Sample records for air-conditioning cooking water

  1. The Full Water Disposal Ways and Study on Central Air-conditioning Circulation Cooling Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper has been made the further study about the water quality issue of the central air-conditioning circulation cooling water. Based on the comparison of the existing common adopted disposal ways, put forward the new ways of combination...

  2. Feasibility of Municipal Water Mains as Heat Sink for Residential Air-Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been proposed that municipal water mains be used as the heat sink or the heat source for air-conditioning or heating, respectively. This paper addresses the extent of thermal contamination associated with the use of municipal water...

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  5. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  6. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  7. Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS...

  8. Energy Consumption Measuring and Diagnostic Analysis of Air-conditioning Water System in a Hotel Building in Harbin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, T.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces an air-conditioning water system in a hotel building in Harbin, finishes its air-conditioning energy consumption measurement in summer conditions, and presents an estimation index of performance of chiller, pump and motor...

  9. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  10. Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, C.; Wang, S.; Chen, H.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the heating and air-conditioning system of a high-rise residential building in Northern city, this paper provides a discussion on the choice and matching of different types of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump (WWRHP) heating and air...

  11. Advances in the development of energy efficient technologies: Sea Water Air Conditioning (SWAC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coony, J.E. [Boston Pacific Co., Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sea water air conditioning (SWAC) is a cost effective and environmentally friendly alternative to and/or enhancement of air conditioning from mechanical chillers. SWAC pumps cold sea water from the appropriate ocean depths (50 to 3,000 feet depending on the climate and local characteristics) to the shore where it replaces (by direct cooling) or enhances (through use as condenser water) large mechanical chillers found in coastal facilities. SWAC direct cooling uses less than twenty per cent of the electricity of a mechanical chiller and uses no refrigerants whatsoever. Indirect cooling also offers substantial energy savings. Both systems dispense with the need for a cooling tower. Technical advances over the last twenty years in corrosion resistant alloys (titanium or aluminum), bio-fouling deterrence, and deep ocean pipeline deployment allow SWAC installations to use reliable, off-the-shelf technology. SWAC works in a variety of climates (existing installations are in Hawaii and Halifax, Nova Scotia), giving it significant domestic and international potential. Economy-of-scale advantages make it attractive to district cooling schemes.

  12. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  13. Application of Genetic Algorithm to Optimal Design of Central Air-Conditioning Water System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, X.; Zou, Y.; Long, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .25 150 121.86 0.1182 1.92 200 131.55 0.0218 376.9729 1.0864 19 19 20 4.5 150 99.58 0.1013 1.57 150 107.18 0.1013 1163.561 1.6857 20 20 21 1.8 80 22.29 0.965 1.17 65 24.28 2.3884 1408.019 1.8046 21 22 23 1 80 22.29 0.5361 1.17 80 24.24 0.5361 315.0493... Wuxi, P. R. China, 214122 Shanghai? P. R. China, 200070 fxp_99@126.com Zouyun_22@126.com WeidingLong@163.com Abstract: The optimal design of air-conditioning water system is an optimization problem of functions that depend on a series...

  14. Cooking with Canned Tuna (packed in water)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    E-75 12/08 Cooking with Canned Tuna (packed in water) Tuna is a nutritious source of protein, iron, and niacin. Because it is already cooked, it can be eaten right out of the can or used to make your favorite tuna dishes. A serving of tuna is 2...- by 13-inch baking dish. 4. Bake it at 350 degrees F for 30 to 35 minutes. Let it stand for about 10 minutes before serving. Note: You can also use 2 cups of cooked rice instead of macaroni. Quick Tuna Spread (makes 4 servings, ? cup each) Tuna...

  15. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  16. Comparative Study Between Air-Cooled and Water-Cooled Condensers of the Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maheshwari, G. P.; Mulla Ali, A. A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The weather in Kuwait is very dry where the dry-bulb temperature exceeds the wet-bulb temperature more than 20oC in most of the summer months. Thus, the air-conditioning (A/C) system with the water-cooled (WC) condensers is expected to perform more...

  17. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  18. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  19. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  20. Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H.; Li, D.; Dai, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the situation of waste water resource in north China and the characteristics and styles of a waste water resource heat pump system, and analyzes the economic feasibility of a waste water resource heat pump air...

  1. Deemed Savings Estimates for Legacy Air Conditioning and WaterHeating Direct Load Control Programs in PJM Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During 2005 and 2006, the PJM Interconnection (PJM) Load Analysis Subcommittee (LAS) examined ways to reduce the costs and improve the effectiveness of its existing measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for Direct Load Control (DLC) programs. The current M&V protocol requires that a PURPA-compliant Load Research study be conducted every five years for each Load-Serving Entity (LSE). The current M&V protocol is expensive to implement and administer particularly for mature load control programs, some of which are marginally cost-effective. There was growing evidence that some LSEs were mothballing or dropping their DLC programs in lieu of incurring the expense associated with the M&V. This project had several objectives: (1) examine the potential for developing deemed savings estimates acceptable to PJM for legacy air conditioning and water heating DLC programs, and (2) explore the development of a collaborative, regional, consensus-based approach for conducting monitoring and verification of load reductions for emerging load management technologies for customers that do not have interval metering capability.

  2. The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy consumption of chiller and chiller water pump was taken as the objective function of the optimization model. The performance characteristics of a chiller, water pump, regulation valve and pipeline are taken into account, and the optimization...

  3. The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy consumption of chiller and chiller water pump was taken as the objective function of the optimization model. The performance characteristics of a chiller, water pump, regulation valve and pipeline are taken into account, and the optimization...

  4. TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    TTProblem A Air Conditioning Machinery Input file: ducts.in You are a technician for the Air Conditioning Machinery company (ACM). Unfortunately, when you arrive at a customer site to install some air conditioning ducts, you discover that you are running low on supplies. You have only six duct segments

  5. The Earth-Coupled or Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagers, H. L.; Wagers, M. C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pump and the desuperheater as the latest developments in energy efficient air conditioning and water heating....

  6. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  7. The Effect of Pressure Difference Control on Hydraulic Stability in a Variable Flow Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Z.; Fu, Y.; Chen, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes the effects of different pressure difference control methods on hydraulic stability in a variable flow air conditioning system when it is applied to different air conditioning water systems. According to control method and water...

  8. Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant...

  9. air conditioning desarrollo: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abdalla, K. N. 2010-01-01 36 Economic Analysis and Comparison of Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Heating and Air-Conditioning System Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: Based...

  10. A New Approach to Industrial Air Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gravenstreter, T.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -dryer Systems Division, has marketed industrial drying machinery. These heat reactivated dryers can handle latent loads in industrial air conditioning systems. Through waste heat conservation, air conditioning costs can be reduced 25 to 50%, with applications...

  11. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  12. Cooking with Cooked Ham

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    ? teaspoon ground cinnamon (if you like) ? teaspoon ground cloves (if you like) 3-pound fully cooked whole ham How to make it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area is clean. 2. Peel and squeeze the orange; keep...

  13. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

  14. Alternative Refrigerants for Building Air Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bivens, D. B.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The majority of building air conditioning has traditionally been achieved with vapor compression technology using CFC-I I or HCFC-22 as refrigerant fluids. CFC-11 is being successfully replaced by HCFC-123 (retrofit or new equipment) or by HFC- 134a...

  15. Seawater Air Conditioning for Downtown Engineering Project Manager

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frandsen, Jannette B.

    Seawater Air Conditioning for Downtown Honolulu Scott Higa Engineering Project Manager Honolulu Seawater Air Conditioning, LLC Abstract As a tropical island state, Hawaii has a year-round demand for air conditioning. Conventional air conditioning systems are energy intensive and represent close to 50 percent

  16. The Earth-Coupled or Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagers, H. L.; Wagers, M. C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    " and next at proper home insulation, window coverings, etc. The other electrical appliances in the home use relatively minor amounts of electricity compared to the air conditioning and hot water heating system. This paper will describe the geothermal heat...

  17. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an {open_quotes}upsized{close_quotes} condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  18. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. (Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an [open quotes]upsized[close quotes] condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  19. Alternatives to Electric Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsay, B. B.; Koplow, M. D.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of an engine-driven chiller is very fundamental. The electric motor: which drives the refrigerant compressor, is replaced with an engine. (Each prime mover has a shaft that rotates and transmits power.) Gas engine-driven chillers can capitalize... on the advances in compressor technology that have made electric air conditioning so attractive. The relative prices of natural gas and electricity will determine the best choice. An electric chiller may have a COP of 5.5. The gas engine chiller, because its...

  20. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamos Laboratory NastasiPASTCentral Air Conditioning

  1. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    heaters are examples of TCLs. They use local hysteresis control to maintain either air or water units and water heaters is developed in [7] using detailed physical models. In all the aforementioned for a large fraction of electric demand. HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and air conditioning) systems and water

  2. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  3. Donald Cook

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dr. Donald L. Cook serves as the Deputy Administrator for Defense Programs at the National Nuclear Security Administration. Appointed to the position by President Barack Obama, Dr. Cook was sworn...

  4. air conditioning technology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology moisture from the...

  5. air conditioning technologies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology moisture from the...

  6. air conditioning equipments: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    introducing or upgrading... analyses using BEMS data, ?) additional actual measurement data analyses and ?) HVAC system simulations using LCEM tool. The detailed air-conditioned...

  7. air conditioning equipment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    introducing or upgrading... analyses using BEMS data, ?) additional actual measurement data analyses and ?) HVAC system simulations using LCEM tool. The detailed air-conditioned...

  8. air conditioning load: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J.; Deying, L. 2006-01-01 2 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: 1...

  9. air conditioning loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: 1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an...

  10. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  11. STATE OF CALIFORNIA ICE STORAGE AIR CONDITIONING (ISAC) UNITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cooling with the compressor). Yes No #12;STATE OF CALIFORNIA ICE STORAGE AIR CONDITIONING (ISAC) UNITS CEC/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-08 Ice Storage Air Conditioning (ISAC) Units being full of ice. Verify that the system is operates properly in the Idle mode (i.e., the compressor

  12. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq (Taichung, TW); Weng, Kuo-Liang (Taichung, TW)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  13. Cooking with Macaroni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2001-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    with a tomato, meat or cheese sauce. You can also use it in soups, salads and casseroles. How to prepare it To cook macaroni, bring a large pot of water to a boil. Add the dry macaroni and stir it. Bring the water back to a boil and cook it for about 8... tomatoes 15- or 16-ounce can pinto or red beans, drained 1 cup uncooked macaroni 1 1 /2 cups water 2 to 3 teaspoons chili powder (if you like) 1 /4 teaspoon garlic powder (if you like) 1...

  14. Innovative Systems for Solar Air Conditioning of Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessling, W.; Peltzer, M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for a high efficient utilization of solar thermal energy. To show the today's and near future potential innovative solar cooling and air conditioning systems are discussed which are well adapted to the utilization of solar energy. The system performance...

  15. Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar radiation through an air conditioned building depends on what is called the building envelope. Building envelope consists of the surfaces that separate the inside from the building outdoors. Area, direction, and specifications of glass...

  16. Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar radiation through an air conditioned building depends on what is called the building envelope. Building envelope consists of the surfaces that separate the inside from the building outdoors. Area, direction, and specifications of glass...

  17. air conditioning energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R. Parameshwaran; R. Karunakaran; S. Iniyan; A. Samuel 7 Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions Texas A&M University - TxSpace...

  18. air conditioning installations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K. 2010-01-01 98 Implementation of Smart Operation Strategies for Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems for Ministries Complex in the State of Kuwait Texas A&M University -...

  19. Identifying Efficiency Degrading Faults in Split Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrill, T. J.; Brown, M. L.; Cheyne, R. W. Jr.; Cousins, A. J.; Daniels, B. P.; Erb, K. L.; Garcia, P. A.; Leutermann, M. J.; Nel, A. J.; Robert, C. L.; Widger, S. B.; Williams, A. G.; Rasmussen, B. P.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies estimate that as much as 50% of packaged air conditioning systems operate in faulty conditions that degrade system efficiency. Common faults include: under- and over-charged systems (too much or too little refrigerant), faulty expansions...

  20. The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holley, James Andrew

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis James Andrew Holley Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1978 Major SubJect: Mechanical Engineering THE INVESTIGATION OF EXHAUST POWERED, AUTOMOTIVE AIR CYCLE AIR CONDITIONING A Thesis hy James Andrew Holley Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departm nt) Memb e...

  1. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Storey, Bill; Patterson, Michael K.

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this demonstration was to show how sensors in IT equipment could be accessed and used to directly control computer room air conditioning. The data provided from the sensors is available on the IT network and the challenge for this project was to connect this information to the computer room air handler's control system. A control strategy was developed to enable separate control of the chilled water flow and the fans in the computer room air handlers. By using these existing sensors in the IT equipment, an additional control system is eliminated (or could be redundant) and optimal cooling can be provided saving significant energy. Using onboard server temperature sensors will yield significant energy reductions in data centers. Intel hosted the demonstration in its Santa Clara, CA data center. Intel collaborated with IBM, HP, Emerson, Wunderlich-Malec Engineers, FieldServer Technologies, and LBNL to install the necessary components and develop the new control scheme. LBNL also validated the results of the demonstration.

  2. 851 S.W. Sixth Avenue, Suite 1100 Steve Crow 503-222-5161 Portland, Oregon 97204-1348 Executive Director 800-452-5161

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Not Covered Today Heating Ventilation & Air ConditioningHeating Ventilation & Air Conditioning Process Loads:Process Loads: ­­ Cooking, water heating, refrigeration,Cooking, water heating, refrigeration, computing, sewage

  3. Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    or More Units... 5.4 0.7 Q 0.5 Q Central Air-Conditioning Usage Air-Conditioned Floorspace (Square Feet)...

  4. Gas Powered Air Conditioning Absorption vs. Engine-Drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J. N.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It used to be that the only alternative to costly electric air conditioning was the double-effect gas-fired absorption chiller/heaters. Beginning in the 1980's, they were the "star" equipment promoted by gas companies throughout the nation. Although...

  5. air conditioning absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conditioning absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Gas Powered Air Conditioning...

  6. Outdoor Cooking.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglas, Jenoyce; Reasonover, Frances

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ham slices; sirloin, T-bone; rib and ribeye steaks; lamb or pork chops; beef or lamb cubes or patties; Cana. dian bacon; and some varieties of sausage; fryers and fish. Some outdoor cooks prefer a large sirloin steak about 1% inches thick. Allow 1..., sirloin tips and high /-I quality (low choice) chuck and arm roasts are suitable for this 0 .' type of cooking. Lamb, pork and bologna may also be used. / (-)/ Poultry for this method include rock cornish game hen, broiler 1 \\ or fryer, roaster...

  7. Comparison of global warming impacts of automobile air-conditioning concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The global warming impacts of conventional vapor compression automobile air conditioning using HFC-134a are compared with the potential impacts of four alternative concepts. Comparisons are made on the basis of total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) which accounts for the effects of refrigerant emissions, energy use to provide comfort cooling, and fuel consumed to transport the weight of the air conditioning system. Under the most favorable assumptions on efficiency and weight, transcritical compression using CO{sub 2} as the refrigerant and adsorption cooling with water and zeolite beds could reduce TEWI by up to 18%rlative to HFC-134a compression air conditioning. Other assumptions on weight and efficiency lead to significant increases in TEWI relative to HFC-134a, and it is impossible to determine which set of assumptios is valid from existing data, Neither Stirling cycle or thermoelectric cooling will reduce TEWI relative to EFC-134a. Brief comments are also made concerning technical barriers that must be overcome for succesful development of the new technologies.

  8. The investigation of exhaust powered, automotive air cycle air conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holley, James Andrew

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    domestic automobiles and trucks because of its proven success. This system requires approximately 4 hp (2. 983 kW)[3] for operation snd employs a pressurized fluorinated hydrocarbon (R-12), hereafter fluorocarbon, as a refrigerant. Most of the research... extraction and avoid the use of a fluorocarbon refrigerant. The maJority of work involved with the new units has associated itself in the area of utilizing an absorption cycle or air cycle. The absorption air conditioning unit differs significantly from...

  9. Vegetables: Selection, Care, Cooking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reasonover, Frances; Mason, Louise; Tribble, Marie; Cox, Maeona

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    them well on absorbent paper; salt and serve them hot. How to Steam Vegetables A steamer is a pan with a rack and a tight cover. Place enough water in the steamer to form sufficient steam, but do not let the water touch the rack. Place... the vegetable on the rack, time is somewhat longer than for boiling. cover the steamer and let the water boil vigor- Steaming is more satisfactory for white, yel- ously. Since the vegetables are cooked entirely low and red vegetables than for green vege...

  10. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

  11. Innovative Systems for Solar Air Conditioning of Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessling, W.; Peltzer, M.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kessling@transsolar.com Dipl.-Ing. Matthias PELTZER Technical Director L-DCS Technology GmbH Muenchener Str. 101, 85737 Ismaning b. Munich matthias.peltzer@l-dcs.com ABSTRACT Solar air conditioning is an attractive technology to achieve comfortable room... states (4). The room return air (5) is used in a latent heat recovery (6) (psychometric process see Figure 4). To illuminate the excellent system performance a typical cooling load profile for a standard office build- ing in the hot and humid climate...

  12. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  13. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  14. Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsamni, O. A.; Sahmarani, K.J.; Obied, F. K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple prototype air conditioning unit driven entirely by solar energy is proposed aiming at replacing the conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems which are reasonable for the global warming. The proposed model is supposed...

  15. Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsamni, O. A.; Sahmarani, K.J.; Obied, F. K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple prototype air conditioning unit driven entirely by solar energy is proposed aiming at replacing the conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems which are reasonable for the global warming. The proposed model is supposed...

  16. Vegetables: Selection, Care, Cooking.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reasonover, Frances; Mason, Louise; Tribble, Marie; Cox, Maeona

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Pour into a well greased casserole. Set in a pan of hot water. Bake at 350" F. about 45 minutes or until firm. Serves six. Spinach, Swiss chard, artichoke hearts or aspara- gus may be substituted for broccoli. CASSEROLE OF BRUSSELS SPROUTS Heat... ring mold. .. -. Bake in pan of hot water at 350" F. 30 minutes, or until knife comes out clean. Unmold on warm plat- ter. Serves six. 2 packages frozen 2 tablespoons tarragon chopped spinach vinegar 1/2 teaspoon salt 2 hard-cooked eggs, 2...

  17. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  18. Pearl millet: parboiling methods and factors affecting the process and cooked product

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clegg, Chally Joel

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) required to extrude the cooked millet through the extrusion grids. Color was evaluated for cooked nonparboiled and parboiled (BSB air, SB air) pearl millet at 22 min cooking time using a Hunterlab Tristimulus Color Meter. Minimum Cook Time (MCT). MCT... was determined by the method described by Ranghino (1966). Ranghino defined MCT as 9 out of 10 (90%) cooked kernels without an opaque center in the endosperm. A portion of decorticated parboiled and nonparboiled pearl millet was cooked in excess water. Ten...

  19. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

  20. Off-peak air conditioning; A major energy saver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacCracken, C.D.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, the mission given to manufacturers is changing to include saving energy (kWh). Until now, saving energy was ignored because the utilities were happy to fill their night valley to reach a higher load factor. There also was a general feeling that making ice was much less efficient than standard air conditioning, and that anyone saying otherwise was a dreamer. This article discusses the energy savings based on the more prevalent ice storage technology, the similar suction temperatures of the various types of ice storage, and how storage is applied. Included are baseload power generation, partial storage with chiller priority, using air cooled condensers when making ice at night, colder duct air, heat recovery, central rooftop systems, smart controls, electric/gas combinations, supply side transmission and distribution losses, and cooling of air entering gas turbine generators during peak conditions.

  1. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This memo explains what Berkeley Lab has learned about how the residential central air-conditioning (CAC) end use is represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is an energy model maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that is routinely used in analysis of energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. As part of analyzing utility and environmental impacts related to the federal rulemaking for residential CAC, lower-than-expected peak utility results prompted Berkeley Lab to investigate the input load shapes that characterize the peaky CAC end use and the submodule that treats load demand response. Investigations enabled a through understanding of the methodology by which hourly load profiles are input to the model and how the model is structured to respond to peak demand. Notably, it was discovered that NEMS was using an October-peaking load shape to represent residential space cooling, which suppressed peak effects to levels lower than expected. An apparent scaling down of the annual load within the load-demand submodule was found, another significant suppressor of the peak impacts. EIA promptly responded to Berkeley Lab's discoveries by updating numerous load shapes for the AEO2002 version of NEMS; EIA is still studying the scaling issue. As a result of this work, it was concluded that Berkeley Lab's customary end-use decrement approach was the most defensible way for Berkeley Lab to perform the recent CAC utility impact analysis. This approach was applied in conjunction with the updated AEO2002 load shapes to perform last year's published rulemaking analysis. Berkeley Lab experimented with several alternative approaches, including modifying the CAC efficiency level, but determined that these did not sufficiently improve the robustness of the method or results to warrant their implementation. Work in this area will continue in preparation for upcoming rulemakings for the other peak coincident end uses, commercial air conditioning and distribution transformers.

