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1

Evaporative Enhancement for Air Cooled Condensers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes research into condenser air evaporative pre-cooling technologies and the associated potential for energy and peak power savings. The interest in this project is evaluation of the specific application of evaporative cooling to the inlet air of condenser coils, particularly for large roof-top type air cooled chillers. While the technology is established and understood particularly well for hot, dry climates, this report is intended to also examine evaporative ...

2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

2

Air-Cooled Electric Chillers, Purchasing Specifications for Energy-Efficient Products (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Energy efficiency purchasing specifications for federal procurements of air-cooled electric chillers.

Not Available

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Energy Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Energy Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers Energy Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers Energy Savings Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers January 16, 2014 - 4:19pm Addthis This cost calculator is a screening tool that estimates a product's lifetime energy cost savings at various efficiency levels. Learn more about the calculator assumptions and definitions. Project Type Is this a new installation or a replacement? New Replacement How many chillers will you purchase? Performance Factors Existing What is the existing design condition? Full Load Partial Load What is the cooling capacity of the existing chiller? tons What is the full-load efficiency of the existing chiller? EER What is the partial-load efficiency of the existing chiller? EER New What is the new design condition? Full Load Partial Load

4

Dynamic performance testing of prototype 3 ton air-cooled carrier absorption chiller  

SciTech Connect

The performance of a prototype 3 ton cooling capacity air-cooled lithium bromide/water absorption chiller was tested using an absorption chiller test facility which was modified to expand its testing capabilities to include air-cooled chillers in addition to water-cooled chillers. Temperatures of the three externally supplied fluid loops: hot water, chilled water, and cooling air, were varied in order to determine the effects this would have on the two principal measures of chiller performance: cooling capacity and thermal coefficient of performance (COP). A number of interrelated factors were identified as contributing to less than expected performance. For comparison, experimental correlations of other investigators for this and other similar absorption chillers are presented. These have been plotted as both contour and three-dimensional performance maps in order to more clearly show the functional dependence of the chiller performance on the fluid loop temperatures.

Borst, R.R.; Wood, B.D.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Air-Cooled Condensers for Next...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Geotherm Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us | Admin Log On HomeBasic Search About Publications...

6

Air-cooled vacuum steam condenser  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a steam powered system. It comprises: a turbine for converting steam energy into mechanical energy upon expansion of steam therein, a boiler for generating steam to be fed to the turbine, and a conduit arrangement coupling the boiler to the turbine and then recoupling the turbine exhaust to the boiler through steam condensing mechanisms. The condensing mechanisms including: a plurality of finned tubes through which the expanded exhaust steam flows and is condensed; a plurality of bundle from headers at the lower ends of the condensing tubes for receiving exhaust steam from the turbine; a plurality of bundle divided rear headers, one for each tube row in the bundle, at the higher ends of the condensing tubes for receiving non-condensible gases; and means in the rear and last headers to remove non-condensible gasses from the rear headers along their full length.

Larinoff, M.W.

1990-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

7

Inproved Performance of an Air Cooled Condenser (ACC) Using SPX...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improved performance of an aIr cooled condenser (acc) UsIng spX WInd gUIde Technology aT coal-fIred ThermoelecTrIc poWer planTs promIsprojecT no. : de-nT0006549 Background As the...

8

Air-cooled vacuum steam condenser  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a steam powered system. It comprises: a turbine for converting steam energy into mechanical energy upon expansion of steam therein, a boiler for generating steam to be fed to the turbine, and a conduit arrangement coupling the boiler to the turbine and then recoupling the turbine exhaust to the boiler through steam condensing mechanisms.

Larinoff, M.W.

1990-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

9

Air-Cooled Condenser Design, Specification, and Operation Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In contrast to once-through and evaporative cooling systems, use of the air-cooled condenser (ACC) for heat rejection in steam electric power plants has historically been very limited, especially in the United States. However, greater industry focus on water conservation - combined with continued concern over the environmental effects of once-through and evaporative cooling - will almost certainly increase interest in ACC applications. While operating experience and performance data are, to some extent, ...

2005-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

10

Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Air-Cooled...

11

Steam flow distribution in air-cooled condenser for power plant application.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Air-cooled steam condensers are used in arid regions where adequate cooling water is not available or very expensive. In this thesis the effect… (more)

Honing, Werner

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Perimeter fan performance in forced draught air-cooled steam condensers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Axial flow fan arrays form part of air-cooled steam condensers in direct drycooled power plants. This dissertation investigates the performance of axial flow… (more)

Van der Spuy, Sybrand Johannes

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Air-cooled condenser steam flow distribution and related dephlegmator design considerations.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The steam-side side operation of a practical air-cooled steam condenser is investigated using a combination of CFD, numerical, analytical and experimental methods. Particular… (more)

Owen, Michael Trevor Foxwell

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Design of Air-cooled Microchannel Condensers for Mal-distributed Air Flow Conditions .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Air-cooled condensers are routinely designed for a variety of applications, including residential air-conditioning systems. Recent attempts at improving the performance of these heat exchangers have… (more)

Subramaniam, Vishwanath

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

SOLERAS - Solar Cooling Engineering Field Tests Project: Arizona State University. Prototype carrier 10 ton air-cooled solar absorption chiller. Final evaluation report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A prototype air-cooled 10 ton solar absorption chiller was disassembled and inspected after having been field-tested for three consecutive cooling seasons. Included in the inspection were some flow visualization experiments which revealed some problems in the absorber header design. The objectives of this evaluation project were to determine possible causes for the frequent crystallization and generally below-design performance of the chiller during the testing period. The major conclusions reached were that a combination of leaks and of poor (50%) flow distribution in the absorber could account for most of the chiller's poor performance.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal Lab  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal Lab Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Project Type / Topic 1 Laboratory Call for Submission of Applications for Research, Development and Analysis of Geothermal Technologies Project Type / Topic 2 Air-Cooling Project Description As the geothermal industry moves to use geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. Because of increasing demand on finite supplies of water, this next generation of more efficient plants will likely need to reject heat sensibly to the ambient (air-cooling). This will be especially true in western states having higher grade Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) resources, as well as most hydrothermal resources. If one had a choice, an evaporative heat rejection system would be selected because it would provide both cost and performance advantages. The evaporative system, however, consumes a significant amount of water during heat rejection that would require makeup. Though they use no water, air-cooling systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at a higher temperature), lower power sales due to higher parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power output (because of large variation in the dry-bulb temperature).

17

Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and Development/Analysis Project Type / Topic 2 Air-Cooling Project Description The technical approaches are: -UTRC shall develop a lab-based analysis of hybrid-water/air-cooled condensers with minimal water consumption, focusing on combined mist evaporative pre-cooling and mist deluge evaporative cooling technology applied to microchannel heat exchangers. Models to predict evaporative cooling performance will be validated by sub-scale testing. The predicted performance will be compared to that of state-of-the-art commercial evaporative coolers. -UTRC shall analyze the interaction of turbine design and cooling needs and specifically address how an enhanced turbine, which features variable nozzles and diffuser boundary layer suction, would further improve the ORC system performance and enable full utilization of the hybrid-cooled system. UTRC shall design, procure and test the enhanced turbine in an existing 200 kW geothermal ORC system for a technology demonstration. -UTRC shall complete a detailed design of the hybrid-cooled geothermal ORC system with an enhanced turbine that complies with its performance, cost, and quality requirements, and use this system design to prescribe subsystem/component technology requirements and interfaces. UTRC shall optimize UTC's PureCycle® geothermal ORC system integrated with a hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser and an enhanced turbine for net power output, efficiency and water consumption. -UTRC shall analyze the feasibility of addressing pure water supply for hybrid-water/aircooled condenser by using geothermal-driven Liquid-Gap-Membrane-Distillation (LGMD) technology, as an alternative to conventional Reverse Osmosis/De-Ionized treatment.

18

Organometallic Polymer Coatings for Geothermal-Fluid-Sprayed Air-Cooled Condensers: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Researchers are developing polymer-based coating systems to reduce scaling and corrosion of air-cooled condensers that use a geothermal fluid spray for heat transfer augmentation. These coating systems act as barriers to corrosion to protect aluminum fins and steel tubing; they are formulated to resist the strong attachment of scale. Field tests have been done to determine the corrosion and scaling issues related to brine spraying and a promising organometallic polymer has been evaluated in salt spray tests.

Gawlik, K.; Sugama, T.; Jung, D.

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Condensers for Combined-Cycle Plants: Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers Design Best Practices and Procurement Specifications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural Gas Combined-Cycle (NGCC) power plants are expected to play an increasing role in the mix of new power generation. Additional guidance is needed for utilities, contracted engineering firms, and suppliers to better specify, design, supply, and operate these next-generation plants. This document focuses on the steam condensers, both wet and air-cooled, which are anticipated to serve these plants. It provides guidance, best practices, and lessons learned in regard to these condensers and offers insi...

2010-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

20

A Wind-Tunnel Study of Wind Effects on Air-Cooled Condensers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to increasing competition for fresh water supplies in the future, development of power plants that use a minimum of water is crucial. When minimizing water use in a water-constrained environment, direct dry cooling systems are a good alternative to once-through cooling systems with an evaporative wet cooling tower. The core of any direct dry cooling system is an air-cooled condenser (ACC). A number of studies have shown that wind can negatively impact ACC system performance. Based on these observati...

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Protected air-cooled condenser for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant  

SciTech Connect

The long term residual heat removal for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) is accomplished through the use of three protected air-cooled condensers (PACC's) each rated at 15M/sub t/ following a normal or emergency shutdown of the reactor. Steam is condensed by forcing air over the finned and coiled condenser tubes located above the steam drums. The steam flow is by natural convection. It is drawn to the PACC tube bundle for the steam drum by the lower pressure region in the tube bundle created from the condensing action. The concept of the tube bundle employs a unique patented configuration which has been commercially available through CONSECO Inc. of Medfore, Wisconsin. The concept provides semi-parallel flow that minimizes subcooling and reduces steam/condensate flow instabilities that have been observed on other similar heat transfer equipment such as moisture separator reheaters (MSRS). The improved flow stability will reduce temperature cycling and associated mechanical fatigue. The PACC is being designed to operate during and following the design basis earthquake, depressurization from the design basis tornado and is housed in protective building enclosure which is also designed to withstand the above mentioned events.

Louison, R.; Boardman, C.E.

1981-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

22

Effectiveness of Shading Air-Cooled Condensers of Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In air-conditioning (A/C) systems with air-cooled condensers, the condensing unit has to be kept in the open for easy access to outdoor air in order to efficiently dissipate heat. During daytime, the solar radiation falling on the surfaces of the condenser and the high ambient temperatures can be detrimental for the energy performance. The effectiveness of shading the condensing unit to mitigate this adverse impact is investigated in this paper. A limiting analysis compares the performance of several A/C systems with ideal shade to those with ideal solar heat gain. The comparison is based on a theoretical model and data from equipment catalogs. The theoretical increase in the coefficient of performance (COP) due to shading is found to be within 2.5%. Furthermore, this small improvement in ideal efficiency decreases at higher ambient temperatures, when enhancements to efficiency are more needed. The actual efficiency improvement due to shading is not expected to exceed 1%, and the daily energy savings will be lower.

ElSherbini, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Organometallic Polymer Coatings for Geothermal-Fluid-Sprayed Air-Cooled Condensers: Preprint  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 * NREL/CP-550-32148 2 * NREL/CP-550-32148 Organometallic Polymer Coatings for Geothermal- Fluid-Sprayed Air-Cooled Condensers Preprint K. Gawlik National Renewable Energy Laboratory T. Sugama Brookhaven National Laboratory D. Jung Two Phase Engineering & Research, Inc. To be presented at the Geothermal Resources Council Annual Meeting Reno, Nevada September 22-25, 2002 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 NREL is a U.S. Department of Energy Laboratory Operated by Midwest Research Institute * Battelle * Bechtel Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Midwest Research Institute (MRI), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337. Accordingly, the US

24

Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air-Cooled Electric Chillers to someone by E-mail Air-Cooled Electric Chillers to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Electric Chillers on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Electric Chillers on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Electric Chillers on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Electric Chillers on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Electric Chillers on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Electric Chillers on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products Federal Requirements

25

Interim Report: Air-Cooled Condensers for Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants Improved Binary Cycle Performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As geothermal resources that are more expensive to develop are utilized for power generation, there will be increased incentive to use more efficient power plants. This is expected to be the case with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) resources. These resources will likely require wells drilled to depths greater than encountered with hydrothermal resources, and will have the added costs for stimulation to create the subsurface reservoir. It is postulated that plants generating power from these resources will likely utilize the binary cycle technology where heat is rejected sensibly to the ambient. The consumptive use of a portion of the produced geothermal fluid for evaporative heat rejection in the conventional flash-steam conversion cycle is likely to preclude its use with EGS resources. This will be especially true in those areas where there is a high demand for finite supplies of water. Though they have no consumptive use of water, using air-cooling systems for heat rejection has disadvantages. These systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at the higher dry-bulb temperature), increased parasitics (fan power), and greater variability in power generation on both a diurnal and annual basis (larger variation in the dry-bulb temperature). This is an interim report for the task ‘Air-Cooled Condensers in Next- Generation Conversion Systems’. The work performed was specifically aimed at a plant that uses commercially available binary cycle technologies with an EGS resource. Concepts were evaluated that have the potential to increase performance, lower cost, or mitigate the adverse effects of off-design operation. The impact on both cost and performance were determined for the concepts considered, and the scenarios identified where a particular concept is best suited. Most, but not all, of the concepts evaluated are associated with the rejection of heat. This report specifically addresses three of the concepts evaluated: the use of recuperation, the use of turbine reheat, and the non-consumptive use of EGS make-up water to supplement heat rejection

Daniel S. Wendt; Greg L. Mines

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Integrated Chiller System Reduce Building Operation and Maintenance Costs in Cold Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although water-cooled chillers are more energy efficient than air-cooled chillers, a majority of chilled water systems use air-cooled chillers. In cold weather climates, air-cooled chillers are capable of functioning in low ambient temperatures with few operational concerns, where as water-cooled chiller systems must be equipped to prevent cooling tower freezing. The integrated chiller system attempts to take advantage of each chiller's strengths and eliminate any cold weather operational concerns. An integrated chiller system includes a cooling tower and air-cooled condenser. During the summer, both the cooling tower and air condenser can be operated. In cold weather, the cooling tower is drained and the air condenser is used to dissipate the heat of the cooling system. The integrated chiller system eliminates the water storage tank and frequent charging and discharging of the cooling tower system. It reduces the size of the mechanical room and simplifies the operation of the system. The integrated chiller system is most suitable in climates where the mechanical cooling is required on a short-term basis during cold weather periods. This paper presents the system configuration, system design, optimal control, and energy impact. An example is used to demonstrate the design concepts of the integrated chiller systems.

Sheets, N.; Liu, M.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Air Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Air Cooling: Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air). Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Air Cooling Air Cooling Diagram of Air Cooled Condenser designed by GEA Heat Exchangers Ltd. (http://www.gea-btt.com.cn/opencms/opencms/bttc/en/Products/Air_Cooled_Condenser.html) Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a

28

Report on Preliminary Engineering Study for Installation of an Air Cooled Steam Condenser at Brawley Geothermal Plant, Unit No. 1  

SciTech Connect

The Brawley Geothermal Project comprises a single 10 MW nominal geothermal steam turbine-generator unit which has been constructed and operated by the Southern California Edison Company (SCE). Geothermal steam for the unit is supplied through contract by Union Oil Company which requires the return of all condensate. Irrigation District (IID) purchases the electric power generated and provides irrigation water for cooling tower make-up to the plant for the first-five years of operation, commencing mid-1980. Because of the unavailability of irrigation water from IID in the future, SCE is investigating the application and installation of air cooled heat exchangers in conjunction with the existing wet (evaporative) cooling tower with make-up based on use of 180 gpm (nominal) of the geothermal condensate which may be made available by the steam supplier.

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Optimization of hybrid-water/air-cooled condenser in an enhanced...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Optimization of hybrid-waterair-cooled condenser in an enhanced turbine geothermal ORC system Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011....

30

Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more efficiently than with the air-cooled (AC) condensers. This fact was behind the idea of a field study conducted in one of the major hospital in Kuwait during a summer season to investigate the performance of WC and AC systems in terms of peak power and energy consumptions. The cooling capacities for WC and AC systems were 373 and 278 tons-of- refrigeration, respectively. It was found that for the same cooling production, the peak power demand and the daily energy consumption of the WC system were 45 and 32% less than that of the AC system, respectively. The maximum reduction in the power demand coincided with the peak power demand period of the utilities i.e. between 14:00 and 17:00 hr, thereby offering a maximum advantage of peak power saving.

Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Improved Performance of an Air Cooled Condenser (ACC) Using SPX Wind Guide Technology at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

This project added a new airflow enhancement technology to an existing ACC cooling process at a selected coal power plant. Airflow parameters and efficiency improvement for the main plant cooling process using the applied technology were determined and compared with the capabilities of existing systems. The project required significant planning and pre-test execution in order to reach the required Air Cooled Condenser system configuration for evaluation. A host Power Plant ACC system had to be identified, agreement finalized, and addition of the SPX ACC Wind Guide Technology completed on that site. Design of the modification, along with procurement, fabrication, instrumentation, and installation of the new airflow enhancement technology were executed. Baseline and post-modification cooling system data was collected and evaluated. The improvement of ACC thermal performance after SPX wind guide installation was clear. Testing of the improvement indicates there is a 5% improvement in heat transfer coefficient in high wind conditions and 1% improvement at low wind speed. The benefit increased with increasing wind speed. This project was completed on schedule and within budget.

Ken Mortensen

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

Improving Vortex Generators to Enhance the Performance of Air-Cooled Condensers in a Geothermal Power Plant  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop strategies to enhance air-side heat transfer in geothermal air-cooled condensers such that it should not significantly increase pressure drop and parasitic fan pumping power. The work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization) of Japan, Yokohama National University, and the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India. A combined experimental and numerical investigation was performed to investigate heat transfer enhancement techniques that may be applicable to largescale air-cooled condensers such as those used in geothermal power applications. A transient heat transfer visualization and measurement technique was employed in order to obtain detailed distributions of local heat transfer coefficients on model fin surfaces. Pressure drop measurements were obtained for a variety of tube and winglet configurations using a single-channel flow apparatus that included four tube rows in a staggered array. Heat transfer and pressure drop measurements were also acquired in a separate multiple-tube row apparatus in the Single Blow Test Facility. In addition, a numerical modeling technique was developed to predict local and average heat transfer for these low-Reynolds number flows, with and without winglets. Representative experimental and numerical results were obtained that reveal quantitative details of local finsurface heat transfer in the vicinity of a circular tube with a single delta winglet pair downstream of the cylinder. Heat transfer and pressure-drop results were obtained for flow Reynolds numbers based on channel height and mean flow velocity ranging from 700 to 6500. The winglets were of triangular (delta) shape with a 1:2 or 1:3 height/length aspect ratio and a height equal to 90% of the channel height. Overall mean fin-surface heat transfer results indicate a significant level of heat transfer enhancement (in terms of Colburn j-factor) associated with deployment of the winglets with circular as well as oval tubes. In general, toe-in (common flow up) type winglets appear to have better performance than the toe-out (common flow down) type winglets. Comparisons of heat transfer and pressure drop results for the elliptical tube versus a circular tube with and without winglets are provided. During the course of their independent research, all of the researchers have established that about 10 to 30% enhancement in Colburn j-factor is expected. However, actual increase in heat transfer rate from a heat exchanger employing finned tubes with winglets may be smaller, perhaps on the order of 2 to 5%. It is also concluded that for any specific application, more full-size experimentation is needed to optimize the winglet design for a specific heat exchanger application. If in place of a circular tube, an oval tube can be economically used in a bundle, it is expected that the pressure drop across the tube bundle with the application of vortex generators (winglets) will be similar to that in a conventional circular tube bundle. It is hoped that the results of this research will demonstrate the benefits of applying vortex generators (winglets) on the fins to improve the heat transfer from the air-side of the tube bundle.

Manohar S. Sohal

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

HVAC ENERGY EFFICIENCY CASE STUDY Evaporcool condenser air pre-cooler retrofit for air-cooled chillers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Figure 2. The figure shows that electricity use in the post-retrofit period is significantly lower than part wear--both lead to increased costs. It also means that cooling causes building electrical demand 280 kWh/yr-ton COOLING ENERGY & C02 SAVINGS 22% WATER USAGE 0.9 gal/day-ton #12;2 | SPEED PROGRAM CASE

California at Davis, University of

34

The absorption chiller in large scale solar pond cooling design with condenser heat rejection in the upper convecting zone  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of using solar ponds as low-cost solar collectors combined with commercial absorption chillers in large scale solar cooling design is investigated. The analysis is based on the combination of a steady-state solar pond mathematical model with the operational characteristics of a commercial absorption chiller, assuming condenser heat rejection in the upper convecting zone (U.C.Z.). The numerical solution of the nonlinear equations involved leads to results which relate the chiller capacity with pond design and environmental parameters, which are also employed for the investigation of the optimum pond size for a minimum capital cost. The derived cost per cooling kW for a 350 kW chiller ranges from about 300 to 500 $/kW cooling. This is almost an order of magnitude lower than using a solar collector field of evacuated tube type.

Tsilingiris, P.T. (Commercial Bank of Greece, Athens (Greece))

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Hybrid Air-Cooled Condenser  

Geothermal energy has been a viable energy source for power generation for decades. The U.S. currently has an installed base of 3,386 MW. 500 MW have ...

36

AIR COOLED NEUTRONIC REACTOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor of the air-cooled, graphite moderated type is described. The active core consists of a cubicle mass of graphite, approximately 25 feet in each dimension, having horizontal channels of square cross section extending between two of the opposite faces, a plurality of cylindrical uranium slugs disposed in end to end abutting relationship within said channels providing a space in the channels through which air may be circulated, and a cadmium control rod extending within a channel provided in the moderator. Suitable shielding is provlded around the core, as are also provided a fuel element loading and discharge means, and a means to circulate air through the coolant channels through the fuel charels to cool the reactor.

Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

1958-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

37

Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling Geothermal Lab Call Project | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Advanced Air Cooling Geothermal Lab Call Project and Advanced Air Cooling Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling Project Type / Topic 1 Laboratory Call for Submission of Applications for Research, Development and Analysis of Geothermal Technologies Project Type / Topic 2 Air-Cooling Project Description Many geothermal power plants in the U.S. are air-cooled because of water limitations. NREL has worked with industry to explore various strategies for boosting the performance of air coolers in hot weather. Computer modeling and experimental measurements have been done on the use of evaporative media upstream of the air-cooled condensers at the Mammoth Lakes Power Plant. NREL has also analyzed the use of an air-cooled condenser in series with (i.e., upstream of) a water-cooled condenser and found that this can be beneficial for power cycles requiring desuperheating of the turbine exhaust vapor. Recently, the conventional power industry has developed an interest in operating water- and air-cooled condensers in parallel. This arrangement allows a small water cooler to reduce the heat transfer duty on the air cooler on hot summer days thereby allowing the condensing working fluid to make a much closer approach to the air dry bulb temperature.

38

Proprties of the Carrol system and a machine design for solar-powered, air-cooled, absorption space cooling. Phase I and Phase II. Final report, September 1977-March 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The name Carrol has been selected as a convenient short-hand designation for a prime candidate chemical system comprising ethylene glycol-lithium bromide as an absorbent mixture with water as a refrigerant. The instrumentation, methods of handling data and numerical results from a systematic determination of Carrol property data required to design an air cooled absorption machine based on this chemical system are described. These data include saturation temperature, relative enthalpy, density, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity, viscosity and absorber film heat transfer coefficient as functions of solution temperature and Carrol concentration over applicable ranges. For each of the major components of the absorption chiller, i.e., generator, chiller, absorber, condenser, heat exchanger, purge and controls, the report contains an assembly drawing and the principal operating characteristics of that component.

Biermann, W.J.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

A comparative assessment of alternative combustion turbine inlet air cooling system  

SciTech Connect

Interest in combustion turbine inlet air cooling (CTAC) has increased during the last few years as electric utilities face increasing demand for peak power. Inlet air cooling increases the generating capacity and decreases the heat rate of a combustion turbine during hot weather when the demand for electricity is generally the greatest. Several CTAC systems have been installed, but the general applicability of the concept and the preference for specific concepts is still being debated. Concurrently, Rocky Research of Boulder City, Nevada has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct research on complex compound (ammoniated salt) chiller systems for low-temperature refrigeration applications.

Brown, D.R.; Katipamula, S.; Konynenbelt, J.H.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Sustainable Operation and Management of Data Center Chillers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distribution, chiller units and cooling towers. Heat dissipated from IT equip- ment is extracted by CRAC units in rows and CRAC units. Cooling Tower water loop Chiller Refrigerant loop Chilled Water loop Data Center Out pump Chiller unit pump Evaporator Condenser Cooling Tower Compressor Compressor Figure 2: Typical

Ramakrishnan, Naren

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Air Cooling Technology for Power Electronics Thermal Control (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Assessing potential for air cooling in power electronics is a critical factor in power electronics equipment. NREL aims to assess effective air cooling techniques for power electronics technologies.

Bharathan, D.

2007-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

42

Best Practices for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms Efficient HVAC Systems: Variable-Speed-Drive Chillers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Right sizing ? Cooling tower and condenser optimization ?chillers, water pumps, and cooling tower or condenser fans.MUAH + RCU Fans Pumps Cooling Towers Figure 1. Benchmarked

Xu, Tengfang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Electric Chiller Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric chillers have dominated the market for large commercial cooling systems due to their history of reliable, economical operation. This handbook provides a comprehensive guide for use in selecting chillers for commercial cooling needs. Key issues include chiller availability, rated performance, future viability of various refrigerant options, the cost-effectiveness of alternative chillers, and chilled-water system optimization.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Electric Chiller Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric chillers have dominated the market for large commercial cooling systems due to their history of reliable, economical operation. This handbook provides a comprehensive guide for use in selecting chillers for commercial cooling needs. Key issues include chiller availability, rated performance, future viability of various refrigerant options, the cost-effectiveness of alternative chillers, and chilled water system optimization.

1996-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

45

Inlet Air Chillers for Gas Turbine Capacity Enhancement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides information and analysis to help power generation engineers assess the cost-effectiveness of using inlet air chillers to increase the net output capacity of combustion turbine and combined cycle generating units. It also provides an analysis of integrating the storage of chilled water or ice with the inlet air cooling system as a means of energy storage. This report provides new and updated information and analysis, building on information from previous Electric Power Research ...

