National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for air-conditioned floorspace square

  1. Floorspace

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A1. Summary Table for All Buildings (Including Malls), 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Total Floorspace (million square feet)","Mean Square Feet per Building (thousand)","Median Square Feet per Building (thousand)" "All Buildings ................",4859,71658,14.7,5 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...............",2586,6922,2.7,2.4 "5,001 to 10,000

  2. "Table B26. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating Energy Sources Used ...

  3. "Table B32. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings with Water Heating","Water-Heating ...

  4. Table B28. Percent of Floorspace Heated, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 199

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Percent of Floorspace Heated, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Not Heated","1 to 50 Percent Heated","51 to 99 Percent Heated","100 Percent Heated","All Buildings","Not Heated","1 to 50 Percent Heated","51 to 99 Percent Heated","100 Percent Heated" "All

  5. Table B15. Number of Establishments in Building, Floorspace, 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Number of Establishments in Building, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Number of Establishments in Building" ,,"One","Two to Five","Six to Ten","Eleven to Twenty","More than Twenty","Currently Unoccupied" "All Buildings ................",67338,43343,10582,3574,3260,4811,1769 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001

  6. "Table A7. Enclosed Floorspace and Conditioned Floorspace"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Enclosed Floorspace and Conditioned Floorspace" " by Industry Group and Selected Industries, 1994" ,,"Approximate",,"Average" ,,"Enclosed",,"Enclosed"," Conditioned(c) Floorspace" ,,"Floorspace of All",,"Floorspace per"," of All Buildings Onsite",,"RSE" "SIC",,"Buildings Onsite","Establishments(b)","Establishment",,,"Row"

  7. "Table B23. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Space Heating","Primary Space-Heating Energy Source Useda" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" "All Buildings ................",67338,61602,17627,32729,3719,5077 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000

  8. Floorspace

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... "Energy Management and" " Control System (EMCS) ......",15630,15457,14644,... "Energy Management and" " Control System (EMCS)" " For Lighting ...

  9. Table B30. Percent of Floorspace Lit When Open, Number of Buildings and Floorspa

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Percent of Floorspace Lit When Open, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Not Lita","1 to 50 Percent Lit","51 to 99 Percent Lit","100 Percent Lit","All Buildings","Not Lita","1 to 50 Percent Lit","51 to 99 Percent Lit","100 Percent Lit" "All Buildings

  10. Table B16. Multibuilding Facilities, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Multibuilding Facilities, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Buildings on Multibuilding Facilities",,"All Buildings","Buildings on Multibuilding Facilities" ,,"All Buildings","With Central Physical Plant",,"All Buildings","With Central Physical Plant" "All Buildings

  11. Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Floorspace and...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Buildings, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Floorspace and ... Buildings, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Floorspace and ...

  12. "Table B16. Employment Size Category, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Employment Size Category, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Number of Workers" ,,"Fewer than 5 Workers","5 to 9 Workers","10 to 19 Workers","20 to 49 Workers","50 to 99 Workers","100 to 249 Workers","250 or More Workers" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,15492,6166,7803,10989,7934,6871,9528 "Building

  13. "Table B21. Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Space-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Space Heating","Space-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane","Othera" "All Buildings ................",67338,61612,32291,37902,5611,5534,2728,945 "Building

  14. Table B3. Census Region, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Census Region, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","North- east","Midwest ","South","West","All Buildings","North- east","Midwest","South","West" "All Buildings ................",4657,686,1188,1762,1021,67338,12360,16761,23485,14731 "Building

  15. Table B36. Refrigeration Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Refrigeration Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Refrigeration Equipment","Type of Equipment (more than one may apply)",,,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Refrigeration Equipment","Type of Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Walk-In","Open Cases or

  16. History of Air Conditioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  17. Membrane Based Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Membrane Based Air Conditioning 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Brian Johnson, brian.johnson@daisanalytic.com Dais Analytic Corporation INSERT PROJECT SPECIFIC PHOTO (replacing this shape) 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: October 1, 2015 NEW PROJECT Planned end date: September 30, 2017 Key Milestones 1. System Design Review; March 2016 2. Compressor testing review; September 2016 3. Go/No-Go based on bench testing; September 2016 4. Experimental evaluation of V1 prototype;

  18. Air conditioning apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouchi, Y.; Otoshi, Sh.

    1985-04-09

    The air conditioning apparatus according to the invention comprises an absorption type heat pump comprising a system including an absorber, a regenerator, a condenser and an evaporator. A mixture of lithium bromide and zinc chloride is used as an absorbent which is dissolved to form an absorbent solution into a mixed solvent having a ratio by weight of methanol to water, the ratio falling in a range between 0.1 and 0.3. Said solution is circulated through the system.

  19. "Table B27. Space Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Space Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings with Space Heating","Space-Heating Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Elec- tricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat","Propane","Other a" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,60028,28600,36959,5988,5198,3204,842

  20. Table HC1.1.2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace, 2005 " ,,"Average Square Feet per--" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Housing Unit",,,"Household Member" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,"Total1","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,2171,1618,1031,845,630,401 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,2334,1664,562,911,649,220

  1. Table HC1.1.4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  2. Table HC1.2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2.4 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace--Apartments, 2005" ,,,"Average Square Feet per Apartment in a --" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"2 to 4 Unit Building",,,"5 or More Unit Building" ,,"Apartments (millions)" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Total","Heated","Cooled","Total","Heated","Cooled" "Total",111.1,24.5,1090,902,341,872,780,441

  3. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Cooling Systems » Air Conditioning Air Conditioning Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Two-thirds of all homes in the

  4. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation covers common pitfalls that lead to wasted energy in industrial heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

  5. Table B37. Water Heating Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Water Heating Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of ... ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Water Heating","Type of Water Heating ...

  6. Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air

  7. Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:59pm Addthis Air conditioning is one of the most common ways to cool homes and buildings. How Air Conditioners Work Air conditioners employ the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm surroundings; likewise, an air conditioner uses energy to transfer heat from the interior

  8. History of Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    History of Air Conditioning History of Air Conditioning July 20, 2015 - 3:15pm Addthis Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs MORE ON AIR CONDITIONING Check out our Energy Saver 101 infographic to learn how air conditioners work. Go to Energy Saver for more tips and advice on home cooling. Stay up-to-date on how the Energy Department is working to improve air conditioning technology. We take the air conditioner for granted, but imagine what life would be

  9. History of Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Efficiency Standards Drive Improvements As air conditioning use soared in the 1970s, the energy crisis hit. In response, lawmakers passed laws to reduce energy consumption across...

  10. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  11. Membrane Based Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Membrane Based Air Conditioning Membrane Based Air Conditioning Image courtesy of Dais Analytic Corporation and BTO Peer Review. Image courtesy of Dais Analytic Corporation and BTO Peer Review. Lead Performer: Dais Analytic Corporation - Odessa, FL Partners: -- Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN -- Xergy Inc. - Seaford, DE DOE Total Funding: $1,500,000 Cost Share: $300,000 Project Term: October 1, 2015 - September 30, 2016 Funding Opportunity: Building Energy Efficiency Frontiers and

  12. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Central Air Conditioning Central Air Conditioning Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/DonNichols. Central air conditioners circulate cool air through a system of supply and return ducts. Supply ducts and registers (i.e., openings in the walls, floors, or ceilings covered by

  13. Breakthrough Video: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way—with heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings.

  14. Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use As ... One such technology- retrofitting rooftop air- conditioning units with an advanced rooftop ...

  15. American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition Engineers (ASHRAE) 2016 Annual Conference American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Condition Engineers ...

  16. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) OE Framework Document ...

  17. 2016 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2016 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Winter Conference 2016 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning...

  18. Table B2. Summary Table: Totals and Medians of Floorspace,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,2786,53395,71290,6,833,52,28.5 "Energy Management and" " Control System (EMCS) ... per Building ","Median Square Feet per Worker","Median Hours per Week","Median Age of ...

  19. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Cooling Equipment

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Packaged air conditioning units were the main cooling system for 20,504 million square feet of cooled floorspace, more than twice the...

  20. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  1. Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment These comments are submitted by the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) in response to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) notice in the July 3, 2014 Federal Register requesting information to assist DOE in reviewing existing regulations and in making its regulatory program more effective and less burdensome. DOE Reg Burden RFI

  2. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Burden RFI | Department of Energy Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These comments are submitted by the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) in response to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) notice in the August 8, 2012 Federal Register requesting information to assist DOE in reviewing existing regulations and in making its

  3. Air-conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute Comments |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Air-conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute Comments Air-conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute Comments These comments are submitted by the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) in response to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) notice in the May 10, 2016 Federal Register requesting information to assist DOE in reviewing existing regulations pursuant to Executive Order 13563 "Improving Regulation and Regulatory

  4. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air...

  5. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI ... PDF icon DOE Com Reg Burden RFI 9-7-12.pdf More Documents & Publications Regulatory Burden ...

  6. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  7. Advanced Development and Market Penetration of Desiccant-Based Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E A; Sand, J R; Linkous, R L; Baskin, E; Mason, D

    1998-01-01

    Desiccant Air Conditioning Systems can be used as alternatives for conventional air conditioning equipment in any commercial or residential building.

  8. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  9. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects AS-IHP System Concept Sketch. Image credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partner: Lennox Building-Integrated Heat & Moisture Exchange (SBIR Phase 2B) Lead Performer: Architectural Applications - Portland, Oregon Partner: Oregon State University - Corvallis, Oregon Left: Environmental chamber to

  10. Floor-supply displacement air-conditioning: Laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akimoto, Takashi; Nobe, Tatsuo; Tanabe, Shinichi; Kimura, Kenichi

    1999-07-01

    The results of laboratory measurements on the performance of a floor-supply displacement air-conditioning system in comparison to a displacement ventilation system with a side-wall-mounted diffuser and a ceiling-based distribution system are described. Thermal stratification was observed, as there were greater vertical air temperature differences in both of the displacement systems than in the ceiling-based system. The floor-supply displacement air-conditioning system produced a uniformly low air velocity at each measurement height, while a rather high air velocity near the floor was observed for the displacement ventilation system with a sidewall-mounted diffuser. Local mean age of air of the floor-supply displacement air-conditioning system was lower than that of the other systems, especially in the lower part of the room. According to the simulation results, the floor-supply displacement air-conditioning system with outdoor air cooling requires 34% less energy than the conventional air-conditioning system with outdoor air cooling.

  11. Keeping Cool Without Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Keeping Cool Without Air Conditioning Keeping Cool Without Air Conditioning August 2, 2013 - 9:50am Addthis Trees can save you energy by blocking sunlight in the summer and letting it through in the winter. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/blackie Trees can save you energy by blocking sunlight in the summer and letting it through in the winter. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/blackie Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory How can I participate? Check out these

  12. Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

    1992-11-01

    In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths`s ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

  13. Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

    1992-11-01

    In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths's ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

  14. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate

  15. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  16. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  17. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature

  18. Do residential air-conditioning rebates miss the mark?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.; Shepard, M.

    1994-12-31

    The rebates utilities provide for residential central air conditioners and heat pumps to encourage improved cooling efficiency may inadvertently reward higher peak demand in many cases. This problem could be avoided by using both efficiency and peak performance to determine eligibility for rebates. Such changes to incentive formulas would better align the utilities` DSM programs with the dual goals of improved efficiency and peak demand reduction. Improved peak performance would be especially advantageous for sunbelt utilities whose residential cooling load is highly coincident with the summer peak. Air conditioning has been called the utilities` ``load from hell,`` because it is intermittent, unpredictable, and is the largest contributor to summer peak demand, requiring massive investments in power generation and delivery capacity. It is no wonder then that more DSM programs are targeted at space cooling than at any other end use. Ironically, however, all of the residential rebate programs the authors examined for central air conditioners and heat pumps are based on the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), which provides a valuable measure of seasonal energy efficiency but is not a good indicator of peak demand. Residential central air conditioning incentive programs for eight major utilities are based exclusively on SEER and most ratchet up the incentive levels with increasing SEER. None include the measure for peak demand for residential cooling equipment, which is the so-called energy efficiency ratio, or EER.

  19. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

  20. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Ally, Moonis Raza; Rice, C Keith

    2009-02-01

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  1. Table B1. Summary Table: Totals and Means of Floorspace, Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ....",2786,53395,71290,19.2,749,68 "Energy Management and" " Control System (EMCS) ... Building","RSEs for Mean Square Feet per Worker","RSEs for Mean Hours per Week" "All ...

  2. The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings Report The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings Report This report characterizes the current landscape and trends in the global air conditioning (A/C) market, including discussion of both direct and indirect climate impacts, and potential global warming impacts from growing global A/C usage. The report also documents solutions that can help achieve international goals for energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. The

  3. Energy-Efficient Supermarket Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning in Humid Climates in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, J.

    2015-03-01

    Supermarkets are energy-intensive buildings that consume the greatest amount of electricity per square foot of building of any building type in the United States and represent 5% of total U.S. commercial building primary energy use (EIA 2005). Refrigeration and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are responsible for a large proportion of supermarkets’ total energy use. These two systems sometimes work together and sometimes compete, but the performance of one system always affects the performance of the other. To better understand these challenges and opportunities, the Commercial Buildings team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory investigated several of the most promising strategies for providing energy-efficient HVAC for supermarkets and quantified the resulting energy use and costs using detailed simulations. This research effort was conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) (Baechler et al. 2012; Parrish et al. 2013; Antonopoulos et al. 2014; Hirsch et al. 2014). The goal of CBP was to reduce energy use in the commercial building sector by creating, testing, and validating design concepts on the pathway to net zero energy commercial buildings. Several CBP partners owned or operated buildings containing supermarkets and were interested in optimizing the energy efficiency of supermarket HVAC systems in hot-humid climates. These partners included Walmart, Target, Whole Foods Market, SUPERVALU, and the Defense Commissary Agency.

  4. Ice storage rooftop retrofit for rooftop air conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomlinson, J.J.; Jennings, L.W.

    1997-09-01

    A significant fraction of the floor space in commercial and federal buildings is cooled by single-package rooftop air conditioning units. These units are located on flat roofs and usually operate during the day under hot conditions. They are usually less energy efficient than a chiller system for building cooling. Several U.S. companies are developing systems that employ ice storage in conjunction with chillers to replace older, inefficient rooftop units for improved performance and minimal use of on-peak electricity. Although the low evaporator temperatures needed for ice making tend to reduce the efficiency of the chiller, the overall operating costs of the ice storage system may be lower than that of a packaged, conventional rooftop installation. One version of this concept, the Roofberg{reg_sign} System developed by the Calmac Corporation, was evaluated on a small building at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Roofberg system consists of a chiller, an ice storage tank, and one or more rooftop units whose evaporator coils have been adapted to use a glycol solution for cooling. The ice storage component decouples the cooling demand of the building from the operation of the chiller. Therefore, the chiller can operate at night (cooler, more efficient condensing temperatures) to meet a daytime cooling demand. This flexibility permits a smaller chiller to satisfy a larger peak cooling load. Further, the system can be operated to shift the cooling demand to off-peak hours when electricity from the utility is generated more efficiently and at lower cost. This Roofberg system was successfully installed last year on a small one-story office building in Oak Ridge and is currently being operated to cool the building. The building and system were sufficiently instrumented to allow a determination of the performance and efficiency of the Roofberg system. Although the energy efficiency of a simulated Roofberg storage/chiller concept operating in the

  5. Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, R.; Cuddy, M.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J.

    1999-07-12

    Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented.

  6. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  7. Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.

    2010-02-01

    A procedure is described to measure approximate real-world air conditioning fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  8. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  9. Carbon Dioxide and Ionic Liquid Refrigerants: Compact, Efficient Air Conditioning with Ionic Liquid-Based Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    BEETIT Project: Notre Dame is developing an air-conditioning system with a new ionic liquid and CO2 as the working fluid. Synthetic refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems are potent GHGs and can trap 1,000 times more heat in the atmosphere than CO2 alone—making CO2 an attractive alternative for synthetic refrigerants in cooling systems. However, operating cooling systems with pure CO2 requires prohibitively high pressures and expensive hardware. Notre Dame is creating a new fluid made of CO2 and ionic liquid that enables the use of CO2 at low pressures and requires minimal changes to existing hardware and production lines. This new fluid also produces no harmful emissions and can improve the efficiency of air conditioning systems— enabling new use of CO2 as a refrigerant in cooling systems.

  10. Design of a test facility for gas-fired desiccant-based air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.A.; Steele, W.G.; Hodge, B.K.

    1996-12-31

    The design of a facility for testing desiccant-based air conditioning systems is presented. The determination of the performance parameters of desiccant systems is discussed including moisture removal capacity, latent and total cooling capacities, and efficiency indexes. The appropriate procedures and key measurements for determining these parameters are identified using uncertainty analysis.

  11. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Waking the sleeping giant: Introducing new heat exchanger technology into the residential air-conditioning marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapp, T.; Voss, M.; Stephens, C.

    1998-07-01

    The Air Conditioning Industry has made tremendous strides in improvements to the energy efficiency and reliability of its product offerings over the past 40 years. These improvement can be attributed to enhancements of components, optimization of the energy cycle, and modernized and refined manufacturing techniques. During this same period, energy consumption for space cooling has grown significantly. In January of 1992, the minimum efficiency requirement for central air conditioning equipment was raised to 10 SEER. This efficiency level is likely to increase further under the auspices of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA). A new type of heat exchanger was developed for air conditioning equipment by Modine Manufacturing Company in the early 1990's. Despite significant advantages in terms of energy efficiency, dehumidification, durability, and refrigerant charge there has been little interest expressed by the air conditioning industry. A cooperative effort between Modine, various utilities, and several state energy offices has been organized to test and demonstrate the viability of this heat exchanger design throughout the nation. This paper will review the fundamentals of heat exchanger design and document this simple, yet novel technology. These experiences involving equipment retrofits have been documented with respect to the performance potential of air conditioning system constructed with PF{trademark} Heat Exchangers (generically referred to as microchannel heat exchangers) from both an energy efficiency as well as a comfort perspective. The paper will also detail the current plan to introduce 16 to 24 systems into an extended field test throughout the US which commenced in the Fall of 1997.

  13. Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describes NREL's work on a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) that uses 90% less electricity than traditional air conditioning units.

  14. Comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a comment submitted by the Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) regarding the Energy Star Verification Testing Program

  15. Jackson Square | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jackson Square Jackson Square Construction of Jackson Square Shopping Center.

  16. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  17. Retrofitting Inefficient Rooftop Air-Conditioning Units Reduces U.S. Navy Energy Use (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Navy's overall energy strategy, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) partnered with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) to demonstrate market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - retrofitting rooftop air-conditioning units with an advanced rooftop control system - was identified as a promising source for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  18. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications Eric Kozubal, Lesley Herrmann, and Michael Deru National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jordan Clark University of Texas, Austin Andy Lowenstein AIL Research Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-60695 September 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  19. An Analysis of Price Determination and Markups in the Air-Conditioning and Heating Equipment Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Larry; Millstein, Dev; Coughlin, Katie; Van Buskirk, Robert; Rosenquist, Gregory; Lekov, Alex; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2004-01-30

    In this report we calculate the change in final consumer prices due to minimum efficiency standards, focusing on a standard economic model of the air-conditioning and heating equipment (ACHE) wholesale industry. The model examines the relationship between the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment and the final consumer price in this industry. The model predicts that the impact of a standard on the final consumer price is conditioned by its impact on marginal distribution costs. For example, if a standard raises the marginal cost to distribute and sell equipment a small amount, the model predicts that the standard will raise the final consumer price a small amount as well. Statistical analysis suggest that standards do not increase the amount of labor needed to distribute equipment the same employees needed to sell lower efficiency equipment can sell high efficiency equipment. Labor is a large component of the total marginal cost to distribute and sell air-conditioning and heating equipment. We infer from this that standards have a relatively small impact on ACHE marginal distribution and sale costs. Thus, our model predicts that a standard will have a relatively small impact on final ACHE consumer prices. Our statistical analysis of U.S. Census Bureau wholesale revenue tends to confirm this model prediction. Generalizing, we find that the ratio of manufacturer price to final consumer price prior to a standard tends to exceed the ratio of the change in manufacturer price to the change in final consumer price resulting from a standard. The appendix expands our analysis through a typical distribution chain for commercial and residential air-conditioning and heating equipment.

  20. Performance of R-410A Alternative Refrigerants in a Reciprocating Compressor Designed for Air Conditioning Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Mumpower, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. After successfully completing the first phase of the program in December 2013, AHRI launched a second phase of the Low-GWP AREP in 2014 to continue research in areas that were not previously addressed, including refrigerants in high ambient conditions, refrigerants in applications not tested in the first phase, and new refrigerants identified since testing for the program began. Although the Ozone Depletion Potential of R-410A is zero, this refrigerant is under scrutiny due to its high GWP. Several candidate alternative refrigerants have already demonstrated low global warming potential. Performance of these low-GWP alternative refrigerants is being evaluated for Air conditioning and heat pump applications to ensure acceptable system capacity and efficiency. This paper reports the results of a series of compressor calorimeter tests conducted for the second phase of the AREP to evaluate the performance of R-410A alternative refrigerants in a reciprocating compressor designed for air conditioning systems. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants ARM-71A, L41-1, DR-5A, D2Y-60, and R-32 to that of R-410A over a wide range of operating conditions. The tests showed that, in general, cooling capacities were slightly lower (except for the R-32), but energy efficiency ratios (EER) of the alternative refrigerants were comparable to that of R-410A.

  1. Table HC6.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total........................................................................ 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment.......................... 17.8 5.4 5.3 2.7 2.5 2.0 Have Cooling Equipment...................................... 93.3 24.6 29.6 15.7 13.4 10.0 Use Cooling Equipment....................................... 91.4 24.0 29.1 15.5 13.2 9.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use it......................

  2. Table HC9.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Climate Zone, 2005 Million U.S. Housing Units Total......................................................................... 111.1 10.9 26.1 27.3 24.0 22.8 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment........................... 17.8 3.2 4.7 3.6 5.5 0.9 Have Cooling Equipment........................................ 93.3 7.7 21.4 23.7 18.5 21.9 Use Cooling Equipment......................................... 91.4 7.6 21.0 23.4 17.9 21.7 Have Equipment But Do Not Use

  3. Benefits of Leapfrogging to Superefficiency and Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Nihar K.; Wei, Max; Letschert, Virginie; Phadke, Amol A.

    2015-10-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emitted from uses such as refrigerants and thermal insulating foam, are now the fastest growing greenhouse gases (GHGs), with global warming potentials (GWP) thousands of times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Because of the short lifetime of these molecules in the atmosphere,1 mitigating the amount of these short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) provides a faster path to climate change mitigation than control of CO2 alone. This has led to proposals from Africa, Europe, India, Island States, and North America to amend the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) to phase-down high-GWP HFCs. Simultaneously, energy efficiency market transformation programs such as standards, labeling and incentive programs are endeavoring to improve the energy efficiency for refrigeration and air conditioning equipment to provide life cycle cost, energy, GHG, and peak load savings. In this paper we provide an estimate of the magnitude of such GHG and peak electric load savings potential, for room air conditioning, if the refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies are implemented either separately or in parallel.

  4. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-06-21

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in the efficient and reliable operation of the electric grid. Modeling the dynamic behavior of a large population of responsive loads is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various demand response strategies. In this paper, a highly-accurate aggregated model is developed for a population of air conditioning loads. The model effectively includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with load heterogeneity, and accounts for second-order dynamics necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Based on the model, a novel aggregated control strategy is designed for the load population under realistic conditions. The proposed controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing end-use performance. The proposed aggregated modeling and control strategies are validated through realistic simulations using GridLAB-D. Extensive simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively manage a large number of air conditioning systems to provide various demand response services, such as frequency regulation and peak load reduction.

  5. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning, Highlights in Research and Development (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL compiles state-of-the-art review on membrane processes for air conditioning to identify future research opportunities. Researchers are pursuing alternatives to conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) practices, especially cool- ing and dehumidification, because of high energy use, environmentally harmful refrigerants, and a need for better humidity control. Advancements in membrane technology enable new possibilities in this area. Membranes are traditionally used for

  6. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  7. LiCl Dehumidifier LiBr absorption chiller hybrid air conditioning system with energy recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to a hybrid air conditioning system that combines a solar powered LiCl dehumidifier with a LiBr absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier removes the latent load by absorbing moisture from the air, and the sensible load is removed by the absorption chiller. The desiccant dehumidifier is coupled to a regenerator and the desiccant in the regenerator is heated by solar heated hot water to drive the moisture therefrom before being fed back to the dehumidifier. The heat of vaporization expended in the desiccant regenerator is recovered and used to partially preheat the driving fluid of the absorption chiller, thus substantially improving the overall COP of the hybrid system.