  2. Cooking with Cornmeal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    and onion in a skillet until the ground beef is crumbly; drain off any excess fat. 3. In a bowl, mix the corn, tomato sauce, chili powder, cornmeal and water. Add the cooked ground beef and onion. 4. Place mixture in a casserole dish and bake at 350... degrees F for 45 minutes. 5. Remove the dish from the oven. Sprinkle the cheese on the top. 6. Bake the casserole for 10 minutes or until the cheese is melted. Cornmeal Mix (makes about 5? cups of mix) Cornbread (makes 12 servings, each 2 by 2? inches...

  3. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  4. Cascade Reverse Osmosis Air Conditioning System: Cascade Reverse Osmosis and the Absorption Osmosis Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Battelle is developing a new air conditioning system that uses a cascade reverse osmosis (RO)-based absorption cycle. Analyses show that this new cycle can be as much as 60% more efficient than vapor compression, which is used in 90% of air conditioners. Traditional vapor-compression systems use polluting liquids for a cooling effect. Absorption cycles use benign refrigerants such as water, which is absorbed in a salt solution and pumped as liquid—replacing compression of vapor. The refrigerant is subsequently separated from absorbing salt using heat for re-use in the cooling cycle. Battelle is replacing thermal separation of refrigerant with a more efficient reverse osmosis process. Research has shown that the cycle is possible, but further investment will be needed to reduce the number of cascade reverse osmosis stages and therefore cost.

  5. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  6. Energy Performance Comparison of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems for Multi-Family Residential Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing

    2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The type of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system has a large impact on the heating and cooling energy consumption in multifamily residential buildings. This paper compares the energy performance of three HVAC systems: a direct expansion (DX) split system, a split air source heat pump (ASHP) system, and a closed-loop water source heat pump (WSHP) system with a boiler and an evaporative fluid cooler as the central heating and cooling source. All three systems use gas furnace for heating or heating backup. The comparison is made in a number of scenarios including different climate conditions, system operation schemes and applicable building codes. It is found that with the minimum code-compliant equipment efficiency, ASHP performs the best among all scenarios except in extremely code climates. WSHP tends to perform better than the split DX system in cold climates but worse in hot climates.

  7. air conditioning applications: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    chillers use the most environmentally friendly refrigerant - water... the Absorption. chiller. If a million Btulshr of hot water can be used from the heat of the engine, at...

  8. air-conditioned office buildings: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2. Adsorption versus absorptionAssessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven adsorption cooling systems for vehicle air conditioning and refrigeration Amir Sharafian,...

  9. air-conditioning units part: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the green building of the Shanghai Institute of Architectural Science, a solar-powered adsorption air-conditioning system was designed. The operational performance under a...

  10. automotive air-conditioning system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the green building of the Shanghai Institute of Architectural Science, a solar-powered adsorption air-conditioning system was designed. The operational performance under a...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioning automatic Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exhaust air... conditions. Because of these external demands, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air... monitors include a remote alarm signal andor automatic...

  12. air-conditioning equipment lorentz: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Topic Index 1 Smart School Symposium Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Session Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: Smart School Symposium Heating...

  13. Beef -- Selection, Care, Cooking.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Maeona; Mason, Louise; Tribble, Marie; Reasonover, Frances

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Some people prefer rare meat cooked only to 140 degrees F. Others think well-done meat should have a slight pink? color, which can be obtained by cooking only to 170 degrees F. *This method of cooking was developed in the Department of Home...

  14. Cooking with Ground Pork

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    to thaw. Even when cooked, pork that has been thawed at room temperature can make you sick. Cooking ground pork safely For dishes that contain ground pork, cook the pork before mixing it with other ingredients. How to store cooked ground pork Leftover... dishes made with ground pork should be stored in a covered dish in the refrigerator right away to prevent spoilage. Use it within 3 days. Reheat foods with ground pork until they are steaming hot, bubbling, or at 165 degrees. Other uses Use cooked...

  15. Intelligent Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1 Intelligent Residential Air-Conditioning System with Smart-Grid Functionality Auswin George residential air-conditioning (A/C) system controller that has smart grid functionality. The qualifier, conditional on anticipated retail energy prices. The term "smart- grid functionality" means that retail energy

  16. Experimental Investigation on the Operation Performance of a Liquid Desiccant Air-conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Wu, Z.; Gu, W.; Zhang, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A large share of energy consumption is taken by an air-conditioning system. It worsens the electricity load of the power network. Therefore, more and more scholars are paying attention to research on new types of air-conditioning systems...

  17. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems Michael Wetter available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library development is focused on the develop- ment of models for building heating, ventilation and air

  18. A web based CBR system for heating ventilation and air conditioning systems sales support

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Ian

    A web based CBR system for heating ventilation and air conditioning systems sales support D describes the implementation of a case-based reasoning (CBR) system to support heating ventilation and air. Introduction Western Air is a distributor of heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems

  19. Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning...

  20. Investigating the Performance of Solar Air Conditioning Motivation/Background Findings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -thermal collectors We investigated 3 types of solar cooling technologies: · Air conditioning consumes 10% of all collector size is a critical limiting factor of solar air conditioners · High driving temperatureInvestigating the Performance of Solar Air Conditioning Motivation/Background Findings Two Building

  1. Optimization of the Fin Heat Pipe for Ventilating and Air Conditioning with a Genetic Algorithm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, J.; Sun, D.; Li, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper illustrates that use of a heat pipe as a heat-reclaiming device can significantly influence the air-conditioning system. It analyzes the heat transfer model of the uniform annular fin heat pipe under the condition of air conditioning...

  2. air conditioning heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar air collector PV-panel fannon-return valve DHW tank mantle cold waterhot water roof Solar Energy Centre Denmark Danish Technological Institute SEC-R-29 12;Solar air heating...

  3. September 10, 2013 What is Seawater Air Conditioning (SWAC)?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    customer electrical consumption by up to 40% Aligns with Hawaii Clean Energy Initiatives Substantial water · Letters of Intent for 42% of Waikiki SWAC design load Customers · City, State, & Federal agency conditioning usage #12;Why SWAC in Waikiki? Electrical rates are near the highest in the U.S. Hawaii relies

  4. Table HC6.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it... 1.9 0.6 0.5 Q 0.2 0.4 Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment 1, 2 Central System......

  5. Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A procedure is described to measure approximate real-world air conditioning fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  6. Energy-Saving Design for Pressure Difference Control in Variable Flow Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes energy-saving design for pressure-difference control in a variable flow air conditioning system, including the application of a pressure-difference control valve and the installation position of a pressure-difference transducer...

  7. Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the variable refrigerant volume multi-zone air conditioning systems has met with mixed results since the publication of the Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings. This paper analyzes the characteristics...

  8. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetter, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Austria, September 2006. Modelica As- sociation and Arsenalsystems. The ?exibility of Modelica has been T room in [° C]lss. AirConditioning - a Modelica li- o brary for dynamic

  9. Research on Fuzzy Regulation Strategies in the Constant Air Volume Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, T.; Zhang, J.; Ning, N.; Tong, K.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy consumption of the constant air volume (CAV) system largely depends on the regulation strategies. Although some air conditioning systems are equipped with automatic regulation devices, others lack effective regulation strategies. To avoid...

  10. Research on Fuzzy Regulation Strategies in the Constant Air Volume Air Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, T.; Zhang, J.; Ning, N.; Tong, K.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy consumption of the constant air volume (CAV) system largely depends on the regulation strategies. Although some air conditioning systems are equipped with automatic regulation devices, others lack effective ...

  11. CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption analysis of the building is carried out using the energy consumption code. Velocity and temperature distribution in the air-conditioned zone is computed using CFD. According to the results, the energy consumption and indoor human thermal comfort...

  12. Air-Conditioning Effect Estimation for Mid-Term Forecasts of Tunisian Electricity Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Air-Conditioning Effect Estimation for Mid-Term Forecasts of Tunisian Electricity Consumption Tunisian electricity consumption (the residential sector represents 68% of this class of consumers). Nevertheless, with the Tunisian electricity consumption context, models elaborating which take account weather

  13. air-conditioning applications final: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surroundings by the reflection, is used... Liu, P.; Li, D. 2006-01-01 23 Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices Texas A&M University -...

  14. automative air-conditioning systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and try to identify the important trends. Thorsten Ohl 2002-11-05 63 Proposal for an Adsorption Solar-Driven Air-Conditioning Unit for Public Offices Texas A&M University -...

  15. Numerical Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Underground Air-conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Q.; Miao, X.; Cheng, B.; Fan, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In view of the influence of humidity of room air on room heat load, indoor environment and building energy consumption in underground intermittent air-conditioning systems, numerical simulation was used to dynamically analyze the coupling condition...

  16. Analysis of the Diagnostic Methods of the Performance Failure of Heating and Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, L.; Zhang, Z.; Sun, Y.; Li, D.; Xie, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper introduces some diagnostic methods for the performance failure of heating and air conditioning, analyzes the principle by an example, gives the application characteristics of different methods and supplies the guide for the application...

  17. air-conditioning direct-fired double-effect: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the basis... Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X. 2006-01-01 30 Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions Texas A&M University - TxSpace...

  18. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  19. Flywheel Cooling: A Cooling Solution for Non Air-Conditioned Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abernethy, D.

    of evaroration, ventilation and air circulation. These systems are rroviding low-cost cooling for distribution centers, warehouses, and other non air-conditioned industrial assembly rlants with little or no internal 10iids. . The eva[lorative roof cooling...

  20. Issues and Factors of Train Air-conditioning System Design and Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, P.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    satisfy both the coldness supply in summer and the heat supply in winter basically. In fact, this system supplies a more comfortable environment for the passengers. However, compared to the advanced countries, our train air-conditionings still have...

  1. Operation of Energy-Efficient Air-Conditioned Buildings: An Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalil, E. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To design an optimum HVAC airside system that provides comfort and air quality in the air-conditioned spaces with efficient energy consumption is a great challenge. This paper evaluates recent progresses of HVAC airside design for the air...

  2. Operation of Energy-Efficient Air-Conditioned Buildings: An Overview 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khalil, E. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To design an optimum HVAC airside system that provides comfort and air quality in the air-conditioned spaces with efficient energy consumption is a great challenge. This paper evaluates recent progresses of HVAC airside ...

  3. air-conditioning systems based: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A web based CBR system for heating ventilation and air conditioning systems sales support...

  4. Discussion of Air-Conditioning Energy-Savings in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, W.; Gong, F.; Lou, X.; Cheng, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introducing several kinds of air-conditioning systems energy conservation measures, and according to the climate of the hot-summer and cold-winter region in China, this paper puts forward an overall conception for air-conditioning energy...

  5. Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-3 Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency Huawei Zhu Zhejiang Urban and Rural Planning Design Institute... conditioning system has led to extensive criticism. 2. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VARIABLE REFRIGERANT VOLUME AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND ITS PRESENT APPLICATION ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-3 2...

  6. Adjudication Concerning the Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adjudication Concerning the Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

  7. Adjudication of a Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Adjudication of a Contract for the Maintenance of Pipework and Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Installations

  8. Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposed Adjudication of the Contract for the Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Installations for the ISR Buildings

  9. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  10. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

  11. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countries and what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in the Residential Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    G. Henderson (2005) Home air conditioning in Europe – howhigher growth in Indian air conditioner saturation duringand A.A. Pavlova ( 2003). Air conditioning market saturation

  12. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and the LCCP results obtained using the three charge degradation correlations are compared.

  13. Keep Food Safe When Cooking Outdoors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    (medium rare) 160 degrees F (medium) Hamburgers (made from ground beef) 160 degrees F Poultry (whole, ground, parts) 165 degrees F Pork (all cuts) 160 degrees F Hot dogs (already cooked) 165 degrees F and platters with hot, soapy water before reusing...

  14. Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

    During the summer 2007 smart operation strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems were developed and tested in a number of governmental buildings in Kuwait as one of the solutions to reduce the national peak demand for electrical...

  15. Theoretical Study of a Novel Control Method of VAV Air-conditioning System Based on MATLAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Z.; Hu, S.; Wang, G.; Li, A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this study is to put forward a novel nonlinear feedback control strategy on controlling indoor air temperature by variable air volume. A dynamic model of a typical room for a VAV air-conditioning system is established...

  16. Evaluation of a Local Air Conditioning Duty Cycling Device as a Load Management Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, K.; Thedford, M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the summer of 1984, a test was performed to evaluate a local air conditioning duty cycling device as a tool to reduce TUEC's system summer peak demand. In addition to the local duty cycling device, a direct load control device using a power...

  17. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    1 Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Wei Zhang, Member, IEEE Abstract--Demand response is playing an increasingly impor- tant role in the efficient loads is especially important to evaluate the effec- tiveness of various demand response strategies

  18. Test and Reconstruction of Air Conditioning System in a Hotel Lobby

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, G.; Hu, Y.; Hu, S.; Chen, Q.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two air conditioning systems are equipped in a hotel lobby. It is found from the field test that the actual air rate is 40% and 16% of the nominal value, respectively, of the two systems, which is far lower than the design requirement. The air rate...

  19. Problem Type Problem Type Description Air Conditioning Air conditioner not working, leaking, etc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    Problem Type Problem Type Description Air Conditioning Air conditioner not working, leaking, etc, Microfridges Doors and Hardware Door repair/replace Lock, latch or hinge repair, key stuck; Lost or stolen key, repair or replace Shades/Blinds Window treatment - repair or replace Washer/Dryer Washer/Dryer repair

  20. "Table HC12.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,17.3,11.3,6 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,16.2,10.6,5.6 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.1,0.8,0.4 "WindowWall...

  1. "Table HC11.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Type of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,5.2,0.8 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,4.8,0.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,0.4,"Q" "WindowWall...

  2. "Table HC10.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,6,17.3,32.1,10.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,5.5,16.2,23.2,8.7 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,0.5,1.1,9,1.7 "WindowWall...

  3. "Table HC13.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,32.1,17.6,5.2,9.3 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,23.2,10.9,3.8,8.4 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,9,6.7,1.4,0.9 "WindowWall...

  4. "Table HC14.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,10.5,3.9,6.5 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,8.7,3.2,5.5 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,1.7,0.7,1 "WindowWall...

  5. "Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Air-Conditioning Equipment1, 2" "Central System",65.9,1.1,6.4,6.4,5.4 "Without a Heat Pump",53.5,1.1,3.5,5.7,4.9 "With a Heat Pump",12.3,"Q",2.9,0.7,0.5 "WindowWall...

  6. RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING. Mylène have promising application in refrigeration thanks to their large cooling capacity and their storage Because it is nowadays necessary to phase out CFCs or HCFCs fluids from the refrigeration industry

  7. Research on Thermal Properties in a Phase Change Wallboard Room Based on Air Conditioning Cold Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, G.; Li, W.; Chen, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After comparing the thermal performance parameters of an ordinary wall room to a phase change wall (PCW) room, we learn that phase change wallboard affects the fluctuation of temperature in air-conditioning room in the summer. We built a PCW room...

  8. Start-Up of Air Conditioning Systems After Periods of Shutdown (Humidity Considerations)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todd, T. R.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    after the system is restarted. Moe t simply, condensation takes place when moist air flows past surfaces which have been cooled below its dewpoint. In air conditioning this occurs when the cold supply air being deli- vered into the space induces...

  9. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Model Based Sensor System for Temperature Measurement in R744 Air Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reitz, Sven; Schneider, Peter

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal is the development of a novel principle for the temperature acquisition of refrigerants in CO2 air conditioning systems. The new approach is based on measuring the temperature inside a pressure sensor, which is also needed in the system. On the basis of simulative investigations of different mounting conditions functional relations between measured and medium temperature will be derived.

  11. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply and installation of an air-conditioning system for the CERN Computer Centre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply and installation of an air-conditioning system for the CERN Computer Centre. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with INIZIATIVE INDUSTRIALI (IT), the lowest bidder, for the supply and installation of an air-conditioning system for the CERN Computer Centre for a total amount of 2 375 280 euros (3 654 277 Swiss francs) not subject to revision, with options for additional chillers, chilled water coils and sound attenuation, for an additional amount of 539 053 euros (829 312 Swiss francs), bringing the total amount to 2 914 333 euros (4 483 589 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender.

  12. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wray, Craig P.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advancesthe energy efficiency of many heating, ventilating, and air-system, which delivers heating, cooling, and ventilation air

  13. Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  14. Application of the VRV Air-Conditioning System Heat Recovery Series in Interior Zone and Analysis of its Energy Saving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Q.; Li, D.; Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To reduce the energy consumption of air conditioning systems, we can use the VRV air conditioning system to supply cold loads in the winter for rooms in the construction inner zone where cold loads need to be supplied. The VRV air...

  15. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  16. Analysis of Energy Saving in a Clean Room Air-conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, S.; Liu, J.; Pei, J.; Wang, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature field, small supply air temperature difference, large airflow, but no reheater. As the design airflow rate of air conditioning system for cleaning mainly considered to meet the need of the cleanliness class, its air exchange rate was much... above, we had chosen a representative air-handling unit for the testing renovation of 2nd return air system. Cleaning area for this AHU was a capsule clean room with a hundred thousand cleanliness classes. Indoor controlled dry-bulb temperature...

  17. Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the U.S. Navy's overall energy strategy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) to demonstrate market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - retrofitting rooftop air-conditioning units with an advanced rooftop control system - was identified as a promising source for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  18. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lask, Kathleen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a covered pot, the beans and water were brought to a boil.to separate the beans and the water, both of which were keptbeans ? 1400 g strained water from cooked bean dish (if the

  19. Cooking with Canned Pork

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    vegetable oil 1 large onion, chopped 2 cups canned pork ? cup prepared barbecue sauce 5 hamburger buns How to make it 1. Wash your hands; make sure your cooking area is clean. 2. Using a... the bottom half of an opened hamburger bun. Adapted from Commodity Fact Sheet for USDA Household Programs: Canned Pork by Jenna Anding, Associate Professor and Extension Nutrition Specialist, The Texas A&M System. Fried Rice With Pork (makes 6 to 8...

  20. Sears Integrated Retail Strategy October 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Living Refrigeration Air Conditioning Cooking & Microwave Dish Laundry Water Heaters Water Softeners Reverse Osmosis Water Pump Water Treatment Garage Recreation Furniture Bedding Tool Storage Power Bench

  1. Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the summer of previous years, Kuwait faced a series of power shortages emphasizing the need for urgent commissioning of power generation projects. It is estimated that the demand for electricity is growing at an ...

  2. Commentary: Air-conditioning as a risk for increased use of healthservices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, Mark J.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this issue of the journal, Preziosi et al. [2004] report the first study to assess differences in the utilization of health care related to the presence of air-conditioning in office workplaces. Although the study was simple and cross-sectional, the data variables from questionnaires, and the findings subject to a variety of questions, the findings are striking enough to deserve clarification. The study used a large random national sample of French women assembled for another purpose (to study antioxidant nutrients and prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease). Participants reported health services and health events in monthly questionnaires over 1 year, and in one questionnaire in the middle of that period also reported whether air-conditioning was in use at their workplace. Fifteen percent of participants reported air-conditioning at work. Analyses adjusting for age and smoking status of participants found increases in most outcomes assessed: use of specific kinds of physicians, sickness absence, and hospital stays. While the increases in odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were statistically significant for only otorhinolaryngology [OR (95% CI) = 2.33 (1.35-4.04)] and sickness absence [1.70 (1.13-2.58)], other increases were notable--dermatology [1.6 (0.98-2.65)]; hospital stay [1.51 (0.92-2.45)], and pneumonology [2.10 (0.65-6.82)]. The least elevated outcomes were for general practice medicine [0.99 (0.65-1.48)] and global medical visits [1.18 (0.67-2.07)]. [Preziosi et al., 2004 ,(Table 2)] Odds ratios for relatively common health outcomes often lie farther from the null than the risk ratios most useful for quantifying the increase in risk. Risk ratios, or prevalence ratios (PRs, the equivalent measure of effect for cross-sectional data), have seldom been used because of the convenience and availability of logistic regression models that estimate odds ratios. With baseline prevalences ranging up to 85.7% in the data from Preziosi et al. [2004], PRs allow a more appropriate estimate of the increase in each outcome associated with the risk factor of air-conditioning. The increase in prevalence was roughly estimated as [100* (crude PR * adjusted OR/crude OR)-100] %. Based on the data in Table 2 of Preziosi et al. [ 2004], estimates for the increased prevalence associated with air-conditioned offices include increases of 120% in otorhinolaryngology visits, and 40% in sickness absence. If these associated increases represented valid causal relationships, it would indicate enormous costs for employers and for society associated with air-conditioning systems, from increased health care and for reduced workplace productivity from sickness absence, in addition to a large burden of disease on workers.

  3. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  4. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response andits Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response (DR) is an effective tool which resolves inconsistencies between electric power supply and demand. It further provides a reliable and credible resource that ensures stable and economical operation of the power grid. This paper introduces systematic definitions for DR and demand side management, along with operational differences between these two methods. A classification is provided for DR programs, and various DR strategies are provided for application in air conditioning and refrigerating systems. The reliability of DR is demonstrated through discussion of successful overseas examples. Finally, suggestions as to the implementation of demand response in China are provided.

