arkansas Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  17. ,"TX, RRC District 2 Onshore Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  18. ,"Alaska Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data...

  19. ,"TX, RRC District 7C Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve...

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    Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserve Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Late...

  20. Systems Reiter, George 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Compton Scattering as a Probe of Hydrogen Bonded (and other) Systems Reiter, George 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND...

  1. Fragmentation, domain formation and atom number fluctuations of a two-species Boseâ??Einstein condensate in an optical lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Uttam; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2012-01-01

    atomic Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) exhibit notablyspecies Bose–Einstein condensate in an optical lattice Uttamspecies Bose–Einstein condensate to an optical lattice in a

  2. The effect of condensate dropout on pressure transient analysis of a high-pressure gas condensate well 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briens, Frederic Jean-Louis

    1986-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF CONDENSATE DROPOUT ON PRESSURE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF A HIGH-PRESSURE GAS CONDENSATE NELL A thesis FREDERIC JEAN-LOUIS BRIENS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillement of the requirements i...'or the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject : Petr oleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF CONDENSATE DROPOUT ON PRESSURE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS OF A HIGH-PRESSURE GAS CONDENSATE WELL A thesis by FREDERIC JEAN-LOUiS SRIENS Approved as to style...

  3. Bragg spectroscopy of a Bose-Einstein condensate The first evidence for Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases was obtained by a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bragg spectroscopy of a Bose-Einstein condensate The first evidence for Bose-Einstein condensation distribution of the expanding condensate was the released interaction energy (mean-field energy) resulting potential. Since the size of a trapped condensate with repulsive interactions is larger than the trap ground

  4. gradient, df/dz, across the condensate. Such a gradient may be imprinted by a condensate velocity, because df=dz mv=h, where

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganichev, Sergey

    gradient, df/dz, across the condensate. Such a gradient may be imprinted by a condensate velocity,13 , which accounts for far fewer atoms than the number contained in the initial repulsive condensate. Apparently, most of the atoms from the collapsing condensate are lost, while only a small fraction remain

  5. Observation of Bogoliubov excitations in exciton-polariton condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    predicted the occurrence of Bose­Einstein condensation (BEC) in an ideal gas of non-interacting bosonic of the polariton Bose­Einstein condensation (BEC) transition is expected to be up to room temperature. The leakage@nii.ac.jp; yyamamoto@stanford.edu Published online: 1 August 2008; doi:10.1038/nphys1034 Einstein's 1925 paper

  6. ENERGY SERIES "CFD Modeling and its Application in Steam Condenser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    SEMINAR: ENERGY SERIES "CFD Modeling and its Application in Steam Condenser Performance Improvement will discuss the application of CFD to steam condensers, an area where both of the above mentioned limitations of computational fluid dynamics, having applied these techniques extensively in the design large heat exchangers

  7. Emergent gravitational dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lorenzo Sindoni; Florian Girelli; Stefano Liberati

    2009-09-29

    We discuss a toy model for an emergent non-relativistic gravitational theory. Within a certain class of Bose-Einstein condensates, it is possible to show that, in a suitable regime, a modified version of non-relativistic Newtonian gravity does effectively describes the low energy dynamics of the coupled system condensate/quasi-particles.

  8. Design and construction of rigs for studying surface condensation and creating anodized metal oxide surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Wei-Yang

    2011-01-01

    This thesis details the design and construction of a rig for studying surface condensation and a rig for creating anodized metal oxides (AMOs). The condensation rig characterizes condensation for different surfaces; this ...

  9. Heat transfer rates for filmwise, dropwise, and superhydrophobic condensation on silicon substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hery, Travis M

    2011-01-01

    Condensation, a two-phase heat transfer processes, is commonly utilized in industrial systems. Condensation heat transfer can be optimized by using surfaces in which dropwise condensation (DWC) occurs, and even further ...

  10. A numerical analysis of condenser performance of a seawater desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Hassan, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the numerical analysis of three type condensers for desalination of seawater system. The condensers that were analyzed were a finned tube condenser that was built in Malaysia desalination plant, a ...

  11. Relationship between Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Satellite Retrievals of Cloud Droplet Effective Radius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    ` Relationship between Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Satellite Retrievals of Cloud Droplet is the relationship between below cloud base cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and satellite retrievals of cloud droplet cloud effective radius; however, satellites can not measure cloud condensation nuclei (CCN

  12. Collecting and recirculating condensate in a nuclear reactor containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, T.L.

    1993-10-19

    An arrangement passively cools a nuclear reactor in the event of an emergency, condensing and recycling vaporized cooling water. The reactor is surrounded by a containment structure and has a storage tank for cooling liquid, such as water, vented to the containment structure by a port. The storage tank preferably is located inside the containment structure and is thermally coupleable to the reactor, e.g. by a heat exchanger, such that water in the storage tank is boiled off to carry away heat energy. The water is released as a vapor (steam) and condenses on the cooler interior surfaces of the containment structure. The condensed water flows downwardly due to gravity and is collected and routed back to the storage tank. One or more gutters are disposed along the interior wall of the containment structure for collecting the condensate from the wall. Piping is provided for communicating the condensate from the gutters to the storage tank. 3 figures.

  13. Affleck-Dine condensate, late thermalization and the gravitino problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rouzbeh Allahverdi; Anupam Mazumdar

    2008-06-24

    In this clarifying note we discuss the late decay of an Affleck-Dine condensate by providing a no-go theorem that attributes to conserved global charges which are identified by the net particle number in fields which are included in the flat direction(s). For a rotating condensate, this implies that: (1) the net baryon/lepton number density stored in the condensate is always conserved, and (2) the total particle number density in the condensate cannot decrease. This reiterates that, irrespective of possible non-perturbative particle production due to $D$-terms in a multiple flat direction case, the prime decay mode of an Affleck-Dine condensate will be perturbative as originally envisaged. As a result, cosmological consequences of flat directions such as delayed thermalization as a novel solution to the gravitino overproduction problem will remain virtually intact.

  14. Spark gap switch system with condensable dielectric gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thayer, III, William J. (Kent, WA)

    1991-01-01

    A spark gap switch system is disclosed which is capable of operating at a high pulse rate comprising an insulated switch housing having a purging gas entrance port and a gas exit port, a pair of spaced apart electrodes each having one end thereof within the housing and defining a spark gap therebetween, an easily condensable and preferably low molecular weight insulating gas flowing through the switch housing from the housing, a heat exchanger/condenser for condensing the insulating gas after it exits from the housing, a pump for recirculating the condensed insulating gas as a liquid back to the housing, and a heater exchanger/evaporator to vaporize at least a portion of the condensed insulating gas back into a vapor prior to flowing the insulating gas back into the housing.