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Chiller Selection: CFC Update  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This CFC Update examines the decision factors used in selecting the most cost-effective chiller. The growing concern with emissions contributing to ozone depletion, global warming, and air pollution must be considered. Recent chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) phaseout schedules are causing some building owners to consider gas-fired chillers in place of electric chillers. The gas-fired chillers provide cooling without using ozone-depleting refrigerants, and also reduce electric d...

1997-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

47

Liquid metal reactor air cooling baffle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A baffle is provided between a relatively hot containment vessel and a relatively cold silo for enhancing air cooling performance. The baffle includes a perforate inner wall positionable outside the containment vessel to define an inner flow riser therebetween, and an imperforate outer wall positionable outside the inner wall to define an outer flow riser therebetween. Apertures in the inner wall allow thermal radiation to pass laterally therethrough to the outer wall, with cooling air flowing upwardly through the inner and outer risers for removing heat.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Chiller Performance Evaluation Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the analysis-results of a research project that monitored a new packaged chiller designed for R-407C, a nonchlorinated refrigerant. During the test period, R-22 and R-507 (both chlorinated refrigerants) were tested in the chiller for comparison purposes.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

49

Spray Cooling Enhancement of Air-Cooled Condensers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dry cooling of power plants may be an attractive alternative to wet cooling, particularly where water conservation and environmental protection pose critical siting issues. However, dry cooling technology may be unable to maintain design plant output during the hottest periods of the year, which are often periods of peak system demand. This study—cosponsored by EPRI, the California Energy Commission, and Crockett Cogeneration Co.—evaluated the use of a low-pressure spray enhancement system to...

2003-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

50

Engineering Task Plan for Tank 241-C-106 contingency chiller definitive design  

SciTech Connect

This document identifies the scope, cost, schedule and responsible organizations for completing a design of a contingency ventilation inlet air cooling system for Tank 241-C-106. The air cooling system, described in Rensink (1995), consists of a chiller, cooling coils, and supporting equipment that, when installed will be capable of assuring that the waste temperatures in Tank 241-C-106 are maintained within acceptable limits for safe storage. The effort described herein is scheduled for completion by May 31, 1995 to support Performance Based Incentive (PBI) Milestone SI-2x.

Rensink, G.E.; Kriskovich, J.R.

1995-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

51

Analysis of advanced conceptual designs for single-family-sized absorption chillers. Semi-annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the research program is to develop and analyze new concepts for absorption cycles to improve the performance or reduce the cost (or both) of a 3-ton absorption chiller that can be used with solar-collected heat. New refrigerant-absorbent pairs, additives to currently used refrigerant-absorbent pairs, and modifications to the cycle are being investigated. For the initial analyses the use of a fluid at 160 to 230/sup 0/F from a solar collector as a heating source is assumed. In the initial analyses the chiller is to provide chilled water at 45/sup 0/F at full load; alternatively, if a new refrigerant-absorbent pair appears to be amenable for direct cooling of the occupied space, the temperature of the evaporator is to be 45/sup 0/F. Both water cooling and air cooling of the absorber and the condenser are being studied. The use of ambient air at 95/sup 0/F dry bulb and 75/sup 0/F wet bulb temperatures is assumed. With the water-cooled cycles, the initial and operating costs of a properly sized cooling tower will be included. The research consists of five principal tasks: (a) acquisition of information for analysis, (b) definition of criteria for selection of promising refrigerant-absorbent pairs, additives for currently used pairs, or cycle modifications, (c) preparation and analysis of conceptual designs, (d) comparison and selection of the promising new systems that warrant further study, and (e) recommendations for further research for each promising new system. Progress on each of these tasks is described. (WHK)

None

1978-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

52

Clean Air-Cool Planet Community Toolkit | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Clean Air-Cool Planet Community Toolkit Clean Air-Cool Planet Community Toolkit Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Clean Air-Cool Planet Community Toolkit Agency/Company /Organization: Clean Air-Cool Planet Partner: Jeffrey H. Taylor and Associates Inc. Sector: Climate Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, Buildings, - Landfill Gas, - Waste to Energy, - Solar PV, Wind, Transportation, Agriculture, People and Policy, Food Supply, - Materials, Offsets and Certificates, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Bring the Right People Together, Determine Baseline, Get Feedback, Develop Finance and Implement Projects, Create Early Successes Resource Type: Guide/manual, Case studies/examples, Templates User Interface: Website Website: www.cleanair-coolplanet.org/for_communities/toolkit_home.php

53

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Simulation of Air-Cooled Organic...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Simulation of Air-Cooled Organic Rankine Cycle Geo Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us | Admin Log On HomeBasic Search About Publications...

54

Assessment of Evaporative Cooling Enhancement Methods for Air-Cooled Geothermal Power Plants: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many binary-cycle geothermal power plants are air cooled because insufficient water is available to provide year-round water cooling. The performance of air-cooled geothermal plants is highly dependent on the dry bulb temperature of the air (much more so than fossil fuel plants that operate at higher boiler temperatures), and plant electric output can drop by 50% or more on hot summer days, compared to winter performance. This problem of reduced summer performance is exacerbated by the fact that electricity has a higher value in the summer. This paper describes a spreadsheet model that was developed to assess the cost and performance of four methods for using supplemental evaporative cooling to boost summer performance: (1) pre-cooling with spray nozzles, (2) pre-cooling with Munters media, (3) a hybrid combination of nozzles and Munters media, and (4) direct deluge cooling of the air-cooled condenser tubes. Although all four options show significant benefit, deluge cooling has the potential to be the most economic. However, issues of scaling and corrosion would need to be addressed.

Kutscher, C.; Costenaro, D.

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Nanolubricants to Improve Chiller Performance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Nanolubricants to Improve Chiller Nanolubricants to Improve Chiller Performance Mark Kedzierski NIST MAK@NIST.GOV 301 975 5282 April 3, 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: Enabling technology for improving the efficiency of chillers that cool large buildings with nanolubricants. (Nanolubricants are not currently used in chillers.) Develop fundamental understanding of how nanolubricants enhance refrigerant/nanolubricant. What nanoparticle size,

56

Nitrogen chiller acceptance test procedure  

SciTech Connect

This document includes the inspection and testing requirements for the Nitrogen Chiller unit. The Chiller will support the Rotary Mode core Sampling System during the summer. The Chiller cools the Nitrogen Purge Gas that is used when drilling in tank wastes to cool the drill bit.

Kostelnik, A.J.

1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

57

Development of a single-family absorption chiller for use in a solar heating and cooling system. Phase III, final report. Volume II  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The appendices provide supporting information on: properties of a chemical system for solar fired, air-cooled absorption equipment, air-side performance of a one-inch tube, absorber plate-fin coil, listings of the programs used for simulation and data reduction, and evaluation of the Carrier 3-ton chiller in an integrated heating and cooling system. (LEW)

Reimann, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Green Cooling: Improving Chiller Efficiency This new chiller simulation module being developed by Building Performance Assurance Project members will help building managers compare optimal and actual chiller efficiency. Chillers are the single largest energy consumers in commercial buildings. These machines create peaks in electric power consumption, typically during summer afternoons. In fact, 23% of electricity generation is associated with powering chillers that use CFCs and HCFCs, ozone-depleting refrigerants. Satisfying the peak demand caused by chillers forces utilities to build new power plants. However, because chiller plants run the most when the weather is hot and very little at other times, their load factors - and hence the utilities' load factors (the percentage of time the

59

Automated Centrifugal Chiller Diagnostician - Available ...  

Summary. Researchers and engineers at PNNL have developed an automated, sophisticated, multi-level, real-time centrifugal chiller diagnostician with ...

60

Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Ice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air-Cooled Ice Makers to someone by E-mail Air-Cooled Ice Makers to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Ice Makers on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Ice Makers on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Ice Makers on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Ice Makers on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Ice Makers on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Ice Makers on AddThis.com... Energy-Efficient Products Federal Requirements Covered Product Categories Product Designation Process

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Aging assessment of essential HVAC chillers used in nuclear power plants. Phase 1, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of chillers used in the essential safety air-conditioning systems of nuclear power plants. Centrifugal chillers in the 75- to 750-ton refrigeration capacity range are the predominant type used. The chillers used, and air-conditioning systems served, vary in design from plant-to-plant. It is crucial to keep chiller internals very clean and to prevent the leakage of water, air, and other contaminants into the refrigerant containment system. Periodic operation on a weekly or monthly basis is necessary to remove moisture and noncondensable gases that gradually build up inside the chiller. This is especially desirable if a chiller is required to operate only as an emergency standby unit. The primary stressors and aging mechanisms that affect chillers include vibration, excessive temperatures and pressures, thermal cycling, chemical attack, and poor quality cooling water. Aging is accelerated by moisture, non-condensable gases (e.g., air), dirt, and other contamination within the refrigerant containment system, excessive start/stop cycling, and operating below the rated capacity. Aging is also accelerated by corrosion and fouling of the condenser and evaporator tubes. The principal cause of chiller failures is lack of adequate monitoring. Lack of performing scheduled maintenance and human errors also contribute to failures.

Blahnik, D.E.; Klein, R.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus are disclosed for providing a closed-loop air cooling system for a turbine engine. The method and apparatus provide for bleeding pressurized air from a gas turbine engine compressor for use in cooling the turbine components. The compressed air is cascaded through the various stages of the turbine. At each stage a portion of the compressed air is returned to the compressor where useful work is recovered.

North, William Edward (Winter Springs, FL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a heat absorption method for an absorption chiller. It comprises: providing a firs absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range, providing a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range; heat exchanging refrigerant and absorber solution; thermal communication with an external heat load. This patent describes a heat absorption apparatus for use as an absorption chiller. It includes: a first absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range; a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range which has a lower maximum temperature relative to the first temperature range; the first circuit having generator means, condenser means, evaporator means, and absorber means operatively connected together; the second circuit having generator means condenser means, evaporator means, and absorber means operative connected together; and the first circuit condenser means and the first circuit absorber means being in heat exchange communication with the second circuit generator means.

DeVault, R.C.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

64

Aging assessment of essential HVAC chillers used in nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a comprehensive aging assessment of chillers used in the essential safety air-conditioning systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The chillers used, and air-conditioning systems served, vary in design from plant to plant. The review of operating experience indicated that chillers experience aging degradation and failures. The primary aging factors of concern for chillers include vibration, excessive temperatures and pressures, thermal cycling, chemical attack, and poor quality cooling water. The evaluation of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) indicated that about 38% of the failures were primarily related to aging, 55% were partially aging related, and 7% of the failures were unassignable. About 25% of the failures were primarily caused by human, design, procedure, and other errors. The large number of errors is probably directly related to the complexity of chillers and their interfacing systems. Nearly all of the LERs were the result of entering plant Technical Specification Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) that initiated remedial actions like plant shutdown procedures. The trend for chiller-related LERs has stabilized at about 0.13 LERs per plant year since 1988. Carefully following the vendor procedures and monitoring the equipment can help to minimize and/or eliminate most of the premature failures. Recording equipment performance can be useful for trending analysis. Periodic operation for a few hours on a weekly or monthly basis is useful to remove moisture and non-condensable gases that gradually build up inside the chiller. Chiller pressurization kits are available that will help minimize the amount of moisture and air ingress to low-pressure chillers during standby periods. The assessment of service life condition monitoring of chillers indicated there are many simple to sophisticated methods available that can help in chiller surveillance and monitoring.

Blahnik, D.E.; Camp, T.W.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Chiller Controls-related Energy Saving Opportunities in Federal Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and gas chillers (absorption and engine driven) is discussedGuide: Absorption and Engine-Driven Chillers," Tech UpdateProduction Chiller types All Electric Gas Absorption Engine

Webster, Tom

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts. 1 fig.

Huber, D.J.; Briesch, M.S.

1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

67

Closed loop air cooling system for combustion turbines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Convective cooling of turbine hot parts using a closed loop system is disclosed. Preferably, the present invention is applied to cooling the hot parts of combustion turbine power plants, and the cooling provided permits an increase in the inlet temperature and the concomitant benefits of increased efficiency and output. In preferred embodiments, methods and apparatus are disclosed wherein air is removed from the combustion turbine compressor and delivered to passages internal to one or more of a combustor and turbine hot parts. The air cools the combustor and turbine hot parts via convection and heat is transferred through the surfaces of the combustor and turbine hot parts.

Huber, David John (North Canton, OH); Briesch, Michael Scot (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Microsoft Word - INL_EXT-13-30173 simulation of air-cooled ORC...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Air-Cooled Organic Rankine Cycle Geothermal Power Plant Performance Daniel S. Wendt Gregory L. Mines September 2013 DISCLAIMER This information was prepared as an account...

69

Air Cooling Technology for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation gives an overview of the status and FY09 accomplishments for the NREL thermal management research project 'Air Cooling for Power Electronics'.

Bharathan, D.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Parallel Condensing System As A Heat Sink For Power Plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Conventional heat sink technologies of use the condenser/cooling tower arrangement or an air cooled condenser for condensing exhaust steam from steam turbines. Each of these two systems have certain advantages as well as disadvantages. This paper discusses an alternate heat sink technology known as the Parallel Condensing System which is a combination of the cooling tower and the air cooled technologies. The Parallel Condensing System offers the advantages associated the conventional technologies but minimizes the disadvantages. As a result the Parallel Condensing System can offer greater value to the plant operator under certain circumstances.

Akhtar, S. Z.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

HVAC Chiller Plant Screening Case Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI's ChillerCalc software program is a useful tool for analyzing first-order comparative studies of chiller plant energy use, environmental performance, and economics. Hybrid cooling systems, which combine gas-fired and electric-driven chilling equipment, are emerging as a strategy to reduce central plant-related energy and demand costs. Although originally designed to analyze one-fuel type chillers at a time, ChillerCalc's capabilities were stretched to analyze hybrid systems. This report details the ...

2000-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

72

Purge needs in absorption chillers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Absorption chillers are regaining a significant share of large tonnage chiller sales, such as they had 20 years ago. Gas-fired chillers are now available that have a base energy (ultimate fuel usage) consumption rate per ton comparable to that in electric units. Effective purging in an absorption chiller is an absolute necessity to achieve the low chilled water temperature needed for dehumidification and to fully benefit from the energy savings offered by double-effect cycles. Although the purge system is usually not shown on the typical cycle schematic, its proper functioning is a key requirement for satisfactory machine operation. This article discusses the effect of noncondensible (N/C) gases on the absorption cooling process and the basics of purge systems. In addition, the article discusses the rationale for the important design step of selecting the location of the N/C probe, and discusses purge systems applicable to the direct-fired, double-effect machines now entering the marketplace.

Murray, J.G. (Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers Title Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-4951E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Coles, Henry C., Tae Won Han, Phillip N. Price, Ashok J. Gadgil, and William F. Tschudi Date Published 03/2011 Abstract There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: "closed" and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percentage of the recirculation air is "make-up" air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both "closed" and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups:

74

Compact Absorption Chiller - Energy Innovation Portal  

The Compact Absorption Chiller uses microchannel technologies in an absorption heat pump which produces cooling using heat as the primary energy source.

75

Cold side thermal energy storage system for improved operation of air cooled power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air cooled power plants experience significant performance fluctuations as plant cooling capacity reduces due to higher daytime temperature than nighttime temperature. The purpose of this thesis is to simulate the detailed ...

Williams, Daniel David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Design data brochure for the Owens-Illinois Sunpak Air-Cooled Solar Collector  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains the information necessary to evaluate the design and installation of the Owens-Illinois Sunpak Air-Cooled Solar Collector. Information includes collector features, fluid flow, thermal performance, installation and system tips.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Evaluation of an Absorption Heat Pump to Mitigate Plant Capacity Reduction Due to Ambient Temperature Rise for an Air-Cooled Ammonia and Water Cycle: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Air-cooled geothermal plants suffer substantial decreases in generating capacity at increased ambient temperatures. As the ambient temperature rises by 50 F above a design value of 50 F, at low brine-resource temperatures, the decrease in generating capacity can be more than 50%. This decrease is caused primarily by increased condenser pressure. Using mixed-working fluids has recently drawn considerable attention for use in power cycles. Such cycles are more readily amenable to use of absorption ''heat pumps.'' For a system that uses ammonia and water as the mixed-working fluid, this paper evaluates using an absorption heat pump to reduce condenser backpressure. At high ambient temperatures, part of the turbine exhaust vapor is absorbed into a circulating mixed stream in an absorber in series with the main condenser. This steam is pumped up to a higher pressure and heated to strip the excess vapor, which is recondensed using an additional air-cooled condenser. The operating conditions are chosen to reconstitute this condensate back to the same concentration as drawn from the original system. We analyzed two power plants of nominal 1-megawatt capacity. The design resource temperatures were 250 F and 300 F. Ambient temperature was allowed to rise from a design value of 50 F to 100 F. The analyses indicate that using an absorption heat pump is feasible. For the 300 F resource, an increased brine flow of 30% resulted in a net power increase of 21%. For the 250 F resource, the increase was smaller. However, these results are highly plant- and equipment-specific because evaluations must be carried out at off-design conditions for the condenser. Such studies should be carried out for specific power plants that suffer most from increased ambient temperatures.

Bharathan, D.; Nix, G.

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

79

Development of an air-cooled, loop-type heat pipe with multiple condensers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal management challenges are prevalent in various applications ranging from consumer electronics to high performance computing systems. Heat pipes are capillary-pumped devices that take advantage of the latent heat ...

Kariya, H. Arthur (Harumichi Arthur)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Microsoft Word - INL_EXT-13-30178 Air-Cooled Condenser for Next...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of water. In this method of heat rejection, the heat sink temperature is the wet-bulb temperature instead of the higher ambient (dry-bulb) temperature. Because the wet bulb...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Development of an air-cooled, loop-type heat pipe with multiple condensers.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Thermal management challenges are prevalent in various applications ranging from consumer electronics to high performance computing systems. Heat pipes are capillary-pumped devices that take advantage… (more)

Kariya, H. Arthur (Harumichi Arthur)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Final Report describes the accomplishments of the US Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement project DE-FC26-04NT42113 - Truck Thermoacoustic Generator and Chiller - whose goal is to design, fabricate and test a thermoacoustic piezoelectric generator and chiller system for use on over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel trucks, driven alternatively by the waste heat of the main diesel engine exhaust or by a burner integrated into the thermoacoustic system. The thermoacoustic system would utilize engine exhaust waste heat to generate electricity and cab air conditioning, and would also function as an auxiliary power unit (APU) for idle reduction. The unit was to be tested in Volvo engine performance and endurance test cells and then integrated onto a Class 8 over-the-road heavy-duty-diesel truck for further testing on the road. The project has been a collaboration of The Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Clean Power Resources Inc., and Volvo Powertrain (Mack Trucks Inc.). Cost share funding was provided by Applied Research Laboratory, and by Clean Power Resources Inc via its grant from Innovation Works - funding that was derived from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Los Alamos received its funding separately through DOE Field Work Proposal 04EE09.

Robert Keolian

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

Development of a compensation chamber for use in a multiple condenser loop heat pipe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The performance of many electronic devices is presently limited by heat dissipation rates. One potential solution lies in high-performance air-cooled heat exchangers like PHUMP, the multiple condenser loop heat pipe presented ...

Roche, Nicholas Albert

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Residential solar-absorption chiller thermal dynamics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research is reported on the transient performance of a commercial residential 3 ton lithium bromide-water absorption chiller designed for solar firing. Emphasis was placed on separating the chiller response from that of the entire test facility so that its transient response could solely be observed and quantified. It was found that the entire system time response and thermal capacitance has a major impact on performance degradation due to transient operation. Tests run to ascertain computer algorithms which simulate system isolated chiller performance, revealed processes hitherto undocumented. Transient operation is simulated by three distinct algorithms associated with the three phases of chiller operation. The first phase is start up time. It was revealed during testing that the time required to reach steady state performance values, when the chiller was turned on, was a linear function of steady state water supply temperatures. The second phase is quasi steady state performance. Test facility's performance compared favorably with the manufacturer's published data. The third phase is the extra capacity produced during spin down. Spin down occurs when the hot water supply pump is turned off while the other system pumps remain operating for a few minutes, thus allowing extra chiller capacity to be realized. The computer algorithms were used to generate plots which show the operational surface of an isolated absorption chiller subjected to off design and transient operation.

Guertin, J.M.; Wood, B.D.; McNeill, B.W.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Clean Air-Cool Planet Small Town Carbon Calculator | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

form form View source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Clean Air-Cool Planet Small Town Carbon Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Clean Air-Cool Planet Small Town Carbon Calculator Agency/Company /Organization: Clean Air-Cool Planet Partner: Carbon Solutions New England, The University of New Hampshire, ICLEI, Environmental Protection Agency Sector: Climate Focus Area: Buildings, Transportation, Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.cleanair-coolplanet.org/for_communities/stocc.php

86

Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Ice Makers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ice Makers Ice Makers Covered Product Category: Air-Cooled Ice Makers October 7, 2013 - 11:09am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including air-cooled ice makers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. Check the qualified products list maintained on the ENERGY STAR website to see if a model is ENERGY STAR-qualified. Meeting Energy Efficiency Requirements for Air-Cooled Ice Makers For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required for this product

87

Clean Air Cool Planet (CA-CP) Small Town Carbon Calculator | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Clean Air Cool Planet (CA-CP) Small Town Carbon Calculator Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Clean Air Cool Planet (CA-CP) Small Town Carbon Calculator Focus Area: Crosscutting Topics: Opportunity Assessment & Screening Website: www.cleanair-coolplanet.org/for_communities/stocc.php Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/clean-air-cool-planet-ca-cp-small-tow Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Training & Education The Small Town Carbon Calculator (STOCC) was developed to help small towns address the growing costs of municipal energy use and emissions. It is a tool to inventory greenhouse gas emissions as well as energy use and to

88

Effect of Ambient Design Temperature on Air-Cooled Binary Plant Output  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular air temperature. Nominally this air temperature is the annual mean or average air temperature for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design air temperature has on power generation for an air-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid temperature and fluctuating ambient temperatures. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet temperature limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal air-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient temperatures as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.

Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Innovative hybrid gas/electric chiller cogeneration  

SciTech Connect

January Progress--A kick-off meeting was held in San Diego with Alturdyne on January 21st. The proposed hybrid gas/electric chiller/cogenerator design concept was discussed in detail. The requirements and functionality of the key component, a variable speed, constant frequency motor/generator was presented. Variations of the proposed design were also discussed based on their technical feasibility, cost and market potential. The discussion is documented in a Trip Report. February Progress--After significant GRI/Alturdyne discussion regarding alternative product design concepts, the team made a decision to continue with the proposed product design, a hybrid chiller capable of also providing emergency power. The primary benefits are: (a) the flexibility and operating cost savings associated with the product's dual fuel capability and (b) the emergency power feature. A variable speed, constant frequency motor/generator would significantly increase the cost of the product while providing marginal benefit. (The variable speed, constant frequency motor generator is estimated to cost $25,000 versus $4,000 for a constant speed version). In addition, the interconnection requirements to the electric grid would significantly limit market penetration of the product. We will proceed with a motor/generator design capable of serving as the electric prime mover for the compressor as well as the generator for emergency power needs. This component design is being discussed with two motor manufacturers. The first generation motor/generator will not be a variable speed, constant frequency design. The variable speed, constant frequency capability can be an advancement that is included at a later time. The induction motor/synchronous generator starts as a wound rotor motor with a brushless exciter and control electronics to switch between induction mode and synchronous mode. The exciter is a three-phase exciter with three phase rotating diode assembly. In the induction motor mode, the field windings are shorted out by SCRs located across the field. In the synchronous mode, a small ct on one of the exciter leads would power the rotating exciter electronics. Upon sensing exciter current, the electronics would automatically open the SCRs allowing synchronous operation. Quotes will be obtained from American Motor and Reuland, two motor/generator vendors. March Progress--A product layout was completed. The width is reduced significantly from the original hybrid design because the evaporator and condenser tube in shell heat exchangers are located below the engine/motor/compressor drive-line. Alturdyne is searching for a consultant to perform a drive-line torsional analysis. This analysis is necessary to ensure that the drive-line is not subject to undue vibrations operating through its entire speed range. Much effort was directed toward motor/generator selection. A decision was made to use Reuland Electric. A motor with double-end shafts will be purchased. The design effort which will be completed at Alturdyne will involve the modification of the wound rotor motor to also provide synchronous power. Work has been completed on developing the new controller which will be utilized for the original hybrid product as well as this advanced product. Work continues toward developing a manufacturing cost estimate. A detailed bill of material will be developed for the product. Key components include the engine, compressor and motor/generator.

Nowakowski, G.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Lithium bromide absorption chiller passes gas conditioning field test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A lithium bromide absorption chiller has been successfully used to provide refrigeration for field conditioning of natural gas. The intent of the study was to identify a process that could provide a moderate level of refrigeration necessary to meet the quality restrictions required by natural-gas transmission companies, minimize the initial investment risk, and reduce operating expenses. The technology in the test proved comparatively less expensive to operate than a propane refrigeration plant. Volatile product prices and changes in natural-gas transmission requirements have created the need for an alternative to conventional methods of natural-gas processing. The paper describes the problems with the accumulation of condensed liquids in pipelines, gas conditioning, the lithium bromide absorption cycle, economics, performance, and operating and maintenance costs.

Lane, M.J.; Huey, M.A. [Nicol and Associates, Richardson, TX (United States)

1995-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

Data mining for modeling chiller systems in data centers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a data mining approach to model the cooling infrastructure in data centers, particularly the chiller ensemble. These infrastructures are poorly understood due to the lack of “first principles” models of chiller systems. At the ...