  5. Solution of Air Conditioning Cooling Load Temperature for New Energy-Saving Walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, X.; Hong, J.; Deying, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Enve lope Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Vol.II-3-5 Solution of Air Conditioning Cooling Load Temperature for New Energy-Saving Walls Xuejin Wang Jing Hong Deying Li School of Building.... The formula used to calculate the heat transfer ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Enve lope Technologies for Building Energy Efficiency Vol.II-3-5 thermal response factors are as follows: 0j = ? ? ? = ??+= 1 i )e1(BK)0(Y i ? ? Tab.1 New energy...

  6. Capital Cooking: Order (2014-CE-23008)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Capital Cooking Equipment, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Capital Cooking had failed to certify that certain models of cooking products comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  7. Smart Operations of Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems in a Government Buildings for Peak Power Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Hadban, Y.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Al-Mulla, A.; Alasseri, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the achievements of implementing smart operations strategies for air-conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems in Justice Palace Complex (JPC), Kuwait during the summer 2007. The peak load of this building was 3700 k...

  8. The effect of hardware configuration on the performance of residential air conditioning systems at high outdoor ambient temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bain, Joel Alan

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was performed which investigated the effect of hardware configuration on air conditioning cooling system performance at high outdoor temperatures. The initial phase of the investigation involved the testing of ten residential air...

  9. Experimental Research and Performance Analysis of a Solar-Powered Air-conditioning System in a Green Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhai, X.; Wang, R.; Dai, Y.; Wu, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the green building of the Shanghai Institute of Architectural Science, a solar-powered adsorption air-conditioning system was designed. The operational performance under a typical operating mode in summer was studied, which includes...

  10. The Experimentation System Design and Experimental Study of the Air-Conditioning by Desiccant Type Using Solar Energy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuo, X.; Ding, J.; Yang, X.; Chen, S.; Yang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a special solar air heater to gain heat power for regenerating an adsorption desiccant wheel made by composite silica gel, a desiccant air-conditioning experimentation system was designed and manufactured. Combining the advantage of measure...

  11. The Histoty of Ventilation and Air Conditioning is CERN Up to Date with the latest Technological Developments?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kühnl-Kinel, J

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention of ventilation cannot be ascribed to a certain date. It started with simple aeration when man brought fire into his abode and continued through different stages including air cooling using ice to finally arrive at the time when ventilation and air conditioning has become an essential part of our life and plays an important role in human evolution. This paper presents the history of ventilation and air conditioning, explains the key constraints over the centuries, and shows its influence on everyday life. Some examples of previous air-conditioning plants are described and different approaches to the way of calculation of ventilation systems discussed. It gives an overview of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) installations at CERN and points out their particularities. It also compares them with the latest technological developments in the field as well as showing the new trends that are being applied at CERN.

  12. Influence Of Upper Air Conditions On The Patagonia Icefields L. A. Rasmussen, H. Conway, C. F. Raymond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasmussen, L.A.

    Influence Of Upper Air Conditions On The Patagonia Icefields L. A. Rasmussen, H. Conway, C. F to investigate changes in precipitation and snowfall over the Patagonia ice- fields during 1960-99. Apparently

  13. Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living Space in Summer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Energy Conservation and Comfort of Heat Pump Desiccant Air Conditioning System in Actual Living and total heat exchanger in terms of both energy conservation and thermal comfort in summer. 1. COP

  14. Innovative Method for Performance Inspections often save 20-30% through Optimization of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berglof, K.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air-conditioning, refrigeration and heat pump equipment is using 15 to 20% of the electrical energy globally. Many times these systems do not operate in an effective way. The paper present a method for and experience from performance testing...

  15. Cooking with Dried Potatoes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    make a tasty vegetable dish. For added flavor, you can add salt and pepper along with small amounts of grated cheese, margarine or butter. Be careful: Adding large amounts of cheese, butter or margarine can turn a low-fat vegetable, such as potatoes..., into a high-fat dish. How to store them Store packages of dried potatoes in a cool, dry, place. After the package is opened, store the potatoes in an airtight container. Store cooked potatoes in a covered dish in the refrigerator. Use within 3 days...

  16. Capital Cooking: Proposed Penalty (2014-CE-23008)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Capital Cooking Equipment, Inc. failed to certify cooking products as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  17. Robust optimization of a 2D air conditioning duct using kriging Deliverable WP.2.2.2.B of the ANR / OMD2 project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Robust optimization of a 2D air conditioning duct using kriging Deliverable WP.2.2.2.B of the ANR optimization of a 2D air conditioning duct. For comparison purposes, deterministic designs were first obtained air conditioning duct. The uncertainties affect the pipe shape. The mean response, expressed in terms

  18. Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lunden, Melissa M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water, and cooking, as well as particle CEs for stir-frying of green beanscooking utensils used in preparing the beans and burgers were filled approximately halfway with water and

  19. New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

  20. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

  2. Cook stove assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeFoort, Morgan W; Willson, Bryan D; Lorenz, Nathan; Brady, Michael P; Marchese, Anthony; Miller-Lionberg, Daniel D

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion chamber, having an upper part and a lower part, may include an annular constriction, in combination with the combustion chamber, to aid in directing partially combusted gases such as carbon monoxide away from the periphery of the combustion chamber back toward its center, and into the flame front. The annular constriction may also impede the flow of partially combusted gases located at the periphery, thus increasing the time these gases spend within the combustion chamber and increasing the likelihood that any products of incomplete combustion will undergo combustion. The combustion chamber may further comprise a dual burner cooktop for directing combustion gases and exhaust to multiple cooking vessels. In further embodiments, the combustion chamber may be made of, lined, or clad with a metal alloy comprising iron, chromium, and aluminum.

  3. Saturday: Lasagna and potato wedges prep time: 30mins Cooking time: 1 hr Items: 1 ice-cream container and 1 yoghurt container of white sauce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sainudiin, Raazesh

    of bean mixture (vegetarian option) 1 supermarket bag of potato wedges, pre-seasoned and cooked 3 boxes To cook: Put rice on to boil. Remember, 2cm of water above the level of the rice is a good ratio. FrySaturday: Lasagna and potato wedges prep time: 30mins Cooking time: 1 hr Items: 1 ice

  4. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  5. In-Cab Air Quality of Trucks Air Conditioned and Kept in Electrified Truck Stop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Doh-Won [Texas Transportation Institute; Zietsman, Josias [Texas Transportation Institute; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza [Texas Transportation Institute; Li, Wen-Whai [University of Texas, El Paso; Olvera, Hector [University of Texas, El Paso; Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Kranendonk, Laura [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At night, long-haul truck drivers rest inside the cabins of their vehicles. Therefore, the in-cab air quality while air conditioning (A/C) is being provided can be a great concern to the drivers health. The effect of using different A/C methods [truck's A/C, auxiliary power unit (APU), and truck stop electrification (TSE) unit] on in-cab air quality of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle was investigated at an electrified truck stop in the El Paso, Texas, area. The research team measured the in-cabin and the ambient air quality adjacent to the parked diesel truck as well as emissions from the truck and an APU while it was providing A/C. The measured results were compared and analyzed. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the TSE unit provided better in-cab air quality while supplying A/C. Furthermore, the truck and APU exhaust emissions were measured, and fuel consumption of the truck (while idling) and the APU (during operation) were compared. The results led to the finding that emissions from the APU were less than those from the truck's engine idling, but the APU consumed more fuel than the engine while providing A/C under given conditions.

  6. A global clean cooking fuel initiative Jos Goldemberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544-1003, USA E-mail: rwilliam@princeton.edu This article calls for engaging, for which demand is very inelastic (cooking and boil- ing water are essential for survival). There is wide recognition of the importance of electric- ity in development and the fact that 1.6 billion people do not have

  7. Implementation of Smart Operation Strategies for Air-Conditioning and Lighting Systems for Ministries Complex in the State of Kuwait

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Mulla, A.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Al-Nakib, D.; Ishaqali, H.

    The smart operation strategies were implemented for Air-Conditioning (A/C) and lighting systems to reduce the national load at Ministries Complex (MC) in the state of Kuwait. The A/C system in MC is a district cooling system that comprises of 8...

  8. ENSC 461 PROJECT: Next generation air conditioning systems for vehicles Assigned date: Feb. 21, 2011 Due date: April 11, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    1 ENSC 461 PROJECT: Next generation air conditioning systems for vehicles Assigned date: Feb. 21's engine, or battery pack in case of HEVs and EVs. This power draw is equivalent to a 1200-kg sedan driving both systems under various driving and climate conditions. #12;2 The project report should also

  9. 2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

  10. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of an HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system for Building 3862

  11. Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for dismantling, removal and packaging of the existing Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems in the PS tunnel

  12. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the PS accelerator infrastructure

  13. Proposal for the award of two service contracts for the operation, maintenance and other work relating to the heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and plumbing facilities at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of two service contracts for the operation, maintenance and other work relating to the heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and plumbing facilities at CERN

  14. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Andersen, S.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Up to 19.4% of vehicle fuel consumption in India is devoted to air conditioning (A/C). Indian A/C fuel consumption is almost four times the fuel penalty in the United States and close to six times that in the European Union because India's temperature and humidity are higher and because road congestion forces vehicles to operate inefficiently. Car A/C efficiency in India is an issue worthy of national attention considering the rate of increase of A/C penetration into the new car market, India's hot climatic conditions and high fuel costs. Car A/C systems originally posed an ozone layer depletion concern. Now that industrialized and many developing countries have moved away from ozone-depleting substances per Montreal Protocol obligations, car A/C impact on climate has captured the attention of policy makers and corporate leaders. Car A/C systems have a climate impact from potent global warming potential gas emissions and from fuel used to power the car A/Cs. This paper focuses on car A/C fuel consumption in the context of the rapidly expanding Indian car market and how new technological improvements can result in significant fuel savings and consequently, emission reductions. A 19.4% fuel penalty is associated with A/C use in the typical Indian passenger car. Car A/C fuel use and associated tailpipe emissions are strong functions of vehicle design, vehicle use, and climate conditions. Several techniques: reducing thermal load, improving vehicle design, improving occupants thermal comfort design, improving equipment, educating consumers on impacts of driver behaviour on MAC fuel use, and others - can lead to reduced A/C fuel consumption.

  15. 2014-04-28 Issuance: Certification of Commercial HVAC, Water...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), water heating (WH), and refrigeration (CRE) equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency...

  16. Heart Healthy Home Cooking African American Style

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Heart Healthy Home Cooking African American Style With Every Heartbeat Is Life #12;#12;Heart Recipe Substitutions for Heart Healthy Cooking at the heart of African American family life and special celebrations. This recipe book brings together many

  17. Cooking When the Power Goes Off

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    After a storm has knocked out utility services, cooking can be a problem or even hazardous if basic safety measures are not taken. This publication explains how to cook safely using charcoal or gas grills, camp stoves or wood fires....

  18. Cook Inlet (CI) distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ). During the winter, beluga whales occur in offshore waters associated with pack ice. In the spring RANGE Beluga whales are distributed throughout seasonally ice-covered arctic and subarctic waters of the Northern Hemisphere (Gurevich 1980), and are closely associated with open leads and polynyas in ice

  19. Identification of the Flow Resistance Coefficient and Validation of a Building Air Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Z.; Lian, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fundamental parameter that characterizes the hydraulic state of a water pipeline and largely determines the efficiency of the water-transport process is the hydraulic resistance coefficient (HRC). The actual values of the HRC may be different...

  20. HOW TO COOK OCEAN PERCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , is an excellent food fish with firm fle h. When cooked, the meat is white and flaky, with a delicate flavor. Ocean to the consumer until 1935. At that time, the indlu;try began experimenting with filleting and freezing ocean pel

  1. A new route for energy efficiency diagnosis and potential analysis of energy consumption from air-conditioning system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma,R.J.; Yu,N.Y.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 A new route for energy efficiency diagnosis and potential analysis of energy consumption from air-conditioning system Rong-Jiang Ma Nan-Yang Yu PhD candidate Professor School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong... in buildings is to save energy without compromising comfort, health and productivity levels. In other words, the idea is to consume less energy while providing equal or improved building services, that is, being more energy efficient (Pérez-Lombard et al...

  2. Module Development and Simulation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioning System under Cooling Conditions in Energyplus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Y.; Wu, J.; Wang, R.; Shiochi, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-2 Module Development and Simulation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow Air Conditioning System under Cooling Conditions in Energyplus Yanping Zhou Jingyi..., especially for those who ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-2 show some interest about high-efficiency systems like VRF, it becomes of interest to compare the VRF to other systems and evaluate VRF?s performance...

  3. Assessment of Supply Chain Energy Efficiency Potentials: A U.S. Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as lighting and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (Heating Cooling Ventilation Water Heating Lighting CookingVentilation Elec: Industrial machine drive Elec: Commercial Refrigeration NG: Industrial process heating

  4. Data:3f6be60b-c212-4bdd-8b94-aee11f1855de | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    heating,water heating,air conditioning,lighting,refrigeration,cooking,and clothes drying. Subject to Power Charge, Ohio Excise Tax, and Transition Cost Riders. Source or...

  5. Data:Ff0b5f1b-d22d-44d0-8818-5e87d5263546 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    heating,water heating,air conditioning,lighting,refrigeration,cooking,and clothes drying. Subject to Power Charge, Ohio Excise Tax, and Transition Cost Riders. Source or...

  6. Small Game -- Cooking Care.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweeten, Mary K.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or place under cold running water. How Small Game Fits into Basic Four Food Groups Small game provides variety to meals of families of Texas sportsmen and contributes needed high quality nutrients. Utilization of this wild game means conservation of a... Preserves X Coffee/Milk X Lunch Rabbit Oriental X Rice X Spinach X Fruit Cup X Brownies X Coffee/Milk X Supper Roast Raccoon X Dressing X Mixed Vegetables X Cranberry Juice X Rolls X Sugar Cookies X Coffee/Milk X 7 Preparation and Recipes...

  7. Gas -Fueled Engine-Driven Air Conditioning Systems for Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindsay, B. B.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1985, the Gas Research Institute (GRI) initiated a program with Tecogen, Inc., to develop a nominal 150-ton gas-fueled engine-driven water chiller for commercial buildings. The packaged system has been designed, fabricated, and operated...

  8. Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Delp, William W.

    2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80percent. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38percent for low (51?68 L s-1) and 54?72percent for high (109?138 L s-1) settings. CEs for 0.3?2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3?11percent on low and 16?70percent on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80percent both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles.

  9. Review of International Methods of Test to Rate the Efficiency of Water Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Heaters Jim Lutz, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory January 25, 2011 The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standards

  10. "Table HC3.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Owner-Occupied Housing Unit, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space2.9 Home7 Air-Conditioning Usage

  11. Michigan Nuclear Profile - Donald C Cook

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Donald C Cook" "Unit","Summer capacity (mw)","Net generation (thousand mwh)","Summer capacity factor (percent)","Type","Commercial operation date","License expiration date"...

  12. The Technical and Economical Analysis of a Centralized Air-Conditioning System with Cold Storage Refrigeration in High-Rise Residential Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang, C.; Xie, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, the application of a centralized air-conditioning system (CACS) with cold storage refrigeration in high-rise residential buildings has gradually increased. Due to the large difference between civil residential buildings...

  13. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Food Service ... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Health Care ... 11 6 2 Q 2 5.6 3.3 0.8 Q 1.3 Inpatient...

  14. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased: September,

  15. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:

  16. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:

  17. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:28

  18. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:28

  19. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul2011DryTopReleased:Released:28

  20. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

  1. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

  2. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

  3. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09 0.01

  4. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09

  5. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09634

  6. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,397 125 Q 69 0.11 0.09634636

  7. Model Based Commissioning Tool for Air-Conditioning Distribution Systems-APCBC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshida, H.; Noda, T.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Building Commissioning) Sept. 2014, Beijing, China ESL-IC-14-09-06 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 1. Issues 2. Simulation Model of Distribution System 3. Example... of VWV System 4. Example of VAV System 5. Conclusions 2 ESL-IC-14-09-06 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 ? Energy consumption of air and water distribution in air...

  8. Cooking for One or Two.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggard, Marilyn A.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for one or two servings and reduce waste and cleanup time, For oven dishes, try this idea. Line serving-size oven dishes with foil, fill with food and freeze. Once frozen , remove the item from the dish , seal the foil , label and return to the freezer.... Later, simply return the item to the original dish, heat and serve. Main Dishes Main dishes take a large share of the food dollar, so plan their purchase and use wisely. Instead of cooking a whole roast or steak, divide each into serving...

  9. Using Acid Number as a Leading Indicator of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning System Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis Cartlidge; Hans Schellhase

    2003-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes a literature review to assess the acidity characteristics of the older mineral oil and newer polyolester (POE) refrigeration systems as well as to evaluate acid measuring techniques used in other non-aqueous systems which may be applicable for refrigeration systems. Failure in the older chlorofluorocarbon/hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CFC/HCFC) / mineral oil systems was primarily due to thermal degradation of the refrigerant which resulted in the formation of hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids. These are strong mineral acids, which can, over time, severely corrode the system metals and lead to the formation of copper plating on iron surfaces. The oil lubricants used in the older systems were relatively stable and were not prone to hydrolytic degradation due to the low solubility of water in oil. The refrigerants in the newer hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)/POE systems are much more thermally stable than the older CFC/HCFC refrigerants and mineral acid formation is negligible. However, acidity is produced in the new systems by hydrolytic decomposition of the POE lubricants with water to produce the parent organic acids and alcohols used to prepare the POE. The individual acids can therefore vary but they are generally C5 to C9 carboxylic acids. Organic acids are much weaker and far less corrosive to metals than the mineral acids from the older systems but they can, over long time periods, react with metals to form carboxylic metal salts. The salts tend to accumulate in narrow areas such as capillary tubes, particularly if residual hydrocarbon processing chemicals are present in the system, which can lead to plugging. The rate of acid production from POEs varies on a number of factors including chemical structure, moisture levels, temperature, acid concentration and metals. The hydrolysis rate of reaction can be reduced by using driers to reduce the free water concentration and by using scavenging chemicals which react with the system acids. Total acid number (TAN), which includes both mineral acids and organic acids, is therefore a useful indicator which can be used to monitor the condition of the system in order to perform remedial maintenance, when required, to prevent system failure. The critical TAN value is the acid level at which remedial action should be taken to prevent the onset of rapid acid formation which can result in system failure. The level of 0.05 mg KOH/g of oil was established for CFC/mineral oil systems based on analysis of 700 used lubricants from operating systems and failed units. There is no consensus within the refrigeration industry as to the critical TAN value for HFC/POE systems, however, the value will be higher than the CFC/mineral oil systems critical TAN value because of the much weaker organic acids produced from POE. A similar study of used POE lubricants should be performed to establish a critical TAN limit for POE systems. Titrimetric analysis per ASTM procedures is the most commonly used method to determine TAN values in lubricants in the refrigeration industry and other industries dealing with lubricating oils. For field measurements, acid test kits are often used since they provide rapid, semi-quantitative TAN results.

  10. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  11. Experimental Study in Energy Performance of Temperature and Humidity Independent Control System with Multiple Split Air-Conditioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kawano,M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to realizing Zero Energy Buildings (ZEB). 61% ?F ?F The amount of solar power Performance improvement of a building ? 30% reduction Efficiency of the air conditioning system ? 60? reduction 60% over reduction E le ct ri c P o w e r C o n su m p ti o n (K W h...-09-16 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 80 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 1? 4? 1? 11 ? 1? 16 ? 1? 17 ? 1? 18 ? 1? 21 ? 1? 22 ? 1? 30 ? 1? 31 ? 2? 1? 2? 4? 2? 5? 2? 6? 2? 7? 2? 8? 2? 12...

  12. High Efficiency Liquid-Desiccant Regenerator for Air Conditioning and Industrial Drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lowenstein

    2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 2 quads of fossil fuels are used each year for moisture removal. This includes industrial and agricultural processes where feedstocks and final products must be dried, as well as comfort conditioning of indoor spaces where the control of humidity is essential to maintaining healthy, productive and comfortable working conditions. Desiccants, materials that have a high affinity for water vapor, can greatly reduce energy use for both drying and dehumidification. An opportunity exists to greatly improve the competitiveness of advanced liquid-desiccant systems by increasing the efficiency of their regenerators. It is common practice within the chemical process industry to use multiple stage boilers to improve the efficiency of thermal separation processes. The energy needed to regenerate a liquid desiccant, which is a thermal separation process, can also be reduced by using a multiple stage boiler. In this project, a two-stage regenerator was developed in which the first stage is a boiler and the second stage is a scavenging-air regenerator. The only energy input to this regenerator is the natural gas that fires the boiler. The steam produced in the boiler provides the thermal energy to run the second-stage scavenging-air regenerator. This two-stage regenerator is referred to as a 1?-effect regenerator. A model of the high-temperature stage of a 1?-effect regenerator for liquid desiccants was designed, built and successfully tested. At nominal operating conditions (i.e., 2.35 gpm of 36% lithium chloride solution, 307,000 Btu/h firing rate), the boiler removed 153 lb/h of water from the desiccant at a gas-based efficiency of 52.9 % (which corresponds to a COP of 0.95 when a scavenging-air regenerator is added). The steam leaving the boiler, when condensed, had a solids concentration of less than 10 ppm. This low level of solids in the condensate places an upper bound of about 6 lb per year for desiccant loss from the regenerator. This low loss will not create maintenance problems nor will it significantly increase operating expenses. An energy balance on the boiler showed that heat loss through the insulated jacket was 10%. This value is much higher than the 2% to 5% that is typical of most boilers and indicates a need to better insulate the unit. With insulation that brings jacket losses down to 5%, a 1?-effect regenerator that uses this boiler as its high-temperature stage will have a gas-based COP of 1.05. The estimated cost to manufacture a 300-lb/h, 1?-effect regenerator at 500 units per year is $17,140. Unfortunately, the very high cost for natural gas that now prevails in the U.S. makes it very difficult for a gas-fired LDAC to compete against an electric vapor-compression air conditioner in HVAC applications. However, there are important industrial markets that need very dry air where the high price of natural gas will encourage the sale of a LDAC with the 1?-effect regenerator since in these markets it competes against less efficient gas-fired desiccant technologies. A manufacturer of industrial dehumidification equipment is now negotiating a sales agreement with us that would include the 1?-effect regenerator.