  8. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  9. Expert system for the design of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camejo, P.J.

    1989-12-01

    Expert systems are computer programs that seek to mimic human reason. An expert system shelf, a software program commonly used for developing expert systems in a relatively short time, was used to develop a prototypical expert system for the design of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings. Because HVAC design involves several related knowledge domains, developing an expert system for HVAC design requires the integration of several smaller expert systems known as knowledge bases. A menu program and several auxiliary programs for gathering data, completing calculations, printing project reports, and passing data between the knowledge bases are needed and have been developed to join the separate knowledge bases into one simple-to-use program unit.

  10. New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

    2013-07-01

    Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

  11. Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics’ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called “magnetocaloric materials”, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

  12. Japanese power electronics inverter technology and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji.

    1990-08-01

    Since 1983, technological advances and market growth of inverter- driven variable-speed heat pumps in Japan have been dramatic. The high level of market penetration was promoted by a combination of political, economic, and trade policies in Japan. A unique environment was created in which the leading domestic industries-- microprocessor manufacturing, compressors for air conditioning and refrigerators, and power electronic devices--were able to direct the development and market success of inverter-driven heat pumps. As a result, leading US variable-speed heat pump manufacturers should expect a challenge from the Japanese producers of power devices and microprocessors. Because of the vertically-integrated production structure in Japan, in contrast to the out-sourcing culture of the United States, price competition at the component level (such as inverters, sensors, and controls) may impact the structure of the industry more severely than final product sales. 54 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  13. SQUARE WAVE AMPLIFIER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leavitt, M.A.; Lutz, I.C.

    1958-08-01

    An amplifier circuit is described for amplifying sigmals having an alternating current component superimposed upon a direct current component, without loss of any segnnent of the alternating current component. The general circuit arrangement includes a vibrator, two square wave amplifiers, and recombination means. The amplifier input is connected to the vibrating element of the vibrator and is thereby alternately applied to the input of each square wave amplifier. The detailed circuitry of the recombination means constitutes the novelty of the annplifier and consists of a separate, dual triode amplifier coupled to the output of each square wave amplifier with a recombination connection from the plate of one amplifier section to a grid of one section of the other amplifier. The recombination circuit has provisions for correcting distortion caused by overlapping of the two square wave voltages from the square wave amplifiers.

  14. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  15. In-Cab Air Quality of Trucks Air Conditioned and Kept in Electrified Truck Stop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Doh-Won; Zietsman, Josias; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Storey, John Morse; Kranendonk, Laura

    2009-01-01

    At night, long-haul truck drivers rest inside the cabins of their vehicles. Therefore, the in-cab air quality while air conditioning (A/C) is being provided can be a great concern to the drivers health. The effect of using different A/C methods [truck's A/C, auxiliary power unit (APU), and truck stop electrification (TSE) unit] on in-cab air quality of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle was investigated at an electrified truck stop in the El Paso, Texas, area. The research team measured the in-cabin and the ambient air quality adjacent to the parked diesel truck as well as emissions from the truck and an APU while it was providing A/C. The measured results were compared and analyzed. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the TSE unit provided better in-cab air quality while supplying A/C. Furthermore, the truck and APU exhaust emissions were measured, and fuel consumption of the truck (while idling) and the APU (during operation) were compared. The results led to the finding that emissions from the APU were less than those from the truck's engine idling, but the APU consumed more fuel than the engine while providing A/C under given conditions.

  16. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-06-17

    This paper presents a freely available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library is based on the Modelica.Fluid library. It has been developed to support research and development of integrated building energy and control systems. The primary applications are controls design, energy analysis and model-based operation. The library contains dynamic and steady-state component models that are applicable for analyzing fast transients when designing control algorithms and for conducting annual simulations when assessing energy performance. For most models, dimensional analysis is used to compute the performance for operating points that differ from nominal conditions. This allows parameterizing models in the absence of detailed geometrical information which is often impractical to obtain during the conceptual design phase of building systems. In the first part of this paper, the library architecture and the main classes are described. In the second part, an example is presented in which we implemented a model of a hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves and thermal energy storage.

  17. Energy Savings and Economics of Advanced Control Strategies for Packaged Air-Conditioning Units with Gas Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Huang, Yunzhi; Brambley, Michael R.

    2011-12-31

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: (1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and (2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.

  18. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

    1997-12-01

    International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

  19. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  20. Btu)","per Building

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspace (million square feet)","Floorspace per Building (thousand square feet)","Total (trillion Btu)","per Building (million Btu)","per...

  1. Health Care Buildings: Subcategories Table

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Subcategories Table Selected Data by Type of Health Care Building Number of Buildings (thousand) Percent of Buildings Floorspace (million square feet) Percent of Floorspace Square...

  2. ISSUANCE 2015-12-11: Final Rule Regarding Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Final Rule Regarding Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment

  3. 2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

  4. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetzler, William; Zogg, Robert; Young, Jim; Schmidt, Justin

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  5. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  6. Air-conditioning electricity savings and demand reductions from exterior masonry wall insulation applied to Arizona residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1993-06-01

    A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation reduces air-conditioning electricity consumption and peak demand in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Peak demand reductions are a primary benefit, making the retrofit worthy of consideration in electric utility conservation programs. Economics can be attractive from a consumer viewpoint if considered within a renovation or home improvement program.

  7. Air-conditioning electricity savings and demand reductions from exterior masonry wall insulation applied to Arizona residences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1993-01-01

    A field test involving eight single-family houses was performed during the summer of 1991 in Scottsdale, Arizona to evaluate the potential of reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption and demand by insulating their exterior masonry walls. Total per house costs to perform the installations ranged from $3610 to $4550. The average annual savings was estimated to be 491 kWh, or 9% of pre-retrofit consumption. Peak demands without and with insulation on the hottest day of an average weather year for Phoenix were estimated to be 4.26 and 3.61 kill, for a demand reduction of 0.65 kill (15%). We conclude that exterior masonry wall insulation reduces air-conditioning electricity consumption and peak demand in hot, dry climates similar to that of Phoenix. Peak demand reductions are a primary benefit, making the retrofit worthy of consideration in electric utility conservation programs. Economics can be attractive from a consumer viewpoint if considered within a renovation or home improvement program.

  8. Japanese and American competition in the development of scroll compressors and its impact on the American air conditioning industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ushimaru, Kenji )

    1990-02-01

    This report examines the technological development of scroll compressors and its impact on the air conditioning equipment industry. Scroll compressors, although considered to be the compressors of the future for energy-efficient residential heat pumps and possibly for many other applications, are difficult to manufacture on a volume-production base. The manufacturing process requires computer-aided, numerically controlled tools for high-precision fabrication of major parts. Japan implemented a global strategy for dominating the technological world market in the 1970s, and scroll compressor technology benefited from the advent of new-generation machine tools. As a result, if American manufacturers of scroll compressors purchase or are essentially forced to purchase numerically controlled tools from Japan in the future, they will then become dependent on their own competitors because the same Japanese conglomerates that make numerically controlled tools also make scroll compressors. This study illustrates the importance of the basic machine tool industry to the health of the US economy. Without a strong machine tool industry, it is difficult for American manufacturers to put innovations, whether patented or not, into production. As we experience transformation in the air conditioning and refrigeration market, it will be critical to establish a consistent national policy to provide healthy competition among producers, to promote innovation within the industry, to enhance assimilation of new technology, and to eliminate practices that are incompatible with these goals. 72 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Energy Conservation Features in FBSS Building in Federal Region 3, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1993 Total Floorspace Number of Buildings (thousand square feet) Any Any...

  10. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. Water Heating Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) All Build- ings*...

  11. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    2. Water-Heating Energy Sources, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Total Floorspace (million square feet) All Buildings* Buildings with Water Heating Water-Heating Energy...

  12. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Cooking Energy Sources, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) All Build- ings*...

  13. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Occupancy of Nongovernment-Owned and Government-Owned Buildings, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Total Floorspace (million square feet) All Buildings*...

  14. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative

  15. Solar Energy Squared, LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Squared, LLC Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Solar Energy Squared, LLC Name: Solar Energy Squared, LLC Address: 116 Ottenheimer Plaza, President Clinton Avenue Place: Little...

  16. Impact of Charge Degradation on the Life Cycle Climate Performance of a Residential Air-Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Vapor compression systems continuously leak a small fraction of their refrigerant charge to the environment, whether during operation or servicing. As a result of the slow leak rate occurring during operation, the refrigerant charge decreases until the system is serviced and recharged. This charge degradation, after a certain limit, begins to have a detrimental effect on system capacity, energy consumption, and coefficient of performance (COP). This paper presents a literature review and a summary of previous experimental work on the effect of undercharging or charge degradation of different vapor compression systems, especially those without a receiver. These systems include residential air conditioning and heat pump systems utilizing different components and refrigerants, and water chiller systems. Most of these studies show similar trends for the effect of charge degradation on system performance. However, it is found that although much experimental work exists on the effect of charge degradation on system performance, no correlation or comparison between charge degradation and system performance yet exists. Thus, based on the literature review, three different correlations that characterize the effect of charge on system capacity and energy consumption are developed for different systems as follows: one for air-conditioning systems, one for vapor compression water-to-water chiller systems, and one for heat pumps. These correlations can be implemented in vapor compression cycle simulation tools to obtain a better prediction of the system performance throughout its lifetime. In this paper, these correlations are implemented in an open source tool for life cycle climate performance (LCCP) based design of vapor compression systems. The LCCP of a residential air-source heat pump is evaluated using the tool and the effect of charge degradation on the results is studied. The heat pump is simulated using a validated component-based vapor compression system model and

  17. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  18. Impact of Solar Control PVB Glass on Vehicle Interior Temperatures, Air-Conditioning Capacity, Fuel Consumption, and Vehicle Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.; Chaney, L.; Venson, T.; Ramroth, L.; Rose, M.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of Saflex1 S-series Solar Control PVB (polyvinyl butyral) configurations on conventional vehicle fuel economy and electric vehicle (EV) range. The approach included outdoor vehicle thermal soak testing, RadTherm cool-down analysis, and vehicle simulations. Thermal soak tests were conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility in Golden, Colorado. The test results quantified interior temperature reductions and were used to generate initial conditions for the RadTherm cool-down analysis. The RadTherm model determined the potential reduction in air-conditioning (A/C) capacity, which was used to calculate the A/C load for the vehicle simulations. The vehicle simulation tool identified the potential reduction in fuel consumption or improvement in EV range between a baseline and modified configurations for the city and highway drive cycles. The thermal analysis determined a potential 4.0% reduction in A/C power for the Saflex Solar PVB solar control configuration. The reduction in A/C power improved the vehicle range of EVs and fuel economy of conventional vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  19. Advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration systems—An overview: Part I: Hard control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Subbaram Naidu; Craig G. Rieger

    2011-02-01

    A chronological overview of the advanced control strategies for heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) is presented in this article. The overview focuses on hard-computing or control techniques, such as proportional-integral-derivative, optimal, nonlinear, adaptive, and robust; soft-computing or control techniques, such as neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms; and on the fusion or hybrid of hard- and soft-control techniques. Thus, it is to be noted that the terminology “hard” and “soft” computing/control has nothing to do with the “hardware” and “software” that is being generally used. Part I of a two-part series focuses on hard-control strategies, and Part II focuses on softand fusion-control in addition to some future directions in HVAC&R research. This overview is not intended to be an exhaustive survey on this topic, and any omission of other works is purely unintentional.

  20. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  1. 2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning, water-heating, and refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 7, 2014.

  2. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  3. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  4. ISSUANCE 2015-07-27: Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  5. ISSUANCE 2015-06-30: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment, Final Rule

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment, Final Rule

  6. ISSUANCE 2014-12-23: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures for Commercial Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Water-Heating Equipment, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  7. US Department of Energys Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    US Department of Energy's Regulatory Negotiations Convening on Commercial Certification for Heating, Ventilating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Equipment Public Information for Convening Interviews I. What are the substantive issues DOE seeks to address? Strategies for grouping various basic models for purposes of certification; Identification of non-efficiency attributes, which do not impact the measured consumption of the equipment as tested by DOE's test procedure; The information that

  8. Deming's General Least Square Fitting

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-18

    DEM4-26 is a generalized least square fitting program based on Deming''s method. Functions built into the program for fitting include linear, quadratic, cubic, power, Howard''s, exponential, and Gaussian; others can easily be added. The program has the following capabilities: (1) entry, editing, and saving of data; (2) fitting of any of the built-in functions or of a user-supplied function; (3) plotting the data and fitted function on the display screen, with error limits if requested,more » and with the option of copying the plot to the printer; (4) interpolation of x or y values from the fitted curve with error estimates based on error limits selected by the user; and (5) plotting the residuals between the y data values and the fitted curve, with the option of copying the plot to the printer. If the plot is to be copied to a printer, GRAPHICS should be called from the operating system disk before the BASIC interpreter is loaded.« less

  9. 2014-09-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration Notice of Public Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for walk-in coolers and freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute petition for reconsideration, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 23, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  10. Future Air Conditioning Energy Consumption in Developing Countriesand what can be done about it: The Potential of Efficiency in theResidential Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Letschert, Virginie E.

    2007-05-01

    The dynamics of air conditioning are of particular interestto energy analysts, both because of the high energy consumption of thisproduct, but also its disproportionate impact on peak load. This paperaddresses the special role of this end use as a driver of residentialelectricity consumption in rapidly developing economies. Recent historyhas shown that air conditioner ownership can grow grows more rapidly thaneconomic growth in warm-climate countries. In 1990, less than a percentof urban Chinese households owned an air conditioner; by 2003 this numberrose to 62 percent. The evidence suggests a similar explosion of airconditioner use in many other countries is not far behind. Room airconditioner purchases in India are currently growing at 20 percent peryear, with about half of these purchases attributed to the residentialsector. This paper draws on two distinct methodological elements toassess future residential air conditioner 'business as usual' electricityconsumption by country/region and to consider specific alternative 'highefficiency' scenarios. The first component is an econometric ownershipand use model based on household income, climate and demographicparameters. The second combines ownership forecasts and stock accountingwith geographically specific efficiency scenarios within a uniqueanalysis framework (BUENAS) developed by LBNL. The efficiency scenariomodule considers current efficiency baselines, available technologies,and achievable timelines for development of market transformationprograms, such as minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) andlabeling programs. The result is a detailed set of consumption andemissions scenarios for residential air conditioning.

  11. Blue Square Energy BSE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy BSE Jump to: navigation, search Name: Blue Square Energy (BSE) Place: Maryland Zip: 21901 Product: US manufacturer of low-purity crystalline silicon cells and modules...

  12. ISSUANCE 2015-12-17: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

  13. ISSUANCE 2015-12-17: Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Certain Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment and Commercial Warm Air Furnaces, Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  14. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9.1 Enclosed Floorspace and Number of Establishment Buildings, 2006;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Floorspace and Buildings;" " Unit: Floorspace Square Footage and Building Counts." ,,"Approximate",,,"Approximate","Average" ,,"Enclosed Floorspace",,"Average","Number","Number" ,,"of All Buildings",,"Enclosed Floorspace","of All

  15. " Row: NAICS Codes;"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9.1 Enclosed Floorspace and Number of Establishment Buildings, 2010;" " Level: National Data; " " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Floorspace and Buildings;" " Unit: Floorspace Square Footage and Building Counts." ,,"Approximate",,,"Approximate","Average" ,,"Enclosed Floorspace",,"Average","Number","Number" ,,"of All Buildings",,"Enclosed Floorspace","of All

  16. ASME N511-19XX, Standard for periodic in-service testing of nuclear air treatment, heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    A draft version of the Standard is presented in this document. The Standard covers the requirements for periodic in-service testing of nuclear safety-related air treatment, heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems in nuclear facilities. The Standard provides a basis for the development of test programs and does not include acceptance criteria, except in cases where the results of one test influence the performance of other tests. The Standard covers general inspection and test requirements, reference values, inspection and test requirements, generic tests, acceptance criteria, in-service test requirements, testing following an abnormal incident, corrective action requirements, and quality assurance. Mandatory appendices provide a visual inspection checklist and four test procedures. Non-mandatory appendices provide additional information and guidance on mounting frame pressure leak test procedure, corrective action, challenge gas substitute selection criteria, and test program development. 8 refs., 10 tabs.

  17. General collaboration offer of Johnson Controls regarding the performance of air conditioning automatic control systems and other buildings` automatic control systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gniazdowski, J.

    1995-12-31

    JOHNSON CONTROLS manufactures measuring and control equipment (800 types) and is as well a {open_quotes}turn-key{close_quotes} supplier of complete automatic controls systems for heating, air conditioning, ventilation and refrigerating engineering branches. The Company also supplies Buildings` Computer-Based Supervision and Monitoring Systems that may be applied in both small and large structures. Since 1990 the company has been performing full-range trade and contracting activities on the Polish market. We have our own well-trained technical staff and we collaborate with a series of designing and contracting enterprises that enable us to have our projects carried out all over Poland. The prices of our supplies and services correspond with the level of the Polish market.

  18. C3DIV.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    million square feet) Floorspace per Building (thousand square feet) Total (trillion Btu) per Building (million Btu) per Square Foot (thousand Btu) per Worker (million Btu) NEW...

  19. b31pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Floorspace a Heated Floorspace b Total Floorspace a Cooled Floorspace b Total Floorspace a Lit Floorspace b All Buildings ............................................... 67,338 61,602 53,812 58,474 42,420 64,085 54,696 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 .............................................. 6,774 5,684 5,055 4,879 3,958 5,859 4,877 5,001 to 10,000 ............................................ 8,238 7,090 5,744 6,212 4,333 7,421 5,583 10,001 to 25,000

  20. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An air conditioner cools your home with a cold indoor coil called the evaporator. The condenser, a hot outdoor coil, releases the collected heat outside. The evaporator and ...

  1. Elmo bumpy square plasma confinement device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Owen, L.W.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is an Elmo bumpy type plasma confinement device having a polygonal configuration of closed magnet field lines for improved plasma confinement. In the preferred embodiment, the device is of a square configuration which is referred to as an Elmo bumpy square (EBS). The EBS is formed by four linear magnetic mirror sections each comprising a plurality of axisymmetric assemblies connected in series and linked by 90/sup 0/ sections of a high magnetic field toroidal solenoid type field generating coils. These coils provide corner confinement with a minimum of radial dispersion of the confined plasma to minimize the detrimental effects of the toroidal curvature of the magnetic field. Each corner is formed by a plurality of circular or elliptical coils aligned about the corner radius to provide maximum continuity in the closing of the magnetic field lines about the square configuration confining the plasma within a vacuum vessel located within the various coils forming the square configuration confinement geometry.

  2. A spectral mimetic least-squares method

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bochev, Pavel; Gerritsma, Marc

    2014-09-01

    We present a spectral mimetic least-squares method for a model diffusion–reaction problem, which preserves key conservation properties of the continuum problem. Casting the model problem into a first-order system for two scalar and two vector variables shifts material properties from the differential equations to a pair of constitutive relations. We also use this system to motivate a new least-squares functional involving all four fields and show that its minimizer satisfies the differential equations exactly. Discretization of the four-field least-squares functional by spectral spaces compatible with the differential operators leads to a least-squares method in which the differential equations are alsomore » satisfied exactly. Additionally, the latter are reduced to purely topological relationships for the degrees of freedom that can be satisfied without reference to basis functions. Furthermore, numerical experiments confirm the spectral accuracy of the method and its local conservation.« less

  3. A spectral mimetic least-squares method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bochev, Pavel; Gerritsma, Marc

    2014-09-01

    We present a spectral mimetic least-squares method for a model diffusionreaction problem, which preserves key conservation properties of the continuum problem. Casting the model problem into a first-order system for two scalar and two vector variables shifts material properties from the differential equations to a pair of constitutive relations. We also use this system to motivate a new least-squares functional involving all four fields and show that its minimizer satisfies the differential equations exactly. Discretization of the four-field least-squares functional by spectral spaces compatible with the differential operators leads to a least-squares method in which the differential equations are also satisfied exactly. Additionally, the latter are reduced to purely topological relationships for the degrees of freedom that can be satisfied without reference to basis functions. Furthermore, numerical experiments confirm the spectral accuracy of the method and its local conservation.

  4. Latin square three dimensional gage master

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Lynn L.

    1982-01-01

    A gage master for coordinate measuring machines has an nxn array of objects distributed in the Z coordinate utilizing the concept of a Latin square experimental design. Using analysis of variance techniques, the invention may be used to identify sources of error in machine geometry and quantify machine accuracy.

  5. Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station. Interim report, 1992 cooling season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Conover, D.R.

    1993-05-01

    In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.

  6. Pioneer Valley Photovoltaics Cooperative aka PV Squared | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Photovoltaics Cooperative aka PV Squared Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pioneer Valley Photovoltaics Cooperative (aka PV Squared) Place: New Britain, Connecticut Zip: 6051...

  7. 1999 CBECS Summary Table for All Building Activities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Tables 1999 Commercial Buildings Consumption Survey SUMMARY TABLES FOR ALL PRINCIPAL BUILDING ACTIVITIES Number of Buildings (thousand) Floorspace (million square feet) Square...

  8. C4DIV.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Floorspace per Building (thousand square feet) Total (million dollars) per Building (thousand dollars) per Square Foot (dollars) per Million Btu (dollars) NEW ENGLAND...

  9. C15DIV.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    million square feet) Floorspace per Building (thousand square feet) Total (trillion Btu) Total (billion cubic feet) Total (million dollars) NEW ENGLAND ... 45...

  10. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Average of Major Energy Sources Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures Total per per per per Total Total Floorspace per Square per Household per Square per Household ...

  11. Optical inverse-square displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howe, Robert D.; Kychakoff, George

    1989-01-01

    This invention comprises an optical displacement sensor that uses the inverse-square attenuation of light reflected from a diffused surface to calculate the distance from the sensor to the reflecting surface. Light emerging from an optical fiber or the like is directed onto the surface whose distance is to be measured. The intensity I of reflected light is angle dependent, but within a sufficiently small solid angle it falls off as the inverse square of the distance from the surface. At least a pair of optical detectors are mounted to detect the reflected light within the small solid angle, their ends being at different distances R and R+.DELTA.R from the surface. The distance R can then be found in terms of the ratio of the intensity measurements and the separation length as ##EQU1##

  12. Optical inverse-square displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howe, R.D.; Kychakoff, G.

    1989-09-12

    This invention comprises an optical displacement sensor that uses the inverse-square attenuation of light reflected from a diffused surface to calculate the distance from the sensor to the reflecting surface. Light emerging from an optical fiber or the like is directed onto the surface whose distance is to be measured. The intensity I of reflected light is angle dependent, but within a sufficiently small solid angle it falls off as the inverse square of the distance from the surface. At least a pair of optical detectors are mounted to detect the reflected light within the small solid angle, their ends being at different distances R and R + [Delta]R from the surface. The distance R can then be found in terms of the ratio of the intensity measurements and the separation length as given in an equation. 10 figs.

  13. Hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, David M.

    2002-01-01

    A set of hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods in which spectral shapes of components or effects not present in the original calibration step are added in a following estimation or calibration step to improve the accuracy of the estimation of the amount of the original components in the sampled mixture. The "hybrid" method herein means a combination of an initial classical least squares analysis calibration step with subsequent analysis by an inverse multivariate analysis method. A "spectral shape" herein means normally the spectral shape of a non-calibrated chemical component in the sample mixture but can also mean the spectral shapes of other sources of spectral variation, including temperature drift, shifts between spectrometers, spectrometer drift, etc. The "shape" can be continuous, discontinuous, or even discrete points illustrative of the particular effect.

  14. R93HC.PDF

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Total Air-Conditioning in U.S. Households, 1993 Housing Unit and Household Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total Households (millions) Cooled Floorspace (square feet per household) Number of Cooling Degree-Days per Household Air-Conditioner Use in Summer 1993 1 (percent of households) RSE Row Factors 1993 Normal Total Not at All Only a Few Times Quite a Bit All Summer 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 3.5 0.9 1.4 1.2 Total .................................................... 66.1 1,416 1,536 1,438 100.0 3.4

  15. SHERATON STATION SQUARE FLOOR PLAN FIRST FLOOR

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SHERATON STATION SQUARE FLOOR PLAN FIRST FLOOR 3 DETAILED PROG RAM MONDAY, AUGUST 8, 2016 REGISTRATION 7:00 a.m. - 8:00 a.m. Grand Station Foyer CONTINENTAL BREAKFAST 7:00 a.m. - 8:00 a.m. Grand Station III GRAND STATION I & II OPENING SESSION Moderator: Lynn Brickett, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory 8:00 a.m. Welcoming Remarks Lynn Brickett, U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory 8:05 a.m. Overview of DOE's Clean Coal Program

  16. Risk Factors in Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systemsfor Occupant Symptoms in U.S. Office Buildings: the EPA BASE Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendell, M.J.; Lei-Gomez, Q.; Mirer, A.; Seppanen, O.; Brunner, G.