  15. Collecting and recirculating condensate in a nuclear reactor containment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Terry L. (Murrysville Boro, PA)

    1993-01-01

    An arrangement passively cools a nuclear reactor in the event of an emergency, condensing and recycling vaporized cooling water. The reactor is surrounded by a containment structure and has a storage tank for cooling liquid, such as water, vented to the containment structure by a port. The storage tank preferably is located inside the containment structure and is thermally coupleable to the reactor, e.g. by a heat exchanger, such that water in the storage tank is boiled off to carry away heat energy. The water is released as a vapor (steam) and condenses on the cooler interior surfaces of the containment structure. The condensed water flows downwardly due to gravity and is collected and routed back to the storage tank. One or more gutters are disposed along the interior wall of the containment structure for collecting the condensate from the wall. Piping is provided for communicating the condensate from the gutters to the storage tank.

  16. Chalcogenide nanowires by evaporation-condensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Bradley R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2005-02-02

    Chalcogenide (arsenic sulfide) nanowires have been successfully synthesized from As2S3 under near-equilibrium conditions via evaporation-condensation process in evacuated glass ampoules. The as-synthesized nanowires were pure, nearly stoichiometric, and amorphous. The nanowires had diameters ranging from 40 to 140 nm and lengths up to a few millimeters. Distinct joints of the crisscrossing nanowires indicate potential for forming structural networks. They have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine their structure, composition, and morphology. Selected area diffraction (SAD) in the TEM and XRD confirmed their amorphous nature. The As-S nanowires could make an ideal system for understanding the carrier transport and photonic properties in nanoscale for this family of materials (IV-V compounds). Chalcogenide nanowires show promise for integrated nanoelectronics and biophotonics.

  17. Nonlinear interferometry with Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tacla, Alexandre B. [Center for Quantum Information and Control, MSC 07-4220, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001 (United States); Boixo, Sergio [Institute for Quantum Information, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Datta, Animesh [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Shaji, Anil [School of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, College of Engineering Trivandrum Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695016 (India); Caves, Carlton M. [Center for Quantum Information and Control, MSC 07-4220, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-0001 (United States); School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    We analyze a proposed experiment [Boixo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 040403 (2008)] for achieving sensitivity scaling better than 1/N in a nonlinear Ramsey interferometer that uses a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of N atoms. We present numerical simulations that confirm the analytical predictions for the effect of the spreading of the BEC ground-state wave function on the ideal 1/N{sup 3/2} scaling. Numerical integration of the coupled, time-dependent, two-mode Gross-Pitaevskii equations allows us to study the several simplifying assumptions made in the initial analytic study of the proposal and to explore when they can be justified. In particular, we find that the two modes share the same spatial wave function for a length of time that is sufficient to run the metrology scheme.

  18. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bannochie, C. J.; Adamson, D. J.; King, W. D.

    2015-04-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to understand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here.

  19. Method and apparatus for high-efficiency direct contact condensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, D.; Parent, Y.; Hassani, A.V.

    1999-07-20

    A direct contact condenser having a downward vapor flow chamber and an upward vapor flow chamber, wherein each of the vapor flow chambers includes a plurality of cooling liquid supplying pipes and a vapor-liquid contact medium disposed thereunder to facilitate contact and direct heat exchange between the vapor and cooling liquid. The contact medium includes a plurality of sheets arranged to form vertical interleaved channels or passageways for the vapor and cooling liquid streams. The upward vapor flow chamber also includes a second set of cooling liquid supplying pipes disposed beneath the vapor-liquid contact medium which operate intermittently in response to a pressure differential within the upward vapor flow chamber. The condenser further includes separate wells for collecting condensate and cooling liquid from each of the vapor flow chambers. In alternate embodiments, the condenser includes a cross-current flow chamber and an upward flow chamber, a plurality of upward flow chambers, or a single upward flow chamber. The method of use of the direct contact condenser of this invention includes passing a vapor stream sequentially through the downward and upward vapor flow chambers, where the vapor is condensed as a result of heat exchange with the cooling liquid in the contact medium. The concentration of noncondensable gases in the resulting condensate-liquid mixtures can be minimized by controlling the partial pressure of the vapor, which depends in part upon the geometry of the vapor-liquid contact medium. In another aspect of this invention, the physical and chemical performance of a direct contact condenser can be predicted based on the vapor and coolant compositions, the condensation conditions, and the geometric properties of the contact medium. 39 figs.

  20. Method and apparatus for high-efficiency direct contact condensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Parent, Yves (Golden, CO); Hassani, A. Vahab (Golden, CO)

    1999-01-01

    A direct contact condenser having a downward vapor flow chamber and an upward vapor flow chamber, wherein each of the vapor flow chambers includes a plurality of cooling liquid supplying pipes and a vapor-liquid contact medium disposed thereunder to facilitate contact and direct heat exchange between the vapor and cooling liquid. The contact medium includes a plurality of sheets arranged to form vertical interleaved channels or passageways for the vapor and cooling liquid streams. The upward vapor flow chamber also includes a second set of cooling liquid supplying pipes disposed beneath the vapor-liquid contact medium which operate intermittently in response to a pressure differential within the upward vapor flow chamber. The condenser further includes separate wells for collecting condensate and cooling liquid from each of the vapor flow chambers. In alternate embodiments, the condenser includes a cross-current flow chamber and an upward flow chamber, a plurality of upward flow chambers, or a single upward flow chamber. The method of use of the direct contact condenser of this invention includes passing a vapor stream sequentially through the downward and upward vapor flow chambers, where the vapor is condensed as a result of heat exchange with the cooling liquid in the contact medium. The concentration of noncondensable gases in the resulting condensate-liquid mixtures can be minimized by controlling the partial pressure of the vapor, which depends in part upon the geometry of the vapor-liquid contact medium. In another aspect of this invention, the physical and chemical performance of a direct contact condenser can be predicted based on the vapor and coolant compositions, the condensation conditions. and the geometric properties of the contact medium.

  1. Electromagnetic triangle anomaly and neutral pion condensation in QCD vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Gaoqing

    2015-01-01

    We study the QCD vacuum structure under the influence of an electromagnetic field with a nonzero second Lorentz invariant $I_2=\\vec{E}\\cdot{\\vec B}$. We show that the presence of $I_2$ can induce neutral pion ($\\pi^0$) condensation in the QCD vacuum through the electromagnetic triangle anomaly. Within the frameworks of chiral perturbation theory at leading small-momenta expansion as well as the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model at leading $1/N_c$ expansion, we quantify the dependence of the $\\pi^0$ condensate on $I_2$. The stability of the $\\pi^0$-condensed vacuum against the Schwinger charged pair production due to electric field is also discussed.