Debprakash Patnaik; Manish Marwah; Ratnesh K. Sharma; Naren Ramakrishnan

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

List of Chillers Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » List of Chillers Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 374 Chillers Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 374) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP (Central and North) - CitySmart Program (Texas) Utility Rebate Program Texas Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Schools Boilers Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Furnaces Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors

93

INNOVATIVE HYBRID GAS/ELECTRIC CHILLER COGENERATION  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Engine-driven chillers are quickly gaining popularity in the market place (increased from 7,000 tons in 1994 to greater than 50,000 tons in 1998) due to their high efficiency, electric peak shaving capability, and overall low operating cost. The product offers attractive economics (5 year pay back or less) in many applications, based on areas cooling requirements and electric pricing structure. When heat is recovered and utilized from the engine, the energy resource efficiency of a natural gas engine-driven chiller is higher than all competing products. As deregulation proceeds, real time pricing rate structures promise high peak demand electric rates, but low off-peak electric rates. An emerging trend with commercial building owners and managers who require air conditioning today is to reduce their operating costs by installing hybrid chiller systems that combine gas and electric units. Hybrid systems not only reduce peak electric demand charges, but also allow customers to level their energy load profiles and select the most economical energy source, gas or electricity, from hour to hour. Until recently, however, all hybrid systems incorporated one or more gas-powered chillers (engine driven and/or absorption) and one or more conventional electric units. Typically, the cooling capacity of hybrid chiller plants ranges from the hundreds to thousands of refrigeration tons, with multiple chillers affording the user a choice of cooling systems. But this flexibility is less of an option for building operators who have limited room for equipment. To address this technology gap, a hybrid chiller was developed by Alturdyne that combines a gas engine, an electric motor and a refrigeration compressor within a single package. However, this product had not been designed to realize the full features and benefits possible by combining an engine, motor/generator and compressor. The purpose of this project is to develop a new hybrid chiller that can (1) reduce end-user energy costs, (2) lower building peak electric load, (3) increase energy efficiency, and (4) provide standby power. This new hybrid product is designed to allow the engine to generate electricity or drive the chiller's compressor, based on the market price and conditions of the available energy sources. Building owners can minimize cooling costs by operating with natural gas or electricity, depending on time of day energy rates. In the event of a backout, the building owner could either operate the product as a synchronous generator set, thus providing standby power, or continue to operate a chiller to provide air conditioning with support of a small generator set to cover the chiller's electric auxiliary requirements. The ability to utilize the same piece of equipment as a hybrid gas/electric chiller or a standby generator greatly enhances its economic attractiveness and would substantially expand the opportunities for high efficiency cooling products.

Todd Kollross; Mike Connolly

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

94

Design guide for category VI reactors: air-cooled graphite reactors  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned air-cooled graphite reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

Brynda, W.J.; Karol, R.; Powell, R.W.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Performance of an air-cooled ammonia-water absorption air conditioner at low generator temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An ammonia--water absorption air conditioning system has been tested to investigate the stability of operation near the cut-off conditions. Circulation ratios were from 8 to 30. Relations for the estimation of the coefficient of performance and for the prediction of operating temperatures were derived and verified experimentally. Possible operating conditions for an air-cooled ammonia--water air conditioning system were concluded.

Dao, K.; Simmons, M.; Wolgast, R.; Wahlig, M.

1976-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Absorption chillers: Technology for the future  

SciTech Connect

In an era of heightened awareness of energy efficiency and the associated environmental impacts, many industries worldwide are exploring ``environmentally friendly`` technologies that provide equivalent or improved performance while reducing or eliminating harmful side-effects. The refrigeration and air-conditioning industry, due to its reliance on CFCs and HCFCs, has invested in research in alternatives to the industry standard vapor compression machines. One alternative technology with great promise is chemical absorption. Absorption chillers offer comparable refrigeration output with reduced SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} emissions. Absorption chillers do not use CFCs or HCFCs, refrigerants that contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. Additionally, gas-fired absorption chillers can save significant amounts in energy costs when used in combination with a vapor compression chiller in a hybrid system. The hybrid system can take advantage of the comparatively low price of natural gas (per unit ton) and rely on the high performance of vapor compression when electricity prices are lower. The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction for those new to absorption technology as well as a discussion of selected high efficiency cycles, a discussion on the technology of coupling absorption with vapor compression systems to form a hybrid system, and the environmental impacts of absorption.

Garland, P.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Garland, R.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

97

FREE ZONE Rb-276 Chiller Monitoring Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regulations prohibiting the production of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have spurred the development of alternative refrigerants with similar thermodynamic properties and operating characteristics for use in large chiller systems. This study evaluates refrigerant FREE ZONE RB-276, a "drop in" replacement for R-12, which has been out of production since January 1, 1996.

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

98

Department of Facilities Management C: Compliant Nov 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to Heating Water) 20 Burners (Gas and Oil Fired) 20 Package Chiller ­ Reciprocating 25 Furnaces (Gas Fired) 20 Package Chiller ­ Centrifugal 25 Furnaces (OilFired) 20 Package Chiller ­ Absorption 25 Unit Tower ­ Galvanized Metal 25 Radiant Heater (Gas) 20 Condenser ­ Air-Cooled 25 Air Terminals (Diffusers

Brownstone, Rob

99

Condensate system modelling in real time for a training power plant simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the basis of the models of the condensate water and the air cooled condenser are presented. The models are part of a full scope simulator of a 450 MW combined cycle power plant. The simulator is executed in real time and is intended to ...

Yadira Mendoza-Alegría; Edgardo J. Roldan-Villasana

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Chiller-heater unit nets building 2-yr payback  

SciTech Connect

A 500-ton double-absorption Hitachi Paraflow chiller-heater that switches from purchased steam to natural gas will reduce a Manhattan office building's energy costs by 55% and achieve a two-year payback. The new system replaces a steam-powered, single-stage absorption chiller. By reusing heat in a second-stage generator, the Hitachi unit uses only half as many Btus per ton as a conventional chiller. (DCK)

Duffy, J.

1983-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Ritz-Carlton Non-CFC Chiller Monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been extensively used in air- conditioning and refrigeration systems. However, since CFCs have been implicated in the depletion of the earth's ozone layer, regulations have been enacted that phased out their production on December 31, 1995. As a result, building owners must make a decision with regards to their existing chiller stock. Ultimately, the owner must choose between one of three alternatives: maintain the existing CFC chiller, retrofit the existing chiller for a ...

1997-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

102

Direct Refrigeration from Heat Recovery Using 2-Stage Absorption Chillers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although the cost of some fossil fuels has moderated, the importance of energy conservation by heat recovery has not diminished. The application of waste heat generated steam to produce chilled water is not new. However, there is a newly developed absorption chiller which can produce chilled water 44% more efficiently than the conventional single stage absorption chillers. The new 2-stage parallel flow system makes the chiller package more compact, more efficient, and easier to operate. Many types of waste heat, not just steam, can be used directly in this new chiller without the need for costly recovery and conversion systems.

Hufford, P. E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Advanced Exergy Analysis for a Solar Double Stage Absorption Chiller.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solar driven absorption chiller technology as an alternative mechanism for cooling has been the focus of tremendous recent interest due to its potential advantages for… (more)

Hu, Yang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

The Chiller's Role within a Utility's Marketing Strategy: UsingChiller-Related Products and Services to Win and Retain Customers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Commercial chillers, used in space and industrial process cooling, can comprise as much as 30% of a large office building's electrical load. The selection decisions for a new or replacement chiller (electric versus gas, standard versus high efficiency, thermal storage versus standard cooling) will affect the customer's energy consumption for 20-30 years. This study evaluates specific chiller marketing tactics based on customer needs as well as energy service strategies that take advantage of changes in m...

1998-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

105

Evaluation of chiller modeling approaches and their usability for fault detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Challenges in Modeling Vapor-Compression Liquid Chillers,”Methods Applied to Vapor Compression Chillers,” Draft reportmodel based FDD of vapor compression air conditioning units,

Sreedharan, Priya

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Experimental study on corrugated cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

Experimental study on cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers (PHEs) was performed. The two prototype PHEs were manufactured in a stack of single-wave plates and double-wave plates in parallel. Cooling air flows through the PHEs in a crosswise direction against internal cooling water. The heat exchanger aims to substitute open-loop cooling towers with closed-loop water circulation, which guarantees cleanliness and compactness. In this study, the prototype PHEs were tested in a laboratory scale experiments. From the tests, double-wave PHE shows approximately 50% enhanced heat transfer performance compared to single-wave PHE. However, double-wave PHE costs 30% additional pressure drop. For commercialization, a wide channel design for air flow would be essential for reliable performance. (author)

Kim, Minsung; Baik, Young-Jin; Park, Seong-Ryong; Ra, Ho-Sang [Solar Thermal and Geothermal Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Lim, Hyug [Research and Development Center, LHE Co., Ltd., Gimhae 621-874 (Korea)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo`s structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated. 5 figures.

Hunsbedt, A.; Boardman, C.E.

1995-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

108

Passive air cooling of liquid metal-cooled reactor with double vessel leak accommodation capability  

SciTech Connect

A passive and inherent shutdown heat removal method with a backup air flow path which allows decay heat removal following a postulated double vessel leak event in a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The improved reactor design incorporates the following features: (1) isolation capability of the reactor cavity environment in the event that simultaneous leaks develop in both the reactor and containment vessels; (2) a reactor silo liner tank which insulates the concrete silo from the leaked sodium, thereby preserving the silo's structural integrity; and (3) a second, independent air cooling flow path via tubes submerged in the leaked sodium which will maintain shutdown heat removal after the normal flow path has been isolated.

Hunsbedt, Anstein (Los Gatos, CA); Boardman, Charles E. (Saratoga, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Modeling and Implementation of a 1 kW, Air Cooled HTPEM Fuel Cell in a Hybrid Electrical Vehicle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling and Implementation of a 1 kW, Air Cooled HTPEM Fuel Cell in a Hybrid Electrical Vehicle engine vehicles (1). Hybrid systems of many kinds, combining a primary energy source having a high energy://www.ecsdl.org/terms_use.jsp #12;article, a model of a hybrid vehicle, including a HTPEM with lead acid batteries, is de- veloped

Nielsen, Mads Pagh

110

Original article: Lumped-parameter-based thermal analysis of a doubly radial forced-air-cooled direct-driven permanent magnet wind generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A lumped-parameter-based thermal analysis of a direct-driven permanent magnet wind generator with double radial forced-air cooling is presented. In the proposed thermal model, the thermal conduction and convection as well as the heating of the cooling ... Keywords: Air cooling, Permanent magnet synchronous generator, Thermal analysis, Thermal resistance networks

Janne Nerg, Vesa Ruuskanen

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Water-Cooled Electric Chillers, Purchasing Specifications for Energy-Efficient Products (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy efficiency purchasing specifications for federal procurements of water-cooled electric chillers.

Not Available

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Case Study: Lessons Learned From Converting Electric Chillers to Steam Chillers in a Electric Deregulated Market.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper will examine an example of converting two electric centrifugal chillers, which needed to be replaced, to use steam turbine driven centrifugal chillers at a large commercial office building consisting of approximately 700,000 square feet in Center City Philadelphia. The existing 2,000 ton plant was replaced by 2,400 tons of cooling, in the 1997 time frame along with new cooling towers, and the required auxiliaries for the new plant. The paper will look at the impact of steam cooling on the facility's electric load profile both prior to the conversion, as well as after the conversion. This is of particular interest due to the fact that Pennsylvania is deregulated for electric service. One of the benefits in deciding to do the conversion was that a flatter load profile due to steam cooling should allow better electric pricing from energy suppliers.

Wohl, J.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Advantages and disadvantages of using absorption chillers to lower utility bills  

SciTech Connect

Absorption chillers have a proven history of providing low-cost reliable cooling and should continue to do so in the future. Absorption chiller systems can provide significant energy savings for a particular application. To maximize savings, the various system arrangements should be evaluated; for example, single effect versus double effect, chiller versus chiller/heater, straight absorption chiller or the electric/absorption hybrid.

Kistler, P.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Cooling circuit for steam and air-cooled turbine nozzle stage  

SciTech Connect

The turbine vane segment includes inner and outer walls with a vane extending therebetween. The vane includes leading and trailing edge cavities and intermediate cavities. An impingement plate is spaced from the outer wall to impingement-cool the outer wall. Post-impingement cooling air flows through holes in the outer wall to form a thin air-cooling film along the outer wall. Cooling air is supplied an insert sleeve with openings in the leading edge cavity for impingement-cooling the leading edge. Holes through the leading edge afford thin-film cooling about the leading edge. Cooling air is provided the trailing edge cavity and passes through holes in the side walls of the vane for thin-film cooling of the trailing edge. Steam flows through a pair of intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling of the side walls. Post-impingement steam flows to the inner wall for impingement-cooling of the inner wall and returns the post-impingement cooling steam through inserts in other intermediate cavities for impingement-cooling the side walls of the vane.

Itzel, Gary Michael (Clifton Park, NY); Yu, Yufeng (Guilderland, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: closed and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percent age of the recirculation air is make-up air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both closed and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups: (1) Outside - coupons sheltered, located near or at the supply air inlet, but located before any filtering, (2) Supply - starting just after initial air filtering continuing inside the plenums and ducts feeding the data center rooms, and (3) Inside located inside the data center rooms near the IT equipment. Each coupon was exposed for thirty days and then sent to a laboratory for a corrosion rate measurement analysis. The goal of this research was to investigate whether gaseous contamination is a concern for U.S. data center operators as it relates to the reliability of IT equipment. More specifically, should there be an increased concern if outside air for IT equipment cooling is used To begin to answer this question limited exploratory measurements of corrosion rates in operating data centers in various locations were undertaken. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the precision of the measurements (2) What are the approximate statistical distributions of copper and silver corrosion rates in the sampled data centers(3) To what extent are copper and silver corrosion measurements related (4) What is the relationship of corrosion rate measurements between outside-air cooled data centers compared to closed data centers (5) How do corrosivity measurements relate to IT equipment failure rates The data from our limited sample size suggests that most United States data center operators should not be concerned with environmental gaseous contamination causing high IT equipment failure rates even when using outside-air cooling. The research team recommends additional basic research on how environmental conditions, specifically gaseous contamination, affect electronic equipment reliability.

Coles, Henry C.; Han, Taewon; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Tschudi, William F.

2011-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

116

Realities of Chiller Plant Operation: Utility Impacts on Owner Operating  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Realities of Chiller Plant Operation: Utility Impacts on Owner Operating Realities of Chiller Plant Operation: Utility Impacts on Owner Operating Costs and Societal Environmental Issues Speaker(s): Don Aumann Date: March 21, 2000 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Satkartar K. Kinney Don Aumann, a Senior Consultant from BKi in Oakland, will present an overview of two projects he completed for the electric utility industry. The first, a case study evaluation of a hybrid chiller plant in Jefferson City, Missouri, demonstrates the importance of carefully evaluating the impact of utility rate structures on plant operating costs. The building owner, another engineering consultant, and the local utility representatives were confused by the rates and missed an opportunity to cut chiller-plant operating costs by about 20%, totaling $15,000 per year. In

117

Use Low-Grade Waste Steam to Power Absorption Chillers  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on waste steam to power absorption chillers provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Chiller Controls-related Energy Saving Opportunities in Federal Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chiller Controls-related Energy Savings CBE/UC BerkeleyControls-related Energy Savings CBE/UC Berkeley FEMP/NTDPControls-related Energy Savings CBE/UC Berkeley FEMP/NTDP

Webster, Tom

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Health Monitoring and Continuous Commissioning of Centrifugal Chiller Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents strategies for detecting and diagnosing the chiller component faults and the sensor faults involved in chiller conditioning monitoring and control. The two strategies are used in series. One strategy diagnoses and validates the sensor faults. After the sensor faults are validated, the other strategy monitors the health condition and diagnoses the faults of chiller components. The health monitoring and diagnosis of the sensors are conducted using PCA (Principle Component Analysis) method. The chiller component condition monitoring and diagnosis is conducted based on the reference models of six performance indexes and an online threshold generator updating the fault detection thresholds following the change of working conditions. The paper also presents the validation of the two strategies using the field data of the BMS in a large office building.

Cui, J.; Wang, S.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Proceedings: Working Fluids for Positive Displacement Chillers: Research Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phaseout of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) requires development of non-ozone-depleting refrigerants for commercial chillers. When implemented, these new refrigerants must operate with efficiencies at least equal to those of the CFCs and HCFCs to avoid increasing energy use or utility peak demands. This July 1992 EPRI workshop identified refrigerant and equipment R&D needs for developing ozone-safe positive displacement chillers.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Validation of the RVACS (Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System)/RACS (Reactor Air Cooling System) model in SASSYS-1  

SciTech Connect

The SASSYS-1 LMR systems analysis code contains a model for transient analysis of heat removal by a RVACS (Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System) or a RACS (Reactor Air Cooling System) in an LMR (Liquid Metal Reactor). This model has been validated by comparisons of model predictions with experimental data from a large scale RVACS/RACS simulation experiment performed at Argonne National Laboratory. 4 refs., 1 fig.

Dunn, F.E.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Effect of Mixed Working Fluid Composition on Binary Cycle Condenser Heat Transfer Coefficients Dan Wendt, Greg Mines Idaho National Laboratory The use of mixed working fluids in binary power plants can provide significant increases in plant performance, provided the heat exchangers are designed to take advantage of these fluids non-isothermal phase changes. In the 1980's testing was conducted at DOE's Heat Cycle Research Facility (HCRF) where mixtures of different compositions were vaporized at supercritical pressures and then condensed. This testing had focused on using the data collected to verify that Heat Transfer Research Incorporated (HTRI) codes were suitable for the design of heat exchangers that could be used with mixtures. The HCRF data includes mixture compositions varying from 0% to 40% isopentane and condenser tube orientations of 15{sup o}, 60{sup o}, and 90{sup o} from horizontal. Testing was performed over a range of working fluid and cooling fluid conditions. Though the condenser used in this testing was water cooled, the working fluid condensation occurred on the tube-side of the heat exchanger. This tube-side condensation is analogous to that in an air-cooled condenser. Tube-side condensing heat transfer coefficient information gleaned from the HCRF testing is used in this study to assess the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs for use with mixtures. Results of an air-cooled binary plant process model performed with Aspen Plus indicate that that the optimal mixture composition (producing the maximum net power for the scenario considered) is within the range of compositions for which data exist. The HCRF data is used to assess the impact of composition, tube orientation, and process parameters on the condensing heat transfer coefficients. The sensitivity of the condensing coefficients to these factors is evaluated and the suitability of air-cooled condenser designs with mixtures is assessed. This paper summarizes the evaluation of the HCRF data and discusses the next steps in the project evaluation of air-cooled condenser designs that can take advantage of the performance gains possible with these fluids.

Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

News From the D.C. Office: Federal Procurement of Efficient Chillers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 Aerial view of Washington D.C. News From the D.C. Office Federal Procurement of Efficient Chillers The replacement of large electric chillers in government facilities, driven by...

124

Gas-engine chiller cools co-op apartment building  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the fall of 1993, the Bronxville Knolls Tower Co-op Board was faced with a now prevalent problem. Its 12-story, 63-unit cooperative in Bronxville, NY, which encompasses approximately 125,000 sq ft, including the parking garage, was being air conditioned by an aging 200-ton centrifugal chiller using CFC-11 refrigerant. As of January 1, 1996, CFCs are no longer manufactured in the US. The board wanted to determine whether the existing chiller could economically be retained or if it should be replaced with new equipment using a non-CFC refrigerant. From energy study to completion, steps taken in this chiller retrofit project are discussed in this article.

Procell, V. [Procell Group, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

FEMP/NTDP Technology Focus Chiller Controls-related Energy Saving Opportunities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are designed and operated, and in the diversity of chiller products that are available to support innovativeFEMP/NTDP Technology Focus Chiller Controls-related Energy Saving Opportunities in Federal in recent years has been on optimization of set point and staging controls, improvements in chiller design

126

A Numerical Model for the Dynamic Simulation of a Recirculation Single-Effect Absorption Chiller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Numerical Model for the Dynamic Simulation of a Recirculation Single- Effect Absorption Chiller A dynamic model for the simulation of a new single-effect water/lithium bromide absorption chiller. Keywords: absorption; chiller; modelling; transient; water-lithium bromide; falling film hal-00713904

Recanati, Catherine

127

The absorbent's solution flow process, non-parametric identification into an absorption chiller for air conditioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The lithium bromide chillers supplied from solar collectors are used to provide proper environmental conditions into industrial and civil buildings. To maintain the appropriate values for the temperature into the chiller's boiler, a control unit is introduced ... Keywords: absorption chiller, flow process, system identification

Adrian Danila

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Identification of chiller model in HVAC system using fuzzy inference rules with Zadeh's implication operator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, chiller is the central part and one of the primary energy consumers. For the purpose of saving energy, the identification of the chiller model is of great significance. In this paper, based ... Keywords: chiller, fuzzy inference system, implication operator, improved genetic algorithm

Yukui Zhang; Shiji Song; Cheng Wu; Kang Li

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Helium-Based Soundwave Chiller: Trillium: A Helium-Based Sonic Chiller- Tons of Freezing with 0 GWP Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Penn State is designing a freezer that substitutes the use of sound waves and environmentally benign refrigerant for synthetic refrigerants found in conventional freezers. Called a thermoacoustic chiller, the technology is based on the fact that the pressure oscillations in a sound wave result in temperature changes. Areas of higher pressure raise temperatures and areas of low pressure decrease temperatures. By carefully arranging a series of heat exchangers in a sound field, the chiller is able to isolate the hot and cold regions of the sound waves. Penn State’s chiller uses helium gas to replace synthetic refrigerants. Because helium does not burn, explode or combine with other chemicals, it is an environmentally-friendly alternative to other polluting refrigerants. Penn State is working to apply this technology on a large scale.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Plant Support Engineering: Life Cycle Management Planning Sourcebooks - Chillers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is producing a series of Life Cycle Management Planning Sourcebooks, each containing a compilation of industry experience information and data on aging degradation and historical performance for a specific type of system, structure, or component (SSC). In addition, this sourcebook provides information and guidance for implementing cost8212effective life cycle management (LCM) planning for chillers.

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

131

Design of Automation Control System for Water Chillers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy crisis led to the recognition that the energy conservation is important. The aim of performance test rig of a water chiller which is introduced in this paper is just for the energy saving. In order to get the better efficiency, a monitoring system ...

Yuhong Sun; Yuying Sun; Junmei Li; Xiaowei Yin

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Solar evacuated tube collector: absorption chiller systems simulation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A residential air conditioning system incorporating an Arkla Solaire absorption chiller and Corning Glass Works evacuated tube collectors is simulated and the design parameters studied. Mathematical models of the evacuated tube collector and Arkla absorption chiller based on experimental results of the components have been created and incorporated into a complete system simulation. The chiller model includes transient start-up effects and the evacuated tube collector model includes numerous optical effects. A standard Arkla chiller in a humid climate (Washington, D.C.) and an Arkla unit with a modified charge for dry climates (Fort Collins, Colorado) are studied. Design parameters considered include the use of chilled water storage to reduce transient start-up effects of the absorption unit, the effects of removing heat from the solar system for preheating service hot water, the use of a tempering valve to prevent over-firing of the absorption unit in dry climates, and solar storage sizing considerations. The study results and conclusions are used to specify a cooling system design.

Leflar, J.A.; Duff, W.S.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

MODELING AND SIMULATION OF HVAC FAULTS IN ENERGYPLUS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of calibration Chiller Fouled condenser Chiller RefrigerantDecreased chiller efficiency and increased condenser outlettemperature Reduced condenser pressure and compressor

Basarkar, Mangesh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Simulation and performance analysis of a 4-effect lithium bromide-water absorption chiller  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Performance simulation has been conducted for a 4-effect lithium bromide-water chiller, capable of substantial performance improvement over state-of-the-art double-effect cycles. The system investigated includes four condensers and four desorbers coupled together, forming an extension of the conventional double-effect cycle; based on prior analytical studies, a parallel flow system was preferred over series flow, and double-condenser coupling was employed, to further improve performance. A modular computer code for simulation of absorption systems (ABSIM) was used to investigate the performances of the cycle. The simulation was carried out to investigate the influence of some major design parameters. A coefficient of performance around 2.0 (cooling) was calculated at the design point, with a heat supply temperature of 600{degrees}F (315{degrees}C) at the solution outlet from the high temperature desorber. With some optimization of the weak (pumped) solution flowrate and of the solution split among the four desorbers, this COP may be raised above 2.2.

Grossman, G. [Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Zaltash, A.; DeVault, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Air-Cooled Stack Freeze Tolerance - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 6 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Dave Hancock Plug Power Inc. 968 Albany Shaker Rd Latham, NY 12110 Phone: (518) 782-7700 Email: david_hancock@plugpower.com DOE Managers HQ: Donna Ho Phone: (202) 586-8000 Email: Donna.Ho@ee.doe.gov GO: Reginald Tyler Phone: (720) 356-1805 Email: Reginald.Tyler@go.doe.gov Technical Advisor Walt Podolski Phone: (630) 252-7558 Email: podolski@anl.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0000473 Subcontractor: Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada Project Start Date: June 1, 2009 Project End Date: November 15, 2011 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Advance the state of the art in technology for air-cooled * proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks and related GenDrive(tm) material handling application fuel

136

Evaluation of the Impact of Off-Design Operation on an Air-Cooled Binary Power Plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal power plants are designed and constructed to provide a rated power output at specific resource and ambient conditions. Due to both diurnal and seasonal changes in the ambient air temperature, as well as a decline in resource productivity over time, plants seldom operate at these ''design'' conditions. This paper examines the impact of ''off- design'' operation of an air-cooled binary geothermal power plant. An available energy analysis is used to evaluate operation at these conditions. This evaluation identifies those portions of the power cycle that are most sensitive to changing resource and ambient conditions, as well as where improvements in cycle component or system performance would have the largest impact in increasing power output.

Mines, G.L.

2002-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

137

Design and Analysis of High-Performance Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger with an Integrated Capillary-Pumped Loop Heat Pipe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the design and analysis of a high-power air-cooled heat exchanger capable of dissipating over 1000 W with 33 W of input electrical power and an overall thermal resistance of less than 0.05 K/W. The novelty of the ...

McCarthy, Matthew

138

High Efficiency Adsorption Chillers: High Efficiency Adsorption Cooling Using Metal Organic Heat Carriers  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: PNNL is incorporating significant improvements in materials that adsorb liquids or gases to design more efficient adsorption chillers. An adsorption chiller is a type of air conditioner that is powered by heat, solar or waste heat, or combustion of natural gas. Unlike typical chillers, this type has few moving parts and uses almost no electricity to operate. PNNL is designing adsorbent materials at the molecular level with at least 3 times higher refrigerant capacity and up to 20 times faster kinetics than adsorbents used in current chillers. By using the new adsorbent, PNNL is able to create a chiller that is significantly smaller, has twice the energy efficiency, and lower costs for materials and assembly time compared to conventional adsorption chillers.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Initial operation and performance of a Rankine chiller and an absorption chiller in the National Security and Resources Study Center  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 60,000 ft/sup 2/ building heated and cooled with an 8,000 ft/sup 2/ array of flat plate collectors is described. The single-glazed collectors have a selective surface of black chrome. A paraffinic oil is used as the collector heat transfer fluid. In the cooling mode hot water is stored in a 5,000 gallon pressurized tank and chilled water is stored in a 10,000 gallon tank. Two water chillers are used; a conventional York lithium-bromide absorption unit derated to 85 tons with 185/sup 0/F hot water, and the other a Rankine unit designed and fabricated by Barber-Nichols. The operation of the two chillers is compared. (MHR)

Hedstrom, J.C.; Murray, H.S.; Balcomb, J.D.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Calculating Chiller Emissions and Source Energy Use: Commercial Cooling Update: Issue 12, November 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Refrigerant phaseouts are raising questions about the environmental impacts of different types of chillers. This Update introduces a hand-calculation method for estimating the emissions and source energy use (i.e., fossil fuel use) of gas and electric chillers. The update also reviews the two methods of chiller systems emissions production: refrigerant losses and fossil fuel combustion; discusses meeting NOx regulations; use of source energy; and examines existing calculation approaches as opposed to a s...