    2006-10-01

    Nonspecific building-related symptoms among occupants of modern office buildings worldwide are common and may be associated with important reductions in work performance, but their etiology remains uncertain. Characteristics of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in office buildings that increase risk of indoor contaminants or reduce effectiveness of ventilation may cause adverse exposures and subsequent increase in these symptoms among occupants. We analyzed data collected by the U.S. EPA from a representative sample of 100 large U.S. office buildings--the Building Assessment and Survey Evaluation (BASE) study--using multivariate logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations adjusted for potential personal and building confounders. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between seven building-related symptom outcomes and selected HVAC system characteristics. Among factors of HVAC design or configuration: Outdoor air intakes less than 60 m above the ground were associated with approximately doubled odds of most symptoms assessed. Sealed (non-operable) windows were associated with increases in skin and eye symptoms (ORs= 1.9, 1.3, respectively). Outdoor air intake without an intake fan was associated with an increase in eye symptoms (OR=1.7). Local cooling coils were associated with increased headache (OR=1.5). Among factors of HVAC condition, maintenance, or operation: the presence of humidification systems in good condition was associated with an increase in headache (OR=1.4), whereas the presence of humidification systems in poor condition was associated with increases in fatigue/difficulty concentrating, as well as upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=1.8, 1.5). No regularly scheduled inspections for HVAC components was associated with increased eye symptoms, cough and upper respiratory symptoms (ORs=2.2, 1.6, 1.5). Less frequent cleaning of cooling coils or drip pans was associated

  17. Augmented classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2004-02-03

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  18. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2005-07-26

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  19. Augmented Classical Least Squares Multivariate Spectral Analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, David M.; Melgaard, David K.

    2005-01-11

    A method of multivariate spectral analysis, termed augmented classical least squares (ACLS), provides an improved CLS calibration model when unmodeled sources of spectral variation are contained in a calibration sample set. The ACLS methods use information derived from component or spectral residuals during the CLS calibration to provide an improved calibration-augmented CLS model. The ACLS methods are based on CLS so that they retain the qualitative benefits of CLS, yet they have the flexibility of PLS and other hybrid techniques in that they can define a prediction model even with unmodeled sources of spectral variation that are not explicitly included in the calibration model. The unmodeled sources of spectral variation may be unknown constituents, constituents with unknown concentrations, nonlinear responses, non-uniform and correlated errors, or other sources of spectral variation that are present in the calibration sample spectra. Also, since the various ACLS methods are based on CLS, they can incorporate the new prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method of updating the prediction model for new sources of spectral variation contained in the prediction sample set without having to return to the calibration process. The ACLS methods can also be applied to alternating least squares models. The ACLS methods can be applied to all types of multivariate data.

  20. Total least squares for anomalous change detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiler, James P; Matsekh, Anna M

    2010-01-01

    A family of difference-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQ-based anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and furthermore it is shown to be equivalent to the optimized covariance equalization algorithm. What whitened TLSQ offers, in addition to connecting with a common language the derivations of two of the most popular anomalous change detection algorithms - chronochrome and covariance equalization - is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.

  1. Classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, David M.

    2002-01-01

    An improved classical least squares multivariate spectral analysis method that adds spectral shapes describing non-calibrated components and system effects (other than baseline corrections) present in the analyzed mixture to the prediction phase of the method. These improvements decrease or eliminate many of the restrictions to the CLS-type methods and greatly extend their capabilities, accuracy, and precision. One new application of PACLS includes the ability to accurately predict unknown sample concentrations when new unmodeled spectral components are present in the unknown samples. Other applications of PACLS include the incorporation of spectrometer drift into the quantitative multivariate model and the maintenance of a calibration on a drifting spectrometer. Finally, the ability of PACLS to transfer a multivariate model between spectrometers is demonstrated.

  2. Hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, David M.

    2004-03-23

    A set of hybrid least squares multivariate spectral analysis methods in which spectral shapes of components or effects not present in the original calibration step are added in a following prediction or calibration step to improve the accuracy of the estimation of the amount of the original components in the sampled mixture. The hybrid method herein means a combination of an initial calibration step with subsequent analysis by an inverse multivariate analysis method. A spectral shape herein means normally the spectral shape of a non-calibrated chemical component in the sample mixture but can also mean the spectral shapes of other sources of spectral variation, including temperature drift, shifts between spectrometers, spectrometer drift, etc. The shape can be continuous, discontinuous, or even discrete points illustrative of the particular effect.

  3. 2014-11-25 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register extension of the public comment period regarding energy conservation standards for small, large and very large air-cool commercial package air conditioning and heating equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on November 25, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  4. 2014-09-18 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Small, Large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Public Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Public Meeting regarding Energy Conservation Standards for Small, large, and Very Large Air-Cooled Commercial Package Air Conditioning and Heating Equipment, as issued by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on September 18, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  5. 2-D weighted least-squares phase unwrapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghiglia, Dennis C.; Romero, Louis A.

    1995-01-01

    Weighted values of interferometric signals are unwrapped by determining the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for unweighted values of the interferometric signals; and then determining the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for weighted values of the interferometric signals by preconditioned conjugate gradient methods using the unweighted solutions as preconditioning values. An output is provided that is representative of the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for weighted values of the interferometric signals.

  6. 2-D weighted least-squares phase unwrapping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghiglia, D.C.; Romero, L.A.

    1995-06-13

    Weighted values of interferometric signals are unwrapped by determining the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for unweighted values of the interferometric signals; and then determining the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for weighted values of the interferometric signals by preconditioned conjugate gradient methods using the unweighted solutions as preconditioning values. An output is provided that is representative of the least squares solution of phase unwrapping for weighted values of the interferometric signals. 6 figs.

  7. Square grid state in dielectric barrier discharge system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, L. F.; Li, S. F.; Fan, W. L.; Pan, Y. Y.

    2009-12-15

    A square grid state and a hexagonal grid state are observed in a dielectric barrier discharge system. They are selected by different resonance mechanisms, namely, a four-wave interaction for the square grid state and a three-wave interaction for the hexagonal grid state. The spatiotemporal dynamics of the square grid state is studied by an optical method. It is found that the square grid state is an interleaving of three different sublattices, which correspond to a harmonic mode and two subharmonic modes.

  8. ,"Housing Units1","Average Square Footage Per Housing Unit",...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military housing, and group quarters are excluded. 2Total square footage includes all basements, finished or conditioned (heated ...

  9. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Floorspace Trend Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    because the CBECS is a sample survey (see Overview of the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey for further discussion). Changes between successive surveys are...

  10. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Detailed Buildings and Floorspace...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ** estimates adjusted to match the 1995 CBECS definition of target population Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Table 2....

  11. Table B29. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...51,344,21256,"N",3067,8012,10176 "HVAC Maintenance ......",2786,266,682,542,1297,53...21.8,15.1,10.3,5.2,0,9.3,6.2,8.2 "HVAC Maintenance ......",4.8,15.1,10.5,8.4,5.2,3....

  12. Trends in Commercial Buildings--Buildings and Floorspace

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    activity. Number of Commercial Buildings In 1979, the Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey estimated that there were 3.8 million commercial buildings in the...

  13. "Table HC1.4 Cooled Floorspace Usage Indicators, 2005" " ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "At Home Behavior" "Home Used for Business" "Yes",6.4,0.3,1,1.1,1.1,0.8,0.5,1.5 ... "At Home Behavior" "Home Used for Business" "Yes",7,34.5,16.7,16,13.5,21.1,22.7,14....

  14. "Table HC1.3 Heated Floorspace Usage Indicators, 2005" " ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "At Home Behavior" "Home Used for Business" "Yes",8.9,"Q",1.3,1.4,1.6,1,"4 0.9",2 ... "At Home Behavior" "Home Used for Business" "Yes",5.7,32.2,14.6,13.8,12.9,15.2,16.7...

  15. "Table B11. Employment Size Category, Floorspace, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...,6445,2443,508,729,691,586,658,830 "1946 to 1959 ......",9127,2264,1012,1415,1947,833,688,968 "1960 to 1969 ......",10866,2015,1181,1128,1707,1696,1561,1579 ...

  16. Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Electricity Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity, 1999" ,"Total Electricity Consumption (billion kWh)",,,"Total Floorspace of Buildings Using Electricity (million square...

  17. Table HC1.2.1. Living Space Characteristics by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Space Characteristics by" " Total, Heated, and Cooled Floorspace, 2005" ,,,"Total Square Footage" ,"Housing Units",,"Total1",,"Heated",,"Cooled" "Living Space Characteristics","Mil...

  18. Health Care Buildings: Equipment Table

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Equipment Table Buildings, Size and Age Data by Equipment Types for Health Care Buildings Number of Buildings (thousand) Percent of Buildings Floorspace (million square feet)...

  19. Incan-

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Area Lit by Each Type of Light Floorspace (million square feet) Incan- descent Standard Fluor- escent Compact Fluor- escent High Intensity Discharge Halogen All Buildings*...

  20. Incan-

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Any Lighting Lighted Area Only Floorspace (million square feet) Incan- descent Standard Fluor- escent Compact Fluor- escent High Intensity Discharge Halogen All Buildings*...

  1. Energy Information Administration - Commercial Energy Consumption...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    A. Consumption and Gross Energy Intensity by Climate Zonea for All Buildings, 2003 Sum of Major Fuel Consumption (trillion Btu) Total Floorspace of Buildings (million square feet)...

  2. Major Fuels","Electricity",,"Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspace (million square feet)","Sum of Major Fuels","Electricity",,"Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" ,,,,"Primary","Site" "All Buildings...

  3. Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    consumption Consumption: See Energy consumption. Consumption per square foot: The aggregate ratio of total consumption for a particular set of buildings to the total floorspace of those buildings.

  4. Square Grains in Asymmetric Rod-Coil Block Copolymers (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Unlike the rounded grains that are well known to form in most soft materials, square grains of microphase-separated lamellae are observed in thin films of a rod-coil block ...

  5. BEETIT: Building Cooling and Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s BEETIT Project, short for “Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices,” are developing new approaches and technologies for building cooling equipment and air conditioners. These projects aim to drastically improve building energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) at a cost comparable to current technologies.

  6. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    out at night * SA temperature reset with respect to zone needing most heatcooling * Time ... AT 4.4% THE POTENTIAL SAVINGS IS 69.50YEAR MANUFACTURERS PREDICT 2-6 TIMES LIFE DO NOT ...

  7. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Typical Design Conditions 75 degrees F temperature 50% relative humidity 30 - 50 FPM air movement 15 - 20 CFM outside air per person or CO2 less than 1,000 PPM ASHRAE 62 - 1989 ...

  8. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    that the newly installed air conditioner has the exact refrigerant charge and airflow rate specified by the manufacturer Locates the thermostat away from heat sources, such as...

  9. The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    July 2016 W. Goetzler, M. Guernsey, J. Young, J. Fuhrman Navigant Consulting, Inc. O. Abdelaziz, PhD Oak Ridge National Laboratory (This page intentionally left blank) NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal

  10. Weatherking Heating & Air conditioning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    wholesale;Engineeringarchitecturaldesign;Installation;Investmentfinances;Maintenance and repair; Retail product sales and distribution Phone Number: 330-908-0281...

  11. Quantum Well Thermoelectric Truck Air Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Discusses advantages of quantum-well TE cooler, including no moving parts, no gases, performance on par with conventional, and easy switching to heat pump mode

  12. The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Life Cycle Emissions (kg CO2-eq) Life Cycle GHG ... while also reducing refrigerant charge, ... emissions of 1,550 coal-fired power plants. 96 As Figure 5-3 ...

  13. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Projects | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    MI -- Optimized Thermal Systems - College Park, MD Purdue prototype system Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Lead Performer: Unico Systems - St....

  14. Central Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air supply and return ducts come from indoors through the home's exterior wall or roof to connect with the packaged air conditioner, which is usually located outdoors....

  15. 2D barrier in a superconducting niobium square

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joya, Miryam R. Barba-ortega, J.; Sardella, Edson

    2014-11-05

    The presence of barriers changes the vortex structure in superconducting Nb square in presence of a uniform applied magnetic field. The Cooper pair configurations in a mesoscopics superconducting square of Nb with a barrier are calculated within the nonlinear Ginzburg Landau equations. We predict the nucleation of multi-vortex states into the sample and a soft entry of the magnetic field inside and around into the barrier. A novel and non-conventional vortex configurations occurs at determined magnetic field.

  16. ,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B39. Lighting Equipment, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Lit Buildings","Lighting Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen" "All Buildings ................",67338,64321,38156,60344,20666,19223,17926 "Building Floorspace" "(Square

  17. A Least-Squares Transport Equation Compatible with Voids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Jon; Peterson, Jacob; Morel, Jim; Ragusa, Jean; Wang, Yaqi

    2014-12-01

    Standard second-order self-adjoint forms of the transport equation, such as the even-parity, odd-parity, and self-adjoint angular flux equation, cannot be used in voids. Perhaps more important, they experience numerical convergence difficulties in near-voids. Here we present a new form of a second-order self-adjoint transport equation that has an advantage relative to standard forms in that it can be used in voids or near-voids. Our equation is closely related to the standard least-squares form of the transport equation with both equations being applicable in a void and having a nonconservative analytic form. However, unlike the standard least-squares form of the transport equation, our least-squares equation is compatible with source iteration. It has been found that the standard least-squares form of the transport equation with a linear-continuous finite-element spatial discretization has difficulty in the thick diffusion limit. Here we extensively test the 1D slab-geometry version of our scheme with respect to void solutions, spatial convergence rate, and the intermediate and thick diffusion limits. We also define an effective diffusion synthetic acceleration scheme for our discretization. Our conclusion is that our least-squares Sn formulation represents an excellent alternative to existing second-order Sn transport formulations

  18. High-frequency matrix converter with square wave input

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, Joseph Alexander; Balda, Juan Carlos

    2015-03-31

    A device for producing an alternating current output voltage from a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage comprising, high-frequency, square-wave input a matrix converter and a control system. The matrix converter comprises a plurality of electrical switches. The high-frequency input and the matrix converter are electrically connected to each other. The control system is connected to each switch of the matrix converter. The control system is electrically connected to the input of the matrix converter. The control system is configured to operate each electrical switch of the matrix converter converting a high-frequency, square-wave input voltage across the first input port of the matrix converter and the second input port of the matrix converter to an alternating current output voltage at the output of the matrix converter.

  19. Organic light-emitting diodes from homoleptic square planar complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Omary, Mohammad A

    2013-11-12

    Homoleptic square planar complexes [M(N.LAMBDA.N).sub.2], wherein two identical N.LAMBDA.N bidentate anionic ligands are coordinated to the M(II) metal center, including bidentate square planar complexes of triazolates, possess optical and electrical properties that make them useful for a wide variety of optical and electrical devices and applications. In particular, the complexes are useful for obtaining white or monochromatic organic light-emitting diodes ("OLEDs"). Improved white organic light emitting diode ("WOLED") designs have improved efficacy and/or color stability at high brightness in single- or two-emitter white or monochrome OLEDs that utilize homoleptic square planar complexes, including bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II) ("Pt(ptp).sub.2").

  20. Latin-square three-dimensional gage master

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, L.

    1981-05-12

    A gage master for coordinate measuring machines has an nxn array of objects distributed in the Z coordinate utilizing the concept of a Latin square experimental design. Using analysis of variance techniques, the invention may be used to identify sources of error in machine geometry and quantify machine accuracy.

  1. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 4. Percent of floorspace heated, number of buildings and floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) Total floorspace (million square feet) All buildings Not heated 1 to 50 percent heated 51 to 99 percent heated 100 percent heated All buildings Not heated 1 to 50 percent heated 51 to 99 percent heated 100 percent heated All buildings 5,557 835 697 727 3,298 87,093 7,015 10,130 14,650 55,298 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to

  2. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 5. Percent of floorspace cooled, number of buildings and floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) Total floorspace (million square feet) All buildings Not cooled 1 to 50 percent cooled 51 to 99 percent cooled 100 percent cooled All buildings Not cooled 1 to 50 percent cooled 51 to 99 percent cooled 100 percent cooled All buildings 5,557 1,096 1,173 897 2,391 87,093 7,799 18,891 22,728 37,676 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001

  3. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 6. Percent of floorspace lit when open, number of buildings and floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) Total floorspace (million square feet) All buildings Not lit when open1 1 to 50 percent lit 51 to 99 percent lit 100 percent lit All buildings Not lit when open1 1 to 50 percent lit 51 to 99 percent lit 100 percent lit All buildings 5,557 570 1,099 1,666 2,222 87,093 3,925 12,628 34,814 35,726 Building floorspace (square feet)

  4. A new least-squares transport equation compatible with voids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, J. B.; Morel, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    We define a new least-squares transport equation that is applicable in voids, can be solved using source iteration with diffusion-synthetic acceleration, and requires only the solution of an independent set of second-order self-adjoint equations for each direction during each source iteration. We derive the equation, discretize it using the S{sub n} method in conjunction with a linear-continuous finite-element method in space, and computationally demonstrate various of its properties. (authors)

  5. Solving linear inequalities in a least squares sense

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bramley, R.; Winnicka, B.

    1994-12-31

    Let A {element_of} {Re}{sup mxn} be an arbitrary real matrix, and let b {element_of} {Re}{sup m} a given vector. A familiar problem in computational linear algebra is to solve the system Ax = b in a least squares sense; that is, to find an x* minimizing {parallel}Ax {minus} b{parallel}, where {parallel} {center_dot} {parallel} refers to the vector two-norm. Such an x* solves the normal equations A{sup T}(Ax {minus} b) = 0, and the optimal residual r* = b {minus} Ax* is unique (although x* need not be). The least squares problem is usually interpreted as corresponding to multiple observations, represented by the rows of A and b, on a vector of data x. The observations may be inconsistent, and in this case a solution is sought that minimizes the norm of the residuals. A less familiar problem to numerical linear algebraists is the solution of systems of linear inequalities Ax {le} b in a least squares sense, but the motivation is similar: if a set of observations places upper or lower bounds on linear combinations of variables, the authors want to find x* minimizing {parallel} (Ax {minus} b){sub +} {parallel}, where the i{sup th} component of the vector v{sub +} is the maximum of zero and the i{sup th} component of v.

  6. DESIGN OF PHASE INDUCED AMPLITUDE APODIZATION CORONAGRAPHS OVER SQUARE APERTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Jeremy Kasdin, N.; Carlotti, Alexis; Vanderbei, Robert

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a theoretical study pertaining to the feasibility of Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) units using deformable mirrors (DMs). We begin by reviewing the general derivation of the design equations driving PIAA. We then show how to solve these equations for square apertures and show the performance of pure PIAA systems in the ray optics regime. We tie these design equations into the study of edge diffraction effects and provide a general expression for the field after a full propagation through a PIAA coronagraph. Third, we illustrate how a combination of pre- and post-apodizers yields a contrast of 10{sup -10} even in the presence of diffractive effects, for configuration with neither wavefront errors or wavefront control. Finally, we present novel PIAA configurations over square apertures which circumvent the constraints on the manufacturing of PIAA optics by inducing the apodization with two square DMs. Such solutions rely on pupil size smaller than currently envisioned static PIAA solutions and thus require aggressive pre- and post-apodizing screens in order to mitigate for diffractive effect between the two mirrors. As a result they are associated with significant loss in performance, throughput in particular.

  7. Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.

    1999-09-27

    A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented.

  8. R-SQUARE IMPEDANCES OF ERL FERRITE HOM ABSORBER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HAHN, H.; BURRILL, A.; CALAGA,R.; KAYRAN, D.; ZHAO, Y.

    2005-07-10

    An R&D facility for an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) intended as part of an electron-cooling project for RHIC is, being constructed at this laboratory. The center piece of the facility is a 5-cell 703.75 MHz super-conducting RF linac. Successful operation will depend on effective HOM damping. It is planned to achieve HOM damping exclusively with ferrite absorbers. The performance of a prototype absorber was measured by transforming it into a resonant cavity and alternatively by a conventional wire method. The results expressed as a surface or R-square impedance are presented in this paper.

  9. allbc.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Information Administration 1999 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey: Detailed Tables Contents ii All Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) Total Workers in All Buildings (thousand) Mean Square Feet per Building (thousand) Mean Square Feet per Worker Mean Hours per Week All Buildings .............................................. 4,657 67,338 81,852 14.5 823 60 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ..............................................

  10. 1992 CBECS BC

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Percent of Floorspace Heated, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) RSE Row Factor All Buildings Not Heated Less than 51 Percent Heated 51 to 99 Percent Heated 100 Percent Heated All Buildings Total Heated Floorspace in All Buildings Not Heated Less than 51 Percent Heated 51 to 99 Percent Heated 100 Percent Heated 0.6 1.6 1.2 1.1 0.7 0.6 0.6 2.2 1.6 1.2 0.7 All Buildings

  11. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) . Summary table: total and medians of floorspace, number of workers, and hours of operation, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) Total floorspace (million square feet) Total workers (thousand) Median square feet per building (thousand) Median square feet per worker Median operating hours per week Median age of buildings (years) All buildings 5,557 87,093 88,182 5.0 1,029 50 32 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,777 8,041

  12. A Galerkin least squares approach to viscoelastic flow.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Rekha R.; Schunk, Peter Randall

    2015-10-01

    A Galerkin/least-squares stabilization technique is applied to a discrete Elastic Viscous Stress Splitting formulation of for viscoelastic flow. From this, a possible viscoelastic stabilization method is proposed. This method is tested with the flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid past a rigid cylinder, where it is found to produce inaccurate drag coefficients. Furthermore, it fails for relatively low Weissenberg number indicating it is not suited for use as a general algorithm. In addition, a decoupled approach is used as a way separating the constitutive equation from the rest of the system. A Pressure Poisson equation is used when the velocity and pressure are sought to be decoupled, but this fails to produce a solution when inflow/outflow boundaries are considered. However, a coupled pressure-velocity equation with a decoupled constitutive equation is successful for the flow past a rigid cylinder and seems to be suitable as a general-use algorithm.

  13. Classical and quantum dynamics in an inverse square potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guillaumn-Espaa, Elisa; Nez-Ypez, H. N.; Salas-Brito, A. L.

    2014-10-15

    The classical motion of a particle in a 3D inverse square potential with negative energy, E, is shown to be geodesic, i.e., equivalent to the particle's free motion on a non-compact phase space manifold irrespective of the sign of the coupling constant. We thus establish that all its classical orbits with E < 0 are unbounded. To analyse the corresponding quantum problem, the Schrdinger equation is solved in momentum space. No discrete energy levels exist in the unrenormalized case and the system shows a complete fall-to-the-center with an energy spectrum unbounded by below. Such behavior corresponds to the non-existence of bound classical orbits. The symmetry of the problem is SO(3) SO(2, 1) corroborating previously obtained results.

  14. 1992 CBECS BC

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A68. Principal Building Activity, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) RSE Row Factor 0.9 1.1 All Buildings ........................................................ 4,806 67,876 3.7 Principal Building Activity Education ............................................................ 301 8,470 7.5 Food Sales ......................................................... 130 757 14.5 Food

  15. Square Turing patterns in reaction-diffusion systems with coupled layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Hongli E-mail: qi@pku.edu.cn; Center for Quantitative Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Ouyang, Qi E-mail: qi@pku.edu.cn; Center for Quantitative Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100871; The Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Beijing 100871

    2014-06-15

    Square Turing patterns are usually unstable in reaction-diffusion systems and are rarely observed in corresponding experiments and simulations. We report here an example of spontaneous formation of square Turing patterns with the Lengyel-Epstein model of two coupled layers. The squares are found to be a result of the resonance between two supercritical Turing modes with an appropriate ratio. Besides, the spatiotemporal resonance of Turing modes resembles to the mode-locking phenomenon. Analysis of the general amplitude equations for square patterns reveals that the fixed point corresponding to square Turing patterns is stationary when the parameters adopt appropriate values.