  2. Dual-phase reactor plant with partitioned isolation condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hui, Marvin M. (Cupertino, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear energy plant housing a boiling-water reactor utilizes an isolation condenser in which a single chamber is partitioned into a distributor plenum and a collector plenum. Steam accumulates in the distributor plenum and is conveyed to the collector plenum through an annular manifold that includes tubes extending through a condenser pool. The tubes provide for a transfer of heat from the steam, forming a condensate. The chamber has a disk-shaped base, a cylindrical sidewall, and a semispherical top. This geometry results in a compact design that exhibits significant performance and cost advantages over prior designs.

  3. Amplification of Fluctuations in a Spinor Bose Einstein Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. R. Leslie; J. Guzman; M. Vengalattore; J. D. Sau; M. L. Cohen; D. M. Stamper-Kurn

    2008-06-10

    Dynamical instabilities due to spin-mixing collisions in a $^{87}$Rb F=1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate are used as an amplifier of quantum spin fluctuations. We demonstrate the spectrum of this amplifier to be tunable, in quantitative agreement with mean-field calculations. We quantify the microscopic spin fluctuations of the initially paramagnetic condensate by applying this amplifier and measuring the resulting macroscopic magnetization. The magnitude of these fluctuations is consistent with predictions of a beyond-mean-field theory. The spinor-condensate-based spin amplifier is thus shown to be nearly quantum-limited at a gain as high as 30 dB.

  4. Nucleon sigma term and quark condensate in nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Tsushima; K. Saito; A. W. Thomas; A. Valcarce

    2006-10-10

    We study the bound nucleon sigma term and the quark condensate in nuclear matter. In the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model the nuclear correction to the sigma term is small and negative, i.e., it decelerates the decrease of the quark condensate in nuclear matter. However, the quark condensate in nuclear matter is controlled primarily by the scalar-isoscalar $\\sigma$ field. Compared to the leading term, it moderates the decrease more than that of the nuclear sigma term alone at densities around and larger than the normal nuclear matter density.

  5. Condensate fraction of cold gases in a nonuniform external potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Astrakharchik, G. E.; Krutitsky, K. V.

    2011-09-15

    Exact calculation of the condensate fraction in multidimensional inhomogeneous interacting Bose systems in a confining potential of arbitrary shape is a difficult computational problem. We have developed an iterative procedure which allows us to calculate the condensate fraction as well as the corresponding eigenfunction of the one-body density matrix. We successfully validate this procedure in diffusion Monte Carlo simulations of a Bose gas in an optical lattice at zero temperature. We also discuss the relation between different criteria used for testing coherence in cold Bose systems, such as the fraction of particles that are superfluid, condensed, or in the zero-momentum state.

  6. Scattering off the Color Glass Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mäntysaari, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) framework, which describes quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at high energy, is applied to various scattering processes. Higher order corrections to the CGC evolution equations, known as the BK and JIMWLK equations, are also considered. It is shown that the leading order CGC calculations describe the experimental data from electron-proton deep inelastic scattering (DIS), proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions. The initial condition for the BK evolution equation is obtained by performing a fit to deep inelastic scattering data. The fit result is used as an input to calculations of single particle spectra and nuclear suppression in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions, which are shown to be in agreement with RHIC and LHC measurements. In particular, the importance of a proper description of the nuclear geometry consistently with the DIS data fits is emphasized, as it results in a nuclear suppression factor $R_{pA}$ which is consistent with the available exp...

  7. Yield Stress Materials in Soft Condensed Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Bonn; Jose Paredes; Morton M. Denn; Ludovic Berthier; Thibaut Divoux; Sébastien Manneville

    2015-02-18

    We present a comprehensive review of the physical behavior of yield stress materials in soft condensed matter, which encompasses a broad range of soft materials from colloidal assemblies and gels to emulsions and non-Brownian suspensions. All these disordered materials display a nonlinear response to an external mechanical forcing, which results from the existence of a finite force threshold for flow to occur, the yield stress. We discuss both the physical origin and the rheological consequences associated with this nonlinear behavior. We give an overview of the different experimental techniques developed to measure the yield stress. We discuss extensively the recent progress concerning a microscopic description of the flow dynamics of yield stress materials, emphasizing in particular the role played by relaxation timescales, the interplay between shear flow and aging behavior, the existence of inhomogeneous shear flows and shear bands, wall slip, and non-local effects in confined geometries. We finally review the status of modeling of the shear rheology of yield stress materials in the framework of continuum mechanics.

  8. Condensate-free superfluidity induced by frustrated proximity effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laflorencie, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of superfluidity in He4 and Landau's phenomenological theory, the relationship between Bose condensation and superfluidity has been intensely debated. He4 is known by now to be both superfluid and condensed at low temperature, and more generally, in dimension D \\geq 2, all superfluid bosonic models realized in experiments are condensed in their ground state. Recent examples include ultracold bosonic atoms trapped in an optical lattice or effective bosons describing magnetic excitations in quantum magnets. In this paper, it is shown that a 2D gas of bosons which is superfluid but not condensed at T=0 can be achieved by populating a layer through a frustrated proximity effect from a superfluid reservoir. This bosonic fluid is characterized by specific scaling laws and incommensurate correlations. This leads to several predictions for the quantum antiferromagnet BaCuSi2O6 (Han purple) in a magnetic field, a good candidate to realize this novel state of matter.

  9. Bose-Einstein condensates of polaritons: Vortices and superfluidity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bose-Einstein condensates of polaritons: Vortices and superfluidity May 10, 2011 at 3:00PM36-428 Benoit Deveaud-Pldran Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne abstract: The...

  10. The Effect of vapor subcooling on film condensation of metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fedorovich, Eugene D.

    1968-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of the interfacial "vapor-condensate" temperature distribution, which includes the effect of subcooling (supersaturation) in the vapor. Experimental data from previous investigators for ...

  11. Electric-Field-Enhanced Condensation on Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    When condensed droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump due to the conversion of excess surface energy into kinetic energy. This phenomenon has been shown to enhance ...

  12. Condenser performance test and back-pressure improvement: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piskorowski, J.; Beckett, G.; Bell, R.

    1988-04-01

    This document describes condenser performance test and analyses experiences. The testing was performed by Indianapolis Power and Light Company (IPL) on the Petersburg Unit 3 condenser. The initial testing revealed a performance deficiency. Modifications were made to the condenser, air in-leakage was reduced and the vacuum pumps were brought back to their original design capacity. Testing was reperformed after these activities and although a significant performance improvement was achieved deficiencies were still evident. Heat Exchanger Systems, Inc. (HES) was retained as consultants during this testing program. The Central Electricity Generating Board's (CEGB) Central Electricity Research Laboratory (CERL) acting as a subcontractor to HES were retained to perform an analysis of the Petersburg Unit 3 condenser using their EPOC computer code. The results of this analysis are also contained in this document. 3 refs., 48 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Supporting Calculations For Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pajunen, A. J.; Tedeschi, A. R.