1995-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Comparing Chiller-Plant Analysis Tools: Commercial Cooling Update, Issue 20, December 1999  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides a brief overview of HVAC analysis tools, focusing on those for chiller plants. A review of 14 tools, ranging from simplified to complex, finds a wide variation in calculation methods, HVAC system capabilities, available energy rate structures, and purchase cost. EPRI's ChillerCalc, which provides first-order analysis for chiller plants, compares favorably with other programs, offering critical features not included by some, such as time-of-use (TOU) energy rates, demand ratchets, l...

1999-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

142

Best Practices for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms Efficient HVAC Systems: Variable-Speed-Drive Chillers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the portion of chiller energy usage was significant. It is,Figure 1. Benchmarked HVAC energy usages in a semiconductor2. Benchmarked cleanroom energy usages in a semiconductor

Xu, Tengfang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House III at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller provided by Arkla Industries is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 300-l (80-gal) hot water tank. For solar heat supply to the cooling system, plastic thin film collectors developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory were installed on the roof of Solar House III. Failure to withstand stagnation temperatures forced replacement of solar energy with an electric heat source. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several US climates by use of the model.

Lof, G.O.G.; Westhoff, M.A.; Karaki, S.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Temporal Data Mining Approaches for Sustainable Chiller Management in Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and pumps for chilled water distribution, chiller units and cooling towers. Heat dissipated from extract heat from the chilled water system and reject it to the environment through cooling towers or heat, Publication date: January YYYY. #12;A:4 D. Patnaik et al. (a) Cooling Tower water loop Chiller Refrigerant

145

Best Practices for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms Efficient HVAC Systems: Variable-Speed-Drive Chillers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-58636 Best Practices for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms Efficient HVAC Systems: Variable Efficient Cleanrooms Efficient HVAC Water Systems: Variable-Speed-Drive Chillers Tengfang Xu Contents HVAC.................................................................................................................................... 6 #12;HVAC Water Systems Variable-Speed-Drive Chillers Summary Cleanroom energy benchmarking data

146

Design Considerations, Installation and Operation of the Two-Stage Parallel Flow Absorption Chiller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This presentation describes the actual design consideration and field operation experience of two-stage parallel flow absorption chillers. The applications include new construction, rehabilitation of old HVAC systems, cogeneration, and industrial process heat recovery. The high performance (COP = 1.14), and reduced maintenance cost of the two-stage parallel flow absorption chiller provides a notable improvement over the conventional single stage absorption chillers (COP = .6). The infamous reputation of the single stage absorption chiller for crystallization, poor mechanical performance, and general unreliability has been completely neutralized by new design concepts incorporated in the two-stage parallel flow absorption chiller/heater. The ease of maintenance and virtual elimination of crystallization has vastly improved chilled water production and mechanical longevity. The two-stage parallel flow absorption chiller is adaptable to various heat sources including direct fired multi-fuel, steam, exhaust, hot water, thermal fluids, etc. This makes this chiller a worthy consideration as an alternate to electrically driven refrigeration. The two-stage parallel flow absorption chiller has been operating in the United States since 1979 and there is presently over 24,000 tons of installed capacity online. Installations include office buildings, hospitals, computer centers, industrial process water and others.

Hufford, P. E.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of a Single Stage Ammonia-Water Absorption Chiller Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ammonia-water absorption chillers are thermally driven devices producing a cooling effect. It can be operated without any use of electrical or mechanical energy. The advantage of absorption chillers is precisely that they can utilize low grade energy. ... Keywords: absorption system, performance, ammonia-water, thermodynamic model

Kong Dingfeng; Liu Jianhua; Zhang Liang; Zheng Guangping; Fang Zhiyun

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

News From the D.C. Office: Integrated Chiller Retrofits-Sharing Experience  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 Aerial view of Washington D.C. 3 Aerial view of Washington D.C. News From the D.C. Office Integrated Chiller Retrofits: Sharing Experience Makes "Cool Sense" A recent issue of the Center for Building Science News [Spring 1996, p.2] described the opportunities for significant energy savings from replacing older, inefficient chillers. These savings can be increased greatly if building owners and managers approach the chiller replacement not just as a requirement, but also as an opportunity-that of investing in other energy-saving measures that reduce cooling loads and lead to the downsizing of the chiller and related equipment. The Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute estimates that 80,000 existing chillers using CFC refrigerants need to be replaced or converted to use HCFC or HFC refrigerants. Of these, about 20,000 will be replaced or

149

An inlet air washer/chiller system for combined cycle planet repowering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conditioning method to achieve increased output at any relative humidity condition is an air washer and absorption chiller arrangement. At elevated temperatures and low humidity, the air washer operates as an evaporative cooler without the chiller in operation. In this mode, the air washer will give similar results as a media type evaporative cooler at a fraction of the pressure loss. In the air washer plus chiller operating mode the chiller maintains cooling effectiveness of the air washer during periods of high relative humidity. This makes such a system very appropriate anywhere relative humidity is high. Many combined cycle plants utilize supplemental firing of the heat recovery steam generators to offset the loss of gas turbine power at high ambient temperatures. This paper shows that in contrast to supplementary firing, the combination air washer/chiller system can generate power more efficiently and at lower cost.

Sengupta, U.; Soroka, G. (Bechtel Power Corp., Gaithersburg, MD (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Thermodynamic modeling and optimization of a screw compressor chiller and cooling tower system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a thermodynamic model for a screw chiller and cooling tower system for the purpose of developing an optimized control algorithm for the chiller plant. The thermodynamic chiller model is drawn from the thermodynamic models developed by Gordon and Ng (1996). However, the entropy production in the compressor is empirically related to the pressure difference measured across the compressor. The thermodynamic cooling tower model is the Baker & Shryock cooling tower model that is presented in ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Systems and Equipment (1992). The models are coupled to form a chiller plant model which can be used to determine the optimal performance. Two correlations are then required to optimize the system: a wet-bulb/setpoint correlation and a fan speed/pump speed correlation. Using these correlations, a "quasi-optimal" operation can be achieved which will save 17% of the energy consumed by the chiller plant.

Graves, Rhett David

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Air-Cooled Stack Freeze Tolerance Freeze Failure Modes and Freeze Tolerance Strategies for GenDriveTM Material Handling Application Systems and Stacks Final Scientific Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air-cooled stack technology offers the potential for a simpler system architecture (versus liquid-cooled) for applications below 4 kilowatts. The combined cooling and cathode air allows for a reduction in part count and hence a lower cost solution. However, efficient heat rejection challenges escalate as power and ambient temperature increase. For applications in ambient temperatures below freezing, the air-cooled approach has additional challenges associated with not overcooling the fuel cell stack. The focus of this project was freeze tolerance while maintaining all other stack and system requirements. Through this project, Plug Power advanced the state of the art in technology for air-cooled PEM fuel cell stacks and related GenDrive material handling application fuel cell systems. This was accomplished through a collaborative work plan to improve freeze tolerance and mitigate freeze-thaw effect failure modes within innovative material handling equipment fuel cell systems designed for use in freezer forklift applications. Freeze tolerance remains an area where additional research and understanding can help fuel cells to become commercially viable. This project evaluated both stack level and system level solutions to improve fuel cell stack freeze tolerance. At this time, the most cost effective solutions are at the system level. The freeze mitigation strategies developed over the course of this project could be used to drive fuel cell commercialization. The fuel cell system studied in this project was Plug Power's commercially available GenDrive platform providing battery replacement for equipment in the material handling industry. The fuel cell stacks were Ballard's commercially available FCvelocity 9SSL (9SSL) liquid-cooled PEM fuel cell stack and FCvelocity 1020ACS (Mk1020) air-cooled PEM fuel cell stack.

Hancock, David, W.

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

152

Performance comparison between transpiration air cooled turbine 3000/sup 0/F (1649/sup 0/C) stator vanes and solid uncooled vanes  

SciTech Connect

Testing was conducted to compare the aerodynamic performance of a turbine vane using transpiration air-cooling capable of operation at 3000/sup 0/F (1649/sup 0/C) gas temperature with a vane of identical profile with no cooling provisions to determine the effect of cooling on vane kinetic energy efficiency and loss coefficient. The test configuration was a 10-vane section of full scale first stage turbine stator annulus designed for 1.6 pressure ratio, cooling air flow equal to 6.1 percent of primary flow, 3000/sup 0/F (1649/sup 0/C) turbine inlet temperature and primary-to-coolant temperature ratio of 2.7. To enable comparison with other investigations, tests were conducted at three pressure ratios from 1.4 to 1.6, three coolant flows from 75 to 120 percent of design, and three primary-tocoolant temperature ratios from 2.70 to 1.15. Efficiency, loss coefficient and flow capacity test results were in good agreement with predicted values for both the transpiration air cooled and uncooled vanes. The testing demonstrated that it is necessary to conduct test evaluations of transpiration air-cooled components at or near design coolant-to-gas stream temperature ratio in order to achieve correct results.

Manning, G.B.; Moskowitz, S.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Gas-fired chiller-heaters as a central plant alternative for small office buildings  

SciTech Connect

Gas absorption chillers-heaters have been applied successfully in large projects where use of multiple chillers is feasible. Large facilities typically have a substantial base cooling load. If the base load is greater than 30% of the minimum capacity of the smallest chiller, chiller-heaters alone can be used as the building central plant. However, this study shows that a small office building presents part-load design difficulties that tend to favor the use of other technologies. The engineer can overcome these application problems by a variety of means, as has been illustrated. Manufacturers, too, are addressing the problems associated with low-load operation of direct-fired chiller heaters. A new generation of chiller-heaters that can unload down to 10% of design load will soon be available. If these new machines are capital-cost-competitive and perform up to expectations, the routine application of chiller-heaters in small commercial buildings may be just around the corner.

Thies, R.M. [JDB Engineering, Inc., York, PA (United States); Bahnfleth, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Architectural Engineering

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

A Control Scheme of Enhanced Reliability for Multiple Chiller Plants Using Mergerd Building Cooling Load Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a control scheme which utilizes the enhanced instantaneous cooling load measurements to improve the reliability of chiller sequencing control. The enhanced measurement is obtained by merging two different measurements of building cooling load using data fusion technique. One is the direct cooling load measurement, which is obtained directly using the differential water temperature and water flow rate measurements. The other is the indirect cooling load measurement, which estimates the cooling load using chiller models based on the instantaneous chiller electrical power input and condition measured variables. The control performance of the proposed scheme is validated in this paper.

Wang, S.; Sun, Y.; Huang, G.; Zhu, N.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Impacts of Low-NOx Regulations on Chillers: Commercial Cooling Update, Issue 15, September 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and local air quality rules are affecting the cost and operation of all chillers. This document takes a close look at the cost and source energy use impacts of NOx regulations on chillers and provides a summary of findings. Four chiller types are examined: electric centrifugal, direct- fired absorber, engine driven with a lean-burn engine and engine driven by nonselective catalytic reduction. A table is provided that compares energy use, NOx, and first costs of low-NOx c...

1996-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

156

Adaptive Optimization of Central Chiller Plant Equipment Sequencing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Control strategies for plant engineering systems are a contemporary research topic of great interest. Their purpose is to provide control that adapts to changes in demand and other operating conditions in order to operate the system at maximum efficiency at all times. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research on control models for energy-intensive industrial processes. Likewise, the National Science Foundation (NSF) recognizes the need to develop control algorithms for plant heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. In this research paper, a control algorithm was developed to select the optimal sequence of central refrigeration equipment (chillers, cooling towers, pumps) to operate in an industrial plant. The control algorithm adapts the optimal equipment sequence to reflect changes in the plant's cooling load and outside air conditions and it insures that the central refrigeration system operates with the lowest possible energy cost at all times.

Fiorino, D. P.; Priest, J. W.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

In-situ gamma-PHA measurements to support unconditional release of 235-F chiller units  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Analytical Development Section of Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the Facility Decommission Division (FDD) to conduct in-situ gamma-ray pulse height analysis measurements to support the unconditional release of 235-F chiller units. The chiller units were used to cool process water in the 235-F facility. The measurements' main goal is to confirm that there is no process-related contaminants present on the chillers. For each of the two F-area clean water chillers, the authors have acquired ten gamma-ray pulse height analysis spectra. This report will discuss the purpose of the measurements, the experimental setup, data acquisition, calculations and results, and a conclusion of the study.

Salaymeh, S.R.

2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

158

Dynamic model for small-capacity ammonia-water absorption chiller .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Optimization of the performance of absorption systems during transient operations such as start-up and shut-down is particularly important for small-capacity chillers and heat pumps to… (more)

Viswanathan, Vinodh Kumar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Field Performance of Heat Recovery Chillers and Heat Recovery Heat Pumps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat recovery chillers and heat recovery heat pumps operate at high efficiency and excellent economy by simultaneously providing both heating and cooling. Although this technology has been in use for more than thirty years and all major chiller manufacturers offer heat recovery models, applications are not yet widespread. One of the barriers to using this technology is the lack of measured performance information on the devices. This project was undertaken to identify and summarize existing sources of pe...

1994-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

160

An experimental investigation of an air cooling scheme for removing environmentally imposed heat loads from the multiplicity and vertex detector`s main enclosure  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a summary of an experimental investigation of a closed loop air cooling system designed to control the temperature and humidity in the main enclosure of the multiplicity and vertex detector (MVD). Measurements of the cooling air flow rate, the humidity levels inside and outside of the MVD, and the cooling air temperatures were used to assess the performance of the system and to characterize the system limitations and potential assembly problems. The results of the study indicate that several design changes are needed in the final design to meet the temperature and humidity operating requirements. A thorough set of design change recommendations that satisfy these operating criteria completes this report.

Cunningham, R.; Bernardin, J.D.; Simon-Gillo, J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Comparison of chiller models for use in model-based fault detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selecting the model is an important and essential step in model based fault detection and diagnosis (FDD). Factors that are considered in evaluating a model include accuracy, training data requirements, calibration effort, generality, and computational requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate different modeling approaches for their applicability to model based FDD of vapor compression chillers. Three different models were studied: the Gordon and Ng Universal Chiller model (2nd generation) and a modified version of the ASHRAE Primary Toolkit model, which are both based on first principles, and the DOE-2 chiller model, as implemented in CoolTools{trademark}, which is empirical. The models were compared in terms of their ability to reproduce the observed performance of an older, centrifugal chiller operating in a commercial office building and a newer centrifugal chiller in a laboratory. All three models displayed similar levels of accuracy. Of the first principles models, the Gordon-Ng model has the advantage of being linear in the parameters, which allows more robust parameter estimation methods to be used and facilitates estimation of the uncertainty in the parameter values. The ASHRAE Toolkit Model may have advantages when refrigerant temperature measurements are also available. The DOE-2 model can be expected to have advantages when very limited data are available to calibrate the model, as long as one of the previously identified models in the CoolTools library matches the performance of the chiller in question.

Sreedharan, Priya; Haves, Philip

2001-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

162

Comparison of Chiller Models for Use in Model-Based Fault Detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Selecting the model is an important and essential step in model based fault detection and diagnosis (FDD). Factors that are considered in evaluating a model include accuracy, training data requirements, calibration effort, generality, and computational requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate different modeling approaches for their applicability to model based FDD of vapor compression chillers. Three different models were studied: the Gordon and Ng Universal Chiller model (2nd generation) and a modified version of the ASHRAE Primary Toolkit model, which are both based on first principles, and the DOE-2 chiller model, as implemented in CoolToolsTM, which is empirical. The models were compared in terms of their ability to reproduce the observed performance of an older, centrifugal chiller operating in a commercial office building and a newer centrifugal chiller in a laboratory. All three models displayed similar levels of accuracy. Of the first principles models, the Gordon-Ng model has the advantage of being linear in the parameters, which allows more robust parameter estimation methods to be used and facilitates estimation of the uncertainty in the parameter values. The ASHRAE Toolkit Model may have advantages when refrigerant temperature measurements are also available. The DOE-2 model can be expected to have advantages when very limited data are available to calibrate the model, as long as one of the previously identified models in the CoolTools library matches the performance of the chiller in question.

Sreedhara, P.; Haves, P.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

NETL F 451.1-1/1 Categorical Exclusion (CX) Designation Form  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technologies Replace HVAC with closed loop geothermal HVAC (two 15 ton systems;Replace chiller with high-efficiency air cooled chiller);upgrade building insulation and, interior...

164

U.S. Department of Energy NEPA Categorical Exclusion Determination...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1) Energy efficiency retrofits at Academic Village-modify existing water-cooled chiller with an air-cooled chiller system, install thermal storage tanks with heat...

165

CX-005626: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

air conditioning (HVAC) with closed loop geothermal HVAC (two 15 ton systems; Replace chiller with high-efficiency air cooled chiller);upgrade building insulation and, interior...

166

Forrest County Geothermal Energy Project Geothermal Project ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of replacing the existing air cooled chiller with geothermal water to water chillers for energy savings at the Forrest County Multi Purpose Center. The project will also replace...

167

Chiller Controls-related Energy Saving Opportunities in FederalFacilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chillers are a significant component of large facility energy use. The focus of much of the development of chilled water systems in recent years has been on optimization of set point and staging controls, improvements in chiller design to increase efficiency and accommodate chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerant replacements. Other improvements have been made by upgrading controls to the latest digital technologies, improving access and monitoring via communications and sophisticated liquid crystal displays (LCD), more robust fault diagnostics and operating and maintenance information logging. Advances have also been made in how chiller plant systems are designed and operated, and in the diversity of chiller products that are available to support innovative approaches. As in many industries, these improvements have been facilitated by advances in, and lower costs for, enabling technologies, such as refrigerants, compressor design, electronics for controls and variable frequency drives (VFD). Along with the improvements in electronics one would expect that advances have also been made in the functionality of unit controls included with chillers. Originally, the primary purpose of this project was to investigate the state of practice of chiller unit controllers in terms of their energy saving capabilities. However, early in the study it was discovered that advances in this area did not include incorporation of significantly different capabilities than had existed 10-15 years ago. Thus the scope has been modified to provide an overview of some of the basic controls-related energy saving strategies that are currently available along with guideline estimates of their potential and applicability. We have minimized consideration of strategies that could be primarily implemented via design practices such as chiller selection and plant design, and those that can only be implemented by a building management system (BMS). Also, since most of the floor space of federal buildings occurs in large buildings, we have focused on water-cooled screw and centrifugal chillers of 100 ton capacity and greater. However, the role of reciprocating and gas chillers (absorption and engine driven) is discussed briefly. Understanding the demographics of chiller deployment in the federal sector, state of practice of energy savings strategies and control features availability will help federal energy managers and program implementers to make informed decisions in support of energy saving performance contracting (ESPC) and other programs.

Webster, Tom

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Federal Energy Management Program: Energy Cost Calculator for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cost Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Energy Cost Calculator for Air-Cooled Electric Chillers on...

169

A neuro-computational approach to chiller fault identification and isolation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis develops a steady state model of a reciprocating, single-stage, vapor compression chiller, based on thermodynamic principles and the ASHRAE HVAC-1 primary toolkit model, to predict and diagnose the behavior of the chiller. The characteristics of the chiller are identified by measuring certain parameters. Once the parameters are identified, the system boundaries are established, with certain parameters tainted by faults being isolated from the input parameters and, in turn, being derived from them using a nonlinear equation solver. A model-based approach is followed for chiller fault detection and diagnosis. The model generates residues by comparing the output of the chiller model with that of the same model albeit with some faults embedded. A nonzero residue indicates the presence of a fault. Various neuro-based classification techniques such as Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (grid partition and subtractive clustering) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are evaluated, culminating in fault identification and isolation by an ANN system, batch trained with a fault matrix using the Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm, on a feed-forward back propagation network. Finally, additive sensor noise is introduced in select parameters and its effect on the overall accuracy of the model is tabulated.

Prabhu, Rahul Srinivas

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Best Practices for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms Efficient HVAC Systems: Variable-Speed-Drive Chillers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sizing ? Cooling tower and condenser optimization ? Controland cooling tower or condenser fans. Figure 1 and Figure 2those with evaporative condensers are more efficient than

Xu, Tengfang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A triple effect absorption method and apparatus having a high coefficient of performance. Two single effect absorption circuits are combined with heat exchange occurring between a condenser and absorber of a high temperature circuit, and a generator of a low temperature circuit. The evaporators of both the high and low temperature circuits provide cooling to an external heat load.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Candidate chemical systems for air cooled, solar powered, absorption air conditioner design. Part III. Lithium salts with anti-freeze additives  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The two most promising anti-solidification additives which have been identified are ethanolamine and ethylene glycol. Considerations of viscosity, corrosion, crystallization temperature and vapor pressure have led to a selection of lithium bromide - ethylene glycol - water as the basis of a prototype air-cooled machine, with the lithium bromide; ethylene glycol ratio being 4.5. Using what appear to be reasonable heat exchanger approach temperatures, cycle thermal COP's of 0.7/sup +/ appear possible at the specified design point, based on solution properties which were determined with qualification accuracy. The prototype, delivering 10,000 watts of cooling, has a calculated parasitical electrical load of about 175 watts (theoretical) to drive the internal fans and pumps, equivalent to about a 0.5 horsepower motor.

Biermann, W.J.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

United States Department of Energy large commercial absorption chiller development program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working with partners from the gas cooling industry to improve energy efficiency and US competitiveness by using advanced absorption technologies that eliminate the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), refrigerants that contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. Absorption cooling uses natural gas as the heat source, which produces much lower NO{sub x} emissions than oil- or coal-generated electricity. Gas-fired chillers also have the advantage of helping reduce peak electrical usage during summer months. To assist industry in developing advanced absorption cooling technologies, DOE sponsors the Large Commercial Chiller Development Program. The goal of the program is to improve chiller cooling efficiency by 30--50% compared with the best currently available absorption systems.

Garland, P.W.; DeVault, R.C.; Zaltash, A.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Model-based chiller energy tracking for performance assurance at a university building  

SciTech Connect

Buildings and their various subsystems often do not perform as well as intended at the design stage. Building energy performance suffers from insufficient documentation of design intent, inadequate building commissioning, and a lack of robust methods for short term and continuous performance tracking. This paper discusses how calibrated models can be used to track building systems and component performance from design, through commissioning, and into operations. Models of the chillers energy use and efficiency were developed and used to evaluate energy performance and control changes to minimize energy use. The example discussed is based on an actual university building. A detailed discussion of the extrapolation and associated uncertainty of using six months of data to develop annual energy use scenarios from various chiller models is included. An important lesson concerning the design is that there was significant oversizing of the chillers resulting in poor part load performance and over $3,000 year of annual energy cost increases. The oversizing is related to extremely high estimates of office equipment loads. The oversizing also causes frequent cycling of chillers, which shortens chiller life. Due to the lack of careful start-up procedures, it appears construction debris fouled one of the new chillers, resulting in about $5,200 year in energy increases. Additional comments on design and commissioning issues are included. The monitoring, modeling, and software development efforts were developed to demonstrate the value of collecting and organizing information regarding design, commissioning, and ongoing performance. This case study is part of a larger effort to examine methods and technologies to improve buildings performance and develop interoperable Building Life-Cycle Information Systems (BLISS).

Piette, M.A.; Carter, G.; Meyers, S.; Sezgen, O.; Selkowoitz, S.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Evaluation of chiller modeling approaches and their usability for fault detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Selecting the model is an important and essential step in model based fault detection and diagnosis (FDD). Several factors must be considered in model evaluation, including accuracy, training data requirements, calibration effort, generality, and computational requirements. All modeling approaches fall somewhere between pure first-principles models, and empirical models. The objective of this study was to evaluate different modeling approaches for their applicability to model based FDD of vapor compression air conditioning units, which are commonly known as chillers. Three different models were studied: two are based on first-principles and the third is empirical in nature. The first-principles models are the Gordon and Ng Universal Chiller model (2nd generation), and a modified version of the ASHRAE Primary Toolkit model, which are both based on first principles. The DOE-2 chiller model as implemented in CoolTools{trademark} was selected for the empirical category. The models were compared in terms of their ability to reproduce the observed performance of an older chiller operating in a commercial building, and a newer chiller in a laboratory. The DOE-2 and Gordon-Ng models were calibrated by linear regression, while a direct-search method was used to calibrate the Toolkit model. The ''CoolTools'' package contains a library of calibrated DOE-2 curves for a variety of different chillers, and was used to calibrate the building chiller to the DOE-2 model. All three models displayed similar levels of accuracy. Of the first principles models, the Gordon-Ng model has the advantage of being linear in the parameters, which allows more robust parameter estimation methods to be used and facilitates estimation of the uncertainty in the parameter values. The ASHRAE Toolkit Model may have advantages when refrigerant temperature measurements are also available. The DOE-2 model can be expected to have advantages when very limited data are available to calibrate the model, as long as one of the previously identified models in the CoolTools library matches the performance of the chiller in question.

Sreedharan, Priya

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Absorption chiller optimization and integration for cogeneration and engine-chiller systems. Phase 1 - design. Topical report, April 1985-July 1986  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A market study indicates a significant market potential for small commercial cogeneration (50-500 kW) over the next 20 years. The potential exists for 1500 installations per year, 80% of those would be a system composed of Engine-Generator and Heat Recovery Unit with the remainder requiring the addition of an Absorption Chiller. A preliminary design for an advanced Heat Recovery Unit (HRU) was completed. The unit incorporates the capability of supplementary firing of the exhaust gas from the new generation of natural gas fired lean burn reciprocating engines being developed for cogeneration applications. This gives the Heat Recovery Unit greater flexibility in following the thermal load requirements of the building. An applications and design criteria analysis indicated that this was a significant feature for the HRU as it can replace a standard auxiliary boiler thus affording significant savings to the building owner. A design for an advanced absorption chiller was reached which is 15% lower in cost yet 9% more efficient than current off-the-shelf units. A packaged cogeneration system cost and design analysis indicates that a nominal 254 kW cogeneration system incorporating advanced components and packaging concepts can achieve a selling price of less than $880/kW and $700/kW with and without an absorption chiller.