  16. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Summary Table: Total and Means of Floorspace, Number of Workers, and Hours of Operation for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Total Floorspace (million square feet)","Total Workers in All Buildings (thousand)","Mean Square Feet per Building (thousand)","Mean Square Feet per Worker","Mean Hours per Week" "All Buildings*.......",4645,64783,72807,13.9,890,61 "Building Floorspace"

  17. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Summary Table: Totals and Medians of Floorspace, Number of Workers, and Hours of Operation for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)","Total Floorspace (million square feet)","Total Workers in All Buildings (thousand)","Median Square Feet per Building (thousand)","Median Square Feet per Worker","Median Hours per Week","Median Age of Buildings (years)" "All Buildings*

  18. Comment on ''Mutually unbiased bases, orthogonal Latin squares, and hidden-variable models''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Joanne L.; Rao, Asha

    2011-03-15

    In a recent article Paterek, Dakic, and Brukner [Phys. Rev. A 79, 012109 (2009)] show an algorithm for generating mutually unbiased bases from sets of orthogonal Latin squares. They claim that this algorithm works for every set of orthogonal Latin squares. We show that the algorithm only works for particular sets of orthogonal Latin squares. Furthermore, the algorithm is a more readable version of work previously published [Phys. Rev. A 70, 062101 (2004)].

  19. Table 4a. Total Fuel Oil Consumption per Effective Occupied Square...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Table 4a. Total Fuel Oil Consumption per Effective Occupied Square Foot, 1992 Building Characteristics All Buildings Using Fuel Oil (thousand) Total Fuel Oil Consumption (trillion...

  20. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Units (millions)" ,,"1 Member","2 Members","3 Members","4 Members","5 or More Members" "Living Space Characteristics" "Total",111.1,30,34.8,18.4,15.9,12 "Floorspace (Square Feet)" ...

  1. c2a.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Buildings ... 4,859 71,658 107,897 82,783 16,010 1,826 7,279 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ......

  2. c4a.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Buildings ... 4,859 71,658 14.7 107,897 22.2 1.51 16.54 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 2,586...

  3. c14a.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Buildings ... 226 14.9 3.8 8.8 18.1 17.9 1.18 0.079 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 48 17.8...

  4. c22a.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Buildings ... 162 538 343 17,509 32,945 19,727 9.2 16.3 17.4 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ......

  5. Assessment of Energy Use in Multibuilding Facilities

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    containing over 1,000 square feet of floorspace, and intended for human occupancy. Structures that were included in the survey as a specific exception were parking garages not...

  6. b27.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Propane Electricity Natural Gas Propane All Buildings ...... 4,657 857 437 505 118 67,338 24,681 13,733 16,785 1,754 Building Floorspace (Square ...

  7. b33.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Propane Elec- tricity Natural Gas Propane All Buildings* ...... 4,645 801 410 457 108 64,783 22,237 13,161 15,438 1,460 Building Floorspace (Square ...

  8. c27a.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    53.1 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... Q 42 69 Q 427 741 Q 98.4 92.9 5,001 to 10,000 ... Q 32 49 Q...

  9. Natural Gas",,,"Natural Gas Consumption",,"Natural Gas Expenditures...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    feet)","Total (million dollars)" "NEW ENGLAND ...",45,1590,35.3,59,57,403 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000 ...","Q","Q","Q","Q",...

  10. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    --- All Buildings ... 4,657 4,403 4,395 2,670 434 117 50 451 153 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000...

  11. --No Title--

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    --- NEW ENGLAND ... 45 1,590 35.3 59 57 403 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... Q Q Q Q Q Q 5,001 to...

  12. 1992 CBECS BC

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Census Region, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) RSE Row Factor All Buildings Northeast Midwest South West All Buildings Northeast Midwest South West 0.6 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.3 0.6 1.3 1.1 1.1 1.2 All Buildings ................................... 4,806 771 1,202 1,963 870 67,876 13,400 17,280 24,577 12,619 6.3 Building Floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000

  13. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 0. Number of floors, number of buildings and floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) Total floorspace (million square feet) All buildings One floor Two floors Three floors Four to nine floors Ten or more floors All buildings One floor Two floors Three floors Four to nine floors Ten or more floors All buildings 5,557 3,836 1,158 374 177 13 87,093 39,809 20,206 8,140 13,535 5,404 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,777

  14. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 4. Selected principal building activity: part 2, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) Principal building activity Health care Public order and safety All buildings Food service Food sales Lodging In- patient Out- patient All buildings 87,093 1,819 1,252 5,826 2,374 1,781 1,440 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 10,000 16,941 1,429 557 299 N 510 331 10,001 to 100,000 39,940 390 562 2,739 282 927 557 Over 100,000

  15. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 8. Occupancy of nongovernment-owned and government-owned buildings, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) Nongovernment-owned buildings Government-owned buildings All buildings All buildings Owner occupied Leased to tenant(s) Owner occupied and leased Unocc-upied All buildings Federal State Local All buildings 87,093 67,550 30,637 26,115 8,873 1,925 19,543 1,573 5,539 12,431 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to

  16. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 1. Multibuilding campuses or complexes, number of buildings and floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) Total floorspace (million square feet) Buildings on campuses or complexes Buildings on campuses or complexes All buildings All buildings With central facilities plant All buildings All buildings With central facilities plant All buildings 5,557 1,874 137 87,093 34,818 7,888 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,777

  17. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 9. Heating equipment, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) All buildings Buildings with space heating Heating equipment (more than one may apply) Heat pumps Furnaces Indiv- idual space heaters District heat Boilers Pack- aged heating units Other All buildings 87,093 80,078 11,846 8,654 20,766 5,925 22,443 49,188 1,574 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 6,699 868 1,091 1,747 Q 400 3,809 Q 5,001 to

  18. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 4. Lighting equipment, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) All buildings Lit buildings Lighting equipment (more than one may apply) Incand- escent Standard fluor- escent Compact fluor- escent High-intensity dis- charge Halogen LED All buildings 87,093 83,569 38,406 80,081 53,816 23,396 28,059 22,071 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 7,130 2,453 6,466 2,815 373 944 348 5,001 to 10,000 8,900 8,152

  19. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) B5. Census region and division, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) Northeast Midwest South West All buildings New England Middle Atlantic East North Central West North Central South Atlantic East South Central West South Central Moun- tain Pacific All buildings 87,093 4,302 11,232 12,742 6,178 17,981 4,904 11,394 4,981 13,379 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 405 652 1,066 792 1,564 613 1,206 528

  20. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Number of Establishments in Building, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Number of Establishments in Building" ,,"One","Two to Five","Six to Ten","Eleven to Twenty","More than Twenty","Currently Unoccupied" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,45144,10960,1958,1951,2609,2161 "Building Floorspace" "(Square

  1. New Better Buildings Challenge Partners Commit 70 Million Square Feet, $1.7

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Billion | Department of Energy Better Buildings Challenge Partners Commit 70 Million Square Feet, $1.7 Billion New Better Buildings Challenge Partners Commit 70 Million Square Feet, $1.7 Billion January 29, 2015 - 2:40pm Addthis News Media Contact 202-586-4940 DOENews@hq.doe.gov New Better Buildings Challenge Partners Commit 70 Million Square Feet, $1.7 Billion WASHINGTON - Building on President Obama's Climate Action Plan, the Energy Department announced today that more than 20 new partners

  2. Magnetic vortex crystal formation in the antidot complement of square artificial spin ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Araujo, C. I. L. de Silva, R. C.; Ribeiro, I. R. B.; Nascimento, F. S.; Felix, J. F.; Ferreira, S. O.; Moura-Melo, W. A.; Pereira, A. R.; Ml, L. A. S.

    2014-03-03

    We have studied ferromagnetic nickel thin films patterned with square lattices of elongated antidots that are negative analogues of square artificial spin ice. Micromagnetic simulations and direct current magnetic moment measurements reveal in-plane anisotropy of the magnetic hysteresis loops, and the formation of a dense array of magnetic vortices with random polarization and chirality. These multiply-connected antidot arrays could be superior to lattices of disconnected nanodisks for investigations of vortex switching by applied electric current.

  3. Better Buildings Challenge to Cut Energy Waste Grows by 1 Billion Square

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Feet | Department of Energy to Cut Energy Waste Grows by 1 Billion Square Feet Better Buildings Challenge to Cut Energy Waste Grows by 1 Billion Square Feet May 9, 2014 - 11:01am Addthis NEWS MEDIA CONTACT (202) 586-4940 WASHINGTON - Building on President Obama's Climate Action Plan and the Administration's Better Buildings Challenge, the Energy Department announced today that Better Buildings Challenge partners are on track to meet their energy performance goals in their second year, saving

  4. Squaring the Circle in Biofuels? | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Squaring the Circle in Biofuels? Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC Events DOE Announcements Publications History Contact BES Home 04.30.14 Squaring the Circle in Biofuels? Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Researchers produce a new type of plant fiber that supports normal growth while easing the difficulties of conversion to fuel. This work, featured in the Office of Science's Stories of

  5. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... air conditioner market will create some market risk. ... AC. The availability of natural gas or other thermal energy ... 46 5.3 Solar Thermal Integration ......

  6. The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings - Executive Summary

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... consumption is approximately 3x site electricity consumption globally or 13.5 EJ (12.8 Quads. ... servicing, and end-of-life disposal could help further mitigate direct emissions. ...

  7. "Table HC11.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Northeast...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "20 Years or More",6.5,0.7,0.7,"Q" "Don't Know",4.5,0.3,"Q","Q" "Used by Two or More ... "20 Years or More",0.3,"Q","Q","N" "Don't Know",0.7,"Q","N","Q" "Household Pays for ...

  8. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute Ex Parte Memo

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Friday, February 13, 2015, AHRI staff met telephonically with the Department of Energy to discuss issues pertaining to the ongoing efficiency standards rulemaking for single package vertical air...

  9. Saving Money During the Air Conditioning Season | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Keeping your air conditioner maintained can help save you money this summer. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotofiremanYU Keeping your air conditioner maintained can help save you ...

  10. The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings - Executive Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Executive Summary July 2016 W. Goetzler, M. Guernsey, J. Young, J. Fuhrman Navigant Consulting, Inc. O. Abdelaziz, PhD Oak Ridge National Laboratory (This page intentionally left blank) NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or

  11. Fetz Plumbing, Heating & Air Conditioning | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    43078 Sector: Efficiency, Geothermal energy, Services, Solar Product: Installation; Maintenance and repair Phone Number: 937-652-1136 Website: fetzphc.com Coordinates:...

  12. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    OE Framework Document and Stakeholder Meeting regarding the Enforcement of the updated Energy Conservation Standards for Air Conditioners, Furnaces and Heat Pumps.

  13. Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irminger, Philip; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Smith, Travis; Rice, C Keith; Li, Fangxing; Adhikari, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

  14. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shapiro, C.; Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  15. Desiccant-Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning. Parametric Analysis and Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

    2012-08-04

    Presented at the Second International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE2012); Boulder, Colorado; August 1-4-, 2012

  16. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  17. Table HC1.2.2 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... "Basement (in Single-Family Homes and" "Apartments in 2-4 Unit ...926,828,474,427,382,219 "Attic (in Single-Family Homes and" "Apartments in 2-4 Unit ...

  18. "Table HC1.1.3 Housing Unit Characteristics by Average Floorspace...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...661,1383,1037,488,866,722,367 "Year of Construction" "Before 1940",14.7,10.9,2855,1878,663... "Major Outside Wall Construction" "Siding (Aluminum, Vinyl, ...

  19. "Table B29. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Total Floorspace...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... ......",2853,2734,"Q",339,"Q",2165 "Propane ......",7076,6790,1323,1947,930,"Q" "Other ......",1401,1399,"Q",713,"Q","Q" "Energy End Uses ...

  20. Table B27. Cooking Energy Sources, Number of Buildings and Floorspace...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Propane",,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Propane" "All Buildings ......",4657,857,437,505,118,67338,24681...

  1. "Table B25. Energy End Uses, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    may apply)" ,,"Space Heating","Cooling","Water Heating","Cooking","Manu- facturing" "All ...5378,4653,4631,1926,"Q" "District Chilled Water ......",2853,2734,2853,2655,1274,"Q" ...

  2. Table B19. Energy End Uses, Number of Buildings and Floorspace...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    than one may apply)" ,,"Space Heating","Cooling","Water Heating","Cooking","Manufact-uring",,"Space Heating","Cooling","Water Heating","Cooking","Manufact-uring" "All Buildings ...

  3. Table B24. Cooling Energy Sources, Number of Buildings and Floorspace...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    apply)" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","District Chilled Water",,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","District Chilled Water" "All Buildings ......",4657,3560,3450,142,50,6733...

  4. "Table HC1.2.3 Living Space Characteristics by Average Floorspace...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...357,2492,2103,1096,"Q","Q","Q" "3,000 or 3,499",6.7,6.6,3014,2175,1438,3047,2079,1108,"N","N","N" "3,500 to 3,999",5.2,5.1,3549,2505,1518,"Q","Q","Q","N","N","N" "4,000 or ...

  5. Buildings*","Principal Building Activity"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Selected Principal Activity: Part 2, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Principal Building Activity" ,,"Office","Public Assembly","Public Order and Safety","Religious Worship","Service","Warehouse and Storage" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,12208,3939,1090,3754,4050,10078 "Building Floorspace"

  6. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 1. Cooling equipment, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) All buildings Buildings with cooling Cooling equipment (more than one may apply) Resid- ential- type central air condi- tioners Heat pumps Indiv- idual air condi- tioners District chilled water Central chillers Pack- aged air condi- tioning units Swamp coolers Other All buildings 87,093 79,294 14,765 12,538 12,420 4,608 17,041 45,153 1,918 328 Building floorspace

  7. Released: October 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A8. Number of Establishments in Building, Floorspace for All Buildings (Including Malls), 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Number of Establishments in Building" ,,"One","Two to Five","Six to Ten","Eleven to Twenty","More than Twenty","Currently Unoccupied" "All Buildings ................",71658,45144,12565,3358,3369,5060,2161 "Building Floorspace"

  8. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Percent of Floorspace Heated, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Build- ings*","Not Heated","1 to 50 Percent Heated","51 to 99 Percent Heated","100 Percent Heated","All Build- ings*","Not Heated","1 to 50 Percent Heated","51 to 99 Percent Heated","100 Percent

  9. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Percent of Floorspace Cooled, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Build- ings*","Not Cooled","1 to 50 Percent Cooled","51 to 99 Percent Cooled","100 Percent Cooled","All Build- ings*","Not Cooled","1 to 50 Percent Cooled","51 to 99 Percent Cooled","100 Percent

  10. Optical Square-Wave Clock Generation Based on an All-Optical Flip-Flop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, A.M.; Agrawal, G.P.; Maywar, D.N.

    2010-03-10

    We demonstrate optical square-wave clock generation based on an all-optical flip-flop. The bistable output power from a resonant-type semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is switched ON and OFF by modulating its input with its output via cross-gain modulation in a traveling-wave SOA. All active components are driven by dc currents, and the wavelength and clock frequency are selectable. A clock frequency of 3.5 MHz is demonstrated, limited by the time of flight between bulk optical components. Optical square-wave clock signals are promising for applications in photonic integrated circuits and all-optical signal processing.

  11. ,"All Buildings","Nongovernment-Owned Buildings",,,,"Government-Owned Buildings"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Occupancy of Nongovernment-Owned and Government Owned Buildings, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Nongovernment-Owned Buildings",,,,"Government-Owned Buildings" ,,"All Nongovern- ment- Owned Buildings","Owner Occupied","Nonowner Occupied","Unoccupied","All Govern-ment- Owned Buildings","Federal","State","Local" "All

  12. Buildings","Heated Buildings",,"Cooled Buildings",,"Lit Buildingsc"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Heated, Cooled, and Lit Buildings, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Heated Buildings",,"Cooled Buildings",,"Lit Buildingsc" ,,"Total Floorspacea","Heated Floorspaceb","Total Floorspacea","Cooled Floorspaceb","Total Floorspacea","Lit Floorspaceb" "All Buildings ................",67338,61602,53812,58474,42420,64085,54696

  13. Buildings*","Nongovernment-Owned Buildings",,,,"Government-Owned Buildings"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Occupancy of Nongovernment-Owned and Government-Owned Buildings, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Nongovernment-Owned Buildings",,,,"Government-Owned Buildings" ,,"Nongov- ernment- Owned Buildings","Owner Occupied","Nonowner Occupied","Unocc- upied","Govern- ment- Owned

  14. Buildings*","Principal Building Activity"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Selected Principal Building Activity: Part 1, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Principal Building Activity" ,,"Education","Food Sales","Food Service","Health Care",,"Lodging","Retail (Other Than Mall)" ,,,,,"Inpatient","Outpatient" "All Buildings*

  15. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 0. Cooling energy sources, number of buildings and floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) Total floorspace (million square feet) Buildings with cooling Cooling energy sources used (more than one may apply) Buildings with cooling Cooling energy sources used (more than one may apply) All buildings Elec- tricity Natural gas District chilled water All buildings Elec- tricity Natural gas District chilled water All buildings 5,557 4,461

  16. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 2. Water-heating equipment, number of buildings and floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) Total floorspace (million square feet) All buildings Buildings with water heating Type of water-heating equipment All buildings Buildings with water heating Type of water-heating equipment Central- ized system Distrib- uted system Both central- ized and distrib- uted systems Central- ized system Distrib- uted system Both central- ized and

  17. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A2. Census Region, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for All Buildings (Including Malls), 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","North east","Mid- west ","South","West","All Buildings","North- east","Mid- west","South","West" "All Buildings

  18. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Heating Equipment, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Heated Buildings","Heating Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Heat Pumps","Furnaces","Individual Space Heaters","District Heat","Boilers","Packaged Heating Units","Other" "All Buildings*

  19. Ballistic electrons in an open square geometry: Selective probing of resonant-energy states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zozoulenko, I.V.; Schuster, R.; Berggren, K.-.; Ensslin, K.

    1997-04-01

    We report on the interplay between classical trajectories and quantum-mechanical effects in a square geometry. At low magnetic fields the four-terminal resistance is dominated by phenomena that depend on ballistic trajectories in a classical billiard. Superimposed on these classical effects are quantum interference effects manifested by highly periodic conductance oscillations. Numerical analysis shows that these oscillations are directly related to excitations of particular eigenstates in the square. In spite of open leads, transport through an open cavity is effectively mediated by just a few (or even a single) resonant-energy states. The leads injecting electrons into the cavity play a decisive role in a selection of the particular set of states excited in the dot. The above selection rule sets a specific frequency of the oscillations seen in the experiment. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Non-perturbative and self-consistent models of neutron stars in R-squared gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.; Doneva, Daniela D.; Kokkotas, Kostas D.; Staykov, Kalin V. E-mail: daniela.doneva@uni-tuebingen.de E-mail: kalin.v.staikov@gmail.com

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper we investigate non-perturbatively and self-consistently the structure of neutron stars in R-squared gravity by simultaneously solving the interior and exterior problem. The mass-radius relations are obtained for several equations of state and for wide range of the R-squared gravity parameter a. Even though the deviation from general relativity for nonzero values of a can be large, they are still comparable with the variations due to different modern realistic equations of state. That is why the current observations of the neutron star masses and radii alone can not put constraints on the value of the parameter a. We also compare our results with those obtained within the perturbative method and we discuss the differences between them.

  1. Method for exploiting bias in factor analysis using constrained alternating least squares algorithms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2008-12-30

    Bias plays an important role in factor analysis and is often implicitly made use of, for example, to constrain solutions to factors that conform to physical reality. However, when components are collinear, a large range of solutions may exist that satisfy the basic constraints and fit the data equally well. In such cases, the introduction of mathematical bias through the application of constraints may select solutions that are less than optimal. The biased alternating least squares algorithm of the present invention can offset mathematical bias introduced by constraints in the standard alternating least squares analysis to achieve factor solutions that are most consistent with physical reality. In addition, these methods can be used to explicitly exploit bias to provide alternative views and provide additional insights into spectral data sets.

  2. Fast Combinatorial Algorithm for the Solution of Linearly Constrained Least Squares Problems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Benthem, Mark H.; Keenan, Michael R.

    2008-11-11

    A fast combinatorial algorithm can significantly reduce the computational burden when solving general equality and inequality constrained least squares problems with large numbers of observation vectors. The combinatorial algorithm provides a mathematically rigorous solution and operates at great speed by reorganizing the calculations to take advantage of the combinatorial nature of the problems to be solved. The combinatorial algorithm exploits the structure that exists in large-scale problems in order to minimize the number of arithmetic operations required to obtain a solution.

  3. High-Frequency Matrix Converter with Square Wave Input - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Geothermal Geothermal Energy Storage Energy Storage Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search High-Frequency Matrix Converter with Square Wave Input DOE Grant Recipients Contact GRANT About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 8995159.pdf (1,648 KB) Technology Marketing Summary As the use of renewable energy sources increase, there is an increasing need for power converters capable of

  4. Interband magneto-spectroscopy in InSb square and parabolic quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasturiarachchi, T.; Edirisooriya, M.; Mishima, T. D.; Doezema, R. E.; Santos, M. B.; Saha, D.; Pan, X.; Sanders, G. D.; Stanton, C. J.

    2015-06-07

    We measure the magneto-optical absorption due to intersubband optical transitions between conduction and valence subband Landau levels in InSb square and parabolic quantum wells. InSb has the narrowest band gap (0.24 eV at low temperature) of the III–V semiconductors leading to a small effective mass (0.014 m{sub 0}) and a large g–factor (−51). As a result, the Landau level spacing is large at relatively small magnetic fields (<8 T), and one can observe spin-splitting of the Landau levels. We examine two structures: (i) a multiple-square-well structure and (ii) a structure containing multiple parabolic wells. The energies and intensities of the strongest features are well explained by a modified Pidgeon-Brown model based on an 8-band k•p model that explicitly incorporates pseudomorphic strain. The strain is essential for obtaining agreement between theory and experiment. While modeling the square well is relatively straight-forward, the parabolic well consists of 43 different layers of various thickness to approximate a parabolic potential. Agreement between theory and experiment for the parabolic well validates the applicability of the model to complicated structures, which demonstrates the robustness of our model and confirms its relevance for developing electronic and spintronic devices that seek to exploit the properties of the InSb band structure.

  5. New self-assembly luminescent molecular triangle and square rhenium(I) complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, S.S.; Lees, A.J.

    1999-09-20

    The design and study of well-arranged metal-containing macrocycles is one of the major current research areas in modern supramolecular chemistry. Apart from their particular structural features, supramolecular species formed by self-assembly of transition metals introduce many special functional properties such as luminescence, redox activity, and magnetism into the structure. More recently, transition metal based molecular squares have been synthesized by utilizing self-assembly of preorganized metal centers and pyridine-based bridging ligands. The 90{degree} bonding angles between ligands in transition metal complexes provide an attractive feature for constructing macrocyclic structures.

  6. Review of the Palisades pressure vessel accumulated fluence estimate and of the least squares methodology employed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, P.J.

    1998-05-01

    This report provides a review of the Palisades submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission requesting endorsement of their accumulated neutron fluence estimates based on a least squares adjustment methodology. This review highlights some minor issues in the applied methodology and provides some recommendations for future work. The overall conclusion is that the Palisades fluence estimation methodology provides a reasonable approach to a {open_quotes}best estimate{close_quotes} of the accumulated pressure vessel neutron fluence and is consistent with the state-of-the-art analysis as detailed in community consensus ASTM standards.

  7. The effect of interelement dipole coupling in patterned ultrathin single crystal Fe square arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Li; Zhai Ya; Wong Pingkwanj; Zhang Wen; Xu Yongbing; Zou Xiao; Wu Jing; Luo Linqiang; Zhai Hongru

    2011-02-01

    The correlation between the magnetic properties and the interelement separation in patterned arrays of ultrathin single crystal Fe films of 12 monolayers (ML) grown on GaAs(100) has been studied. The critical condition to form single domain remanent states in the square elements was found to be 10 {mu}m in size and 20 {mu}m for the interelement separation. The coercivity was also found to increase with the increasing interelement separation in the patterned arrays. These results are attributed to the competition between the large in-plane uniaxial anisotropy, the demagnetizing field, and interelement dipole coupling as determined semiqualitatively by the ferromagnetic resonance measurements.