    2012-09-18

    This document provides supporting calculations for the preparation of the Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposal Preconceptual Study report The supporting calculations include equipment sizing, Hazard Category determination, and LAW Melter Decontamination Factor Adjustments.

  14. Realization of Bose-Einstein condensation with Lithium-7 atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Yichao

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents our work on developing and improving the techniques of trapping and cooling an ultra-cold cloud of Lithium-7 atoms and the realization of the Bose- Einstein condensate as a first step to study quantum ...

  15. Boiling and condensation in a liquid-filled enclosure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar-Cohen Avram

    1971-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation of boiling and condensation in a liquid-filled enclosure, with water and Freon- 113 as the working fluids, is described. The operating characteristics of a boiling system, ...

  16. Dropwise Condensation of Low Surface Tension Fluids on Omniphobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rykaczewski, Konrad

    Compared to the significant body of work devoted to surface engineering for promoting dropwise condensation heat transfer of steam, much less attention has been dedicated to fluids with lower interfacial tension. A vast ...

  17. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's...

  18. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  19. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Decreases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  20. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  1. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Increases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  2. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  3. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  4. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  5. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Sales (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  6. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Decreases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  7. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  8. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Increases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

  9. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field Discoveries...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  10. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  11. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Increases...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Increases (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Increases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  12. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Extensions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  13. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  14. New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Decreases...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Decreases (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Revision Decreases (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  15. New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves New Field Discoveries (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  16. New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Adjustments (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  17. Modeling rough energy landscapes in defected condensed matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monasterio Velásquez, Paul Rene

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a computational and theoretical investigation of the behavior of defected condensed matter and its evolution over long time scales. The thesis provides original contributions to the methodology used ...

  18. Internal Josephson oscillations for distinct momenta Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Lih-King [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands); Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, CNRS UMR 8502, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Troppenz, T.; Morais Smith, C. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    The internal Josephson oscillations between an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and a molecular one are studied for atoms in a square optical lattice subjected to a staggered gauge field. The system is described by a Bose-Hubbard model with complex and anisotropic hopping parameters that are different for each species, i.e., atoms and molecules. When the flux per plaquette for each species is small, the system oscillates between two conventional zero-momentum condensates. However, there is a regime of parameters in which Josephson oscillations between a vortex-carrying atomic condensate (finite momentum BEC) and a conventional zero-momentum molecular condensate may be realized. The experimental observation of the oscillations between these qualitatively distinct BEC's is possible with state-of-the-art Ramsey interference techniques.

  19. An investigation of the numerical treatment of condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sasson, Joseph

    The simulation of complete condensation continues to challenge the numerical methods currently used for multi-phase flow modeling; especially at low pressures, the change of phase process from a two-phase mixture to liquid ...

  20. Refrigerant forced-convection condensation inside horizontal tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Soonhoon

    1968-01-01

    Condensing heat transfer rates inside a horizontal tube were investigated -for large quality changes across the tube. The proposed correlation is a modification of the work of Rohsenow, Webber and Ling [29]. The result of ...

  1. Emergent Properties of the Bose-Einstein-Hubbard Condensate in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Emergent Properties of the Bose-Einstein-Hubbard Condensate in UO2(+x) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Emergent Properties of the Bose-Einstein-Hubbard...

  2. Alaska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate New Reservoir Discoveries...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Crude Oil + Lease Condensate New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 0 2010's...

  3. Possible Bose-condensate Behavior in a Quantum Phase Originating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Possible Bose-condensate Behavior in a Quantum Phase Originating in a Collective Excitation in the Chemically and Optically Doped Mott-Hubbard System UO2+x Citation Details...

  4. Controlling phase separation of binary Bose-Einstein condensates...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    resonance We investigate controlled phase separation of a binary Bose-Einstein condensate in the proximity of a mixed-spin-channel Feshbach resonance in the |F1,msub F+1>...

  5. Interlayer Coherence and Superconducting Condensate in the c...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Interlayer Coherence and Superconducting Condensate in the c-Axis Response of Optimally Doped Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 High-Tc Superconductor Using Infrared Spectroscopy Citation Details...

  6. The effects of surface instabilities on laminar film condensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerstmann, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Heat transfer rates for laminar film condensation of Freon-1l3 were measured on the underside of horizontal surfaces, inclined surfaces, and vertical surfaces. Several distinct regimes of flow were observed. On the underside ...

  7. NUMERICAL SIM ULATION OF CONDENSATION ON A CAPILLARY GROOVED STRUCTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuwen

    decade [5, 6]. In a conventional heat pipe, evaporation and condensation take place at the interface vaporization in laser drilling processes [9, 10], solidi¢cation in continuous casting [11], and bubble growth

  8. Effects of interaction in Bose-Einstein condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Kaiwen

    2006-01-01

    This thesis discusses a series of studies that investigate the effects of interaction - essentially the s-wave scattering - in the various properties of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). The phonon wavefunction in a BEC was ...

  9. Energy Savings By Recovery of Condensate From Steam Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, W. S.; Zhi, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The recovery and utilization of condensate has a remarkable energy saving effect if the following are properly done: 1) Determination of a correct and reasonable recovery plan; 2) Selection of bleed valve with good performance; 3) Solving...

  10. Bose-Einstein condensation as an alternative to inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Saurya

    2015-01-01

    It was recently shown that gravitons with a very small mass should have formed a Bose-Einstein condensate in the very early Universe, whose density and quantum potential can account for the dark matter and dark energy in the Universe respectively. Here we show that the condensation can also naturally explain the observed large scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe. Furthermore gravitons continue to fall into their ground state within the condensate at every epoch, accounting for the observed flatness of space at cosmological distances scales. Finally, we argue that the density perturbations due to quantum fluctuations within the condensate give rise to a scale invariant spectrum. This therefore provides a viable alternative to inflation, which is not associated with the well-known problems associated with the latter.

  11. Refrigerant forced-convection condensation inside horizontal tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Soonhoon

    1970-01-01

    High vapor velocity condensation inside a tube was studied theoretically. The heat transfer coefficients were calculated by the momentum and heat transfer analogy. The Von Karman universal velocity distribution was applied ...