Kubasco, A.J.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Temporal Data Mining Approaches for Sustainable Chiller Management in Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and pumps for chilled water distribution, chiller units, and cooling towers. Heat dissipated from extract heat from the chilled water system and reject it to the envi- ronment through cooling towers arranged in rows and CRAC units, and (b) typical cooling infrastructure of a data center. tower water

Ramakrishnan, Naren

179

Temporal data mining approaches for sustainable chiller management in data centers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Practically every large IT organization hosts data centers---a mix of computing elements, storage systems, networking, power, and cooling infrastructure---operated either in-house or outsourced to major vendors. A significant element of modern data centers ... Keywords: Data centers, chillers, clustering, frequent episodes, motifs, sustainability

Debprakash Patnaik; Manish Marwah; Ratnesh K. Sharma; Naren Ramakrishnan

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Sustainable operation and management of data center chillers using temporal data mining  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Motivation: Data centers are a critical component of modern IT infrastructure but are also among the worst environmental offenders through their increasing energy usage and the resulting large carbon footprints. Efficient management of data centers, ... Keywords: chillers, clustering, data centers, frequent episodes, motifs, sustainability

Debprakash Patnaik; Manish Marwah; Ratnesh Sharma; Naren Ramakrishnan

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Chiller Shutdowns Caused by Sensitivity of Control Relays to Voltage Sags  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents the investigation performed by the EPRI Power Electronics Applications Center (PEAC) and Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) of chiller shutdowns which coincided with momentary reduced voltage or voltage sags at the National Archives II, a U.S. government research and storage facility that houses many of our national treasures.

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

182

Case Study Walnut Hill United Methodist Church - Dallas, Texas, Chiller Replacement Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In March of 1992 Walnut Hill United Methodist Church in Dallas, Tx. decided that their existing thermal storage and electric reciprocating chiller system were both in need of replacement. After analyzing several options, they chose to install 150 tons of gas-fired double-effect absorption chillers. This case study will show the original HVAC operation cost analysis and compare it to the present day operation costs and it will describe how unexpected changes occurred that caused the initial analysis to be questioned. Finally, this case study will show how today's operational costs are lower than originally projected. This presentation is not about the reasons the church chose this particular system, but about the analysis itself and its accuracy.

Phillips, J.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Development of a Low-Lift Chiller Controller and Simplified Precooling Control Algorithm - Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

KGS Buildings LLC (KGS) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed a simplified control algorithm and prototype low-lift chiller controller suitable for model-predictive control in a demonstration project of low-lift cooling. Low-lift cooling is a highly efficient cooling strategy conceived to enable low or net-zero energy buildings. A low-lift cooling system consists of a high efficiency low-lift chiller, radiant cooling, thermal storage, and model-predictive control to pre-cool thermal storage overnight on an optimal cooling rate trajectory. We call the properly integrated and controlled combination of these elements a low-lift cooling system (LLCS). This document is the final report for that project.

Gayeski, N.; Armstrong, Peter; Alvira, M.; Gagne, J.; Katipamula, Srinivas

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

184

Air Cooled Traction Drive Inverter  

Energy & Transportation Science Division Licensing Contact SIMS, DAVID L UT-Battelle, LLC Oak Ridge National Laboratory Rm 124C, Bldg 4500N, MS: ...

185

Comparison of chiller models for use in model-based fault detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

condenser and evaporator inlet temperatures has a small effect on COP for properly operating commercial

Sreedharan, Priya; Haves, Philip

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Development of hardware simulators for tests of solar cooling/heating subsystems and systems. Phase II. Unsteady state hardware simulation of residential absorption chiller  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main work involves the experimental study to determine transient and cycling performance characteristics of an advanced solar absorption chiller. Laboratory tests of the second generation Arkla chiller (Solaire 36, model WF36), using the BNL simulator, have been performed. Chiller performance has also been measured against fast and slow cycling periods under both the conventional and modified control modes. The degree of performance improvement under the modified control mode, as a function of the cycle period and such effects on the integrated chiller performance, have been thoroughly investigated.

Auh, P.C.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Cloud Condensation Nuclei  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The state of knowledge of the particles upon which liquid droplets condense to form atmospheric water clouds is presented. The realization of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) as a distinct aerosol subset originated with the cloud microphysical ...

James G. Hudson

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Condensate Polishing Training Manual  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fossil units with properly designed and operated condensate polishing systems typically exhibit better availability, reliability, and performance than otherwise comparable units without condensate polishers. In spite of this, polishers are often viewed as non-essential equipment that increases capital and operating costs. The EPRI Condensate Training Program was initiated to assure that fossil plant personnel were aware of the benefits and value of condensate polishing and had up-to-date information on d...

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

189

Advances in Energy Efficiency, Capital Cost, and Installation Schedules for Large Capacity Cooling Applications Using a Packaged Chiller Plant Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling equipment, whether used to meet air-conditioning or process cooling loads, represents a large consumer of energy. Even more to the point, cooling loads and the associated cooling equipment energy consumption tend to be at maximum levels during periods of high ambient air temperatures. It is precisely at those times that the general demand for energy is at its peak and therefore the price or value of energy is also at its highest level. Cooling loads often drive the peak electric power demand of energy users and thus affect not only the level of consumption of high cost energy, but also affect the peak power demand. Together, the energy and demand costs equate to very high unit costs for operating cooling equipment. Accordingly, it is of interest to minimize cooling energy use and costs by maximizing the energy efficiency of cooling equipment installations. A relatively new approach has been developed and is being increasingly used to maximize chiller plant efficiency. The approach involves the use of a standardized, pre-engineered, shop-fabricated approach to entire chiller plant installations. Compared to the traditional, piece-meal approach to chiller plants that utilize individual component specification, procurement and installation, the "packaged" or modular chiller plant approach often delivers substantially improved energy efficiencies. Also, the packaged plant approach achieves further benefits for large cooling system owners and operators. These additional benefits include: 1) dramatic reductions in unit capital costs of installed chiller plant capacity on a dollar per ton basis, 2) marked improvements in total procurement and installation schedules, 3) significantly smaller space requirements, and 4) enhanced control over total system quality and performance. The capacities and performance characteristics of available chiller plant modules are described, including both electric and non-electric chiller technologies. Examples are presented to illustrate the typical sizes and locations of actual installations as well as the growth and extent of the use of this technology to-date. Case studies document the energy efficiency improvements, cost reductions in both operating and capital costs, and improvements in schedule and space utilization, of the packaged chiller plant approach relative to the traditional chiller plant approach.

Pierson, T. L.; Andrepont, J. S.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Condenser Improvements for PWRs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Condensers are the first line of defense against the leakage of corrosive impurities into high-purity PWR coolant. Thus, condenser integrity is more critical than that of almost any other component. Of the condenser-upgrading methods outlined in this report, retubing with titanium tubes welded to titanium-clad carbon steel tubesheets is the single most important retrofit action.

1986-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

191

Condenser Application and Maintenance Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Condenser Application and Maintenance Guide provides plant personnel with information on the operation, maintenance, and performance of condensers. The contents of this guide will assist plants in improving condenser performance, reducing maintenance costs, and increasing condenser reliability.

2001-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

192

Analysis and System Design of a Large Chiller Plant for Korea, with or without Thermal Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A 625,600 ft2 (58,120 m2) office building with retail in South Korea has a total cooling load of 3,330 tons refrigeration (1 1,7 12 kW). In order to evaluate the most economical manner to provide cooling, a simulation program was used. Five different configurations of chiller plants were investigated; each configuration was carefully described so that the computer model was a good representation of the intended plants. This paper outlines the design and analysis procedure, and the results show the difference in energy consumption between the configurations.

Levin, C.; Simmonds, P.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Assessment and economic analysis of the MOD III Stirling-engine driven chiller system. Final report, October 1989-July 1990  

SciTech Connect

The Stirling engine is an inherently clean and efficient engine. With the requirements for environmentally benign emissions and high energy efficiency, the Stirling engine is an attractive alternative to both internal combustion (IC) engines and electric motors. The study evaluated a Stirling-engine-driven chiller package. Technically, the Stirling engine is a good selection as a compressor drive, with inherently low vibrations, quiet operation, long life, and low maintenance. Exhaust emissions are below the projected 1995 stringent California standards. Economically, the Stirling-engine-driven chiller is a viable alternative to both IV-engine and electric-driven chillers, trading off slightly higher installed cost against lower total operating expenses. The penetration of a small portion of the projected near-term stationary engine market opportunity will provide the volume production basis to achieve competitively priced engines.

Moryl, J.

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Comparison of Chiller Models for use in Model-Based Fault Detection Priya Sreedharan Philip Haves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,eqv on the condenser and evaporator inlet temperatures has a small effect on COP for properly operating commercial thermal resistance of the condenser and the evaporator is well-defined by the performance data. Table 2 be possible to predict the expected performance of the compressor, condenser and evaporator separately

195

Operation of a low temperature absorption chiller at rating point and at reduced evaporator temperature. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The returned SAM 015 (fifteen ton Solar Absorption Machine) chiller was given a cursory visual inspection, some obvious problems were remedied, and then it was placed on a test stand to get a measure of dirty performance. It was then given a standard acid clean, the water side of the tubes was brushed clean, and then the machine was retested. The before and after cleaning data were compared to equivalent data taken before the machine was shipped. The second part of our work statement was to experimentally demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating the chiller at evaporator temperatures below O/sup 0/C (32/sup 0/F) and identify any operational problems.

Best, R.; Biermann, W.; Reimann, R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Economical Condensing Turbines?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Steam turbines have long been used at utilities and in industry to generate power. There are three basic types of steam turbines: condensing, letdown and extraction/condensing. • Letdown turbines reduce the pressure of the incoming steam to one or more pressures and generate power very efficiently, assuming that all the letdown steam has a use. Two caveats: Letdown turbines produce power based upon steam requirements and not based upon power requirements, and if all the steam letdown does not have a use, letdown turbines can become a very expensive way of producing electric power. • Condensing turbines have the ability to handle rapid swings in electrical load. Unfortunately, they can only condense a small percentage of the steam, usually less than 14%. Therefore only a small percent of the heat of condensation is available for their use. Also equipment must be used to condense the remaining steam below atmospheric pressure. • Extraction/condensing turbines both extract steam at a useful temperature and pressure and then condense the remainder of the steam. These units have the ability to load follow also. They are often used in concert with gas turbines to produce the balance of electrical power and to keep a electric self generator from drawing electrical power from the grid. The method for analyzing the cost of the condensing steam produced power is exactly the same in all cases. This paper will attempt to provide a frame work for preliminary economic analysis on electric power generation for condensing steam turbines.

Dean, J. E.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Condenser Technology Conference Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the proceedings of the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) 2011 Condenser Technology Conference. A large body of information exists on damage in condenser tubes and related condenser components such as tubesheets and waterboxes. Although technical understanding of damage mechanisms is generally good, past efforts often have not emphasized the practical, action-oriented steps needed to effectively deal with the various forms of damage. This conference was organized to help u...

2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

198

NIST - Spinor Condensates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... component condensate is driven by changing either the magnetic field, B ... are available from molecular beam spectroscopy, as the energy spread of ...

2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

199

Double Coil Condenser Apparatus  

A Glass Technologist at the Savannah River National Laboratory has developed a glass condenser apparatus that allows the user to adjust the rate of ...

200

Nonlocal Condensates in QCD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the presence of the nontrivial QCD ground state or vacuum, nonlocal condensates are used to characterize the quark or gluon propagator, or other Green functions of higher order. In this paper, we wish to show that, by taking the large $N_c$ limit (with $N_c$ the number of color) in treating higher-order condensates, a closed set of coupled differential equations may be derived for nonlocal condensates. As a specific example, the leading-order equations for the nonlocal condensates appearing in the quark propagator are derived and explicit solutions are obtained. Some applications of our analytical results are briefly discussed.

W-Y. P. Hwang

1997-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Optimal Operation Scheme for a Cogeneration System Promoted from an Emergency Standby System Combined with Absorption Chiller  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel optimal operation scheme for a cogeneration system that is promoted from an emergency standby system combined with absorption chiller is introduced. The fuel cost, Time-of-use (TOU) tariff and various operational constrains are taken into account ... Keywords: cogeneration system, Time-of-use tariff, optimal operation scheme

Shyi-Wen Wang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

The Development of an Energy Evaluation Tool for Chilled Water Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An energy evaluation tool for chilled water systems was developed. This tool quantifies the energy usage of various chilled water systems and typical energy conservation measures that are applied to these systems. It can be used as a screening tool to identify potential areas that can be further examined while only requiring a minimum number of inputs. The tool is useful for analyzing chiller plants with up to three electric chillers consisting of reciprocating, helical rotary, and/or centrifugal chillers. Both air-cooled and water-cooled systems can be analyzed with the tool, however, this article focuses on water-cooled systems. The tool is capable of analyzing the economics of the following energy conservation measures: 1) raising the chilled water temperature, 2) lowering the condenser temperature, 3) replacing the chiller(s), 4) using variable speed drives on centrifugal compressors, 5) utilizing free cooling, and 6) replacing electric chiller(s) with gas engine centrifugal chillers. For each of these measures, the tool calculates the annual energy and cost savings.

Stocki, M.; Kosanovic, D.; Ambs, L.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Analysis of advanced conceptual designs for single-family-sized absorption chillers. Annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of the research reported is to develop and analyze new concepts for absorption cycles to improve the performance or reduce the cost of a 3-ton absorption chiller that can be used with solar collected heat. New refrigerant-absorbent pairs are investigated, as are additives to currently used refrigerant-absorbent pairs. Results are given of a literature search on those topics. An initial screening is reported to check the values of the heats of mixing of candidate refrigerants and adsorbents, and also to screen several candidate absorbents against water as a refrigerant. A modified apparatus and procedures for measurement of refrigerant-absorbent solubilities are described. Pressure-temperature-composition data for the R-22/E-181 pair were measured. Based on theory and the information found in the literature, a set of criteria and guidelines was developed that gives the desirable properties of the refrigerants, absorbents, and pairs. (LEW)

Not Available

1978-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

204

Preconcentrator with high volume chiller for high vapor pressure particle detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Apparatus and method for collecting particles of both high and low vapor pressure target materials entrained in a large volume sample gas stream. Large volume active cooling provides a cold air supply which is mixed with the sample gas stream to reduce the vapor pressure of the particles. In embodiments, a chiller cools air from ambient conditions to 0-15.degree. C. with the volumetric flow rate of the cold air supply being at least equal to the volumetric flow rate of the sample gas stream. In further embodiments an adsorption media is heated in at least two stages, a first of which is below a threshold temperature at which decomposition products of the high vapor pressure particle are generated.

Linker, Kevin L

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

205

Advanced cogeneration and absorption chillers potential for service to Navy bases. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The US military uses millions of Btu`s of thermal energy to heat, cool and deliver process thermal energy to buildings on military bases, much of which is transmitted through a pipeline system incorporating thousands of miles of pipe. Much of this pipeline system is in disrepair and is nearing the end of its useful life, and the boilers which supply it are old and often inefficient. In 1993, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) proposed to SERDP a three-year effort to develop advanced systems of coupled diesel cogenerators and absorption chillers which would be particularly useful in providing a continuation of the services now provided by increasingly antiquated district systems. In mid-February, 1995, BNL learned that all subsequent funding for our program had been canceled. BNL staff continued to develop the Program Plan and to adhere to the requirements of the Execution Plan, but began to look for ways in which the work could be made relevant to Navy and DoD energy needs even without the extensive development plan formerly envisioned. The entire program was therefore re-oriented to look for ways in which small scale cogeneration and absorption chilling technologies, available through procurement rather than development, could provide some solutions to the problem of deteriorated district heating systems. The result is, we believe, a striking new approach to the provision of building services on military bases: in many cases, serious study should be made of the possibility that the old district heating system should be removed or abandoned, and small-scale cogenerators and absorption chillers should be installed in each building. In the remainder of this Summary, we develop the rationale behind this concept and summarize our findings concerning the conditions under which this course of action would be advisable and the economic benefits which will accrue if it is followed. The details are developed in the succeeding sections of the report.

Andrews, J.W.; Butcher, T.A.; Leigh, R.W.; McDonald, R.J.; Pierce, B.L.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

SLAC synchronous condenser  

SciTech Connect

A synchronous condenser is a synchronous machine that generates reactive power that leads real power by 90{degrees} in phase. The leading reactive power generated by the condenser offsets or cancels the normal lagging reactive power consumed by inductive and nonlinear loads at the accelerator complex. The quality of SLAC`s utility power is improved with the addition of the condenser. The inertia of the condenser`s 35,000 pound rotor damps and smoothes voltage excursions on two 12 kilovolt master substation buses, improving voltage regulation site wide. The condenser absorbs high frequency transients and noise in effect ``scrubbing`` the electric system power at its primary distribution source. In addition, the condenser produces a substantial savings in power costs. Federal and investor owned utilities that supply electric power to SLAC levy a monthly penalty for lagging reactive power delivered to the site. For the 1993 fiscal year this totaled over $285,000 in added costs for the year. By generating leading reactive power on site, thereby reducing total lagging reactive power requirements, a substantial savings in electric utility bills is achieved. Actual savings of $150,000 or more a year are possible depending on experimental operations.

Corvin, C.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Electrohydrodynamically enhanced condensation heat transfer.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In a condenser the thickness of the liquid condensate film covering the cooled surface constitutes a resistance to the heat transfer. By establishing a non… (more)

Wawzyniak, Markus

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

1983-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

209

Electrolyte vapor condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well.

Sederquist, Richard A. (Newington, CT); Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Sawyer, Richard D. (Canton, CT)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Mechanism of dropwise condensation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From a study of surface phenomena, information is obtained about conditions under which net condensation can occur. An experimental examination of the surface, using an optical method capable of detecting thin films of ...

Umur, Aydin

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Condenser Microbiofouling Control Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microbiofouling of condenser surfaces can substantially increase costs at electric power plants. This handbook is a consolidated source of information to support decisions that must be made to control microbiofouling.

1993-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

212

Key condenser failure mechanisms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eight practical lessons highlight many of the factors that can influence condenser tube corrosion at coal-fired utilities and the effects contaminant in-leakage can have on steam generating units. 1 ref., 4 figs.

Buecker, B.

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

213

Optimizing the Low Temperature Cooling Energy Supply: Experimental Performance of an Absorption Chiller, a Compression Refrigeration Machine and Direct Cooling - a Comparison  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A strategy to optimize the low temperature cooling energy supply of a newly build office building is discussed against the background of a changing energy system. It is focused on, what production way - Direct Cooling, the Compression Refrigeration Machine or the Absorption Chiller provided with heat from Combined Heat and Power Plants - has the lowest primary energy consumption at what load level. For low levels this is direct cooling. If demand exceeds the capacity of direct cooling, the absorption chiller is the option to choose. However, in future the compression refrigeration machine is more efficient at providing high load levels than the Absorption Chiller. The operation analysis shows that flow rates are often held constant and the re-cooling temperatures are often above the ambient temperature. By the integration of automatic flow rate control and lowering the re-cooling temperature of the chillers, electricity consumption of pumps can be reduced and energy efficiency enhanced.

Uhrhan, S.; Gerber, A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Open Problems in $?$ Particle Condensation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

$\\alpha$ particle condensation is a novel state in nuclear systems. We briefly review the present status on the study of $\\alpha$ particle condensation and address the open problems in this research field: $\\alpha$ particle condensation in heavier systems other than the Hoyle state, linear chain and $\\alpha$ particle rings, Hoyle-analogue states with extra neutrons, $\\alpha$ particle condensation related to astrophysics, etc.

Y. Funaki; M. Girod; H. Horiuchi; G. Roepke; P. Schuck; A. Tohsaki; T. Yamada

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

216

PRESIDINGMEMBER'S PROPOSEDDECISION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

condensation and evaporative inlet air cooling for the CTGs, the electrical switchyard and auxiliary equipment

217

Proceedings of the International Linear Collider Workshop  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

condensation and evaporative inlet air cooling for the CTGs, the electrical switchyard and auxiliary equipment

218

Steam condensate leakage  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is a multi-program research and development center owned by the United States Department of Energy and operated by the University of Chicago. The majority of the buildings on site use steam for heating and other purposes. Steam is generated from liquid water at the site`s central boiler house and distributed around the site by means of large pipes both above and below the ground. Steam comes into each building where it is converted to liquid condensate, giving off heat which can be used by the building. The condensate is then pumped back to the boiler house where it will be reheated to steam again. The process is continual but is not perfectly efficient. A substantial amount of condensate is being lost somewhere on site. The lost condensate has both economic and environmental significance. To compensate for lost condensate, makeup water must be added to the returned condensate at the boiler house. The water cost itself will become significant in the future when ANL begins purchasing Lake Michigan water. In addition to the water cost, there is also the cost of chemically treating the water to remove impurities, and there is the cost of energy required to heat the water, as it enters the boiler house 1000 F colder than the condensate return. It has been estimated that only approximately 60% of ANL`s steam is being returned as condensate, thus 40% is being wasted. This is quite costly to ANL and will become significantly more costly in the future when ANL begins purchasing water from Lake Michigan. This study locates where condensate loss is occurring and shows how much money would be saved by repairing the areas of loss. Shortly after completion of the study, one of the major areas of loss was repaired. This paper discusses the basis for the study, the areas where losses are occurring, the potential savings of repairing the losses, and a hypothesis as to where the unaccounted for loss is occurring.

Midlock, E.B.; Thuot, J.R.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Materials/Condensed Matter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials/Condensed Matter Print Materials/Condensed Matter Print Materials research provides the foundation on which the economic well being of our high-tech society rests. The impact of advanced materials ranges dramatically over every aspect of our modern world from the minutiae of daily life to the grand scale of our national economy. Invariably, however, breakthroughs to new technologies trace their origin both to fundamental research in the basic properties of condensed matter and to applied research aimed at manipulating properties (structural, physical, chemical, electrical, magnetic, optical, etc.). Increasingly, the frontiers of materials research include materials that are "strongly correlated," characterized by strong coupling between a material's electrons with other electrons, magnetism, or the material lattice itself. This coupling often results in novel behavior, such as superconductivity, that may lead to technologically important applications.

220

Keeping condensers clean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

Wicker, K.

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Small-Scale Industrial Cogeneration: Design Using Reciprocating Engines and Absorption Chillers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a packaged cogeneration system designed for light industrial applications (i.e., situations where a user wants a maximum of 1 MW of cogenerated electricity). The design employs reciprocating engines fueled with natural gas or liquid fuels. Waste heat from the engine exhaust and jacket water is used to drive an absorption chiller. This approach yields a variety of unique advantages, including: (1) ability to satisfy the needs of facilities that have a low ratio of thermal-to-electric energy needs, and which have significant refrigeration loads, and (2) the ability to provide greater operating efficiency in the <1 MW size range, especially at part load, when compared to systems based on gas turbines or steam turbines. Although component substitution can be used to vary the energy output capabilities of the system, the discussion focuses on a unit having an electrical rating of 418 kW and cooling capacity of 160 tons. This paper discusses component selection, operating parameters, economics, maintenance issues, and other factors.

Wagner, J. R.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Analysis of IECC2003 Chiller Heat Recovery for Service Water Heating Requirement for New York State  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The state of New York asked the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the requirement for Heat Recovery for Service Water Heating that exists in the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code to determine whether this requirement should be adopted into the New York State Energy Code. A typical hotel application that would trigger this requirement was examined using whole building simulation software to generate baseline annual chiller and service hot water loads, and a spreadsheet was used to examine the energy savings potential for heat recovery using hourly load files from the simulation. An example application meeting the code requirement was developed, and the energy savings, energy cost savings, and first costs for the heat recovery installation were developed. The calculated payback for this application was 6.3 years using 2002 New York state average energy costs. This payback met the minimum requirements for cost effectiveness established for the state of New York for updating the commercial energy conservation code.

Winiarski, David W.

2004-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

223

Steam Condensation Induced Waterhammer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is the type of waterhammer that kills people. It's initiating mechanism is much different than the image most engineers have of what causes waterhammer-- i.e. fast moving steam picking up a slug of condensate and hurling it downstream against an elbow or a valve. Condensation Induced Waterhammer can be 100 times more powerful than this type of waterhammer. Because it does not require flowing steam, it often occurs during relatively quiescent periods when operators least expect it. It's most often initiated by opening a valve, even a drain valve to remove condensate. The overpressure from an event can easily exceed 1000 psi. This is enough pressure to fracture a cast iron valve, blow out a steam gasket, or burst an accordion type expansion joint. And, in fact, failure of each of these components in separate condensation induced waterhammer accidents has resulted in operator fatalities. Operators and engineers need to understand this type of waterhammer so they can avoid procedures which can initiate it and designs which are susceptible to it.

Kirsner, W.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Re-Condensation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When steam transfers its heat in a manufacturing process or heat exchanger, it may revert to a liquid phase called condensate. This paper presents a method to help certain manufacturing and petro-chemical companies to save energy costs by returning their

Bhatia, P.; Kozman, T.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Making abstract domains condensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, we show that reversible analyses of logic languages by abstract interpretation can be performed without loss of precision by systematically refining abstract domains. This is obtained by adding to the abstract domain the minimal amount ... Keywords: Abstract domain, abstract interpretation, completeness, condensation, linear logic, logic program analysis

Roberto Giacobazzi; Francesco Ranzato; Francesca Scozzari

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Quantum Condensed Matter | Neutron Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantum Condensed Matter SHARE Quantum Condensed Matter Neutron scattering is a uniquely powerful probe for measuring the structure and dynamics of condensed matter. As such it is...

227

Quantum Condensed Matter | More Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantum Condensed Matter SHARE Quantum Condensed Matter Neutron scattering is a uniquely powerful probe for measuring the structure and dynamics of condensed matter. As such it is...

228

Quantum Condensed Matter Division | Neutron Science | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantum Condensed Matter Division SHARE Quantum Condensed Matter Division QCMD Director Steve Nagler The Quantum Condensed Matter Division (QCMD) enables and conducts a broad...

229

Heat Transfer Performance of a Dry and Wet / Dry Advanced Cooling Tower Condenser  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes an EPRI-funded experimental evaluation of advanced air-cooled ammonia condensers for a phase. Change dry/wet cooling system for power plants. Two condenser surfaces with different air-side augmentation were tested in an ammonia phase change pilot plant (0.6 MWth) located at UCC/Linde. The first unit consisted of integral shaved-fin-extruded aluminum tubing designed for dry operation. Heat transfer and air-side pressure loss characteristics were measured under varying air face velocities (1 to 5 m/s) and initial temperature differences, ITD (11 to 33K). Measured overall heat transfer coefficients, U, ranged between 40 and 49 J /m2 S.K (based on air-side surface). The second configuration constituted an aluminum plate-fin/tube assembly, which was tested in both dry and wet (water deluge) modes at 1 to 4 m/s air face velocities and ITD's of 5 to 33K. Deluge rates varied from 1 to 6 m3/s per meter of core width. In the dry mode, U ranged from 42 to 63 J/m2 .S.K. Water deluge enhanced the heat rejection up to 4.5 times over dry operation.