  8. b1.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) Total Workers in All Buildings (thousand) Mean Square Feet per Building (thousand) Mean Square Feet per Worker Mean Hours per Week All Buildings*................................... 4,645 64,783 72,807 13.9 890 61 Table B1. Summary Table: Total and Means of Floorspace, Number of Workers, and Hours of Operation for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Climate Zone: 30-Year Average Under 2,000 CDD and -- More than 7,000 HDD

  9. b1.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Revised June 2006 15 Released: Dec 2006 Next CBECS will be conducted in 2007 Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) Total Workers in All Buildings (thousand) Mean Square Feet per Building (thousand) Mean Square Feet per Worker Mean Hours per Week All Buildings*................................... 4,645 64,783 72,807 13.9 890 61 Table B1. Summary Table: Total and Means of Floorspace, Number of Workers, and Hours of Operation for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Climate Zone:

  10. b1.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Released: Dec 2006 Next CBECS will be conducted in 2007 Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) Total Workers in All Buildings (thousand) Mean Square Feet per Building (thousand) Mean Square Feet per Worker Mean Hours per Week All Buildings*................................... 4,645 64,783 72,807 13.9 890 61 Table B1. Summary Table: Total and Means of Floorspace, Number of Workers, and Hours of Operation for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Climate Zone: 30-Year Average

  11. Self-assembly molecular squares with metal complexes as bridging ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, S.S.; Silva, A.S.; Brinn, I.M.; Lees, A.J.

    2000-04-03

    Polynuclear transition metal complexes containing multichromophoric units, such as metal polypyridyl complexes, are of considerable current interest. Much attention has been paid to the synthesis of multicomponent systems that exhibit photoinduced intercomponent electron and/or energy-transfer processes and to their potential applications for photonic and electronic devices. Systems incorporating Re(I)- Ru(II)-, and Os(II)-based polypyridyl chromophores are the most commonly studied because of their favorable redox and spectroscopic characteristics. In this communication, the authors combine the concepts of self-assembly and complexes as ligands and report the preparation of a series of molecular squares with the general molecular formula [fac-Br(CO){sub 3}Re({mu}-(pyterpy){sub 2}M)]{sub 4}(PF{sub 6}){sub 8}, where pyterpy is 4{prime}-(4{prime}{double_prime}-pyridyl)-2,2{prime}:6{prime}2{double_prime}-terpyridine and M = Fe, Ru, or Os. The spectroscopic properties and a preliminary anion binding study of these novel octanuclear molecular squares are also presented.

  12. Bifurcation to square-wave switching in orthogonally delay-coupled semiconductor lasers: Theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masoller, C.; Sukow, D.; Gavrielides, A.

    2011-08-15

    We analyze the dynamics of two semiconductor lasers with so-called orthogonal time-delayed mutual coupling: the dominant TE (x) modes of each laser are rotated by 90 deg. (therefore, TM polarization or y) before being coupled to the other laser. Although this laser system allows for steady-state emission in either one or in both polarization modes, it may also exhibit stable time-periodic dynamics including square waveforms. A theoretical mapping of the switching dynamics unveils the region in parameter space where one expects to observe long-term time-periodic mode switching. Detailed numerical simulations illustrate the role played by the coupling strength, the mode frequency detuning, or the mode gain to loss difference. We complement our theoretical study with several experiments and measurements. We present time series and intensity spectra associated with the characteristics of the square waves and other waveforms observed as a function of the strength of the delay coupling. The experimental observations are in very good agreement with the analysis and the numerical results.

  13. Differentially-charged and sequentially-switched square-wave pulse forming network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    North, G.G.; Vogilin, G.E.

    1980-04-01

    Disclosed is a pulse forming network for delivering a high-energy square-wave pulse to a load, including a series of inductive-capacitive sections wherein the capacitors are differentially charged higher further from the load. Each charged capacitor is isolated from adjacent sections and the load by means of a normally open switch at the output of each section. The switch between the load and the closest section to the load is closed to begin discharge of the capacitor in that section into the load. During discharge of each capacitor, the voltage thereacross falls to a predetermined potential with respect to the potential across the capacitor in the next adjacent section further from the load. When this potential is reached, it is used to close the switch in the adjacent section further from the load and thereby apply the charge in that section to the load through the adjacent section toward the load. Each successive section further from the load is sequentially switched in this manner to continuously and evenly supply energy to the load over the period of the pulse, with the differentially charged capacitors providing higher potentials away from the load to compensate for the voltage drop across the resistance of each inductor. This arrangement is low in cost and yet provides a high-energy pulse in an acceptable square-wave form. 5 figs.

  14. Differentially-charged and sequentially-switched square-wave pulse forming network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    North, George G. [Stockton, CA; Vogilin, George E. [Livermore, CA

    1980-04-01

    A pulse forming network for delivering a high-energy square-wave pulse to a load, including a series of inductive-capacitive sections wherein the capacitors are differentially charged higher further from the load. Each charged capacitor is isolated from adjacent sections and the load by means of a normally open switch at the output of each section. The switch between the load and the closest section to the load is closed to begin discharge of the capacitor in that section into the load. During discharge of each capacitor, the voltage thereacross falls to a predetermined potential with respect to the potential across the capacitor in the next adjacent section further from the load. When this potential is reached, it is used to close the switch in the adjacent section further from the load and thereby apply the charge in that section to the load through the adjacent section toward the load. Each successive section further from the load is sequentially switched in this manner to continuously and evenly supply energy to the load over the period of the pulse, with the differentially charged capacitors providing higher potentials away from the load to compensate for the voltage drop across the resistance of each inductor. This arrangement is low in cost and yet provides a high-energy pulse in an acceptable square-wave form.

  15. Optical pattern recognition architecture implementing the mean-square error correlation algorithm

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Molley, Perry A.

    1991-01-01

    An optical architecture implementing the mean-square error correlation algorithm, MSE=.SIGMA.[I-R].sup.2 for discriminating the presence of a reference image R in an input image scene I by computing the mean-square-error between a time-varying reference image signal s.sub.1 (t) and a time-varying input image signal s.sub.2 (t) includes a laser diode light source which is temporally modulated by a double-sideband suppressed-carrier source modulation signal I.sub.1 (t) having the form I.sub.1 (t)=A.sub.1 [1+.sqroot.2m.sub.1 s.sub.1 (t)cos (2.pi.f.sub.o t)] and the modulated light output from the laser diode source is diffracted by an acousto-optic deflector. The resultant intensity of the +1 diffracted order from the acousto-optic device is given by: I.sub.2 (t)=A.sub.2 [+2m.sub.2.sup.2 s.sub.2.sup.2 (t)-2.sqroot.2m.sub.2 (t) cos (2.pi.f.sub.o t] The time integration of the two signals I.sub.1 (t) and I.sub.2 (t) on the CCD deflector plane produces the result R(.tau.) of the mean-square error having the form: R(.tau.)=A.sub.1 A.sub.2 {[T]+[2m.sub.2.sup.2.multidot..intg.s.sub.2.sup.2 (t-.tau.)dt]-[2m.sub.1 m.sub.2 cos (2.tau.f.sub.o .tau.).multidot..intg.s.sub.1 (t)s.sub.2 (t-.tau.)dt]} where: s.sub.1 (t) is the signal input to the diode modulation source: s.sub.2 (t) is the signal input to the AOD modulation source; A.sub.1 is the light intensity; A.sub.2 is the diffraction efficiency; m.sub.1 and m.sub.2 are constants that determine the signal-to-bias ratio; f.sub.o is the frequency offset between the oscillator at f.sub.c and the modulation at f.sub.c +f.sub.o ; and a.sub.o and a.sub.1 are constant chosen to bias the diode source and the acousto-optic deflector into their respective linear operating regions so that the diode source exhibits a linear intensity characteristic and the AOD exhibits a linear amplitude characteristic.

  16. Simultaneous evaluation of interrelated cross sections by generalized least-squares and related data file requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poenitz, W.P.

    1984-10-25

    Though several cross sections have been designated as standards, they are not basic units and are interrelated by ratio measurements. Moreover, as such interactions as /sup 6/Li + n and /sup 10/B + n involve only two and three cross sections respectively, total cross section data become useful for the evaluation process. The problem can be resolved by a simultaneous evaluation of the available absolute and shape data for cross sections, ratios, sums, and average cross sections by generalized least-squares. A data file is required for such evaluation which contains the originally measured quantities and their uncertainty components. Establishing such a file is a substantial task because data were frequently reported as absolute cross sections where ratios were measured without sufficient information on which reference cross section and which normalization were utilized. Reporting of uncertainties is often missing or incomplete. The requirements for data reporting will be discussed.

  17. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent flow in a rotating square duct

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Yi-Jun; Huang, Wei-Xi Xu, Chun-Xiao; Cui, Gui-Xiang

    2015-06-15

    A fully developed turbulent flow in a rotating straight square duct is simulated by direct numerical simulations at Re{sub ?} = 300 and 0 ? Ro{sub ?} ? 40. The rotating axis is parallel to two opposite walls of the duct and normal to the main flow. Variations of the turbulence statistics with the rotation rate are presented, and a comparison with the rotating turbulent channel flow is discussed. Rich secondary flow patterns in the cross section are observed by varying the rotation rate. The appearance of a pair of additional vortices above the pressure wall is carefully examined, and the underlying mechanism is explained according to the budget analysis of the mean momentum equations.

  18. Multivariate analysis of remote LIBS spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, Samuel M; Barefield, James E; Wiens, Roger C; Sklute, Elizabeth; Dyare, Melinda D

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative analysis with LIBS traditionally employs calibration curves that are complicated by the chemical matrix effects. These chemical matrix effects influence the LIBS plasma and the ratio of elemental composition to elemental emission line intensity. Consequently, LIBS calibration typically requires a priori knowledge of the unknown, in order for a series of calibration standards similar to the unknown to be employed. In this paper, three new Multivariate Analysis (MV A) techniques are employed to analyze the LIBS spectra of 18 disparate igneous and highly-metamorphosed rock samples. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis is used to generate a calibration model from which unknown samples can be analyzed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) are employed to generate a model and predict the rock type of the samples. These MV A techniques appear to exploit the matrix effects associated with the chemistries of these 18 samples.

  19. Spin-dependent Seebeck effects in a graphene nanoribbon coupled to two square lattice ferromagnetic leads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Benhu Zeng, Yangsu; Zhou, Benliang; Zhou, Guanghui; Ouyang, Tao

    2015-03-14

    We theoretically investigate spin-dependent Seebeck effects for a system consisting of a narrow graphene nanoribbon (GNR) contacted to square lattice ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes with noncollinear magnetic moments. Both zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) and armchair-edge graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) were considered. Compared with our previous work with two-dimensional honeycomb-lattice FM leads, a more realistic model of two-dimensional square-lattice FM electrodes is adopted here. Using the nonequilibrium Green's function method combining with the tight-binding Hamiltonian, it is demonstrated that both the charge Seebeck coefficient S{sub C} and the spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient S{sub S} strongly depend on the geometrical contact between the GNR and the leads. In our previous work, S{sub C} for a semiconducting 15-AGNR system near the Dirac point is two orders of magnitude larger than that of a metallic 17-AGNR system. However, S{sub C} is the same order of magnitude for both metallic 17-AGNR and semiconducting 15-AGNR systems in the present paper because of the lack of a transmission energy gap for the 15-AGNR system. Furthermore, the spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient S{sub S} for the systems with 20-ZGNR, 17-AGNR, and 15-AGNR is of the same order of magnitude and its maximum absolute value can reach 8 μV/K. The spin-dependent Seebeck effects are not very pronounced because the transmission coefficient weakly depends on spin orientation. Moreover, the spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient is further suppressed with increasing angle between the relative alignments of magnetization directions of the two leads. Additionally, the spin-dependent Seebeck coefficient can be strongly suppressed for larger disorder strength. The results obtained here may provide valuable theoretical guidance in the experimental design of heat spintronic devices.

  20. Buildings","Building Size"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B7. Building Size, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Building Size" ,,"1,001 to 5,000 Square Feet","5,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,001 to 25,000 Square Feet","25,001 to 50,000 Square Feet","50,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","100,001 to 200,000 Square Feet","200,001 to 500,000 Square Feet","Over 500,000 Square Feet" "All Buildings

  1. Buildings","Building Size"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A6. Building Size, Floorspace for All Buildings (Including Malls), 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Building Size" ,,"1,001 to 5,000 Square Feet","5,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,000 to 25,000 Square Feet","25,001 to 50,000 Square Feet","50,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","100,001 to 200,000 Square Feet","200,001 to 500,000 Square Feet","Over 500,000 Square

  2. Buildings*","Building Size"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B7. Building Size, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Building Size" ,,"1,001 to 5,000 Square Feet","5,001 to 10,000 Square Feet","10,000 to 25,000 Square Feet","25,001 to 50,000 Square Feet","50,001 to 100,000 Square Feet","100,001 to 200,000 Square Feet","200,001 to 500,000 Square Feet","Over 500,000 Square Feet"

  3. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) B7. Building size, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) Building size All buildings 1,001 to 5,000 square feet 5,001 to 10,000 square feet 10,001 to 25,000 square feet 25,001 to 50,000 square feet 50,001 to 100,000 square feet 100,001 to 200,000 square feet 200,001 to 500,000 square feet Over 500,000 square feet All buildings 87,093 8,041 8,900 14,105 11,917 13,918 12,415 10,724 7,074 Principal building activity

  4. Searching for Minimum in Dependence of Squared Speed-of-Sound on Collision Energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Fu-Hu; Gao, Li-Na; Lacey, Roy A.

    2016-01-01

    Experimore » mental results of the rapidity distributions of negatively charged pions produced in proton-proton ( p - p ) and beryllium-beryllium (Be-Be) collisions at different beam momentums, measured by the NA61/SHINE Collaboration at the super proton synchrotron (SPS), are described by a revised (three-source) Landau hydrodynamic model. The squared speed-of-sound parameter c s 2 is then extracted from the width of rapidity distribution. There is a local minimum (knee point) which indicates a softest point in the equation of state (EoS) appearing at about 40 A  GeV/ c (or 8.8 GeV) in c s 2 excitation function (the dependence of c s 2 on incident beam momentum (or center-of-mass energy)). This knee point should be related to the searching for the onset of quark deconfinement and the critical point of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) phase transition.« less

  5. Neutron diffraction studies of a four-coordinated hydride in near square-planar geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Jian -Hong; Dhayal, Rajendra Singh; Wang, Xiaoping; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean -Yves; Liu, C. W.

    2014-10-07

    The structure of a nanospheric polyhydrido copper cluster, [Cu20(H)11{S2P(OiPr)2}9], was determined by single-crystal neutron diffraction. Cu20 cluster consists of an elongated triangular orthobicupola constructed from 18 Cu atoms that encapsulate a [Cu2H5}3- ion in the center with an exceptionally short Cu-Cu distance. The eleven hydrides in the cluster display three different coordination modes to the Cu atoms: Six μ3-hydrides in pyramidal geometry, two μ4-hydrides in tetrahedral cavity, and three μ4-hydrides in an unprecedented near square-planar geometry. The neutron data set was collected on a small crystal of the size 0.20 mm x 0.50 mm x 0.65 mm for seven days using the Spallation Neutron Source TOPAZ single-crystal time-of-flight Laue diffractometer at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Furthermore, the final R-factor is 8.64% for 16014 reflections.

  6. Neutron diffraction studies of a four-coordinated hydride in near square-planar geometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liao, Jian -Hong; Dhayal, Rajendra Singh; Wang, Xiaoping; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean -Yves; Liu, C. W.

    2014-10-07

    The structure of a nanospheric polyhydrido copper cluster, [Cu20(H)11{S2P(OiPr)2}9], was determined by single-crystal neutron diffraction. Cu20 cluster consists of an elongated triangular orthobicupola constructed from 18 Cu atoms that encapsulate a [Cu2H5}3- ion in the center with an exceptionally short Cu-Cu distance. The eleven hydrides in the cluster display three different coordination modes to the Cu atoms: Six μ3-hydrides in pyramidal geometry, two μ4-hydrides in tetrahedral cavity, and three μ4-hydrides in an unprecedented near square-planar geometry. The neutron data set was collected on a small crystal of the size 0.20 mm x 0.50 mm x 0.65 mm for seven daysmore » using the Spallation Neutron Source TOPAZ single-crystal time-of-flight Laue diffractometer at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Furthermore, the final R-factor is 8.64% for 16014 reflections.« less

  7. Simulated Stochastic Approximation Annealing for Global Optimization with a Square-Root Cooling Schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Faming; Cheng, Yichen; Lin, Guang

    2014-06-13

    Simulated annealing has been widely used in the solution of optimization problems. As known by many researchers, the global optima cannot be guaranteed to be located by simulated annealing unless a logarithmic cooling schedule is used. However, the logarithmic cooling schedule is so slow that no one can afford to have such a long CPU time. This paper proposes a new stochastic optimization algorithm, the so-called simulated stochastic approximation annealing algorithm, which is a combination of simulated annealing and the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm. Under the framework of stochastic approximation Markov chain Monte Carlo, it is shown that the new algorithm can work with a cooling schedule in which the temperature can decrease much faster than in the logarithmic cooling schedule, e.g., a square-root cooling schedule, while guaranteeing the global optima to be reached when the temperature tends to zero. The new algorithm has been tested on a few benchmark optimization problems, including feed-forward neural network training and protein-folding. The numerical results indicate that the new algorithm can significantly outperform simulated annealing and other competitors.

  8. The tunneling solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a square-potential barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elci, A.; Hjalmarson, H. P.

    2009-10-15

    The exact tunneling solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation with a square-potential barrier are derived using the continuous symmetry group G{sub S} for the partial differential equation. The infinitesimal generators and the elements for G{sub S} are represented and derived in the jet space. There exist six classes of wave functions. The representative (canonical) wave functions for the classes are labeled by the eigenvalue sets, whose elements arise partially from the reducibility of a Lie subgroup G{sub LS} of G{sub S} and partially from the separation of variables. Each eigenvalue set provides two or more time scales for the wave function. The ratio of two time scales can act as the duration of an intrinsic clock for the particle motion. The exact solutions of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation presented here can produce tunneling currents that are orders of magnitude larger than those produced by the energy eigenfunctions. The exact solutions show that tunneling current can be quantized under appropriate boundary conditions and tunneling probability can be affected by a transverse acceleration.

  9. Nanocluster building blocks of artificial square spin ice: Stray-field studies of thermal dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pohlit, Merlin Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; Müller, Jens

    2015-05-07

    We present measurements of the thermal dynamics of a Co-based single building block of an artificial square spin ice fabricated by focused electron-beam-induced deposition. We employ micro-Hall magnetometry, an ultra-sensitive tool to study the stray field emanating from magnetic nanostructures, as a new technique to access the dynamical properties during the magnetization reversal of the spin-ice nanocluster. The obtained hysteresis loop exhibits distinct steps, displaying a reduction of their “coercive field” with increasing temperature. Therefore, thermally unstable states could be repetitively prepared by relatively simple temperature and field protocols allowing one to investigate the statistics of their switching behavior within experimentally accessible timescales. For a selected switching event, we find a strong reduction of the so-prepared states' “survival time” with increasing temperature and magnetic field. Besides the possibility to control the lifetime of selected switching events at will, we find evidence for a more complex behavior caused by the special spin ice arrangement of the macrospins, i.e., that the magnetic reversal statistically follows distinct “paths” most likely driven by thermal perturbation.

  10. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 2. Selected principal building activity: part 1, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) Principal building activity All buildings Office Warehouse and storage Service Mercantile Religious worship Education Public assembly All buildings 87,093 15,952 13,077 4,630 11,330 4,557 12,239 5,559 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 1,520 1,127 1,031 730 572 391 498 5,001 to 10,000 8,900 1,663 1,329 1,051 1,052

  11. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 6. Employment size category, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) Number of workers All buildings Fewer than 5 workers 5 to 9 workers 10 to 19 workers 20 to 49 workers 50 to 99 workers 100 to 249 workers 250 or more workers All buildings 87,093 17,751 8,973 9,623 14,514 13,476 10,941 11,815 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 5,362 1,768 794 117 N N N 5,001 to 10,000 8,900 3,843 2,389 1,793 869 Q N N

  12. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 0. Number of establishments in building, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) Number of establishments in building All buildings One 2 to 5 6 to 10 11 to 20 More than 20 Unocc- upied All buildings 87,093 54,994 17,756 4,425 3,704 3,821 2,393 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 6,548 1,068 Q Q Q 336 5,001 to 10,000 8,900 6,560 1,720 270 Q N 319 10,001 to 25,000 14,105 9,593 2,812 871 289 Q 538 25,001 to

  13. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 3. Energy sources, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) Buildings using any energy source Energy sources used (more than one may apply) All buildings Elec- tricity Natural gas Fuel oil District heat District chilled water Propane Other1 All buildings 87,093 84,893 84,869 58,725 20,200 5,964 4,608 7,706 3,826 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 7,501 7,492 3,757 604 Q Q 762 193 5,001 to 10,000 8,900

  14. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 5. Energy end uses, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) Energy used for (more than one may apply) All buildings Space heating Cooling Water heating Cooking Manu- facturing Electricity gener- ation All buildings 87,093 80,078 79,294 79,015 38,546 5,078 25,642 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 6,699 6,124 6,102 2,073 284 321 5,001 to 10,000 8,900 7,590 7,304 7,236 2,733 542 596 10,001 to 25,000 14,105

  15. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 7. Space-heating energy sources, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) Buildings with space heating Space-heating energy sources used (more than one may apply) All buildings Elec- tricity Natural gas Fuel oil District heat Propane Other1 All buildings 87,093 80,078 49,030 49,511 4,351 5,925 3,067 1,010 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 6,699 4,185 3,323 412 Q 538 129 5,001 to 10,000 8,900 7,590 4,384

  16. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 9. Primary space-heating energy sources, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) Buildings with space heating Primary space-heating energy source used1 All buildings Electricity Natural gas Fuel oil District heat All buildings 87,093 80,078 26,205 42,988 2,542 5,797 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 6,699 2,766 3,050 329 Q 5,001 to 10,000 8,900 7,590 2,865 3,802 280 Q 10,001 to 25,000 14,105 12,744

  17. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) B3. Census region, number of buildings and floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) Total floorspace (million square feet) All buildings North- east Mid- west South West All buildings North- east Mid- west South West All buildings 5,557 805 1,237 2,247 1,267 87,093 15,534 18,919 34,279 18,360 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,777 372 645 1,159 601 8,041 1,057 1,858 3,383 1,744 5,001 to 10,000 1,229 171 257 491 310

  18. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 2. Water-heating energy sources, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) Buildings with water heating Water-heating energy sources used (more than one may apply) All buildings Electricity Natural gas Fuel oil District heat Propane All buildings 87,093 79,015 42,755 39,523 1,911 4,551 1,575 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 6,102 3,881 2,081 Q Q 171 5,001 to 10,000 8,900 7,236 4,348 2,809 Q Q 321 10,001

  19. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) B9. Year constructed, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) Year constructed All buildings Before 1946 1946 to 1959 1960 to 1969 1970 to 1979 1980 to 1989 1990 to 1999 2000 to 2007 2008 to 2012 All buildings 87,093 10,008 7,381 10,362 10,846 15,230 13,803 13,739 5,723 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 8,041 1,418 918 806 974 1,238 1,281 1,038 369 5,001 to 10,000 8,900 1,154 793 1,149 1,069 1,655 1,461 1,038

  20. Robust parallel iterative solvers for linear and least-squares problems, Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saad, Yousef

    2014-01-16

    The primary goal of this project is to study and develop robust iterative methods for solving linear systems of equations and least squares systems. The focus of the Minnesota team is on algorithms development, robustness issues, and on tests and validation of the methods on realistic problems. 1. The project begun with an investigation on how to practically update a preconditioner obtained from an ILU-type factorization, when the coefficient matrix changes. 2. We investigated strategies to improve robustness in parallel preconditioners in a specific case of a PDE with discontinuous coefficients. 3. We explored ways to adapt standard preconditioners for solving linear systems arising from the Helmholtz equation. These are often difficult linear systems to solve by iterative methods. 4. We have also worked on purely theoretical issues related to the analysis of Krylov subspace methods for linear systems. 5. We developed an effective strategy for performing ILU factorizations for the case when the matrix is highly indefinite. The strategy uses shifting in some optimal way. The method was extended to the solution of Helmholtz equations by using complex shifts, yielding very good results in many cases. 6. We addressed the difficult problem of preconditioning sparse systems of equations on GPUs. 7. A by-product of the above work is a software package consisting of an iterative solver library for GPUs based on CUDA. This was made publicly available. It was the first such library that offers complete iterative solvers for GPUs. 8. We considered another form of ILU which blends coarsening techniques from Multigrid with algebraic multilevel methods. 9. We have released a new version on our parallel solver - called pARMS [new version is version 3]. As part of this we have tested the code in complex settings - including the solution of Maxwell and Helmholtz equations and for a problem of crystal growth.10. As an application of polynomial preconditioning we considered the

  1. Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003 - Major Characteristics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    commercial floorspace. Figure 7. Floorspace in office, mercantile, warehousestorage, and education buildings accounts for 60 percent of total commercial floorspace. Source: Energy...