  13. Keep Food Safe When Cooking Outdoors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Choose meat, poultry, or seafood that is fresh and of high quality. Once bought, take meat home and refrigerate it right away. If the trip home takes more than 30 minutes, use a cooler. Cook or freeze fresh poultry, fish, seafood, or ground beef within... 1 to 2 days; other meats such steak and pork chops should be cooked or frozen within 4 or 5 days. Thaw foods safely. The best way to thaw frozen meat, fish, poultry, or seafood is in the refrigerator. This lets the food to thaw completely and cook...

  14. Cook County- LEED Requirements for County Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2002, Cook County enacted an ordinance requiring all new county buildings and all retrofitted county buildings to be built to LEED standards. Specifically, all newly constructed buildings and...

  15. Field Demonstration of a High-Efficiency Packaged Rooftop Air Conditioning Unit at Fort Gordon, Augusta, GA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, Peter R.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Parker, Graham B.

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of a larger program targeting the market transformation of packaged rooftop air conditioning, five high-efficiency rooftop air conditioning products were selected in 2002 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Unitary Air Conditioner (UAC) Technology Procurement (http://www.pnl.gov/uac). In February 2003, Fort Gordon in Augusta, Georgia was chosen as the demonstration site. With the goal of validating the field performance and operation of one of the awarded products, a 10-ton high-efficiency packaged rooftop unit (RTU) manufactured by Global Energy Group (GEG) was installed at Fort Gordon in October 2003. Following equipment installation, power metering, air- and refrigerant-side instrumentation was installed on the GEG RTU and a 4-year old typical-efficiency 20-ton RTU manufactured by AAON . The GEG and AAON units were instrumented identically and operated May through July, 2005, to observe performance under a range of conditions. Based on the data collected as part of this demonstration, the GEG equipment performed at least 8% better in stage-1 (single compressor running) cooling and at least 16% better in stage-2 (both compressors running) than the baseline AAON equipment. Performance comparisons are based on what we call application EER normalized to equivalent specific fan power. The full-load, specific-fan-power-normalized application EERs at ARI design conditions were 10.48 Btu/Wh for the GEG and 9.00 Btu/Wh for the baseline machine. With a cost premium of nearly 50%, and slightly higher maintenance costs, the life-cycle cost analysis shows that the GEG technology pays for itself--a positive net-present value (NPV)--only in climates and buildings with long cooling seasons. Manufacture of this equipment on a larger scale can be expected to reduce costs to the point where it is more broadly cost-effective. The assumed 10-ton baseline and new-technology unit costs are $3824.00 and $5525.00 respectively. If the new technology cost is assumed to drop as sales increase to $4674.50 for a 10-ton unit (i.e. the original cost difference is halved), the life-cycle costs improve. A grid of first cost, annual maintenance cost and electricity price is enumerated and the results presented in the report show the sensitivity of life cycle cost to these three financial parameters in each of eight different climates.

  16. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  17. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  18. 23.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    23.11.2014Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/36 7. Air conditioning, cooling towers Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 2/36 7.1 Humid air #12;23.11.2014 Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow

  19. The effect of cooking preparations on the residual sulfite concentrations in shrimp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lally, Audrey Ann

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of this study was, therefore, to determine the effect of various types of cook- ing preparations on the residual sulfite in shrimp. The specific obgectives were: 1. To determine the residual sulfite when shrimp were boiled in water shell-on and shell-off. 2.... (1978). This may be due to the difference in brine concentrations and a possible increase of diffusion rate in shrimp versus beans. The Effect of Processing Procedures on Residual Sulfites in ~Shrim The different cooking procedures affected the rate...

  20. Effect of genotype on cooking and texture of corn for tortilla production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bedolla, Santiago

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cell to measure n1xtamal texture . . . Plunger (A) and Ottawa cell (C) to measure tortilla texture Page 13 17 Effect of cook1ng time on n1xtamal texture of corneous, 1ntermediate and floury hybrids (Linear model) Effect of cooking time... composition of corn on the average is: water, 13. 5K; protein, 10K; oil, 4%; carbohydrates 70. 7X; and ash, 1. 4X. The germ contains about 35% oil, 20K protein and 10% ash (Hopkins et al. , 1903; Katz et al. , 1974). Nixtamal Preparation Nethods...

  1. ISSUANCE 2015-07-27: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  2. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  3. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Burch, S.D.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber there between. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food. 26 figs.

  4. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Burch, Steven D. (Golden, CO)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber therebetween. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food.

  5. Solar cooking : the development of a thermal battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cutting, Alexander Chatfield

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are many rural area in the world where cooking fuel is very scarce. One solution to this problem is to use solar energy to cook food. However most people around the world like to cook large meals at night, when the ...

  6. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  7. Policy-Based Authorization William R. Cook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, William R.

    Page 1 Policy-Based Authorization William R. Cook Department of Computer Sciences University of Texas at Austin Abstract This paper discusses policy-based authorization, an effective intermediate point between MAC and DAC that promises to combine the best features of both models. Policy

  8. Cooking and Using Dried Beans and Peas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooking and Using Dried Beans and Peas Beans and peas are good for you Beans and peas beans with rice or corn to provide high quality complete protein. If you are on a special diet, remember that beans and peas are low in sodium and fat. How to store dried beans and peas Store beans and peas

  9. Terminator: Beyond Safety Byron Cook1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajamani, Sriram K.

    Terminator: Beyond Safety Byron Cook1 , Andreas Podelski2,3 , and Andrey Rybalchenko2,4 1 Microsoft.) are restricted to safety properties. Terminator is the first software model checker for termination. It is now counterexamples if they if they fail to terminate). Introduction Terminator is a program analysis and verification

  10. Solid fuel cooking stoves: International directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimal design and promotion of the use of fuel efficient cooking stoves demand continued interaction and exchange of information between researchers, extension workers, policy makers and others concerned with stove projects. The directory is aimed at listing all the known organisations in this area.

  11. STATIA LUSZCZ-COOK Department of Astronomy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    STATIA LUSZCZ-COOK Department of Astronomy University of California, Berkeley B-20 Hearst Field.C. Berkeley Spring 2007 Graduate Student Instructor, Undergraduate Solar System Physics, U.C. Berkeley Fall Solar Observatory, as part of the REU program RESEARCH INTERESTS Planetary atmospheres, extrasolar

  12. air water interfaces: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    O; Westerhoff, S; Williams, D A; Yang, T; Yodh, G B 1999-01-01 198 Economic Analysis of a Waste Water Resource Heat Pump Air-Conditioning System in North China Texas A&M University...

  13. System and technique for ultrasonic determination of degree of cooking

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bond, Leonard J. (Richland, WA); Diaz, Aaron A. (W. Richland, WA); Judd, Kayte M. (Richland, WA); Pappas, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Cliff, William C. (Richland, WA); Pfund, David M. (Richland, WA); Morgen, Gerald P. (Kennewick, WA)

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are described for determining the doneness of food during a cooking process. Ultrasonic signal are passed through the food during cooking. The change in transmission characteristics of the ultrasonic signal during the cooking process is measured to determine the point at which the food has been cooked to the proper level. In one aspect, a heated fluid cooks the food, and the transmission characteristics along a fluid-only ultrasonic path provides a reference for comparison with the transmission characteristics for a food-fluid ultrasonic path.

  14. Cooking with Dry Egg Mix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    package has been opened, place the unused egg mix in a resealable bag or in an airtight container and store it in the refrigerator. How to prepare it To make liquid eggs, stir 1 part mix with 2 parts warm water. Use a fork to blend the egg mix...

  15. Cooking with Beef Chuck Roast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    ? teaspoon ground black pepper 1 teaspoon dried oregano leaves (if you like) 1 tablespoon vegetable oil 3-pound chuck roast, thawed ? cup water 1 small onion, chopped 4 carrots, washed, peeled and cut in half (if you like) 8 small red potatoes, washed and cut...

  16. Energy Performance Evaluation and Development of Control Strategies for the Air-conditioning System of a Building at Construction Stage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, S.; Xu, X.; Ma, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . These control strategies mainly involve optimal chiller sequencing control, cooling tower sequencing control, optimal water pressure differential set-point control, AHU supply air static pressure reset control and DCV-based fresh air control, etc. To assess...

  17. 2014-09-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration Notice of Public Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for walk-in coolers and freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute petition for reconsideration, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 23, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  18. Investigation and Analysis of Energy Consumption and Cost of Electric Air Conditioning Systems in Civil Buildings in Changsha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, D.; Chen, J.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, Q.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of cold and heat sources and the HVAC area of the buildings. Meanwhile the economical and feasible types of cold and heat sources are pointed out, i.e., oil boilers and gas boilers for heat source, and centrifugal and screw water chillers for cold source...

  19. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system for the computer room of the CERN Control Centre

  20. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system for the HIE-ISOLDE infrastructure

  1. Performance Assessment of U.S. Residential Cooking Exhaust Hoods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    gas cooking burners emit air pollutants1-3 at rates that can lead to indoor curves relating airflow to duct static pressure, sound levels, and exhaust gas

  2. Cook Composites and Polymers Company Achieves Superior Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    case study highlights a Cook Composites and Polymers Co. (CCP) plant in Houston, Texas, as one of the first participants in the Superior Energy Performance (SEP) plant...

  3. The Technical and Economical Analysis of the Air-conditioning System Usage in Residential Buildings in Beijing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, G.; Xie, G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -conditioning has many merits such as clean, safety, high COP, longevity of service, low price and maintenance easily. But it also has weak aspects, for example, its power consumption is higher, which has became the main hidden trouble of electric network..., stability of running, service life, maintenance, price, and so on. There are 3 kinds of common water chilling units, which are the centrifugal compressor chiller? the ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency...

  4. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countriesand what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in theResidential Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of air conditioning are of particular interestto energy analysts, both because of the high energy consumption of thisproduct, but also its disproportionate impact on peak load. This paperaddresses the special role of this end use as a driver of residentialelectricity consumption in rapidly developing economies. Recent historyhas shown that air conditioner ownership can grow grows more rapidly thaneconomic growth in warm-climate countries. In 1990, less than a percentof urban Chinese households owned an air conditioner; by 2003 this numberrose to 62 percent. The evidence suggests a similar explosion of airconditioner use in many other countries is not far behind. Room airconditioner purchases in India are currently growing at 20 percent peryear, with about half of these purchases attributed to the residentialsector. This paper draws on two distinct methodological elements toassess future residential air conditioner 'business as usual' electricityconsumption by country/region and to consider specific alternative 'highefficiency' scenarios. The first component is an econometric ownershipand use model based on household income, climate and demographicparameters. The second combines ownership forecasts and stock accountingwith geographically specific efficiency scenarios within a uniqueanalysis framework (BUENAS) developed by LBNL. The efficiency scenariomodule considers current efficiency baselines, available technologies,and achievable timelines for development of market transformationprograms, such as minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) andlabeling programs. The result is a detailed set of consumption andemissions scenarios for residential air conditioning.

  5. Innovative Water Reuse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Conditioning & Refrigeration ? Energy Meets Water H.W. (Bill)Hoffman, P.E. H.W. (Bill)Hoffman & Associates, LLC 512-294-7193 billhoffmantx@earthlink.net Cooling Towers The purpose of a cooling tower is to get rid of unwanted... energy! By evaporating Water! Cooling Towers 43% Boilers 4%Toilets 20% Other Plumbing 8% Food Service 8% Sterilizers 6% Dialysis 3% Leaks 3% Cleaning 3% Other 2% A Large Hospital in Florida Cooling 50% Indoor 40% Irrigation 10...

  6. Water Adsorption in Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks and Related Hiroyasu Furukawa,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    is important for many applications such as dehumidification, thermal batteries, and delivery of drinking water-driven heat exchangers3 for use as air-conditioning units in vehicles (heating and cooling are respectively batteries),4 w

  7. Cook, Minnesota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformationNew| Exploration Technique:Illinois: Energy ResourcesCook,

  8. Commercial Cooking Equipment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png ElColumbia, North Carolina:Cooking Equipment Incentives

  9. COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klug, Victoria

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to pollutants emitted from natural gas cooking burners.AB, Klepeis NE. Natural Gas Variability in California:to Pollutants from Natural Gas Cooking Burners. California

  10. aceria lantanae cook: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phillip S. Johnson,1 Peter L. Cook,2 Ioannis Zegkinoglou,1,3 J. M. Garc-a-Lastra,4,5 Angel Rubio,4 Himpsel, Franz J. 237 Publications Busby, J.W., K.H. Cook, E.K. Vizy,...

  11. Potential Savings for Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal from BUENAS modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Letschert, Virginie E.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    V. , 2007. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption inCommercial Industry Air Conditioning Cooking Fans Lighting90% of the country air conditioning (AC) consumption 4 . We

  12. Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station. Final report (revised October 21, 1996)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Katipamula, S.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance was evaluated of a new US cooling technology that has been installed for the first time at a federal facility. The technology is a 15-ton natural gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning unit made by Thermo King. Two units were installed to serve the Navy Exchange at Willow Grove. The savings potential at Willow Grove is described and that in the federal sector estimated. Conditions for implementation are discussed. In summary, the new technology is generally cost-effective at sites where marginal electricity cost (per MBtu at the meter) is more than 4 times the marginal gas cost (per MBtu at the meter) and annual full-load-equivalent cooling hours exceed 2,000.

  13. Anderson-Cook named American Society for Quality Fellow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anderson-Cook has worked at LANL since 2004. She also is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and in 2011 was one of 20 women in New Mexico who received a Governor's...

  14. Lawrence B. Flanagan Craig S. Cook James R. Ehleringer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehleringer, Jim

    Lawrence B. Flanagan á Craig S. Cook James R. Ehleringer Unusually low carbon isotope ratios limited overlap in species distributions inside and out- side these gardens. Solar exposure in hanging

  15. .......Agnew Hall .......Air Conditioning Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    /Burleson Tennis Center .......Burruss Hall .......Campbell Hall .......Cassell Coliseum .......Central Stores .......Dietrick Hall .......Durham Hall .......Eggleston Hall .......Engel Hall D.....English Field .......Femoyer .......Golf Course Clubhouse .......Graduate Life Center at ........Donaldson Brown .......Greenhouses

  16. Optimization of Air Conditioning Cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshadri, Swarooph

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    on a 3-ton residential air conditioner are then presented to intuitively understand the effect of expansion valve and evaporator fan cycling in a real system. A real time optimization method is explored and the feasibility, recommendations for a...

  17. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1A Potential PathAddingAhorre

  18. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISO 50001EnergyNewsletterAdvocateInnovations inEnergyAir

  19. Cooking with Canned Tuna (packed in water) (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    pueden encontrar en Internet en: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos de Texas AgriLife Extension Service est?n disponibles para todas las personas, sin distinci?n de raza, color, sexo, discapacidad, religi?n, edad u origen nacional...

  20. Cooking with Canned Tuna (packed in water) (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    ?malo antesde que transcurran 3 d?as. Preparado por Jenna Anding, Profesora Asociada y Extensionista Especialista en Nutrici?n, El Sistema Texas A&M. Producido por AgriLife Communications, El Sistema Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se..., Edward G. Smith, Director, Texas AgriLife Extension Service, El Sistema Texas A&M. Revisi?n ...

  1. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.; Price, Philip N.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance metrics of airflow, sound, and combustion product capture efficiency (CE) were measured for a convenience sample of fifteen cooking exhaust devices, as installed in residences. Results were analyzed to quantify the impact of various device- and installation-dependent parameters on CE. Measured maximum airflows were 70% or lower than values noted on product literature for 10 of the devices. Above-the-cooktop devices with flat bottom surfaces (no capture hood) – including exhaust fan/microwave combination appliances – were found to have much lower CE at similar flow rates, compared to devices with capture hoods. For almost all exhaust devices and especially for rear-mounted downdraft exhaust and microwaves, CE was substantially higher for back compared with front burner use. Flow rate, and the extent to which the exhaust device extends over the burners that are in use, also had a large effect on CE. A flow rate of 95 liters per second (200 cubic feet per minute) was necessary, but not sufficient, to attain capture efficiency in excess of 75% for the front burners. A-weighted sound levels in kitchens exceeded 57 dB when operating at the highest fan setting for all 14 devices evaluated for sound performance.

  2. Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Optimization and heat and water integration for biodiesel production from cooking oil generation of biodiesel using waste cooking oil and algae oil. We consider 5 different technologies is to simultaneously optimize and heat integrate the production of biodiesel from each of the different oil sources

  3. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  4. Energy-Efficient Cooking for Winter | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome |Cooking for Winter Energy-Efficient Cooking

  5. McCook, Illinois: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio: Energy ResourcesMavi InnovationsEnergyMcCook Public PowerMcCook,

  6. Dimethyl ether (DME) from coal as a household cooking fuel in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be made from any carbonaceous feedstock, including natural gas, coal, or biomass, using establishedDimethyl ether (DME) from coal as a household cooking fuel in China Eric D. Larson Princeton gas (LPG) as a household cooking fuel. As such, DME is an attractive fuel for clean cooking. DME can

  7. Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    iPage | i Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking. LBNL4885E #12;Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners distributions resulting from use of natural gas cooking appliances across households in California. The model

  8. COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klug, Victoria; Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooking of food and use of natural gas cooking burners generate pollutants that can have substantial impacts on residential indoor air quality. The extent of these impacts depends on cooking frequency, duration and specific food preparation activities in addition to the extent to which exhaust fans or other ventilation measures (e.g. windows) are used during cooking. With the intent of improving our understanding of indoor air quality impacts of cooking-related pollutants, we created, posted and advertised a web-based survey about cooking activities in residences. The survey included questions similar to those in California's Residential Appliance Saturation Survey (RASS), relating to home, household and cooking appliance characteristics and weekly patterns of meals cooked. Other questions targeted the following information not captured in the RASS: (1) oven vs. cooktop use, the number of cooktop burners used and the duration of burner use when cooking occurs, (2) specific cooking activities, (3) the use of range hood or window to increase ventilation during cooking, and (4) occupancy during cooking. Specific cooking activity questions were asked about the prior 24 hours with the assumption that most people are able to recollect activities over this time period. We examined inter-relationships among cooking activities and patterns and relationships of cooking activities to household demographics. We did not seek to obtain a sample of respondents that is demographically representative of the California population but rather to inexpensively gather information from homes spanning ranges of relevant characteristics including the number of residents and presence or absence of children. This report presents the survey, the responses obtained, and limited analysis of the results.

  9. COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES--DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COOKING APPLIANCE USE IN CALIFORNIA HOMES--DATA COLLECTED FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY Victoria L. Klug, Agnes B. Lobscheid, and Brett C. Singer Environmental Energy Technologies Division August 2011 LBNL-5028 FROM A WEB-BASED SURVEY Victoria L. Klug, Agnes B. Lobscheid, and Brett C. Singer Indoor Environment

  10. Healthy Foods, Healthy Lives: Cooking on a Student's Budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    Healthy Foods, Healthy Lives: Cooking on a Student's Budget FScN 2002 ­ Fall & Spring Semesters/monthly menus within a realistic food budget and a modest supply list Gain valuable information and connect to a variety of resources on nutrition, food safety, budgeting and meal planning Develop a social network

  11. Automotive Powertrain Control: A Survey Jeffrey A. Cook, Jing Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    Automotive Powertrain Control: A Survey Jeffrey A. Cook, Jing Sun Julia H. Buckland, Ilya V recent and historical publications on automotive powertrain control. Control- oriented models of gasoline, hybrid electric powertrains and automotive fuel cells. In each case, fundamental models are discussed

  12. Engine Control J.A. Cook, J.W. Grizzley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    , spark ignition, internal combustion gasoline engine. Mechanically, this powerplant has remained a ect emissions, performance and fuel economy in the spark ignition engine: Air-fuel ratio controlEngine Control J.A. Cook, J.W. Grizzley , and J. Sun January 18, 1995 1 Introduction Automotive

  13. Page 1 of 4 STATIA HONORA LUSZCZ-COOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, Burkhard

    Page 1 of 4 STATIA HONORA LUSZCZ-COOK Department of Astronomy University of California, Berkeley B ­ present UC Berkeley Graduate Student Instructor, Undergraduate Solar System Physics, 2007 UC Berkeley National Solar Observatory RESEARCH INTERESTS Planetary atmospheres, extrasolar planets, near

  14. Smart Homes Diane J. Cook and Michael Youngblood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    Smart Homes Diane J. Cook and Michael Youngblood Department of Computer Science and Engineering personal environment: the home. There are several characteristics that are commonly found in smart homes the inhabitants of this burden. Interaction with smart homes is in a form that is comfortable to people: speech

  15. Mining the Home Environment Diane J. Cook and Narayanan Krishnan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    is a smart home. In a smart home, computer software plays the role of an intelligent agent that perceives mining smart home data and offer ideas for continued research. 2. Smart Home Data One reason whyMining the Home Environment Diane J. Cook and Narayanan Krishnan Washington State University

  16. Water Conservation Checklist for the Home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Janie; Kellner, Bev

    2002-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    of water necessary to cook foods such as frozen vegetables and stews. You?ll preserve nutrients as well as save water. A tight-fitting lid on a pan saves water from boiling away and also cooks food faster, thereby using less energy. Plan more one-dish meals... Checklist for the Home DISHWASHING Cut down on the number of utensils used in food preparation, and on the plates and glassware used with meals. This will save on dishwashing water used to clean them. Wash only full loads of dishes in dishwasher. A...