Fricke, H. D.; Webster, D. J.; McIlroy, K.; Bartz, J. A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Condenser In-Leakage Guideline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Condenser In-Leakage Guideline will assist engineers and chemists in identifying and locating air and water in-leakage leaks. It outlines the principles of operation of common condenser air-removal equipment. By keeping the air in-leakage within the capability of the air-removal equipment, condenser back pressure can be maintained. By keeping the water in-leakage as low as possible, condensate chemistry can be maintained.

2000-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

231

Condensate System Troubleshooting and Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Condensate is steam that has cooled and condensed as a result of doing work (such as heating a process or building, or driving a turbine). The purpose of this paper is to outline benefits, guidelines, and potential problem areas of condensate return as well as tools available to optimize proper treatment.

Jenkins, B. V.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

$?$ condensation and physical parameters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently we showed how a non-local Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model comes out from QCD in the low-energy limit. In this way, it is possible to fix all the free parameters of the model with physical ones. We use this approach to derive a local limit to the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with the parameters those obtained from QCD in order to fix the physical parameters of $\\rho$ condensation. $\\rho$ condensation is a consequence of the highly non-trivial behavior of the QCD vacuum in presence a very strong magnetic field giving rising to superconductive behavior in quark matter. Determination of the proper parameters for this state can be an important helpful guide to identify it experimentally.

Marco Frasca

2013-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

233

Evaluation of Condensate Polishers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of high-temperature tests was conducted to evaluate the potential for steam generator corrosion due to the release of resins or soluble impurity chemicals from full-flow condensate polishers. Three soluble impurities--sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate, and sulfuric acid--were tested, and resin ingress was simulated. Sulfate-induced intergranular attack of nickel alloy tubing, as well as instances of wastagelike attack, was observed.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Evaluation of performance enhancement of solar powered absorption chiller with an improved control strategy using the BNL-built hardware simulator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted for the procurement of transient and cycling performance characteristics of an advanced, solar absorption chiller. The results of the various combinations of on/off cycling runs showed that the net capacity loss during the start-up transient period could be significantly reduced when the residual cooling capacity generated during the off-period is compensated to the initial loss. Furthermore, the experimental investigation showed that the performance degradation, due to inherent transient behavior of a chiller, could be significantly improved by a simple control modification. The degree of performance under the modified control mode, as a function of the cycle period and such effects on the integrated chiller performance, have been thoroughly investigated. Under the modified control mode the need of a large cold-side storage may no longer exist. This may offer significant economical advantages, especially for small residential cooling systems, without sacrifice in their performances.

Auh, P.C.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

New and Rebuilt CFC-Free Chillers Provide Many Benefits: Commercial Cooling Update--A Case Study in Southern California Edison Terri tory--Issue 2, Rev. 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For six years, the Ritz-Carlton Hotel in Rancho Mirage, California, had operated two CFC-11 centrifugal chillers to meet its 24-hour, year-round cooling load. The units, rated at 250 tons each and operating at about 0.8 kW/ton at full load, both operated nearly constantly, even during low-load periods. Southern California Edison (SCE) developed a two-phase approach to test options for upgrading to CFC-free refrigerants. In the first phase, SCE replaced one CFC-11 chiller with a new HCFC-123 unit and moni...

1996-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

236

Cal Poly Initiates R-407C Chiller Replacement: Commercial Cooling Update--Case Study in Southern California Edison Territory, Issue 4, June 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Southern California Edison and EPRI have teamed with students at California State Polytechnic University in Pomona (Cal Poly) to evaluate the performance of what is thought to be the first chiller in the United States using R-407C, a promising replacement for HCFC-22. Once optimized, the 160-ton screw chiller should reduce annual energy use by 44% compared to the 24-year old, 204-ton CFC-11 unit it replaces, while providing a 6.7 year payback. Researchers are currently focusing on testing--which began in...

1996-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

237

Brookhaven Condensed Matter Physics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Condensed Matter Physics Condensed Matter Physics Condensed matter physicists study the properties of bulk matter-solids and liquids-as well as the properties exhibited at surfaces and interfaces, with a view to obtaining a fundamental understanding of the unusual properties that materials can exhibit. These problems are some of the most challenging in physics today, but have the huge pay-off in that such an understanding may ultimately lead to improved materials for use in applications as diverse as computing, memory storage, electric motors, and energy storage and transport. At Brookhaven Lab, this work includes both experimental and theoretical studies. Much of the experimental work carried out today uses the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS, shown at right)-one of the premiere synchrotron light sources of the last two decades. Commissioned in the 1980s, the NSLS is host to more than 2,200 users per year and produces copious amounts of light, from the infrared to the ultraviolet to the x-ray. By using this light as a probe, scientists can learn about the arrangement of the atoms and electrons in the materials and how they behave under various conditions. Among other projects, BNL scientists have played leading roles in the development and application of resonant and inelastic x-ray scattering techniques to the study of magnetic and other materials, have pioneered the use of photoemission techniques (based on the photoelectric effect that Einstein first understood 100 years ago) for looking at electronic and magnetic materials, and have carried out some of the seminal experiments to understand the atomic and magnetic structure at surfaces.

238

Steam and Condensate Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the late 60's and early 70's oil was plentiful and steam was relatively inexpensive. The switch to low sulphur fuel oil and the oil embargo suddenly changed the picture. The cost of steam rose from about $0.50 per 1,000# to $3.00 or more. Many see costs of $5.00 per 1,000# by 1980. These tremendous increases have caused steam systems, steam traps and condensate systems to become a major factor in overall plant efficiency and profit.

Yates, W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Steam and Condensate Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the late 60's and early 70's oil was plentiful and steam was relatively inexpensive. The switch to low sulphur fuel oil and the oil embargo suddenly changed the picture. The cost of steam rose from $0.50 per 1,000# to today's cost of $4.00 or more. Many see costs of $6.00/$7.00 in the near future. These tremendous increases have caused steam systems, steam traps and condensate systems to become a major factor in overall plant efficiency and profit.

Yates, W.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Q-Ball Condensation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Q-balls arise in particle theories with U(1) global symmetry. The coupling of the corresponding scalar field to fermions leads to Q-ball evaporation. In this paper we consider the oposite problem, the case where a Q-ball absorbs particles to grow. In particular we shall use the exact quantum mechanical description of fermions interacting with a Q-ball to solve the problem. Results show that Q-ball condensation can be another mechanism for Q-ball creation.

Stephen Clark

2007-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Lease Condensate Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Condensate Production Condensate Production (Million Barrels) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 View History U.S. 182 181 173 178 224 231 1979-2011 Alabama 2 2 2 2 2 2 1979-2011 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 20 1979-2011 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2011 California 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2011 Coastal Region Onshore 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2011 Los Angeles Basin Onshore 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2011 San Joaquin Basin Onshore 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2011 State Offshore 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2011 Colorado 6 6 7 7 7 8 1979-2011 Florida 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2011 Kansas 1 1 1 1 2 1 1979-2011 Kentucky 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2011 Louisiana 22 20 20 18 14 14 1981-2011

242

Definition: Air Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the...

243

Return Condensate to the Boiler  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Efficient Low-Lift Cooling with Radiant Distribution, Thermal Storage and Variable-Speed Chiller Controls Part I: Component and Subsystem Models  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

this paper develops component and subsystem models used to evaluat4e the performance of a low-lift cooling system with an air-colled chiller optimized for variable-speed and low-pressure-ratio operation, a hydronic radient distribution system, variable-speed transport miotor controls, and peak-shifting controls.

Armstrong, Peter; Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Norford, L. K.; Willingham, ryan

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

245

Research on Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Scrolling Chiller with ANN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At first the basic research about FDD is summarized, and a detection model based on ANN is initially set up. The paper presents experiments that simulate seven faults, including change flow rate of chilled water, cooling water and refrigerant, charge non-condense gas, shift temperature of cooling water and alter outside cold load. A set of characteristic parameters are defined in order to differentiate these faults and clarify the reasons. Finally, an FDD tool is programmed based on ANN with experimental results which form a training stylebook and test stylebook.

Zhou, Y.; Zheng, J.; Liu, Z.; Yang, C.; Peng, P.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Condenser Technology: Seminar and Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam surface condensers and associated systems cause significant loss of availability and heat rate degradation in both nuclear and fossil-fired power plants. Nineteen papers, presented at a 2002 conference, discussed industrial experience and case histories of condenser problems and solutions.

2002-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

247

APPARATUS FOR CONDENSATION AND SUBLIMATION  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is presented for the sublimation and condensation of uranium compounds in order to obtain an improved crystalline structure of this material. The apparatus comprises a vaporizing chamber and condensing structure connected thereto. There condenser is fitted with a removable liner having a demountable baffle attached to the liner by means of brackets and a removable pin. The baffle is of spiral cross-section and is provided with cooling coils disposed between the surfaces of the baffle for circulation of a temperature controlling liquid within the baffle. The cooling coll provides for controlllng the temperature of the baffle to insure formatlon of a satisfactory condensate, and the removable liner facilitates the removal of condensate formed during tbe sublimation process.

Schmidt, R.J.; Fuis, F. Jr.

1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

STRIPPING OF PROCESS CONDENSATES FROM SOLID FUEL CONVERSION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cation t Steam Methanotion Condensate Process condensatefoul process condensate which is formed by condensing steaml. The condensates Water vapor off-gas Cool in coal Steam or

Hill, Joel David

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six  

SciTech Connect

Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make.), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries).

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

MSD Condensed Matter Theory - Argonne National Laboratories,...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home Condensed Matter Theory Condensed Matter Theory research interacts with the materials research program at ANL through a mix of individual theoretical studies and...

251

Condensation on superhydrophobic copper oxide nanostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Condensation is an important process in many power generation and water desalination technologies. Superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces have unique condensation properties that may enhance heat transfer through a ...

Dou, Nicholas (Nicholas Gang)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Quantum Condensed Matter Division | ORNL Neutron Sciences  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantum Condensed Matter Division Steve Nagler, QCMD Director QCMD Director Steve Nagler. The Quantum Condensed Matter Division (QCMD) enables and conducts a broad program of...

253

New and Existing Buildings Heating and Cooling Opportunities: Dedicated Heat Recovery Chiller  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Langfitt Langfitt U S Department of State Overseas Buildings Operations Mechanical Engineering Division *Engineers are working Harder AND Smarter *New Energy Economy *Heating Is Where The Opportunity Is  39% of total US energy goes into non-residential buildings.  Gas for heating is about 60% of energy used in a building  Gas for heating is at least 25% of total energy used in the US. Heat Generation System Heat Disposal System What's Wrong With This Picture? Keep the heat IN the system Don't run main plant equipment until necessary ! Less rejected heat Less gas consumption High Temp >160F with conventional boilers Hydronic heating... condensing style modular boilers. The entire heating system... designed for low temperature water, recommend maximum temperature of 135ºF.

254

Direct Evaporative Precooling Model and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Evaporative condenser pre-cooling expands the availability of energy saving, cost-effective technology options (market engagement) and serves to expedite the range of options in upcoming codes and equipment standards (impacting regulation). Commercially available evaporative pre-coolers provide a low cost retrofit for existing packaged rooftop units, commercial unitary split systems, and air cooled chillers. We map the impact of energy savings and peak energy reduction in the 3 building types (medium office, secondary school, and supermarket) in 16 locations for three building types with four pad effectivenesses and show the effect for HVAC systems using either refrigerants R22 or R410A

Shen, Bo [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

ARM - Measurement - Cloud condensation nuclei  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

condensation nuclei condensation nuclei ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud condensation nuclei Small particles (typically 0.0002 mm, or 1/100 th the size of a cloud droplet) about which cloud droplets coalesce. Categories Aerosols, Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CCN : Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter Field Campaign Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System

256

Proceedings: 2007 Condensate Polishing Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Successful condensate polishing operations maintain control of ionic and particulate impurity transport to the pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator and the boiling water reactor (BWR) reactor and recirculation system, thus allowing these units to operate more reliably. This report contains the work presented at EPRI's 2007 Condensate Polishing Workshop where 32 papers were presented on current issues, research, and utility experiences involving polishing issues at both PWR and BWR units.

2007-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

257

Proceedings: 2005 Condensate Polishing Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Successful condensate polishing operations maintain control of ionic and particulate impurity transport to the pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator and the boiling water reactor (BWR) reactor and recirculation system, thus allowing these units to operate more reliably. This report contains the work presented at EPRI's 2005 Condensate Polishing Workshop where 29 papers were presented on current issues, research, and utility experiences involving polishing issues at both PWR and BWR units.

2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

258

New and Underutilized Technology: Condensing Boilers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The following information outlines key deployment considerations for condensing boilers within the Federal sector.

259

Development of a high temperature solar powered water chiller, Volume 4. Phase 1 technical progress report, September 26, 1977--June 1, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of the high temperature solar powered water chiller was evaluated in a solar system. Three climatic regions were selected for the evaluation which represent significant variations in heating to cooling ratio. Typical multi-family and commercial building constructions were selected for each location, and building load files created using the TRNSYS program. Solar system components were selected on a preliminary basis and simulation models were prepared for each, including the chiller. Component cost and total system cost data were developed for economic trade-off studies. It is intended, under this contract, to evaluate various system configurations to determine which best interfaces with the solar driven Rankine unit, both from a performance and economic standpoint. Preliminary parametric studies were begun to identify the best type of system and best component sizing for a commercial building in two cities. Some prelimanry annual performance data have been obtained and related to conventional equipment performance.

English, R. A.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Membrane Filtration and Ozonation of Poultry Chiller Overflow Water: Study of Membrane Treatment To Reduce Water Use and Ozonation for Sanitation at a Poultry Processing Plant in California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Poultry processing plants use large volume of water and the cost of obtaining and disposal of water is increasing rapidly. HACCP quality control procedures introduced recently have increased the water and compounded the situation. Chlorine is widely used in sanitation of poultry operations. Chlorine generates several byproducts that are proven to be harmful from food safety and environmental points of view. The search for alternatives to chlorine in poultry operations, particularly in the chiller, is of ...

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

PERFORMANCE OF AN EXPERIMENTAL SOLAR-DRIVEN ABSORPTION AIR CONDITIONER--ANNUAL REPORT JULY 1975-SEPT. 1976  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

°F for removing heat from the condenser and absorber coils.temperature. Air-cooled condensers and absorbers are limitedfor water- cooling the condenser was an overriding concern

Dao, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Condensate Polishing Guidelines for Fossil Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fossil plants employ condensate polishers to remove ionic and suspended impurities from the condensate in order to provide high purity feedwater. In the process, the polisher enhances fossil unit availability, reliability, and performance. In 1996, EPRI produced Condensate Polishing Guidelines (TR-104422), the first comprehensive guidelines for condensate polishers used in fossil units. Extensive investigations of condensate polishing technology followed. These guidelines reflect the latest thinking on t...

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Federal Energy Management Program: Energy Cost Calculator for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Machine Ice Making Head Self-Contained Remote Condensing Unit Ice Making Head Type of Condenser Air Cooled Water Cooled Air Cooled Ice Harvest Rate (lbs. ice per 24 hrs.) lbs. per...

264

Design of parallel plate condensers with sintered wicks for a loop heat pipe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New innovations and integrations of existing cooling methods are needed to enable high performance operation of high power electronic equipment. Air-cooled solutions are attractive due to their simplicity; however these ...

Koveal, Catherine Helene

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Other Appliances & Electronics Commercial Weatherization Manufacturing Commercial Lighting Lighting Home Weatherization Insulation Design & Remodeling Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info State Hawaii Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Air Cooled Packaged/Split AC: $200/ton Variable Refrigerant Flow AC: $250 - $350/ton Water Cooled Chiller (Standard): $50/ton Water Cooled Chiller (Enhanced): $150/ton VFD Control (Air Handler): $50/HP VFD Control (Chilled/Condenser Water Pumps): $80/HP VFD Pool Pump System: $225/HP VFD Domestic Water Pump System: $3,000 plus $80/HP reduction

266

Emission Control and Elimination Through The Use Of Condensation and Heat Recovery Technologies- A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Existing regulatory air requirements have created potential restrictions on current and future plant operations. Any process design that allows for the elimination of discharge points and the reduction of emissions at a major source can affect the strategic planning for the facility. This can provide critical flexibility, especially in fast-paced markets. Such a process design and implementation were undertaken at a ceramic capacitor manufacturing facility. This facility utilizes multiple small-scale solvent drying processes that emit volatile organic compounds (VOC's). These exhausts could be recirculated for the purposes of emission point elimination, heat recovery and solvent reuse. The aim was to create an environmental control process which would pay for itself within two to three years. An assessment of the alternatives was completed and standard HVAC-type condensation was selected. The unit operations for the proposed process consisted of a high efficiency air-to-air heat exchanger, cooling coil and a chiller. The air passing across the heat exchanger and coil would begin to dehumidify. In addition, solvents contained in the air stream would begin to condense to some equilibrium level and would be absorbed in the condensing water. Eventually, since there would be no addition of water in the process, the level of water in the condensate would fall off dramatically. A prototype unit capable of handling three ovens with a total air flow of 1200 ft3/min (cfm) was installed. The unit performed as expected with the exception that condensate concentrations remained low. Product testing was undertaken to ensure that returning air containing a low level of solvent would not adversely affect drying operations or product qualities. No adverse effects were found. Monitoring of the air stream verified solvent levels well below 5% of the lower explosive limit. Finally, a large-scale unit was constructed capable of handling up to 171 ovens at up to 68,000 cfm at a cost of $1.2M. At current levels of integration, cost avoidance (savings) performance is within 2% of predicted values. Projected payback is 18 months. Estimated volatile organic compound emission reduction is 100 tons per year.

Madewell, A. E.; Bullock, W. N.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

New Technology in Condensate Polishing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using carboxylic acid ion-exchange resins instead of sulfonic acid resins in precoat filters reduces sulfate contamination of feedwater by resins carried into steam generators and boilers. Corrosion is further reduced by precoating condensate polishers with activated carbon, which accelerates low-temperature reaction of oxygen with hydrazine.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Heat transfer via dropwise condensation on hydrophobic microstructured surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dropwise condensation has the potential to greatly increase heat transfer rates. Heat transfer coefficients by dropwise condensation and film condensation on microstructured silicon chips were compared. Heat transfer ...

Ruleman, Karlen E. (Karlen Elizabeth)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Heat transfer via dropwise condensation on hydrophobic microstructured surfaces.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Dropwise condensation has the potential to greatly increase heat transfer rates. Heat transfer coefficients by dropwise condensation and film condensation on microstructured silicon chips were… (more)

Ruleman, Karlen E. (Karlen Elizabeth)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Forced-convection condensation inside tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High vapor velocity condensation inside a tube was studied analytically. The von Karman universal velocity distribution was applied to the condensate flow, pressure drops were calculated using the Lockhart- Martinelli ...

Traviss, Donald P.

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

On-line Condenser Fouling Monitor Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This newly developed, innovative, on-line fouling monitor can continuously display the cleanliness factor of an operating condenser. The monitor facilitates optimization of cooling water treatment and condenser cleaning schedules.

1998-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

272

Urban Cloud Condensation Nuclei Spectral Flux  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectral flux and the condensation nuclei (CN) flux from an urban area are determined from in situ aircraft measurements at Denver, Colorado. The concentration differences between upwind and downwind cross ...

Paul R. Frisbie; James G. Hudson

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Neutron Condensed Matter Science Staff Directory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Neutron Condensed Matter Science Staff Directory. Dr. Dan Neumann, Group Leader, 301-975-5252. ... Macromolecular and Microstructural Sciences. ...

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Capacity of shrinking condensers in the plane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the capacity of a class of plane condensers is comparable to the capacity of corresponding "dyadic condensers". As an application, we show that for plane condensers in that class the capacity blows up as the distance between the plates shrinks, but there can be no asymptotic estimate of the blow-up.

Arcozzi, N

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Antiferromagnetic spinor condensates are quantum rotors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We establish a theoretical correspondence between spin-one antiferromagnetic spinor condensates in an external magnetic field and quantum rotor models in an external potential. We show that the rotor model provides a conceptually clear picture of the possible phases and dynamical regimes of the antiferromagnetic condensate. We also show that this mapping simplifies calculations of the condensate's spectrum and wave functions. We use the rotor mapping to describe the different dynamical regimes recently observed in {sup 23}Na condensates [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 125301 (2009); Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 225301 (2009)]. We also suggest a way to experimentally observe quantum-mechanical effects (collapse and revival) in spinor condensates.

Barnett, Ryan; Sau, Jay D.; Das Sarma, S. [Joint Quantum Institute and Condensed Matter Theory Center, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Quark and Gluon Condensates in Isospin Matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Applying the Hellmann-Feynman theorem to a charged pion gas, the quark and gluon condensates at low isospin density are determined by precise pion properties. At intermediate density around $ f_\\pi^2m_\\pi$, from both the estimation for the dilute pion gas and the calculation with Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model, the quark condensate is strongly and monotonously suppressed, while the gluon condensate is enhanced and can be larger than its vacuum value. This unusual behavior of the gluon condensate is universal for Bose condensed matter of mesons. Our results can be tested by lattice calculations at finite isospin density.

Lianyi He; Yin Jiang; Pengfei Zhuang

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Development of a high temperature solar powered water chiller. Volume 3. Phase I technical progress report, September 26, 1977--June 1, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This section describes the conceptual design rationale and resulting design configuration as well as providing estimates of cost and performance. Because the development of the turbo-compressor design paralleled the development of the chiller system design, all of the cost and performance data are based on intermediate turbo-compressor performance data, as well as on unoptimized components. Optimized performance was computed at the very end of Phase I, and only a brief comparison is made to show the potential gains available. Updating of all the predicted performance data for the final conceptual design will await Phase II.

English, R. A.

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Extreme-UV lithography condenser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Condenser system for use with a ringfield camera in projection lithography where the condenser includes a series of segments of a parent aspheric mirror having one foci at a quasi-point source of radiation and the other foci at the radius of a ringfield have all but one or all of their beams translated and rotated by sets of mirrors such that all of the beams pass through the real entrance pupil of a ringfield camera about one of the beams and fall onto the ringfield radius as a coincident image as an arc of the ringfield. The condenser has a set of correcting mirrors with one of the correcting mirrors of each set, or a mirror that is common to said sets of mirrors, from which the radiation emanates, is a concave mirror that is positioned to shape a beam segment having a chord angle of about 25 to 85 degrees into a second beam segment having a chord angle of about 0 to 60 degrees.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA); Shafer, David (Fairfield, CT); McGuire, James (Pasadena, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Development of a single-family absorption chiller for use in a solar heating and cooling system. Phase III, final report. Volume I  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is a hardware oriented project to demonstrate the feasibility of the solar fired, air cooled, absorption cooling of residential and commercial buildings. Beginning with design accuracy property data on a new chemical system applicable to air cooled absorption equipment, a breadboard machine was constructed in order to gain experience with system dynamics, chemical stability and overall performance. Employing heat transfer data and operating characteristics obtained from the breadboard an attempt was made to design and build a first generation prototype. A problem with the first heat transfer additive used caused the absorber to operate unsatisfactorily. A second, more refined, prototype was designed, constructed and tested incorporating the previous experience and heat transfer data as well as a new heat transfer additive. Although this prototype did not quite meet design capacity (85%), it surpassed design COP (0.75 vs 0.72) and performed stably without the signs of chemical degradation present in the previous prototype. Two more identical machines are being operated during field test in actual solar systems. After the successful operation of the 10 kW machine, it was decided to design and construct a larger scaled-up prototype for use in commercial applications. An appropriate size seemed to be about 70 kW. After considerable design effort a satisfactory size and design was achieved and constructed. In general, the 70 kW machine behaved much like the 10 kW, again producing about 80% of capacity but with varying COP's (probably due to the transient nature of the testing).

Reimann, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

5 5 Typical Commercial Building Thermal Energy Distribution Design Load Intensities (Watts per SF) Distribution System Fans Other Central System Supply Fans Cooling Tower Fan Central System Return Fans Air-Cooled Chiller Condenser Fan 0.6 Terminal Box Fans 0.5 Exhaust Fans (2) Fan-Coil Unit Fans (1) Condenser Fans 0.6 Packaged or Split System Indoor Blower 0.6 Pumps Chilled Water Pump Condenser Water Pump Heating Water Pump Note(s): Source(s): 0.1 - 0.2 0.1 - 0.2 1) Unducted units are lower than those with some ductwork. 2) Strong dependence on building type. BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II:Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment, and Ventilation, Oct. 1999, Table 3-1, p. 3-6. 0.3 - 1.0 0.1 - 0.3 0.1 - 0.4

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

AEP Appalachian Power - Commercial and Industrial Rebate Programs...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pumps: 40ton Packaged Terminal AC: 30ton WaterAir Cooled Chillers: 30ton Ground Source Heat Pump: 50ton VFDs: 40HP Programmable Thermostat: 25unit T8 and T5...

282

Bio-oil fractionation and condensation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

283

Condensation induced water hammer safety  

SciTech Connect

Condensation induced water hammer events in piping systems can cause catastrophic steam system failures which can result in equipment damage, personal injury, and even death. As an industry, we have learned to become accustomed to the ''banging'' that we often hear in our steam piping systems, and complacent in our actions to prevent it. It is unfortunate that lives are lost needlessly, as this type of water hammer event is preventable if one only applies some basic principles when operating and maintaining their steam systems. At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site where I work, there was one such accident that occurred in 1993 which took the life of a former co-worker and friend of mine. Hanford was established as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. it is a 560 square mile complex located along the banks of the Columbia River in Southeastern Washington State. For almost 45 years, hanford's mission was to produce weapons grade plutonium for our nations defense programs. Today, Hanford no longer produces plutonium, but is focused on site clean-up and economic diversification. Hanford still uses steam for heating and processing activities, utilizing over 20 miles of piping distribution systems similar to those found in industry. Although these aging systems are still sound, they cannot stand up to the extreme pressure pulses developed by a condensation induced water hammer.

Gintner, M.A.

1997-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

284

Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, and radionuclide mixed wastes without dilution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

jacket chiller temperature, condenser chiller temperature,by the use of a –5°C condenser on the gas outlet of theVery low temperature condensers, designed specifically for

Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

5 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ... 152 170 165 195 224 Production (million cubic feet)...

286

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ... 280 300 225 240 251 Production (million cubic feet)...

287

,"Pennsylvania Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels)",1,"Annual",2011 ,"Release...

288

Multiscale Materials Modeling of Condensed Matter - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nov 29, 2007 ... The following presentations from MMM 2007, the International Max-Planck Workshop on Multiscale Materials Modeling of Condensed Matter, ...