  12. Assessing possible dynamical effects of condensate in high resolution climate simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Aiguo

    Assessing possible dynamical effects of condensate in high resolution climate simulations J. T, condensed water species can add significant mass to an atmospheric column. This mass can create positive the pressure induced by condensates. A simple parameterization of this condensate loading as a function

  13. Sound at non-zero temperature: collisionless and hydrodynamic excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Einstein condensate Collective excitations are the fingerprints of a system and reveal many of its dynamic properties. We extended earlier work on collective excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate by studying them-Einstein condensation temperature. The temperature dependencies of the frequency and damping rates of condensate

  14. The Condensate Equation for non-homogeneous Andre F. Verbeure1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Condensate Equation for non-homogeneous Bosons Andr´e F. Verbeure1 Institute for Theoretical)-condensation. This phe- nomenon is accompanied with spontaneous breaking of the translation symmetry down of the condensate equation for these systems. We discuss model applications. KEY WORDS: Bose- Einstein condensation

  15. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  16. Steam and Condensate System Optimization in Converse College, Spartanburg, SC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruz, A.; Iordanova, N.; Stevenson, S.

    2007-01-01

    required and after its failure and large capital investments required for repair, a new simplified system of Receiver and Pumping Trap Package (RPT) was installed. ESL-IE-07-05-49 Proceedings from the Twenty-ninth Industrial Energy Technology... Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 8-11, 2007. Before the installation of the new RPT package any condensate returned to the boiler house was dumped and there was no condensate pumped to the deaerator (DA). The new installation improved the overall...

  17. Chiral condensate from the Banks-Casher relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georg P. Engel; Leonardo Giusti; Stefano Lottini; Rainer Sommer

    2013-09-18

    We report on our ongoing project of determining the chiral condensate of two-flavor QCD from the Banks-Casher relation. We compute the mode number of the O(a)-improved Wilson-Dirac operator for several values of \\Lambda, and we discuss different fitting strategies to extract the chiral condensate from its mass and \\Lambda dependence. Our preliminary results haven been obtained at two different lattice spacings by using CLS-configurations.

  18. The one-flavor quark condensate and related problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas DeGrand

    2006-09-20

    I describe a recent calculation (by me, Hoffmann, Liu, and Schaefer) of the chiral condensate in one-flavor QCD using numerical simulations with overlap fermions. The condensate is extracted by fitting the distribution of low lying eigenmodes of the Dirac operator in sectors of fixed topological charge to the predictions of Random Matrix Theory. Our results are in excellent agreement with estimates from the orientifold large-N expansion. Much interesting physics surrounds this calculation, which I will highlight.

  19. Heart - Shaped Nuclei: Condensation of Rotational Aligned Octupole Phonons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Frauendorf

    2007-10-24

    The strong octupole correlations in the mass region $A\\approx 226$ are interpreted as rotation-induced condensation of octupole phonons having their angular momentum aligned with the rotational axis. Discrete phonon energy and parity conservation generate oscillations of the energy difference between the lowest rotational bands with positive and negative parity. Anharmonicities tend to synchronize the the rotation of the condensate and the quadrupole shape of the nucleus forming a rotating heart shape.

  20. Controlling chaos in the Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cong Fuzhong, E-mail: wzx2007111@126.com; Wang Zhixia; Hua Hongtu; Pang Shichun; Tong Shouyu [Aviation University of Air Force (China)

    2012-03-15

    The spatial structure of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is investigated and spatially chaotic distributions of the condensates are revealed. By means of changing the s-wave scattering length with a Feshbach resonance, the chaotic behavior can be well controlled to enter into periodicity. Numerical simulation shows that there are different periodic orbits according to different s-wave scattering lengths only if the Lyapunov exponent of the system is negative.

  1. Comment on ``Ramsey Fringes in a Bose-Einstein Condensate between Atoms and Molecules''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Braaten; H. -W. Hammer; M. Kusunoki

    2003-01-24

    In Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 180401 (2002) [cond-mat/0204504], Kokkelmans and Holland interpret the results of a recent experiment at JILA that demonstrated atom-molecule coherence in a Bose-Einstein condensate. Using a mean-field approximation to a resonance field theory involving an atom condensate and a molecular condensate, they find that the molecular condensate is tiny compared to the atom condensate. We show that if the probability for the molecular field to create a diatomic molecule is correctly included, the numbers of atoms in the atom condensate and in the condensate of diatomic molecules are comparable.

  2. Efimov States in a Bose-Einstein Condensate near a Feshbach Resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Braaten; H. -W. Hammer; M. Kusunoki

    2003-05-11

    Recent experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates of 85Rb atoms near a Feshbach resonance have produced evidence for a condensate of diatomic molecules coexisting with the atom condensate. It should also be possible to create condensates of the triatomic molecules predicted by Efimov coexisting with the atom and dimer condensates. The smoking gun for the trimer condensate would be oscillatory dependence of observables on the binding energy of the trimer. It may also be possible to deduce the existence of the trimer condensate from the spectra of the bursts of atoms and dimers created in the disappearance of the trimers.

  3. Jumping-Droplet-Enhanced Condensation on Scalable Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miljkovic, N; Enright, R; Nam, Y; Lopez, K; Dou, N; Sack, J; Wang, E

    2012-01-01

    When droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump from the surface due to the release of excess surface energy. If designed properly, these superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces can not only allow for easy droplet removal at micrometric length scales during condensation but also promise to enhance heat transfer performance. However, the rationale for the design of an ideal nanostructured surface as well as heat transfer experiments demonstrating the advantage of this jumping behavior are lacking. Here, we show that silanized copper oxide surfaces created via a simple fabrication method can achieve highly efficient jumping-droplet condensation heat transfer. We experimentally demonstrated a 25% higher overall heat flux and 30% higher condensation heat transfer coefficient compared to state-of-the-art hydrophobic condensing surfaces at low supersaturations (<1.12). This work not only shows significant condensation heat transfer enhancement but also promises a low cost and scalable approach to increase efficiency for applications such as atmospheric water harvesting and dehumidification. Furthermore, the results offer insights and an avenue to achieve high flux superhydrophobic condensation.

  4. Scattering off the Color Glass Condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heikki Mäntysaari

    2015-06-24

    In this thesis the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) framework, which describes quantum chromodynamics (QCD) at high energy, is applied to various scattering processes. Higher order corrections to the CGC evolution equations, known as the BK and JIMWLK equations, are also considered. It is shown that the leading order CGC calculations describe the experimental data from electron-proton deep inelastic scattering (DIS), proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions. The initial condition for the BK evolution equation is obtained by performing a fit to deep inelastic scattering data. The fit result is used as an input to calculations of single particle spectra and nuclear suppression in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions, which are shown to be in agreement with RHIC and LHC measurements. In particular, the importance of a proper description of the nuclear geometry consistently with the DIS data fits is emphasized, as it results in a nuclear suppression factor $R_{pA}$ which is consistent with the available experimental data. In addition to single particle production, the correlations between two hadrons at forward rapidity are computed. The RHIC measurements are shown to be naturally explainable in the CGC framework, and the previous CGC calculations are improved by including the so called inelastic and double parton scattering contributions. This improvement is shown to be required in order to get results compatible with the experimentally measured correlations. Exclusive vector meson production, which can be a powerful tool to study the gluonic structure of nuclei at small Bjorken-$x$, is also considered. The cross sections are calculated within the CGC framework in the context of a future electron-ion collider. In particular, the cross section for incoherent diffractive vector meson production is derived and a centrality estimator for this process is proposed.