  17. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systemsfor Occupant Symptoms in U.S. Office Buildings: the EPA BASE Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonspecific building-related symptoms among occupants of modern office buildings worldwide are common and may be associated with important reductions in work performance, but their etiology remains uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in office buildings that increase risk of indoor contaminants or reduce effectiveness of ventilation may cause adverse exposures and subsequent increase in these symptoms among occupants. We analyzed data collected by the U.S. EPA from a representative sample of 100 large U.S. office buildings--the Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation (BASE) study--using multivariate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations adjusted for potential personal and building confounders. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between seven building-related symptom outcomes and selected HVAC system characteristics. Among factors of HVAC design or configuration: Outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground were associated with approximately doubled odds of most symptoms assessed. Sealed (non-operable) windows were associated with increases in skin and eye symptoms (ORs= 1.9, 1.3, respectively). Outdoor air intake without an intake fan was associated with an increase in eye symptoms (OR=1.7). Local cooling coils were associated with increased headache (OR=1.5). Among factors of HVAC condition, maintenance, or operation: the presence of humidification systems in good condition was associated with an increase in headache (OR=1.4), whereas the presence of humidification systems in poor condition was associated with increases in fatigue/difficulty concentrating, as well as upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=1.8, 1.5). No regularly scheduled inspections for HVAC components was associated with increased eye symptoms, cough and upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=2.2, 1.6, 1.5). Less frequent cleaning of cooling coils or drip pans was associated with increased headache (OR=1.6). Fair or poor condition of duct liner was associated with increased upper respiratory symptoms (OR=1.4). Most of the many potential risk factors assessed here had not been investigated previously, and associations found with single symptoms may have been by chance, including several associations that were the reverse of expected. Risk factors newly identified in these analyses that deserve attention include outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground, lack of operable windows, poorly maintained humidification systems, and lack of scheduled inspection for HVAC systems. Infrequent cleaning of cooling coils and drain pans were associated with increases in several symptoms in these as well as prior analyses of BASE data. Replication of these findings is needed, using more objective measurements of both exposure and health response. Confirmation of the specific HVAC factors responsible for increased symptoms in buildings, and development of prevention strategies could have major public health and economic benefits worldwide.

  18. UC Santa Cruz Storm Water Fall 2010 Volume 5, Number 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    materials (food wastes), oil and grease, toxic chemicals in cleaning products, and disinfectants. Practices quality and damage to the natural ecosystem. (Photo / UCSC Vehicle Maintenance and Storm Water) Fats, oil) 459-4520 Keep cooking oil waste containers clean and covered ­ clean up spills. Do not dump cooking

  19. Compression of cooked freeze-dried carrots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macphearson, Bruce Alan

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to precompression characteristics (Brockmann, 1966). Hsmdy (1962) found that acceptable, compressed and freeze-dried spinach could be obtained by plasticizing the product to a moisture content of 9X before compression. Ishler (1962) reported that spraying... the dehydrated food before compression with either water, glycerine or propylene glycol produced bars with excellent rehydra- tion characteristics. He recommended spraying freeze-dried cellu- lar foods to 5-13X moisture, compressing, and redrying to lees than...

  20. Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiester, T.R.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.

  1. 2014-11-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register extension of the public comment period regarding energy conservation standards for small, large and very large air-cool commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on November 25, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  2. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Logue, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. Sullivan (2009). Natural Gas Variability in California:Singer (2012). Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on PollutantPollutant Exposures in Natural Gas Cooking Burners, LBNL

  3. Christine Anderson-Cook: An outstanding New Mexico woman

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization ofChemistry andChristine Anderson-Cook:

  4. Pantex firefighters cook it up | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA Approved: 5-13-14 FEDERALAmerica TreatyWaste PolicyWind Farmfirefighters cook it

  5. McCook Public Power District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant JumpMarysville, Ohio: Energy ResourcesMavi InnovationsEnergyMcCook Public Power

  6. Anderson-Cook wins William G. Hunter Award

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta3 Table 3. SummaryAncient ProteinsAnderson-Cook

  7. Distribution of Clay Minerals in Lower Cook Inlet and Kodiak Shelf Sediment, Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distribution of Clay Minerals in Lower Cook Inlet and Kodiak Shelf Sediment, Alaska James R. llein-five surface samples from lower Cook Inlet and forty-three from Kodiak shelf, Alaska, were analyzed for clay percentages of clay minerals. This is because modern ocean currents vigorously rework surficial sediment

  8. Modifications in the AA5083 Johnson-Cook Material Model for Use in Friction Stir Welding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    Modifications in the AA5083 Johnson-Cook Material Model for Use in Friction Stir Welding, material microstructure and properties in friction stir welding welds of AA5083 (a non welding, Johnson-Cook material model 1. Introduction In this study, an attempt is made to modify

  9. Plant-Based Tannins as Antioxidants in Pre-Cooked Ground Beef Patties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruzen, Shannon Michelle

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    percent), RM (0.2percent), or 0.25percent or 0.5percent powders of Chardonnay grapeseed (CG), Norton grapeseed (NG), CitruSmart (CS), or dried cherry (CP). Raw and cooked patties were aerobically stored for 0 to 5 days at 4 degrees C. Cooked patties were...

  10. Performance of Installed Cooking Exhaust Devices Brett C. Singer, William W. Delp, Michael G. Apte, Philip N. Price

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Implications Natural gas cooking burners and many cooking activities emit pollutants that can reach hazardous values and that less than half of the pollutants emitted by gas cooking burners are removed during many gas burners; Nitrogen dioxide; Range hood; Task ventilation; Unvented combustion. Practical

  11. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jiang

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat Pump Centralized AC by NG Electric water heater Gasheater gas boiler boiler stove district heating heat pump conditioner Air conditioning Lighting Cooking and waterWater heating Technologies Electric heater Gas boiler Boiler Small cogen Stove District heating Heat pump

  12. Applying a Domestic Water-cooled Air-conditioner in Subtropical Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, W.; Chen, H.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the energy and environmental benefits of WACS over AACS applying to commercial buildings with central air-conditioning. This paper presents an experimental study on the performance of a 3.36 kW prototype water-cooled air conditioner. The prototype is a self...

  13. Pesticides and total polychlorinated biphenyls residues in raw and cooked walleye and white bass harvested from the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabik, M.E.; Booren, A.M.; Daubenmire, S.; Pascall, M.A.; Zabik, M.J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Welch, R.; Humphrey, H. [Michigan Dept. of Public Health, Lansing, MI (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To provide data for public health and other government officials to quantitate the degree of exposure a human might receive from consumption of commonly sought open water fish species prepared and cooked by commonly used methods, five species of Great Lakes fish were chosen. Data is presented for walleye harvested from Lakes Erie, Huron and Michigan which were baked and char-broiled as skin-on fillets with additional walleye from Lake Michigan being deep fat fried. Skin-on white bass fillets from Lakes Erie and Huron also were pan fried. Packed column PCB and pesticide analyses were conducted for all fish species by the Michigan Department of Public Health. The DDT complex (p,p{prime}DDT, p,p{prime}DDE and p,p{prime}DDD), dieldrin, hexa-chlorobenzene (HCB), chlorodane complex (alpha and gamma chlordane, oxychlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor), toxaphene, heptachlor epoxide, and total PCBs (expressed as Arochlor{sup R} 1254) were found at above the minimum level of detection for many of the species studied. Residues were expressed as ppm wet tissue and then converted to micrograms per fillet to calculate the percentage loss due to cooking. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Detecting fractal power-law long-range dependence in pre-sliced cooked pork ham surface intensity patterns using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drakakis, Konstantinos

    and processing conditions, which includes injection of brine, tumbling and cooking. The brine injection level

  15. Experimental Evaluation of Installed Cooking Exhaust Fan Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singer, Brett C.; Delp, William W.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The installed performance of cooking exhaust fans was evaluated through residential field experiments conducted on a sample of 15 devices varying in design and other characteristics. The sample included two rear downdraft systems, two under-cabinet microwave over range (MOR) units, three different installations of an under-cabinet model with grease screens across the bottom and no capture hood, two devices with grease screens covering the bottom of a large capture hood (one under-cabinet, one wall-mount chimney), four under-cabinet open hoods, and two open hoods with chimney mounts over islands. Performance assessment included measurement of airflow and sound levels across fan settings and experiments to quantify the contemporaneous capture efficiency for the exhaust generated by natural gas cooking burners.Capture efficiency is defined as the fraction of generated pollutants that are removed through the exhaust and thus not available for inhalation of household occupants. Capture efficiency (CE) was assessed for various configurations of burner use (e.g., single front, single back, combination of one front and one back, oven) and fan speed setting. Measured airflow rates were substantially lower than the levels noted in product literature for many of the units. This shortfall was observed for several units costing in excess of $1000. Capture efficiency varied widely (from<5percent to roughly 100percent) across devices and across conditions for some devices. As expected, higher capture efficiencies were achieved with higher fan settings and the associated higher air flow rates. In most cases, capture efficiencies were substantially higher for rear burners than for front burners. The best and most consistent performance was observed for open hoods that covered all cooktop burners and operated at higher airflow rates. The lowest capture efficiencies were measured when a front burner was used with a rear backdraft system or with lowest fan setting for above the range systems that do not cover the front burners.

  16. BEETIT: Building Cooling and Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s BEETIT Project, short for “Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices,” are developing new approaches and technologies for building cooling equipment and air conditioners. These projects aim to drastically improve building energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) at a cost comparable to current technologies.

  17. Alternative Refrigerants for Building Air Conditioning 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bivens, D. B.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and HFC-245ca. HCFC-22 is also scheduled for phase-out, and three alternatives for HCFC-22 have been identified: HFC-134a, a near-azeotropic mixture of R32/Rl25, and a zeotropic mixture of R32/R125/R134a. Performance test results, future potential energy...

  18. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuilding RemovalCSS LetterStateDepartmentAnnounce Results ofCentral Air

  19. Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1A Potential PathAddingAhorreLeaks

  20. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of Energy CompletingPresented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE

  1. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'iPresented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE

  2. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces lipid oxidation in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chae, Sung Hee

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was conducted to examine the antioxidative effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties. The hypothesis was that CLA would be retained during irradiation and would reduce ...

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces lipid oxidation in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chae, Sung Hee

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was conducted to examine the antioxidative effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in irradiated, cooked ground beef patties. The hypothesis was that CLA would be retained during irradiation and would reduce lipid oxidation...

  4. 2014-02-06 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Conventional Cooking Products; Request for Information

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register request for information and notice of document availability regarding energy conservation standards for residential conventional cooking products, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 6, 2014.

  5. Viability of waste-based cooking fuels for Developing countries : combustion emissions and field feasibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banzaert, Amy, 1976-

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass-derived cooking fuels are used by three billion people worldwide. The drawbacks of such fuels, typically wood or wood-derived charcoal, include health hazards, negative environmental effects, and perpetuation of ...

  6. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lask, Kathleen

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2 A ppendix C: Emissionsfrom cooking practices in Haiti (see Section 2.4 for theof Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2 Appendix B: Stove

  7. Orange Sweet Potato Brie Tartlet 2.5 # cooked diced Sweet potato

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Duck O.

    Orange Sweet Potato Brie Tartlet 2.5 # cooked diced Sweet potato 2 cups orange marmalade 1 cup potato. Spoon into phyllo tart shells. Top with Brie cheese and bake in oven for 10 min at 350 deg oven

  8. Development and evaluation of corn cooking procedures for the production of tortillas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Des Rosiers, Mary Candace

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    each cooking treatment. The texture of the tortillas was then measured by the Instron. Extent of gelatinization via enzyme susceptibility was negatively correlated with the Instron grain shear values. Amylograph peaks and particle size determination... Samples of Corn. Chemical Analysis. Preparation of Nixtamal Preparation of Masa. Preparation of Tortillas Evaluation of Particle Size Measurement of Gelatinization. Evaluation of Optimum Cook Time. Color Measurement and Subjective Tests Evaluation...

  9. Size distribution measurement of fine and ultrafine particle emission from cooking Evelyne Ghina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ) for particle with diameter between d and (d+dd) including emission rate of the source, nucleation, re-suspension meat or fish lead to a total mean equivalent emission rate of (9±6)×1010 s-1 while cooking meat or fish in an oven lead to total mean equivalent emission rate of (9±4)×1010 s-1 . Cooking pasta or heat the stove

  10. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO{sub 2}). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  11. Improved Biomass Cooking Stoves and Improved Stove Emission Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HATFIELD, MICHAEL; Still, Dean

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In developing countries, there is an urgent need for access to safe, efficient, and more affordable cooking technologies. Nearly 2.5 billion people currently use an open fire or traditional cookstove to prepare their meals, and recent models predict that use of biomass for cooking will continue to be the dominant energy use in rural, resource-poor households through 2030. For these families, cooking poses serious risks to health, safety, and income. An alarming 4 million people, primarily women and children, die prematurely each year from indoor and outdoor exposure to the harmful emissions released by solid fuel combustion. Use of traditional stoves can also have a significant impact on deforestation and climate change. This dire situation creates a critical need for cookstoves that significantly and verifiably reduce fuel use and emissions in order to reach protective levels for human health and the environment. Additionally, advances in the scientific equipment needed to measure and monitor stove fuel use and emissions have not kept pace with the significant need within the industry. While several testing centers in the developed world may have hundred thousand-dollar emissions testing systems, organizations in the field have had little more than a thermometer, a scale, and subjective observations to quantify the performance of stove designs. There is an urgent need for easy-to-use, inexpensive, accurate, and robust stove testing equipment for use by laboratory and field researchers around the world. ASAT and their research partner, Aprovecho Research Center (ARC), have over thirty years of experience addressing these two needs, improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment, with expertise spanning the full spectrum of development from conceptual design to product manufacturing and dissemination. This includes: 1) research, design, and verification of clean biomass cookstove technology and emissions monitoring equipment; 2) mass production of quality-controlled stove and emissions equipment at levels scalable to meet global demand; and 3) global distribution through a variety of channels and partners. ARC has been instrumental in designing and improving more than 100 stove designs over the past thirty years. In the last four years, ASAT and ARC have played a key role in the production and sales of over 200,000 improved stoves in the developed and developing world. The ARC-designed emissions equipment is currently used by researchers in laboratories and field studies on five continents. During Phase I of the DOE STTR grant, ASAT and ARC worked together to apply their wealth of product development experience towards creating the next generation of improved cookstoves and emissions monitoring equipment. Highlights of Phase I for the biomass cookstove project include 1) the development of several new stove technologies that reached the DOE 50/90 benchmark; 2) fabrication of new stove prototypes by ASAT’s manufacturing partner, Shengzhou Stove Manufacturing (SSM); 3) field testing of prototype stoves with consumers in Puerto Rico and the US; and 4) the selection of three stove prototypes for further development and commercialization during Phase II. Highlights of Phase I for the emissions monitoring equipment project include: 1) creation of a new emissions monitoring equipment product, the Laboratory Emissions Monitoring System (LEMS 2) the addition of gravimetric PM measurements to the stove testing systems to meet International Standards Organization criteria; 3) the addition of a CO{sub 2} sensor and wireless 3G capability to the IAP Meter; and 4) and the improvement of sensors and signal quality on all systems. Twelve Regional Testing and Knowledge Centers purchased this equipment during the Phase I project period.

  12. A study of soap stock from cotton seed oil as influenced by variations in the cooking temperature of the cotton seed meats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North, Harvey Steinle

    1932-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    arrived at by stirring the filtered oil with water and allowin the mixture to stand for a few minutes. This phenomenon is characteristic of the phosphatides, as they 2 swell and precipitate, from oil, when wet. 6 Jamcson and Hauman found... that an increase in impurities amounting to 0. 45$ increased the amount of oil emulsified in the soap stook and the refining loss was raised from 6. 4p to 9. 8$. The previous work on the cooking of cotton seed meats seems to indioate the presence of some...

  13. Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proposal for the award of a contract for the design, supply, installation and commissioning of a ventilation and air conditioning system for the ECN3 experimental area and the TCC8 and GHN300 service tunnels and for the dismantling of the existing system

  14. One-Pot Methamphetamine Cooks Pose New Danger Law enforcement in Southern Illinois are reporting that they are finding full blown methamphetamine cooks taking place in Coleman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    One-Pot Methamphetamine Cooks Pose New Danger Law enforcement in Southern Illinois are reporting. Inexperienced officers have picked these items up and moved them around without knowing the dangers involved. The idea is to reduce the amount of time needed for the overall process. The danger to subjects and to law

  15. Condensate Water Collection for an Institutional Building in Doha, Qatar: An Opportunity for Water Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryant, J. A.; Ahmed, T.

    . Currently, the predominant means of water production is through the desalination of seawater as a by-product of energy production. As of summer of 2008, there are approximately 7,000 MW of natural gas fired electrical generating plants in Qatar (EIA...://www.arabianbusiness.com/514775-qatar-power-and-water-project-awarded ASHRAE. 2001. ASHRAE fundamentals handbook. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- Conditioning Engineers, Inc. EIA, 2007, http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Qatar/pdf.pdf Frechette...

  16. New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black carbon and sulfur dioxide from India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dickerson, Russell R.

    New methodology for estimating biofuel consumption for cooking: Atmospheric emissions of black; accepted 8 June 2004; published 30 July 2004. [1] The dominance of biofuel combustion emissions in the Indian region, and the inherently large uncertainty in biofuel use estimates based on cooking energy

  17. L-sodium lactate in cooked beef top rounds: differing levels of incorporation and cookery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Lori Leigh

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    L-SODIUM LACTATE IN COOKED BEEF TOP ROUNDS; DIFFERING LEVELS OF INCORPORATION AND COOKERY A Thesis by LORI LEIGH EVANS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Animal Science L-SODIUM LACTATE IN COOKED BEEF TOP ROUNDS; DIFFERING LEVELS OF INCORPORATION AND COOKERY A Thesis by LORI LEIGH EVANS Approved as to style and content by: R. K. Miller (Chair...

  18. Intelligibility-enhancing speech modifications: the Hurricane Challenge Martin Cooke1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Intelligibility-enhancing speech modifications: the Hurricane Challenge Martin Cooke1,2 , Catherine to enhance speech intelligibility. Eighteen systems operating on a common data set were subjected to ex interest in tackling what has been termed the `near-end' speech enhancement problem [7­15]. Consequently

  19. A Family-Centric Genealogy Visualization Paradigm Robert Ball and David Cook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, Robert

    A Family-Centric Genealogy Visualization Paradigm Robert Ball and David Cook Stephen F. Austin State University Department of Computer Science {ballrg | cookda}@sfasu.edu ABSTRACT Genealogy is a way for future behavior. Genealogical visualizations are used to help understand and share the story of the past

  20. Keeping the Intelligent Environment Resident in the Loop Parisa Rashidi and Diane J. Cook*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    Keeping the Intelligent Environment Resident in the Loop Parisa Rashidi and Diane J. Cook* *School will become part of our everyday environments. However, many of these technologies are brittle and do and requests. 1 Introduction Recently there has been extensive research to develop smart environments

  1. Simulating consumer practices to evaluate the cooking and chemical characteristics of low fat ground beef patties 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Jeanette Marie

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to fresh hand-made. Cooking methods had little impact on fat or caloric content at the 57o level; however, at the 10 and 157o levels, microwaved and reheated patties contained the lowest relative amount of fat. Despite the statistical differences in fat...

  2. AUTOMOTIVE POWERTRAIN CONTROL A SURVEY Jeffrey A. Cook, Jing Sun, Julia H. Buckland, Ilya V. Kolmanovsky,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    AUTOMOTIVE POWERTRAIN CONTROL A SURVEY Jeffrey A. Cook, Jing Sun, Julia H. Buckland, Ilya V, Michigan, 48109, U.S.A. (e-mail: jingsun@umich.edu). AUTOMOTIVE POWERTRAIN CONTROL A SURVEY Jeffrey A This paper surveys recent and historical publications on automotive powertrain control. Control

  3. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells Peter L. Cook,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himpsel, Franz J.