289

Oil recovery from condensed corn distillers solubles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) contains more oil than dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 20 vs. 12% (dry weight basis). Therefore, significant amount of… (more)

Majoni, Sandra

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Increased Availability From Improved Condenser Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Performance parameters and flow characteristics on the shell side of surface condensers are becoming better understood. Contributing to this knowledge base is the recent ability to measure the physical properties as well as the quantity of gases being removed from the condenser by air removal equipment. Reviewed here are the commonality of these data from many operating condensers obtained over the past six years and other known condenser measurements, theory and laboratory experiments. These are combined to formulate global theoretical description of condenser dynamics describing the mechanism responsible for aeration and de-aeration, excess back pressure buildup due to air ingress or generation of other noncondensable gases, and the dissolubility of corrosive gases in condensate. The theoretical description supports a dynamic model useful for deciding condenser configuration design and design improvements. Features of design found in many operating condensers that promote aeration and resulting corrosion are presented. The benefits of the model and engineering design modifications to plant life cycle management, improved condenser performance, outage reduction and reliability improvements, lost load recovery and fuel savings are discussed. (author)

Harpster, Joseph W. [Intek, Inc., 751 Intek Way, Westerville, OH 43082 (United States)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Quantum Condensates in Nuclear Matter: Problems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In connection with the contribution "Quantum Condensates in Nuclear Matter" some problems are given to become more familiar with the techniques of many-particle physics.

G. Ropke; D. Zablocki

2010-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

292

Condenser Tube Failures: Theory and Practice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes information on all aspects of condenser tube failure (CTF) including failure mechanisms, possible root causes, and corrective actions.

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

293

Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Reserves Sales  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, ... Michigan : 0: 0: 0: 2009-2011: Mississippi : 4: 8: 0: 2009-2011: Montana : 3: ...

294

Chillers | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic SearchQuerying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook...

295

Continuous Chiral Separation of Amino Acid Derivatives by Enantioselective Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Centrifugal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unit Air Cooled Centrifugal Condensing Unit Water/Glycol Condensing Unit 3 Tons 60 Hz (50 Hz) B*036E (B

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

296

Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

spatial cartography of air- cooled chillers and cooling towers in the city of Paris and surroundings have); secondly the actual situation including individual air dry coolers, wet cooling towers and an urban cooling the air cooling demand. Results of a meso-scale meteorological model (MESO-NH), coupled to an urban energy

297

Direct contact condensers: a literature survey  

SciTech Connect

A review is given of the literature pertinent to the design of direct contact condensers using water to condense an organic fluid. Both overall performance and fundamental concepts are examined. Recommendations are made regarding the work required to evaluate this concept for use in binary cycles for geothermal power plants.

Jacobs, H.R.; Fannar, H.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Direct condensation refrigerant recovery and restoration system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a refrigerant recovery and purification system for removing gaseous refrigerant from a disabled refrigeration unit, cleaning the refrigerant of contaminants, and converting the gaseous refrigerant to a liquid state for storage. It comprises a low pressure inlet section; a high pressure storage section; the low pressure inlet section comprising: an oil and refrigerant gas separator, including a separated oil removal means, first conduit means for connecting an inlet of the separator to the disabled refrigerant unit, a slack-sided accumulator, second conduit means connecting the separator to the slack-sided accumulator, a reclaim condenser, third conduit means connecting the separator and the reclaim condenser in series, an evaporator coil in the reclaim condenser connectable to a conventional operating refrigeration system for receiving a liquid refrigerant under pressure for expansion therein, the evaporator coil forming a condensing surface for condensing the refrigerant gas at near atmospheric pressure in the condenser, a liquid receiver, a reclaimed refrigerant storage tank, fourth conduit means further connecting the liquid receiver in series with the reclaim condenser, downstream thereof, means between the reclaim condenser and the liquid receiver.

Grant, D.C.H.

1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

299

Hybrid Wet/Dry Cooling for Power Plants (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation includes an overview of cooling options, an analysis of evaporative enhancement of air-cooled geothermal power plants, field measurements at a geothermal plant, a preliminary analysis of trough plant, and improvements to air-cooled condensers.

Kutscher, C.; Buys, A.; Gladden, C.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Economic and Performance Benefits Resulting From the Use of Large...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of Large Diameter Fans on Air Cooled Heat Exchangers (A Case Study in the Use of Large Fan Air Cooled Condensers at the Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Power Plant, Oregon) Jump to:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade...

302

Figure 14. Lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Figure 14 Date % LC % NGPL NGL Reserves Bn Barrels OGR-Brent Average 2009-2011 Liquids Reserves NGPL Reserves Condensate Reserves % Lease condensate ...

303

California State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

304

California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

305

California Federal Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California Federal Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

306

California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

307

California - Coastal Region Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California - Coastal Region Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

308

Indiana Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Indiana Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

309

Alaska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Alaska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

310

Mississippi Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Mississippi Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

311

California Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

312

Nebraska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Nebraska Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

313

Miscellaneous States Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

314

Louisiana - North Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Louisiana - North Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

315

Pennsylvania Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Pennsylvania Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

316

Louisiana Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Louisiana Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

317

Alabama Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Alabama Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

318

Wyoming Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Wyoming Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

319

Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

320

Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Calif--Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Nebraska Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Nebraska Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) No Data Available For This Series - ...

322

Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

323

Florida Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Florida Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

324

Ohio Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Ohio Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

325

Oklahoma Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Oklahoma Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

326

New Mexico--East Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) New Mexico--East Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

327

New Mexico--West Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) New Mexico--West Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

328

Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

329

Montana Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Montana Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

330

Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

331

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

332

Louisiana--North Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Louisiana--North Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

333

Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

334

Colorado Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Colorado Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

335

West Virginia Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) West Virginia Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

336

Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

337

Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

338

Texas--RRC District 10 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate,...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Texas--RRC District 10 Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

339

Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

340

Kentucky Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Kentucky Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

New Mexico Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) New Mexico Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

342

Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

343

Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--California Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

344

California--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

345

Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

346

California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) California (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

347

North Dakota Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) North Dakota Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

348

New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) New Mexico - East Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

349

Louisiana - South Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Louisiana - South Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

350

New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) New Mexico - West Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

351

Louisiana State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Louisiana State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

352

Texas - RRC District 10 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Texas - RRC District 10 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

353

Texas - RRC District 9 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Texas - RRC District 9 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

354

Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

355

Texas - RRC District 6 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Texas - RRC District 6 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

356

Texas - RRC District 8 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Texas - RRC District 8 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

357

Texas State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Texas State Offshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

358

Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

359

Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

360

Texas - RRC District 1 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Texas - RRC District 1 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Texas - RRC District 5 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Texas - RRC District 5 Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

362

Labs21 sustainable design programming checklist version 1.0  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

systems, use outdoor condenser. Systems that use acooling can use a remote condenser to reduce space-coolingsystems - Evaporative condenser Efficient chiller systems -

Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Planning and Reporting for Operations and Maintenance in Federal Energy Savings Performance Contracts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tasks for Chillers Evaporator and condenser Assessevaporator and condenser coil fouling as coil foulingDescription setpoint Clean condenser tubes Eddy current test

Kumar, Satish; Webster, Lia

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Model Predictive Control of HVAC Systems: Implementation and Testing at the University of California, Merced  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHWS) temperature set?point, condenser water supply (CWS) and set?points for the condenser water temperature and the water supplied to the chiller condensers from the cooling 

Haves, Phillip

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Improving the Energy Performance of Data Centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

removed by water through heat exchangers in the condenser.Condenser water is piped from the cooling towers, whichdesign) AHU CRAC chiller condenser evaporator chilled water

Horvath, A; Shehabi, Arman

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Dynamics of capillary condensation in aerogels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dynamics of capillary condensation of liquid {sup 4}He in various density silica aerogels was investigated systematically. Interfaces were clearly visible when bulk liquid was rapidly sucked into the aerogel. Time evolution of the interface positions was consistent with the Washburn model and their effective pore radii were obtained. Condensation was a single step in a dense aerogel and two steps in a low density aerogel. Crossover between the two types of condensation was observed in an intermediate density aerogel. Variety of the dynamics may be the manifestation of the fractal nature of aerogels which had a wide range of distribution of pore radii.

Nomura, R.; Miyashita, W.; Yoneyama, K.; Okuda, Y. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

367

Spherical gravitating condensers in general relativity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By a spherical gravitating condenser we mean two concentric charged shells made of perfect fluids restricted by the condition that the electric field is nonvanishing only between the shells. Flat space is assumed inside the inner shell. By using Israel's formalism we first analyze the general system of N shells and then concentrate on the two-shell condensers. Energy conditions are taken into account; physically interesting cases are summarized in two tables, but also more exotic situations in which, for example, the inner shell may occur below the inner horizon of the corresponding Reissner-Nordstroem geometry or the spacetime is curved only inside the condenser are considered. Classical limits are mentioned.

Bicak, J.; Guerlebeck, N. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Praha 8-Holesovice (Czech Republic); Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

The Color Glass Condensate at RHIC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Color Glass Condensate formalism and its application to high energy heavy ion collisions at RHIC are discussed. We argue that the RHIC data supports the view that the Color Glass Condensate provides the initial conditions for gold-gold collisions at RHIC while final state (Quark Gluon Plasma) effects are responsible for the high $p_t$ suppression in mid rapidity. At forward rapidities in deuteron-gold collisions, however, Color Glass Condensate is the underlying physics of the observed suppression of the particle spectra and their centrality dependence.

Jamal Jalilian-Marian

2004-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

369

Strong coupling analysis of diquark condensation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The phenomenon of diquark condensation at non-zero baryon density and zero temperature is analyzed in the strong coupling limit of lattice QCD. The results indicate that there is attraction in the quark-quark channel also at strong coupling, and that the attraction is more effective at high baryon density, but for infinite coupling it is not enough to produce diquark condensation. It is argued that the absence of diquark condensation is not a peculiarity of the strong coupling limit, but persists at sufficiently large finite couplings.

Vicente Azcoiti; Giuseppe Di Carlo; Angelo Galante; Victor Laliena

2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

370

Single condenser arrangement for side exhaust turbine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a large-scale power generating apparatus for converting steam energy into electrical energy. It comprises: a large turbine capable of converting steam energy into mechanical energy; a large generator for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy; a shaft disposed in and axially connecting the turbine and the generator, the shaft capable of being turned by steam energy in the turbine; a single condenser connected to the turbine and capable of drawing steam out of the turbine and condensing steam to water, the single condenser disposed alongside the turbine; and a low foundation which supports the turbine and the generator and a slab which supports the low foundation and the single condenser.

Stock, A.L.

1989-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

371

Hierarchical superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces for condensation applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many existing industrial systems, including thermal desalination plants and air conditioning systems, involve the process of condensation and are heavily dependent on this process for achieving adequate levels of energy ...

Lopez, Ken, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

3 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ... 22,442 22,117 23,554 18,774 16,718 Production...

373

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

2004 1 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year... 341,678 373,304 387,772 393,327 405,048 Production...

374

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ... 1,169 1,244 1,232 1,249 1,272 Production (million...

375

In-Field Performance of Condensing Boilers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

IN-FIELD PERFORMANCE OF CONDENSING IN-FIELD PERFORMANCE OF CONDENSING BOILERS Lois B. Arena Steven Winter Associates, Inc. March 2012 Why Research Hydronic Heating? © 2012 Steven Winter Associates, Inc. All rights reserved Reasons to Research Boilers  Approx. 14 million homes (11%) in the US are heated with a steam or hot water system  Almost 70 percent of existing homes were built prior to 1980  Boilers built prior to 1980 generally have AFUE's of 0.65 or lower  Energy savings of 20+% are possible by simply replacing older boilers with standard boilers & up to 30% with condensing boilers.  Optimizing condensing boilers in new and existing homes could mean the difference of 8-10% savings with little to no

376

Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Cloud Condensation Nuclei and Ship Tracks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Enhancements of droplet concentrations in clouds affected by four ships were fairly accurately predicted from ship emission factors and plume and background cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) spectra. Ship exhausts thus accounted for the increased ...

James G. Hudson; Timothy J. Garrett; Peter V. Hobbs; Scott R. Strader; Yonghong Xie; Seong Soo Yum

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Condensation heat transfer on nanoengineered surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents a series of three related studies with the aim of developing a surface that promotes robust dropwise condensation. Due to their remarkably low droplet adhesion, superhydrophobic surfaces were investigated ...

Paxson, Adam Taylor

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Quantum reflection of Bose-Einstein Condensates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent developments in atom optics have brought Bose-Einstein condensates within 1 pm of solid surfaces where the atom-surface interactions can no longer be ignored. At long- range, the atom-surface interaction is described ...

Pasquini, Thomas A., Jr

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Process Considerations in Surface Condenser Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Condenser Design engineers and process engineers need to work closely together if efficient designs are to be made. This paper examines the importance of such interactions and outlines how it can be achieved.

Polley, G. T.; Terranova, A.; Capel, A. C. P.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Particle mixing, flavor condensate and dark energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mixing of neutrinos and quarks generate a vacuum condensate that, at the present epoch, behaves as a cosmological constant. The value of the dark energy is constrained today by the very small breaking of the Lorentz invariance.

Massimo Blasone; Antonio Capolupo; Giuseppe Vitiello

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

382

Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science Department, Brookhaven...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Qiang Li Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science Department Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York 11973-5000 (631) 344-4490 qiangli@bnl.gov Education: Iowa State...

383

Condensate polishers add operating reliability and flexibility  

SciTech Connect

Many of today's advanced steam generators favour either an all-volatile treatment or oxygenated treatment chemistry programme, both of which require strict maintenance of an ultra-pure boiler fedwater ro condensate system. Those requirements are many times at odds with the lower-quality water sources, such as greywater, available for plant makeup and cooling water. Adding a condensate polisher can be a simple, cost-effective solution. 4 figs.

Layman, C.M.; Bennett, L.L.

2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

Proceedings: 2011 EPRI Condensate Polisher Conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Successful condensate polishing operations maintain control of ionic and particulate impurity transport to the pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators, the fossil plant boilers, and the boiling water reactor (BWR) recirculation system and reactor, thus allowing these units to operate more reliably. This report contains the work presented at EPRI's 2011 Condensate Polishing Conference. Participants presented papers on current issues, research, and utility experiences involving polishing ...

2013-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

385

Enhanced Chloride Monitoring for Steam Condensate Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to develop to the proof-of-concept stage a system that enables the quantification of chloride (Cl) in turbine steam condensate samples. The chloride quantification system is intended to serve as an alternative to online chromatography for chloride concentration monitoring. The conceptual approach was to concentrate the ions in the steam condensate, by a predetermined factor, to a level that allowed accurate detection of chloride by ion selective electrodes (ISEs). The ab...

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

386

Dynamic simulation recalls condensate piping event  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes how experience gained from simulating and reconstructing a condensate piping event will be used by Consolidated Edison to analyze control system problems. A cooperative effort by Con Edison and the Chemical Engineering Department at Polytechnic University used modular modeling system to investigate the probable cause of a Con Edison condensate piping event. Con Edison commissioned the work to serve as a case study for the more general problem of control systems analysis using dynamic simulation and MMS.

Farrell, R.J.; Reneberg, K.O. (Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)); Moy, H.C. (Consolidated Edison Co., New York, NY (United States))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Proceedings: EPRI 2009 Condensate Polishing Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Successful condensate polishing operations maintain control of ionic and particulate impurity transport to the pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator, and to the boiling water reactor (BWR) reactor and recirculation system, thus allowing these units to operate more reliably. This report contains the work presented at EPRI's 2009 Condensate Polishing Conference. Participants presented papers on current issues, research, and utility experiences involving polishing issues at both PWR and BWR units.

2009-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

388

Measured Impacts of Air Conditioner Condenser Shading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study has been conducted by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) to examine if space cooling energy savings can be achieved from shading of residential air conditioning (AC) condenser units. The investigation consisted of before-and-after experiments conducted on three homes over a two year period. A recent EPA study recommends shading of exterior AC condensers, using landscaping or other means, as a method to reduce space cooling energy use (Akbari et al., 1992).

Parker, D. S.; Barkaszi, S. F.; Sonne, J. K.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This project is a research into the effect of gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells. It is the result of a problem encountered in producing a low permeability formation from a well in South Texas owned by the El Paso Production Company. The well was producing from a gas condensate reservoir. Questions were raised about whether flowing bottomhole pressure below dewpoint would be appropriate. Condensate damage in the hydraulic fracture was expected to be of significant effect. In the most recent work done by Adedeji Ayoola Adeyeye, this subject was studied when the effects of reservoir depletion were minimized by introduction of an injector well with fluid composition the same as the original reservoir fluid. He also used an infinite conductivity hydraulic fracture along with a linear model as an adequate analogy. He concluded that the skin due to liquid build-up is not enough to prevent lower flowing bottomhole pressures from producing more gas. This current study investigated the condensate damage at the face of the hydraulic fracture in transient and boundary dominated periods when the effects of reservoir depletion are taken into account. As a first step, simulation of liquid flow into the fracture was performed using a 2D 1-phase simulator in order to help us to better understand the results of gas condensate simulation. Then during the research, gas condensate models with various gas compositions were simulated using a commercial simulator (CMG). The results of this research are a step forward in helping to improve the management of gas condensate reservoirs by understanding the mechanics of liquid build-up. It also provides methodology for quantifying the condensate damage that impairs linear flow of gas into the hydraulic fracture.

Reza, Rostami Ravari

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This project is a research into the effect of gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells. It is the result of a problem encountered in producing a low permeability formation from a well in South Texas owned by the El Paso Production Company. The well was producing a gas condensate reservoir and questions were raised about how much drop in flowing bottomhole pressure below dewpoint would be appropriate. Condensate damage in the hydraulic fracture was expected to be of significant effect. Previous attempts to answer these questions have been from the perspective of a radial model. Condensate builds up in the reservoir as the reservoir pressure drops below the dewpoint pressure. As a result, the gas moving to the wellbore becomes leaner. With respect to the study by El-Banbi and McCain, the gas production rate may stabilize, or possibly increase, after the period of initial decline. This is controlled primarily by the condensate saturation near the wellbore. This current work has a totally different approach. The effects of reservoir depletion are minimized by introduction of an injector well with fluid composition the same as the original reservoir fluid. It also assumes an infinite conductivity hydraulic fracture and uses a linear model. During the research, gas condensate simulations were performed using a commercial simulator (CMG). The results of this research are a step forward in helping to improve the management of gas condensate reservoirs by understanding the mechanics of liquid build-up. It also provides methodology for quantifying the condensate damage that impairs linear flow of gas into the hydraulic fracture.

Adeyeye, Adedeji Ayoola

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Proceedings: 2003 EPRI Workshop on Condensate Polishing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Successful condensate polishing operations maintain control of ionic and particulate impurity transport to the pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator and the boiling water reactor (BWR) reactor and recirculation system, thus allowing the units to operate more reliably. This report contains the work presented at EPRI's 2003 Workshop on Condensate Polishing, where 30 papers were presented on current issues, research, and utility experiences involving polishing issues at both PWR and BWR units.

2004-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

392

Colliding and Moving Bose-Einstein Condensates: Studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, two different sets of experiments are described. The first is an exploration of the microscopic superfluidity of dilute gaseous Bose- Einstein condensates. The second set

Chikkatur, Ananth P.

2006-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

393

SUBSTELLAR-MASS CONDENSATIONS IN PRESTELLAR CORES  

SciTech Connect

We present combined Submillimeter Array and single-dish images of the (sub)millimeter dust continuum emission toward two prestellar cores, SM1 and B2-N5, in the nearest star-cluster-forming region, {rho} Ophiuchus. Our combined images indicate that SM1 and B2-N5 consist of three and four condensations, respectively, with masses of 10{sup -2}-10{sup -1} M{sub Sun} and sizes of a few hundred AU. The individual condensations have mean densities of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} cm{sup -3} and the masses are comparable to or larger than the critical Bonner-Ebert mass, indicating that self-gravity plays an important role in the dynamical evolution of the condensations. The coalescence timescale of these condensations is estimated to be about 10{sup 4} yr, which is comparable to the local gravitational collapse timescale, suggesting that merging of the condensations, instead of accretion, plays an essential role in the star formation process. These results challenge the standard theory of star formation, where a single, rather featureless, prestellar core collapses to form at most a couple of condensations, each of which potentially evolves into a protostar that is surrounded by a rotating disk where planets are created.

Nakamura, Fumitaka; Kawabe, Ryohei [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Takakuwa, Shigehisa, E-mail: fumitaka.nakamura@nao.ac.jp [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

394

Alpha-Particle Condensation in Nuclear Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The onset of quartetting, i.e. alpha-particle condensation, in symmetric nuclear matter is studied with the help of an in-medium modified four nucleon equation. It is found that at very low density quartetting wins over pairing, because of the strong binding of the alpha-particles. The critical temperature can reach values up to around 6 MeV. Also the disappearance of alpha-particles with increasing density, i.e. the Mott transition, is investigated. In finite nuclei the Hoyle state, that is the 0_2^+ of 12C, is identified as an "alpha-particle condensate" state. It is conjectured that such states also exist in heavier n alpha-nuclei, like 16O, 20Ne, etc. For instance the 6-th 0^+ state of 16O at 15.1 MeV is identified from a theoretical analysis as being a strong candidate for an alpha condensate state. Exploratory calculations are performed for the density dependence of the alpha condensate fraction at zero temperature to address the suppression of the four-particle condensate below nuclear-matter density. Possible quartet condensation in other systems is discussed briefly

Y. Funaki; T. Yamada; H. Horiuchi; G. Röpke; P. Schuck; A. Tohsaki

2008-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

395

Best Practice for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

condenser water optimization Tengfang Xu Contents HVAC WATERHVAC Water Systems Cooling tower and condenser water optimization

Xu, Tengfang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

California - Coastal Region Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

California - Coastal Region Onshore Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Reserves Acquisitions (Million Barrels)

397

Gluon Condensate in Pion Superfluid beyond Mean Field Approximation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study gluon condensate in a pion superfluid, through calculating the equation of state of the system in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. While in mean field approximation the growing pion condensate leads to an increasing gluon condensate, meson fluctuations reduce the gluon condensate and the broken scalar symmetry can be smoothly restored at finite isospin density.

Yin Jiang; Pengfei Zhuang

2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

398

Enhanced tubes for steam condensers. Volume 1, Summary of condensation and fouling; Volume 2, Detailed study of steam condensation  

SciTech Connect

Electric utility steam condensers typically use plain tubes made of titanium, stainless steel, or copper alloys. Approximately two-thirds of the total thermal resistance is on the water side of the plain tube. This program seeks to conceive and develop a tube geometry that has special enhancement geometries on the tube (water) side and the steam (shell) side. This ``enhanced`` tube geometry, will provide increased heat transfer coefficients. The enhanced tubes will allow the steam to condense at a lower temperature. The reduced condensing temperature will reduce the turbine heat rate, and increase the plant peak load capability. Water side fouling and fouling control is a very important consideration affecting the choice of the tube side enhancement. Hence, we have consciously considered fouling potential in our selection of the tube side surface geometry. Using appropriate correlations and theoretical models, we have designed condensation and water side surface geometries that will provide high performance and be cleanable using sponge ball cleaning. Commercial tube manufacturers have made the required tube geometries for test purposes. The heat transfer test program includes measurement of the condensation and water side heat transfer coefficients. Fouling tests are being run to measure the waterside fouling resistance, and to the test the ability of the sponge ball cleaning system to clean the tubes.

Webb, R.L.; Chamra, L.; Jaber, H.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Preconditioning Outside Air: Cooling Loads from Building Ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

HVAC equipment manufacturers, specifiers and end users interacting in the marketplace today are only beginning to address the series of issues promulgated by the increased outside air requirements in ASHRAE Standard 62- 1989, "Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality", that has cascaded into building codes over the early to mid 1990's. There has been a twofold to fourfold increase in outside air requirements for many commercial building applications, compared to the 1981 version of the standard. To mitigate or nullify these additional weather loads, outdoor air preconditioning technologies are being promoted in combination with conventional HVAC operations downstream as a means to deliver the required fresh air and control humidity indoors. Preconditioning is the term applied for taking outside air to the indoor air setpoint (dry bulb temperature and relative humidity). The large humidity loads from outside air can now be readily recognized and quantified at cooling design point conditions using the extreme humidity ratios/dew points presented in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals Chapter 26 "Climatic Design Information". This paper presents an annual index called the Ventilation Load Index (VLI), recently developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) that measures the magnitude of latent (and sensible) loads for preconditioning outside air to indoor space conditions over the come of an entire year. The VLI has units of ton-hrs/scfm of outside air. The loads are generated using new weather data binning software called ~BinMaker, also from GRI, that organizes the 239 city, 8760 hour by hour, TMY2 weather data into user selected bidtables. The VLI provides a simple methodology for accessing the cooling load impact of increased ventilation air volumes and a potential basis for defining a "humid" climate location.

Kosar, D.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Flow directing means for air-cooled transformers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to improvements in systems for force-cooling transformers of the kind in which an outer helical winding and an insulation barrier nested therein form an axially extending annular passage for cooling-fluid flow. In one form of the invention a tubular shroud is positioned about the helical winding to define an axially extending annular chamber for cooling-fluid flow. The chamber has a width in the range of from about 4 to 25 times that of the axially extending passage. Two baffles extend inward from the shroud to define with the helical winding two annular flow channels having hydraulic diameters smaller than that of the chamber. The inlet to the chamber is designed with a hydraulic diameter approximating that of the coolant-entrance end of the above-mentioned annular passage. As so modified, transformers of the kind described can be operated at significantly higher load levels without exceeding safe operating temperatures. In some instances the invention permits continuous operation at 200% of the nameplate rating.

Jallouk, Philip A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

A Fundamentally New Approach to Air-cooled Heat Exchangers  

Remote Sensing and Energetic Materials Sandia National Laboratories P.O. Box 969 ... any kind of liquid handling and/or containment. In recent years, ...

402

Air cooled turbine component having an internal filtration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A centrifugal particle separator is provided for removing particles such as microscopic dirt or dust particles from the compressed cooling air prior to reaching and cooling the turbine blades or turbine vanes of a turbine engine. The centrifugal particle separator structure has a substantially cylindrical body with an inlet arranged on a periphery of the substantially cylindrical body. Cooling air enters centrifugal particle separator through the separator inlet port having a linear velocity. When the cooling air impinges the substantially cylindrical body, the linear velocity is transformed into a rotational velocity, separating microscopic particles from the cooling air. Microscopic dust particles exit the centrifugal particle separator through a conical outlet and returned to a working medium.