  5. An Aerosol Condensation Model for Sulfur Trioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, K E

    2008-02-07

    This document describes a model for condensation of sulfuric acid aerosol given an initial concentration and/or source of gaseous sulfur trioxide (e.g. fuming from oleum). The model includes the thermochemical effects on aerosol condensation and air parcel buoyancy. Condensation is assumed to occur heterogeneously onto a preexisting background aerosol distribution. The model development is both a revisiting of research initially presented at the Fall 2001 American Geophysical Union Meeting [1] and a further extension to provide new capabilities for current atmospheric dispersion modeling efforts [2]. Sulfuric acid is one of the most widely used of all industrial chemicals. In 1992, world consumption of sulfuric acid was 145 million metric tons, with 42.4 Mt (mega-tons) consumed in the United States [10]. In 2001, of 37.5 Mt consumed in the U.S., 74% went into producing phosphate fertilizers [11]. Another significant use is in mining industries. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] estimate that, in 1996, 68% of use was for fertilizers and 5.8% was for mining. They note that H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} use has been and should continue to be very stable. In the United States, the elimination of MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether) and the use of ethanol for gasoline production are further increasing the demand for petroleum alkylate. Alkylate producers have a choice of either a hydrofluoric acid or sulfuric acid process. Both processes are widely used today. Concerns, however, over the safety or potential regulation of hydrofluoric acid are likely to result in most of the growth being for the sulfuric acid process, further increasing demand [11]. The implication of sulfuric acid being a pervasive industrial chemical is that transport is also pervasive. Often, this is in the form of oleum tankers, having around 30% free sulfur trioxide. Although sulfuric acid itself is not a volatile substance, fuming sulfuric acid (referred to as oleum) is [7], the volatile product being sulfur trioxide. Sulfate aerosols and mist may form in the atmosphere on tank rupture. From chemical spill data from 1990-1996, Lawuyi02 and Fingas [7] prioritize sulfuric acid as sixth most serious. During this period, they note 155 spills totaling 13 Mt, out of a supply volume of 3700 Mt. Lawuyi and Fingas [7] summarize information on three major sulfuric acid spills. On 12 February 1984, 93 tons of sulfuric acid were spilled when 14 railroad cars derailed near MacTier, Parry Sound, Ontario. On 13 December 1978, 51 railroad cars derailed near Springhill, Nova Scotia. One car, containing 93% sulfuric acid, ruptured, spilling nearly its entire contents. In July 1993, 20 to 50 tons of fuming sulfuric acid spilled at the General Chemical Corp. plant in Richmond, California, a major industrial center near San Francisco. The release occurred when oleum was being loaded into a nonfuming acid railroad tank car that contained only a rupture disk as a safety device. The tank car was overheated and this rupture disk blew. The resulting cloud of sulfuric acid drifted northeast with prevailing winds over a number of populated areas. More than 3,000 people subsequently sought medical attention for burning eyes, coughing, headaches, and nausea. Almost all were treated and released on the day of the spill. By the day after the release, another 5,000 people had sought medical attention. The spill forced the closure of five freeways in the region as well as some Bay Area Rapid Transit System stations. Apart from corrosive toxicity, there is the additional hazard that the reactions of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid vapors with water are extremely exothermic [10, 11]. While the vapors are intrinsically denser than air, there is thus the likelihood of strong, warming-induced buoyancy from reactions with ambient water vapor, water-containing aerosol droplets, and wet environmental surface. Nordin [12] relates just such an occurrence following the Richmond, CA spill, with the plume observed to rise to 300 m. For all practical purposes, sulfur trioxide was the constituent released from the heated tank

  6. Excitation of phonons in a Bose-Einstein condensate by light scattering Light scattering imparts momentum to the condensate and creates an excitation (which

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Excitation of phonons in a Bose-Einstein condensate by light scattering Light scattering imparts momentum to the condensate and creates an excitation (which can be a phonon or a free particle). A detailed study of the scattered light should therefore reveal a detailed picture of the Bose condensate similar

  7. Superradiant Rayleigh scattering from a Bose-Einstein condensate We have discovered a new phenomenon in the scattering of light by a condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Superradiant Rayleigh scattering from a Bose-Einstein condensate We have discovered a new phenomenon in the scattering of light by a condensate: highly directional, "superradiant" scattering of light and atoms [1]. This phenomenon is deeply rooted in the long coherence time of a condensate. When

  8. Automated Centrifugal Chiller Diagnostician - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O DBiomass andAtoms forPARAMETER UNCERTAINTYAutomatedEnergy

  9. Compact Absorption Chiller - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the following comments responseScienceCommunity RelationsCompact soft

  10. List of Chillers Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWinds JumpOxiranchemRemodelersList ofListList of

  11. Two part condenser for varying the rate of condensing and related method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dobos, James G. (North Augusta, SC)

    2007-12-11

    A heat transfer apparatus, such as a condenser, is provided. The apparatus includes a first component with a first heat transfer element that has first component inlet and outlet ports through which a first fluid may pass. A second component is also included and likewise has a second heat transfer element with second component inlet and outlet ports to pass a second fluid. The first component has a body that can receive a third fluid for heat transfer with the first heat transfer element. The first and second components are releasably attachable with one another so that when attached both the first and second heat transfer elements effect heat transfer with the third fluid. Attachment and removal of the first and second components allows for the heat transfer rate of the apparatus to be varied. An associated method is also provided.

  12. Diagnosis of condensation-induced waterhammer: Methods and background

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izenson, M.G.; Rothe, P.H.; Wallis, G.B.