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy of biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells Peter L. Cook,1 Xiaosong November 2009 Dye-sensitized solar cells are potentially inexpensive alternatives to traditional semiconductor solar cells. In order to optimize dyes for solar cells we systematically investigate

  4. Behaviometrics for Identifying Smart Home Aaron S. Crandall and Diane J. Cook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    Chapter 4 Behaviometrics for Identifying Smart Home Residents Aaron S. Crandall and Diane J. Cook Smart homes and ambient intelligence show great promise in the fields of medical monitoring, energy protecting and easy to use smart home technologies often lack any kind of unique tracking technologies

  5. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, Anindita, E-mail: anidu14@gmail.com [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China) [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India); Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban [Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India)] [Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 ?m (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ? Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on cardiovascular health was investigated. ? Serum markers of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress were studied. ? Biomass using women had increased systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. ? Indoor air pollution and observed changes were positively associated.

  6. Discrete Element Modeling Results of Proppant Rearrangement in the Cooke Conductivity Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earl Mattson; Hai Huang; Michael Conway; Lisa O'Connell

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The study of propped fracture conductivity began in earnest with the development of the Cooke cell which later became part of the initial API standard. Subsequent developments included a patented multicell design to conduct 4 tests in a press at the same time. Other modifications have been used by various investigators. Recent studies by the Stim-Lab proppant consortium have indicated that the flow field across a Cooke proppant conductivity testing cell may not be uniform as initially believed which resulted is significantly different conductivity results. Post test analysis of low temperature metal alloy injections at the termination of proppant testing prior to the release of the applied stress suggest that higher flow is to be expected along the sides and top of the proppant pack than compared to the middle of the pack. To evaluate these experimental findings, a physics-based two-dimensional (2-D) discrete element model (DEM) was developed and applied to simulate proppant rearrangement during stress loading in the Cooke conductivity cell and the resulting porosity field. Analysis of these simulations are critical to understanding the impact of modification to the testing cell as well as understanding key proppant conductivity issues such as how these effects are manifested in proppant concentration testing results. The 2-D DEM model was constructed to represent a realistic cross section of the Cooke cell with a distribution of four material properties, three that represented the Cooke cell (steel, sandstone,square rings), and one representing the proppant. In principle, Cooke cell materials can be approximated as assemblies of independent discrete elements (particles) of various sizes and material properties that interact via cohesive interactions, repulsive forces, and frictional forces. The macroscopic behavior can then be modeled as the collective behavior of many interacting discrete elements. This DEM model is particularly suitable for modeling proppant mechanical interactions subjected to an applied stress, where the experimental cell is represented as a cohesive body composed of a large number of discrete elements, and proppants can be modeled as the individual discrete particles with various sizes (following the proppant size distribution-density function used in the test) that exhibit no cohesive strength between the particles. Initial 2-D DEM modeling results suggest that proppant rearrangement and non-uniform stress distribution across the proppant pack results in significant non-uniform porosity distribution across the Cooke cell. Larger porosities develop along the edge of the proppant pack beneath the square ring seal and would result in a disproportionate higher flow field along these edges as compared to the middle of the proppant pack. These results suggest that reported conductivity values determined by the Cooke cell may be biased to overestimate the actual conductivity of the proppant at high stresses and that modifications to the standard Cooke cell will affect the magnitude of this bias.

  7. Acoustic Monitoring of Beluga Whale Interactions with Cook Inlet Tidal Energy Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worthington, Monty [Project Director - AK] [Project Director - AK

    2014-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Cook Inlet, Alaska is home to some of the greatest tidal energy resources in the U.S., as well as an endangered population of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Successfully permitting and operating a tidal power project in Cook Inlet requires a biological assessment of the potential and realized effects of the physical presence and sound footprint of tidal turbines on the distribution, relative abundance, and behavior of Cook Inlet beluga whales. ORPC Alaska, working with the Project Team—LGL Alaska Research Associates, University of Alaska Anchorage, TerraSond, and Greeneridge Science—undertook the following U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) study to characterize beluga whales in Cook Inlet – Acoustic Monitoring of Beluga Whale Interactions with the Cook Inlet Tidal Energy Project (Project). ORPC Alaska, LLC, is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC, (collectively, ORPC). ORPC is a global leader in the development of hydrokinetic power systems and eco-conscious projects that harness the power of ocean and river currents to create clean, predictable renewable energy. ORPC is developing a tidal energy demonstration project in Cook Inlet at East Foreland where ORPC has a Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) preliminary permit (P-13821). The Project collected baseline data to characterize pre-deployment patterns of marine mammal distribution, relative abundance, and behavior in ORPC’s proposed deployment area at East Foreland. ORPC also completed work near Fire Island where ORPC held a FERC preliminary permit (P-12679) until March 6, 2013. Passive hydroacoustic devices (previously utilized with bowhead whales in the Beaufort Sea) were adapted for study of beluga whales to determine the relative abundance of beluga whale vocalizations within the proposed deployment areas. Hydroacoustic data collected during the Project were used to characterize the ambient acoustic environment of the project site pre-deployment to inform the FERC pilot project process. The Project compared results obtained from this method to results obtained from other passive hydrophone technologies and to visual observation techniques performed simultaneously. This Final Report makes recommendations on the best practice for future data collection, for ORPC’s work in Cook Inlet specifically, and for tidal power projects in general. This Project developed a marine mammal study design and compared technologies for hydroacoustic and visual data collection with potential for broad application to future tidal and hydrokinetic projects in other geographic areas. The data collected for this Project will support the environmental assessment of future Cook Inlet tidal energy projects, including ORPC’s East Foreland Tidal Energy Project and any tidal energy developments at Fire Island. The Project’s rigorous assessment of technology and methodologies will be invaluable to the hydrokinetic industry for developing projects in an environmentally sound and sustainable way for areas with high marine mammal activity or endangered populations. By combining several different sampling methods this Project will also contribute to the future preparation of a comprehensive biological assessment of ORPC’s projects in Cook Inlet.

  8. The effects of cooking, storage, and ionizing irradiation on carotenoids, antioxidant activity, and phenolics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blessington, Tyann

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on these levels. Therefore, the changes in carotenoid content, antioxidant activity, and phenolic content were investigated using combinations of cultivars, cooking methods, storage treatments, and low-dose ionizing irradiation. Carotenoid content was measured via...

  9. Distribution, Natural History, and Parasites of Mammals of Cook County, Minnesota

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timm, Robert M.

    1975-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    - lished in Cook, Lake, and St. Louis counties by proclamation of President Theodore Roosevelt on February 13, 1909. Numerous tracts of land have been added to the na- tional forest since 1909. Under the Wilder- ness Act of 1964, 1,062,000 acres... fahrenholzi), and various non-parasitic mites. Whitaker and Pascal (1971) noted two species of mites (Labidophorus soricis and Androlaelaps fahrenholzi) and one species of tick (Ixodes muris) from Sorex cinereus in Pine County, Minnesota. In St. Louis...

  10. 2014-11-24 Issuance: Test Procedures for Conventional Cooking Products; Supplementary Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Supplementary Notice of Proposed Rulemaking regarding test procedures for conventional cooking products, as issued by the Deputy Asisstant Secretary for Energy Efficiency. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  11. Factors affecting the cooking and extrusion properties of sorghum for noodle production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekalake, Rosemary Ikalafeng

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    trash, glumes, and small kernels before milling. The grain was cleaned 3 times. To produce fine flour, the grain was decorticated in 3kg batches in the PRL mini dehuller for 2 min (Nutana Machine Co. , Saskatoon, Canada). Decorticated grain... during cooking, had dry matter losses comparable to rice, and were not sticky. Stronger, smoother, and lighter colored noodles with lower dry matter losses were produced from sorghum milled to yield a fine versas coarse flour. Some of the 100...

  12. Effects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, T.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Durell, G.S.; Koczwara, G.; Spellacy, A.M. [Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Battelle Ocean Sciences performed a study to determine the effect of cooking on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Broiling, pan frying, and deep frying in oil were tested on fillets from 21 fish collected from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, on February 21, 1991. The evaluation involved estimating the change in PCB concentrations using a mass-balance approach that factored the change in fillet weight resulting from cooking with the changes in PCB concentration expressed on a precooked wet-weight basis. Deep frying in oil resulted in a 47% reduction in total PCB levels in fillet tissue. Additionally, deep frying caused a 40% reduction in fillet mass. Pan frying and broiling resulted in statistically in insignificant increases in total PCB levels of 15% and 17%, respectively. Fillet mass reductions resulting from pan frying and broiling were 7% and 15%, respectively. The effects of cooking on 18 individual congeners generally paralleled the results observed for total PCB. All 18 congeners were significantly reduced by deep frying. Congener Cl{sub 2}(08) also was significantly reduced by either pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105) and Cl{sub 5}(118) showed apparent significant increases in concentrations following pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105), Cl{sub 5}(118), and C1{sub 6}(138) showed significant increases in concentration following broiling.

  13. Genetically modified CHO cells for studying the genotoxicity of heterocyclic amines from cooked foods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, L.H.; Wu, R.W.; Felton, J.S.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed metabolically competent CHO cells to evaluate the genotoxicity associated with heterocyclic amines, such as those that are present in cooked foods. Into repair-deficient UV5 cells we introduced cDNAs for expressing cytochrome P450IA2 and acetyltransferases. We then genetically reverted these transformed lines to obtain matched metabolically competent repair-deficient/proficient lines. For a high mutagenic response, we find a requirement for acetyltransferase with IQ but not with PhIP. This system allows for both quantifying mutagenesis and analyzing the mutational spectra produced by heterocyclic amines.

  14. A study of the factors influencing the cooking of cottonseed meats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, John

    1931-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are oonveyed fran the orushex' through a stean heated rotor lift to th? top ooolcor. The stosxL heated rotox lift is a vertioal sore?oonveyor into ?hioh live steaa is ingested. Tho puryose of the live stean in the xotor lift ie to begin tho seeking...~to suyorinyosed oas upon the other The temperature of each ee@yartnsnt is in4ioated by a reoording thersLcsseter, The heat for the seeking is taken frcsa stean gaskets, an4, by oontroliing the onount of stean in cash gasket, tho mal cook oan cxaintain tho...

  15. Thomas B. Cook,1971 | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003 (Next Release on5,9,9,33,37Thomas B. Cook,1971

  16. Grilling Outdoors Safely Outdoor grilling is a fun way to cook food for family and friends. Although we often think about

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    grilling to ensure a clean workspace and safe food preparation. BBeeffoorree yyoouu bbeeggiinn Choose meat away. If the trip home takes more than 30 minutes, use a cooler. Cook or freezing fresh poultry, fish, seafood, or ground beef within 1 to 2 days; other meat like steak and pork chops should be cooked

  17. Energy Exchange Nov 2001 The NEED Project PO Box 10101 Manassas, VA 20108 1-800-875-5029 INTERMEDIATE ACTIVITY: Solar Cooking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

    Ã?8h INTERMEDIATE ACTIVITY: Solar Cooking GOAL: To build a solar hot dog cooker and test its ability 2. 6. Place the Solar Hot Dog Cooker into direct sunlight, positioning the flaps so of reflection. 7. Time how long it takes for your hot dog to cook. If it is a very cold day, consider how you

  18. Electronic structure of Fe-vs. Ru-based dye molecules Phillip S. Johnson, Peter L. Cook, Ioannis Zegkinoglou, J. M. Garca-Lastra, Angel Rubio et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himpsel, Franz J.

    Electronic structure of Fe- vs. Ru-based dye molecules Phillip S. Johnson, Peter L. Cook, Ioannis molecules Phillip S. Johnson,1 Peter L. Cook,2 Ioannis Zegkinoglou,1,3 J. M. García-Lastra,4,5 Angel Rubio,4 molecules for solar cells, the differences in the electronic structure of Fe- and Ru-based dyes

  19. Energy Impacts of Effective Range Hood Use for all U.S. Residential Cooking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, Jennifer M; Singer, Brett

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Range hood use during residential cooking is essential to maintaining good indoor air quality. However, widespread use will impact the energy demand of the U.S. housing stock. This paper describes a modeling study to determine site energy, source energy, and consumer costs for comprehensive range hood use. To estimate the energy impacts for all 113 million homes in the U.S., we extrapolated from the simulation of a representative weighted sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey database. A physics-based simulation model that considered fan energy, energy to condition additional incoming air, and the effect on home heating and cooling due to exhausting the heat from cooking was applied to each home. Hoods performing at a level common to hoods currently in U.S. homes would require 19?33 TWh [69?120 PJ] of site energy, 31?53 TWh [110-190 PJ] of source energy; and would cost consumers $1.2?2.1 billion (U.S.$2010) annually in the U.S. housing stock. The average household would spend less than $15 annually. Reducing required airflow, e.g. with designs that promote better pollutant capture has more energy saving potential, on average, than improving fan efficiency.

  20. Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett C.; Klepeis, Neil E.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We developed a physics-based data-supported model to investigate indoor pollutant exposure distributions resulting from use of natural gas cooking appliances across households in California. The model was applied to calculate time-resolved indoor concentrations of CO, NO2 and formaldehyde resulting from cooking burners and entry with outdoor air. Exposure metrics include 1-week average concentrations and frequency of exceeding ambient air quality standards. We present model results for Southern California (SoCal) using two air-exchange scenarios in winter: (1) infiltration-only, and (2) air exchange rate (AER) sampled from lognormal distributions derived from measurements. In roughly 40percent of homes in the SoCal cohort (N=6634) the 1-hour USEPA NO2 standard (190 ?g/m3) was exceeded at least once. The frequency of exceeding this standard was largely independent of AER assumption, and related primarily to building volume, emission rate and amount of burner use. As expected, AER had a more substantial impact on one-week average concentrations.

  1. What's Cooking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - 2 Student Objective Key Words: The student: radiation * understands how the Sun's radiation, solar collector as heat, can be captured and used solar thermal * will be able...

  2. Effect of Injection and Frozen Storage on the Quality Attributes of Fully Cooked Bone-In Hams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, Denise G.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    were then injected with CNT (n=8). Hams were cooked to 70oC, chilled (7oC), sliced, vacuum packaged and analyzed for lipid oxidation, color, protein solubility and purge at 0, 28, and 56 of refrigerated storage while sensory evaluation and shear force...

  3. Detection of Social Interaction in Smart Spaces Diane J. Cook, Aaron Crandall, Geetika Singla, and Brian Thomas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    applications, smart environments can also be employed for valuable functions such as at-home health monitoring an increasingly important component of our everyday lives. The emphasis of smart home assistance for individuals1 Detection of Social Interaction in Smart Spaces Diane J. Cook, Aaron Crandall, Geetika Singla

  4. MavHome: An AgentBased Smart Home Diane J. Cook, Michael Youngblood, Edwin O. Heierman, III,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    MavHome: An Agent­Based Smart Home Diane J. Cook, Michael Youngblood, Edwin O. Heierman, III­ habitant action prediction. We demonstrate the effective­ ness of these algorithms on smart home data. 1. Introduction The MavHome smart home project focuses on the cre­ ation of an environment that acts

  5. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  6. Cooking with Cooked Ham (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    ://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos de Texas AgriLife Extension Service est?n disponibles para todas las personas, sin distinci?n de raza, color, sexo, discapacidad, religi?n, edad u origen nacional. Emitido para el desarrollo del Trabajo de la Extensi...

  7. Cooking with Cooked Ham (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    ), por Jenna Anding, Profesora Asociada y Extensionista Especialista en Nutrici?n, El Sistema Texas A&M. Producido por AgriLife Communications, El Sistema Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en: http..., El Sistema Texas A&M. Revisi?n ...

  8. A logic model for cook-off phenomenology in high explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisenhawer, S. W. (Stephen W.); Bott, T. F. (Terrence F.); Luck, L. B.; Kingson, J.; Key, B. P. (Brian P.)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Logic models are valuable tools in the development of predictive models for complex physical processes. The use of deductive logic in the form of a possibility tree makes it straightforward to develop a comprehensive set of unique, alternative paths that describe the system. We demonstrate the power of this approach for the complex process of cook-off of high explosives (HE). The possibility tree describes the causal paths from heating HE to the alternative end states. One of these end states is a violent reaction. Conversion of the tree to the equivalent digraph yields a valuable visualization tool for examining the relationships between sub-processes and provides a sound framework for the development of analytical models.

  9. Analysis of DA White Dwarfs from the McCook & Sion Catalog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Gianninas; P. Bergeron; P. Dufour

    2005-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has already doubled the number of spectroscopically identified white dwarfs. However, there remains a wealth of white dwarfs in the McCook & Sion catalog for which little or nothing is known. We have thus undertaken a spectroscopic survey of all Northern hemisphere DA white dwarfs from this catalog in order to (1) confirm the spectroscopic classification, and (2) provide measurements of Teff and log g for each star. As part of this project, we have also secured spectroscopic data for all DA stars with high-speed photometric measurements available, in order to study the purity of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, which has recently been challenged, once again.

  10. Direct Expansion Air Conditioning System Selection for Hot & Humid Climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browning, B. K.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacity at Part-Load Conditions In 1996, Henderson and Rengarajan4 published a method for modeling the latent capacity degradation of DX equipment with constant blower operation. This latent degradation model provided critical information need... to match the moisture removal capacity of the selected system to the moisture load. However, the model required an iterative solution and knowledge of equipment parameters that were not readily available during design. In 1998, Henderson published a...

  11. air conditioning system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    may be eliminated. Physical principals governing airflow in fan systems predict available energy savings from using premium air filters. This energy savings may offset the...

  12. air conditioning systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    may be eliminated. Physical principals governing airflow in fan systems predict available energy savings from using premium air filters. This energy savings may offset the...

  13. Simulation- Assisted Audit of an Air Conditioned Office Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertagnolio, S.; Lebrun, J.; Hannay, J.; Silva, C. A.

    , an equation-based building-HVAC simulation tool is used to assist the audit. Fuel and electricity consumption are then interpreted and significant energy saving opportunities are identified....

  14. K-7109Agnew Hall M-2204Air Conditioning Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Building] K-4171Burchard Hall L-4176Burruss Hall L-637Campbell Hall - East Wing L-636Campbell Hall - Main Center at Donaldson Brown L-9124Greenhouse Q-10 241Grounds Building (Central Stores) J-4 158Hahn Hall

  15. Direct Digital Control in Air Conditioning Systems for Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Ye, A.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the rapid development of Intelligent Buildings (IB), the Building Automation System (BAS) has come to control and manage the equipment in the building more and more scientifically, economically and rationally, which can not only raise...

  16. air conditioning engineers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was performed to investigate the effects of air-fuel ratio, inlet boost pressure, hydrogen rich fuel reformate, and compression ratio on engine knock behavior. For each...

  17. air conditioning engineering: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    was performed to investigate the effects of air-fuel ratio, inlet boost pressure, hydrogen rich fuel reformate, and compression ratio on engine knock behavior. For each...

  18. air conditioning: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of California eScholarship Repository Summary: chamber, passive sampling, passive solar house, measurementhouse, we planed the distribution of fresh air, passivepassive...

  19. air conditioning deactivation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of California eScholarship Repository Summary: chamber, passive sampling, passive solar house, measurementhouse, we planed the distribution of fresh air, passivepassive...

  20. Desiccants: Benefits for the Second Century of Air-Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGahey, K.; Harriman, L.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Desiccant technology now stands where mechanical cooling stood in the 1930's. Desiccant systems have been used by industrial engineers to achieve productivity and energy benefits which far outweigh their installed cost. Now, with lower cost...

  1. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    OE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps. DOE EX Parte...

  2. air conditioning plants: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - TxSpace Summary: The primarysecondary piping systems are often employed in large chiller plant Systems. Normally, the primary flow becomes more than secondary flow, and...

  3. air conditioning fuel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 2. Adsorption versus absorptionAssessment of adsorber bed designs in waste-heat driven...

  4. air conditioning plant: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - TxSpace Summary: The primarysecondary piping systems are often employed in large chiller plant Systems. Normally, the primary flow becomes more than secondary flow, and...

  5. RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF AN HYDRATE SLURRY FOR AIR CONDITIONNING APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    [-] INTRODUCTION In the context of the classical refrigerants phase out, phase change materials (PCM) arouse great interests. Indeed, for very low temperature application such as refrigeration, ice-slurries are spread as secondary refrigerants. Concerning hydrates, they have been used as PCM for cold storage for years

  6. Energy Conservation of Air Conditioning Systems in Large Public Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, P.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cold seasons, the closed middle air layer absorbs the solar energy, and becomes the buffer layer of space between the inside and outside because of the glasshouse effect. In this case, the indoor heat loss can be reduced. While during the hot... and natural climatic microenvironment for the people indoor. Considering the energy conservation and the ecological environmental protection, this system not only satisfies the aesthetic need of the architecture, but also is the need of developing...