  2. c30a.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 57 84 35 58 16 666 1,015 427 832 234 84.8 83.1 81.9 69.6 66.6 5,001 to 10,000 ......

  3. c24a.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Buildings ... 803 42.0 17.9 37.4 71.0 6.3 0.33 7.86 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 220 78.6 23.8...

  4. c30.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    27.3 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 56 81 35 55 16 660 979 421 789 234 85.0 82.9 82.5 69.8 66.6 5,001 to 10,000...

  5. c26.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3,553 4,844 3,866 2,261 8.56 7.09 8.40 7.28 0.39 0.37 0.29 0.29 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 456 782 599 317 9.84 8.57 9.21...

  6. c17a.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    41 131 168 3,430 10,469 12,202 12.0 12.5 13.8 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 5 9 20 369 662 921 12.9 13.9 21.9 5,001 to 10,000...

  7. c20a.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    137 254 189 261 202 11,300 18,549 12,374 17,064 10,894 12.1 13.7 15.3 15.3 18.5 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 19 27 14 32 23...

  8. c18a.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    66 254 57 5,523 13,837 3,546 12.0 18.3 16.2 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 10 28 7 821 1,233 481 12.4 22.4 15.4 5,001 to...

  9. c15a.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    72 234 452 185 13,899 17,725 26,017 12,541 12.4 13.2 17.4 14.7 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 14 30 52 19 1,031 1,742 2,410...

  10. c6a.xls

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    24,395 23,398 38,398 21,706 17.47 13.01 16.95 20.42 1.74 1.29 1.44 1.69 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 2,398 3,255 4,899 2,530...

  11. All

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Propane All buildings Elec- tricity Natural gas Propane All buildings 5,557 1,589 1,010 740 144 87,093 38,546 25,151 24,770 2,001 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ...

  12. Incan-

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... 54,068 51,570 45,773 6,746 34,910 1,161 3,725 779 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000... 6,272 5,718 4,824 986 3,767...

  13. b32.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    64,783 56,478 27,490 28,820 1,880 3,088 1,422 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to ......... 1,654 1,654 482 1,127 Q Q Q Health Care ......

  14. c32a.xls

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    . 580 986 471 12,407 22,762 13,304 46.8 43.3 35.4 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 86 103 61 1,245 1,271 659 69.0 81.0 92.1 5,001...

  15. Table HC6.2 Living Space Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Number of Household Members, 2005 Total...................................................................... 111.1 30.0 34.8 18.4 15.9 12.0 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500............................................... 3.2 1.7 0.8 0.4 0.3 Q 500 to 999....................................................... 23.8 10.2 6.4 3.4 2.3 1.5 1,000 to 1,499................................................. 20.8 5.5 6.3 3.0 3.3 2.6 1,500 to

  16. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . 111.1 20.6 15.1 5.5 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.4 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.6 1.1 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 2.2 0.6 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 1.4 0.5 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 1.7 0.5 2,500 to

  17. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.5 0.3 Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 3.9 2.4 1.5 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 4.4 3.2 1.2 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 3.5 2.4 1.1 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 3.2 2.1 1.1 2,500 to

  18. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.6 Q Q 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 9.0 4.2 1.5 3.2 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 8.6 4.7 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 6.0 2.9 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 4.1 2.1 0.7

  19. 1992 CBECS BC

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A57. Energy Conservation Features, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) RSE Row Factor All Buildings Any Conser- vation Features Build- ing Shell HVAC Light- ing Other All Buildings Any Conser- vation Features Build- ing Shell HVAC Light- ing Other 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.2 1.7 All Buildings ................................... 4,806 4,357 4,223 2,604 1,178 264

  20. Any Refrig-

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Refrigeration Equipment, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings with Any Refrig- eration Equipment","Type of Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Commercial Refrigeration",,,,"Other Refrigeration " ,,,"Any","Walk-In Units","Open Cases or Cabinets","Closed Cases or Cabinets","Resid- ential- Type

  1. Buildings","All Heated

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Heating Equipment, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Heated Buildings","Heating Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Heat Pumps","Furnaces","Individual Space Heaters","District Heat","Boilers","Packaged Heating Units","Other" "All Buildings ................",67338,61602,8923,14449,17349,5534,19522,25743,4073

  2. Buildings","Northeast",,"Midwest",,"South",,,"West"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B5. Census Region and Division, Floorspace, 1999" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Northeast",,"Midwest",,"South",,,"West" ,,"New England","Middle Atlantic","East North Central","West North Central","South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central","Mountain","Pacific" "All Buildings

  3. Buildings*","Buildings on Multibuilding Facilities",,"All

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Multibuilding Facilities, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings on Multibuilding Facilities",,"All Buildings*","Buildings on Multibuilding Facilities" ,,"All Buildings","With Central Physical Plant",,"All Buildings","With Central Physical Plant" "All

  4. Buildings*","Lit Buildings","Lighting Equipment Types

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Lighting Equipment, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Lit Buildings","Lighting Equipment Types (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Incand- escent","Standard Fluor- escent","Compact Fluor- escent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,62060,38528,59688,27571,20643,17703 "Building

  5. Buildings*","Northeast",,"Midwest",,"South",,,"West"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B5. Census Region and Division, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Northeast",,"Midwest",,"South",,,"West" ,,"New England","Middle Atlantic","East North Central","West North Central","South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central","Mountain","Pacific" "All

  6. Buildings*","Year Constructed"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B9. Year Constructed, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","Year Constructed" ,,"1919 or Before","1920 to 1945","1946 to 1959","1960 to 1969","1970 to 1979","1980 to 1989","1990 to 1999","2000 to 2003" "All Buildings* ...............",64783,3769,6871,7045,8101,10772,10332,12360,5533 "Building

  7. "Table HC11.2 Living Space Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Northeast Census Region, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Census Division" ,,"Total Northeast" "Living Space Characteristics",,,"Middle Atlantic","New England" "Total",111.1,20.6,15.1,5.5 "Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Total Floorspace1" "Fewer than 500",3.2,0.9,0.5,0.4

  8. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 3. Cooking energy sources, number of buildings and floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) Total floorspace (million square feet) Buildings with cooking Cooking energy sources used (more than one may apply) Buildings with cooking Cooking energy sources used (more than one may apply) All buildings Elec- tricity Natural gas Propane All buildings Elec- tricity Natural gas Propane All buildings 5,557 1,589 1,010 740 144 87,093 38,546

  9. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) B46. Refrigeration equipment, floorspace, 2012 Released: May 2016 Total floorspace (million square feet) All buildings Buildings with any refrig- eration equip- ment Type of refrigeration equipment (more than one may apply) Walk-in units Open cases or cabinets Closed cases or cabinets Large cold storage areas Comm- ercial ice makers Resid- ential- type or compact units Vending mach- ines All buildings 87,093 73,645 28,361 13,712 25,988 4,171 32,734 62,381

  10. b3.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Revised June 2006 31 Released: Dec 2006 Next CBECS will be conducted in 2007 All Buildings* North- east Mid- west South West All Buildings* North- east Mid- west South West All Buildings* .................................. 4,645 726 1,266 1,775 878 64,783 12,905 17,080 23,489 11,310 Table B3. Census Region, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) Elevators and Escalators (more than one may apply) Any

  11. b3.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Released: Dec 2006 Next CBECS will be conducted in 2007 All Buildings* North- east Mid- west South West All Buildings* North- east Mid- west South West All Buildings* .................................. 4,645 726 1,266 1,775 878 64,783 12,905 17,080 23,489 11,310 Table B3. Census Region, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003 Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) Elevators and Escalators (more than one may apply) Any Elevators

  12. North Central","West North Central","South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central","Mountain","Pacific"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A4. Census Region and Division, Floorspace for All Buildings (Including Malls), 2003" ,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","Northeast",,"Midwest",,"South",,,"West" ,,"New England","Middle Atlantic","East North Central","West North Central","South Atlantic","East South Central","West South Central","Mountain","Pacific"

  13. Released: June 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Census Region, Number of Buildings and Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings*","North- east","Mid- west","South","West","All Buildings*","North- east","Mid- west","South","West" "All Buildings* ...............",4645,726,1266,1775,878,64783,12905,17080,23489,11310

  14. Table 10.6 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Price, and Trade, 1974-2009 (Thousand Square Feet, Except as Noted)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Type, Price, and Trade, 1974-2009 (Thousand Square Feet, Except as Noted) Year Low-Temperature Collectors 1 Medium-Temperature Collectors 2 High-Temperature Collectors 3 Total Shipments Trade Number of U.S. Manu- facturers Quantity Shipped Shipments per Manu- facturer Price 4 (dollars 5 per square foot) Number of U.S. Manu- facturers Quantity Shipped Shipments per Manu- facturer Price 4 (dollars 5 per square foot) Quantity Shipped Price 4 (dollars 5 per

  15. A spectral mimetic least-squares method for the Stokes equations with no-slip boundary condition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gerritsma, Marc; Bochev, Pavel

    2016-03-22

    Formulation of locally conservative least-squares finite element methods (LSFEMs) for the Stokes equations with the no-slip boundary condition has been a long standing problem. Existing LSFEMs that yield exactly divergence free velocities require non-standard boundary conditions (Bochev and Gunzburger, 2009 [3]), while methods that admit the no-slip condition satisfy the incompressibility equation only approximately (Bochev and Gunzburger, 2009 [4, Chapter 7]). Here we address this problem by proving a new non-standard stability bound for the velocity–vorticity–pressure Stokes system augmented with a no-slip boundary condition. This bound gives rise to a norm-equivalent least-squares functional in which the velocity can be approximatedmore » by div-conforming finite element spaces, thereby enabling a locally-conservative approximations of this variable. Here, we also provide a practical realization of the new LSFEM using high-order spectral mimetic finite element spaces (Kreeft et al., 2011) and report several numerical tests, which confirm its mimetic properties.« less

  16. Model-Based Least Squares Reconstruction of Coded Source Neutron Radiographs: Integrating the ORNL HFIR CG1D Source Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Gregor, Jens; Bingham, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    At the present, neutron sources cannot be fabricated small and powerful enough in order to achieve high resolution radiography while maintaining an adequate flux. One solution is to employ computational imaging techniques such as a Magnified Coded Source Imaging (CSI) system. A coded-mask is placed between the neutron source and the object. The system resolution is increased by reducing the size of the mask holes and the flux is increased by increasing the size of the coded-mask and/or the number of holes. One limitation of such system is that the resolution of current state-of-the-art scintillator-based detectors caps around 50um. To overcome this challenge, the coded-mask and object are magnified by making the distance from the coded-mask to the object much smaller than the distance from object to detector. In previous work, we have shown via synthetic experiments that our least squares method outperforms other methods in image quality and reconstruction precision because of the modeling of the CSI system components. However, the validation experiments were limited to simplistic neutron sources. In this work, we aim to model the flux distribution of a real neutron source and incorporate such a model in our least squares computational system. We provide a full description of the methodology used to characterize the neutron source and validate the method with synthetic experiments.

  17. 1992 CBECS BC

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Summary Table of Square Feet, Hours of Operation and Age of Building, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) Total Workers in All Buildings (thousand) Mean Square Feet per Building (thousand) Median Square Feet per Building (thousand) Mean Square Feet per Worker Median Square Feet per Worker Mean Hours per Week Median Hours per Week Median Age of Buildings (years) RSE Row Factor 1.1 1.2 1.5 1.0 -- 1.3 -- 0.4 -- -- All

  18. FFTF primary heat transport system heating, ventilating and air conditioning system experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umek, A.M.; Hicks, D.F.; Schweiger, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    FFTF cools its primary/in-containment sodium equipment cells by means of a forced nitrogen cooling system which exchanges heat with a water-glycol system. The nitrogen cooling system is also used to maintain an inert gas atmosphere in the cells containing sodium equipment. Sodium Piping and Components have installed electrical resistance heaters to maintain a minimum sodium temperature and stainless steel jacketed mineral insulation to reduce heat loss. Design features and test results of a comprehensive redesign of the HVAC and insulation system required to support long-term nuclear operations are discussed.

  19. "Table HC14.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "20 Years or More",6.5,1.3,0.3,1 "Don't Know",4.5,0.6,"Q",0.5 "Used by Two or More ... "20 Years or More",0.3,"Q","N","Q" "Don't Know",0.7,"Q","N","Q" "Household Pays for ...

  20. "Table HC4.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Renter-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Insulation",0.3,"Q","Q","N","Q","Q","N" "Don't Know",0.9,0.7,"Q","Q","Q","Q","N" "Home Is ... of the Time",2.2,0.9,0.2,"Q","Q",0.4,"Q" "Don't Know",2.2,1.2,"Q","Q","Q",0.6,"Q" ...

  1. "Table HC12.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "20 Years or More",6.5,1.5,1,0.5 "Don't Know",4.5,1.3,0.7,0.6 "Used by Two or More ... "20 Years or More",0.3,"Q","Q","N" "Don't Know",0.7,"Q","Q","Q" "Household Pays for ...

  2. "Table HC15.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "20 Years or More",6.5,"Q",0.5,0.8,0.9 "Don't Know",4.5,"Q",0.4,0.7,0.4 "Used by Two or ... "20 Years or More",0.3,"N","Q","Q","Q" "Don't Know",0.7,"N","Q","Q","Q" "Household Pays ...

  3. "Table HC4.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Renter-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Unit" ," Housing Units (millions)" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings ... Unit" ,"RSEs for Housing Units " ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings ...

  4. "Table HC3.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Owner-Occupied...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Unit" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings ... for U.S. Housing Units (millions" ,,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings ...

  5. NRELs Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    How DEVAP Works Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming ...

  6. High Efficiency Liquid-Desiccant Regenerator for Air Conditioning and Industrial Drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lowenstein

    2005-12-19

    Over 2 quads of fossil fuels are used each year for moisture removal. This includes industrial and agricultural processes where feedstocks and final products must be dried, as well as comfort conditioning of indoor spaces where the control of humidity is essential to maintaining healthy, productive and comfortable working conditions. Desiccants, materials that have a high affinity for water vapor, can greatly reduce energy use for both drying and dehumidification. An opportunity exists to greatly improve the competitiveness of advanced liquid-desiccant systems by increasing the efficiency of their regenerators. It is common practice within the chemical process industry to use multiple stage boilers to improve the efficiency of thermal separation processes. The energy needed to regenerate a liquid desiccant, which is a thermal separation process, can also be reduced by using a multiple stage boiler. In this project, a two-stage regenerator was developed in which the first stage is a boiler and the second stage is a scavenging-air regenerator. The only energy input to this regenerator is the natural gas that fires the boiler. The steam produced in the boiler provides the thermal energy to run the second-stage scavenging-air regenerator. This two-stage regenerator is referred to as a 1?-effect regenerator. A model of the high-temperature stage of a 1?-effect regenerator for liquid desiccants was designed, built and successfully tested. At nominal operating conditions (i.e., 2.35 gpm of 36% lithium chloride solution, 307,000 Btu/h firing rate), the boiler removed 153 lb/h of water from the desiccant at a gas-based efficiency of 52.9 % (which corresponds to a COP of 0.95 when a scavenging-air regenerator is added). The steam leaving the boiler, when condensed, had a solids concentration of less than 10 ppm. This low level of solids in the condensate places an upper bound of about 6 lb per year for desiccant loss from the regenerator. This low loss will not create maintenance problems nor will it significantly increase operating expenses. An energy balance on the boiler showed that heat loss through the insulated jacket was 10%. This value is much higher than the 2% to 5% that is typical of most boilers and indicates a need to better insulate the unit. With insulation that brings jacket losses down to 5%, a 1?-effect regenerator that uses this boiler as its high-temperature stage will have a gas-based COP of 1.05. The estimated cost to manufacture a 300-lb/h, 1?-effect regenerator at 500 units per year is $17,140. Unfortunately, the very high cost for natural gas that now prevails in the U.S. makes it very difficult for a gas-fired LDAC to compete against an electric vapor-compression air conditioner in HVAC applications. However, there are important industrial markets that need very dry air where the high price of natural gas will encourage the sale of a LDAC with the 1?-effect regenerator since in these markets it competes against less efficient gas-fired desiccant technologies. A manufacturer of industrial dehumidification equipment is now negotiating a sales agreement with us that would include the 1?-effect regenerator.

  7. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Chin-Yao; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-02-24

    Demand-side control is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the dynamical behavior of a large population of appliances is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various load control strategies. In this paper, a high accuracy aggregated model is first developed for a population of HVAC units. The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Furthermore, the model takes into account the lockout effect of the compressor in order to represent the dynamics of the system under control more accurately. Then, a novel closed loop load control strategy is designed to track a desired demand curve and to ensure a stable and smooth response.

  8. "Table HC12.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Midwest Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "At Home Behavior" "Home Used for Business" "Yes",6.4,1.7,1,0.7 ... "At Home Behavior" "Home Used for Business" "Yes",7,13.5,19.2,18 ...

  9. "Table HC13.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "At Home Behavior" "Home Used for Business" "Yes",6.4,2.8,1.8,0.4,0.6 ... "At Home Behavior" "Home Used for Business" "Yes",7,11.7,14.3,32.6,26.4 ...

  10. "Table HC14.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by West Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "At Home Behavior" "Home Used for Business" "Yes",6.4,1.4,0.6,0.8 ... "At Home Behavior" "Home Used for Business" "Yes",7,13.1,22.1,15.7 ...

  11. "Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "At Home Behavior" "Home Used for Business" "Yes",6.4,"Q",0.7,0.4,0.6 ... "At Home Behavior" "Home Used for Business" "Yes",7,41.2,20.2,26,21 ...

  12. "Table HC10.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by U.S. Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "At Home Behavior" "Home Used for Business" "Yes",6.4,0.6,1.7,2.8,1.4 ... "At Home Behavior" "Home Used for Business" "Yes",7,21.4,13.5,11.7,13.1 ...

  13. "Table HC11.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Northeast...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "At Home Behavior" "Home Used for Business" "Yes",6.4,0.6,0.5,"Q" ... "At Home Behavior" "Home Used for Business" "Yes",7,21.4,24,46.1 ...

  14. Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning deactivation thermal analysis of PUREX Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, W.W.; Gregonis, R.A.

    1997-08-01

    Thermal analysis was performed for the proposed Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant exhaust system after deactivation. The purpose of the analysis was to determine if enough condensation will occur to plug or damage the filtration components. A heat transfer and fluid flow analysis was performed to evaluate the thermal characteristics of the underground duct system, the deep-bed glass fiber filter No. 2, and the high-efficiency particulate air filters in the fourth filter building. The analysis is based on extreme variations of air temperature, relative humidity, and dew point temperature using 15 years of Hanford Site weather data as a basis. The results will be used to evaluate the need for the electric heaters proposed for the canyon exhaust to prevent condensation. Results of the analysis indicate that a condition may exist in the underground ductwork where the duct temperature can lead or lag changes in the ambient air temperature. This condition may contribute to condensation on the inside surfaces of the underground exhaust duct. A worst case conservative analysis was performed assuming that all of the water is removed from the moist air over the inside surface of the concrete duct area in the fully developed turbulent boundary layer while the moist air in the free stream will not condense. The total moisture accumulated in 24 hours is negligible. Water puddling would not be expected. The results of the analyses agree with plant operating experiences. The filters were designed to resist high humidity and direct wetting, filter plugging caused by slight condensation in the upstream duct is not a concern. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  16. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerrigan, P.

    2014-03-01

    Building Science Corporation (BSC) worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. This research project addressed the following questions: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost?

  17. Rotary Vapor Compression Cycle Technology: A Pathway to Ultra-Efficient Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Lead Performer: Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CAPartners: Creative Thermal Solutions, Urbana, IL

  18. Advantages of air conditioning and supercharging an LM6000 gas turbine inlet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolp, D.A.; Flye, W.M.; Guidotti, H.A.

    1995-07-01

    Of all the external factors affecting a gas turbine, inlet pressure and temperature have the greatest impact on performance. The effect of inlet temperature variations is especially pronounced in the new generation of high-efficiency gas turbines typified by the 40 MW GE LM6000. A reduction of 50 F (28 C) in inlet temperature can result in a 30 percent increase in power and a 4.5 percent improvement in heat rate. An elevation increase to 5,000 ft (1,524 m) above sea level decreases turbine output 17 percent; conversely supercharging can increase output more than 20 percent. This paper addresses various means of heating, cooling and supercharging LM6000 inlet air. An economic model is developed and sample cases are cited to illustrate the optimization of gas turbine inlet systems, taking into account site conditions, incremental equipment cost and subsequent performance enhancement.

  19. Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Type of Glass in Windows Single-pane Glass......Q N N N Q Proportion of Windows Replaced All......

  20. "Table HC13.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by South Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Never",1.4,0.4,"Q","Q","Q" "Only a Few Times When Needed",11.4,2.5,1.6,0.4,0.5 "Quite a ... "Never",0.6,"Q","Q","Q","Q" "Only a Few Times When Needed",12.1,2.1,1,0.5,0.6 "Quite a ...

  1. "Table HC10.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by U.S. Census...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "Never",1.4,"Q","Q",0.4,0.8 "Only a Few Times When Needed",11.4,1.6,3.9,2.5,3.4 "Quite a ... "Never",0.6,"Q","Q","Q","Q" "Only a Few Times When Needed",12.1,4.9,3.1,2.1,2 "Quite a ...

  2. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, E; Wen, SY; Shi, L; da Silva, AK

    2013-12-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system's dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle's cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle's cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid-air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semianalytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid-air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system experimental data for solidification using paraffin wax as the PCM. Through modeling, we demonstrate the importance of capturing the airside heat exchange impact on system performance, and we investigate system response to dynamic operating conditions, e.g., air recirculation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrothermal stability of SAPO-34 for refrigeration and air conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haijun; Cui, Qun; Wu, Juan; Zhu, Yuezhao; Li, Quanguo; Zheng, Kai; Yao, Huqing

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: The SAPO-34 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using diethylamine as a template. Water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. SAPO-34 shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles. Most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is restored, while the regular cubic-like morphology is well maintained, and the specific surface area only decreases by 8.6%. - Highlights: • Water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. • SAPO-34 with diethylamine as the template shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles, and most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is well maintained. • SAPO-34 has an excellent adsorption performance and a good hydrothermal stability, thus is promising for application in adsorption refrigeration. - Abstract: Hydrothermal stability is one of the crucial factors in applying SAPO-34 molecular sieve to adsorption refrigration. The SAPO-34 was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using diethylamine as a template. Both a vacuum gravimetric method and an intelligent gravimetric analyzer were applied to analyze the water adsorption performance of SAPO-34. Cyclic hydrothermal performance was determined on the modified simulation adsorption refrigeration test rig. Crystal phase, morphology, and porosity of SAPO-34 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and N{sub 2} sorption, respectively. The results show that, water adsorption strength on SAPO-34 is between that on 13X and A type silica gel. During 100–400 Pa, the water uptake on SAPO-34 increases sensitively to pressure, and equilibrium water uptake reaches 0.35 kg/kg, 25% higher than 13X. SAPO-34 shows no significant reduced cyclic water uptake over 60 cycles. Most of the initial SAPO-34 phase is restored, while the regular cubic-like morphology is well maintained, and the specific surface area only decreases by 8.6%.

  4. Width dependent transition of quantized spin-wave modes in Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} square nanorings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Chandrima; Saha, Susmita; Barman, Saswati; Barman, Anjan, E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Nanodevice Technology, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Rousseau, Olivier [CEMS-RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otani, YoshiChika [CEMS-RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2014-10-28

    We investigated optically induced ultrafast magnetization dynamics in square shaped Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} nanorings with varying ring width. Rich spin-wave spectra are observed whose frequencies showed a strong dependence on the ring width. Micromagnetic simulations showed different types of spin-wave modes, which are quantized upto very high quantization number. In the case of widest ring, the spin-wave mode spectrum shows quantized modes along the applied field direction, which is similar to the mode spectrum of an antidot array. As the ring width decreases, additional quantization in the azimuthal direction appears causing mixed modes. In the narrowest ring, the spin-waves exhibit quantization solely in azimuthal direction. The different quantization is attributed to the variation in the internal field distribution for different ring width as obtained from micromagnetic analysis and supported by magnetic force microscopy.

  5. Study of radial growth rate and size control of silicon nanocrystals in square-wave-modulated silane plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen-Tran, Th.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Patriarche, G.