Beeck, Alexander R. (Orlando, FL)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

403

Superfluid toroidal currents in atomic condensates  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of toroidal condensates in the presence of condensate flow and dipole perturbation have been investigated. The Bogoliubov spectrum of a condensate is calculated for an oblate torus using a discrete-variable representation and a spectral method to high accuracy. The transition from spheroidal to toroidal geometry of the trap displaces the energy levels into narrow bands. The lowest-order acoustic modes are quantized with the dispersion relation {omega}{approx}|m|{omega}{sub s} with m=0,{+-}1,{+-}2,.... A condensate with toroidal current {kappa} splits the |m| co-rotating and counter-rotating pairs by the amount {delta}E{approx_equal}2|m|({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sup 2}{kappa}. Radial dipole excitations are the lowest-energy dissipation modes. For highly occupied condensates the nonlinearity creates an asymmetric mix of dipole circulation and nonlinear shifts in the spectrum of excitations so that the center of mass circulates around the axis of symmetry of the trap. We outline an experimental method to study these excitations.

Nugent, Eileen; McCann, J.F. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McPeake, Dermot [NMRC, University College Cork, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Condensation of refrigerants on vertical fluted tubes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were run to determine heat transfer performance of single vertical fluted tubes with selected fluids condensing on the outside. Working fluids included six fluorocarbons (Refrigerants 11, 21, 22, 113, 114, and 115) and a hydrocarbon (Refrigerant 600a or isobutane). The nine test tubes were of 2.54-cm (1-in.) nominal outside diameter and 1.2 m (4 ft) in length with from 0 (smooth) to 60 axial flutes. Condensing heat transfer coefficients ranged from 620 to 7900 W/m/sup 2/ . K (110 to 1400 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/ . /sup 0/F) over the heat flux range of 2000 to 43,000 W/m/sup 2/ (920 to 13,600 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/). All parameters are based on total condensing surface area. The data show that, for a given heat flux, a fluted tube can increase condensing coefficients up to 6.0 times smooth tube values. Further heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the use of drainage skirts on fluted tubes; these skirts effectively divided the 1.2-m (4-ft) tubes into two, four, and eight equal condensing lengths.

Combs, S.K.; Mailen, G.S.; Murphy, R.W.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Laser Isotope Separation Employing Condensation Repression  

SciTech Connect

Molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) techniques using condensation repression (CR) harvesting are reviewed and compared with atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), gaseous diffusion (DIF), ultracentrifuges (UCF), and electromagnetic separations (EMS). Two different CR-MLIS or CRISLA (Condensation Repression Isotope Separation by Laser Activation) approaches have been under investigation at the University of Missouri (MU), one involving supersonic super-cooled free jets and dimer formation, and the other subsonic cold-wall condensation. Both employ mixtures of an isotopomer (e.g. {sup i}QF{sub 6}) and a carrier gas, operated at low temperatures and pressures. Present theories of VT relaxation, dimerization, and condensation are found to be unsatisfactory to explain/predict experimental CRISLA results. They were replaced by fundamentally new models that allow ab-initio calculation of isotope enrichments and predictions of condensation parameters for laser-excited and non-excited vapors which are in good agreement with experiment. Because of supersonic speeds, throughputs for free-jet CRISLA are a thousand times higher than cold-wall CRISLA schemes, and thus preferred for large-quantity Uranium enrichments. For small-quantity separations of (radioactive) medical isotopes, the simpler coldwall CRISLA method may be adequate.

Eerkens, Jeff W.; Miller, William H.

2004-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

Pumping Fluid Condensation in Oil Diffusion Pumps  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Condensation conditions of the motive fluid in an oil diffusion pump are considered with particular attention to the backstreaming problem. The backstreaming rate is correlated with the temperature of the “cold caps” surrounding the pump nozzle and it is demonstrated that an upper temperature limit exists near 200?°F where such devices cease to function effectively. The effect of “oleophobic” surfaces on cold caps and baffles is discussed. Conditions existing at the inlet of diffusion pumps and in baffles do not warrant attempts to introduce dropwise condensation. The condensation coefficient of pumping vapor at the temperature of the water cooled wall and with the flow rates used at the top nozzle appears to be very close to unity. The usefulness of creep barriers with modern pumping fluids and trap designs is judged to be questionable.

M. H. Hablanian

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Boson stars: Chemical potential and quark condensates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the properties of a star made of self-gravitating bosons gas in a mean-field approximation. A generalized set of Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov(TOV) equations is derived to incorporate the effect of chemical-potential in the general relativistic frame work. The metric-dependence of the chemical-potential gives a new class of solutions for the boson stars. It is demonstrated that the maximum mass and radius of the star change in a significant way when the effect of finite chemical-potential is considered. We also discuss the case of a boson star made of quark-condensates. It is found that when the self-interaction between the condensates is small as compared to their mass, the typical density is too high to form a diquark-boson star. Our results indicate that the star of quark-condensate may be formed in a low-density and high-pressure regime.

Jitesh R. Bhatt; V. Sreekanth

2009-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

408

Dual quark condensate and dressed Polyakov loops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct a new order parameter for finite temperature QCD by considering the quark condensate for U(1)-valued temporal boundary conditions for the fermions. Fourier transformation with respect to the boundary condition defines the dual condensate. This quantity corresponds to an equivalence class of Polyakov loops, thereby being an order parameter for the center symmetry. We explore the duality relation between the quark condensate and these dressed Polyakov loops numerically, using quenched lattice QCD configurations below and above the QCD phase transition. It is demonstrated that the Dirac spectrum responds differently to changing the boundary condition, in a manner that reproduces the expected Polyakov loop pattern. We find the dressed Polyakov loops to be dominated by the lowest Dirac modes, in contrast to thin Polyakov loops investigated earlier.

Erek Bilgici; Falk Bruckmann; Christof Gattringer; Christian Hagen

2008-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

409

Containment condensing heat transfer. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a mechanistic heat-transfer model that is valid for large scale containment heat sinks. The model development is based on the determination that the condensation is controlled by mass diffusion through the vapor-air boundary layer, and the application of the classic Reynolds' analogy to formulate expressions for the transfer of heat and mass based on hydrodynamic measurements of the momentum transfer. As a result, the analysis depends on the quantification of the shear stress (momentum transfer) at the interface between the condensate film and the vapor-air boundary layer. In addition, the currently used Tagami and Uchida test observations and their range of applicability are explained.

Gido, R.G.; Koestel, A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Composition of gases vented from a condenser  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Designers of systems that involve condensers often need to predict the amount of process vapor that accompanies the noncondensable gases that are vented from the condensers. An approximation is given that appears to provide, in many cases, reasonably accurate values for the mole ratio of process vapor to noncondensable gases in the vented mixture. The approximation is particularly applicable to flash and direct-contact power systems for geothermal brines and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). More regorous relationships are available for exceptional cases.

Lyon, R.N.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Condensing furnaces: Lessons from a utility  

SciTech Connect

for the last several years about 90% of the new natural gas furnaces installed in Wisconsin have been condensing furnaces and a number of lessons have been learned. If you avoid the common mistakes, condensing furnaces typically can deliver heating savings of 20-35 % assuming the old furnace was in the 60% AFUE range. This article describes the common mistakes and how to avoid them: outside air needed 100%; benefits of sealed combustion; follow the installation manual scrupulously; how to avoid potential problems; tips on venting.

Beers, J. [Madison Gas and Electric Company, WI (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Bose-Einstein condensation in real space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We illustrate how Bose-Einstein condensation occurs not only in momentum space but also in coordinate (or real) space. Analogies between the isotherms of a van der Waals gas of extended (or finite-diameter) identical atoms and the point (or zero-diameter) particles of an ideal Bose gas allow one to conclude that, in contrast to the van der Waals case, the volume per particle can go to zero in the pure Bose condensate phase precisely because the particle diameter is zero. PACS # 03.75.Hh; 05.30.Jp; 05.70.Fh 1 1

J. J. Valencia; M. De Llano; M. A. Solís

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

414

Interferometry using spinor Bose-Einstein condensates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the time-evolution of an optically trapped spinor Bose-Einstein condensate under the influence of a dominating magnetic bias field in the z-direction, and a perpendicular smaller field that couples the spinor states. We show that if the bias field depends quadratically on time, the relative phases of the spinor components affect the populations of the final state. This allows one to measure the differences in the time-evolution of the relative phases, thereby realizing a multi-arm interferometer in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate.

R. Vasile; H. Makela; K. -A. Suominen

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

415

Enhancing Condensers for Geothermal Systems: the Effect of High Contact Angles on Dropwise Condensation Heat Transfer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Phase change heat transfer is notorious for increasing the irreversibility of, and therefore decreasing the efficiency of, geothermal power plants. Its significant contribution to the overall irreversibility of the plant makes it the most important source of inefficiency in the process. Recent studies here have shown the promotion of drop wise condensation in the lab by means of increasing the surface energy density of a tube with nanotechnology. The use of nanotechnology has allowed the creation of surface treatments which discourage water from wetting a tube surface during a static test. These surface treatments are unique in that they create high- contact angles on the condensing tube surfaces to promote drop wise condensation.

Kennedy, John M.; Kim, Sunwoo; Kim, Kwang J.

2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

416

Condensate Filter Demineralizer Performance Improvement Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upgrading condensate filter demineralizer (CFD) performance poses a complex, challenging utility task. This report summarizes the major factors that impact CFD performance and defines a comprehensive improvement program. In specific, the report discusses hardware, filter media, and operating practices, describing each area in terms of the underlying technology, approach to optimization, and utility experience.

1997-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

417

Best Practice for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cleanrooms: Cooling Tower and Condenser Water OptimizationCleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization2 Cooling tower and condenser water

Xu, Tengfang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Re-Condensation and Liquefaction of Helium and Hydrogen Using Coolers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fluid is creating a condenser circuit that causes thecold head (attached to the condenser plate). The temperaturemagnet cold mass) and the condenser that is connected to the

Green, Michael A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Best Practice for Energy Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Efficient Cleanrooms: Cooling Tower and Condenser WaterEfficient Cleanrooms: Cooling tower and condenser water2 Cooling tower and condenser water

Xu, Tengfang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Gas injection techniques for condensate recovery and remediation of liquid banking in gas-condensate reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In gas-condensate reservoirs, gas productivity declines due to the increasing accumulation of liquids in the near wellbore region as the bottom-hole pressure declines below the… (more)

Hwang, Jongsoo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Colliding and moving Bose-Einstein condensates : studies of superfluidity and optical tweezers for condensate transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, two different sets of experiments are described. The first is an exploration of the microscopic superfluidity of dilute gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates. The second set of experiments were performed using ...

Chikkatur, Ananth P., 1975-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

FLOW BEHAVIOR OF GAS-CONDENSATE WELLS A DISSERTATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulation Input File 149 xi #12;xii #12;List of Tables 2.1 Four gas-condensate systems with different. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 5.1 Fluid characterization for a multicomponent gas-condensate system. . 113 xiii #12;xiv #12;List

423

Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

424

Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

425

Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

426

Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

427

Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

428

Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

429

Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

430

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

431

Texas Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Texas Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

432

Oklahoma Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Oklahoma Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

433

Colorado Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Colorado Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

434

Michigan Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Michigan Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

435

West Virginia Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) West Virginia Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

436

Kentucky Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Kentucky Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

437

Arkansas Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Arkansas Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

438

Utah Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Utah Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

439

North Dakota Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) North Dakota Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

440

Montana Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Montana Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Ohio Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Ohio Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

442

Kansas Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Kansas Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

443

Wyoming Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Wyoming Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

444

Florida Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Florida Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

445

Illinois Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Illinois Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

446

New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) New Mexico Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

447

Lower 48 States Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

+ Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Lower 48 States Crude Oil + Lease Condensate Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

448

Relationship Between Fog Condensation Nuclei and Fog Microstructure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of fog drop size distribution, cloud condensation nuclei and fog condensation nuclei were made at several locations along the U.S. Pacific Coast. Wide variations in fog microstructure were associated with and appeared to be mostly ...

James G. Hudson

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Film condensation of liquid metals -- precision of measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Major differences exist in results published by investigators of film condensation of liquid metal vapors. In particular, the reported dependence of the condensation coefficient on pressure has raised questions about both ...

Wilcox, Stanley James

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

451

Buffer-Gas Cooled Bose-Einstein Condensate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the creation of a Bose-Einstein condensate using buffer-gas cooling, the first realization of Bose-Einstein condensation using a broadly general method which relies neither on laser cooling nor unique atom-surface ...

Ketterle, Wolfgang

452

??Rubidium Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bose-Einstein condensates in optical lattices have proven to be a powerful tool for studying a wide variety of physics. In this thesis a series of experiments using optical lattices to manipulate 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensates ...

Campbell, Gretchen K. (Gretchen Kathleen)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Novel ground states of Bose-condensed gases  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) provide a novel tool for the study of macroscopic quantum phenomena and condensed matter systems. Two of the recent frontiers, quantized vortices and ultracold molecules, are the subject of ...

Abo-Shaeer, Jamil R

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Heat transfer during film condensation of potassium vapor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The object of this work is to investigate theoretically and experimentally the following two phases of heat transfer during condensation of potassium vapore, a. Heat transfer during film condensation of pure saturated ...

Kroger, Detlev Gustav

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center: Condenser Cleaning Equipment Maintenance Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides power plant maintenance personnel with current maintenance information on condenser cleaning systems. The report will help these personnel to improve the reliability and reduce the maintenance costs for the condenser cleaning equipment used in power plants.

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

456

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

457

Heat Exchanger Workstation Condenser Application (HEWCA), Version 2.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat Exchanger Workstation—Condenser Application (HEWCA) Version 2.0 is software used for performance analysis for steam surface condensers. Description HEWCA Version 2.0 is used to configure steam surface condensers, to run performance analyst calculations with different algorithms and to view results. The Performance Advisor Module can help the user diagnose probable causes of condenser performance deficiency. Platform Requirements Windows™ 2000 / XP / Vista

2008-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

458

Michigan Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Crude Oil plus Lease Condensate Proved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production (Million Barrels) Area: ... New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields ...

459

Development of solar driven absorption air conditioners and heat pumps  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is the development of absorption refrigeration systems for solar active heating and cooling applications. The approaches being investigated are those using air-cooled condenser-absorbers and those leading to coefficient of performances (COP) that increase continuously with heat source temperature. This is primarily an experimental project, with the emphasis on designing, fabricating and testing absorption chillers in operating regimes that are particularly suited for solar energy applications. The first phase of this project has been concluded and has experimentally demonstrated that the conventional single-effect ammonia-water absorption cycle can be used (with minor modifications) for solar cooling. The second phase of this project explores the commercial potential of the single-effect (SE) NH/sub 3//H/sub 2/O absorption air conditioner. (WHK)

Dao, K.; Wahlig, M.; Wali, E.; Rasson, J.; Molishever, E.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

FIELD OBSERVATIONS OF GAS-CONDENSATE WELL TESTING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, a commercial simulator was used to perform phase- equilibrium and property calculations based on the PengFIELD OBSERVATIONS OF GAS- CONDENSATE WELL TESTING A REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY-point pressure is impacted severely due to condensate banking around the wellbore. Condensate banking also

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "air-cooled chiller condenser" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation Jeff Maguire, Lieko Earle, and Chuck Booten National Renewable Energy Laboratory C.E. Hancock Mountain Energy Partnership Produced under direction of the Sacramento Municipal Utilities District by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under Interagency Agreement CRD-05-168 and Task No WR49.3000. Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-52234 October 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308

462

Steam And Condensate Diagnostic Expert System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the outcome of a collaborative project to develop an operational expert system prototype that will help mill operators and engineers to troubleshoot and optimize the steam and condensate portion of paper machine dryer sections. The functionality of the prototype and results of mill validation tests are described. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this paper is to follow up on the status of a collaborative expert system (ES) development project presented at the 80th (1994) CPPA Technical Section Meeting. [1] The global objective of this one-year project was to apply the capabilities of expert systems to a paper machine, through the development of a practical operational prototype that assists operators to increase productivity and efficiency. Specifically, this Paper Drying Expert System (PDES) helps them to troubleshoot and optimize the steam and condensate (S&C) portion of the drying section of a paper machine. The project began in September 1993 and was completed in ...

Amyot Gowing Wylie; R. Amyot; J. Gowing; R. Wylie; R. Henzell; J. Futcher; J. Reinsborough; A. Coderre; P. Henzell; O. Vadas; Coulter Place

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Condensation temperature trends among stars with planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results from detailed spectroscopic analyses of stars hosting massive planets are employed to search for trends between abundances and condensation temperatures. The elements C, S, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn are included in the analysis of 64 stars with planets and 33 comparison stars. No significant trends are evident in the data. This null result suggests that accretion of rocky material onto the photospheres of stars with planets is not the primary explanation for their high metallicities. However, the differences between the solar photospheric and meteoritic abundances do display a weak but significant trend with condensation temperature. This suggests that the metallicity of the sun's envelope has been enriched relative to its interior by about 0.07 dex.

Guillermo Gonzalez

2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

464

Alleviation of effective permeability reduction of gas-condensate due to condensate buildup near wellbore  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When the reservoir pressure is decreased below dew point pressure of the gas near the wellbore, gas-condensate wells start to decrease production because condensate is separated from the gas around the wellbore causing a decrease in gas relative permeability. This effect is more dramatic if the permeability of the reservoir is low. The idea proposed for reducing this problem is to eliminate the irreducible water saturation near the wellbore to leave more space for the gas to flow and therefore increase the productivity of the well. In this research a simulation study was performed to determine the range of permeabilities where the cylinder of condensate will seriously affect the wellÂ?s productivity, and the distance the removal of water around the wellbore has to be extended in order to have acceleration of production and an increase in the final reserves. A compositional-radial reservoir was simulated with one well in the center of 109 grids. Three gas-condensate fluids with different heptanes plus compositions ( 4, 8 and 11 mole %), and two irreducible water saturations were used. The fitting of the Equation of State (EOS) was performed using the method proposed by Aguilar and McCain. Several simulations were performed with several permeabilities to determine the permeabilities for which the productivity is not affected by the presence of the cylinder of condensate. At constant permeability, various radii of a region of zero initial water saturation around the wellbore were simulated and comparisons of the effects of removal of irreducible water on productivity were made. Reservoirs with permeabilities lower than 100 mD showed a reduction in the ultimate reserves due to the cylinder of condensate. The optimal radius of water removal depends on the fluid composition and the irreducible water saturation of the reservoir. The expected increase in reserves due to water removal varies from 10 to 80 % for gas production and from 4 to 30% for condensate production.

Carballo Salas, Jose Gilberto

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Condensate Demineralizer System Evaluation of Pilgrim  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feedwater iron concentration at Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station has consistently exceeded the EPRI Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Water Chemistry Guideline 1996 Revision optimal upper range of 1.5 ppb. Pilgrim's concentrations also exceed the proposed 1999 Revision upper range of 3.0 ppb for deep-bed-only plants. This report presents an evaluation of condensate polishing practices at this deep-bed-only plant; it illustrates that feedwater iron can be significantly reduced through improved operation and mainte...

1999-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

466

Pion condensation in a dense neutrino gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We argue that using an equilibrated gas of neutrinos it is possible to probe the phase diagram of QCD for finite isospin and small baryon chemical potentials. We discuss this region of the phase diagram in detail and demonstrate that for large enough neutrino densities a Bose-Einstein condensate of positively charged pions arises. Moreover, we show that for nonzero neutrino density the degeneracy in the lifetimes and masses of the charged pions is lifted.

Hiroaki Abuki; Tomas Brauner; Harmen J. Warringa

2009-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

467

Massive Graviton on a Spatial Condensation Web  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Starting from general relativity and 3 canonical free scalar fields, the background solution spontaneously breaks the Lorentz symmetry, gives rise to a spatial condensation scenario. Such model can be considered as a simplest massive gravity theory. The effective field theory approach in our scenario is valid up to the quantum gravity scale, say, Plank scale. We then apply our massive gravity theory to inflation, the graviton mass removes the IR divergence of the inflationary loop diagram.

Chunshan Lin

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

468

New silicotitanate molecular sieve and condensed phases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent application relates to an invention for a new silicotitanate molecular sieve ion exchange material for the capture and immobilization of divalent cations from aqueous and/or hydrocarbon solutions, including elements such as radioactive strontium or industrial RCRA metal cations. The invention also relates to the ability to either recycle the captured metal for future use or to encapsulate the cation through thermal treatment of the molecular sieve to a condensed phase.

Nenoff, Tina M.; Nyman, May D.

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the Mascot home, an abandoned property that was extensively renovated. Several efficiency upgrades were integrated into this home, of particular interest, a unique water heater (a Navien CR240-A). Field monitoring was performed to determine the in-use efficiency of the hybrid condensing water heater. The results were compared to the unit's rated efficiency. This unit is Energy Star qualified and one of the most efficient gas water heaters currently available on the market.

Maguire, J.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Hancock, C. E.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

THE COLOUR GLASS CONDENSATE: AN INTRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In these lectures, the authors develop the theory of the Colour Glass Condensate. This is the matter made of gluons in the high density environment characteristic of deep inelastic scattering or hadron-hadron collisions at very high energy. The lectures are self contained and comprehensive. They start with a phenomenological introduction, develop the theory of classical gluon fields appropriate for the Colour Glass, and end with a derivation and discussion of the renormalization group equations which determine this effective theory.

IANCU,E.; LEONIDOV,A.; MCLERRAN,L.

2001-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

471

Quantum phases of dipolar spinor condensates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the zero-temperature ground state structure of a spin-1 condensate with magnetic dipole-dipole interactions. We show that the dipolar interactions break the rotational symmetry of the Hamiltonian and induce new quantum phases. Different phases can be reached by tuning the effective strength of the dipolar interactions via modifying the trapping geometry. The experimental feasibility of detecting these phases is investigated. The spin-mixing dynamics is also studied.

S. Yi; L. You; H. Pu

2004-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

472

Aerosol Condensational Growth in Cloud Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A code for the quasi-stationary solution of the coupled heat and mass transport equations for aerosols in a finite volume was developed. Both mass and heat are conserved effectively in the volume, which results in a competitive aerosol condensation growth computational model. A further model that couples this competitive aerosol condensation growth computational model with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software (ANSYS FLUENT) enables the simulation of the realistic atmospheric environment. One or more air parcels, where the aerosols reside, are placed in a very big volume in order to mimic the large atmospheric environment. Mass (water vapor) and heat transportat between the air parcels and the environment facilitates the growth and prevents the parcels from unrealistically overheating. The suppression of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) growth by high number densities was quantified by our model study. Model study with organic particles (Lmalic acid and maleic acid) indicates that when these organic species and ammonium sulfate are internally mixed, the particles can grow much more than if they are separately associated with distinct particles. Moreover, by using more multiple air parcels, which are randomly assigned with different initial relative humidity values according to a power law distribution, we studied the effects of atmospheric stochastic RH distribution on the growth of CCN.

Geng, Jun

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

High-sulfur Coal Desulfurization for Oxyfuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reclaim waste heat while delivering chilling Ammonia bottoming cycle with air-cooled condenser, could use a mixture organic working fluids to maximize conversion from waste heat...

474

Categorical Exclusion Determinations: Office of Energy Efficiency...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Categorical Exclusion Determination Optimization of Hybrid-WaterAir-Cooled Condenser In an Enhanced Turbine Geothermal Organic Rankine Cycle System CX(s) Applied: B3.6,...

475

Nevada - State Energy Profile Analysis - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... commercial buildings ... a natural gas-fueled plant that utilizes North America’s largest air cooled condenser system and a water clarifier system that recycles ...

476

Influence of current mass on the spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is known that, in the chiral limit, spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate occurs in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model at finite density within a mean-field approximation. We study here how an introduction of current quark mass affects the ground state with the spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate. Numerical calculations show that, even if the current quark mass is introduced, the spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate can take place. In order to obtain the ground state, the thermodynamic potential is calculated with a mean-field approximation. The influence of finite current mass on the thermodynamic potential consists of following two parts. One is a part coming from the field energy of the condensate, which favors inhomogeneous chiral condensate. The other is a part coming from the Dirac sea and the Fermi sea, which favors homogeneous chiral condensate. We also find that when the spatially inhomogeneous chiral condensate occurs, the baryon number density becomes spatially inhomogeneous.

Shinji Maedan

2009-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

477

NETL: Gasification  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cooling system with half of the turbine exhaust steam condensed in an air-cooled condenser and half in a water-cooled condenser. The SNG and ammonia co-production cases (third...

478

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

479

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 17 20 18 15 15 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 1,412 1,112 837 731 467 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 1,412 1,112 837 731 467 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 1,412 1,112 837 731 467 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 198 3 0 0 0 Marketed Production

480

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

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481

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

482

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

483

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

484

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 7,279 6,446 3,785 3,474 3,525 Total................................................................... 7,279 6,446 3,785 3,474 3,525 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 7,279 6,446 3,785 3,474 3,525 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 788 736 431

485

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 15,206 15,357 16,957 17,387 18,120 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 463,929 423,672 401,396 369,624 350,413 From Oil Wells.................................................. 63,222 57,773 54,736 50,403 47,784 Total................................................................... 527,151 481,445 456,132 420,027 398,197 Repressuring ...................................................... 896 818 775 714 677 Vented and Flared.............................................. 527 481 456 420 398 Wet After Lease Separation................................

486

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 9 8 7 9 6 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 368 305 300 443 331 From Oil Wells.................................................. 1 1 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 368 307 301 443 331 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 368 307 301 443 331 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

487

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 98 96 106 109 111 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 869 886 904 1,187 1,229 From Oil Wells.................................................. 349 322 288 279 269 Total................................................................... 1,218 1,208 1,193 1,466 1,499 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 5 12 23 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 1,218 1,208 1,188 1,454 1,476 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed .....................

488

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 4 4 4 4 4 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 7 7 6 6 5 Total................................................................... 7 7 6 6 5 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 7 7 6 6 5 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

489

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

490

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

491

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

492

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

493

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

494

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

495

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 380 350 400 430 280 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 1,150 2,000 2,050 1,803 2,100 Total................................................................... 1,150 2,000 2,050 1,803 2,100 Repressuring ...................................................... NA NA NA 0 NA Vented and Flared.............................................. NA NA NA 0 NA Wet After Lease Separation................................ 1,150 2,000 2,050 1,803 2,100 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed .....................

496

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

497

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 1 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 1,502 1,533 1,545 2,291 2,386 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 899 1,064 1,309 1,464 3,401 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 899 1,064 1,309 1,464 3,401 Repressuring ...................................................... NA NA NA 0 NA Vented and Flared.............................................. NA NA NA 0 NA Wet After Lease Separation................................ 899 1,064 1,309 1,464 3,401 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed .....................

498

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

499

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

3 3 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................

500

Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells Producing at End of Year ................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Production (million cubic feet) Gross Withdrawals From Gas Wells................................................ 0 0 0 0 0 From Oil Wells.................................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Total................................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Repressuring ...................................................... 0 0 0 0 0 Vented and Flared.............................................. 0 0 0 0 0 Wet After Lease Separation................................ 0 0 0 0 0 Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed ..................... 0 0 0 0 0 Marketed Production ..........................................