  7. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    trends in today’s office environment make it increasingly more difficult for conventional centralized HVAC

  8. Direct Digital Control in Air Conditioning Systems for Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Ye, A.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    connected by lines that represent the data flow. The process is depicted with symbols as on electrical schematics and pneumatic control diagrams. Graphical diagrams are created and the detailed data is entered in background menus or screens... and control system Energy management and control system (EMCS) technology has evolved over the past three decades from pneumatic and mechanical devices to direct digital controls (DDC) or computer-based controllers and systems. Today's EMCS systems...

  9. Energy Conservation of Air Conditioning Systems in Large Public Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, P.; Li, D.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chart and the pipeline performance chart. Don?t choose the oversize flux and the oversize delivery lift pumps. If the oversize model of the pumps is chosen, most of the valves in the outlet conduit will be semi-open, which can increase...

  10. air conditioning hvac: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    humidity and other environmental parameters for the occupants as well as to save energy. Achieving these objectives requires a suitable control system design. Approach: In...

  11. air conditioning devices: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  12. air conditioning conference: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  13. air conditioning problemas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    air temperatures... conditions. The design of this study was based on the relation- ship of four parameters: air temperature, air velocity, radiant heat, and globe...

  14. air conditioning maintenance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the transient evolution of the free surface surrounding the impact region of a low-viscosity laminar liquid jet as it enters a quiescent pool. The close-up images depict the...

  15. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Geoffrey C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to control the cooling system in the data center, energyfor input to the data center cooling system devices. Goal 2:for input to the data center cooling system devices. See

  16. Commissioning and Diagnosis of VAV Air-Conditioning Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, J.; Wang, S.; Chan, C.; Xiao, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) strategy based on system knowledge, qualitative states and object-oriented statistical process control (SPC) models for typical pressure-independent variable air volume (VAV) air...

  17. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Geoffrey C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    graphics that allowed facility operators to choose which server temperature data points were used for control.graphics that allowed facility operators to choose which server temperature data points were used for control.

  18. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  19. Importance of Design Conditions for Sizing Air-Conditioning Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaban, N.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Suri, R. K.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design conditions based on the meteorological data collected at two weather stations located less than 10 km away from each other within Kuwait City are presented for dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and web-bulb temperature (WBT) prioritization...

  20. automotive air conditioning: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with Ttic5ms, Tcycle40ms. lic scheduling on automotive Navet, Nicolas 365 2001-01-0308 FMEA-based Design for Remanufacture using Automotive- Engineering Websites Summary: . The...

  1. Smart School Symposium Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Session

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    · The presentation will cover the following topic; Typical school Building Load Profiles Typically HVAC Equipment that we can understand the load profiles as well as all the operating characteristics · For this, ASHRAE and secondary) · Schools have a unique building load profile · They are different than other buildings like

  2. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P. D'Agostino,GlenLearning andDesign inImage of13-Energy

  3. Keeping Cool Without Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetter Report: I11IG002RTC3WASTE-TO-ENERGY: WASTEKeeping Cool

  4. Weatherking Heating & Air conditioning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown ofNationwideWTED Jump to:Ohio: Energy ResourcesWeatherford, Texas:

  5. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department of Energy Completing

  6. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM Flash2011-12 OPAMGeneralGuiding Documents and Links GuidingTank(HARDI) |

  7. Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you0 ARRA Newsletters 20103-03Energy AdvancedJudge | Departmentof Energy

  8. Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s Reply Comments AT&T,FACT S HEET FACTAgenda: TheAof Energy Air

  9. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:Whether you're a16-17, 201529,Vulnerabilities |AgreementBurden RFI |

  10. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute Ex Parte Memo |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy:Whether you're a16-17, 201529,Vulnerabilities |AgreementBurden RFI

  11. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732on Armed Services U.S.Health, Safety, &ofHeating

  12. Saving Money During the Air Conditioning Season | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 <Department ofDepartment| Department ofSaving Energy

  13. Fetz Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A S Jump to: navigation,FAFCOCommitteeFenpower

  14. Quantum Well Thermoelectric Truck Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of ContaminationHubs+18, 2012 Qualified Energy ConservationDepartmentQuantum Dot

  15. Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training Date | 2Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Automatic Controls Evaporator Load Superheat MSS Curve MSS curve depends on Load Evaporator Temperature Air, stable superheat over full capacity range ensures best COP under all conditions MSS Curve Superheat Curve

  16. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  17. Charles Darwin University Flinders University Griffith University James Cook University La Trobe University Murdoch University The University of Newcastle IRU Project Group Members 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miss Lisa Westcott Mr Mark Reedman Prof Bev Thiele (Chair) Mr Mark Kirby Digital Futures A/Prof Deborah Macken (Chair) Prof Rick Cummings Prof Carol Miles Languages Network Prof Martin Jarvis Prof Malcolm Cook

  18. Charles Darwin University Flinders University Griffith University James Cook University La Trobe University Murdoch University The University of Newcastle IRU Project Group Members 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miss Lisa Westcott Mr Mark Reedman Prof Bev Thiele (Chair) Mr Mark Kirby Digital Futures A/Prof Deborah Macken (Chair) Prof Rick Cummings Prof Carol Miles Languages Network Prof Martin Jarvis Prof Malcolm Cook

  19. Effects of sodium lactate on the microbiological, chemical and color attributes of cooked, vacuum-packaged beef stored at various temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigner, Marnie Elizabeth

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND COLOR ATTRIBUTES OF COOKED, VACUUM- PACKAGED BEEF STORFD AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES A Thesis hv MARNIE ELIZABFTH BIGNER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM... University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTFRS OF SCII=. NCE August I')')3 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EFFECT OF SODIUM LACTATE ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND COLOR ATI'RIBUTES OF COOKED, VACUUM...

  20. Structure, depositional environment, and pressure characteristics of the Vicksburg formation: Javelina and East McCook fields, Hidalgo County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastings, John Olcott

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Page 105 106 37 38 Potentiometric profile of Vicksburg section across Javelina/East McCook fields constructed from measured and estimated pressures Interval transit time and core porosity plotted as a function of depth for Frio and Vicksburg... Texas (after Gregory, 1966; and Martin, 1969). Series Group Formation Zone Miocene Fleming Oakville Catahoula Anahuac Discorbis Heterostigina Marginulina Oligocene Frio Frio Cibicides hazzardi Nonion struma Nodosaria blanpiedi Textularia...

  1. Production of cooking briquettes from Maissade (Haiti) lignite. Feasibility study and preliminary plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauserman, W.B.; Johnson, M.D.

    1986-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory study was done to establish the technical feasibility of producing domestic cooking briquettes to be marketed in Haiti, from the Maissade lignite reserves of that country, which are high in both ash and sulfur and not yet mined. It was found that acceptable briquettes could be made from Maissade char, pyrolized and compacted with a molasses-lime binder and the addition of bagasse to improve strength and burning rate. Molasses, lime and bagasse are all produced in Haiti. Sodium nitrate was added to enhance ignition, and borax as a wetting and release agent. Standard, ''pillow-shaped'' briquettes were successfully produced on a standard, double roll briquetting machine. The recommended process sequence and equipment selection are virtually identical to that used to produce standard US barbecue briquettes from North Dakota lignite. The heating value of the Maissade briquettes is lower due to their high ash level, which may be acceptable if they can be produced at a cost per heating value comparable to wood charcoal, currently used in Haiti. The high sulfur content, mostly in organic form, presents no problem, since it is tied up after combustion as CaSO/sub 4/ by the unusually high calcium content of this lignite. Detailed analyses of Maissade lignite and its mineral components are included, as well as a preliminary plant design and capital cost estimate, for capacities of 10,000 and 50,000 metric tons per year, and for a smaller pilot plant.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of the performance, water use, and current application trends of evaporative coolers in California climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Y.J.; Hanford, J.W.; Wu, H.F.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the latest results of an ongoing analysis investigating the potential for evaporative cooling as an energy-efficient alternative to standard air-conditioning in California residences. In particular, the study uses detailed numerical models of evaporative coolers linked with the DOE-2 building energy simulation program to study the issues of indoor comfort, energy and peak demand savings with and without supplemental air-conditioning and consumptive water use. In addition, limited surveys are used to assess the current market availability of evaporative cooling in California, typical contractor practices and costs, and general acceptance of the technology among engineers, contractors, and manufacturers. The results show that evaporative coolers can provide significant energy and peak demand savings in California residences, but the impact of the increased indoor humidity on human comfort remains an unanswered question that requires further research and clarification. Evaluated against ASHRAE comfort standards developed primarily for air-conditioning both direct and two-stage evaporative coolers would not maintain comfort at peak cooling conditions due to excessive humidity. However, using bioclimatic charts that place human comfort at the 80% relative humidity line, the study suggests that direct evaporative coolers will work in mild coastal climates, while two-stage models should provide adequate comfort in Title 24 houses throughout California, except in the Imperial Valley. The study also shows that evaporative coolers will increase household water consumption by less than 6% on an annual basis, and as much as 23% during peak cooling months, and that the increases in water cost are minimal compared to the electricity savings. Lastly, a survey of engineers and contractors revealed generally positive experiences with evaporative coolers, with operational cost savings, improved comfort, unproved air quality as the primary benefits in their use.

  3. Effects of Water in Synthetic Lubricant Systems and Clathrate Formation: A Literature Search and Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, Ngoc Dung T.

    2001-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive literature search and a confidential survey were critically analyzed to determine the effects of water on the stability of hydrofluorocarbon/synthetic lubricant systems and to identify key areas requiring further investigation. Following are highlights from the analysis: Clathrate hydrates are solid solutions formed when water molecules are linked through hydrogen bonding creating cavities that can enclose various guest molecules from hydrate formers, such as hydrofluorocarbons R-32, R-125, R-134a, R-407C and R-410A. The four methods for preventing clathrate formation were drying the gas, heating it, reducing its pressure, or using inhibitors. The hydrolysis of polyolester lubricants was mostly acid-catalyzed and its reaction rate constant typically followed the Arrhenius equation of an activated process. Hydrolytic stability improved with hindered molecular structures, and with the presence of acid catcher additives and desiccants. Water vapor can effect the adsorption of long-chain fatty acids and the chemistry of formation of protective oxide film. However, these effects on lubrication can be either positive or negative. Fifty to sixty percent of the moisture injected into an air-conditioning system remained in the refrigerant and the rest mixed with the compressor oil. In an automotive air-conditioning system using R-134a, ice would form at 0 C evaporating temperature when the water content in the vapor refrigerant on the low-pressure side was more than 350 ppm. Moisture would cause the embrittlement of polyethylene terephthalate and the hydrolysis of polyesters, but would reduce the effect of amine additives on fluoroelastomer rubbers. The reactions of water with refrigerants and lubricants would cause formicary and large-pit corrosion in copper tubes, as well as copper plating and sludge formation. Moreover, blockage of capillary tubes increased rapidly in the presence of water. Twenty-four companies responded to the survey. From the responses, the water concentrations specified and expected for different refrigerant/lubricant systems varied depending on the products, their capacities and applications, and also on the companies. Among the problems associated with high moisture level, lubricant breakdown was of greatest concern, followed by acid formation, compressor failure and expansion valve sticking. The following research topics are suggested: 1. The air-conditioning and refrigeration industry needs to measure and record the water content and total acid number of the lubricant of newly installed systems as well as operating systems that are shutdown for service or repair. The reason for the shutdown needs to be documented. A database can then be established to correlate water content with type and cause of breakdown. 2. Detailed studies on the distribution of water in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems should be conducted to pinpoint problem areas associated with free water. 3. Research is needed to validate the current theories and mechanisms of formicary corrosion. Corrosion inhibitors need to be developed. 4. The conditions for clathrate formation and decomposition of other alternative refrigerants, such as R-23, R-41, R-116, R-125, R-143a, R-404A and R-507C, and water should be determined to avoid possible problems associated with tube plugging. The mechanism by which water facilitates or hinders lubrication needs to be studied.

  4. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Quality Water Quality We protect water quality through stormwater control measures and an extensive network of monitoring wells and stations encompassing groundwater, surface...

  5. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants and they are typically used without venting. The objective of this study is to quantify pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. A mass balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes and the "exposure concentrations" experienced by individual occupants. The model was applied to estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for one week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs, NO{sub 2} and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of CO and NO{sub 2} were obtained from available databases. Ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use were inferred from household characteristics. Proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods were also explored. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying less than 10%. The simulation model estimates that in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods, 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3000, and 20 ppb for NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based standards.

  6. Lead and other metals distribution in local cooking salt from the Fofi salt- spring in Akwana, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dim, L.A.; Kinyua, A.M.; Munyithya, J.M.; Adetunji, J. (Centre for Nuclear Science Techniques, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nairobi (Kenya))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique has been used to determine the concentrations of lead(Pb) and other heavy metals in local cooking salts (LCS) from Akwana village, Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria. The comparison of the distribution of these metals in LCS, fake salt (FS) and the usual common salts (CS) are given. Lead was found to be enriched in LCS by factor exceeding 200 times compared to the other salts. The origin of Pb contamination in the LCS is examined and its effects on the inhabitants of the village are considered.

  7. Energy Efficiency Tax Credits, Rebates and Financing: What Options...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    air conditioning, including: Advanced main air circulating fan Air-source heat pump Central air conditioning Gas, propane, or oil hot water boiler Natural gas, propane, or...

  8. Changes in chemical composition, shear values, and sensory properties of deboned broiler breast and thigh meat as effected by cooking form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Savage, Belinda Anita

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHANGES IN CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, SHEAR VALUES, AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF DEBONED BROILER BREAST AND THIGH MEAT AS EFFECTED BY COOKING FORM A Thesis BELINDA ANITA SAVAGE Submitted to the OIIice of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University... AS EFFECTED BY COOKING FORM A Thesis BELINDA ANITA SAVAGE Submitted to Texas ARM University in partial fulf)I)ment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approv to style d content by: ar es . Dill (Co-Chair of Committee) Fred A...

  9. Turbid water Clear water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    : The submersible laser bathymetric (LBath) optical system is capable of simultaneously providing visual images- dynamical wing. This underwater package is pulled through the water by a single towed cable with fiber optic special high energy density optical fibers. A remote Pentium based PC also at the surface is used

  10. Water Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingampalli, Nithya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2008, May 14). Too much water raises seizure risk in babies.id=4844 9. Schoenly, Lorry. “Water Intoxication and Inmates:article/246650- overview>. 13. Water intoxication alert. (

  11. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of desalination research. The primary technological method of generating additional water supplies is through desalination and enhanced water reuse and recycling technologies....

  12. Water Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Water Efficiency Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, Florida WATER EFFICIENCY Federal Utility Partnership Working Group...

  13. Quality of pork for the processing into cooked ham : Predictive value of the measurement of meat pH 24 hours post-mortem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    control of product salubrity and cold storage chain is performed, as well. As regards the persistency Recherche Appliquée aux Industries Agricoles et Alimentaires, 6, rue de l'Université, B.P. 313, 29191 compatible with industrial rates of slaughtering and manufacturing of cooked ham (at least 300 pigs per hour

  14. Let's Talk Turkey -Facts for Food Safety It is important to be careful when you handle, store, cook, and serve turkey.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    Let's Talk Turkey - Facts for Food Safety It is important to be careful when you handle, store, cook, and serve turkey. Follow the rules and the guidelines in this fact sheet to keep your turkey safe and delicious. What to do when you get the turkey Take the turkey home right after you get it. Put

  15. Cryogenic friction behavior of PTFE based solid lubricant composites N.L. McCook, D.L. Burris, P.L. Dickrell and W.G. Sawyer*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sawyer, Wallace

    of fluid lubricants is precluded. Such conditions are typically considered extreme, often existing lubrication 1. Introduction Solid lubricants are frequently used under opera- tional conditions where the useCryogenic friction behavior of PTFE based solid lubricant composites N.L. McCook, D.L. Burris, P

  16. UNCORRECTEDPROOF Please cite this article in press as: N.L. McCook et al., Cumulative damage modeling of solid lubricant coatings that experience wear and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sawyer, Wallace

    UNCORRECTEDPROOF Please cite this article in press as: N.L. McCook et al., Cumulative damage.1016/j.wear.2007.01.042 ARTICLE IN PRESS+Model WEA982061­6 Wear xxx (2007) xxx­xxx Cumulative damage fall closely to the fit for the cumulative damage model. This result also shows that these coatings

  17. Andromeda: A mission to determine the gamma-ray burst distance scale F.A. Harrison, W.R. Cook, T.A. Prince, S.M. Schindler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prince, Thomas A.

    Andromeda: A mission to determine the gamma-ray burst distance scale F.A. Harrison, W.R. Cook, T was submitted to the STEDI program, and will also be proposed as a NASA Small Explorer. Keywords: bursts, gamma-rays, small missions 1 SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVES 1.1 Gamma-ray Bursts Gamma-ray bursts GRBs were discovered

  18. Two-Dimensional Interdigitated Pixel Detector for Energetic Particle Spectrometers Walter R. Cook III, Alan C. Cummings, Richard A. Mewaldt, Daniel L. Williams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossum, Eric R.

    Two-Dimensional Interdigitated Pixel Detector for Energetic Particle Spectrometers Walter R. Cook, such as those produced by solar flares. The detector is similar to previous types of silicon PIN detectors where samples of matter that can not be easily investigated by other means, including the solar corona

  19. Radiation damage in biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells Peter L. Cook, Phillip S. Johnson, Xiaosong Liu, An-Li Chin, and F. J. Himpsela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himpsel, Franz J.

    Radiation damage in biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells Peter L. Cook, Phillip S. Johnson for biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells phthalocyanines and for a biological analog the charge transfer carriers in a solar cell. © 2009 American Institute of Physics. doi:10.1063/1.3267849 I. INTRODUCTION

  20. Collecting and Disseminating Smart Home Sensor Data in the CASAS Project D.J. Cook, M. Schmitter-Edgecombe, Aaron Crandall, Chad Sanders, and Brian Thomas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    Collecting and Disseminating Smart Home Sensor Data in the CASAS Project D.J. Cook, M. Schmitter a physical smart home testbed. Expertise and resources are needed to design and install the sensors to test, compare, and enhance smart home and telemedicine technologies such as user modeling, activity

  1. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box Diane J. Cook, IEEE Fellow, Aaron S. Crandall, IEEE Member, Brian L. Thomas, IEEE Member,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Diane J.

    CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box Diane J. Cook, IEEE Fellow, Aaron S. Crandall, IEEE Member, Brian L,acrandal,bthomas,ckn}@eecs.wsu.edu Abstract. While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box

  2. Performance Evaluation of a 4.5 kW (1.3 Refrigeration Tons) Air-Cooled Lithium Bromide/Water Solar Powered (Hot-Water-Fired) Absorption Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaltash, Abdolreza [ORNL; Petrov, Andrei Y [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the summer months, air-conditioning (cooling) is the single largest use of electricity in both residential and commercial buildings with the major impact on peak electric demand. Improved air-conditioning technology has by far the greatest potential impact on the electric industry compared to any other technology that uses electricity. Thermally activated absorption air-conditioning (absorption chillers) can provide overall peak load reduction and electric grid relief for summer peak demand. This innovative absorption technology is based on integrated rotating heat exchangers to enhance heat and mass transfer resulting in a potential reduction of size, cost, and weight of the "next generation" absorption units. Rotartica Absorption Chiller (RAC) is a 4.5 kW (1.3 refrigeration tons or RT) air-cooled lithium bromide (LiBr)/water unit powered by hot water generated using the solar energy and/or waste heat. Typically LiBr/water absorption chillers are water-cooled units which use a cooling tower to reject heat. Cooling towers require a large amount of space, increase start-up and maintenance costs. However, RAC is an air-cooled absorption chiller (no cooling tower). The purpose of this evaluation is to verify RAC performance by comparing the Coefficient of Performance (COP or ratio of cooling capacity to energy input) and the cooling capacity results with those of the manufacturer. The performance of the RAC was tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in a controlled environment at various hot and chilled water flow rates, air handler flow rates, and ambient temperatures. Temperature probes, mass flow meters, rotational speed measuring device, pressure transducers, and a web camera mounted inside the unit were used to monitor the RAC via a web control-based data acquisition system using Automated Logic Controller (ALC). Results showed a COP and cooling capacity of approximately 0.58 and 3.7 kW respectively at 35 C (95 F) design condition for ambient temperature with 40 C (104 F) cooling water temperature. This is in close agreement with the manufacturer data of 0.60 for COP and 3.9 kW for cooling capacity. This study resulted in a complete performance map of RAC which will be used to evaluate the potential benefits of rotating heat exchangers in making the "next-generation" absorption chillers more compact and cost effective without any significant degradation in the performance. In addition, the feasibility of using rotating heat exchangers in other applications will be evaluated.