    2007-09-10

    The growth of silicon nanocrystals in high pressure and high dilution silane plasmas is investigated by using the temporal evolution of the self-bias on the radio frequency electrode and transmission electron microscopy. A square-wave-modulated plasma was used in order to control the growth of monodispersed nanoparticles with sizes smaller than 12 nm. To this end, the plasma on time was kept below 1 s. The radial growth rate of nanoparticles was varied in the range from 7.5 to 75 nm/s by changing silane partial pressure. Nanoparticles grown in silane-helium discharges have been found amorphous while they are crystalline in silane-hydrogen-argon discharges. Surprisingly, the crystallization in the gaseous phase does not depend on how slow or fast the particles grow but on the presence of atomic hydrogen.

  6. Inflection points of microcanonical entropy: Monte Carlo simulation of q state Potts model on a finite square lattice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Praveen, E. Satyanarayana, S. V. M.

    2014-04-24

    Traditional definition of phase transition involves an infinitely large system in thermodynamic limit. Finite systems such as biological proteins exhibit cooperative behavior similar to phase transitions. We employ recently discovered analysis of inflection points of microcanonical entropy to estimate the transition temperature of the phase transition in q state Potts model on a finite two dimensional square lattice for q=3 (second order) and q=8 (first order). The difference of energy density of states (DOS) ? ln g(E) = ln g(E+ ?E) ?ln g(E) exhibits a point of inflexion at a value corresponding to inverse transition temperature. This feature is common to systems exhibiting both first as well as second order transitions. While the difference of DOS registers a monotonic variation around the point of inflexion for systems exhibiting second order transition, it has an S-shape with a minimum and maximum around the point of inflexion for the case of first order transition.

  7. 1020 One Energy Square

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... - the transmission voltage class from 69 kilovolts to 525 kilovolts. These power generating units range from 20 to 300 megawatts. The adaptable transformer design allows WATTSTOCK ...

  8. Concord Four Square Retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-09

    This case study describes the retrofit of a home in West Concord, Massachusetts that proved that a 50% reduction in home energy use could be met today in existing housing.

  9. Residential Energy Efficiency Demonstration: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    questionnaires 0 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total 81.6 65.3 142.5 38 17 30.3 11 625 0.29 500 178 Census Region and Division

  10. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires

    0 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total 81.6 65.3 142.5 38 17 30.3 11 625 0.29 500 178 Census Region and Division

  11. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 1 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total 83.1 66.1 144.2 37 17 29.1 10 678 0.31 539 192 Census Region and Division

  12. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total 83.7 66.0 142.2 36 16 28.0 10 708 0.33 558 204 Census Region and Division

  13. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 4 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total 86.3 67.4 144.3 37 17 28.8 11 808 0.38 632 234 Census Region and Division

  14. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 7 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total 90.5 70.4 156.8 39 18 30.5 12 875 0.39 680 262 Census Region and Division

  15. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2001 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total 107.0 85.2 211.2 46 18 36.0 14 1,178 0.48 938 366 Census Region and Division

  16. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2001 Average LPG Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 9.4 9.2 19.6 41 19 40.2 16 607 0.29 598 231 Census Region and

  17. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 0 Average Natural Gas Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 57.7 44.8 106.3 109 46 84.2 32 609 0.26 472 181 Census Region

  18. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 3 Average Natural Gas Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 58.7 46.0 111.9 115 47 89.9 34 696 0.29 546 206 Census Region

  19. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2001 Average Natural Gas Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 66.9 53.8 137.2 90 35 72.4 27 873 0.34 702 265 Census Region

  20. Analysis of carbon-oxygen reactions by use of a square-input response technique and {sup 18}O isotope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miura, Kouichi; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    1996-12-31

    Carbon gasification reaction has been investigated for decades including the pioneering works of Walker and his co-workers, but its mechanism has not been completely elucidated. The concept of the active surface area (ASA) was proposed by them, and its importance has been recognized. However, since ASA was measured by O{sub 2} chemisorption at below 300{degrees}C where carbon loss through gasification is negligible, it does not reflect the actual gasification situation. To overcome this weak point, measurements of ASA in a batch reactor and the so-called transient kinetic (TK) method were proposed. Ahmed and Back successfully measured the chemisorbed oxygen during the gasification using a batch reactor, and proposed a new mechanistic sequence for carbon-oxygen reaction which stresses the importance of the reaction between the gaseous oxygen and the chemisorbed oxygen. Radovic et al. proposed the concept of the reactive surface area (RSA), and reported excellent proportionality between the CO{sub 2} gasification rate and the RSA estimated by the TK and the TPD methods. Kapteijn et al. showed that the TK method with labeled molecules is more powerful to examine the mechanism. They found the presence of two types of surface oxygen complexes which desorb at different rates. A Square-input response (SIR) method is applied to the carbon-oxygen reaction. This method allows the observation of transient changes on two step changes. This method has been successfully applied to the analysis of a coal char gasification.

  1. Ionic liquid-assisted preparation of square-shaped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoplates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lei; Fang, Hao; Xu, Hualan; Wang, Caoli; Li, Yuanjin; Liu, Yang; Zhong, Shengliang

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}(NO{sub 3}) nanosheets were prepared by an ionic liquid-assisted mixed solvothermal route. • Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanosheets were obtained after calcining the Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}(NO{sub 3}) nanosheets. • The Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanosheets are with length of about 300 nm and thickness of several nanometers. - Abstract: Uniform square-shaped Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}(NO{sub 3}) nanoplates with side length of about 300 nm and thickness of tens of nanometers have been successfully prepared by an ionic liquid-assisted mixed solvothermal route. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoplates with similar size were obtained after calcining the Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}(NO{sub 3}) nanoplates at 800 °C. The products were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), and electron diffraction (ED). The effects of reaction time, composition of solvents, and the molar ratio of reagents on the morphology of the products have been investigated. The possible formation mechanism of the Y{sub 4}O(OH){sub 9}(NO{sub 3}) nanoplates was also discussed. Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu{sup 3+} nanoplates were also synthesized and their photoluminescent properties were examined.

  2. b1.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    All Buildings RSEs for Total Floorspace RSEs for Total Workers in All Buildings RSEs for Mean Square Feet per Building RSEs for Mean Square Feet per Worker RSEs for Mean Hours per Week All Buildings*................................... 3.9 3.1 5.6 4.1 5.4 2.0 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ................................... 5.7 5.6 6.0 1.3 4.5 3.3 5,001 to 10,000 ................................. 5.8 5.6 8.8 0.9 8.0 4.1 10,001 to 25,000 ............................... 5.0 5.0

  3. SU-F-18C-14: Hessian-Based Norm Penalty for Weighted Least-Square CBCT Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, T; Sun, N; Tan, S; Wang, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a Hessian-based norm penalty for cone-beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction that has a similar ability in suppressing noise as the total variation (TV) penalty while avoiding the staircase effect and better preserving low-contrast objects. Methods: We extended the TV penalty to a Hessian-based norm penalty based on the Frobenius norm of the Hessian matrix of an image for CBCT reconstruction. The objective function was constructed using the penalized weighted least-square (PWLS) principle. An effective algorithm was developed to minimize the objective function using a majorization-minimization (MM) approach. We evaluated and compared the proposed penalty with the TV penalty on a CatPhan 600 phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom, each acquired at a low-dose protocol (10mA/10ms) and a high-dose protocol (80mA/12ms). For both penalties, contrast-to-noise (CNR) in four low-contrast regions-of-interest (ROIs) and the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of two point-like objects in constructed images were calculated and compared. Results: In the experiment of CatPhan 600 phantom, the Hessian-based norm penalty has slightly higher CNRs and approximately equivalent FWHM values compared with the TV penalty. In the experiment of the anthropomorphic head phantom at the low-dose protocol, the TV penalty result has several artificial piece-wise constant areas known as the staircase effect while in the Hessian-based norm penalty the image appears smoother and more similar to that of the FDK result using the high-dose protocol. Conclusion: The proposed Hessian-based norm penalty has a similar performance in suppressing noise to the TV penalty, but has a potential advantage in suppressing the staircase effect and preserving low-contrast objects. This work was supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC), under Grant Nos. 60971112 and 61375018, and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, under Grant No. 2012QN086.

  4. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.3 Heating, Cooling, and Ventilation Equipment

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 Main Commercial Heating and Cooling Equipment as of 1995, 1999, and 2003 (Percent of Total Floorspace) (1) Heating Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Cooling Equipment 1995 1999 2003 (2) Packaged Heating Units 29% 38% 28% Packaged Air Conditioning Units 45% 54% 46% Boilers 29% 29% 32% Individual Air Conditioners 21% 21% 19% Individual Space Heaters 29% 26% 19% Central Chillers 19% 19% 18% Furnaces 25% 21% 30% Residential Central Air Conditioners 16% 12% 17% Heat Pumps 10% 13% 14% Heat Pumps 12% 14%

  5. On square-integrability of solutions of the stationary Schrödinger equation for the quantum harmonic oscillator in two dimensional constant curvature spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noguera, Norman; Rózga, Krzysztof

    2015-07-15

    In this work, one provides a justification of the condition that is usually imposed on the parameters of the hypergeometric equation, related to the solutions of the stationary Schrödinger equation for the harmonic oscillator in two-dimensional constant curvature spaces, in order to determine the solutions which are square-integrable. One proves that in case of negative curvature, it is a necessary condition of square integrability and in case of positive curvature, a necessary condition of regularity. The proof is based on the analytic continuation formulas for the hypergeometric function. It is observed also that the same is true in case of a slightly more general potential than the one for harmonic oscillator.

  6. Do it yourself lighting power survey: lighting power audit for use with the Massachusetts type watts per square foot method of calculating a building's lighting power budget

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Advantages of the self-audit approach to energy conservation are presented. These are that it is cheaper to do it yourself; the employees become part of the corporate conservation effect; and no one knows the building and its needs better than the occupant. Steps described in the lighting survey procedure are: (1) divide the building into categories; (2) determine the total square footage for each category; (3) assign a power allowance for each category; (4) multiply the total square footage for each category by the respective power allowances; (5) add the budget sub-totals for each category to determine total building budget; and (6) walk through the building room-by-room and calculate the connected lighting load fixture-by-fixture. Some worksheets are provided. (MCW)

  7. Buildings Energy Data Book: 3.2 Commercial Sector Characteristics

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Commercial Building Size, as of 2003 (Number of Buildings and Percent of Total Floorspace) Square Foot Range Number of Buildings (thousands) 1,001 to 5,000 10% 5,001 to 10,000 10% 10,001 to 25,000 18% 25,001 to 50,000 13% 50,001 to 100,000 14% 100,001 to 200,000 (1) 14% 200,001 to 500,000 10% Over 500,000 11% Total 100% Note(s): Source(s): 26 8 4,859 1) 35% of commercial floorspace is found in 2.2% of commercial buildings that are larger than 100,000 square feet. EIA, 2003 Commercial Buildings

  8. Table 10.7 Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Market Sector, End Use, and Type, 2001-2009 (Thousand Square Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Solar Thermal Collector Shipments by Market Sector, End Use, and Type, 2001-2009 (Thousand Square Feet) Year and Type By Market Sector By End Use Total Residential Commercial 1 Industrial 2 Electric Power 3 Other 4 Pool Heating Water Heating Space Heating Space Cooling Combined Heating 5 Process Heating Electricity Generation Total Shipments 6<//td> 2001 Total 10,125 1,012 17 1 35 10,797 274 70 0 12 34 2 11,189 Low 7 9,885 987 12 0 34 10,782 42 61 0 0 34 0 10,919 Medium 8 240 24 5 0 1 16

  9. Two-dimensional equations of the surface harmonics method for solving problems of spatial neutron kinetics in square-lattice reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarinov, V. F. Kondrushin, A. E. Fomichenko, P. A.

    2014-12-15

    Two-dimensional time-dependent finite-difference equations of the surface harmonics method (SHM) for the description of the neutron transport are derived for square-lattice reactors. These equations are implemented in the SUHAM-TD code. Verification of the derived equations and the developed code are performed by the example of known test problems, and the potential and efficiency of the SHM as applied to the solution of the time-dependent neutron transport equation in the diffusion approximation in two-dimensional geometry are demonstrated. These results show the substantial advantage of SHM over direct finite-difference modeling in computational costs.

  10. CBECS 2012: Building Stock Results

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A Look at the U.S. Commercial Building Stock: Results from EIA's 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) CBECS 2012 - Release date: March 4, 2015 What is a commercial building? The CBECS includes buildings greater than 1,000 square feet that devote more than half of their floorspace to activity that is not residential, manufacturing, industrial, or agricultural. The 2012 CBECS collected building characteristics data from more than 6,700 U.S. commercial buildings. This report

  11. set2.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    New England Middle Atlantic East North Central West North Central South Atlantic East South Central West South Central Mountain Pacific All Buildings ............................................... 4,657 208 479 782 406 748 396 618 315 705 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 .............................................. 2,348 99 206 390 230 368 189 360 155 351 5,001 to 10,000 ............................................ 1,110 41 128 200 72 194 80 139 80 175 10,001 to 25,000

  12. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) - Analysis &

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Projections - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) 2012 CBECS Preliminary Results What is a commercial building? The CBECS includes buildings greater than 1,000 square feet that devote more than half of their floorspace to activity that is neither residential, manufacturing, industrial, nor agricultural. When will energy consumption estimates be available? Energy consumption and expenditures data will be available beginning in spring 2015. CBECS data collection is currently in its

  13. Total Space Heat-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    89.8 34.0 6.7 5.9 6.9 17.6 2.6 5.5 1.0 2.3 7.4 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ... 98.9 30.5 6.7 2.7 7.1 13.7 7.1 20.2 1.2 1.7 8.1 5,001 to...

  14. A Search for WIMP Dark Matter Using an Optimized Chi-square Technique on the Final Data from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment (CDMS II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manungu Kiveni, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    This dissertation describes the results of a WIMP search using CDMS II data sets accumulated at the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Results from the original analysis of these data were published in 2009; two events were observed in the signal region with an expected leakage of 0.9 events. Further investigation revealed an issue with the ionization-pulse reconstruction algorithm leading to a software upgrade and a subsequent reanalysis of the data. As part of the reanalysis, I performed an advanced discrimination technique to better distinguish (potential) signal events from backgrounds using a 5-dimensional chi-square method. This dataanalysis technique combines the event information recorded for each WIMP-search event to derive a backgrounddiscrimination parameter capable of reducing the expected background to less than one event, while maintaining high efficiency for signal events. Furthermore, optimizing the cut positions of this 5-dimensional chi-square parameter for the 14 viable germanium detectors yields an improved expected sensitivity to WIMP interactions relative to previous CDMS results. This dissertation describes my improved (and optimized) discrimination technique and the results obtained from a blind application to the reanalyzed CDMS II WIMP-search data.

  15. b2.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Workers in All Buildings (thousand) Median Square Feet per Building (thousand) Median Square Feet per Worker Median Hours per Week Median Age of Buildings (years) All Buildings* .................................. 4,645 64,783 72,807 4.6 1,000 50 30.5 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ................................... 2,552 6,789 9,936 2.4 750 48 30.5 5,001 to 10,000 ................................. 889 6,585 7,512 7.2 1,300 50 30.5 10,001 to 25,000

  16. Pb{sub 5}Fe{sub 3}TiO{sub 11}Cl: A rare example of Ti(IV) in a square pyramidal oxygen coordination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batuk, Maria; Batuk, Dmitry; Abakumov, Artem M.; Hadermann, Joke

    2014-07-01

    A new oxychloride Pb{sub 5}Fe{sub 3}TiO{sub 11}Cl has been synthesized using the solid state method. Its crystal and magnetic structure was investigated in the 1.5550 K temperature range using electron diffraction, high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, neutron and X-ray powder diffraction. At room temperature Pb{sub 5}Fe{sub 3}TiO{sub 11}Cl crystallizes in the P4/mmm space group with the unit cell parameters a=3.91803(3) and c=19.3345(2) . Pb{sub 5}Fe{sub 3}TiO{sub 11}Cl is a new n=4 member of the oxychloride perovskite-based homologous series A{sub n+1}B{sub n}O{sub 3n?1}Cl. The structure is built of truncated Pb{sub 3}Fe{sub 3}TiO{sub 11} quadruple perovskite blocks separated by CsCl-type Pb{sub 2}Cl slabs. The perovskite blocks consist of two layers of (Fe,Ti)O{sub 6} octahedra sandwiched between two layers of (Fe,Ti)O{sub 5} square pyramids. The Ti{sup 4+} cations are preferentially located in the octahedral layers, however, the presence of a noticeable amount of Ti{sup 4+} in a five-fold coordination environment has been undoubtedly proven using neutron powder diffraction and atomic resolution compositional mapping. Pb{sub 5}Fe{sub 3}TiO{sub 11}Cl is antiferromagnetically ordered below 450(10) K. The ordered Fe magnetic moments at 1.5 K are 4.06(4) ?{sub B} and 3.86(5) ?{sub B} on the octahedral and square-pyramidal sites, respectively. - Highlights: Pb{sub 5}Fe{sub 3}TiO{sub 11}Cl has been synthesized using the solid state method. The structure has been refined using neutron powder diffraction data at 1.5550 K. It is a new n=4 member of the perovskite-related homologous series A{sub n+1}B{sub n}O{sub 3n?1}Cl. Ti{sup 4+} cations have both octahedral and square-pyramidal coordination environment. Pb{sub 5}Fe{sub 3}TiO{sub 11}Cl is antiferromagnetically ordered below T{sub N}?450 K.

  17. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  18. Uncertainty in least-squares fits to the thermal noise spectra of nanomechanical resonators with applications to the atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sader, John E.; Yousefi, Morteza; Friend, James R.; Melbourne Centre for Nanofabrication, Clayton, Victoria 3800

    2014-02-15

    Thermal noise spectra of nanomechanical resonators are used widely to characterize their physical properties. These spectra typically exhibit a Lorentzian response, with additional white noise due to extraneous processes. Least-squares fits of these measurements enable extraction of key parameters of the resonator, including its resonant frequency, quality factor, and stiffness. Here, we present general formulas for the uncertainties in these fit parameters due to sampling noise inherent in all thermal noise spectra. Good agreement with Monte Carlo simulation of synthetic data and measurements of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) cantilever is demonstrated. These formulas enable robust interpretation of thermal noise spectra measurements commonly performed in the AFM and adaptive control of fitting procedures with specified tolerances.

  19. High-throughput prediction of Acacia and eucalypt lignin syringyl/guaiacyl content using FT-Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; Sykes, Robert; Davis, Mark; Lee, David J.; Shepherd, Merv; Simmons, Blake A.; Henry, Robert J.

    2015-01-16

    High-throughput techniques are necessary to efficiently screen potential lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of renewable fuels, chemicals, and bio-based materials, thereby reducing experimental time and expense while supplanting tedious, destructive methods. The ratio of lignin syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) monomers has been routinely quantified as a way to probe biomass recalcitrance. Mid-infrared and Raman spectroscopy have been demonstrated to produce robust partial least squares models for the prediction of lignin S/G ratios in a diverse group of Acacia and eucalypt trees. The most accurate Raman model has now been used to predict the S/G ratio from 269 unknown Acaciamore » and eucalypt feedstocks. This study demonstrates the application of a partial least squares model composed of Raman spectral data and lignin S/G ratios measured using pyrolysis/molecular beam mass spectrometry (pyMBMS) for the prediction of S/G ratios in an unknown data set. The predicted S/G ratios calculated by the model were averaged according to plant species, and the means were not found to differ from the pyMBMS ratios when evaluating the mean values of each method within the 95 % confidence interval. Pairwise comparisons within each data set were employed to assess statistical differences between each biomass species. While some pairwise appraisals failed to differentiate between species, Acacias, in both data sets, clearly display significant differences in their S/G composition which distinguish them from eucalypts. In conclusion, this research shows the power of using Raman spectroscopy to supplant tedious, destructive methods for the evaluation of the lignin S/G ratio of diverse plant biomass materials.« less

  20. High-throughput prediction of Acacia and eucalypt lignin syringyl/guaiacyl content using FT-Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Healey, Adam; Singh, Seema; Sykes, Robert; Davis, Mark; Lee, David J.; Shepherd, Merv; Simmons, Blake A.; Henry, Robert J.

    2015-01-16

    High-throughput techniques are necessary to efficiently screen potential lignocellulosic feedstocks for the production of renewable fuels, chemicals, and bio-based materials, thereby reducing experimental time and expense while supplanting tedious, destructive methods. The ratio of lignin syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) monomers has been routinely quantified as a way to probe biomass recalcitrance. Mid-infrared and Raman spectroscopy have been demonstrated to produce robust partial least squares models for the prediction of lignin S/G ratios in a diverse group of Acacia and eucalypt trees. The most accurate Raman model has now been used to predict the S/G ratio from 269 unknown Acacia and eucalypt feedstocks. This study demonstrates the application of a partial least squares model composed of Raman spectral data and lignin S/G ratios measured using pyrolysis/molecular beam mass spectrometry (pyMBMS) for the prediction of S/G ratios in an unknown data set. The predicted S/G ratios calculated by the model were averaged according to plant species, and the means were not found to differ from the pyMBMS ratios when evaluating the mean values of each method within the 95 % confidence interval. Pairwise comparisons within each data set were employed to assess statistical differences between each biomass species. While some pairwise appraisals failed to differentiate between species, Acacias, in both data sets, clearly display significant differences in their S/G composition which distinguish them from eucalypts. In conclusion, this research shows the power of using Raman spectroscopy to supplant tedious, destructive methods for the evaluation of the lignin S/G ratio of diverse plant biomass materials.

  1. CBECS Buildings Characteristics --Revised Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Totals and Means of Floorspace, Number of Workers, and Hours of Operation, 1995 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million...

  2. 1999 Commercial Building Characteristics--Building Activity Comparison

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Building Activity Comparison Percentage of Floorspace and Buildings by Principal Building Activity, 1999 Percentage of Floorspace and Buildings by Principal Building Activity,...

  3. 1999 Commercial Building Characteristics--Year Constructed Comparison

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Year Constructed Comparison Percentage of Floorspace and Buildings by Year Constructed, 1999 Percentage of Floorspace and Buildings by Year Constructed, 1999. If having trouble...

  4. 1989 CBECS EUI

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Season of Peak Electricity Demand, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1992 Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million...

  5. Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Principal Building...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of their floorspace lit by HID lamps. Public assembly buildings, which include sports arenas and theaters, have 14 percent of their floorspace illuminated by HID lamps. Figure 10....

  6. Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Full Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of their floorspace lit by HID lamps. Public assembly buildings, which include sports arenas and theaters, have 14 percent of their floorspace illuminated by HID lamps. Types of...

  7. Total...................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500............................................ 3.2 0.4 Q 0.6 1.7 0.4 500 to 999................................................... 23.8 4.8 1.4 4.2 10.2 3.2 1,000 to 1,499............................................. 20.8 10.6 1.8 1.8 4.0 2.6 1,500 to 1,999............................................. 15.4 12.4 1.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 2,000 to 2,499............................................. 12.2 10.7 1.0 0.2 Q Q 2,500 to

  8. Total.........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 2 Fewer than 500.................................................. 3.2 Q 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.5 500 to 999.......................................................... 23.8 1.5 5.4 5.5 6.1 5.3 1,000 to 1,499.................................................... 20.8 1.4 4.0 5.2 5.0 5.2 1,500 to 1,999.................................................... 15.4 1.4 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.8 2,000 to 2,499.................................................... 12.2 1.4 3.2 3.0 2.3 2.3

  9. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    25.6 40.7 24.2 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.9 0.5 0.9 1.0 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 4.6 3.9 9.0 6.3 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 2.8 4.4 8.6 5.0 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 1.9 3.5 6.0 4.0 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 2.3 3.2 4.1

  10. Total..........................................................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Floorspace (Square Feet) Total Floorspace 1 Fewer than 500................................................... 3.2 0.4 Q Q 0.5 500 to 999........................................................... 23.8 2.5 1.5 2.1 3.7 1,000 to 1,499..................................................... 20.8 1.1 2.0 1.5 2.5 1,500 to 1,999..................................................... 15.4 0.5 1.2 1.2 1.9 2,000 to 2,499..................................................... 12.2 0.7 0.5 0.8 1.4

  11. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  12. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test for non-identically distributed random variables: with application to empirical Bayes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conover, W.J.; Cox, D.D.; Martz, H.F.

    1997-12-01

    When using parametric empirical Bayes estimation methods for estimating the binomial or Poisson parameter, the validity of the assumed beta or gamma conjugate prior distribution is an important diagnostic consideration. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests of the beta or gamma prior hypothesis are developed for use when the binomial sample sizes or Poisson exposure times vary. Nine examples illustrate the application of the methods, using real data from such diverse applications as the loss of feedwater flow rates in nuclear power plants, the probability of failure to run on demand and the failure rates of the high pressure coolant injection systems at US commercial boiling water reactors, the probability of failure to run on demand of emergency diesel generators in US commercial nuclear power plants, the rate of failure of aircraft air conditioners, baseball batting averages, the probability of testing positive for toxoplasmosis, and the probability of tumors in rats. The tests are easily applied in practice by means of corresponding Mathematica{reg_sign} computer programs which are provided.