    1988-10-01

    This guidebook provides reference material and diagnostic procedures concerning condensation-induced waterhammer in nuclear power plants. Condensation-induced waterhammer is the most damaging form of waterhammer and its diagnosis is complicated by the complex nature of the underlying phenomena. In Volume 1, the guidebook groups condensation-induced waterhammers into five event classes which have similar phenomena and levels of damage. Diagnostic guidelines focus on locating the event center where condensation and slug acceleration take place. Diagnosis is described in three stages: an initial assessment, detailed evaluation and final confirmation. Graphical scoping analyses are provided to evaluate whether an event from one of the event classes could have occurred at the event center. Examples are provided for each type of waterhammer. Special instructions are provided for walking down damaged piping and evaluating damage due to waterhammer. To illustrate the diagnostic methods and document past experience, six case studies have been compiled in Volume 2. These case studies, based on actual condensation-induced waterhammer events at nuclear plants, present detailed data and work through the event diagnosis using the tools introduced in the first volume. 65 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Identifying cosmological perturbations in group field theory condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gielen, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    One proposal for deriving effective cosmological models from theories of quantum gravity is to view the former as a mean-field (hydrodynamic) description of the latter, which describes a universe formed by a 'condensate' of quanta of geometry. This idea has been successfully applied within the setting of group field theory (GFT), a quantum field theory of 'atoms of space' which can form such a condensate. We further clarify the interpretation of this mean-field approximation, and show how it can be used to obtain a semiclassical description of the GFT, in which the mean field encodes a classical statistical distribution of geometric data. In this sense, GFT condensates are quantum homogeneous geometries that also contain statistical information about cosmological inhomogeneities. We show in the isotropic case how this information can be extracted from geometric GFT observables and mapped to quantities of observational interest. Basic uncertainty relations of (non-commutative) Fourier transforms imply that thi...

  14. Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, S.J.; Seppala, L.G.

    1998-04-07

    A critical illumination condenser system is disclosed, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 {micro}m source and requires a magnification of 26. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth. 6 figs.

  15. Critical illumination condenser for x-ray lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Simon J. (Pleasanton, CA); Seppala, Lynn G. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A critical illumination condenser system, particularly adapted for use in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography based on a ring field imaging system and a laser produced plasma source. The system uses three spherical mirrors and is capable of illuminating the extent of the mask plane by scanning either the primary mirror or the laser plasma source. The angles of radiation incident upon each mirror of the critical illumination condenser vary by less than eight (8) degrees. For example, the imaging system in which the critical illumination condenser is utilized has a 200 .mu.m source and requires a magnification of 26.times.. The three spherical mirror system constitutes a two mirror inverse Cassegrain, or Schwarzschild configuration, with a 25% area obstruction (50% linear obstruction). The third mirror provides the final pupil and image relay. The mirrors include a multilayer reflective coating which is reflective over a narrow bandwidth.

  16. Fast production of Bose-Einstein condensates of metastable Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouton, Q; Hoendervanger, A L; Nogrette, F; Aspect, A; Westbrook, C I; Clément, D

    2015-01-01

    We report on the Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable Helium-4 atoms using a hybrid approach, consisting of a magnetic quadrupole and a crossed optical dipole trap. In our setup we cross the phase transition with 2x10^6 atoms, and we obtain pure condensates of 5x10^5 atoms in the optical trap. This novel approach to cooling Helium-4 provides enhanced cycle stability, large optical access to the atoms and results in production of a condensate every 6 seconds - a factor 3 faster than the state-of-the-art. This speed-up will dramatically reduce the data acquisition time needed for the measurement of many particle correlations, made possible by the ability of metastable Helium to be detected individually.

  17. Condensing economizers for thermal efficiency improvements and emissions control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heaphy, J.P.; Carbonara, J.; Litzke, W.; Butcher, T.A.

    1993-12-31

    Flue gas condensing economizers improve the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible heat and water vapor latent heat from flue gas exhaust. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers also have the potential to act as control devices for emissions of particulates, SO{sub x}, and air toxics. Both Consolidated Edison of New York and Brookhaven National LaborAtory are currently working on condensing economizer technology with an emphasis on developing their potential for emissions control. Con Edison is currently conducting a condensing economizer demonstration at their oil-fired 74th Street Station in New York. Since installing this equipment in February of 1992 a heat rate improvement of 800 Btu/kWh has been seen. At another location, Ravenswood Station, a two stage condensing economizer has been installed in a pilot test. In this advanced configuration -the ``Integrated Flue Gas Treatment or IFGT system- two heat exchanger sections are installed and sprays of water with and without SO{sub 2} sorbents are included. Detailed studies of the removal of particulates, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and selected air toxics have been done for a variety of operating conditions. Removal efficiencies for SO{sub 2} have been over 98% and for SO{sub 3} over 65%. Brookhaven National Laboratory`s studies involve predicting and enhancing particulate capture in condensing economizers with an emphasis on small, coal-fired applications. This work is funded by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the Department of Energy. Flyash capture efficiencies as high as 97% have been achieved to date with a single stage economizer.

  18. Gravitational waves from Affleck-Dine condensate fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Shuang-Yong

    2015-01-01

    We compute the stochastic gravitational wave production from Affleck-Dine condensate fragmentation in the early universe, focusing on an effective potential with a logarithmic mass correction that typically arises in gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios. We find that a significant gravitational wave background can be generated when Q-balls are being formed out of the condensate fragmentation. This gravitational wave background has a distinct multi-peak power spectrum where the trough is closely linked to the supersymmetry breaking scale and whose frequencies are peaked around kHz for TeV supersymmetry breaking.

  19. Gravitational waves from Affleck-Dine condensate fragmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuang-Yong Zhou

    2015-06-01

    We compute the stochastic gravitational wave production from Affleck-Dine condensate fragmentation in the early universe, focusing on an effective potential with a logarithmic mass correction that typically arises in gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios. We find that a significant gravitational wave background can be generated when Q-balls are being formed out of the condensate fragmentation. This gravitational wave background has a distinct multi-peak power spectrum where the trough is closely linked to the supersymmetry breaking scale and whose frequencies are peaked around kHz for TeV supersymmetry breaking.

  20. A measurable force driven by an excitonic condensate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakio?lu, T.; Özgün, Ege; Günay, Mehmet

    2014-04-21

    Free energy signatures related to the measurement of an emergent force (?10{sup ?9}N) due to the exciton condensate (EC) in Double Quantum Wells are predicted and experiments are proposed to measure the effects. The EC-force is attractive and reminiscent of the Casimir force between two perfect metallic plates, but also distinctively different from it by its driving mechanism and dependence on the parameters of the condensate. The proposed experiments are based on a recent experimental work on a driven micromechanical oscillator. Conclusive observations of EC in recent experiments also provide a strong promise for the observation of the EC-force.

  1. A Xenon Condenser with a Remote Liquid Storage Vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Slutsky; Y. -R. Yen; H. Breuer; A. Dobi; C. Hall; T. Langford; D. S. Leonard; L. J. Kaufman; V. Strickland; N. Voskanian

    2009-07-25

    We describe the design and operation of a system for xenon liquefaction in which the condenser is separated from the liquid storage vessel. The condenser is cooled by a pulse tube cryocooler, while the vessel is cooled only by the liquid xenon itself. This arrangement facilitates liquid particle detector research by allowing easy access to the upper and lower flanges of the vessel. We find that an external xenon gas pump is useful for increasing the rate at which cooling power is delivered to the vessel, and we present measurements of the power and efficiency of the apparatus.