  3. Lung cancer and indoor pollution from heating and cooking with solid fuels - The IARIC International Multicentre Case-Control study in Eastern/Central Europe and the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lissowska, J.; Bardin-Mikolajczak, A.; Fletcher, T.; Zaridze, D.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Rudnai, P.; Fabianova, E.; Cassidy, A.; Mates, D.; Holcatova, I.; Vitova, V.; Janout, V.; Mannetje, A.; Brennan, P.; Boffetta, P. [Center for Cancer, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Epidemiology & Cancer Prevention

    2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Exposure to fuel from cooking and heating has not been studied in Europe, where lung cancer rates are high and many residents have had a long tradition of burning coal and unprocessed biomass. Study subjects included 2,861 cases and 3,118 controls recruited during 1998-2002 in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. The odds ratio of lung cancer associated with solid fuel use was 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.44) for cooking or heating, 1.37 (95% CI: 0.90, 2.09) for solid fuel only for cooking, and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) for solid fuels used for both cooking and heating. Risk increased relative to the percentage of time that solid fuel was used for cooking (P-trend {lt} 0.0001), while no risk increase was detected for solid fuel used for heating. The odds ratio of lung cancer in whole-life users of solid cooking fuel was 1.80 (95% CI: 1.35, 2.40). Switching to nonsolid fuels resulted in a decrease in risk. The odds ratio for the longest duration of time since switching was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.92). The data suggest a modest increased risk of lung cancer related to solid-fuel use for cooking rather than heating.

  4. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the temperature of the residual water encountered by theof hot water and the residual water might occur: (1) thehot water might drive the residual water through the piping

  5. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation Water Heaters and Hot Water DistributionLaboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distributionfor instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss

  6. Marketing water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tx H2O | pg. 16 W ith rapid population growth and the memory of the worst drought in 50 years, cities and groups are promoting programs that educate their constituents about water quality, water conservation, and landscape management. Many... ] Many cities are promoting landscape management and water conservation practices with their citizens. This garden demonstrates the EARTH- KIND principles of environmentally tolerant, low water use ornamentals. tx H2O | pg. 18 and no adverse runoff...

  7. Federal technology alert. Parabolic-trough solar water heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parabolic-trough solar water heating is a well-proven renewable energy technology with considerable potential for application at Federal facilities. For the US, parabolic-trough water-heating systems are most cost effective in the Southwest where direct solar radiation is high. Jails, hospitals, barracks, and other facilities that consistently use large volumes of hot water are particularly good candidates, as are facilities with central plants for district heating. As with any renewable energy or energy efficiency technology requiring significant initial capital investment, the primary condition that will make a parabolic-trough system economically viable is if it is replacing expensive conventional water heating. In combination with absorption cooling systems, parabolic-trough collectors can also be used for air-conditioning. Industrial Solar Technology (IST) of Golden, Colorado, is the sole current manufacturer of parabolic-trough solar water heating systems. IST has an Indefinite Delivery/Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract with the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance and install parabolic-trough solar water heating on an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) basis for any Federal facility that requests it and for which it proves viable. For an ESPC project, the facility does not pay for design, capital equipment, or installation. Instead, it pays only for guaranteed energy savings. Preparing and implementing delivery or task orders against the IDIQ is much simpler than the standard procurement process. This Federal Technology Alert (FTA) of the New Technology Demonstration Program is one of a series of guides to renewable energy and new energy-efficient technologies.

  8. Physics of CookingDo you want to understand how chefs make, and use foams? Do you want to understand how chefs make a drop liquid into a solid that bursts with flavor when you eat it? Did you know that eggs cook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Physics of CookingDo you want to understand how chefs make, and use foams? Do you want with fascinating new dishes and this talk will explore some of the physics behind them. It will feature demonstrations to help illustrate the physics of modern cuisine. The talk is based on a popular course offered

  9. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ................ Sidney Area Deals with Drought 6................ Water and Electricity Are Inseparable 10's East Campus. "Consolidating administration,faculty and staff and facilities is costeffectiveandper or commercial products constitute endorsement by the U.S. Government. WATER CURRENT Water Center University

  10. NREL Tests Integrated Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in Different Climates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical highlight describes NREL tests to capture information about heat pump performance across a wide range of ambient conditions for five heat pump water heaters (HPWH). These water heaters have the potential to significantly reduce water heater energy use relative to traditional electric resistance water heaters. These tests have provided detailed performance data for these appliances, which have been used to evaluate the cost of saved energy as a function of climate. The performance of HPWHs is dependent on ambient air temperature and humidity and the logic controlling the heat pump and the backup resistance heaters. The laboratory tests were designed to measure each unit's performance across a range of air conditions and determine the specific logic controlling the two heat sources, which has a large effect on the comfort of the users and the energy efficiency of the system. Unlike other types of water heaters, HPWHs are both influenced by and have an effect on their surroundings. Since these effects are complex and different for virtually every house and climate region, creating an accurate HPWH model from the data gathered during the laboratory tests was a main goal of the project. Using the results from NREL's laboratory tests, such as the Coefficient of Performance (COP) curves for different air conditions as shown in Figure 1, an existing HPWH model is being modified to produce more accurate whole-house simulations. This will allow the interactions between the HPWH and the home's heating and cooling system to be evaluated in detail, for any climate region. Once these modeling capabilities are in place, a realistic cost-benefit analysis can be performed for a HPWH installation anywhere in the country. An accurate HPWH model will help to quantify the savings associated with installing a HPWH in the place of a standard electric water heater. In most locations, HPWHs are not yet a cost-effective alternative to natural gas water heaters. The detailed system performance maps that were developed by this testing program will be used to: (1) Target regions of the country that would benefit most from this technology; (2) Identify improvements in current systems to maximize homeowner cost savings; and (3) Explore opportunities for development of advanced hot water heating systems.

  11. Water Conservation and Water Use Efficiency (Wisconsin)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wisconsin has several statutes that promote water conservation and controlled water use, and this legislation establishes mandatory and voluntary programs in water conservation and water use...

  12. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: Lutz J.D. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution

  13. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  14. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 143: Availability of chilled water system and room cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, V.T.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue (GI-143), {open_quotes}Availability of Chilled Water System and Room Cooling.{close_quotes} The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and related auxiliaries are required to provide control of environmental conditions in areas in light water reactor (LWR) plants that contain safety-related equipment. In some plants, the HVAC and chilled water systems serve to maintain a suitable environment for both safety and non-safety-related areas. Although some plants have an independent chilled water system for the safety-related areas, the heat removal capability often depends on the operability of other supporting systems such as the service water system or the component cooling water system. The operability of safety-related components depends upon operation of the HVAC and chilled water systems to remove heat from areas containing the equipment. If cooling to dissipate the heat generated is unavailable, the ability of the safety-related equipment to operate as intended cannot be assured. Typical components or areas in the nuclear power plant that could be affected by the failure of cooling from HVAC or chilled water systems include the (1) emergency switchgear and battery rooms, (2) emergency diesel generator room, (3) pump rooms for residual heat removal, reactor core isolation cooling, high-pressure core spray, and low-pressure core spray, and (4) control room. The unavailability of such safety-related equipment or areas could cause the core damage frequency (CDF) to increase significantly.

  15. SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY: DETERMINATION OF THE PROBABLE MAXIMUM WATER TABLE ELEVATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hiergesell, R

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coverage depicting the configuration of the probable maximum water table elevation in the vicinity of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was developed to support the Saltstone program. This coverage is needed to support the construction of saltstone vaults to assure that they remain above the maximum elevation of the water table during the Performance Assessment (PA) period of compliance. A previous investigation to calculate the historical high water table beneath the SDF (Cook, 1983) was built upon to incorporate new data that has since become available to refine that estimate and develop a coverage that could be extended to the perennial streams adjacent to the SDF. This investigation incorporated the method used in the Cook, 1983 report to develop an estimate of the probable maximum water table for a group of wells that either existed at one time at or near the SDF or which currently exist. Estimates of the probable maximum water table at these wells were used to construct 2D contour lines depicting this surface beneath the SDF and extend them to the nearby hydrologic boundaries at the perennial streams adjacent to the SDF. Although certain measures were implemented to assure that the contour lines depict a surface above which the water table will not rise, the exact elevation of this surface cannot be known with complete certainty. It is therefore recommended that the construction of saltstone vaults incorporate a vertical buffer of at least 5-feet between the base of the vaults and the depicted probable maximum water table elevation. This should provide assurance that the water table under the wet extreme climatic condition will never rise to intercept the base of a vault.

  16. THE WIRED SURVEY. IV. NEW DUST DISKS FROM THE McCOOK and SION WHITE DWARF CATALOG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie [Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Debes, John H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Leisawitz, David T. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cohen, Martin, E-mail: hoard@mpia.de [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Marina, CA 93933 (United States)

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have compiled photometric data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey and other archival sources for the more than 2200 objects in the original McCook and Sion Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs. We applied color-selection criteria to identify 28 targets whose infrared spectral energy distributions depart from the expectation for the white dwarf (WD) photosphere alone. Seven of these are previously known WDs with circumstellar dust disks, five are known central stars of planetary nebulae, and six were excluded for being known binaries or having possible contamination of their infrared photometry. We fit WD models to the spectral energy distributions of the remaining ten targets, and find seven new candidates with infrared excess suggesting the presence of a circumstellar dust disk. We compare the model dust disk properties for these new candidates with a comprehensive compilation of previously published parameters for known WDs with dust disks. It is possible that the current census of WDs with dust disks that produce an excess detectable at K-band and shorter wavelengths is close to complete for the entire sample of known WDs to the detection limits of existing near-IR all-sky surveys. The WD dust disk candidates now being found using longer wavelength infrared data are drawn from a previously underrepresented region of parameter space, in which the dust disks are overall cooler, narrower in radial extent, and/or contain fewer emitting grains.

  17. Computerized Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - ing 2002?2005 and documented in TWRI?s Technical Report 284 released in January 2006, include: ? Capabilities for short-term reliability analyses based on current storage conditions (Or what is the likelihood of meeting water needs in the near... System Reference Manual. TWRI Technical Report 255, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Water Rights Analysis Package Modeling System Users Manual. TWRI Technical Report 256, Second Edition, April 2005. ? Fundamentals of Water Availability Modeling...

  18. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    which can lead to public health problems. * MtBE (Methyl tert Butyl Ether), a gasoline additive, has begun to contaminate ground water supplies. * Similarly, perchlorate has...

  19. Energy Efficiency & Environmental News: Duct Cleaning and Indoor Air Quality 1 Florida Energy Extension Service and Gary Cook 2 DUCT CLEANING AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With concern about secondary smoke, dust mites, formaldehyde emissions and bioaerosols, the public has become more aware of indoor air quality problems. Heating, air conditioning and ventilation units as well as associated ductwork can be the sources of mold, fungi and other microbial pollutants as well as particulates of dust, secondary smoke and pieces of dead dust mites. Along with the public’s concern has been the development of businesses directly associated with indoor air quality. Some of these businesses are reputable and supply effective indoor air quality services; others, on the other hand, offer little more than technical jargon and will take advantage of the unwary consumer. Duct cleaning has been an area that has been attracted by both reputable and unscrupulous businesses.

  20. Using National Survey Data to Estimate Lifetimes of Residential Appliances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conditioners, heat pumps, furnaces, boilers, water heaters,conditioners, heat pumps, furnaces, boilers, water heaters,Water Heater, Gas Room Air- Conditioning Central Air- Conditioning Boiler, Gas Furnace, Gas Heat Pump *

  1. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  2. Water Privatisation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zölls, Elisa

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

  3. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  4. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, Andrew S.

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY Leadership Team Subcommittee: Mark Clark Karl Havens BJ Jarvis Kelly Morgan Ramesh Reddy #12;Water Quality ­ Situation (resources) Florida has extensive

  5. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficient gas water heating appliance to market; a plan toefficient gas water heating appliance to market; and to planefficient gas water heating appliance to market; and 3) to

  6. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    24 Figure 7. Comparison of Daily Water Heater28 Figure 8. Monitored Field Efficiency of Tankless Water28 Figure 9. Monitored Lab Efficiency of Tankless Water

  7. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    step in developing a realistic degradation term for tankless water heatersstep (water draw event) in the simulation. Instantaneous Gas Water Heater

  8. Water Rights: Surface Water (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Department of Natural Resources regulates the use and diversion of surface waters. An entity that creates additional stream volumes by releases from impoundments built and financed by...

  9. Hybrid Heat Pumps Using Selective Water Sorbents (SWS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, M. R.

    2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of the ground-coupled and air-coupled Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) system is essential in meeting the goals of Zero Energy Houses (ZEH), a viable concept vigorously pursued under DOE sponsorship. ORNL has a large Habitat for Humanity complex in Lenoir City where modem buildings technology is incorporated on a continual basis. This house of the future is planned for lower and middle income families in the 21st century. The work undertaken in this CRADA is an integral part of meeting DOE's objectives in the Building America program. SWS technology is a prime candidate for reducing the footprint, cost and improve the performance of ground-coupled heat pumps. The efficacy of this technique to exchange energy with the ground is a topic of immense interest to DOE, builders and HVAC equipment manufacturers. If successful, the SWS concept will become part of a packaged ZEH kit for affordable and high-end houses. Lennox Industries entered into a CRADA with Oak Ridge National Laboratory in November 2004. Lennox, Inc. agreed to explore ways of using Selective Water Sorbent materials to boost the efficiency of air-coupled heat pumps whereas ORNL concentrated on ground-coupled applications. Lennox supplied ORNL with heat exchangers and heat pump equipment for use at ORNL's Habitat for Humanity site in Lenoir City, Tennessee. Lennox is focused upon air-coupled applications of SWS materials at the Product Development and Research Center in Carrollton, TX.

  10. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  11. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsing Maps1DOE AwardsDNitrateEnergyNews WaterWater

  12. Water Quality

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    n n g g : : M i i d d d d l l e e R R i i o o G G r r a a n n d d e e Middle Rio Grande Water Assembly Mid Region Council of Governments Sandia National Laboratories Utton...

  13. Investigating Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard Jr., Ronald A.

    2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    substances. It covers most of the earth?s surface, sometimes to a depth of more than a mile. It exists as a colorless gas in the atmosphere. It caps the poles with ice and occurs in the snows of winter. Liquid water fills brooks, streams, rivers, lakes, ponds...

  14. Grabbing water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

  15. Water in the West

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahlund, Andrew; Choy, Min L. Janny; Szeptycki, Leon

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    faced with the imperative that water is vital to all life onChoy* and Leon Szeptycki Water in the West Keywords: climategreen infrastructure; water; water-energy; water governance;

  16. Cooking with Processed Cheese

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    processed cheese. It can be sliced and placed on a cracker, on a hamburger or on bread to make a grilled cheese sandwich. You can also add shredded cheese to scrambled eggs and casseroles. How to store it For best taste, store processed American cheese...

  17. Cooking with Ground Beef

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of ground beef, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

  18. Cooking with Raisins (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensionista Especialista en Nutrici?n, El Sistema Texas A&M. Producido por AgriLife Communications, El Sistema Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos...

  19. Cooking with Oatmeal (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    : http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos de Texas AgriLife Extension Service est?n disponibles para todas las personas, sin distinci?n de raza, color, sexo, discapacidad, religi?n, edad u origen nacional. Emitido para el desarrollo del...

  20. Cooking with Applesauce (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    ?n, El Sistema Texas A&M. Producido por AgriLife Communications, El Sistema Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos de Texas AgriLife Extension...

  1. Cooking with Cornmeal (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Sistema Texas A&M. Producido por AgriLife Communications, El Sistema Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos de Texas AgriLife Extension Service est...

  2. Cooking with Prunes (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    &M. Producido por AgriLife Communications, El Sistema Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos de Texas AgriLife Extension Service est?n disponibles para...

  3. J. M. Cook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anle between the surface and the osculatin plane to the cure at that point. '(If as thee non-collear points on a smooth cure approach a lit point the plane they determie approaches...

  4. Cooking with Applesauce

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    or until a toothpick inserted in the center of a muffin comes out clean. Note: These are very moist muffins. Place uneaten muffins in a resealable bag or a covered container and store them in the refrigerator. Use in 1 to 2 days. For example, if a recipe...

  5. Waterfowl -- Cooking Care.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coble, Sally S.; Sweeten, Mary K.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Repeat the dipping process until the bird is covered with a heavy coating of set wax. Then use a table knife or sturdy spoon to peel off slabs and strips of wax. The remaining feathers and down on the bird will stick in the wax and come off with it... (dressed weight) Garlic, salt and pepper 1 lemon, halved 4 sprigs parsley 6 slices bacon Y2 cup prepared mustard 2 tablespoons soy sauce 1 cup apricot preserves 1 tablespoon lemon juice 1 teaspoon grated orange peel Y. cup melted butter Sprinkle...

  6. Cooking with Walnuts (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2001-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Extensionista Especialista en Nutrici?n, Sistema Universitario Texas A&M. Producido por Agricultural Communications, El Sistema Universitario Texas A&M. Conforme a la ley federal y la pol?tica del... Sistema Universitario Texas A&M. Nuevo E-84S 9/01 Receta f?cil de pan de pl?tano (rinde una hogaza) Ingredientes 1 taza de az?car blanca, granulada 1 /4 de taza de aceite vegetal 1 /4 de taza de pur? de manzana 3 claras de huevo 1 cucharadita de vainilla 3...

  7. Cooking with Raisins (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    asegurar su mejor calidad conserve las cajas sin abrir de pasitas en un sitio fresco y seco. Una vez abiertas gu?rdelas en un envase herm?tico en el refrigerador para evitar que la humedad las eche a perder. Util?celas en un periodo no mayor de 6 meses... Extensionista Especialista en Nutrici?n, El Sistema Texas A&M. Producido por AgriLife Communications, El Sistema Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos...

  8. Cooking with Macaroni (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2001-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ?s cocimiento, cueza los macarrones un poco menos. Almacenamiento Guarde los macarrones sin cocer en un sitio fresco y seco. Para asegurarse de obtener una buena calidad util?celos en un periodo no mayor de un a?o. El sobrante de macarrones ya cocidos deber.... Preparado por Jenna Anding, Profesora Adjunta y Extensionista Especialista en Nutrici?n. Sistema Universitario Texas A&M. Producido por Agricultural Communications, El Sistema Universitario Texas A...

  9. Cooking with Applesauce (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    de mantequilla, utilice ?nicamente ? taza de mantequilla y ? taza de pur? de manzana. Almacenamiento Para conservar su calidad guarde las latas o envases que no haya abierto en un lugar fresco y seco y util?celos antes de que transcurra un a?o de...?n, El Sistema Texas A&M. Producido por AgriLife Communications, El Sistema Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos de Texas AgriLife Extension...

  10. Cooking with Cornmeal (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Sistema Texas A&M. Producido por AgriLife Communications, El Sistema Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en: http://AgriLifebookstore.org Los programas educativos de Texas AgriLife Extension Service est... de 1914 con sus reformas y del 30 de junio de 1914 junto con el Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos, Edward G. Smith, Director, Texas AgriLife Extension Service, El Sistema Texas A&M. Revisi?n ...

  11. Cooking with Prunes (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    usarse en pasteles, panquecitos y galletas. Almacenamiento Para asegurar la mejor calidad conserve las cajas de ciruela pasa en un sitio fresco y seco. Una vez abierta la caja, guarde las pasas en un envase herm?tico en le refrigerador para evitar que... firmeza con una esp?tula o cuchara hasta que est? pareja. El az?car morena deber? conservar su forma cuando se le separa de la taza. Preparado por Jenna Anding, Profesora Asociada y Extensionista Especialista en Nutrici?n, El Sistema Texas A...

  12. Cooking with Oatmeal (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    . Preparado por Jenna Anding, Profesora Asociada y Extensionista Especialista en Nutrici?n, El Sistema Texas A&M. Producido por AgriLife Communications, El Sistema Texas A&M Las publicaciones de Texas AgriLife Extension se pueden encontrar en Internet en... AgriLife Extension Service, El Sistema Texas A&M. Revisi?n ...

  13. Cooking with Dry Spaghetti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of spaghetti, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

  14. Cooking with Prunes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of prunes, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

  15. Cooking with Macaroni (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2001-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ?s cocimiento, cueza los macarrones un poco menos. Almacenamiento Guarde los macarrones sin cocer en un sitio fresco y seco. Para asegurarse de obtener una buena calidad util?celos en un periodo no mayor de un a?o. El sobrante de macarrones ya cocidos deber...

  16. Cooking with Walnuts (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2001-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    por su alto contenido de grasa. Las nueces de castilla a?aden sabor a las ensaladas, panes, platillos principales y postres. Almacenamiento Las nueces de Castilla se conservar?n fresca en su bolsa sellada durante aproximadamente 6 meses. Una vez...

  17. Cooking with Dry Beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the nutritonal value and safe storage of dry beans, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

  18. Cooking with Green Beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2008-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the nutritional value and safe storage of green beans, a commodity food. It also offers food preparation ideas....

  19. How France is going to catch up on marine renewable technologies?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canet, Léonie

    turbines Wind Heat pump & Air conditionning Temperature Osmotic energy Salt Marine energies THE FULL SET Martinique project Surface water pump Deep water pipes Mooring lines #12;Air-conditioning & heat pump

  20. THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK Classified Civil Service Position Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Jay

    , air conditioning systems and cooling systems. - Installs boilers, feed water, vacuum and condensate air systems, sprinkler systems, refrigerating systems, air conditioning systems and cooling systems for heating systems, compressed air, steam and hot water systems, sprinkler systems, refrigerating systems