  13. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 0 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 94.0 74.2 169.2 124 54 98.1 38 1,485 0.65 1,172 450 Census

  14. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 3 Average Electricity Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 96.6 76.4 181.2 43 18 34.0 13 1,061 0.45 840 321 Census Region

  15. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 0 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 15.4 11.6 29.7 131 51 99.0 36 1,053 0.41 795 287 Census

  16. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 1 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 14.6 11.0 28.9 116 44 87.9 32 1,032 0.39 781 283 Census

  17. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 15.5 12.2 30.0 98 40 77.1 27 829 0.34 650 231 Census

  18. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 4 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 17.5 13.8 32.0 91 39 71.9 27 697 0.30 550 203 Census

  19. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 7 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 17.4 14.0 33.3 87 37 70.3 27 513 0.22 414 156 Census

  20. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 90 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 16.3 13.5 33.2 77 31 63.9 23 609 0.25 506 181 Census

  1. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 3 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 13.8 11.6 29.8 92 36 77.5 28 604 0.23 506 186 Census

  2. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires Fuel Oil/Kerosene, 2001 Average Fuel Oil/Kerosene Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 11.2 9.4 26.0 80 29 67.1 26 723 0.26

  3. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 1 Average LPG Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 7.3 7.2 12.2 44 26 42.8 15 389 0.23 382 133 Census Region and Division

  4. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2 Average LPG Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 7.3 7.2 11.7 40 25 39.6 14 383 0.23 376 132 Census Region and Division

  5. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 4 Average LPG Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 7.8 7.7 12.0 41 26 40.1 15 406 0.26 398 146 Census Region and Division

  6. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 7 Average LPG Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 7.7 7.6 12.3 41 26 41.1 15 369 0.23 366 131 Census Region and Division

  7. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 0 Average LPG Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 8.2 0.5 13.9 542 20 34.1 12 6,063 0.23 381 134 Census Region and

  8. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 3 Average LPG Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 8.1 7.9 14.9 48 25 46.8 17 481 0.26 470 170 Census Region and Division

  9. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 1 Average Natural Gas Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 53.4 41.5 92.8 127 57 98.7 35 578 0.26 450 159 Census Region and

  10. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2 Average Natural Gas Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 54.2 41.0 91.8 116 52 87.6 32 658 0.29 498 183 Census Region and

  11. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 4 Average Natural Gas Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 55.4 41.3 93.2 121 53 89.9 33 722 0.32 537 198 Census Region and

  12. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 7 Average Natural Gas Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 57.3 42.5 99.4 114 49 84.3 33 615 0.26 456 176 Census Region and

  13. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 1 Average of Major Energy Sources Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (millionBtu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 83.1 66.1 144.2 141 64 111.7 40 1,256 0.58 998 356

  14. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2 Average of Major Energy Sources Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 83.8 66.1 142.2 130 60 102.3 37 1,309 0.61 1,033 377

  15. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 4 Average of Major Energy Sources Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 86.3 67.5 144.4 134 63 104.7 39 1,437 0.67 1,123 417

  16. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 7 Average of Major Energy Sources Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 90.5 70.4 156.8 130 58 100.8 39 1,388 0.62 1,080 416

  17. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 0 Average of Major Energy Sources Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 94.0 74.2 169.2 124 54 98.1 38 1,485 0.65 1,172 450

  18. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 3 Average of Major Energy Sources Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 96.6 76.5 181.2 131 55 103.6 40 1,620 0.68 1,282 491

  19. Residential Buildings Historical Publications reports, data and housing

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    questionnaires 2001 Average of Major Energy Sources Residential Buildings Consumption Expenditures per Total per Square per per per Total Total Floorspace Building Foot per Household per Square per Household Households Number (billion (million (thousand Household Member Building Foot Household Member Characteristics (million) (million) sq. ft.) Btu) Btu) (million Btu) (million Btu) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) (dollars) Total U.S. Households 107.0 85.2 211.3 116 47 92.2 36 1,875 0.76 1,493

  20. A laser gyro with a four-mirror square resonator: formulas for simulating the dynamics of the synchronisation zone parameters of the frequencies of counterpropagating waves during the device operation in the self-heating regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondarenko, E A

    2014-04-28

    For a laser gyro with a four-mirror square resonator we have developed a mathematical model, which allows one to simulate the temporal behaviour of the synchronisation zone parameters of the frequencies of counterpropagating waves in a situation when the device operates in the self-heating regime and is switched-on at different initial temperatures. (laser gyroscopes)

  1. A VIRTUAL SKY WITH EXTRAGALACTIC H I AND CO LINES FOR THE SQUARE KILOMETRE ARRAY AND THE ATACAMA LARGE MILLIMETER/SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obreschkow, D.; Kloeckner, H.-R.; Heywood, I.; Rawlings, S.; Levrier, F.

    2009-10-01

    We present a sky simulation of the atomic H I-emission line and the first 10 {sup 12}C{sup 16}O rotational emission lines of molecular gas in galaxies beyond the Milky Way. The simulated sky field has a comoving diameter of 500 h {sup -1} Mpc; hence, the actual field of view depends on the (user-defined) maximal redshift z {sub max}; e.g., for z {sub max} = 10, the field of view yields approx4 x 4 deg{sup 2}. For all galaxies, we estimate the line fluxes, line profiles, and angular sizes of the H I and CO-emission lines. The galaxy sample is complete for galaxies with cold hydrogen masses above 10{sup 8} M {sub sun}. This sky simulation builds on a semi-analytic model of the cosmic evolution of galaxies in a LAMBDA cold dark matter (LAMBDACDM) cosmology. The evolving CDM distribution was adopted from the Millennium Simulation, an N-body CDM simulation in a cubic box with a side length of 500 h {sup -1} Mpc. This side length limits the coherence scale of our sky simulation: it is long enough to allow the extraction of the baryon acoustic oscillations in the galaxy power spectrum, yet the position and amplitude of the first acoustic peak will be imperfectly defined. This sky simulation is a tangible aid to the design and operation of future telescopes, such as the Square Kilometre Array, Large Millimeter Telescope, and Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. The results presented in this paper have been restricted to a graphical representation of the simulated sky and fundamental dN/dz analyses for peak flux density limited and total flux limited surveys of H I and CO. A key prediction is that H I will be harder to detect at redshifts z approx> 2 than predicted by a no-evolution model. The future verification or falsification of this prediction will allow us to qualify the semi-analytic models.

  2. Potential energy surface fitting by a statistically localized, permutationally invariant, local interpolating moving least squares method for the many-body potential: Method and application to N{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bender, Jason D.; Doraiswamy, Sriram; Candler, Graham V. E-mail: candler@aem.umn.edu; Truhlar, Donald G. E-mail: candler@aem.umn.edu

    2014-02-07

    Fitting potential energy surfaces to analytic forms is an important first step for efficient molecular dynamics simulations. Here, we present an improved version of the local interpolating moving least squares method (L-IMLS) for such fitting. Our method has three key improvements. First, pairwise interactions are modeled separately from many-body interactions. Second, permutational invariance is incorporated in the basis functions, using permutationally invariant polynomials in Morse variables, and in the weight functions. Third, computational cost is reduced by statistical localization, in which we statistically correlate the cutoff radius with data point density. We motivate our discussion in this paper with a review of global and local least-squares-based fitting methods in one dimension. Then, we develop our method in six dimensions, and we note that it allows the analytic evaluation of gradients, a feature that is important for molecular dynamics. The approach, which we call statistically localized, permutationally invariant, local interpolating moving least squares fitting of the many-body potential (SL-PI-L-IMLS-MP, or, more simply, L-IMLS-G2), is used to fit a potential energy surface to an electronic structure dataset for N{sub 4}. We discuss its performance on the dataset and give directions for further research, including applications to trajectory calculations.

  3. Characterization of the antiferromagnetism in Ag(pyz)2(S2O8) with a two-dimensional square lattice of Ag 2+ ions (Ag=silver, Pyz-pyrdzine, S2O8=sulfate)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singleton, John; Mc Donald, R; Sengupta, P; Cox, S; Manson, J; Southerland, H; Warter, M; Stone, K; Stephens, P; Lancaster, T; Steele, A; Blundell, S; Baker, P; Pratt, F; Lee, C; Whangbo, M

    2009-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements show that Ag(pyz){sub 2}(S{sub 2}O{sub 8}) consists of 2D square nets of Ag{sup 2+} ions resulting from the corner-sharing of axially elongated AgN{sub 4}O{sub 2} octahedra and exhibits characteristic 2D antiferromagnetism. Nevertheless, {mu}{sup +}Sr measurements indicate that Ag(pyz){sub 2}(S{sub 2}O{sub 8}) undergoes 3D magnetic ordering below 7.8(3) K.

  4. Table HC1.1.1 Housing Unit Characteristics by

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Housing Unit Characteristics by" " Total, Heated, and Cooled Floorspace, 2005" ,,,"Total Square Footage" ,"Housing Units",,"Total",,"Heated",,"Cooled" "Housing Unit Characteristics","Millions","Percent","Billions","Percent","Billions","Percent","Billions","Percent" "Total",111.1,100,256.5,100,179.8,100,114.5,100 "Census Region

  5. TableHC14.5.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4.2 7.6 16.6 Do Not Have Heating Equpment............................ 1.2 0.7 Q 0.7 Have Space Heating Equpment............................. 109.8 23.4 7.5 16.0 Use Space Heating Equpment.............................. 109.1 22.9 7.4 15.4 Have But Do Not Use Equipment.......................... 0.8 0.6 Q 0.5 Space Heating Usage During 2005 Heated Floorspace (Square Feet) None................................................................. 3.6 2.1 Q 1.9 1 to

  6. Total U.S. Housing Units........................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5.6 17.7 7.9 Do Not Have Heating Equipment........................... 1.2 Q Q N Have Space Heating Equipment............................ 109.8 25.6 17.7 7.9 Use Space Heating Equipment............................. 109.1 25.6 17.7 7.9 Have But Do Not Use Equipment.......................... 0.8 N N N Space Heating Usage During 2005 Heated Floorspace (Square Feet) None................................................................. 3.6 0.5 Q Q 1 to

  7. Total U.S. Housing Units........................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0.7 21.7 6.9 12.1 Do Not Have Heating Equipment........................... 1.2 Q Q N Q Have Space Heating Equipment............................ 109.8 40.3 21.4 6.9 12.0 Use Space Heating Equipment............................. 109.1 40.1 21.2 6.9 12.0 Have But Do Not Use Equipment.......................... 0.8 Q Q N N Space Heating Usage During 2005 Heated Floorspace (Square Feet) None................................................................. 3.6 0.8 0.7 Q Q 1 to

  8. Total U.S. Housing Units............................................

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .. 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Heating Equipment............................... 1.2 Q Q Q 0.2 Have Space Heating Equipment................................ 109.8 7.1 6.8 7.9 11.9 Use Space Heating Equipment................................. 109.1 7.1 6.6 7.9 11.4 Have But Do Not Use Equipment.............................. 0.8 N Q N 0.5 Space Heating Usage During 2005 Heated Floorspace (Square Feet) None...................................................................... 3.6 Q 0.7 Q 1.3 1

  9. "Table B22. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Space Heating","Primary Space-Heating Energy Source Useda" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" "All Buildings ................",4657,4016,1128,2189,302,77 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000

  10. ,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Lighting Equipment, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","All Lit Buildings","Lighting Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Incandescent","Standard Fluorescent","Compact Fluorescent","High-Intensity Discharge","Halogen" "All Buildings ................",4657,4172,2193,3778,607,430,572 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)"

  11. 1992 CBECS BC

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Employment Size Category, Number of Buildings, 1992 (Thousand) Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Buildings Buildings by Number of Workers RSE Row Factor Less than 5 Workers 5 to 9 Workers 10 to 19 Workers 20 to 49 Workers 50 to 99 Workers 100 to 249 Workers 250 or More Workers 0.5 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.4 All Buildings ................................... 4,806 2,718 895 561 405 130 64 31 5.9 Building Floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ................................

  12. 1992 CBECS BC

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Energy Sources, Number of Buildings, 1992 (Thousand) Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Buildings All Buildings Using Any Energy Source Energy Sources Used (more than one may apply) RSE Row Factor Electricity Natural Gas Fuel Oil District Heat District Chilled Water Propane Wood 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 1.1 1.6 2.2 1.6 2.0 All Buildings ..................................... 4,806 4,620 4,616 2,665 559 95 28 337 103 7.7 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000

  13. 1992 CBECS BC

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7. Heating Equipment, Number of Buildings, 1992 (Thousand) Building Characteristics RSE Column Factor: All Buildings All Heated Buildings Heating Equipment (more than one may apply) RSE Row Factor Heat Pumps Furnaces Individual Space Heaters District Heat Boilers Packaged Heating Units Other 0.5 0.5 1.3 0.8 0.8 1.7 0.9 1.0 3.1 All Buildings ..................................... 4,806 4,178 449 1,692 1,464 93 624 870 42 6.7 Building Floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000

  14. Buildings*","Buildings

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Primary Space-Heating Energy Sources, Number of Buildings for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings*","Buildings with Space Heating","Primary Space-Heating Energy Source Used a" ,,,"Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" "All Buildings* ...............",4645,3982,1258,1999,282,63 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)"

  15. Buildings*","Principal Building Activity"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Selected Principal Activity: Part 2, Number of Buildings for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings*","Principal Building Activity" ,,"Office","Public Assembly","Public Order and Safety","Religious Worship","Service","Warehouse and Storage" "All Buildings* ...............",4645,824,277,71,370,622,597 "Building Floorspace" "(Square

  16. Table B10. Employment Size Category, Number of Buildings, 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Employment Size Category, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","Number of Workers" ,,"Fewer than 5 Workers","5 to 9 Workers","10 to 19 Workers","20 to 49 Workers","50 to 99 Workers","100 to 249 Workers","250 or More Workers" "All Buildings ................",4657,2376,807,683,487,174,90,39 "Building Floorspace" "(Square

  17. Table B14. Number of Establishments in Building, Number of Buildings, 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Number of Establishments in Building, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","Number of Establishments in Building" ,,"One","Two to Five","Six to Ten","Eleven to Twenty","More than Twenty","Currently Unoccupied" "All Buildings ................",4657,3528,688,114,48,27,251 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000

  18. Table B8. Year Constructed, Number of Buildings, 1999

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B8. Year Constructed, Number of Buildings, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)" ,"All Buildings","Year Constructed" ,,"1919 or Before","1920 to 1945","1946 to 1959","1960 to 1969","1970 to 1979","1980 to 1989","1990 to 1999" "All Buildings ................",4657,419,499,763,665,774,846,690 "Building Floorspace" "(Square Feet)" "1,001 to 5,000

  19. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 1. Selected principal building activity: part 1, number of buildings, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) Principal building activity All buildings Office Warehouse and storage Service Mercantile Religious worship Education Public assembly All buildings 5,557 1,012 796 619 602 412 389 352 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,777 532 380 372 250 174 143 162 5,001 to 10,000 1,229 230 180 143 143 111 51 77 10,001 to 25,000 884

  20. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 3. Selected principal building activity: part 2, number of buildings, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) Principal building activity Health care Public order and safety All buildings Food service Food sales Lodging In- patient Out- patient All buildings 5,557 380 177 158 10 147 84 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 10,000 4,007 356 154 62 N 113 61 10,001 to 100,000 1,415 24 22 84 5 32 20 Over 100,000 136 N Q 12 5 2 2 Year

  1. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 7. Occupancy of nongovernment-owned and government-owned buildings, number of buildings, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) Nongovernment-owned buildings Government-owned buildings All buildings All buildings Owner occupied Leased to tenant(s) Owner occupied and leased Unocc-upied All buildings Federal State Local All buildings 5,557 4,781 2,466 1,745 349 221 776 33 185 558 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,777 2,435

  2. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 8. Heating equipment, number of buildings, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) All buildings Buildings with space heating Heating equipment (more than one may apply) Heat pumps Furnaces Indiv- idual space heaters District heat Boilers Pack- aged heating units Other All buildings 5,557 4,722 628 755 1,247 48 544 2,802 62 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,777 2,257 286 359 612 Q 128 1,259 Q 5,001 to 10,000 1,229 1,046 147

  3. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) . Census region and division, number of buildings, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) Northeast Midwest South West All buildings New England Middle Atlantic East North Central West North Central South Atlantic East South Central West South Central Moun- tain Pacific All buildings 5,557 302 504 735 502 1,091 370 786 338 929 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,777 141 231 372 273 535 202 423 175 426 5,001 to 10,000 1,229 72

  4. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 0. Cooling equipment, number of buildings, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) All buildings Buildings with cooling Cooling equipment (more than one may apply) Resid- ential- type central air condi- tioners Heat pumps Indiv- idual air condi- tioners District chilled water Central chillers Pack- aged air condi- tioning units Swamp coolers Other All buildings 5,557 4,461 1,546 692 709 54 163 1,909 109 Q Building floorspace (square feet)

  5. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) 3. Lighting equipment, number of buildings, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) All buildings Lit buildings Lighting equipment (more than one may apply) Incand- escent Standard fluor- escent Compact fluor- escent High-intensity dis- charge Halogen LED All buildings 5,557 5,025 1,826 4,649 2,302 525 905 473 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,777 2,422 824 2,192 925 106 299 108 5,001 to 10,000 1,229 1,120 396 1,045 517 99 201

  6. Energy Information Administration (EIA)- About the Commercial Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) B8. Year constructed, number of buildings, 2012 Released: May 2016 Number of buildings (thousand) Year constructed All buildings Before 1946 1946 to 1959 1960 to 1969 1970 to 1979 1980 to 1989 1990 to 1999 2000 to 2007 2008 to 2012 All buildings 5,557 850 599 639 684 915 845 722 303 Building floorspace (square feet) 1,001 to 5,000 2,777 502 352 290 336 415 425 339 119 5,001 to 10,000 1,229 160 112 158 148 231 197 145 78 10,001 to 25,000 884 121 81 109 118

  7. b12.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,657 4,135 2,801 1,099 236 521 63 83 375 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 .............................................. 2,348 2,131 1,433 548 151 216 Q Q 175 5,001 to 10,000 ............................................ 1,110 1,006 693 250 Q 104 Q Q 70 10,001 to 25,000 .......................................... 708 618 431 172 15 91 Q 14 64 25,001 to 50,000 .......................................... 257 202 129 68 Q 55 Q 19 33 50,001 to 100,000

  8. b13.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,645 824 277 71 370 622 597 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ................................... 2,552 503 119 37 152 434 294 5,001 to 10,000 ................................. 889 127 67 Q 104 100 110 10,001 to 25,000 ............................... 738 116 69 Q 83 66 130 25,001 to 50,000 ............................... 241 43 9 Q 27 17 27 50,001 to 100,000 ............................. 129 17 7 Q Q Q 21 100,001 to 200,000 ........................... 65 11 6 Q Q Q 8 200,001 to

  9. b14.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,657 3,528 688 114 48 27 251 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 .............................................. 2,348 1,897 272 Q Q Q 164 5,001 to 10,000 ............................................ 1,110 802 222 17 Q Q Q 10,001 to 25,000 .......................................... 708 506 121 51 12 Q 17 25,001 to 50,000 .......................................... 257 184 33 15 15 Q Q 50,001 to 100,000 ........................................ 145 88 26 12 12 6 Q 100,001 to 200,000

  10. b15.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    67,338 43,343 10,582 3,574 3,260 4,811 1,769 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 .............................................. 6,774 5,358 857 Q Q Q 512 5,001 to 10,000 ............................................ 8,238 5,952 1,630 137 Q Q Q 10,001 to 25,000 .......................................... 11,153 7,812 1,982 784 Q Q 296 25,001 to 50,000 .......................................... 9,311 6,720 1,220 550 494 Q Q 50,001 to 100,000 ........................................

  11. b16.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Buildings With Central Physical Plant All Buildings With Central Physical Plant All Buildings ............................................... 4,657 1,362 142 67,338 26,049 7,101 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 .............................................. 2,348 604 Q 6,774 1,706 Q 5,001 to 10,000 ............................................ 1,110 297 Q 8,238 2,211 Q 10,001 to 25,000 .......................................... 708 253 26 11,153 3,965 464 25,001 to 50,000

  12. b19.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,645 3,754 643 55 23 14 157 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ................................... 2,552 2,131 311 Q Q N 100 5,001 to 10,000 ................................. 889 720 136 Q N Q Q 10,001 to 25,000 ............................... 738 590 104 22 Q Q Q 25,001 to 50,000 ............................... 241 163 50 11 Q Q Q 50,001 to 100,000 ............................. 129 87 25 4 5 Q Q 100,001 to 200,000 ........................... 65 43 11 4 Q Q Q 200,001 to 500,000

  13. b21.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Buildings With Central Physical Plant All Buildings With Central Physical Plant All Buildings* .................................. 4,645 1,477 116 64,783 24,735 6,604 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ................................... 2,552 771 Q 6,789 2,009 Q 5,001 to 10,000 ................................. 889 259 Q 6,585 1,912 Q 10,001 to 25,000 ............................... 738 263 33 11,535 4,158 520 25,001 to 50,000 ............................... 241 92 18 8,668 3,277

  14. b22.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,657 4,016 1,128 2,189 302 77 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 .............................................. 2,348 1,982 591 1,028 167 Q 5,001 to 10,000 ............................................ 1,110 946 200 582 70 Q 10,001 to 25,000 .......................................... 708 629 195 336 40 13 25,001 to 50,000 .......................................... 257 237 79 122 14 16 50,001 to 100,000 ........................................ 145 137 39 76 7 12 100,001 to 200,000

  15. b23.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    67,338 61,602 17,627 32,729 3,719 5,077 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 .............................................. 6,774 5,684 1,567 3,080 482 Q 5,001 to 10,000 ............................................ 8,238 7,090 1,496 4,292 557 Q 10,001 to 25,000 .......................................... 11,153 9,865 3,035 5,320 597 232 25,001 to 50,000 .......................................... 9,311 8,565 2,866 4,416 486 577 50,001 to 100,000 ........................................

  16. b24.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    District Chilled Water Electricity Natural Gas District Chilled Water All Buildings ............................................... 4,657 3,560 3,450 142 50 67,338 58,474 55,545 1,914 2,750 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 .............................................. 2,348 1,680 1,640 Q Q 6,774 4,879 4,784 Q Q 5,001 to 10,000 ............................................ 1,110 828 796 Q Q 8,238 6,212 5,938 Q Q 10,001 to 25,000 .......................................... 708 611

  17. b24.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Cooking Manu- facturing All Buildings* .................................. 4,645 3,982 3,625 3,472 801 119 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ................................... 2,552 2,100 1,841 1,715 354 Q 5,001 to 10,000 ................................. 889 782 732 725 155 29 10,001 to 25,000 ............................... 738 659 629 607 127 28 25,001 to 50,000 ............................... 241 225 216 217 69 Q 50,001 to 100,000 .............................

  18. b25.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,657 3,239 1,546 1,520 110 62 130 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 .............................................. 2,348 1,456 795 574 Q Q Q 5,001 to 10,000 ............................................ 1,110 778 317 429 Q Q Q 10,001 to 25,000 .......................................... 708 574 265 274 14 9 31 25,001 to 50,000 .......................................... 257 222 87 127 9 14 Q 50,001 to 100,000 ........................................ 145 127 51 71 5 9 Q 100,001 to

  19. b25.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Space Heating Cooling Water Heating Cooking Manu- facturing All Buildings* .................................. 64,783 60,028 56,940 56,478 22,237 3,138 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 ................................... 6,789 5,668 5,007 4,759 997 Q 5,001 to 10,000 ................................. 6,585 5,786 5,408 5,348 1,136 214 10,001 to 25,000 ............................... 11,535 10,387 9,922 9,562 1,954 472 25,001 to 50,000 ............................... 8,668 8,060

  20. b29.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cooled 1 to 50 Percent Cooled 51 to 99 Percent Cooled 100 Percent Cooled All Buildings Not Cooled 1 to 50 Percent Cooled 51 to 99 Percent Cooled 100 Percent Cooled All Buildings ............................................... 4,657 1,097 1,012 751 1,796 67,338 8,864 16,846 16,966 24,662 Building Floorspace (Square Feet) 1,001 to 5,000 .............................................. 2,348 668 352 294 1,034 6,774 1,895 1,084 838 2,957 5,001 to 10,000 ............................................