  2. Why Condensing Steam Turbines are More Efficient than Gas Turbines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, K. E.

    1988-01-01

    turbine at 75'rc adiabatic efficiency to a vacuum of 2"Hg. No steam is extracted. 15,7 ~Blu/hr STACK Figure 3. Enthalpy analysis of power plant cycle. Analyzing this system points to the steam turbine condenser as the source of inefficiency... it's thrown away. Why be concerned about throwing away something that has virtually no value? But there is concern. The steam turbine condenser is nearly always viewed as the source of inefficiency in the cycle. The problem is that the wrong thing...

  3. Detection of acceleration radiation in a Bose-Einstein condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Retzker; J. I. Cirac; M. B. Plenio; B. Reznik

    2007-09-22

    We propose and study methods for detecting the Unruh effect in a Bose-Einstein condensate. The Bogoliubov vacuum of a Bose-Einstein condensate is used here to simulate a scalar field-theory, and accelerated atom dots or optical lattices as means for detecting phonon radiation due to acceleration effects. We study Unruh's effect for linear acceleration and circular acceleration. In particular, we study the dispersive effects of the Bogoliubov spectrum on the ideal case of exact thermalization. Our results suggest that Unruh's acceleration radiation can be tested using current accessible experimental methods.

  4. Massive photons and Dirac monopoles: electric condensate and magnetic confinement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. S. Guimaraes; R. Rougemont; C. Wotzasek; C. A. D. Zarro

    2013-05-13

    We use the generalized Julia-Toulouse approach (GJTA) for condensation of topological currents (charges or defects) to argue that massive photons can coexist consistently with Dirac monopoles. The Proca theory is obtained here via GJTA as a low energy effective theory describing an electric condensate and the mass of the vector boson is responsible for generating a Meissner effect which confines the magnetic defects in monopole-antimonopole pairs connected by physical open magnetic vortices described by Dirac brane invariants, instead of Dirac strings.

  5. Chiral symmetry breaking with no bilinear condensate revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kanazawa, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    While chiral symmetry breaking in the QCD vacuum is attributed to nonzero chiral condensate, an alternative symmetry breaking pattern with no chiral condensate is also possible, as pointed out by Stern. We study the $\\theta$ dependence of this unorthodox phase on the basis of chiral perturbation theory. Physical observables such as energy density, topological susceptibility, non-local chiral order parameter and meson masses are computed analytically in the epsilon-regime. At nonzero $\\theta$ we find an exotic phase that breaks vectorial flavor symmetries in a way analogous to the Aoki phase in lattice QCD.

  6. Fragmentation, domain formation and atom number fluctuations of a two-species Boseâ??Einstein condensate in an optical lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Uttam; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2012-01-01

    Two-species atomic Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) exhibitof a two-species Bose–Einstein condensate in an opticalof a two-species Bose–Einstein condensate to an optical

  7. Quantum control of electromagnetically induced transparency dispersion via atomic tunneling in a double-well Bose-Einstein condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weatherall, James; Search, Christopher; Jääskeläinen, Markku

    2008-01-01

    double-well Bose-Einstein condensate James Owen Weatherall,atomic Bose-Einstein condensate ?BEC? trapped in a double-and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates ?BEC’s? ?7?, and is now

  8. BoseEinstein Condensation in the Large Deviations Regime with Applications to Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merhav, Neri

    Bose­Einstein Condensation in the Large Deviations Regime with Applications to Information System(U) = lim M " - 1 M log Pr ( X i ni MU )# may exhibit phase transitions ­ Bose­Einstein condensation (BEC

  9. Design, fabrication, and characterization of a multi-condenser loop heat pipe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Daniel Frank

    2012-01-01

    A condenser design was characterized for a multi-condenser loop heat pipe (LHP) capable of dissipating 1000 W. The LHP was designed for integration into a high performance aircooled heat sink to address thermal management ...

  10. Study of the Effects of Surface Morphology and Droplet Growth Dynamics on Condensation Heat Transfer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Chun-Wei

    2014-04-23

    Condensation heat transfer has recently received a lot of renewed attention due to the development and use of surfaces with micro- and nano-scale features. Most of the new surfaces tend to promote drop-wise condensation, ...

  11. Condensation on Hydrophilic, Hydrophobic, Nanostructured Superhydrophobic and Oil-Infused Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nenad, Miljkovic

    Color images of steady state water vapor condensing on smooth and nanostructured hydrophobic surfaces are presented. Figure 1a shows a snapshot of classical filmwise condensation on hydrophilic copper. A thin liquid film ...

  12. ??Rubidium Bose-Einstein condensates : machine construction and quantum Zeno experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streed, Erik William

    2006-01-01

    This thesis details construction of a new apparatus for the production of 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensates and a subsequent quantum Zeno effect experiment. An experimental apparatus for producing large Bose-Einstein condensates ...

  13. Experimental investigation of the condensation phenomenon in micro-grooved plates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barron-Jimenez, Rodolfo

    2001-01-01

    The addition of micro-grooves to a condensing surface has been proposed with the aim of reducing the film thickness so that the condensation heat transfer coefficient is increased. Micro-grooves promote the removal of ...

  14. Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy, Energy Tips...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy When the pressure of saturated condensate is reduced, a portion of the liquid "flashes" to low-pressure steam. Depending on the...

  15. Experiments with Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Yong-Il

    2006-01-01

    Trapped atom interferometry was demonstrated with Bose-Einstein condensates in an optical double-well trap. Coherent splitting of trapped condensates was performed by deforming an optical single-well potential into a ...

  16. Immersion Condensation on Oil-Infused Heterogeneous Surfaces for Enhanced Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Rong

    Enhancing condensation heat transfer is important for broad applications from power generation to water harvesting systems. Significant efforts have focused on easy removal of the condensate, yet the other desired properties ...

  17. BoseEinstein condensation of excitons in bilayer electron systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisenstein, Jim

    Bose­Einstein condensation of excitons in bilayer electron systems J. P. Eisenstein1 * & A. H. Mac is represented by a wave that has both amplitude and phase. The most remarkable consequence of Bose­Einstein cousins, any number of bosons can crowd into the same microscopic state. Indeed, Einstein predicted

  18. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W. (Oswego, IL)

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fins, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fins are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized material then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal.

  19. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    1984-08-16

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fines, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fines are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized materials then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal. 2 figs.

  20. GEA Heat Exchangers GEA Searle Cooler and Condensing Unit Ranges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frandsen, Søren

    process cooling, combined heat and power installations and air-conditioning equip- ment for hospitalsGEA Heat Exchangers GEA Searle Cooler and Condensing Unit Ranges Top-level engineering solutions,Eurovent verification and many more. GEA is one of the longest established and principal manufacturers of heat exchange